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Sample records for event-related potential study

  1. Iconic Meaning in Music: An Event-Related Potential Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qiuling; Huang, Hong; Mo, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Although there has been extensive research on the processing of the emotional meaning of music, little is known about other aspects of listeners’ experience of music. The present study investigated the neural correlates of the iconic meaning of music. Event-related potentials (ERP) were recorded while a group of 20 music majors and a group of 20 non-music majors performed a lexical decision task in the context of implicit musical iconic meaning priming. ERP analysis revealed a significant N400 effect of congruency in time window 260-510 ms following the onset of the target word only in the group of music majors. Time-course analysis using 50 ms windows indicated significant N400 effects both within the time window 410-460 ms and 460-510 ms for music majors, whereas only a partial N400 effect during time window 410-460 ms was observed for non-music majors. There was also a trend for the N400 effects in the music major group to be stronger than those in the non-major group in the sub-windows of 310-360ms and 410-460ms. Especially in the sub-window of 410-460 ms, the topographical map of the difference waveforms between congruent and incongruent conditions revealed different N400 distribution between groups; the effect was concentrated in bilateral frontal areas for music majors, but in central-parietal areas for non-music majors. These results imply probable neural mechanism differences underlying automatic iconic meaning priming of music. Our findings suggest that processing of the iconic meaning of music can be accomplished automatically and that musical training may facilitate the understanding of the iconic meaning of music. PMID:26161561

  2. Iconic Meaning in Music: An Event-Related Potential Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Liman; Huang, Ping; Luo, Qiuling; Huang, Hong; Mo, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Although there has been extensive research on the processing of the emotional meaning of music, little is known about other aspects of listeners' experience of music. The present study investigated the neural correlates of the iconic meaning of music. Event-related potentials (ERP) were recorded while a group of 20 music majors and a group of 20 non-music majors performed a lexical decision task in the context of implicit musical iconic meaning priming. ERP analysis revealed a significant N400 effect of congruency in time window 260-510 ms following the onset of the target word only in the group of music majors. Time-course analysis using 50 ms windows indicated significant N400 effects both within the time window 410-460 ms and 460-510 ms for music majors, whereas only a partial N400 effect during time window 410-460 ms was observed for non-music majors. There was also a trend for the N400 effects in the music major group to be stronger than those in the non-major group in the sub-windows of 310-360 ms and 410-460 ms. Especially in the sub-window of 410-460 ms, the topographical map of the difference waveforms between congruent and incongruent conditions revealed different N400 distribution between groups; the effect was concentrated in bilateral frontal areas for music majors, but in central-parietal areas for non-music majors. These results imply probable neural mechanism differences underlying automatic iconic meaning priming of music. Our findings suggest that processing of the iconic meaning of music can be accomplished automatically and that musical training may facilitate the understanding of the iconic meaning of music.

  3. Conceptual integration and metaphor: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulson, Seana; Van Petten, Cyma

    2002-09-01

    Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 18 normal adults as they read sentences that ended with words used literally, metaphorically, or in an intermediate literal mapping condition. In the latter condition, the literal sense of the word was used in a way that prompted readers to map conceptual structure from a different domain. ERPs measured from 300 to 500 msec after the onset of the sentence-final words differed as a function of metaphoricity: Literal endings elicited the smallest N400, metaphors the largest N400, whereas literal mappings elicited an N400 of intermediate amplitude. Metaphoric endings also elicited a larger posterior positivity than did either literal or literal mapping words. Consistent with conceptual blending theory, the results suggest that the demands of conceptual integration affect the difficulty of both literal and metaphorical language.

  4. Habituation : an event-related potential and dipole source analysis study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, KJ; Kenemans, JL; Verbaten, MN; Van der Heijden, AHC

    The goal of this study was to investigate habituation processes in the brain, and in particular, to identify the brain structures involved in these processes. Therefore, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded in response to a series of repeated, task-irrelevant, salient stimuli presented

  5. Snake scales, partial exposure, and the Snake Detection Theory: A human event-related potentials study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. van Strien (Jan); L.A. Isbell (Lynne A.)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractStudies of event-related potentials in humans have established larger early posterior negativity (EPN) in response to pictures depicting snakes than to pictures depicting other creatures. Ethological research has recently shown that macaques and wild vervet monkeys respond strongly to

  6. Pitch Processing in Tonal-Language-Speaking Children with Autism: An Event-Related Potential Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Luodi; Fan, Yuebo; Deng, Zhizhou; Huang, Dan; Wang, Suiping; Zhang, Yang

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated pitch processing in Mandarin-speaking children with autism using event-related potential measures. Two experiments were designed to test how acoustic, phonetic and semantic properties of the stimuli contributed to the neural responses for pitch change detection and involuntary attentional orienting. In comparison…

  7. The Influence of Contour Fragmentation on Recognition Memory: An Event-Related Potential Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodeur, Mathieu B.; Debruille, J. Bruno; Renoult, Louis; Prevost, Marie; Dionne-Dostie, Emmanuelle; Buchy, Lisa; Lepage, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The present study was carried out to examine how the event-related potentials to fragmentation predict recognition success. Stimuli were abstract meaningless figures that were either complete or fragmented to various extents but still recoverable. Stimuli were first encoded as part of a symmetry discrimination task. In a subsequent recognition…

  8. Relationship between early and late stages of information processing: an event-related potential study

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Portella; Sergio Machado; Oscar Arias-Carrión; Sack, Alexander T.; Julio Guilherme Silva; Marco Orsini; Marco Antonio Araujo Leite; Adriana Cardoso Silva; Nardi, Antonio E.; Mauricio Cagy; Roberto Piedade; Pedro Ribeiro

    2012-01-01

    The brain is capable of elaborating and executing different stages of information processing. However, exactly how these stages are processed in the brain remains largely unknown. This study aimed to analyze the possible correlation between early and late stages of information processing by assessing the latency to, and amplitude of, early and late event-related potential (ERP) components, including P200, N200, premotor potential (PMP) and P300, in healthy participants in the context of a vis...

  9. Influence of sex on P300: an event-related potential electrophysiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourisly, Ali K; Pothen, Annie

    2016-02-10

    The primary objective of this study was to further characterize the role of sex, if any, in event-related potentials (ERPs). More specifically, we aimed to investigate sex sensitivity with respect to the P300 ERP. Each female and male study participant underwent an oddball paradigm electroencephalography ERP session. ERP data were subjected to preprocessing and postprocessing, as well as statistical analysis. The results of the study showed that men had larger P300 amplitudes on average for both low-probability and high-probability stimuli compared with women (PP300 latencies on average than did women (PP300 ERP, which may be because of men eliciting higher response inhibition compared with women.

  10. The delay effect on outcome evaluation: results from an Event-related Potential study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen eQu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral studies demonstrate that the timing of receiving gains or losses affects decision-making, a phenomenon known as temporal discounting, as participants are inclined to prefer immediate rewards over delayed ones and vice versa for losses. The present study used the event-related potential (ERP technique with a simple gambling task to investigate how delayed rewards and losses affected the brain activity in outcome evaluations made by 20 young adults. Statistical analysis revealed a larger feedback related negativity (FRN effect between loss and gain following immediate outcomes than following future outcomes. In addition, delay impacted FRN only in gain conditions, with delayed winning eliciting a more negative FRN than immediatewinning. These results suggest that temporal discounting and sign effect could be encoded in the FRN in the early stage of outcome evaluation.

  11. Crossmodal effects of Guqin and piano music on selective attention: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Weina; Zhang, Junjun; Ding, Xiaojun; Zhou, Changle; Ma, Yuanye; Xu, Dan

    2009-11-27

    To compare the effects of music from different cultural environments (Guqin: Chinese music; piano: Western music) on crossmodal selective attention, behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) data in a standard two-stimulus visual oddball task were recorded from Chinese subjects in three conditions: silence, Guqin music or piano music background. Visual task data were then compared with auditory task data collected previously. In contrast with the results of the auditory task, the early (N1) and late (P300) stages exhibited no differences between Guqin and piano backgrounds during the visual task. Taking our previous study and this study together, we can conclude that: although the cultural-familiar music influenced selective attention both in the early and late stages, these effects appeared only within a sensory modality (auditory) but not in cross-sensory modalities (visual). Thus, the musical cultural factor is more obvious in intramodal than in crossmodal selective attention.

  12. A cognitive stressor for event-related potential studies: the Portland arithmetic stress task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchley, Rachel; Ellingson, Roger; Klee, Daniel; Memmott, Tabatha; Oken, Barry

    2017-05-01

    In this experiment, we developed and evaluated the Portland Arithmetic Stress Task (PAST) as a cognitive stressor to evaluate acute and sustained stress reactivity for event-related potential (ERP) studies. The PAST is a titrated arithmetic task adapted from the Montreal Imaging Stress Task (MIST), with added experimental control over presentation parameters, improved and synchronized acoustic feedback and generation of timing markers needed for physiological analyzes of real-time brain activity. Thirty-one older adults (M = 60 years) completed the PAST. EEG was recorded to assess feedback-related negativity (FRN) and the magnitude of the stress response through autonomic nervous system activity and salivary cortisol. Physiological measures other than EEG included heart rate, respiration rate, heart rate variability, blood pressure and salivary cortisol. These measures were collected at several time points throughout the task. Feedback-related negativity evoked-potential responses were elicited and they significantly differed depending on whether positive or negative feedback was received. The PAST also increased systolic blood pressure, heart rate variability and respiration rates compared to a control condition attentional task. These preliminary results suggest that the PAST is an effective cognitive stressor. Successful measurement of the feedback-related negativity suggests that the PAST is conducive to EEG and time-sensitive ERP experiments. Moreover, the physiological findings support the PAST as a potent method for inducing stress in older adult participants. Further research is needed to confirm these results, but the PAST shows promise as a tool for cognitive stress induction for time-locked event-related potential experiments.

  13. Representations in human visual short-term memory : an event-related brain potential study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, P; Smid, HGOM; Heinze, HJ

    1999-01-01

    Behavioral measures and event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 12 subjects while performing three delayed matching-to-sample tasks. The task instructions indicated whether stimulus locations, shapes or conjunctions of locations and shapes had to be memorized and matched against a probe.

  14. The effects of cortisol administration on approach-avoidance behavior: An event-related potential study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peer, J.M. van; Roelofs, K.; Rotteveel, M.; Dijk, J.G. van; Spinhoven, P.; Ridderinkhof, K.R.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the effects of cortisol administration (50 mg) on approach and avoidance tendencies in low and high trait avoidant healthy young men. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were measured during a reaction time task, in which participants evaluated the emotional expression of

  15. Spatial and Semantic Processing between Audition and Vision: An Event-Related Potential Study

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    Xiaoxi Chen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Using a crossmodal priming paradigm, this study investigated how the brain bound the spatial and semantic features in multisensory processing. The visual stimuli (pictures of animals were presented after the auditory stimuli (sounds of animals, and the stimuli from different modalities may match spatially (or semantically or not. Participants were required to detect the head orientation of the visual target (an oddball paradigm. The event-related potentials (ERPs to the visual stimuli was enhanced by spatial attention (150–170 ms irrespectively of semantic information. The early crossmodal attention effect for the visual stimuli was more negative in the spatial-congruent condition than in the spatial-incongruent condition. By contrast, the later effects of spatial ERPs were significant only for the semantic- congruent condition (250–300 ms. These findings indicated that spatial attention modulated early visual processing, and semantic and spatial features were simultaneously used to orient attention and modulate later processing stages.

  16. Conveying the concept of movement in music: An event-related brain potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Linshu; Jiang, Cunmei; Wu, Yingying; Yang, Yufang

    2015-10-01

    This study on event-related brain potential investigated whether music can convey the concept of movement. Using a semantic priming paradigm, natural musical excerpts were presented to non-musicians, followed by semantically congruent or incongruent pictures that depicted objects either in motion or at rest. The priming effects were tested in object decision and implicit recognition tasks to distinguish the effects of automatic conceptual activation from response competition. Results showed that in both tasks, pictures that were incongruent to preceding musical excerpts elicited larger N400 than congruent pictures, suggesting that music can prime the representations of movement concepts. Results of the multiple regression analysis showed that movement expression could be well predicted by specific acoustic and musical features, indicating the associations between music per se and the processing of iconic musical meaning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Pitch Processing in Tonal-Language-Speaking Children with Autism: An Event-Related Potential Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Luodi; Fan, Yuebo; Deng, Zhizhou; Huang, Dan; Wang, Suiping; Zhang, Yang

    2015-11-01

    The present study investigated pitch processing in Mandarin-speaking children with autism using event-related potential measures. Two experiments were designed to test how acoustic, phonetic and semantic properties of the stimuli contributed to the neural responses for pitch change detection and involuntary attentional orienting. In comparison with age-matched (6-12 years) typically developing controls (16 participants in Experiment 1, 18 in Experiment 2), children with autism (18 participants in Experiment 1, 16 in Experiment 2) showed enhanced neural discriminatory sensitivity in the nonspeech conditions but not for speech stimuli. The results indicate domain specificity of enhanced pitch processing in autism, which may interfere with lexical tone acquisition and language development for children who speak a tonal language.

  18. Digital memory encoding in Chinese dyscalculia: An event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Enguo; Qin, Shutao; Chang, MengYan; Zhu, Xiangru

    2014-10-22

    This study reports the neurophysiological and behavioral correlates of digital memory encoding features in Chinese individuals with and without dyscalculia. Eighteen children with dyscalculia (ages 11.5-13.5) and 18 matched controls were tested, and their event-related potentials (ERPs) were digitally recorded simultaneously with behavioral measures. The results showed that both groups had a significant Dm effect, and this effect was greater in the control group. In the 300-400-ms, 400-500-ms, and 600-700-ms processing stages, both groups showed significant differences of digital memory encoding in the frontal, central, and parietal regions. In the 500-600-ms period, the Dm effect in the control group was significantly greater than that in the dyscalculia group only in the parietal region. These results suggest that individuals with dyscalculia exhibit impaired digital memory encoding and deficits in psychological resource allocation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Experimental Study on Event-Related Potential for Objective Evaluation of Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Motoshi; Honma, Tomohiro; Inoue, Hiroshi; Niiyama, Yoshitsugu; Takahashi, Toru; Kumagai, Masanori; Akiyama, Yoshinobu

    In order to study the application of event-related potential (ERP) for performing objective evaluation of food, the ERP was measured when subjectively judging the appearance of food by three-grade scale with the opinion “like”, “favorite” and “more favorite”. Sushi and cooked rice were selected as typical foods. Five pictures of each food that the subjects liked were chosen before measurements, and then were used in opinion tests. As a result, the P300 component of the ERP was detected, and the P300 area (surrounded by ERP waveform from the latency 250 to 500ms) became larger when the subjects judged as “more favorite”, which indicates the feasibility of evaluation of food using the ERP.

  20. A feasibility study of using event-related potential as a biometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yih-Choung Yu; Sicheng Wang; Gabel, Lisa A

    2016-08-01

    The use of an individual's neural response to stimuli (the event-related potential or ERP) has potential as a biometric because it is highly resistant to fraud relative to other conventional authentication systems. P300 is an ERP in human electroencephalography (EEG) that occurs in response to an oddball stimulus when an individual is actively engaged in a target detection task. Because P300 is consistently detectable from almost every subject, it is considered a potential signal for biometric applications. This paper presents a feasibility study of using topological plots of P300 as a biometric in subject authentication. The variation in latency and location of P300 response of 24 participants performing the P300Speller task were studied. Data sets from four participants were used for algorithm training; data from the other 20 participants were used as imposters for algorithm validation. The result showed that the algorithm was able to correctly identify three out of these four participants. Validation test also proved that the algorithm was able to reject 95% of the imposters for those three authenticated participants.

  1. Impaired Empathy Processing in Individuals with Internet Addiction Disorder: An Event-Related Potential Study

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    Can Jiao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Internet addiction disorder (IAD is associated with deficits in social communication and avoidance of social contact. It has been hypothesized that people with IAD may have an impaired capacity for empathy. The purpose of the current study was to examine the processing of empathy for others’ pain in IADs. Event-related potentials produced in response to pictures showing others in painful and non-painful situations were recorded in 16 IAD subjects and 16 healthy controls (HCs. The N1, P2, N2, P3, and late positive potential components were compared between the two groups. Robust picture × group interactions were observed for N2 and P3. The painful pictures elicited larger N2 and P3 amplitudes than the non-painful pictures did only in the HC group but not in the IAD group. The results of this study suggest that both of the early automatic and of the later cognitive processes of pain empathy may be impaired in IADs. This study provides psychophysical evidence of empathy deficits in association with IAD. Further studies combining multidimensional measurements of empathy are needed to confirm these findings.

  2. The arithmetic problem size effect in children: an event-related potential study

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    Leen eVan Beek

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study used for the first time event-related potentials (ERPs to examine the well-known arithmetic problem size effect in children. The electrophysiological correlates of this problem size effect have been well documented in adults, but such information in children is lacking. In the present study, 22 typically developing 12-year-olds were asked to solve single-digit addition problems of small (sum ≤ 10 and large problem size (sum > 10 and to speak the solution into a voice key while ERPs were recorded. Children displayed similar early and late components compared to previous adult studies on the problem size effect. There was no effect of problem size on the early components P1, N1 and P2. The peak amplitude of the N2 component showed more negative potentials on left and right anterior electrodes for large additions compared to small additions, which might reflect differences in attentional and working memory resources between large and small problems. The mean amplitude of the late positivity component (LPC, which follows the N2, was significantly larger for large than for small additions at right parieto-occipital electrodes, in line with previous adult data. The ERPs of the problem size effect during arithmetic might be a useful neural marker for future studies on fact retrieval impairments in children with mathematical difficulties.

  3. Behavioral and neural correlates of emotional intelligence: an event-related potentials (ERP) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, Sivan; Dan, Orrie; Arad, Hen; Zysberg, Leehu

    2013-08-14

    The present study was aimed at identifying potential behavioral and neural correlates of emotional intelligence (EI) by using scalp-recorded Event-Related Potentials (ERPs). EI levels were defined according to both self-report questionnaire and a performance-based test. We identified ERP correlates of emotional processing by comparing ERPs elicited in trials using pleasant, neutral and unpleasant pictures. The effects of these emotion-inducing pictures were then compared across groups with low and high EI levels. Behavioral results revealed a significant valence×EI group interaction effect since valence ratings were lower for unpleasant pictures and higher for pleasant pictures in the high EI group compared with the low EI group. The groups did not differ with respect to neutral picture ratings. The ERP results indicate that participants with high EI exhibited significantly greater mean amplitudes of the P2 (200-300ms post-stimulus) and P3 (310-450ms post-stimulus) ERP components in response to emotional and neutral pictures, at posterior-parietal as well as at frontal scalp locations. This may suggest greater recruitment of resources to process all emotional and non-emotional stimuli at early and late processing stages among individuals with higher EI. The present study also underscores the usefulness of ERP methodology as a sensitive measure for the study of emotional stimuli processing in the research field of EI. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Expression of physiological sensation of anatomical patterns in wood: An event-related brain potential study

    OpenAIRE

    Sha Sha Song; Guang Jie Zhao

    2012-01-01

    The emotional and psychological activities associated with the visual perception of macroscopic and microscopic structure patterns of wood were investigated. The macroscopic and microscopic structure patterns of 18 different timber tree species of northeast China were selected as the research objects, and these were divided into eight categories for event-related potential analysis. The 30 effective subjects’ tasks were to watch the wood structure stimuli patterns and evaluate them on a 7-poi...

  5. On the violation of causal, emotional, and locative inferences: An event-related potentials study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Gómez, Pablo; Sánchez-Carmona, Alberto; Smith, Cybelle; Pozo, Miguel A; Hinojosa, José A; Moreno, Eva M

    2016-07-01

    Previous event-related potential studies have demonstrated the online generation of inferences during reading for comprehension tasks. The present study contrasted the brainwave patterns of activity to the fulfilment or violation of various types of inferences (causal, emotional, locative). Relative to inference congruent sentence endings, a typical centro-parietal N400 was elicited for the violation of causal and locative inferences. This N400 effect was initially absent for emotional inferences, most likely due to their lower cloze probability. Between 500 and 750ms, a larger frontal positivity (pN400FP) was elicited by inference incongruent sentence endings in the causal condition. In emotional sentences, both inference congruent and incongruent endings exerted this frontally distributed late positivity. For the violation of locative inferences, the larger positivity was only marginally significant over left posterior scalp locations. Thus, not all inference eliciting sentences evoked a similar pattern of ERP responses. We interpret and discuss our results in line with recent views on what the N400, the P600 and the pN400FP brainwave potentials index. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Context effects on odor processing: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudien, Joachim H; Wencker, Sonja; Ferstl, Roman; Pause, Bettina M

    2008-07-15

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of cognitive/emotional bias on central nervous odor processing. Forty-five female participants were divided into three groups and were either led to believe the odor was a natural, healthy extract (positive bias), potentially hazardous (negative bias), or a common test odorant (control). The odor (isobornyl acetate) was presented via a constant-flow olfactometer and the EEG was recorded from 60 scalp locations. In the negative bias condition, participants reported reduced well-being and judged the odor as less pleasant. However, neither the thresholds nor the intensity ratings were changed by the context condition. Chemosensory event-related potential (CSERP) analysis revealed that the latencies of the N1 and P2 components were prolonged in the negative bias condition and shortened in the positive bias condition. Current source densities were most prominent in the frontal lobe in negatively biased participants. The findings show that expecting to perceive an emotionally significant odor affects the early encoding of odors.

  7. Relationship between early and late stages of information processing: an event-related potential study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portella, Claudio; Machado, Sergio; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Sack, Alexander T.; Silva, Julio Guilherme; Orsini, Marco; Leite, Marco Antonio Araujo; Silva, Adriana Cardoso; Nardi, Antonio E.; Cagy, Mauricio; Piedade, Roberto; Ribeiro, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    The brain is capable of elaborating and executing different stages of information processing. However, exactly how these stages are processed in the brain remains largely unknown. This study aimed to analyze the possible correlation between early and late stages of information processing by assessing the latency to, and amplitude of, early and late event-related potential (ERP) components, including P200, N200, premotor potential (PMP) and P300, in healthy participants in the context of a visual oddball paradigm. We found a moderate positive correlation among the latency of P200 (electrode O2), N200 (electrode O2), PMP (electrode C3), P300 (electrode PZ) and the reaction time (RT). In addition, moderate negative correlation between the amplitude of P200 and the latencies of N200 (electrode O2), PMP (electrode C3), P300 (electrode PZ) was found. Therefore, we propose that if the secondary processing of visual input (P200 latency) occurs faster, the following will also happen sooner: discrimination and classification process of this input (N200 latency), motor response processing (PMP latency), reorganization of attention and working memory update (P300 latency), and RT. N200, PMP, and P300 latencies are also anticipated when higher activation level of occipital areas involved in the secondary processing of visual input rise (P200 amplitude). PMID:23355929

  8. Olfactory short-term memory encoding and maintenance - an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenk, Steffen; Bluschke, Annet; Beste, Christian; Iannilli, Emilia; Rößner, Veit; Hummel, Thomas; Bender, Stephan

    2014-09-01

    This study examined whether the memory encoding and short term maintenance of olfactory stimuli is associated with neurophysiological activation patterns which parallel those described for sensory modalities such as vision and auditory. We examined olfactory event-related potentials in an olfactory change detection task in twenty-four healthy adults and compared the measured activation to that found during passive olfactory stimulation. During the early olfactory post-processing phase, we found a sustained negativity over bilateral frontotemporal areas in the passive perception condition which was enhanced in the active memory task. There was no significant lateralization in either experimental condition. During the maintenance interval at the end of the delay period, we still found sustained activation over bilateral frontotemporal areas which was more negative in trials with correct - as compared to incorrect - behavioural responses. This was complemented by a general significantly stronger frontocentral activation. Summarizing, we were able to show that olfactory short term memory involves a parallel sequence of activation as found in other sensory modalities. In addition to olfactory-specific frontotemporal activations in the memory encoding phase, we found slow cortical potentials over frontocentral areas during the memory maintenance phase indicating the activation of a supramodal memory maintenance system. These findings could represent the neurophysiological underpinning of the 'olfactory flacon', the olfactory counter-part to the visual sketchpad and phonological loop embedded in Baddeley's working memory model. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Age difference in numeral recognition and calculation: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Dong; Wang, Suhong; Yang, Yilin; Meng, Ping; Xu, Feng; Yang, Wen; Sheng, Wei; Yang, Yuxia

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the age difference in numeral recognition and calculation in one group of school-aged children (n = 38) and one of undergraduate students (n = 26) using the event-related potential (ERP) methods. Consistent with previous reports, the age difference was significant in behavioral results. Both numeral recognition and calculation elicited a negativity peaking at about 170-280 ms (N2) and a positivity peaking at 200-470 ms (pSW) in raw ERPs, and a difference potential (dN3) between 360 and 450 ms. The difference between the two age groups indicated that more attention resources were devoted to arithmetical tasks in school-aged children, and that school-aged children and undergraduate students appear to use different strategies to solve arithmetical problems. The analysis of frontal negativity suggested that numeral recognition and mental calculation impose greater load on working memory and executive function in schoolchildren than in undergraduate students. The topography data determined that the parietal regions were responsible for arithmetical function in humans, and there was an age-related difference in the area of cerebral activation.

  10. Relationship between early and late stages of information processing: an event-related potential study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Portella

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The brain is capable of elaborating and executing different stages of information processing. However, exactly how these stages are processed in the brain remains largely unknown. This study aimed to analyze the possible correlation between early and late stages of information processing by assessing the latency to, and amplitude of, early and late event-related potential (ERP components, including P200, N200, premotor potential (PMP and P300, in healthy participants in the context of a visual oddball paradigm. We found a moderate positive correlation among the latency of P200 (electrode O2, N200 (electrode O2, PMP (electrode C3, P300 (electrode PZ and the reaction time (RT. In addition, moderate negative correlation between the amplitude of P200 and the latencies of N200 (electrode O2, PMP (electrode C3, P300 (electrode PZ was found. Therefore, we propose that if the secondary processing of visual input (P200 latency occurs faster, the following will also happen sooner: discrimination and classification process of this input (N200 latency, motor response processing (PMP latency, reorganization of attention and working memory update (P300 latency, and RT. N200, PMP, and P300 latencies are also anticipated when higher activation level of occipital areas involved in the secondary processing of visual input rise (P200 amplitude.

  11. Working memory deficit in patients with restless legs syndrome: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Min; Choi, Jeong Woo; Lee, Chany; Lee, Byeong Uk; Koo, Yong Seo; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Jung, Ki-Young

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a working memory (WM) deficit in restless legs syndrome (RLS) patients, by studying the Sternberg WM task of event-related potential (ERP). Thirteen drug-naive RLS patients and 13 healthy age-matched controls with no sleep disturbances participated in the present study. P300 ERP was recorded during Sternberg WM task using digits as mnemonic items. P300 amplitudes and reaction times were compared between groups (RLS vs. control) considering brain regions (frontal, central, and parietal) and memory load sizes (two, three, and four) as within-subject factors. Clinical and sleep-related variables were correlated with P300 amplitude. The reaction time in RLS patients was significantly longer than controls over all memory load sizes. The P300 amplitude at parietal regions in RLS patients was significantly lower than in controls regardless of memory load sizes, which was significantly negatively correlated with duration of RLS history in RLS patients. Our study suggests that patients with severe RLS have WM deficits. Furthermore, negative correlation of P300 amplitudes with the duration of RLS illness suggests that cerebral cortical dysfunction in RLS patients results from repeated RLS symptom attacks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Simultaneous functional near-infrared brain imaging and event-related potential studies of Stroop effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Jiahuan; Li, Ting; Zhang, Zhongxing; Gong, Hui

    2009-02-01

    Functional near-infrared brain imaging (fNIRI) and event-related potential (ERP) were used simultaneous to detect the prefrontal cortex (PFC) which is considered to execute cognitive control of the subjects while performing the Chinese characters color-word matching Stroop task with event-related design. The fNIRI instrument is a portable system operating at three wavelengths (735nm & 805nm &850nm) with continuous-wave. The event-related potentials were acquired by Neuroscan system. The locations of optodes corresponding to the electrodes were defined four areas symmetrically. In nine native Chinese-speaking fit volunteers, fNIRI measured the hemodynamic parameters (involving oxy-/deoxy- hemoglobin) changes when the characteristic waveforms (N500/P600) were recorded by ERP. The interference effect was obvious as a longer reaction time for incongruent than congruent and neutral stimulus. The responses of hemodynamic and electrophysiology were also stronger during incongruent compared to congruent and neutral trials, and these results are similar to those obtained with fNIRI or ERP separately. There are high correlations, even linear relationship, in the two kinds of signals. In conclusion, the multi-modality approach combining of fNIRI and ERP is feasible and could obtain more cognitive function information with hemodynamic and electrophysiology signals. It also provides a perspective to prove the neurovascular coupling mechanism.

  13. Mathematical anxiety effects on simple arithmetic processing efficiency: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Pellicioni, M; Núñez-Peña, M I; Colomé, A

    2013-12-01

    This study uses event-related brain potentials to investigate the difficulties that high math anxious individuals face when processing dramatically incorrect solutions to simple arithmetical problems. To this end, thirteen high math-anxious (HMA) and thirteen low math-anxious (LMA) individuals were presented with simple addition problems in a verification task. The proposed solution could be correct, incorrect but very close to the correct one (small-split), or dramatically incorrect (large-split). The two groups did not differ in mathematical ability or trait anxiety. We reproduced previous results for flawed scores suggesting HMA difficulties in processing large-split solutions. Moreover, large-split solutions elicited a late positive component (P600/P3b) which was more enhanced and delayed in the HMA group. Our study proposes that the pattern of flawed scores found by previous studies (and that we replicate) has to do with HMA individuals'difficulties in inhibiting an extended processing of irrelevant information (large-split solutions). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Attentional biases in children of depressed mothers: An event-related potential (ERP) study.

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    Gibb, Brandon E; Pollak, Seth D; Hajcak, Greg; Owens, Max

    2016-11-01

    Although a number of studies have reported that children of depressed, compared to nondepressed, parents exhibit biased attention to sad facial stimuli, the direction of this bias remains unclear; some studies find evidence of preferential attention toward sad faces whereas others find evidence of attention avoidance. In the current study, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to assess children's attention to emotional stimuli using a spatial cueing task. Across all indices of attention bias (N2pc and sustained posterior contralateral negativity [SPCN] time locked to face onset, P3b time locked to probe onset, reaction times [RTs] to probes), children of mothers with a history of major depressive disorder (MDD) during the child's life exhibited less attention to sad faces than children of never depressed mothers. For two of these indices (SPCN and RTs), the attention biases for the offspring of depressed mothers was not specific to sadness and was observed for all emotional expressions. Group differences in the ERP indices were maintained when controlling for the influence of mothers' and children's current symptoms of depression and anxiety, mothers' history of anxiety disorders, and children's history of MDD and anxiety disorders, suggesting that the results are specific to mothers' history of MDD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Human recognition memory and conflict control: An event-related potential study.

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    Liu, T; Liu, X; Xiao, T; Shi, J

    2016-01-28

    The relationship between recognition memory and cognitive control is an important research topic. The current study investigated how conflict control influences an individual's emotional memory. During the encoding phase, participants were required to judge the affective valence of a Chinese Chengyu word (either positive or negative) in a modified Simon paradigm and to remember the word. Half of the words were presented in the congruent condition and the other half were displayed in the incongruent condition. During the retrieval phase, participants were instructed to make an 'old/new judgment' and decide whether the word had been presented previously. Electrophysiological responses were recorded using the event-related potential (ERP) technique. The behavioral results of retrieval processes showed that participants remembered more positive than negative words when they were encoded in the congruent condition. The electrophysiological results revealed that the retrieval of words encoded in the incongruent condition elicited less negative frontal negativity (FN) and early posterior negativity (EPN) amplitudes than those encoded in the congruent condition. The retrieval of words encoded in the incongruent condition induced greater late positive complex (LPC) amplitudes, relative to those encoded in the congruent condition on the left hemisphere. It was also observed that the recognition of positive words induced faster LPC responses than negative words when they were encoded in the incongruent condition. The present electrophysiological study illustrates that emotional memory processes may be affected by conflict control. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Snake scales, partial exposure, and the Snake Detection Theory: A human event-related potentials study

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    Van Strien, Jan W.; Isbell, Lynne A.

    2017-01-01

    Studies of event-related potentials in humans have established larger early posterior negativity (EPN) in response to pictures depicting snakes than to pictures depicting other creatures. Ethological research has recently shown that macaques and wild vervet monkeys respond strongly to partially exposed snake models and scale patterns on the snake skin. Here, we examined whether snake skin patterns and partially exposed snakes elicit a larger EPN in humans. In Task 1, we employed pictures with close-ups of snake skins, lizard skins, and bird plumage. In task 2, we employed pictures of partially exposed snakes, lizards, and birds. Participants watched a random rapid serial visual presentation of these pictures. The EPN was scored as the mean activity (225–300 ms after picture onset) at occipital and parieto-occipital electrodes. Consistent with previous studies, and with the Snake Detection Theory, the EPN was significantly larger for snake skin pictures than for lizard skin and bird plumage pictures, and for lizard skin pictures than for bird plumage pictures. Likewise, the EPN was larger for partially exposed snakes than for partially exposed lizards and birds. The results suggest that the EPN snake effect is partly driven by snake skin scale patterns which are otherwise rare in nature. PMID:28387376

  17. An event related potential study of inhibitory and attentional control in Williams syndrome adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Joanna M. H.; Hamilton, Colin; Riby, Leigh M.

    2017-01-01

    The primary aim of the current study was to employ event-related potentials (ERPs) methodology to disentangle the mechanisms related to inhibitory control in older adults with Williams syndrome (WS). Eleven older adults with WS (mean age 42), 16 typically developing adults (mean age 42) and 13 typically developing children (mean age 12) participated in the study. ERPs were recorded during a three-stimulus visual oddball task, during which participants were required to make a response to a rare target stimulus embedded in a train of frequent non-target stimuli. A task-irrelevant infrequent stimulus was also present at randomised intervals during the session. The P3a latency data response related to task-irrelevant stimulus processing was delayed in WS. In addition, the early perceptual N2 amplitude was attenuated. These data are indicative of compromised early monitoring of perceptual input, accompanied by appropriate orientation of responses to task-irrelevant stimuli. However, the P3a delay suggests inefficient evaluation of the task-irrelevant stimuli. These data are discussed in terms of deficits in the disengagement of attentional processes, and the regulation of monitoring processes required for successful inhibition. PMID:28187205

  18. Antiherding in Financial Decision Increases Valuation of Return on Investment: An Event-Related Potential Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cuicui; Jin, Jia; Vieito, João Paulo; Ma, Qingguo

    2017-01-01

    Using event-related potentials, this study investigated how financial herding or antiherding affected the valuation of subsequent outcomes. For each trial, subjects decided whether to buy the stock according to its net money flow information which could be used to reflect the strength of buying power or selling power of the stock. The return on investment (ROI) as feedback included the increase or decrease percentage after subjects' responses. Results showed that, compared with herding, antiherding induced larger discrepancies of FRN and P300 amplitude between positive ROI and negative ROI, indicating that individuals under antiherding condition had stronger motivation and paid more attention in the evaluation process of ROI. Moreover, only for positive ROI, the amplitudes of FRN and P300 were modulated by two kinds of behaviors. We suggested that individuals making antiherd decisions were more confident with their own ability and choices, which reduced the positive outcome prediction error and gave more mental resources to evaluate positive outcome. However, negative outcomes evoked no different motivational meaning and negative emotion for individuals between herding and antiherding. The study may provide new insights into neurocognitive processes of herding and antiherding in financial market.

  19. Location negative priming effects in children with developmental dyslexia: An event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yujun; Wang, Enguo; Yuan, Tian; Zhao, Guo Xiang

    2016-08-01

    As the reading process is inseparable from working memory, inhibition, and other higher cognitive processes, the deep cognitive processing defects that are associated with dyslexia may be due to defective distraction inhibition systems. In this study, we used event-related potential technology to explore the source of negative priming effects in children with developmental dyslexia and in a group of healthy children for comparison. We found that the changes in the average response times in the negative priming and control conditions were consistent across the two groups, while the negative priming effects differed significantly between the groups. The magnitude of the negative priming effect was significantly different between the two groups, with the magnitude being significantly higher in the control group than it was in the developmental dyslexia group. These results indicate that there are deficits in distraction inhibition in children with developmental dyslexia. In terms of the time course of processing, inhibition deficits in the dyslexia group appeared during early-stage cognition selection and lasted through the response selection phase. Regarding the cerebral cortex locations, early-stage cognition selection was mainly located in the parietal region, while late-stage response selection was mainly located in the frontal and central regions. The results of our study may help further our understanding of the intrinsic causes of developmental dyslexia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Impaired Early Attentional Processes in Parkinson's Disease: A High-Resolution Event-Related Potentials Study.

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    Perrine Bocquillon

    Full Text Available The selection of task-relevant information requires both the focalization of attention on the task and resistance to interference from irrelevant stimuli. A previous study using the P3 component of the event-related potentials suggested that a reduced ability to resist interference could be responsible for attention disorders at early stages of Parkinson's disease (PD, with a possible role of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC.Our objective was to better determine the origin of this impairment, by studying an earlier ERP component, the N2, and its subcomponents, as they reflect early inhibition processes and as they are known to have sources in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, which is involved together with the DLPFC in inhibition processes. Fifteen early-stage PD patients and 15 healthy controls (HCs performed a three-stimulus visual oddball paradigm, consisting in detecting target inputs amongst standard stimuli, while resisting interference from distracter ones. A 128-channel electroencephalogram was recorded during this task and the generators of the N2 subcomponents were identified using standardized weighted low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (swLORETA.PD patients displayed fewer N2 generators than HCs in both the DLPFC and the ACC, for all types of stimuli. In contrast to controls, PD patients did not show any differences between their generators for different N2 subcomponents.Our data suggest that impaired inhibition in PD results from dysfunction of the DLPFC and the ACC during the early stages of attentional processes.

  1. Rapid L2 Word Learning through High Constraint Sentence Context: An Event-Related Potential Study

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    Baoguo Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have found quantity of exposure, i.e., frequency of exposure (Horst et al., 1998; Webb, 2008; Pellicer-Sánchez and Schmitt, 2010, is important for second language (L2 contextual word learning. Besides this factor, context constraint and L2 proficiency level have also been found to affect contextual word learning (Pulido, 2003; Tekmen and Daloglu, 2006; Elgort et al., 2015; Ma et al., 2015. In the present study, we adopted the event-related potential (ERP technique and chose high constraint sentences as reading materials to further explore the effects of quantity of exposure and proficiency on L2 contextual word learning. Participants were Chinese learners of English with different English proficiency levels. For each novel word, there were four high constraint sentences with the critical word at the end of the sentence. Learners read sentences and made semantic relatedness judgment afterwards, with ERPs recorded. Results showed that in the high constraint condition where each pseudoword was embedded in four sentences with consistent meaning, N400 amplitude upon this pseudoword decreased significantly as learners read the first two sentences. High proficiency learners responded faster in the semantic relatedness judgment task. These results suggest that in high quality sentence contexts, L2 learners could rapidly acquire word meaning without multiple exposures, and L2 proficiency facilitated this learning process.

  2. Importance Modulates the Temporal Features of Self-Referential Processing: An Event-Related Potential Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kepeng; Li, Shifeng; Ren, Deyun; Xia, Ruixue; Xue, Hong; Zhou, Aibao; Xu, Yan

    2017-01-01

    A growing number of studies have demonstrated preferential processing of self-related information. However, previous research has been limited in examining the distinction between processes related to the self and those related to the non-self, it remains unclear how self-related information with differing levels of importance is processed within the self. The present study examined how the importance of self-related content affects the neural activity involved in self-referential processing. The behavioral results showed that the participants had faster responses to more important self-related content. The event-related potential (ERP) results showed that early attention resources were diverted to the identification of highly important self-related content compared with minimally important self-related content, as reflected by the enhanced P200. Furthermore, the N200 amplitude for highly important self-related content was smaller than for moderately important self-related content which, in turn, were smaller than minimally important self-related content. Moreover, the P300 amplitudes were modulated by the degree of importance of self-related content, whereby a higher importance of self-related content led to larger P300 amplitudes. Taken together, these findings demonstrate an effect of the degree of importance of the self-related content at both behavioral and neurophysiological levels.

  3. Importance Modulates the Temporal Features of Self-Referential Processing: An Event-Related Potential Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kepeng Xu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A growing number of studies have demonstrated preferential processing of self-related information. However, previous research has been limited in examining the distinction between processes related to the self and those related to the non-self, it remains unclear how self-related information with differing levels of importance is processed within the self. The present study examined how the importance of self-related content affects the neural activity involved in self-referential processing. The behavioral results showed that the participants had faster responses to more important self-related content. The event-related potential (ERP results showed that early attention resources were diverted to the identification of highly important self-related content compared with minimally important self-related content, as reflected by the enhanced P200. Furthermore, the N200 amplitude for highly important self-related content was smaller than for moderately important self-related content which, in turn, were smaller than minimally important self-related content. Moreover, the P300 amplitudes were modulated by the degree of importance of self-related content, whereby a higher importance of self-related content led to larger P300 amplitudes. Taken together, these findings demonstrate an effect of the degree of importance of the self-related content at both behavioral and neurophysiological levels.

  4. Effects of negative content on the processing of gender information: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa, José A; Albert, Jacobo; Fernández-Folgueiras, Uxía; Santaniello, Gerardo; López-Bachiller, Cristina; Sebastián, Manuel; Sánchez-Carmona, Alberto J; Pozo, Miguel A

    2014-12-01

    Previous research on emotion in language has mainly concerned the impact of emotional information on several aspects of lexico-semantic analyses of single words. However, affective influences on morphosyntactic processing are less understood. In the present study, we focused on the impact of negative valence in the processing of gender agreement relations. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants read three-word phrases and performed a syntactic judgment task. Negative and neutral adjectives could agree or disagree in gender with the preceding noun. At an electrophysiological level, the amplitude of a left anterior negativity (LAN) to gender agreement mismatches decreased in negative words, relative to neutral words. The behavioral data suggested that LAN amplitudes might be indexing the processing costs associated with the detection of gender agreement errors, since the detection of gender mismatches resulted in faster and more accurate responses than did the detection of correct gender agreement relations. According to this view, it seems that negative content facilitated the processes implicated in the early detection of gender agreement mismatches. However, gender agreement violations in negative words triggered processes involved in the reanalysis and repair of the syntactic structure, as reflected in larger P600 amplitudes to incorrect than to correct phrases, irrespective of their emotional valence.

  5. Temporal characteristics of online syntactic sentence planning: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmers, Inge; Gentile, Francesco; Rubio-Gozalbo, M Estela; Jansma, Bernadette M

    2013-01-01

    During sentence production, linguistic information (semantics, syntax, phonology) of words is retrieved and assembled into a meaningful utterance. There is still debate on how we assemble single words into more complex syntactic structures such as noun phrases or sentences. In the present study, event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to investigate the time course of syntactic planning. Thirty-three volunteers described visually animated scenes using naming formats varying in syntactic complexity: from simple words ('W', e.g., "triangle", "red", "square", "green", "to fly towards"), to noun phrases ('NP', e.g., "the red triangle", "the green square", "to fly towards"), to a sentence ('S', e.g., "The red triangle flies towards the green square."). Behaviourally, we observed an increase in errors and corrections with increasing syntactic complexity, indicating a successful experimental manipulation. In the ERPs following scene onset, syntactic complexity variations were found in a P300-like component ('S'/'NP'>'W') and a fronto-central negativity (linear increase with syntactic complexity). In addition, the scene could display two actions - unpredictable for the participant, as the disambiguation occurred only later in the animation. Time-locked to the moment of visual disambiguation of the action and thus the verb, we observed another P300 component ('S'>'NP'/'W'). The data show for the first time evidence of sensitivity to syntactic planning within the P300 time window, time-locked to visual events critical of syntactic planning. We discuss the findings in the light of current syntactic planning views.

  6. An event-related potential study of semantic style-match judgments of artistic furniture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ming-Huang; Wang, Ching-yi; Cheng, Shih-kuen; Cheng, Shih-hung

    2011-11-01

    This study investigates how semantic networks represent different artistic furniture. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants made style-match judgments for table and chair sets. All of the tables were in the Normal style, whereas the chairs were in the Normal, Minimal, ReadyMade, or Deconstruction styles. The Normal and Minimal chairs had the same rates of "match" responses, which were both higher than the rates for the ReadyMade and Deconstruction chairs. Compared with Normal chairs, the ERPs elicited by both ReadyMade chairs and Deconstruction chairs exhibited reliable N400 effects, which suggests that these two design styles were unlike the Normal design style. However, Minimal chairs evoked ERPs that were similar to the ERPs of Normal chairs. Furthermore, the N400 effects elicited by ReadyMade and Deconstruction chairs showed different scalp distributions. These findings reveal that semantic networks represent different design styles for items of the same category. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Orthographic combinability and phonological consistency effects in reading Chinese phonograms: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chun-Hsien; Tsai, Jie-Li; Lee, Chia-Ying; Tzeng, Ovid J-L

    2009-01-01

    In this study, event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to trace the temporal dynamics of phonological consistency and phonetic combinability in the reading of Chinese phonograms. The data showed a significant consistency-by-combinability interaction at N170. High phonetic combinability characters elicited greater negativity at N170 than did low phonetic combinability characters, and the combinability effect was only found in the reading of high consistency characters. The results support the phonological mapping hypothesis of the reading-related N170 effect and suggest that the earlier stages of visual word recognition are shaped by the mapping of orthography to phonology even in Chinese. Moreover, our data revealed both consistency and combinability effects at P200 and N400, accounted for by the two-stage framework for visual word recognition. That is, characters with high combinability or high consistency facilitated the earlier stages of orthographic or phonological processing which were due to increased activation at the perceptual level; consequently, less positive P200 was demonstrated. In the later stages, high combinability or high consistency characters were associated with a larger semantic neighborhood, which increased semantic competition and exaggerated the N400 effect. These data support the assumption of radical-based inputs proposed by the lexical constituent model. However, the phonetic consistency effects found at N170 and P200 cannot be reconciled with the current framework of the lexical constituent model. A possible revision will be discussed.

  8. An event-related potential study on cross-modal conversion of Chinese characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiuyan; Deng, Yuan

    2011-10-03

    In the current study, we explored the effects of ERPs (event-related potentials), related to the cross-modal transfer from visual input to phonological retrieval. Using Chinese single-character words, participants were asked to make orthographic (intra-modal) and phonological (cross-modal) responses to visually presented words. By comparing the cross-modal and intra-modal tasks, we found that both tasks evoke similar activity in the early stage of lexical processing, showing the same pattern of N2 effect (a negative component peaking around 220 ms) and P2 effect (a positive component peaking around 270 ms). However, the effect of the task was significant in the 300-700 ms time window, consisting of a frontal-based N400 effect and a parietal based late positive component (LPC) effect. These findings suggest that the frontal-based N400 is associated with orthography-to-phonology mapping in Chinese, and the LPC reflects greater requirement of maintaining retrieved information in working memory for the cross-modal processing. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Mastication accelerates Go/No-go decisional processing: An event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Kiwako; Nakata, Hiroki; Yumoto, Masato; Sadato, Norihiro; Kakigi, Ryusuke

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of mastication on Go/No-go decisional processing using event-related potentials (ERPs). Thirteen normal subjects underwent seven sessions of a somatosensory Go/No-go paradigm for approximately 4min; Pre, and Post 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. The Control condition included the same seven sessions. The RT and standard deviation were recorded, and the peak amplitude and latency of the N140 and P300 components were analyzed. The RT was significantly shorter in Mastication than in Control at Post 1-3 and 4-6. The peak latency of N140 was earlier in Mastication than in Control at Post 4-6. The latency of N140 was shortened by repeated sessions in Mastication, but not by those in Control. The peak latency of P300 was significantly shorter in Mastication than in Control at Post 4-6. The peak latency of P300 was significantly longer in Control with repeated sessions, but not in Mastication. These results suggest that mastication may influence response execution processing in Go trials, as well as response inhibition processing in No-go trials. Mastication accelerated Go/No-go decisional processing in the human brain. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Post-Decision Wagering Affects Metacognitive Awareness of Emotional Stimuli: An Event Related Potential Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Wierzchoń

    Full Text Available The present research investigated metacognitive awareness of emotional stimuli and its psychophysiological correlates. We used a backward masking task presenting participants with fearful or neutral faces. We asked participants for face discrimination and then probed their metacognitive awareness with confidence rating (CR and post-decision wagering (PDW scales. We also analysed psychophysiological correlates of awareness with event-related potential (ERP components: P1, N170, early posterior negativity (EPN, and P3. We have not observed any differences between PDW and CR conditions in the emotion identification task. However, the "aware" ratings were associated with increased accuracy performance. This effect was more pronounced in PDW, especially for fearful faces, suggesting that emotional stimuli awareness may be enhanced by monetary incentives. EEG analysis showed larger N170, EPN and P3 amplitudes in aware compared to unaware trials. It also appeared that both EPN and P3 ERP components were more pronounced in the PDW condition, especially when emotional faces were presented. Taken together, our ERP findings suggest that metacognitive awareness of emotional stimuli depends on the effectiveness of both early and late visual information processing. Our study also indicates that awareness of emotional stimuli can be enhanced by the motivation induced by wagering.

  11. Sociality Mental Modes Modulate the Processing of Advice-Giving: An Event-Related Potentials Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available People have different motivations to get along with others in different sociality mental modes (i.e., communal mode and market mode, which might affect social decision-making. The present study examined how these two types of sociality mental modes affect the processing of advice-giving using the event-related potentials (ERPs. After primed with the communal mode and market mode, participants were instructed to decide whether or not give an advice (profitable or damnous to a stranger without any feedback. The behavioral results showed that participants preferred to give the profitable advice to the stranger more slowly compared with the damnous advice, but this difference was only observed in the market mode condition. The ERP results indicated that participants demonstrated more negative N1 amplitude for the damnous advice compared with the profitable advice, and larger P300 was elicited in the market mode relative to both the communal mode and the control group. More importantly, participants in the market mode demonstrated larger P300 for the profitable advice than the damnous advice, whereas this difference was not observed at the communal mode and the control group. These findings are consistent with the dual-process system during decision-making and suggest that market mode may lead to deliberate calculation for costs and benefits when giving the profitable advice to others.

  12. Magnetic stimulation at acupoints relieves mental fatigue: An Event Related Potential (P300) study.

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    Yang, Shuo; Qiao, Yanyun; Wang, Lei; Hao, Pengru

    2017-07-20

    Mental fatigue caused by continuous cognitive tasks represents one of the most worrying modern health problems. Event Related Potential (ERP) P300 is thought to be associated with cognitive function. This study aimed at characterizing the neural activity correlated with the attentional processes and exploring a novelty method which combine the magnetic stimulation and acupoint to relieve mental fatigue caused by continuous cognitive tasks. P300 (P3a and P3b) were extracted at three points: when subjects felt relaxed, at the point of mental fatigue, and after the subjects were stimulated at acupoints. The amplitudes and latencies of P3a and P3b were analyzed statistically. Among the four features (P3a amplitude, P3a latency, P3b amplitude, and P3b latency), only P3b amplitude was found to have a significant difference between the resting state and the mental fatigue state. And P3b amplitude significantly increased after magnetic stimulation at the acupoints. Subjects experiencing mental fatigue demonstrated a significant decrease in P3b amplitude in the parietal region, suggesting attenuation of resource allocation for selective attention. P3b amplitude significantly increased after magnetic stimulation at acupoints indicating that this strategy can be used to improve selective attention and relieve mental fatigue.

  13. Who Are the True Fans? Evidence from an Event-Related Potential Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qingguo; Jin, Jia; Yuan, Ruixian; Zhang, Wuke

    2015-01-01

    Fans of celebrities commonly exist in modern society. Researchers from social science have been concerned with this problem for years. Furthermore, such researchers have attempted to measure people’s involvement with celebrities in various ways. However, no study measured the degree of addiction to a specific celebrity at the neurological level. Therefore, the current study employed visually evoked event related potentials (ERPs) to examine people’s attitude toward celebrities by comparing different brain activities of fans and non-fans when they were shown a set of photos. These photos include a specific celebrity, a familiar person, a stranger and a butterfly. Furthermore, to examine the validity of the detected neural index, we also investigated the correlation between brain activity and the score of the Celebrity Attitude Scale (CAS), which was a questionnaire used to explore people’s attitude toward celebrities at behavioral level. Two groups of subjects were asked to complete an implicit task, i.e., to press a button when a picture of a butterfly appeared. Results revealed that fans showed significant positive N2 and P300 deflection when viewing the photos of their favorite celebrity, whereas in the non-fan group, the subjects only showed larger P300 amplitude as a response to the celebrity’s photos. Furthermore, a positive correlation between P300 amplitude elicited by the stimuli of a celebrity face and CAS scores was also observed. These findings indicated fan attitude to a specific celebrity can also be observed at the neurological level and suggested the potential utility of using ERP component as an index of fandom involvement. PMID:26057891

  14. Who Are the True Fans? Evidence from an Event-Related Potential Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qingguo; Jin, Jia; Yuan, Ruixian; Zhang, Wuke

    2015-01-01

    Fans of celebrities commonly exist in modern society. Researchers from social science have been concerned with this problem for years. Furthermore, such researchers have attempted to measure people's involvement with celebrities in various ways. However, no study measured the degree of addiction to a specific celebrity at the neurological level. Therefore, the current study employed visually evoked event related potentials (ERPs) to examine people's attitude toward celebrities by comparing different brain activities of fans and non-fans when they were shown a set of photos. These photos include a specific celebrity, a familiar person, a stranger and a butterfly. Furthermore, to examine the validity of the detected neural index, we also investigated the correlation between brain activity and the score of the Celebrity Attitude Scale (CAS), which was a questionnaire used to explore people's attitude toward celebrities at behavioral level. Two groups of subjects were asked to complete an implicit task, i.e., to press a button when a picture of a butterfly appeared. Results revealed that fans showed significant positive N2 and P300 deflection when viewing the photos of their favorite celebrity, whereas in the non-fan group, the subjects only showed larger P300 amplitude as a response to the celebrity's photos. Furthermore, a positive correlation between P300 amplitude elicited by the stimuli of a celebrity face and CAS scores was also observed. These findings indicated fan attitude to a specific celebrity can also be observed at the neurological level and suggested the potential utility of using ERP component as an index of fandom involvement.

  15. Who Are the True Fans? Evidence from an Event-Related Potential Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingguo Ma

    Full Text Available Fans of celebrities commonly exist in modern society. Researchers from social science have been concerned with this problem for years. Furthermore, such researchers have attempted to measure people's involvement with celebrities in various ways. However, no study measured the degree of addiction to a specific celebrity at the neurological level. Therefore, the current study employed visually evoked event related potentials (ERPs to examine people's attitude toward celebrities by comparing different brain activities of fans and non-fans when they were shown a set of photos. These photos include a specific celebrity, a familiar person, a stranger and a butterfly. Furthermore, to examine the validity of the detected neural index, we also investigated the correlation between brain activity and the score of the Celebrity Attitude Scale (CAS, which was a questionnaire used to explore people's attitude toward celebrities at behavioral level. Two groups of subjects were asked to complete an implicit task, i.e., to press a button when a picture of a butterfly appeared. Results revealed that fans showed significant positive N2 and P300 deflection when viewing the photos of their favorite celebrity, whereas in the non-fan group, the subjects only showed larger P300 amplitude as a response to the celebrity's photos. Furthermore, a positive correlation between P300 amplitude elicited by the stimuli of a celebrity face and CAS scores was also observed. These findings indicated fan attitude to a specific celebrity can also be observed at the neurological level and suggested the potential utility of using ERP component as an index of fandom involvement.

  16. Event-related potential studies of outcome processing and feedback-guided learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René eSan Martín

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to control behavior in an adaptive manner the brain has to learn how some situations and actions predict positive or negative outcomes. During the last decade cognitive neuroscientists have shown that the brain is able to evaluate and learn from outcomes within a few hundred milliseconds of their occurrence. This research has been primarily focused on the feedback-related negativity (FRN and the P3, two event-related potential (ERP components that are elicited by outcomes. The FRN is a frontally distributed negative-polarity ERP component that typically reaches its maximal amplitude 250 ms after outcome presentation and tends to be larger for negative than for positive outcomes. The FRN has been associated with activity in the anterior cingulate cortex. The P3 (~300-600 ms is a parietally distributed positive-polarity ERP component that tends to be larger for large magnitude than for small magnitude outcomes. The neural sources of the P3 are probably distributed over different regions of the cortex. This paper examines the theories that have been proposed to explain the functional role of these two ERP components during outcome processing. Special attention is paid to extant literature addressing how these ERP components are modulated by outcome valence (negative vs. positive, outcome magnitude (large vs. small, outcome probability (unlikely vs. likely and behavioral adjustment. The literature offers few generalizable conclusions, but is beset with a number of inconsistencies across studies. This paper discusses the potential reasons for these inconsistencies and points out some challenges that will shape the field over the next decade.

  17. Error processing and response inhibition in excessive computer game players: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littel, Marianne; van den Berg, Ivo; Luijten, Maartje; van Rooij, Antonius J; Keemink, Lianne; Franken, Ingmar H A

    2012-09-01

    Excessive computer gaming has recently been proposed as a possible pathological illness. However, research on this topic is still in its infancy and underlying neurobiological mechanisms have not yet been identified. The determination of underlying mechanisms of excessive gaming might be useful for the identification of those at risk, a better understanding of the behavior and the development of interventions. Excessive gaming has been often compared with pathological gambling and substance use disorder. Both disorders are characterized by high levels of impulsivity, which incorporates deficits in error processing and response inhibition. The present study aimed to investigate error processing and response inhibition in excessive gamers and controls using a Go/NoGo paradigm combined with event-related potential recordings. Results indicated that excessive gamers show reduced error-related negativity amplitudes in response to incorrect trials relative to correct trials, implying poor error processing in this population. Furthermore, excessive gamers display higher levels of self-reported impulsivity as well as more impulsive responding as reflected by less behavioral inhibition on the Go/NoGo task. The present study indicates that excessive gaming partly parallels impulse control and substance use disorders regarding impulsivity measured on the self-reported, behavioral and electrophysiological level. Although the present study does not allow drawing firm conclusions on causality, it might be that trait impulsivity, poor error processing and diminished behavioral response inhibition underlie the excessive gaming patterns observed in certain individuals. They might be less sensitive to negative consequences of gaming and therefore continue their behavior despite adverse consequences. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  18. Natural speech comprehension in bipolar disorders: an event-related brain potential study among manic patients.

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    Cermolacce, Michel; Faugère, Mélanie; Micoulaud-Franchi, Jean-Arthur; Belzeaux, Raoul; Maurel, Muriel; Naudin, Jean; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Vion-Dury, Jean

    2014-04-01

    Thought and language disturbances are crucial clinical features in Bipolar Disorders (BD), and constitute a fundamental basis for social cognition. In BD, clinical manifestations such as disorganization and formal thought disorders may play a role in communication disturbances. However, only few studies have explored language disturbances in BD at a neurophysiological level. Two main Event-Related brain Potentials (ERPs) have been used in language comprehension research: the N400 component, elicited by incongruous word with the preceding semantic context, and the Late Positive Component (LPC), associated with non-specifically semantic and more general cognitive processes. Previous studies provided contradictory results regarding N400 in mood disorders, showing either preserved N400 in depression or dysthymia, or altered N400 in BD during semantic priming paradigm. The aim of our study was to explore N400 and LPC among patients with BD in natural speech conditions. ERPs from 19 bipolar type I patients with manic or hypomanic symptomatology and 19 healthy controls were recorded. Participants were asked to listen to congruous and incongruous complete sentences and to judge the match between the final word and the sentence context. Behavioral results and ERPs data were analyzed. At the behavioral level, patients with BD show worst performances than healthy participants. At the electrophysiological level, our results show preserved N400 component in BD. LPC elicited under natural speech conditions shows preserved amplitude but delayed latency in difference waves. Small size of samples, absence of schizophrenic group and medication status. In contrast with the only previous N400 study in BD that uses written semantic priming, our results show a preserved N400 component in ecological and natural speech conditions among patients with BD. Possible implications in terms of clinical specificity are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A study of event related potential frequency domain coherency using multichannel electroencephalogram subspace analysis.

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    Razavipour, Fatemeh; Sameni, Reza

    2015-07-15

    Event related potentials (ERP) are time-locked electrical activities of the brain in direct response to a specific sensory, cognitive, or motor stimulus. ERP components, such as the P300 wave, which are involved in the process of decision-making, help scientists diagnose specific cognitive disabilities. In this study, we utilize the angles between multichannel electroencephalogram (EEG) subspaces in different frequency bands, as a similarity factor for studying the spatial coherency between ERP frequency responses. A matched filter is used to enhance the ERP from background EEG. While previous researches have focused on frequencies below 10 Hz, as the major frequency band of ERP, it is shown that by using the proposed method, significant ERP-related information can also be found in the 25-40 Hz band. These frequency bands are selected by calculating the correlation coefficient between P300 response segments and synthetic EEG, and ERP segments without P300 waves, and by rejecting the bands having the most association with background EEG and non-P300 components. The significance of the results is assessed by real EEG acquired in brain computer interface experiments versus synthetic EEG produced by existing methods in the literature, to assure that the results are not systematic side effects of the proposed framework. The overall results show that the equivalent dipoles corresponding to narrow-band events in the brain are spatially coherent within different (not necessarily adjacent) frequency bands. The results of this study can lead into novel perspectives in ERP studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Mind wandering and retrieval from episodic memory: a pilot event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riby, Leigh Martin; Smallwood, Jonathan; Gunn, Valerie P

    2008-06-01

    The present study investigated the effects of mind wandering (task-unrelated thought) on the subcomponents of episodic memory as reflected by event-related potentials (ERPs). Specifically, individual differences in the pattern of ERP episodic 'old/new' effects (left-parietal, right-frontal and central-negativity effects) were examined across groups of participants experiencing either high or low frequencies of task-unrelated thought during encoding. Twenty participants studied lists of words and line drawings in one of two contexts (red versus green coloured boxes). At test, participants discriminated between target (old words or line drawings presented in one colour) and nontargets (old items from the other colour and new items). On completion of the memory task, participants completed the 'thinking' component of the Dundee Stress State Questionnaire to provide a retrospective measure of task-unrelated thought. Behavioural data indicated that irrespective of the presence of task-unrelated thought, participants were able to complete the memory task equally well. However, an analysis of ERPs across High and Low task-unrelated thought groups revealed differences in retrieval strategy. Those individuals with infrequent episodes of task-unrelated thought at study used a 'pure' recollection strategy (left-parietal effect only). Conversely, those participants experiencing frequent episodes of task-unrelated thought were unable to recollect the stimuli with ease, as indexed by a diminished parietal effect. As a consequence, these participants employed additional strategic processes for task completion, as indexed by an elevated amplitude of central negativity effects. These data are consistent with the decoupling hypothesis of mind wandering which suggests impaired recollection when attention becomes directed away from the task.

  1. Fluid Intelligence and Automatic Neural Processes in Facial Expression Perception: An Event-Related Potential Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tongran; Xiao, Tong; Li, Xiaoyan; Shi, Jiannong

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between human fluid intelligence and social-emotional abilities has been a topic of considerable interest. The current study investigated whether adolescents with different intellectual levels had different automatic neural processing of facial expressions. Two groups of adolescent males were enrolled: a high IQ group and an average IQ group. Age and parental socioeconomic status were matched between the two groups. Participants counted the numbers of the central cross changes while paired facial expressions were presented bilaterally in an oddball paradigm. There were two experimental conditions: a happy condition, in which neutral expressions were standard stimuli (p = 0.8) and happy expressions were deviant stimuli (p = 0.2), and a fearful condition, in which neutral expressions were standard stimuli (p = 0.8) and fearful expressions were deviant stimuli (p = 0.2). Participants were required to concentrate on the primary task of counting the central cross changes and to ignore the expressions to ensure that facial expression processing was automatic. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were obtained during the tasks. The visual mismatch negativity (vMMN) components were analyzed to index the automatic neural processing of facial expressions. For the early vMMN (50-130 ms), the high IQ group showed more negative vMMN amplitudes than the average IQ group in the happy condition. For the late vMMN (320-450 ms), the high IQ group had greater vMMN responses than the average IQ group over frontal and occipito-temporal areas in the fearful condition, and the average IQ group evoked larger vMMN amplitudes than the high IQ group over occipito-temporal areas in the happy condition. The present study elucidated the close relationships between fluid intelligence and pre-attentive change detection on social-emotional information.

  2. Recognition memory for emotional faces in amnestic mild cognitive impairment: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schefter, Maria; Werheid, Katja; Almkvist, Ove; Lönnqvist-Akenine, Ulrika; Kathmann, Norbert; Winblad, Bengt

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the temporal course of emotional face recognition in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Patients and healthy controls (HC) performed a face recognition task, giving old/new responses to previously studied and novel faces displaying a negative or neutral expression. In aMCI patients, recognition accuracy was preserved for negative faces. Event-related potentials (ERPs) revealed disease-related changes in early perceptual components but not in ERP indices of explicit recognition. Specifically, aMCI patients showed impaired recognition effects for negative faces on the amplitudes of N170 and P2, suggesting deficient memory-related processing of negative faces at the stage of structural encoding and during an early recognition stage at which faces are individuated, respectively. Moreover, while a right-lateralized emotion effect specifically observed for correctly recognized faces on the amplitude of N170 was absent in aMCI, a similar emotion effect for successfully recognized faces on P2 was preserved in the patients, albeit with a different distribution. This suggests that in aMCI facilitated processing of successfully recognized emotional faces starts later in the processing sequence. Nonetheless, an early frontal old/new effect confined to negative faces and a parietal old/new effect unaffected by facial emotion were observed in both groups. This indicates that familiarity and conceptual priming processes may specifically contribute to recognition of negative faces in older adults and that aMCI patients can recruit the same retrieval mechanisms as controls, despite disease-related changes on early perceptual ERP components.

  3. Fluid Intelligence and Automatic Neural Processes in Facial Expression Perception: An Event-Related Potential Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongran Liu

    Full Text Available The relationship between human fluid intelligence and social-emotional abilities has been a topic of considerable interest. The current study investigated whether adolescents with different intellectual levels had different automatic neural processing of facial expressions. Two groups of adolescent males were enrolled: a high IQ group and an average IQ group. Age and parental socioeconomic status were matched between the two groups. Participants counted the numbers of the central cross changes while paired facial expressions were presented bilaterally in an oddball paradigm. There were two experimental conditions: a happy condition, in which neutral expressions were standard stimuli (p = 0.8 and happy expressions were deviant stimuli (p = 0.2, and a fearful condition, in which neutral expressions were standard stimuli (p = 0.8 and fearful expressions were deviant stimuli (p = 0.2. Participants were required to concentrate on the primary task of counting the central cross changes and to ignore the expressions to ensure that facial expression processing was automatic. Event-related potentials (ERPs were obtained during the tasks. The visual mismatch negativity (vMMN components were analyzed to index the automatic neural processing of facial expressions. For the early vMMN (50-130 ms, the high IQ group showed more negative vMMN amplitudes than the average IQ group in the happy condition. For the late vMMN (320-450 ms, the high IQ group had greater vMMN responses than the average IQ group over frontal and occipito-temporal areas in the fearful condition, and the average IQ group evoked larger vMMN amplitudes than the high IQ group over occipito-temporal areas in the happy condition. The present study elucidated the close relationships between fluid intelligence and pre-attentive change detection on social-emotional information.

  4. Attention bias in earthquake-exposed survivors: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Kong, Fanchang; Han, Li; Najam Ul Hasan, Abbasi; Chen, Hong

    2014-12-01

    The Chinese Wenchuan earthquake, which happened on the 28th of May in 2008, may leave deep invisible scars in individuals. China has a large number of children and adolescents, who tend to be most vulnerable because they are in an early stage of human development and possible post-traumatic psychological distress may have a life-long consequence. Trauma survivors without post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have received little attention in previous studies, especially in event-related potential (ERP) studies. We compared the attention bias to threat stimuli between the earthquake-exposed group and the control group in a masked version of the dot probe task. The target probe presented at the same space location consistent with earthquake-related words was the congruent trial, while in the space location of neutral words was the incongruent trial. Thirteen earthquake-exposed middle school students without PTSD and 13 matched controls were included in this investigation. The earthquake-exposed group showed significantly faster RTs to congruent trials than to incongruent trials. The earthquake-exposed group produced significantly shorter C1 and P1 latencies and larger C1, P1 and P2 amplitudes than the control group. In particular, enhanced P1 amplitude to threat stimuli was observed in the earthquake-exposed group. These findings are in agreement with the prediction that earthquake-exposed survivors have an attention bias to threat stimuli. The traumatic event had a much greater effect on earthquake-exposed survivors even if they showed no PTSD symptoms than individuals in the controls. These results will provide neurobiological evidences for effective intervention and prevention to post-traumatic mental problems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Cognitive deficits following exposure to pneumococcal meningitis: an event-related potential study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kihara Michael

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pneumococcal meningitis (PM is a severe and life-threatening disease that is associated with cognitive impairment including learning difficulties, cognitive slowness, short-term memory deficits and poor academic performance. There are limited data on cognitive outcomes following exposure to PM from Africa mainly due to lack of culturally appropriate tools. We report cognitive processes of exposed children as measured by auditory and visual event-related potentials. Methods Sixty-five children (32 male, mean 8.4 years, SD 3.0 years aged between 4-15 years with a history of PM and an age-matched control group of 93 children (46 male; mean 8.4 years, SD 2.7 years were recruited from a well-demarcated study area in Kilifi. In the present study, both baseline to peak and peak-to-peak amplitude differences are reported. Results Children with a history of pneumococcal meningitis had significantly longer auditory P1 and P3a latencies and smaller P1 amplitudes compared to unexposed children. In the visual paradigm, children with PM seemingly lacked a novelty P3a component around 350 ms where control children had a maximum, and showed a lack of stimulus differentiation at Nc. Further, children with exposure to PM had smaller peak to peak amplitude (N2-P1 compared to unexposed children. Conclusion The results suggest that children with a history of PM process novelty differently than do unexposed children, with slower latencies and reduced or absent components. This pattern suggests poorer auditory attention and/or cognitive slowness and poorer visual attention orienting, possibly due to disruption in the functions of the lateral prefrontal and superior temporal cortices. ERPs may be useful for assessment of the development of perceptual-cognitive functions in post brain-injury in African children by providing an alternate way of assessing cognitive development in patient groups for whom more typical standardized neuropsychological

  6. Double dissociation between rules and memory in music: an event-related potential study.

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    Miranda, Robbin A; Ullman, Michael T

    2007-11-01

    Language and music share a number of characteristics. Crucially, both domains depend on both rules and memorized representations. Double dissociations between the neurocognition of rule-governed and memory-based knowledge have been found in language but not music. Here, the neural bases of both of these aspects of music were examined with an event-related potential (ERP) study of note violations in melodies. Rule-only violations consisted of out-of-key deviant notes that violated tonal harmony rules in novel (unfamiliar) melodies. Memory-only violations consisted of in-key deviant notes in familiar well-known melodies; these notes followed musical rules but deviated from the actual melodies. Finally, out-of-key notes in familiar well-known melodies constituted violations of both rules and memory. All three conditions were presented, within-subjects, to healthy young adults, half musicians and half non-musicians. The results revealed a double dissociation, independent of musical training, between rules and memory: both rule violation conditions, but not the memory-only violations, elicited an early, somewhat right-lateralized anterior-central negativity (ERAN), consistent with previous studies of rule violations in music, and analogous to the early left-lateralized anterior negativities elicited by rule violations in language. In contrast, both memory violation conditions, but not the rule-only violation, elicited a posterior negativity that might be characterized as an N400, an ERP component that depends, at least in part, on the processing of representations stored in long-term memory, both in language and in other domains. The results suggest that the neurocognitive rule/memory dissociation extends from language to music, further strengthening the similarities between the two domains.

  7. The hierarchy of task decision and response selection: a task-switching event related potentials study.

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    Braverman, Ami; Berger, Andrea; Meiran, Nachshon

    2014-07-01

    According to "hierarchical" multi-step theories, response selection is preceded by a decision regarding which task rule should be executed. Other theories assume a "flat" single-step architecture in which task information and stimulus information are simultaneously considered. Using task switching, the authors independently manipulated two kinds of conflict: task conflict (with information that potentially triggers the relevant or the competing task rule/identity) and response conflict (with information that potentially triggers the relevant or the competing response code/motor response). Event related potentials indicated that the task conflict effect began before the response conflict effect and carried on in parallel with it. These results are more in line with the hierarchical view. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Temporal characteristics of online syntactic sentence planning: an event-related potential study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge Timmers

    Full Text Available During sentence production, linguistic information (semantics, syntax, phonology of words is retrieved and assembled into a meaningful utterance. There is still debate on how we assemble single words into more complex syntactic structures such as noun phrases or sentences. In the present study, event-related potentials (ERPs were used to investigate the time course of syntactic planning. Thirty-three volunteers described visually animated scenes using naming formats varying in syntactic complexity: from simple words ('W', e.g., "triangle", "red", "square", "green", "to fly towards", to noun phrases ('NP', e.g., "the red triangle", "the green square", "to fly towards", to a sentence ('S', e.g., "The red triangle flies towards the green square.". Behaviourally, we observed an increase in errors and corrections with increasing syntactic complexity, indicating a successful experimental manipulation. In the ERPs following scene onset, syntactic complexity variations were found in a P300-like component ('S'/'NP'>'W' and a fronto-central negativity (linear increase with syntactic complexity. In addition, the scene could display two actions - unpredictable for the participant, as the disambiguation occurred only later in the animation. Time-locked to the moment of visual disambiguation of the action and thus the verb, we observed another P300 component ('S'>'NP'/'W'. The data show for the first time evidence of sensitivity to syntactic planning within the P300 time window, time-locked to visual events critical of syntactic planning. We discuss the findings in the light of current syntactic planning views.

  9. Multiple sources of positive- and negative-priming effects: an event-related potential study.

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    Gibbons, Henning; Rammsayer, Thomas H; Stahl, Jutta

    2006-01-01

    Event-related potential correlates of positive priming (PP) and negative priming (NP) were investigated in order to further elucidate the cognitive mechanisms involved. Thirty-six participants performed both an identity- and a location-based priming task. Repeating the target stimulus/location from the immediately preceding display produced behavioral PP. With localization, but not with identification, behavioral NP was observed when the target stimulus/location matched the preceding distractor stimulus/location. Smaller P300 amplitude accompanied identity-based PP, suggesting persisting target-specific activation. The lateralized readiness potential, an index of correct/incorrect response activation, indicated persisting central motor activation as another source of PP. Both location-based PP and NP were accompanied by reduced P1/N1 and P300 amplitudes, pointing to the involvement of inhibition of return in location-based priming. The results support the view that multiple brain processes underlie behavioral priming.

  10. Word and picture processing in children: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coch, Donna; Maron, Leeza; Wolf, Maryanne; Holcomb, Phillip J

    2002-01-01

    In an investigation of the N400 component, event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by 4 types of word stimuli (real words, pseudowords, random letter strings, and false fonts) and 3 types of picture stimuli (real pictures, pseudopictures, and picture parts) presented in separate lists were recorded from 10- and 11-year-old children. All types of word stimuli elicited an anteriorly distributed negativity peaking at about 400 msec (antN400). Words and pseudowords elicited similar ERPs, whereas ERPs to letter strings differed from those to both pseudowords and false fonts. All types of picture stimuli elicited dual anterior negativities (N350 and N430). Real pictures and pseudopictures elicited similar ERPs, whereas pseudopictures and picture parts elicited asymmetrical processing. The results are discussed in terms of increased sensitivity to and dependence on context in children.

  11. Modifications of recognition memory processes in preterm children: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipp, Kerstin H; Mecklinger, Axel; Brunnemann, Nicole; Shamdeen, Mohammed G; Meng-Hentschel, Juliane; Gortner, Ludwig

    2015-01-01

    Prematurity may cause hippocampal compromise. Therefore, hippocampus-dependent memory processes (recollection-based retrieval) may be more impaired than hippocampus-independent processes (familiarity-based retrieval). The memory of 18 children born preterm with reduced hippocampal volumes, without neonatal complications (weeks of gestation < 34, weight < 1,600 g), and 15 controls (8-10 years) was tested using an item recognition task. While groups were equal in memory performance, dissociation was found: The event-related potential (ERP) correlate of familiarity was intact in the preterm group, whereas the correlate of recollection was attenuated. A follow-up experiment ruled out that this was due to general cognitive deficits. Furthermore, gestational age correlated with the ERP index of recollection. Thus, recognition memory in preterm children may be characterized by a compensation of attenuated recollection by familiarity. © 2014 The Authors. Child Development © 2014 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  12. An event-related potential study of supramodal attentional control and crossmodal attention effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jessica J; McDonald, John J

    2006-03-01

    We conducted two audiovisual experiments to determine whether event-related potential (ERP) components elicited by attention-directing cues reflect supramodal attentional control. Symbolic visual cues were used to direct attention prior to auditory targets in Experiment 1, and symbolic auditory cues were used to direct attention prior to visual targets in Experiment 2. Different patterns of cue ERPs were found in the two experiments. A frontal negativity called the ADAN was absent in Experiment 2, which indicates that this component does not reflect supramodal attentional control. A posterior positivity called the LDAP was observed in both experiments but was focused more posteriorly over the occipital scalp in Experiment 2. This component appears to reflect multiple processes, including visual processes involved in location marking and target preparation as well as supramodal processes involved in attentional control.

  13. Effects of context on implicit and explicit lexical knowledge: an event-related potential study.

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    Choi, Sungmook; Kim, Jingu; Ryu, Kwangmin

    2014-10-01

    Although much is known about how contextualized and decontextualized learning affects explicit lexical knowledge, how these learning conditions contribute to implicit lexical knowledge remains unclear. To address this problem, Korean high school students were instructed to learn 30 English words by reading meaningful passages (i.e., in context) and another 30 English words using a wordlist (i.e., out of context). Five weeks later, implicit lexical knowledge was gauged by reaction time and the N400 event-related brain potential component, and explicit lexical knowledge was assessed with an explicit behavioral measure. Results showed that neither learning type was superior to the other in terms of implicit lexical knowledge acquisition, whereas learning words out of context was more effective than learning words in context for establishing explicit lexical knowledge. These results suggest that the presence or absence of context may lead to dissociation in the development of implicit and explicit lexical knowledge. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The neural processing of fearful faces without attention and consciousness: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lili; Fu, Shimin; Feng, Chunliang; Luo, Wenbo; Zhu, Xiangru; Luo, Yue-jia

    2012-01-11

    To investigate whether the non-conscious processing of fearful faces exist in unattended condition, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded in a facial expression detection task. Participants were asked to discriminate the facial expressions (fearful or neutral) at the attended location. Unattended faces were associated with a response that was either congruent or in conflict with the response to the attended face. ERP results showed that the trials with response conflict between attended and unattended faces enhanced the amplitude of the P3 component when the neutral face was presented at attended location and the fearful face was presented at the unattended location. Our findings imply that the non-conscious fearful faces can be processed in the unattended condition. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Relationship between somatosensory event-related potential N140 aberrations and hemispatial agnosia in patients with stroke: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Tomoyuki; Hada, Yasushi; Shimizu, Yukiyo; Yamada, Thoru

    2017-10-27

    The somatosensory event-related potential N140 is thought to be related to selective attention. This study aimed to compare the somatosensory event-related potential N140 in healthy subjects to that in patients with stroke to determine whether N140 and attentiveness are associated in patients with stroke with or without hemispatial agnosia. Normal somatosensory event-related potential N140 values were determined using data from ten healthy subjects. Fifteen patients with stroke were divided into two groups based on the presence of hemispatial neglect. Somatosensory event-related potential N140 components were compared between the two groups. Stimulation of the affected limb in the hemispatial agnosia group resulted in significantly longer N140 latency at the contralateral vs. the ipsilateral electrode. This was the inverse of the relationship observed in normal subjects, with stimulation of the intact side in patients with hemispatial agnosia, and with stimulation of both the intact and affected sides in patients without agnosia. In the hemispatial agnosia group, the peak latency of N140 following stimulation of the affected side was significantly longer than it was following stimulation of the intact side and when compared to that in patients without agnosia. In addition, abnormal N140 peak latencies were observed at the Cz and ipsilateral electrodes in patients with hemispatial agnosia following stimulation of the intact side. These findings suggest that somatosensory event-related potential N140 is independently generated in each hemisphere and may reflect cognitive attention.

  16. Hemispheric asymmetry in interpreting novel literal language: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Tristan; Coulson, Seana

    2013-04-01

    Conceptual mapping, or making connections between conceptual structure in different domains, is a key mechanism of creative language use whose neural underpinnings are not well understood. The present study involved the combination of event-related potentials (ERPs) with the divided visual field presentation technique to explore the relative contributions of the left and right hemispheres (LH and RH) to the construction of novel meanings in fully literal language. Electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded as healthy adults read sentences that supported either a conventional literal reading of the sentence final word ("His main method of transportation is a boat,"), or a novel literal meaning derived from conceptual mapping ("The clever boys used a cardboard box as a boat,"). The novel and conventional conditions were matched for cloze probability (a measure of predictability based on the sentence context), lexical association between the sentence frame and the final word (using latent semantic analysis), and other factors known to influence ERPs to language stimuli. To compare effects of novelty to previously reported effects of predictability, a high-cloze conventional condition ("The only way to get around Venice is to navigate the canals in a boat.") was included. ERPs were time-locked to sentence final words ("boat") presented in either the left visual field, to preferentially stimulate the RH (lvf/RH), or in the right visual field, targeting the LH (rvf/LH). The N400 component of the ERP was affected by predictability in both presentation sides, but by novelty only in rvf/LH. Two distinct late frontal positive effects were observed. Word predictability modulated a frontal positivity with a LH focus, but semantic novelty modulated a frontal positivity focused in RH. This is the first demonstration that the frontal positivity may be composed of multiple overlapping components with distinct functional and anatomical characteristics. Extending contemporary accounts

  17. An event-related potential study of selective auditory attention in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coch, Donna; Sanders, Lisa D; Neville, Helen J

    2005-04-01

    In a dichotic listening paradigm, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded to linguistic and nonlinguistic probe stimuli embedded in 2 different narrative contexts as they were either attended or unattended. In adults, the typical N1 attention effect was observed for both types of probes: Probes superimposed on the attended narrative elicited an enhanced negativity compared to the same probes when unattended. Overall, this sustained attention effect was greater over medial and left lateral sites, but was more posteriorly distributed and of longer duration for linguistic as compared to nonlinguistic probes. In contrast, in 6- to 8-year-old children the ERPs were morphologically dissimilar to those elicited in adults and children displayed a greater positivity to both types of probe stimuli when embedded in the attended as compared to the unattended narrative. Although both adults and children showed attention effects beginning at about 100 msec, only adults displayed left-lateralized attention effects and a distinct, posterior distribution for linguistic probes. These results suggest that the attentional networks indexed by this task continue to develop beyond the age of 8 years.

  18. Auditory processing following infantile spasms: An event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosi, Tangunu; Werner, Klaus; Boyd, Stewart G; De Haan, Michelle; Scott, Rod C; Neville, Brian G

    2017-05-01

    To investigate acoustic auditory processing in patients with recent infantile spasms (IS). Patients (n = 22; 12 female; median age 8 months; range 5-11 months) had normal preceding development, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and neurometabolic testing (West syndrome of unknown cause, uWS). Controls were healthy babies (n = 22; 11 female; median age 6 months; range 3-12 months). Event-related potentials (ERPs) and psychometry (Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Second Edition, BSID-II) took place at a month following IS remission. Following a repeated pure tone, uWS patients showed less suppression of the N100 at the mid-temporal electrodes (p = 0.006), and a prolonged response latency (p = 0.019). Their novelty P300 amplitude over the mid-temporal electrodes was halved (p = 0.001). The peak of the novelty P300 to environmental broadband sounds emerged later over the left temporal lobe in patients (p = 0.015), the lag correlating with duration of spasms (r = 0.547, p = 0.015). BSID-II scores were lower in patients (p < 0.001), with no correlation to ERP. Complex acoustic information is processed poorly following IS. This would impair language. Treatment did not reverse this phenomenon, but may have limited its severity. The data are most consistent with altered connectivity of the cortical acoustic processing areas induced by IS. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  19. Distinguishing shyness and sociability in children: An event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Alva; Santesso, Diane L; Segalowitz, Sidney J; Schmidt, Louis A

    2016-02-01

    Shyness and sociability are independent personality dimensions, each with distinct behavioral and psychophysiological correlates that are conserved across development, culture, and phylogeny. However, relatively little is known regarding how shyness and sociability are instantiated in the brain, particularly during childhood and during the processing of nonsocial stimuli. Using a three-stimulus auditory oddball task, we examined whether variations in shyness and sociability were related to the N200 and P300 event-related potential (ERP) brain responses to processing task-relevant, novel, and standard auditory tones in 53 typically developing 10-year-old children. ERP amplitudes were measured at four midline scalp sites: Fz, FCz, Cz, and Pz. We found that increases in shyness were correlated with increases in target P300 amplitudes across all four head sites, increases in standard P300 amplitudes, and decreases in target P300 latencies in anterior sites. No relations were found for sociability and P300 responses. We also found that P300 amplitude in the frontal region to standard tones mediated the relation between conflicted shyness (i.e., high shyness and high sociability) and emotional instability. These results suggest that shyness and sociability are distinguishable on neurocognitive measures and that these neurocognitive measures may be putative mechanisms in understanding risk for emotional instability and a broad range of dysregulated behavioral problems observed in individuals characterized by conflicted shyness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Interactions between the perception of age and ethnicity in faces: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Prieto, Esther; Oruç, Ipek; Rubino, Cristina; Zhu, Maria; Handy, Todd; Barton, Jason J S

    2015-01-01

    Face perception models propose that different facial attributes are processed by anatomically distinct neural pathways that partially overlap. Whether these attributes interact functionally is an open question. Our goal was to determine if there are interactions between age and ethnicity processing and, if so, at what temporal epoch these interactions are evident. We monitored event-related potentials on electroencephalography while subjects categorized faces by age or ethnicity in two conditions: a baseline in which the other of these two properties not being categorized was held constant and an interference condition in which it also varied, as modelled after the Garner interference paradigm. We found that, when participants were categorizing faces by age, variations in ethnicity increased the amplitude of the right face-selective N170 component. When subjects were categorizing faces by ethnicity, variations in age did not alter the N170. We concluded that there is an asymmetric pattern of influence between age and ethnicity on early face-specific stages of visual processing, which has parallels with behavioural evidence of asymmetric interactions between identity and expression processing of faces.

  1. Short-term effects of prosocial video games on aggression: an event-related potential study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanling; Teng, Zhaojun; Lan, Haiying; Zhang, Xin; Yao, Dezhong

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that exposure to violent video games increases aggression, whereas exposure to prosocial video games can reduce aggressive behavior. However, little is known about the neural correlates of these behavioral effects. This work is the first to investigate the electrophysiological features of the relationship between playing a prosocial video game and inhibition of aggressive behavior. Forty-nine subjects played either a prosocial or a neutral video game for 20 min, then participated in an event-related potential (ERP) experiment based on an oddball paradigm and designed to test electrophysiological responses to prosocial and violent words. Finally, subjects completed a competitive reaction time task (CRTT) which based on Taylor's Aggression Paradigm and contains reaction time and noise intensity chosen as a measure of aggressive behavior. The results show that the prosocial video game group (compared to the neutral video game group) displayed smaller P300 amplitudes, were more accurate in distinguishing violent words, and were less aggressive as evaluated by the CRTT of noise intensity chosen. A mediation analysis shows that the P300 amplitude evoked by violent words partially mediates the relationship between type of video game and subsequent aggressive behavior. The results support theories based on the General Learning Model. We provide converging behavioral and neural evidence that exposure to prosocial media may reduce aggression. PMID:26257620

  2. Lexical ambiguity resolution during sentence processing in Parkinson's disease: An event-related potential study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J Angwin

    Full Text Available Event-related potentials (ERPs were recorded to investigate lexical ambiguity resolution during sentence processing in 16 people with Parkinson's disease (PD and 16 healthy controls. Sentences were presented word-by-word on computer screen, and participants were required to decide if a subsequent target word was related to the meaning of the sentence. The task consisted of related, unrelated and ambiguous trials. For the ambiguous trials, the sentence ended with an ambiguous word and the target was related to one of the meanings of that word, but not the one captured by the sentence context (e.g., 'He dug with the spade', Target 'ACE'. Both groups demonstrated slower reaction times and lower accuracy for the ambiguous condition relative to the unrelated condition, however accuracy was impacted by the ambiguous condition to a larger extent in the PD group. These results suggested that PD patients experience increased difficulties with contextual ambiguity resolution. The ERP results did not reflect increased ambiguity resolution difficulties in PD, as a similar N400 effect was evident for the unrelated and ambiguous condition in both groups. However, the magnitude of the N400 for these conditions was correlated with a measure of inhibition in the PD group, but not the control group. The ERP results suggest that semantic processing may be more compromised in PD patients with increased response inhibition deficits.

  3. An Event-Related Potential Study on the Effects of Cannabis on Emotion Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troup, Lucy J.; Bastidas, Stephanie; Nguyen, Maia T.; Andrzejewski, Jeremy A.; Bowers, Matthew; Nomi, Jason S.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of cannabis on emotional processing was investigated using event-related potential paradigms (ERPs). ERPs associated with emotional processing of cannabis users, and non-using controls, were recorded and compared during an implicit and explicit emotional expression recognition and empathy task. Comparisons in P3 component mean amplitudes were made between cannabis users and controls. Results showed a significant decrease in the P3 amplitude in cannabis users compared to controls. Specifically, cannabis users showed reduced P3 amplitudes for implicit compared to explicit processing over centro-parietal sites which reversed, and was enhanced, at fronto-central sites. Cannabis users also showed a decreased P3 to happy faces, with an increase to angry faces, compared to controls. These effects appear to increase with those participants that self-reported the highest levels of cannabis consumption. Those cannabis users with the greatest consumption rates showed the largest P3 deficits for explicit processing and negative emotions. These data suggest that there is a complex relationship between cannabis consumption and emotion processing that appears to be modulated by attention. PMID:26926868

  4. Short-term effects of prosocial video games on aggression: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanling; Teng, Zhaojun; Lan, Haiying; Zhang, Xin; Yao, Dezhong

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that exposure to violent video games increases aggression, whereas exposure to prosocial video games can reduce aggressive behavior. However, little is known about the neural correlates of these behavioral effects. This work is the first to investigate the electrophysiological features of the relationship between playing a prosocial video game and inhibition of aggressive behavior. Forty-nine subjects played either a prosocial or a neutral video game for 20 min, then participated in an event-related potential (ERP) experiment based on an oddball paradigm and designed to test electrophysiological responses to prosocial and violent words. Finally, subjects completed a competitive reaction time task (CRTT) which based on Taylor's Aggression Paradigm and contains reaction time and noise intensity chosen as a measure of aggressive behavior. The results show that the prosocial video game group (compared to the neutral video game group) displayed smaller P300 amplitudes, were more accurate in distinguishing violent words, and were less aggressive as evaluated by the CRTT of noise intensity chosen. A mediation analysis shows that the P300 amplitude evoked by violent words partially mediates the relationship between type of video game and subsequent aggressive behavior. The results support theories based on the General Learning Model. We provide converging behavioral and neural evidence that exposure to prosocial media may reduce aggression.

  5. Rejection in Bargaining Situations: An Event-Related Potential Study in Adolescents and Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiki Zanolie

    Full Text Available The neural correlates of rejection in bargaining situations when proposing a fair or unfair offer are not yet well understood. We measured neural responses to rejection and acceptance of monetary offers with event-related potentials (ERPs in mid-adolescents (14-17 years and early adults (19-24 years. Participants played multiple rounds of the Ultimatum Game as proposers, dividing coins between themselves and a second player (responder by making a choice between an unfair distribution (7 coins for proposer and 3 for responder; 7/3 and one of two alternatives: a fair distribution (5/5 or a hyperfair distribution (3/7. Participants mostly made fair offers (5/5 when the alternative was unfair (7/3, but made mostly unfair offers (7/3 when the alternative was hyperfair (3/7. When participants' fair offers (5/5; alternative was 7/3 were rejected this was associated with a larger Medial Frontal Negativity (MFN compared to acceptance of fair offers and rejection of unfair offers (7/3; alternative was 3/7. Also, the MFN was smaller after acceptance of unfair offers (7/3 compared to rejection. These neural responses did not differ between adults and mid-adolescents, suggesting that the MFN reacts as a neural alarm system to social prediction errors which is already prevalent during adolescence.

  6. An Event-Related Potential Study on the Effects of Cannabis on Emotion Processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy J Troup

    Full Text Available The effect of cannabis on emotional processing was investigated using event-related potential paradigms (ERPs. ERPs associated with emotional processing of cannabis users, and non-using controls, were recorded and compared during an implicit and explicit emotional expression recognition and empathy task. Comparisons in P3 component mean amplitudes were made between cannabis users and controls. Results showed a significant decrease in the P3 amplitude in cannabis users compared to controls. Specifically, cannabis users showed reduced P3 amplitudes for implicit compared to explicit processing over centro-parietal sites which reversed, and was enhanced, at fronto-central sites. Cannabis users also showed a decreased P3 to happy faces, with an increase to angry faces, compared to controls. These effects appear to increase with those participants that self-reported the highest levels of cannabis consumption. Those cannabis users with the greatest consumption rates showed the largest P3 deficits for explicit processing and negative emotions. These data suggest that there is a complex relationship between cannabis consumption and emotion processing that appears to be modulated by attention.

  7. Short-Term Effects of Prosocial Video Games on Aggression: An Event-Related Potential Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanling eLiu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that exposure to violent video games increases aggression, whereas exposure to prosocial video games can reduce aggressive behavior. However, little is known about the neural correlates of these behavioral effects. This work is the first to investigate the electrophysiological features of the relationship between playing a prosocial video game and inhibition of aggressive behavior. Forty-nine subjects played either a prosocial or a neutral video game for 20 minutes, then participated in an event-related potential (ERP experiment based on an oddball paradigm and designed to test electrophysiological responses to prosocial and violent words. Finally, subjects completed a competitive reaction time task (CRTT, which is based on Taylor’s Aggression Paradigm and measures both reaction time and noise intensity preference as indices of aggressive behavior. The results show that the prosocial video game group (compared to the neutral video game group displayed smaller P300 amplitudes, were more accurate in distinguishing violent words, and were less aggressive as evaluated by the CRTT (noise intensity preference. A mediation analysis shows that the P300 amplitude evoked by violent words partially mediates the relationship between type of video game and subsequent aggressive behavior. The results support theories based on the General Learning Model. We provide converging behavioral and neural evidence that exposure to prosocial media may reduce aggression.

  8. Random Number Generation and Executive Functions in Parkinson's Disease: An Event-Related Brain Potential Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münte, Thomas F; Joppich, Gregor; Däuper, Jan; Schrader, Christoph; Dengler, Reinhard; Heldmann, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    The generation of random sequences is considered to tax executive functions and has been reported to be impaired in Parkinson's disease (PD) previously. To assess the neurophysiological markers of random number generation in PD. Event-related potentials (ERP) were recorded in 12 PD patients and 12 age-matched normal controls (NC) while either engaging in random number generation (RNG) by pressing the number keys on a computer keyboard in a random sequence or in ordered number generation (ONG) necessitating key presses in the canonical order. Key presses were paced by an external auditory stimulus at a rate of 1 tone every 1800 ms. As a secondary task subjects had to monitor the tone-sequence for a particular target tone to which the number "0" key had to be pressed. This target tone occurred randomly and infrequently, thus creating a secondary oddball task. Behaviorally, PD patients showed an increased tendency to count in steps of one as well as a tendency towards repetition avoidance. Electrophysiologically, the amplitude of the P3 component of the ERP to the target tone of the secondary task was reduced during RNG in PD but not in NC. The behavioral findings indicate less random behavior in PD while the ERP findings suggest that this impairment comes about, because attentional resources are depleted in PD.

  9. Individuals' attentional bias toward an envied target's name: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jun; Liu, Yongfang; Zhang, Entao; Luo, Junlong; Chen, Jie

    2013-08-29

    Individuals may pay more attention to information about envied targets. Thus, we further investigate the neural correlates underlying the cognitive processing of envy-related stimuli. Participants read information about target persons characterized by two domains: levels of possession and self-relevance of comparison. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were then recorded for three target names (high-envy, moderate-envy, and low-envy) while participants performed a three-stimulus oddball task. The results showed that high- and moderate-envy target names elicited larger P300 amplitudes than did low-envy target names. Specifically, high-envy target names elicited larger P300 amplitudes than did low-envy target names at the left, central, and right sites; in contrast, moderate-envy target names elicited larger P300 amplitudes than did low-envy target names only at central sites. P300 amplitudes did not differ between high- and moderate-envy target names. Thus, we extend previous behavioral findings by showing that people preferentially attend toward envy-related stimuli, as reflected by enhanced P300 amplitudes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. An Auditory Go/No-Go Study of Event-Related Potentials in Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinmann, Tobias P.; Andrew, Colin M.; Thomsen, Carsten E.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract—In this study event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to investigate the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on response inhibition identified during task performance. ERPs were recorded during a auditory Go/No Go task in two groups of children with mean age of 12:8years (11years to 1...

  11. The Potentiation of Associative Memory by Emotions: An Event-Related FMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Luck

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Establishing associations between pieces of information is related to the medial temporal lobe (MTL. However, it remains unclear how emotions affect memory for associations and, consequently, MTL activity. Thus, this event-related fMRI study attempted to identify neural correlates of the influence of positive and negative emotions on associative memory. Twenty-five participants were instructed to memorize 90 pairs of standardized pictures during a scanned encoding phase. Each pair was composed of a scene and an unrelated object. Trials were neutral, positive, or negative as a function of the emotional valence of the scene. At the behavioral level, participants exhibited better memory retrieval for both emotional conditions relative to neutral trials. Within the right MTL, a functional dissociation was observed, with entorhinal activation elicited by emotional associations, posterior parahippocampal activation elicited by neutral associations, and hippocampal activation elicited by both emotional and neutral associations. In addition, emotional associations induced greater activation than neutral trials in the right amygdala. This fMRI study shows that emotions are associated with the performance improvement of associative memory, by enhancing activity in the right amygdala and the right entorhinal cortex. It also provides evidence for a rostrocaudal specialization within the MTL regarding the emotional valence of associations.

  12. Automatic temporal expectancy: a high-density event-related potential study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Mento

    Full Text Available How we compute time is not fully understood. Questions include whether an automatic brain mechanism is engaged in temporally regular environmental structure in order to anticipate events, and whether this can be dissociated from task-related processes, including response preparation, selection and execution. To investigate these issues, a passive temporal oddball task requiring neither time-based motor response nor explicit decision was specifically designed and delivered to participants during high-density, event-related potentials recording. Participants were presented with pairs of audiovisual stimuli (S1 and S2 interspersed with an Inter-Stimulus Interval (ISI that was manipulated according to an oddball probabilistic distribution. In the standard condition (70% of trials, the ISI lasted 1,500 ms, while in the two alternative, deviant conditions (15% each, it lasted 2,500 and 3,000 ms. The passive over-exposition to the standard ISI drove participants to automatically and progressively create an implicit temporal expectation of S2 onset, reflected by the time course of the Contingent Negative Variation response, which always peaked in correspondence to the point of S2 maximum expectation and afterwards inverted in polarity towards the baseline. Brain source analysis of S1- and ISI-related ERP activity revealed activation of sensorial cortical areas and the supplementary motor area (SMA, respectively. In particular, since the SMA time course synchronised with standard ISI, we suggest that this area is the major cortical generator of the temporal CNV reflecting an automatic, action-independent mechanism underlying temporal expectancy.

  13. Spatiotemporal cortical activation underlies the Müller-Lyer illusion: an event-related potentials study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Songyan; Du, Xue; Wu, Xin; Wei, Dongtao; Zhang, Meng; Qiu, Jiang

    2013-12-04

    Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were used to examine the electrophysiological correlates of the visual illusion effect in the Müller-Lyer illusion tasks. The participants were presented with the context of a horizontal line with two symmetric inward-pointing arrowheads or outward-pointing arrowheads, and then, they were asked to indicate whether they perceived an increase or a decrease in the line length. The behavioral results showed that there were significant differences among the four types of tasks, which meant that participants could understand different mean illusion magnitudes. The ERP results showed that both the illusion-45 and the illusion-135 elicited a more negative ERP deflection (N180-280) than did the illusion-225 and illusion-315 between 180 and 280 ms. In addition, the strong illusion stimuli elicited a more positive ERP deflection (P280-450) than did the weak illusion stimuli between 280 and 450 ms after the onset of the stimuli. Dipole source analysis of the difference wave (illusion-135-illusion-225) indicated that one generator localized in the left lateral occipital cortex and the difference wave (illusion-45-illusion-135) indicated that one generator localized in the left lingual gyrus. Our results led us to conclude that the ERP deflection in the different illusory strength might be related to the theory of attention resource distribution or because of the inverse optics problem. Then, the early visual areas lateral occipital cortex and the lingual gyrus near to the visual cortex could contribute to integrated processing in the illusory contours and top-down control processing because of the visual experiences.

  14. An event-related potentials study on selective attention modulated by vestibular stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin-Jie; Wei, Jin-he; Zhang, Dan; Dong, Wei-jun; Guo, Jian-ping; Hu, Mao-qi

    2004-04-01

    To explore the dynamic change of the late attentional selection process under linearly varied vestibular stimuli using event-related potentials (ERPs) technique. Thirty-three subjects participated in the experiment. They were exposed to vestibular stimulation of constant angular velocity rotation (10 degrees/s) and four levels of constant angular acceleration rotation, the acceleration was 0.6 degrees/s2, 0.8 degrees/s2, 1.0 degrees/s2, 1.2 degrees/s2 respectively. The same auditory go/no-go cognitive task was done during the stimulation. The task involved verbally given Chinese digit number from two to nine with 1000 ms random interval. Subjects were asked to push the button for the odd numbers (target) and withhold to the even numbers (non-target). Compared with control and different level of constant angular acceleration rotation, the N2 amplitude of non-target ERPs (NT-ERPs) decreased significantly over anterior-central scalp during 10 degrees/s constant rotation, but the N2 amplitude of target ERPs (T-ERPs) reduced significantly only at F4, F(Z) and T4 sites. The P3 latency of T-ERPs decreased significantly in 10 degrees/s constant rotation in contrast with control. Under four different acceleration level, the P3 latency of T-ERPs was relatively longer in 0.8 degrees/s2 and 1.0 degrees/s2, but shorter in 0.6 degrees/s2 and 1.2 degrees/s2. Constant angular velocity rotation had an activating effect on late attentional selection process. In contrast to the activation effect of constant angular velocity rotation, constant angular acceleration had an inhibition effect on the cognitive processes and this inhibition effect may have several levels.

  15. Event-related potentials during forced awakening: a tool for the study of acute sleep inertia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastuji, Hélène; Perrin, Fabien; Garcia-Larrea, Luis

    2003-09-01

    Sleep propensity and sleep inertia were assessed in 43 patients with excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and 21 sleep-deprived controls, using a forced awakening test under continuous electroencephalographic (EEG) recording. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were first obtained in waking, while participants performed a target detection auditory task. Subjects were then allowed to take a nap with lights off and sleep latency was calculated. After 3 min of continuous sleep, frequent and rare tones were suddenly presented again (and ERPs recorded) in a forced awakening condition, which was repeated a second time if patients fell asleep. ERPs in pre-nap wakefulness did not differ in patients and controls. On forced awakening, almost half (48%) of EDS patients retained morphologically normal ERPs, but showed a significant delay of P300 relative to waking. In the other half of the patients (and none of the controls), the N200/P300 complex to targets was replaced on forced awakening by high-amplitude negative waves ('sleep negativities'). Single subject analysis showed that 65% of patients had abnormal responses during forced awakening (significant P3 delay or sleep negativities), while only three of them (7%) had abnormal ERPs on wakefulness. The presence of sleep negativities was associated with shorter sleep latencies and increased target detection errors on forced awakening. Sleep negativities were more prevalent in narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia than in EDS associated to psychiatric disorders. By combining sleep latency and ERP measures, the forced awakening test provided a robust and relatively rapid tool (45-60 min) to evaluate both sleep propensity and sleep inertia within a single recording session. The test allows each subject to act as his/her own control, thus increasing sensitivity. In the present series, it proved to be much more discriminative than waking ERPs alone to demonstrate specific abnormalities in patients complaining of excessive daytime

  16. Early Processing of Emotional Faces in Children with Autism: An Event-Related Potential Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batty, Magali; Meaux, Emilie; Wittemeyer, Kerstin; Roge, Bernadette; Taylor, Margot J.

    2011-01-01

    Social deficits are one of the most striking manifestations of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Among these social deficits, the recognition and understanding of emotional facial expressions has been widely reported to be affected in ASDs. We investigated emotional face processing in children with and without autism using event-related potentials…

  17. General deficit in inhibitory control of excessive smartphone users: Evidence from an event-related potential study

    OpenAIRE

    Jingwei eChen; Yunsi eLiang; Chunmiao eMai; Xiyun eZhong; Chen eQu

    2016-01-01

    With the popularity of smartphones, the problem of excessive use has drawn increasing attention. However, it is not clear whether there is an inhibitory deficit in excessive smartphone users. Using a modified Go/NoGo task with three types of context (blank, neutral and smartphone-related), the present study combined measures of behavior and electrophysiology (event-related potentials, ERPs) to examine general and specific inhibitory control in an excessive smartphone use group and a normal us...

  18. General Deficit in Inhibitory Control of Excessive Smartphone Users: Evidence from an Event-Related Potential Study

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jingwei; Liang, Yunsi; Mai, Chunmiao; Zhong, Xiyun; Qu, Chen

    2016-01-01

    With the popularity of smartphones, the problem of excessive use has drawn increasing attention. However, it is not clear whether there is an inhibitory deficit in excessive smartphone users. Using a modified Go/NoGo task with three types of context (blank, neutral, and smartphone-related), the present study combined measures of behavior and electrophysiology [event-related potentials (ERPs)] to examine general and specific inhibitory control in an excessive smartphone use group and a normal ...

  19. P 300 EVENT RELATED POTENTIAL IN DEPRESSION

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, R; Shukla, R.; Dalal, P. K.; Sinha, P.K.; Trivedi, J.K.

    2000-01-01

    P300 component of the event related potential (ERP) provides one neurophysiological index of cognitive dysfunction in depression. Forty subjects fulfilling DSM-III criteria for depression were compared to 40 age and sex matched normal controls. The P300 was recorded using the auditory odd-ball paradigm. Depressives had a significantly prolonged P300 latency and reduced P300 amplitude as compared to the controls. The P300 latency showed a significant positive correlation with age of the patien...

  20. Experimental Studies on Evaluation of TV Picture Degraded by Burst Noise Using Event Related Potential P300

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Motoshi; Miyashita, Takayuki; Inoue, Hiroshi; Niiyama, Yoshitsugu

    As a fundamental study on the objective evaluation of TV picture degradation by electromagnetic noise with visual physiological information, the electroencephalogram (EEG) activity was measured when a still TV picture was degraded by the burst noise whose rms and duration were changed. A degradation was subjectively evaluated by three-grade impairment scale of “Not Annoying”, “Slightly Annoying”, and “Annoying”. Measured EEGs were analyzed by an averaging technique. In the results, the amplitude of the event related potential P300 becomes larger when the subjects feel the noise “Annoying”.

  1. The influence of caffeine on spatial-selective attention : an event-related potential study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruiter, MB; Snel, J; Lorist, MM; Ruijter, J

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: Following the indications of previous studies that caffeine might have a specific effect on the processing of spatial information compared with other types of information, the present study investigated the influence of caffeine on an often used spatial-selective attention task. Methods:

  2. Abnormal Processing of Emotional Prosody in Williams Syndrome: An Event-Related Potentials Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Ana P.; Galdo-Alvarez, Santiago; Rauber, Andreia; Sampaio, Adriana; Niznikiewicz, Margaret; Goncalves, Oscar F.

    2011-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS), a neurodevelopmental genetic disorder due to a microdeletion in chromosome 7, is described as displaying an intriguing socio-cognitive phenotype. Deficits in prosody production and comprehension have been consistently reported in behavioral studies. It remains, however, to be clarified the neurobiological processes…

  3. Spatial Cueing in Time-Space Synesthetes: An Event-Related Brain Potential Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teuscher, Ursina; Brang, David; Ramachandran, Vilayanur S.; Coulson, Seana

    2010-01-01

    Some people report that they consistently and involuntarily associate time events, such as months of the year, with specific spatial locations; a condition referred to as time-space synesthesia. The present study investigated the manner in which such synesthetic time-space associations affect visuo-spatial attention via an endogenous cuing…

  4. Alcohol affects the emotional mod ulation of cognitive control: An event-related brain potential study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.S. Euser (Anja); I.H.A. Franken (Ingmar)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObjective The present study aimed to determine whether alcohol affects the emotional modulation of cognitive control and its underlying neural mechanisms, which is pivotal to an understanding of the socially maladaptive behaviors frequently seen in alcohol-intoxicated individuals. Method

  5. Selective attentional impairment in chronic tinnitus: Evidence from an event-related potentials study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannarelli, Daniela; Pauletti, Caterina; Mancini, Patrizia; Fioretti, Alessandra; Greco, Antonio; De Vincentiis, Marco; Fattapposta, Francesco

    2017-03-01

    Tinnitus is an auditory phantom sensation experienced in the absence of a sound source. Cognitive dysfunctions, especially in working memory and attention, are frequently reported to be associated with tinnitus. The aim of this study was to investigate attentional functioning in a group of subjects with chronic tinnitus using ERPs, and in particular the P300 components. We studied 20 patients with chronic tinnitus and 20 healthy subjects that performed a P300 Novelty task. P3a amplitude was significantly lower in tinnitus subjects than in controls. P3a latency was comparable in patients and controls. The P3b parameters were similar in the two groups. N1 latency for all the stimuli was significantly longer in tinnitus subjects than in controls. These results point to a general slowing in early stimulus perception in tinnitus subjects. Moreover, a specific difficulty emerged in attentional switching to unexpected events during an orienting response, probably owing to a dysfunction in the ventral attention network. Psychophysiological approach reveals selective attentional impairment and could provide useful data for rehabilitative strategies in chronic tinnitus. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The relation of expression recognition and affective experience in facial expression processing: an event-related potential study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangheng Dong

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Guangheng Dong1, Shenglan Lu21Department of Psychology, 2Department of International Education, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua, ChinaAbstract: The present study investigates the relationship of expression recognition and affective experience during facial expression processing by event-related potentials (ERP. Facial expressions used in the present study can be divided into three categories: positive (happy, neutral (neutral, and negative (angry. Participants were asked to finish two kinds of facial recognition tasks: one was easy, and the other was difficult. In the easy task, significant main effects were found for different valence conditions, meaning that emotions were evoked effectively when participants recognized the expressions in facial expression processing. However, no difference was found in the difficult task, meaning that even if participants had identified the expressions correctly, no relevant emotion was evoked during the process. The findings suggest that emotional experience was not simultaneous with expression identification in facial expression processing, and the affective experience process could be suppressed in challenging cognitive tasks. The results indicate that we should pay attention to the level of cognitive load when using facial expressions as emotion-eliciting materials in emotion studies; otherwise, the emotion may not be evoked effectively.Keywords: affective experience, expression recognition, cognitive load, event-related potential

  7. An Event Related Potentials Study of Semantic Coherence Effect during Episodic Encoding in Schizophrenia Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lâle Battal Merlet

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this electrophysiological study was to investigate the processing of semantic coherence during encoding in relation to episodic memory processes promoted at test, in schizophrenia patients, by using the N400 paradigm. Eighteen schizophrenia patients and 15 healthy participants undertook a recognition memory task. The stimuli consisted of pairs of words either semantically related or unrelated to a given category name (context. During encoding, both groups exhibited an N400 external semantic coherence effect. Healthy controls also showed an N400 internal semantic coherence effect, but this effect was not present in patients. At test, related stimuli were accompanied by an FN400 old/new effect in both groups and by a parietal old/new effect in the control group alone. In the patient group, external semantic coherence effect was associated with FN400, while, in the control group, it was correlated to the parietal old/new effect. Our results indicate that schizophrenia patients can process the contextual information at encoding to enhance familiarity process for related stimuli at test. Therefore, cognitive rehabilitation therapies targeting the implementation of semantic encoding strategies can mobilize familiarity which in turn can overcome the recollection deficit, promoting successful episodic memory performance in schizophrenia patients.

  8. An event-related potential study on changes of violation and error responses during morphosyntactic learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Douglas J; Indefrey, Peter

    2009-03-01

    Based on recent findings showing electrophysiological changes in adult language learners after relatively short periods of training, we hypothesized that adult Dutch learners of German would show responses to German gender and adjective declension violations after brief instruction. Adjective declension in German differs from previously studied morphosyntactic regularities in that the required suffixes depend not only on the syntactic case, gender, and number features to be expressed, but also on whether or not these features are already expressed on linearly preceding elements in the noun phrase. Violation phrases and matched controls were presented over three test phases (pretest and training on the first day, and a posttest one week later). During the pretest, no electrophysiological differences were observed between violation and control conditions, and participants' classification performance was near chance. During the training and posttest phases, classification improved, and there was a P600-like violation response to declension but not gender violations. An error-related response during training was associated with improvement in grammatical discrimination from pretest to posttest. The results show that rapid changes in neuronal responses can be observed in adult learners of a complex morphosyntactic rule, and also that error-related electrophysiological responses may relate to grammar acquisition.

  9. Language processing abnormalities in adolescents with psychotic-like experiences: An event related potential study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Jennifer

    2012-05-01

    Language impairments are a well established finding in patients with schizophrenia and in individuals at-risk for psychosis. A growing body of research has revealed shared risk factors between individuals with psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) from the general population and patients with schizophrenia. In particular, adolescents with PLEs have been shown to be at an increased risk for later psychosis. However, to date there has been little information published on electrophysiological correlates of language comprehension in this at-risk group. A 64 channel EEG recorded electrical activity while 37 (16 At-Risk; 21 Controls) participants completed the British Picture Vocabulary Scale (BPVS-II) receptive vocabulary task. The P300 component was examined as a function of language comprehension. The at-risk group were impaired behaviourally on receptive language and were characterised by a reduction in P300 amplitude relative to the control group. The results of this study reveal electrophysiological evidence for receptive language deficits in adolescents with PLEs, suggesting that the earliest neurobiological changes underlying psychosis may be apparent in the adolescent period.

  10. Language processing abnormalities in adolescents with psychotic-like experiences: an event related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jennifer; Blanchard, Mathieu M; Rawdon, Caroline; Kavanagh, Fergal; Kelleher, Ian; Clarke, Mary C; Roche, Richard A P; Cannon, Mary

    2012-05-01

    Language impairments are a well established finding in patients with schizophrenia and in individuals at-risk for psychosis. A growing body of research has revealed shared risk factors between individuals with psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) from the general population and patients with schizophrenia. In particular, adolescents with PLEs have been shown to be at an increased risk for later psychosis. However, to date there has been little information published on electrophysiological correlates of language comprehension in this at-risk group. A 64 channel EEG recorded electrical activity while 37 (16 At-Risk; 21 Controls) participants completed the British Picture Vocabulary Scale (BPVS-II) receptive vocabulary task. The P300 component was examined as a function of language comprehension. The at-risk group were impaired behaviourally on receptive language and were characterised by a reduction in P300 amplitude relative to the control group. The results of this study reveal electrophysiological evidence for receptive language deficits in adolescents with PLEs, suggesting that the earliest neurobiological changes underlying psychosis may be apparent in the adolescent period. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Neural Dynamics Underlying Event-Related Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ankoor S.; Bressler, Steven L.; Knuth, Kevin H.; Ding, Ming-Zhou; Mehta, Ashesh D.; Ulbert, Istvan; Schroeder, Charles E.

    2003-01-01

    There are two opposing hypotheses about the brain mechanisms underlying sensory event-related potentials (ERPs). One holds that sensory ERPs are generated by phase resetting of ongoing electroencephalographic (EEG) activity, and the other that they result from signal averaging of stimulus-evoked neural responses. We tested several contrasting predictions of these hypotheses by direct intracortical analysis of neural activity in monkeys. Our findings clearly demonstrate evoked response contributions to the sensory ERP in the monkey, and they suggest the likelihood that a mixed (Evoked/Phase Resetting) model may account for the generation of scalp ERPs in humans.

  12. P300 Event-Related Potentials Differentiate Better Performing Individuals With Traumatic Brain Injury: A Preliminary Study of Semantic Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tara M; Hill, Benjamin D; Evans, Kelli J; Tiffin, Shelby; Stanley, Nicholas; Fields, Kelly; Russ, Katherine; Bindele, Huybrechts Frazier; Gordon-Hickey, Susan

    To measure the effect of traumatic brain injury on the cognitive processing of words, as measured by the P300, in a semantic categorization task. Eight adults with a history of moderate to severe traumatic brain injury and 8 age- and gender-matched controls. A pilot study measuring cognitive event-related potentials in response to word pairs that were either in same or different semantic categories. The P300 (P3b) component of the auditory event-related potential and neuropsychological assessment. Two patterns of P300 amplitude related to brain injury were observed. Participants with poorer performance on neuropsychological tests exhibited reduced P300 amplitude as compared to controls but showed the typical P300 parietal scalp distribution. In contrast, better performing participants demonstrated robust P300 amplitude but a substantially altered scalp distribution, characterized by the recruitment of anterior brain regions in addition to parietal activation. The recruitment of frontal areas after traumatic brain injury may represent compensatory neural mechanisms utilized to successfully maximize task performance. The P300 in a semantic processing paradigm may be a sensitive marker of neural plasticity that could be used to improve functional outcomes in cognitive remediation paradigms.

  13. Effects of touch on emotional face processing: A study of event-related potentials, facial EMG and cardiac activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spapé, M M; Harjunen, Ville; Ravaja, N

    2017-03-01

    Being touched is known to affect emotion, and even a casual touch can elicit positive feelings and affinity. Psychophysiological studies have recently shown that tactile primes affect visual evoked potentials to emotional stimuli, suggesting altered affective stimulus processing. As, however, these studies approached emotion from a purely unidimensional perspective, it remains unclear whether touch biases emotional evaluation or a more general feature such as salience. Here, we investigated how simple tactile primes modulate event related potentials (ERPs), facial EMG and cardiac response to pictures of facial expressions of emotion. All measures replicated known effects of emotional face processing: Disgust and fear modulated early ERPs, anger increased the cardiac orienting response, and expressions elicited emotion-congruent facial EMG activity. Tactile primes also affected these measures, but priming never interacted with the type of emotional expression. Thus, touch may additively affect general stimulus processing, but it does not bias or modulate immediate affective evaluation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. A longitudinal, event-related potential pilot study of adult obsessive-compulsive disorder with 1-year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamamuro K

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Kazuhiko Yamamuro,1 Koji Okada,2 Naoko Kishimoto,1 Toyosaku Ota,1 Junzo Iida,3 Toshifumi Kishimoto1 1Department of Psychiatry, Nara Medical University School of Medicine, 2Department of Psychiatry, Jingumaecocorono-Clinic, 3Faculty of Nursing, Nara Medical University School of Medicine, Kashihara, Japan Aim: Earlier brain imaging research studies have suggested that brain abnormalities in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD normalize as clinical symptoms improve. However, although many studies have investigated event-related potentials (ERPs in patients with OCD compared with healthy control subjects, it is currently unknown whether ERP changes reflect pharmacological and psychotherapeutic effects. As such, the current study examined the neurocognitive components of OCD to elucidate the pathophysiological abnormalities involved in the disorder, including the frontal-subcortical circuits.Methods: The Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale was used to evaluate 14 adult patients with OCD. The present study also included ten age-, sex-, and IQ-matched controls. The P300 and mismatch negativity (MMN components during an auditory oddball task at baseline for both groups and after 1 year of treatment for patients with OCD were measured.Results: Compared with controls, P300 amplitude was attenuated in the OCD group at Cz and C4 at baseline. Pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy treatment for 1 year reduced OCD symptomology. P300 amplitude after 1 year of treatment was significantly increased, indicating normalization compared with baseline at Fz, Cz, C3, and C4. We found no differences in P300 latency, MMN amplitude, or MMN latency between baseline and after one year of treatment.Conclusion: ERPs may be a useful tool for evaluating pharmacological and cognitive behavioral therapy in adult patients with OCD. Keywords: obsessive-compulsive disorder, event-related potentials, P300, mismatch negativity, improvement

  15. Selective attention and error processing in an illusory conjunction task - An event-related brain potential study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, AA; Boksem, MAS

    2005-01-01

    We recorded event-related potentials in an illusory conjunction task, in which subjects were cued on each trial to search for a particular colored letter in a subsequently presented test array, consisting of three different letters in three different colors. In a proportion of trials the target

  16. An event-related brain potential study of visual selective attention to conjunctions of color and shape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, HGOM; Jakob, A; Heinze, HJ

    What cognitive processes underlie event-related brain potential (ERP) effects related to visual multidimensional selective attention and how are these processes organized? We recorded ERPs when participants attended to one conjunction of color, global shape and local shape and ignored other

  17. Print-Tuning Lateralization and Handedness : An Event-Related Potential Study in Dyslexic Higher Education Students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Setten, Ellie R. H.; Martinez-Ferreiro, Silvia; Maurits, Natasha M.; Maassen, Ben A. M.

    Despite their ample reading experience, higher education students with dyslexia still show deficits in reading and reading-related skills. Lateralized print tuning, the early sensitivity to print of the left parietal cortex signalled by the N1 event-related potential (ERP) component, differs between

  18. Effect of Mood States on the Breadth of Spatial Attentional Focus: An Event-Related Potential Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Hiroki; Nittono, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    In order to determine the processing stage that is responsible for the effect of mood states on the breadth of attentional focus, we recorded event-related potentials from 18 students who performed a flanker task involving adjacent letters. To induce a specific mood state, positive, neutral, or negative affective pictures were presented repeatedly…

  19. Psychometric intelligence and P3 of the event-related potentials studied with a 3-stimulus auditory oddball task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wronka, E.A.; Kaiser, J.; Coenen, A.M.L.

    2013-01-01

    Relationship between psychometric intelligence measured with Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (RAPM) and event-related potentials (ERP) was examined using 3-stimulus oddball task. Subjects who had scored higher on RAPM exhibited larger amplitude of P3a component. Additional analysis using the

  20. Event related potentials recorded in Dorsal Simultanagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onofrj, M; Fulgente, T; Thomas, A

    1995-12-01

    Visual evoked potentials (VEPs) to central and lateral half field patterned stimuli of 1, 2 and 4 cycles per degree (cpd) were recorded in a patient with Dorsal Simultanagnosia due to bilateral lesions of parieto-occipital junction. VEPs consisted of the normal N1-P1-N2 components with same spatial frequency sensitivity as in controls. VEPs had similar latencies and amplitudes whether the patient could see or not the patterned stimuli. Event related potentials (ERPs) to visual and acoustic odd-ball paradigm were also recorded in the same patient. Visual ERPs consisted of an early NA-effect, and of N2-P3 components. P3 was recorded only from frontal, central and temporal derivations. The topographical P3 abnormality was, however, the same for visual and acoustic odd-ball paradigms. The amplitude of P3 was smaller when the patient missed visual stimuli. These findings show that severe bilateral lesions at the parieto-occipital junction, inducing Simultanagnosia, do not obliterate VEPs or ERPs components.

  1. Negative induced mood influences word production: An event-related potentials study with a covert picture naming task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa, J A; Fernández-Folgueiras, U; Albert, J; Santaniello, G; Pozo, M A; Capilla, A

    2017-01-27

    The present event-related potentials (ERPs) study investigated the effects of mood on phonological encoding processes involved in word generation. For this purpose, negative, positive and neutral affective states were induced in participants during three different recording sessions using short film clips. After the mood induction procedure, participants performed a covert picture naming task in which they searched letters. The negative compared to the neutral mood condition elicited more negative amplitudes in a component peaking around 290ms. Furthermore, results from source localization analyses suggested that this activity was potentially generated in the left prefrontal cortex. In contrast, no differences were found in the comparison between positive and neutral moods. Overall, current data suggest that processes involved in the retrieval of phonological information during speech generation are impaired when participants are in a negative mood. The mechanisms underlying these effects were discussed in relation to linguistic and attentional processes, as well as in terms of the use of heuristics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The role of hunger state and dieting history in neural response to food cues: An event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feig, Emily H; Winter, Samantha R; Kounios, John; Erickson, Brian; Berkowitz, Staci A; Lowe, Michael R

    2017-10-01

    A history of dieting to lose weight has been shown to be a robust predictor of future weight gain. A potential factor in propensity towards weight gain is the nature of people's reactions to the abundance of highly palatable food cues in the environment. Event Related Potentials (ERPs) have revealed differences in how the brain processes food cues between obese and normal weight individuals, as well as between restrained and unrestrained eaters. However, comparisons by weight status are not informative regarding whether differences predate or follow weight gain in obese individuals and restrained eating has not consistently been found to predict future weight gain. The present study compared ERP responses to food cues in non-obese historic dieters (HDs) to non-obese never dieters (NDs). HDs showed a blunted N1 component relative to NDs overall, and delayed N1 and P2 components compared to NDs in the hungry state, suggesting that early, perceptual processing of food cues differs between these groups, especially when food-deprived. HDs also showed a more hunger-dependent sustained ERP (LPP) compared to NDs. Future research should test ERP-based food cue responsivity as a mediator between dieting history and future weight gain to better identify those most at risk for weight gain as well as the nature of their vulnerability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A longitudinal, event-related potential pilot study of adult obsessive-compulsive disorder with 1-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamuro, Kazuhiko; Okada, Koji; Kishimoto, Naoko; Ota, Toyosaku; Iida, Junzo; Kishimoto, Toshifumi

    2016-01-01

    Earlier brain imaging research studies have suggested that brain abnormalities in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) normalize as clinical symptoms improve. However, although many studies have investigated event-related potentials (ERPs) in patients with OCD compared with healthy control subjects, it is currently unknown whether ERP changes reflect pharmacological and psychotherapeutic effects. As such, the current study examined the neurocognitive components of OCD to elucidate the pathophysiological abnormalities involved in the disorder, including the frontal-subcortical circuits. The Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale was used to evaluate 14 adult patients with OCD. The present study also included ten age-, sex-, and IQ-matched controls. The P300 and mismatch negativity (MMN) components during an auditory oddball task at baseline for both groups and after 1 year of treatment for patients with OCD were measured. Compared with controls, P300 amplitude was attenuated in the OCD group at Cz and C4 at baseline. Pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy treatment for 1 year reduced OCD symptomology. P300 amplitude after 1 year of treatment was significantly increased, indicating normalization compared with baseline at Fz, Cz, C3, and C4. We found no differences in P300 latency, MMN amplitude, or MMN latency between baseline and after one year of treatment. ERPs may be a useful tool for evaluating pharmacological and cognitive behavioral therapy in adult patients with OCD.

  4. Visual event-related potential studies supporting the validity of VARK learning styles' visual and read/write learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thepsatitporn, Sarawin; Pichitpornchai, Chailerd

    2016-06-01

    The validity of learning styles needs supports of additional objective evidence. The identification of learning styles using subjective evidence from VARK questionnaires (where V is visual, A is auditory, R is read/write, and K is kinesthetic) combined with objective evidence from visual event-related potential (vERP) studies has never been investigated. It is questionable whether picture superiority effects exist in V learners and R learners. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate whether vERP could show the relationship between vERP components and VARK learning styles and to identify the existence of picture superiority effects in V learners and R learners. Thirty medical students (15 V learners and 15 R learners) performed recognition tasks with vERP and an intermediate-term memory (ITM) test. The results of within-group comparisons showed that pictures elicited larger P200 amplitudes than words at the occipital 2 site (P VARK questionnaire study. Copyright © 2016 The American Physiological Society.

  5. Social identity-based motivation modulates attention bias toward negative information: an event-related brain potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalan, Benoît; Boitout, Alexis; Veujoz, Mathieu; Leleu, Arnaud; Germain, Raymonde; Personnaz, Bernard; Lalonde, Robert; Rebaï, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that people readily pay more attention to negative than to positive and/or neutral stimuli. However, evidence from recent studies indicated that such an attention bias to negative information is not obligatory but sensitive to various factors. Two experiments using intergroup evaluative tasks (Study 1: a gender-related groups evaluative task and Study 2: a minimal-related groups evaluative task) was conducted to determine whether motivation to strive for a positive social identity - a part of one's self-concept - drives attention toward affective stimuli. Using the P1 component of event-related brain potentials (ERPs) as a neural index of attention, we confirmed that attention bias toward negative stimuli is not mandatory but it can depend on a motivational focus on affective outcomes. Results showed that social identity-based motivation is likely to bias attention toward affectively incongruent information. Thereby, early onset processes - reflected by the P1 component - appeared susceptible to top-down attentional influences induced by the individual's motivation to strive for a positive social identity.

  6. Pain Processing in a Social Context and the Link with Psychopathic Personality Traits—An Event-Related Potential Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casper H. van Heck

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Empathy describes the ability to understand another person’s feelings. Psychopathy is a disorder that is characterized by a lack of empathy. Therefore, empathy and psychopathy are interesting traits to investigate with respect to experiencing and observing pain. The present study aimed to investigate pain empathy and pain sensitivity by measuring event-related potentials (ERPs extracted from the ongoing EEG in an interactive setup. Each participant fulfilled subsequently the role of “villain” and “victim”. In addition, mode of control was modulated resulting in four different conditions; passive villain, active villain, active victim and passive victim. Response-, visual- and pain ERPs were compared between the four conditions. Furthermore, the role of psychopathic traits in these outcomes was investigated. Our findings suggested that people experience more conflict when hurting someone else than hurting themselves. Furthermore, our results indicated that self-controlled pain was experienced as more painful than uncontrolled pain. People that scored high on psychopathic traits seemed to process and experience pain differently. According to the results of the current study, social context, attention and personality traits seem to modulate pain processing and the empathic response to pain in self and others. The within-subject experimental design described here provides an excellent approach to further unravel the influence of social context and personality traits on social cognition.

  7. General deficit in inhibitory control of excessive smartphone users: Evidence from an event-related potential study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwei eChen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available With the popularity of smartphones, the problem of excessive use has drawn increasing attention. However, it is not clear whether there is an inhibitory deficit in excessive smartphone users. Using a modified Go/NoGo task with three types of context (blank, neutral and smartphone-related, the present study combined measures of behavior and electrophysiology (event-related potentials, ERPs to examine general and specific inhibitory control in an excessive smartphone use group and a normal use group. Results showed that participants in both groups had larger amplitude of N2 and P3 on NoGo trials than Go trials. NoGo N2, an ERP component associated with inhibitory control, was more negative in the excessive smartphone use group than the normal use group. These results suggest that in the early stage of inhibition processing, excessive smartphone users experience more conflicts and show a general deficit that does not depend on smartphone-related cues. Moreover, the study provides further neuroscience evidence of the physiological correlates of excessive smartphone use.

  8. General Deficit in Inhibitory Control of Excessive Smartphone Users: Evidence from an Event-Related Potential Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingwei; Liang, Yunsi; Mai, Chunmiao; Zhong, Xiyun; Qu, Chen

    2016-01-01

    With the popularity of smartphones, the problem of excessive use has drawn increasing attention. However, it is not clear whether there is an inhibitory deficit in excessive smartphone users. Using a modified Go/NoGo task with three types of context (blank, neutral, and smartphone-related), the present study combined measures of behavior and electrophysiology [event-related potentials (ERPs)] to examine general and specific inhibitory control in an excessive smartphone use group and a normal use group. Results showed that participants in both groups had larger amplitude of N2 and P3 on NoGo trials than Go trials. NoGo N2, an ERP component associated with inhibitory control, was more negative in the excessive smartphone use group than the normal use group. These results suggest that in the early stage of inhibition processing, excessive smartphone users experience more conflicts and show a general deficit that does not depend on smartphone-related cues. Moreover, the study provides further neuroscience evidence of the physiological correlates of excessive smartphone use. PMID:27148120

  9. Experimental Study on Subjective Evaluation for Visual Information by Event-Related Potential: Evaluation of Food and its Appearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoshi Tanaka

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating subjective judgment for visual information by event-related potential (ERP quantitatively was studied. Pictures of food were displayed as visual information. And P300 component of the ERP was focused. The P300 is related to cognition and/or judgment, and has the latency in the range from 250 to 500 ms. As a fundamental study, the ERP was measured when subjectively judging food and its appearance by three-grade scale with the opinion “like”, “favorite” and “more favorite”. Sushi and cooked rice were selected as typical foods. And bottles which had almost the same shape without labels, but the colors were different, were used for an opinion test of the food appearance. Five pictures for each food were chosen by subjects before measurements. And no food which the subjects disliked was chosen because almost the same P300 amplitude appeared in both cases where the subjects judged as “like” and “dislike”. In results, the P300 amplitude by each subject's opinion was different, and the P300 area (surrounded by ERP waveform from the latency 250 to 500 ms became larger when the subjects judged as “more favorite”. These results indicate the feasibility of quantitative evaluation of subjective judgment by the ERP.

  10. The P300 event-related potential and smoking--a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobascher, A; Brinkmeyer, J; Warbrick, T; Wels, C; Wagner, M; Gründer, G; Spreckelmeyer, K N; Wienker, T; Diaz Lacava, A; Dahmen, N; Böttcher, M; Thuerauf, N; Clepce, M; Kiefer, F; De Millas, W; Gallinat, J; Winterer, G

    2010-08-01

    A better understanding of the factors underlying habitual tobacco smoking may further new strategies to go about this major health problem. The P300 event-related potential (ERP) has emerged as a valuable (endo)phenotype in neuropsychiatric research. Previous studies suggested the P300 ERP to be reduced in smokers. The main purpose of the present study was to provide an in-depth description of smoking-related behavioral, biological and electrophysiological phenotypes with an emphasis on the P300 ERP and its mutual relationship with other smoking-related parameters. In this case-control study N=1318 participants (smokers and never-smoking controls) were investigated at 6 German academic institutions. Study participants were randomly selected from the general population. Subjects with mental disorders including alcoholism and drug abuse were excluded. The main outcome measure was the P300 global field power (GFP). We found a lower P300 GFP in current smokers compared to never-smoking controls. Furthermore a correlation between measures of smoking severity and P300 GFP reduction was found. Non-addicted smokers exhibited normal P300 ERP measures. This study provides further evidence that the P300 ERP is reduced in current smokers even in the absence of potentially confounding psychiatric comorbidity. Thus, P300 amplitude reduction clearly is part of the electrophysiological phenotype of smokers. Our results provide the phenotypical groundwork for future multidimensional analyses of genotype-phenotype relationships in the field of smoking and nicotine dependence. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Functional analysis of the deficit in semantic context processes in schizophrenic patients: an event-related potentials study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostova, M; Passerieux, C; Laurent, J P; Saint-Georges, C; Hardy-Baylé, M C

    2003-02-01

    Schizophrenic patients exhibit a deficit in the semantic context processing strategies which might be responsible for the language and communication disorders that are characteristic of this condition. The aim of our study was to identify the nature of the contextualization processes which are lacking in schizophrenic patients, by distinguishing between processes for the generation of expectations and processes of semantic integration. Thirteen schizophrenic patients and 12 healthy controls performed two tasks: (a) a lexical decision task (LDT) with a highly structured sentence context and whose experimental characteristics made it possible to call strongly on predictive strategies, and (b) a LDT with classic semantic priming (the context being reduced to a single word). In this latter task, the small number of related words did not prompt the generation of expectations but instead called on the postlexical integration process. The event-related potentials (ERP) were recorded during the administration of the task. In the sentence task, we observed a modulation in the N400 amplitude due to the presence of expectations both in the schizophrenic and control participants: predictable words evoked a small N400 amplitude compared to the non-predictable words. In contrast, in the simple (priming) task, the semantic link evoked an N400 amplitude modulation in the control group exclusively. Our results indicate that schizophrenics could be able to use context to activate expectations for the most highly predictable item, and that their deficit appears when the processing strategy is based on the integration of the context stored in working memory.

  12. Life-long music practice and executive control in older adults: An event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussard, Aline; Bermudez, Patrick; Alain, Claude; Tays, William; Moreno, Sylvain

    2016-07-01

    Recent research has indicated that music practice can influence cognitive processing across the lifespan. Although extensive musical experience may have a mitigating effect on cognitive decline in older adults, the nature of changes to brain functions underlying performance benefits remains underexplored. The present study was designed to investigate the underlying neural mechanisms that may support apparent beneficial effects of life-long musical practice on cognition. We recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) in older musicians (N=17; average age=69.2) and non-musicians (N=17; average age=69.9), matched for age and education, while they completed an executive control task (visual go/no-go). Whereas both groups showed similar response speed and accuracy on go trials, older musicians showed fewer no-go errors. ERP recordings revealed the typical N2/P3 complex, but the nature of these responses differed between groups in that (1) older musicians showed larger N2 and P3 effects ('no-go minus go' amplitude), with the N2 amplitude being correlated with behavioral accuracy for no-go trials and (2) the topography of the P3 response was more anterior in musicians. Moreover, P3 amplitude was correlated with measures of musical experience in musicians. In our discussion of these results, we propose that music practice may have conferred an executive control advantage for musicians in later life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Counterfactual comparison modulates fairness consideration in the mini-ultimatum game: an event-related potentials study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jiafeng; Lin, Huiyan; Xiang, Jing; Wu, Hao; Li, Xu; Liang, Hongyu; Zheng, Xue

    2015-04-01

    Existing literature on the mini-ultimatum game indicates that counterfactual comparison between chosen and unchosen alternatives is of great importance for individual's fairness consideration. However, it is still unclear how counterfactual comparison influences the electrophysiological responses to unfair chosen offers. In conjunction with event-related potentials' (ERPs) technique, the current study aimed to explore the issue by employing a modified version of the mini-ultimatum game where a fixed set of two alternatives (unfair offer vs. fair alternative, unfair vs. hyperfair alternative, unfair offer vs. hyperunfair alternative) was presented before the chosen offer. The behavioral results showed that participants were more likely to accept unfair chosen offers when the unchosen alternative was hyperunfair than when the unchosen alternative was fair or hyperfair. The ERPs results showed that the feedback-related negativity (FRN) elicited by unfair chosen offers was insensitive to the type of unchosen alternative when correcting for possible overlap with other components. In contrast, unfair chosen offers elicited larger P300 amplitudes when the unchosen alternative was hyperunfair than when the unchosen alternative was fair or hyperfair. These findings suggest that counterfactual comparison may take effect at later stages of fairness consideration as reflected by the P300. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Race perception and gaze direction differently impair visual working memory for faces: An event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessa, Paola; Dalmaso, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Humans are amazingly experts at processing and recognizing faces, however there are moderating factors of this ability. In the present study, we used the event-related potential technique to investigate the influence of both race and gaze direction on visual working memory (i.e., VWM) face representations. In a change detection task, we orthogonally manipulated race (own-race vs. other-race faces) and eye-gaze direction (direct gaze vs. averted gaze). Participants were required to encode identities of these faces. We quantified the amount of information encoded in VWM by monitoring the amplitude of the sustained posterior contralateral negativity (SPCN) time-locked to the faces. Notably, race and eye-gaze direction differently modulated SPCN amplitude such that other-race faces elicited reduced SPCN amplitudes compared with own-race faces only when displaying a direct gaze. On the other hand, faces displaying averted gaze, independently of their race, elicited increased SPCN amplitudes compared with faces displaying direct gaze. We interpret these findings as denoting that race and eye-gaze direction affect different face processing stages.

  15. Shifting of attentional set is inadequate in severe burnout: Evidence from an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokka, Laura; Leinikka, Marianne; Korpela, Jussi; Henelius, Andreas; Lukander, Jani; Pakarinen, Satu; Alho, Kimmo; Huotilainen, Minna

    2017-02-01

    Individuals with prolonged occupational stress often report difficulties in concentration. Work tasks often require the ability to switch back and forth between different contexts. Here, we studied the association between job burnout and task switching by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) time-locked to stimulus onset during a task with simultaneous cue-target presentation and unpredictable switches in the task. Participants were currently working people with severe, mild, or no burnout symptoms. In all groups, task performance was substantially slower immediately after task switch than during task repetition. However, the error rates were higher in the severe burnout group than in the mild burnout and control groups. Electrophysiological data revealed an increased parietal P3 response for the switch trials relative to repetition trials. Notably, the response was smaller in amplitude in the severe burnout group than in the other groups. The results suggest that severe burnout is associated with inadequate processing when rapid shifting of attention between tasks is required resulting in less accurate performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. When the truth is not too hard to handle: an event-related potential study on the pragmatics of negation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwland, Mante S; Kuperberg, Gina R

    2008-12-01

    Our brains rapidly map incoming language onto what we hold to be true. Yet there are claims that such integration and verification processes are delayed in sentences containing negation words like not. However, studies have often confounded whether a statement is true and whether it is a natural thing to say during normal communication. In an event-related potential (ERP) experiment, we aimed to disentangle effects of truth value and pragmatic licensing on the comprehension of affirmative and negated real-world statements. As in affirmative sentences, false words elicited a larger N400 ERP than did true words in pragmatically licensed negated sentences (e.g., "In moderation, drinking red wine isn't bad/good..."), whereas true and false words elicited similar responses in unlicensed negated sentences (e.g., "A baby bunny's fur isn't very hard/soft..."). These results suggest that negation poses no principled obstacle for readers to immediately relate incoming words to what they hold to be true.

  17. Present self, past self and close-other: Event-related potential study of face and name detection.

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    Kotlewska, Ilona; Nowicka, Anna

    2015-09-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that information regarding the past self and other people is processed similarly. However, there is not much evidence supporting this notion at the neural level. In this event-related potential (ERP) study we examined processing of one's own marital and family name (i.e., present and past self-name, respectively) and images of present and past self-face in comparison to names and faces of others (the close-other, famous and unknown person). Amplitudes of P300 (a late ERP component associated with attention, emotion, and autobiographical memory) to self-face and self-name, either present or past, was enhanced in comparison to famous and unknown faces and names. No differences, however, were observed between the past and present self-names as well as between past and present self-faces. Moreover, P300 amplitude to the past self-face was enhanced in the right hemisphere in comparison to the close-other's face, whereas P300 amplitudes to the past self-name and the close-other's name did not differ. Thus, our results indicated that information related to non-physical aspects of the past self were processed similarly to the close-other. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of the time course for processing conflict: an event-related potentials study with 4 year olds and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Posner Michael I

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tasks involving conflict are widely used to study executive attention. In the flanker task, a target stimulus is surrounded by distracting information that can be congruent or incongruent with the correct response. Developmental differences in the time course of brain activations involved in conflict processing were examined for 22 four year old children and 18 adults. Subjects performed a child-friendly flanker task while their brain activity was registered using a high-density electroencephalography system. Results General differences were found in the amplitude and time course of event-related potentials (ERPs between children and adults that are consistent with their differences in reaction time. In addition, the congruency of flankers affected both the amplitude and latency of some of the ERP components. These effects were delayed and sustained for longer periods of time in the children compared to the adults. Conclusions These differences constitute neural correlates of children's greater difficulty in monitoring and resolving conflict in this and similar tasks.

  19. Neural correlates of inferring speaker sincerity from white lies: an event-related potential source localization study.

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    Rigoulot, Simon; Fish, Karyn; Pell, Marc D

    2014-05-27

    During social interactions, listeners weigh the importance of linguistic and extra-linguistic speech cues (prosody) to infer the true intentions of the speaker in reference to what is actually said. In this study, we investigated what brain processes allow listeners to detect when a spoken compliment is meant to be sincere (true compliment) or not ("white lie"). Electroencephalograms of 29 participants were recorded while they listened to Question-Response pairs, where the response was expressed in either a sincere or insincere tone (e.g., "So, what did you think of my presentation?"/"I found it really interesting."). Participants judged whether the response was sincere or not. Behavioral results showed that prosody could be effectively used to discern the intended sincerity of compliments. Analysis of temporal and spatial characteristics of event-related potentials (P200, N400, P600) uncovered significant effects of prosody on P600 amplitudes, which were greater in response to sincere versus insincere compliments. Using low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA), we determined that the anatomical sources of this activity were likely located in the (left) insula, consistent with previous reports of insular activity in the perception of lies and concealments. These data extend knowledge of the neurocognitive mechanisms that permit context-appropriate inferences about speaker feelings and intentions during interpersonal communication. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The neural and psychological basis of herding in purchasing books online: an event-related potential study.

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    Chen, Mingliang; Ma, Qingguo; Li, Minle; Dai, Shenyi; Wang, Xiaoyi; Shu, Liangchao

    2010-06-01

    In this study, event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were used to investigate the neural and psychological bases of consumer herding decision in purchasing books online. Sixteen participants were asked to decide as quickly as possible whether to buy a book on the basis of its title keywords and the numbers of positive and negative reviews in stimulus. The given title keywords were very similar, and participants did not have special preference for any particular one. Hence, they were forced to adopt the strategy of herding decision: choosing to buy the book when there were consistent positive reviews, choosing not to buy when there were consistent negative reviews, randomly choosing to buy or not to buy when there were no consistent reviews. The herding decision triggers a categorical processing of the consistency level of customer reviews. Remarkable late positive potential (LPP), a component of ERP sensitive to categorization processes, was elicited. The LPP amplitudes varied as a function of review consistency. The LPP amplitudes for three categories of review consistency were significantly different, and their order is such that absolute consistent review was greater than relative consistent review, which was greater than inconsistent review. In addition, behavioral data revealed that the higher the consistency of the customer reviews, the higher the herd rate. It is possible that customer reviews with higher consistency let participants make herding decisions more resolutely. The present results suggest that the LPP may be regarded as an endogenous neural signal of the herding mechanism in a sense and that the LPP amplitude is potentially a measure of consumers' herd tendency in purchase decisions.

  1. Using Event-Related Potentials to Study Perinatal Nutrition and Brain Development in Infants of Diabetic Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    deRegnier, Raye-Ann; Long, Jeffrey D.; Georgieff, Michael K.; Nelson, Charles A.

    2009-01-01

    Proper prenatal and postnatal nutrition is essential for optimal brain development and function. The early use of event-related potentials enables neuroscientists to study the development of cognitive function from birth and to evaluate the role of specific nutrients in development. Perinatal iron deficiency occurs in severely affected infants of diabetic mothers. In animal models, severe perinatal iron deficiency targets the explicit memory system of the brain. Cross-sectional ERP studies have shown that infants of diabetic mothers have impairments in recognition memory from birth through 8 months of age. The purpose of this study was to evaluate longitudinal development of recognition memory using ERPs in infants of diabetic mothers compared with control infants. Infants of diabetic mothers were divided into high and low risk status based upon their birthweights and iron status and compared with healthy control infants. Infants were tested in the newborn period for auditory recognition memory, at 6 months for visual recognition memory and at 8 months for cross modal memory. ERPs were evaluated for developmental changes in the slow waves that are thought to reflect memory and the Nc component that is thought to reflect attention. The results of the study showed differences in development between the IDMs and control infants in the development of the slow waves over the left anterior temporal leads and age-related patterns of development in the NC component. These results are consistent with animal models showing that perinatal iron deficiency affects the development of the memory networks of the brain. This study highlights the value of using ERPs to translate basic science information obtained from animal models to the development of the human infant. PMID:17559331

  2. Repetition Priming Effects in Proficient Mandarin-Cantonese and Cantonese-Mandarin Bidialectals: An Event-Related Potential Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Aiwen; Chen, Zhuoming; Chang, Yanqun; Zhou, Shu; Wu, Limei; Liu, Yaozhong; Zhang, Guoxiong

    2017-12-01

    The present study adopted a repetition priming paradigm to investigate the bidialectal (bilingual) representation of speakers with different native dialects by event-related potential (ERP) technique. Proficient Mandarin-Cantonese and Cantonese-Mandarin bidialectals participated in the study. They were required to judge whether a word was a biological word or not, when the words (target word) were represented under four types of repetition priming conditions: Mandarin (prime)-Mandarin (target), Mandarin (prime)-Cantonese (target), Cantonese (prime)-Cantonese (target) and Cantonese (prime)-Mandarin (target). Results of reaction time and accuracy primarily indicated larger repetition priming effects in Mandarin-Mandarin and Cantonese-Cantonese (within-language) conditions than that in Mandarin-Cantonese and Cantonese-Mandarin (between-language) conditions. But more importantly, P200 and N400 mean amplitudes revealed distinct repetition priming effects between two types of participants. Specifically, both P200 and N400 indicated that the repetition priming effect in Mandarin-Mandarin condition was larger than that in Cantonese-Cantonese condition for Mandarin-Cantonese participants, whereas it was opposite for Cantonese-Mandarin participants. In addition, P200 also suggested opposite patterns of repetition priming effects in between-language priming conditions for two groups of participants. The repetition priming effect in Mandarin-Cantonese condition was larger than that in Cantonese-Mandarin condition for Mandarin-Cantonese participants, while for Cantonese-Mandarin participants, it was opposite (Mandarin-Cantonese < Cantonese-Mandarin). The results implied a clear asymmetric representation of two dialects for proficient bidialectals. They were further discussed in light of native dialect and language use frequency.

  3. Grammatical number agreement processing using the visual half-field paradigm: an event-related brain potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmer, Laura; Coulson, Seana; Kutas, Marta

    2014-02-01

    Despite indications in the split-brain and lesion literatures that the right hemisphere is capable of some syntactic analysis, few studies have investigated right hemisphere contributions to syntactic processing in people with intact brains. Here we used the visual half-field paradigm in healthy adults to examine each hemisphere's processing of correct and incorrect grammatical number agreement marked either lexically, e.g., antecedent/reflexive pronoun ("The grateful niece asked herself/*themselves…") or morphologically, e.g., subject/verb ("Industrial scientists develop/*develops…"). For reflexives, response times and accuracy of grammaticality decisions suggested similar processing regardless of visual field of presentation. In the subject/verb condition, we observed similar response times and accuracies for central and right visual field (RVF) presentations. For left visual field (LVF) presentation, response times were longer and accuracy rates were reduced relative to RVF presentation. An event-related brain potential (ERP) study using the same materials revealed similar ERP responses to the reflexive pronouns in the two visual fields, but very different ERP effects to the subject/verb violations. For lexically marked violations on reflexives, P600 was elicited by stimuli in both the LVF and RVF; for morphologically marked violations on verbs, P600 was elicited only by RVF stimuli. These data suggest that both hemispheres can process lexically marked pronoun agreement violations, and do so in a similar fashion. Morphologically marked subject/verb agreement errors, however, showed a distinct LH advantage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. An event-related potential study on the time course of mental rotation in upper-limb amputees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Yuanyuan; Guo, Xiaoli; Bekrater-Bodmann, Robin; Flor, Herta; Tong, Shanbao

    2017-05-01

    Mental rotation of body parts involves sequential cognitive processes, including visual processing, categorization and the mental rotation process itself. However, how these processes are affected by the amputation of a limb is still unclear. Twenty-five right upper-limb amputees and the same number of matched healthy controls participated in a hand mental rotation task. Thirty-two-channel electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded and the event-related potentials (ERPs) were analyzed. In the early visual processing phase, amputees and controls showed a similar P100. During the categorization phase, the amputees exhibited a decreased N200 compared with controls, and the decline was positively correlated with the time since amputation. In the mental rotation phase, controls had a larger ERP for the right upright hand than for the left upright hand, while amputees had a larger ERP for the left (intact) upright hand than for the right (affected) upright hand. Early visual processing was not affected by limb amputation. However, the perceptual salience of hand pictures decreased and the intact hand gained more significance in the amputees. Event-related potentials had the capability of showing the differences in categorization and mental rotation phases between amputees and controls. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Recovery Sleep Reverses Impaired Response Inhibition due to Sleep Restriction: Evidence from a Visual Event Related Potentials Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Jin

    Full Text Available To investigate response inhibition after total sleep deprivation (TSD and the restorative effects of one night of recovery sleep (RS.Fourteen healthy male participants performed a visual Go/NoGo task, and electroencephalogram recordings were conducted at five time points: (1 baseline, (2 after 12 h of TSD, (3 after 24 h of TSD, (4 after 36 h of TSD, and (5 following 8 h of RS. The dynamic changes in response inhibition during TSD and after 8 h of RS were investigated by examining the NoGo-N2 and NoGo-P3 event-related potential components.Compared with baseline, NoGo-P3 amplitudes were decreased, while the NoGo-N2 latency increased along with the awake time prolonged. NoGo anteriorization, which was minimized after 24 h of TSD, progressively decreased with increasing TSD. After 8 h of RS, recoveries of both the NoGo-P3 amplitude and NoGo-N2 latency in the prefrontal cortex were observed compared with the values after 36 h of TSD.TSD induced a dose-dependent functional decline in the response inhibition of NoGo-N2 and NoGo-P3 on prefrontal cortex activation, and 8 h of RS resulted in recovery or maintenance of the response inhibition. However, it was not restored to baseline levels.Participants were chosen male college students only, thus the findings cannot be generalized to older people and women. Additionally, the sample size was small, and, thus, speculations on the meaning of the results of this study should be cautious. The EEG continuous recording should be employed to monitor the decline of alertness following TSD.

  6. Developmental changes in visuo-spatial working memory in normally developing children: event-related potentials study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myatchin, Ivan; Lagae, Lieven

    2013-10-01

    Working memory (WM) is very important for normal development. The fronto-parietal neuronal network supporting WM has already been well-studied. Less is known about the cortical activity changes during development of WM. We evaluated the maturation of visual WM network at the electrophysiological level in a group of normally developing children. Multichannel (n=31) event-related potentials (ERP) were measured during a visuo-spatial backmatching task in 69 childrens (6-16 years old). One-backmatching (BM1) and two-backmatching (BM2) tasks were performed. Age-related changes in behavioral parameters (commission and omission errors and reaction times) and ERP parameters (peak amplitudes and latencies) were analyzed between different ages. Clear improvement in performance from young childhood toward adolescence was seen at the behavioral level: decrease of errors and fastening of reaction times. At the electrophysiological level age-related changes were seen in peak latencies and especially in amplitudes. Different peaks have different dynamics in amplitudes and latencies: early peak amplitude decreased and latency shortened with age, which was not always seen in late peaks. This reflects developmental changes in intensity and speed of WM processing. Later peaks were more clearly seen over the right hemisphere in older children, illustrating hemispheric lateralization in visuo-spatial working memory. Our results indicate that not only at the behavioral but also at the electrophysiological level clear age-related dynamics in WM processing can be seen. Furthermore, with ERP we showed that different WM components follow different developmental trajectories. Our work demonstrates that age-related dynamics in intensity and speed of information processing during WM task is reflected in developmental changes in different ERP components. It also states that fronto-parietal visual WM network can be functional even before all its nodes are fully mature. Copyright © 2012 The

  7. Recovery Sleep Reverses Impaired Response Inhibition due to Sleep Restriction: Evidence from a Visual Event Related Potentials Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiao; Ye, Enmao; Qi, Jianlin; Wang, Lubin; Lei, Yu; Chen, Pinhong; Mi, Guiyun; Zou, Feng; Shao, Yongcong; Yang, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    To investigate response inhibition after total sleep deprivation (TSD) and the restorative effects of one night of recovery sleep (RS). Fourteen healthy male participants performed a visual Go/NoGo task, and electroencephalogram recordings were conducted at five time points: (1) baseline, (2) after 12 h of TSD, (3) after 24 h of TSD, (4) after 36 h of TSD, and (5) following 8 h of RS. The dynamic changes in response inhibition during TSD and after 8 h of RS were investigated by examining the NoGo-N2 and NoGo-P3 event-related potential components. Compared with baseline, NoGo-P3 amplitudes were decreased, while the NoGo-N2 latency increased along with the awake time prolonged. NoGo anteriorization, which was minimized after 24 h of TSD, progressively decreased with increasing TSD. After 8 h of RS, recoveries of both the NoGo-P3 amplitude and NoGo-N2 latency in the prefrontal cortex were observed compared with the values after 36 h of TSD. TSD induced a dose-dependent functional decline in the response inhibition of NoGo-N2 and NoGo-P3 on prefrontal cortex activation, and 8 h of RS resulted in recovery or maintenance of the response inhibition. However, it was not restored to baseline levels. Participants were chosen male college students only, thus the findings cannot be generalized to older people and women. Additionally, the sample size was small, and, thus, speculations on the meaning of the results of this study should be cautious. The EEG continuous recording should be employed to monitor the decline of alertness following TSD.

  8. The influence of monetary incentives on context processing in younger and older adults: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Hannah; Ferdinand, Nicola K; Kray, Jutta

    2015-06-01

    Recent evidence has indicated that neuronal activity related to reward anticipation benefits subsequent stimulus processing, but the effect of penalties remains largely unknown. Since the dual-mechanisms-of-control theory (DMC; Braver & Barch, Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 26, 809-81, 2002) assumes that temporal differences in context updating underlie age differences in cognitive control, in this study we investigated whether motivational cues (signaling the chance to win or the risk to lose money, relative to neutral cues) preceding context information in a modified AX-CPT paradigm influence the temporal stages of context processing in younger and older adults. In the behavioral data, younger adults benefited from gain cues, evident in their enhanced context updating, whereas older adults exhibited slowed responding after motivational cues, irrespective of valence. Event-related potentials (ERPs) revealed that the enhanced processing of motivational cues in the P2 and P3b was mainly age-invariant, whereas age-differential effects were found for the ERP correlates of context processing. Younger adults showed improved context maintenance (i.e., a larger negative-going CNV), as well as increased conflict detection (larger N450) and resolution (indicated by a sustained positivity), whenever incorrect responding would lead to a monetary loss. In contrast, motivationally salient cues benefited context representations (in cue-locked P3b amplitudes), but increased working memory demands during response preparation (via a temporally prolonged P3b) in older adults. In sum, motivational valence and salience effects differentially modulated the temporal stages of context processing in younger and older adults. These results are discussed in terms of the DMC theory, recent findings of emotion regulation in old age, and the relationship between cognitive and affective processing.

  9. Comparison between Face and Object Processing in Youths with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An event related potentials study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Khorrami

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Incapability in face perception and recognition is one of the main issues in autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Event related potential (ERP studies have revealed controversial insights on autistic brain responses to faces and objects. The current investigation examined the ERP components of young children with ASD compared to a typically developing (TD group when looking at the upright and inverted images of faces and cars.Fourteen children and adolescents aged between 9 and 17 diagnosed as having ASD were compared with 18 age- gender matched normally developing individuals. All participants' ERPs were recorded while they were seeing the images of human faces and objects in both upright and inverted positions. The ERP components including N170 (latency and amplitude were compared between the two groups in two conditions of upright and inverted using the repeated measure analysis method.The processing speed for upright faces was faster than the inverted faces in the TD group; however, the difference was not significant. A significant difference was observed in terms of N170 latency between the two groups for different stimulus categories such as objects and faces(p<0.05. Moreover, inverted vs. upright stimuli in both groups elicited a greater response in terms of N170 amplitude in both groups, and this effect was significantly prominent in the right hemisphere (p<0.05. The N170 amplitude turned out to be greater for the inverted vs. upright stimuli irrespective of the stimuli type and group.These data suggest youths with ASD have difficulty processing information, particularly in face perception regardless of the stimuli orientation.

  10. Personal significance is encoded automatically by the human brain: an event-related potential study with ringtones.

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    Roye, Anja; Jacobsen, Thomas; Schröger, Erich

    2007-08-01

    In this human event-related brain potential (ERP) study, we have used one's personal--relative to another person's--ringtone presented in a two-deviant passive oddball paradigm to investigate the long-term memory effects of self-selected personal significance of a sound on the automatic deviance detection and involuntary attention system. Our findings extend the knowledge of long-term effects usually reported in group-approaches in the domains of speech, music and environmental sounds. In addition to the usual mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a component elicited by deviants in contrast to standard stimuli, we observed a posterior ERP deflection directly following the MMN for the personally significant deviant only. This specific impact of personal significance started around 200 ms after sound onset and involved neural generators that were different from the mere physical deviance detection mechanism. Whereas the early part of the P3a component was unaffected by personal significance, the late P3a was enhanced for the ERPs to the personal significant deviant suggesting that this stimulus was more powerful in attracting attention involuntarily. Following the involuntary attention switch, the personally significant stimulus elicited a widely-distributed negative deflection, probably reflecting further analysis of the significant sound involving evaluation of relevance or reorienting to the primary task. Our data show, that the personal significance of mobile phone and text message technology, which have developed as a major medium of communication in our modern world, prompts the formation of individual memory representations, which affect the processing of sounds that are not in the focus of attention.

  11. The processing of infrequently-presented low-intensity stimuli during natural sleep: An event-related potential study

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    Alexandra Muller-Gass

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Event-related potentials (ERPs provide an exquisite means to measure the extent of processing of external stimuli during the sleep period. This study examines ERPs elicited by stimuli with physical characteristics akin to environmental noise encountered during sleep. Brief duration 40, 60 or 80 dB sound pressure level (SPL tones were presented either rapidly (on average every two seconds or slowly (on average every 10 seconds. The rates of presentation and intensity of the stimuli were similar to those observed in environmental studies of noise. ERPs were recorded from nine young adults during sleep and wakefulness. During wakefulness, the amplitude of an early negative ERP, N1, systematically increased as intensity level increased. A later positivity, the P3a, was apparent following the loudest 80 dB stimulus regardless of the rate of stimulus presentation; it was also apparent following the 60 dB stimulus, when stimuli were presented slowly. The appearance of the N1-P3a deflections suggests that operations of the central executive controlling ongoing cognitive activity was interrupted, forcing subjects to become aware of the obtrusive task-irrelevant stimuli. The auditory stimuli elicited very different ERP patterns during sleep. During non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep, the ERP was characterized by an enhanced (relative to wakefulness early positivity, P2, followed by a very prominent negativity, the N350. Both deflections systematically varied in amplitude with stimulus intensity level; in addition, N350 was much larger when stimuli were presented at slow rates. The N350, a sleep-specific ERP, is thought to reflect the inhibition of processing of potentially sleep-disrupting stimulus input. During rapid eye movement (REM sleep, a small amplitude N1 was apparent in the ERP, but only for the loudest, 80 dB stimulus. A small (nonsignificant P3a-like deflection was also visible following the 80 dB stimulus, but only when stimuli were presented

  12. A brief introduction to the use of event-related potentials in studies of perception and attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Geoffrey F

    2010-11-01

    Because of the precise temporal resolution of electrophysiological recordings, the event-related potential (ERP) technique has proven particularly valuable for testing theories of perception and attention. Here, I provide a brief tutorial on the ERP technique for consumers of such research and those considering the use of human electrophysiology in their own work. My discussion begins with the basics regarding what brain activity ERPs measure and why they are well suited to reveal critical aspects of perceptual processing, attentional selection, and cognition, which are unobservable with behavioral methods alone. I then review a number of important methodological issues and often-forgotten facts that should be considered when evaluating or planning ERP experiments.

  13. A Brief Introduction to the Use of Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) in Studies of Perception and Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Geoffrey F.

    2013-01-01

    Due to the precise temporal resolution of electrophysiological recordings, the event-related potential (ERP) technique has proven particularly valuable for testing theories of perception and attention. Here, I provide a brief tutorial of the ERP technique for consumers of such research and those considering the use of human electrophysiology in their own work. My discussion begins with the basics regarding what brain activity ERPs measure and why they are well suited to reveal critical aspects of perceptual processing, attentional selection, and cognition that are unobservable with behavioral methods alone. I then review a number of important methodological issues and often forgotten facts that should be considered when evaluating or planning ERP experiments. PMID:21097848

  14. High temporal discounters overvalue immediate rewards rather than undervalue future rewards: an event-related brain potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherniawsky, Avital S; Holroyd, Clay B

    2013-03-01

    Impulsivity is characterized in part by heightened sensitivity to immediate relative to future rewards. Although previous research has suggested that "high discounters" in intertemporal choice tasks tend to prefer immediate over future rewards because they devalue the latter, it remains possible that they instead overvalue immediate rewards. To investigate this question, we recorded the reward positivity, a component of the event-related brain potential (ERP) associated with reward processing, with participants engaged in a task in which they received both immediate and future rewards and nonrewards. The participants also completed a temporal discounting task without ERP recording. We found that immediate but not future rewards elicited the reward positivity. High discounters also produced larger reward positivities to immediate rewards than did low discounters, indicating that high discounters relatively overvalued immediate rewards. These findings suggest that high discounters may be more motivated than low discounters to work for monetary rewards, irrespective of the time of arrival of the incentives.

  15. Discrimination of fearful and happy body postures in 8-month-old infants: An event-related potential study

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    Manuela eMissana

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Responding to others’ emotional body expressions is an essential social skill in humans. Adults readily detect emotions from body postures, but it is unclear whether infants are sensitive to emotional body postures. We examined 8-month-old infants’ brain responses to emotional body postures by measuring event-related potentials (ERPs to happy and fearful bodies. Our results revealed two emotion-sensitive ERP components: body postures evoked an early N290 at occipital electrodes and a later Nc at fronto-central electrodes that were enhanced in response to fearful (relative to happy expressions. These findings demonstrate that, (a 8-month-old infants discriminate between static emotional body postures, and (b similar to infant emotional face perception, the sensitivity to emotional body postures is reflected in early perceptual (N290 and later attentional (Nc neural processes. This provides evidence for an early developmental emergence of the neural processes involved in the discrimination of emotional body postures.

  16. Sustained attention in skilled and novice martial arts athletes: a study of event-related potentials and current sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Lopez, Javier; Silva-Pereyra, Juan; Fernandez, Thalia

    2016-01-01

    Background. Research on sports has revealed that behavioral responses and event-related brain potentials (ERP) are better in expert than in novice athletes for sport-related tasks. Focused attention is essential for optimal athletic performance across different sports but mainly in combat disciplines. During combat, long periods of focused attention (i.e., sustained attention) are required for a good performance. Few investigations have reported effects of expertise on brain electrical activity and its neural generators during sport-unrelated attention tasks. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of expertise (i.e., skilled and novice martial arts athletes) analyzing the ERP during a sustained attention task (Continuous Performance Task; CPT) and the cortical three-dimensional distribution of current density, using the sLORETA technique. Methods. CPT consisted in an oddball-type paradigm presentation of five stimuli (different pointing arrows) where only one of them (an arrow pointing up right) required a motor response (i.e., target). CPT was administered to skilled and novice martial arts athletes while EEG were recorded. Amplitude ERP data from target and non-target stimuli were compared between groups. Subsequently, current source analysis for each ERP component was performed on each subject. sLORETA images were compared by condition and group using Statistical Non-Parametric Mapping analysis. Results. Skilled athletes showed significant amplitude differences between target and non-target conditions in early ERP components (P100 and P200) as opposed to the novice group; however, skilled athletes showed no significant effect of condition in N200 but novices did show a significant effect. Current source analysis showed greater differences in activations in skilled compared with novice athletes between conditions in the frontal (mainly in the Superior Frontal Gyrus and Medial Frontal Gyrus) and limbic (mainly in the Anterior Cingulate Gyrus) lobes

  17. Sustained attention in skilled and novice martial arts athletes: a study of event-related potentials and current sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Sanchez-Lopez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Research on sports has revealed that behavioral responses and event-related brain potentials (ERP are better in expert than in novice athletes for sport-related tasks. Focused attention is essential for optimal athletic performance across different sports but mainly in combat disciplines. During combat, long periods of focused attention (i.e., sustained attention are required for a good performance. Few investigations have reported effects of expertise on brain electrical activity and its neural generators during sport-unrelated attention tasks. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of expertise (i.e., skilled and novice martial arts athletes analyzing the ERP during a sustained attention task (Continuous Performance Task; CPT and the cortical three-dimensional distribution of current density, using the sLORETA technique. Methods. CPT consisted in an oddball-type paradigm presentation of five stimuli (different pointing arrows where only one of them (an arrow pointing up right required a motor response (i.e., target. CPT was administered to skilled and novice martial arts athletes while EEG were recorded. Amplitude ERP data from target and non-target stimuli were compared between groups. Subsequently, current source analysis for each ERP component was performed on each subject. sLORETA images were compared by condition and group using Statistical Non-Parametric Mapping analysis. Results. Skilled athletes showed significant amplitude differences between target and non-target conditions in early ERP components (P100 and P200 as opposed to the novice group; however, skilled athletes showed no significant effect of condition in N200 but novices did show a significant effect. Current source analysis showed greater differences in activations in skilled compared with novice athletes between conditions in the frontal (mainly in the Superior Frontal Gyrus and Medial Frontal Gyrus and limbic (mainly in the Anterior Cingulate

  18. P300 component in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder type I, bipolar disorder type II and healthy controls: a preliminary event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersani, Francesco S; Minichino, Amedeo; Fattapposta, Francesco; Mannarelli, Daniela; Pauletti, Caterina; Imperatori, Claudio; Spagnoli, Francesco; Biondi, Massimo; Delle Chiaie, Roberto

    2015-03-04

    The aim of the present study was to investigate P300 event-related potential components in euthymic bipolar disorder type I (BDI) and bipolar disorder type II (BDII) patients and matched controls. A total of 10 BDI patients, 10 BDII patients and 10 healthy individuals were enrolled in the study. Event-related potential data were collected according to a standard auditory 'oddball' paradigm. A significant groups effect in both the peak amplitude (Ppotential role of cognitive interventions in the treatment of BD.

  19. The effects of reward magnitude on reward processing: An averaged and single trial event-related potential study.

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    Meadows, Caroline C; Gable, Philip A; Lohse, Keith R; Miller, Matthew W

    2016-07-01

    From a neurobiological and motivational perspective, the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and reward positivity (RewP) event-related potential (ERP) components should increase with reward magnitude (reward associated with valence (success/failure) feedback). To test this hypothesis, we recorded participants' electroencephalograms while presenting them with potential monetary rewards ($0.00-$4.96) pre-trial for each trial of a reaction time task and presenting them with valence feedback post-trial. Averaged ERPs time-locked to valence feedback were extracted, and results revealed a valence by magnitude interaction for neural activity in the FRN/RewP time window. This interaction was driven by magnitude affecting RewP, but not FRN, amplitude. Moreover, single trial ERP analyses revealed a reliable correlation between magnitude and RewP, but not FRN, amplitude. Finally, P3b and late positive potential (LPP) amplitudes were affected by magnitude. Results partly support the neurobiological (dopamine) account of the FRN/RewP and suggest motivation affects feedback processing, as indicated by multiple ERP components. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Cognitive Event-Related Potential, an Early Diagnosis Biomarker in Frail Elderly Subjects: The ERP-MAPT-PLUS Ancillary Study.

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    Bennys, Karim; Gabelle, Audrey; Berr, Claudine; De Verbizier, Delphine; Andrieu, Sandrine; Vellas, Bruno; Touchon, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    By analyzing brain synaptic function, cognitive event-related potentials (ERPs) could provide powerful and innovative tools for early Alzheimer's disease (AD) diagnosis. We investigated the relevance of the ERP-P300 component as a potential diagnosis marker in elderly subjects at risk of developing AD. ERP-P300 was analyzed on 85 subjects recruited from the Multidomain Alzheimer Preventive Trial (MAPT). PET-AV45 brain imaging was available from 36 subjects. Two ERP-P300 subgroups were identified according to their PET-AV45 status: PET-Aβ positive (n = 15) and PET-Aβ negative (n = 21). In the amyloid positive group, we observed a highly significant increase in P3b latency in parietal brain regions (p = 0.0052). P3b in parietal regions correctly categorized 69.4% elderly subjects from the P300-PET Aβ positive group. Combined analysis of parietal P3b latencies and category fluency correctly classified 75% subjects from the P300-PET Aβ positive group. The P300 ERP presents good predictive measure of brain amyloid load and has the potential to be used as a screening instrument for preclinical AD. The incorporation of P3b latency may be used as an adjunctive tool with neuropsychological assessment (i.e., verbal category fluency) as a specific and sensitive method for preclinical assessment of AD.

  1. Callous-unemotional traits moderate executive function in children with ASD and ADHD: A pilot event-related potential study

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    C. Tye

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and autism spectrum disorder (ASD are associated with varied executive function (EF difficulties. Callous-unemotional (CU traits, a proposed antecedent of adult psychopathy, are often associated with intact or enhanced EF. Here we test whether CU traits may therefore modulate EF in ASD and ADHD, in which EF is typically impaired. We collected CU traits and measured event-related potentials (ERPs that index EF during a cued-continuous performance test (CPT-OX in boys with ASD, ADHD, comorbid ASD + ADHD and typical controls. We examined attentional orienting at cues (Cue-P3, inhibitory processing at non-targets (NoGo-P3 and conflict monitoring between target and non-target trials (Go-N2 vs. NoGo-N2. In children with ASD, higher CU traits were associated with an enhanced increase in N2 amplitude in NoGo trials compared to Go trials, which suggests relatively superior conflict monitoring and a potential cognitive strength associated with CU traits. The results emphasise the importance of considering the effects of co-occurring traits in the assessment of heterogeneity of EF profiles in neurodevelopmental disorders.

  2. Different timing features in brain processing of core and moral disgust pictures: an event-related potentials study.

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    Xiangyi Zhang

    Full Text Available Disgust, an emotion motivating withdrawal from offensive stimuli, protects us from the risk of biological pathogens and sociomoral violations. Homogeneity of its two types, namely, core and moral disgust has been under intensive debate. To examine the dynamic relationship between them, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs for core disgust, moral disgust and neutral pictures while participants performed a modified oddball task. ERP analysis revealed that N1 and P2 amplitudes were largest for the core disgust pictures, indicating automatic processing of the core disgust-evoking pictures. N2 amplitudes were higher for pictures evoking moral disgust relative to core disgust and neutral pictures, reflecting a violation of social norms. The core disgust pictures elicited larger P3 and late positive potential (LPP amplitudes in comparison with the moral disgust pictures which, in turn, elicited larger P3 and LPP amplitudes when compared to the neutral pictures. Taken together, these findings indicated that core and moral disgust pictures elicited different neural activities at various stages of information processing, which provided supporting evidence for the heterogeneity of disgust.

  3. Lateralization of language function in epilepsy patients: A high-density scalp-derived event-related potentials (ERP) study.

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    Trimmel, Karin; Sachsenweger, Jens; Lindinger, Gerald; Auff, Eduard; Zimprich, Fritz; Pataraia, Ekaterina

    2017-03-01

    Language functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) represents the clinical standard for language lateralization assessment in presurgical epilepsy evaluation, but still many patients experience postoperative language deficits. Event-related potentials (ERPs), especially the negative component around and after 400ms, are related to language processing and could therefore represent a complementary method of language lateralization assessment. Scalp EEG was recorded from 64 locations in 36 epilepsy patients and 37 controls during three visually presented language tasks: A short-term language memory task (differentiation memorized vs. unknown words), a phonological task (detection of rhymes in word pairs), and a semantic decision task (differentiation words vs. pseudowords). ERPs were analyzed in the 300ms-800ms epoch. Language fMRI was routinely obtained in patients. ERPs were significantly more negative over the left compared to the right hemisphere in all three tasks in patients and controls. Laterality indices showed highest concordance with fMRI for the Word/Pseudoword Task. ERPs of language processing were lateralized to the left hemisphere in the majority of epilepsy patients and controls. In patients, single-subject laterality indices showed high concordance with fMRI results. Results indicate that scalp-derived ERPs are a promising tool to investigate lateralization of language function in epilepsy patients. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Explicit and implicit memory in female college students with schizotypal traits: an event-related potential study.

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    Song, Bo-Yeon; Kim, Bit-Na; Kim, Myung-Sun

    2011-04-01

    The explicit and implicit memory of nonclinical individuals with schizotypal traits was investigated using event-related potentials. Explicit and implicit memory was measured with continuous recognition and categorization tasks, respectively. On the recognition task, the control group demonstrated a greater old/new effect in response to the old than to the new words during the 250-750 ms post-stimulus period, whereas schizotypal trait group did not exhibit an old/new effect during the 550-650 ms period. The control group demonstrated faster response times to the old than to the new words, whereas the schizotypal group demonstrated longer response times to the old than to the new words. On the categorization task, both groups showed old/new effects during the 250-550 ms after stimulus onset and responded more rapidly and with fewer errors to the old than to the new words. These results suggest that individuals with schizotypal traits have impaired explicit but preserved implicit memory. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Unpleasant stimuli differentially modulate inhibitory processes in an emotional Go/NoGo task: an event-related potential study.

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    Buodo, Giulia; Sarlo, Michela; Mento, Giovanni; Messerotti Benvenuti, Simone; Palomba, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Threat stimuli typically elicit a psychophysiological response pattern supporting the organism's preparation for active defence. Differently, blood stimuli prompt a distinctive autonomic response pattern and sustained processing, which do not call for clear-cut mobilisation for action. However, the contribution of motor disposition in these response patterns remains unclear. One way to address this issue is to investigate whether threat and blood stimuli differentially affect the active suppression of an ongoing motor activity. Thirty-two undergraduates were presented with threat, mutilation, pleasant, and neutral pictures in an emotional Go/NoGo task. The amplitudes of the NoGo-N2 and NoGo-P3 components of the event-related potentials were analysed as indices of conflict monitoring and inhibition of motor response, respectively. Reaction times to Go trials were significantly faster for threat than for mutilations. The NoGo-N2 was significantly larger to threat than to mutilations, whereas the NoGo-P3amplitude did not differ between the two conditions. These findings suggest that threat stimuli facilitated the execution of a prepotent response and enhanced conflict monitoring when action must be withheld. In contrast, blood stimuli did not either promote action in the Go trials or increase conflict in the NoGo condition, suggesting a response pattern compatible with defensive immobility.

  6. Sequential modulations of poorer-strategy effects during strategy execution: an event-related potential study in arithmetic.

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    Hinault, Thomas; Dufau, Stéphane; Lemaire, Patrick

    2014-11-01

    When participants accomplish cognitive tasks, they obtain poorer performance if asked to execute a poorer strategy than a better strategy on a given problem. These poorer-strategy effects are smaller following execution of a poorer strategy relative to following a better strategy. To investigate ERP correlates of sequential modulations of poorer-strategy effects, we asked participants (n=20) to accomplish a computational estimation task (i.e., provide approximate products to two-digit multiplication problems like 38×74). For each problem, they were cued to execute a better versus a poorer strategy. We found event-related potentials signatures of sequential modulations of poorer-strategy effects in two crucial windows (i.e., between 200 and 550 ms and between 850 and 1250 ms) associated with executive control mechanisms and allowing conflict monitoring between the better and the cued strategy. These results have important implications on theories of strategies as they suggest that sequential modulations of poorer-strategy effects involve earlier as well as later mechanisms of cognitive control during strategy execution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Neural correlates of self-appraisals in the near and distant future: an event-related potential study.

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    Yangmei Luo

    Full Text Available To investigate perceptual and neural correlates of future self-appraisals as a function of temporal distance, event-related potentials (ERPs were recorded while participants (11 women, eight men made judgments about the applicability of trait adjectives to their near future selves (i.e., one month from now and their distant future selves (i.e., three years from now. Behavioral results indicated people used fewer positive adjectives, more negative adjectives, recalled more specific events coming to mind and felt more psychologically connected to the near future self than the distant future self. Electrophysiological results demonstrated that negative trait adjectives elicited more positive ERP deflections than did positive trait adjectives in the interval between 550 and 800 ms (late positive component within the near future self condition. However, within the same interval, there were no significant differences between negative and positive traits adjectives in the distant future self condition. The results suggest that negative emotional processing in future self-appraisals is modulated by temporal distance, consistent with predictions of construal level theory.

  8. Abnormal information processing in dementia of Alzheimer type. A study using the event-related potential's field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, K; Hozumi, A; Tanaka, H; Kubo, J; Zeng, X H; Yamazaki, K; Asahi, K; Nakano, T

    2000-01-01

    Electrical field changes of event-related potentials (ERPs) were investigated in 26 patients with dementia of Alzheimer's type (DAT) and 12 age-matched normal subjects. The patients were assessed with the Clinical Dementia Rating and Mini-Mental State. Each patient selected had only mild to moderate mental disability. Auditory oddball stimulation was presented at 1.5 s intervals and 1,000 Hz for the nontarget and 2,000 Hz for the target tones, both at 85 dB. The target tones were 20% of all the tones. The reference-independent data (latency, global field power: GFP, dissimilarity index: DISS and location of centroids) were obtained and analyzed for each ERP component. The momentary electric strength or 'hilliness' of the ERPs landscape was indicated by GFP. The patients showed prolonged latencies and decreased P300 GFP amplitudes and of N100 GFP. These findings suggest that the abnormal electrical field of ERP may reflect abnormal information processing following the attentional process for target stimuli in DAT patients.

  9. Reward and punishment hyposensitivity in problem gamblers: A study of event-related potentials using a principal components analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lole, Lisa; Gonsalvez, Craig J; Barry, Robert J

    2015-07-01

    To investigate whether the latent neural correlates of incentive processing differ between problem gamblers (PGs) and healthy controls (HCs). Event-related potential (ERP) data were derived while 16 PGs and 20 HCs played a computer electronic gaming machine (EGM) task. Psychophysiological responses to outcomes commonly encountered during EGM gambling, including Large wins, Small wins, Near-wins, and Losses, were examined using a spatiotemporal principal components analysis (PCA). Subjects also completed questionnaires that assessed their levels of impulsivity, attraction to appetitive stimuli, and avoidance of aversive stimuli. Losses elicited a feedback-related negativity (FRN), whereas wins elicited a feedback-related positivity (FRP) at the same latency and topography. PGs exhibited both attenuated FRN amplitudes following Losses and FRP amplitudes following Wins. Greater P3b amplitudes were found following Wins compared to Losses. FRN amplitudes following Near-wins were significantly reduced compared to Losses for both PGs and HCs. Trends for reduced P3b amplitudes following all outcome types, and for similar P3b amplitudes following Large and Small wins, were found for the PG group. We provide evidence that PGs are hyposensitive to both positive and negative outcomes. The finding that PGs are hyposensitive to reward and punishment provides valuable insight into the nature of deficit in this disorder, and provides a foundation for future research and clinical interventions. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect Anticipation Affects Perceptual, Cognitive, and Motor Phases of Response Preparation: Evidence from an Event-Related Potential (ERP) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Neil R; Ziessler, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The anticipation of action effects is a basic process that can be observed even for key-pressing responses in a stimulus-response paradigm. In Ziessler et al.'s (2012) experiments participants first learned arbitrary effects of key-pressing responses. In the test phase an imperative stimulus determined the response, but participants withheld the response until a Go-stimulus appeared. Reaction times (RTs) were shorter if the Go-stimulus was compatible with the learned response effect. This is strong evidence that effect representations were activated during response planning. Here, we repeated the experiment using event-related potentials (ERPs), and we found that Go-stimulus locked ERPs depended on the compatibility relationship between the Go-stimulus and the response effect. In general, this supports the interpretation of the behavioral data. More specifically, differences in the ERPs between compatible and incompatible Go-stimuli were found for the early perceptual P1 component and the later frontal P2 component. P1 differences were found only in the second half of the experiment and for long stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) between imperative stimulus and Go-stimulus, i.e., when the effect was fully anticipated and the perceptual system was prepared for the effect-compatible Go-stimulus. P2 amplitudes, likely associated with evaluation and conflict detection, were larger when Go-stimulus and effect were incompatible; presumably, incompatibility increased the difficulty of effect anticipation. Onset of response-locked lateralized readiness potentials (R-LRPs) occurred earlier under incompatible conditions indicating extended motor processing. Together, these results strongly suggest that effect anticipation affects all (i.e., perceptual, cognitive, and motor) phases of response preparation.

  11. The role of Broca's area in regular past-tense morphology: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justus, Timothy; Larsen, Jary; Yang, Jennifer; Davies, Paul de Mornay; Dronkers, Nina; Swick, Diane

    2011-01-01

    It has been suggested that damage to anterior regions of the left hemisphere results in a dissociation in the perception and lexical activation of past-tense forms. Specifically, in a lexical-decision task in which past-tense primes immediately precede present-tense targets, such patients demonstrate significant priming for irregular verbs (spoke-speak), but, unlike control participants, fail to do so for regular verbs (looked-look). Here, this behavioral dissociation was first confirmed in a group of eleven patients with damage to the pars opercularis (BA 44) and pars triangularis (BA 45) of the left inferior frontal gyrus (i.e., Broca's area). Two conditions containing word-onset orthographic-phonological overlap (bead-bee, barge-bar) demonstrated that the disrupted regular-verb priming was accompanied by, and covaried with, disrupted ortho-phonological priming, regardless of whether prime stimuli contained the regular inflectional rhyme pattern. Further, the dissociation between impaired regular-verb and preserved irregular-verb priming was shown to be continuous rather than categorical; priming for weak-irregular verbs (spent-spend) was intermediate in size between that of regular verbs and strong verbs. Such continuous dissociations grounded in ortho-phonological relationships between present- and past-tense forms are predicted by single-system, connectionist approaches to inflectional morphology and not predicted by current dual-system, rule-based models. Event-related potential data demonstrated that N400 priming effects were intact for both regular and irregular verbs, suggesting that the absence of significant regular-verb priming in the response time data did not result from a disruption of lexical access, and may have stemmed instead from post-lexical events such as covert articulation, segmentation strategies, and/or cognitive control. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect anticipation affects perceptual, cognitive, and motor phases of response preparation: evidence from an event-related potential (ERP study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Richard Harrison

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The anticipation of action effects is a basic process that can be observed even for key-pressing responses in a stimulus-response paradigm. In Ziessler, Nattkemper and Vogt’s (2012 experiments participants first learned arbitrary effects of key-pressing responses. In the test phase an imperative stimulus determined the response, but participants withheld the response until a Go-stimulus appeared. Reaction times were shorter if the Go-stimulus was compatible with the learned response effect. This is strong evidence that effect representations were activated during response planning. Here we repeated the experiment using event-related potentials (ERPs, and we found that Go-stimulus locked ERPs depended on the compatibility relationship between the Go-stimulus and the response effect. In general, this supports the interpretation of the behavioural data. More specifically, differences in the ERPs between compatible and incompatible Go-stimuli were found for the early perceptual P1 component and the later frontal P2 component. P1 differences were found only in the second half of the experiment and for long SOAs between imperative stimulus and Go-stimulus, i.e. when the effect was fully anticipated and the perceptual system was prepared for the effect-compatible Go-stimulus. P2 amplitudes, likely associated with evaluation and conflict detection, were larger when Go-stimulus and effect were incompatible; presumably, incompatibility increased the difficulty of effect anticipation. Onset of response-locked LRPs occurred earlier under incompatible conditions indicating extended motor processing. Together, these results strongly suggest that effect anticipation affects all (i.e. perceptual, cognitive, and motor phases of response preparation.

  13. Measurement of event-related potentials and placebo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sovilj Platon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ERP is common abbreviation for event-related brain potentials, which are measured and used in clinical practice as well as in research practice. Contemporary studies of placebo effect are often based on functional neuromagnetic resonance (fMRI, positron emission tomography (PET, and event related potentials (ERP. This paper considers an ERP instrumentation system used in experimental researches of placebo effect. This instrumentation system can be divided into four modules: electrodes and cables, conditioning module, digital measurement module, and PC module for stimulations, presentations, acquisition and data processing. The experimental oddball paradigm is supported by the software of the instrumentation. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR32019 and Provincial Secretariat for Science and Technological Development of Autonomous Province of Vojvodina (Republic of Serbia under research grant No. 114-451-2723

  14. [EVENT-RELATED POTENTIALS AND CLINICAL SYMPTOMS IN SCHIZOPHRENIA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domján, Nóra; Csifcsák, Gábor; Janka, Zoltán

    2016-01-30

    The investigation of schizophrenia's aetiology and pathomechanism is of high importance in neurosciences. In the recent decades, analyzing event-related potentials have proven to be useful to reveal the neuropsychological dysfunctions in schizophrenia. Even the very early stages of auditory stimulus processing are impaired in this disorder; this might contribute to the experience of auditory hallucinations. The present review summarizes the recent literature on the relationship between auditory hallucinations and event-related potentials. Due to the dysfunction of early auditory sensory processing, patients with schizophrenia are not able to locate the source of stimuli and to allocate their attention appropriately. These deficits might lead to auditory hallucinations and problems with daily functioning. Studies involving high risk groups may provide tools for screening and early interventions; thus improving the prognosis of schizophrenia.

  15. Generalization of Context-Specific Training in Individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment: An Event-Related Potential Study

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    Sam C.C. Chan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study examined the neural processes associated with the generalization of the effect of context-specific (CS training to noncontextual situations among individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI. Methods: Fourteen and 16 participants with MCI were randomly allocated to a Chinese calligraphy writing (CW training or a control group, respectively. The CW participants learned how to write Chinese strokes in a semicursive style to construct characters, tapping on working memory functions. The control group, on the other hand, learned how to use a tablet computer without emphasis on working memory functions. They then performed two 2-back tasks with CS semicursive strokes and non-context-specific (NCS digits. Event-related electroencephalogram signals were concurrently recorded. Results: The CW participants had a significantly shorter reaction time in the CS than in the NCS task (p < 0.05. They showed significantly longer latency in working memory updating (N200; t11 = 4.70, p = 0.05 and shorter latency in the evaluation of visual representation (P300; t12 = 4.67; p = 0.05 than the control group when performing the 2-back CS task. Shorter P300 latency was also revealed in the 2-back NCS task (t12 = 5.15, p = 0.041, suggesting a possible generalization of the training effect among the CW participants. Conclusion: The results suggest that CS working memory is likely to be generalized to NCS domains among individuals with MCI. Future research should extend the scope of the generalization and apply it beyond experimental conditions.

  16. Comparison of brain mechanisms underlying the processing of Chinese characters and pseudo-characters: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Li, Hong; Zhang, Qinglin; Tu, Shen; Yu, Caiyun; Qiu, Jiang

    2010-04-01

    Most Chinese characters are composed of a semantic radical on the left and a phonetic radical on the right. The semantic radical provides the semantic information; the phonetic radical provides information concerning the pronunciation of the whole character. The pseudo-characters in the study consisted of different sub-lexical parts of real Chinese characters and consequently they also had the semantic radical and the phonetic radical. But they were not readable and had no actual meaning. In order to investigate the spatiotemporal cortical activation patterns underlying the orthographic, phonological and semantic processing of Chinese characters, we used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to explore the processing of Chinese characters and pseudo-characters when 14 healthy Chinese college students viewed the characters passively. Results showed that both Chinese characters and pseudo-characters elicited an evident negative potential peaking around 120 ms (N120), which appeared to reflect initial orthographic distinction and evaluation. Then, Chinese pseudo-characters elicited a more positive ERP deflection (P220) than did Chinese characters 200-250 ms after onset of the stimuli. It was similar to the recognition potential (RP) and might reflect the integration processes of phonological and semantic processing on the basis of early orthographic information. Dipole source analysis of the difference wave (pseudo-characters minus characters) indicated that a generator localized in the left temporal-occipital junction contributed to this effect, which was possibly related to phonological and perceptual-semantic information integration. Between 350-450 ms, a greater negativity (N360) in pseudo-characters as compared to characters was found over midline fronto-central scalp regions. Dipole analysis localized the generator of N360 in the right parahippocampal cortex. Therefore, the N360 might be an N400 component and reflect the higher-level semantic activation on the

  17. Human Auditory Processing: Insights from Cortical Event-related Potentials

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    Alexandra P. Key

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Human communication and language skills rely heavily on the ability to detect and process auditory inputs. This paper reviews possible applications of the event-related potential (ERP technique to the study of cortical mechanisms supporting human auditory processing, including speech stimuli. Following a brief introduction to the ERP methodology, the remaining sections focus on demonstrating how ERPs can be used in humans to address research questions related to cortical organization, maturation and plasticity, as well as the effects of sensory deprivation, and multisensory interactions. The review is intended to serve as a primer for researchers interested in using ERPs for the study of the human auditory system.

  18. Distinct patterns of dysfunctional appetitive and aversive motivation in bipolar disorder versus schizophrenia: An event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, William P; Wynn, Jonathan K; Hajcak, Greg; Altshuler, Lori; Green, Michael F

    2016-05-01

    Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are associated with different clinical profiles of disturbances in motivation, yet few studies have compared the neurophysiological correlates of such disturbances. Outpatients with schizophrenia (n = 34), or bipolar disorder I (n = 33), and healthy controls (n = 31) completed a task in which the late positive potential (LPP), an index of motivated attention, was assessed along motivational gradients determined by apparent distance from potential rewards or punishments. Sequences of cues signaling possible monetary gains or losses appeared to loom progressively closer to the viewer; a reaction time (RT) task after the final cue determined the outcome. Controls showed the expected pattern with LPPs for appetitive and aversive cues that were initially elevated, smaller during intermediate positions, and escalated just prior to the RT task. The clinical groups showed different patterns in the final positions just prior to the RT task: the bipolar group's LPPs to both types of cues peaked relatively early during looming sequences and subsequently decreased, whereas the schizophrenia group showed relatively small LPP escalations, particularly for aversive cues. These distinct patterns suggest that the temporal unfolding of attentional resource allocation for motivationally significant events may qualitatively differ between these disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Psychosocial Intervention Is Associated with Altered Emotion Processing: An Event-Related Potential Study in At-Risk Adolescents.

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    Hannah L Pincham

    Full Text Available Emotion processing is vital for healthy adolescent development, and impaired emotional responses are associated with a number of psychiatric disorders. However, it is unclear whether observed differences between psychiatric populations and healthy controls reflect modifiable variations in functioning (and thus could be sensitive to changes resulting from intervention or stable, non-modifiable, individual differences. The current study therefore investigated whether the Late Positive Potential (LPP; a neural index of emotion processing can be used as a marker of therapeutic change following psycho-social intervention. At-risk male adolescents who had received less than four months intervention (minimal-intervention, N = 32 or more than nine months intervention (extended-intervention, N = 32 passively viewed emotional images whilst neural activity was recorded using electroencephalography. Significant differences in emotion processing, indicated by the LPP, were found between the two groups: the LPP did not differ according to valence in the minimal-intervention group, whereas the extended-intervention participants showed emotion processing in line with low risk populations (enhanced LPP for unpleasant images versus other images. Further, an inverse relationship between emotional reactivity (measured via the LPP and antisocial behaviour was observed in minimal-intervention participants only. The data therefore provide preliminary cross-sectional evidence that abnormal neural responses to emotional information may be normalised following psychosocial intervention. Importantly, this study uniquely suggests that, in future randomised control trials, the LPP may be a useful biomarker to measure development and therapeutic change.

  20. Psychosocial Intervention Is Associated with Altered Emotion Processing: An Event-Related Potential Study in At-Risk Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincham, Hannah L; Bryce, Donna; Kokorikou, Danae; Fonagy, Peter; Fearon, R M Pasco

    2016-01-01

    Emotion processing is vital for healthy adolescent development, and impaired emotional responses are associated with a number of psychiatric disorders. However, it is unclear whether observed differences between psychiatric populations and healthy controls reflect modifiable variations in functioning (and thus could be sensitive to changes resulting from intervention) or stable, non-modifiable, individual differences. The current study therefore investigated whether the Late Positive Potential (LPP; a neural index of emotion processing) can be used as a marker of therapeutic change following psycho-social intervention. At-risk male adolescents who had received less than four months intervention (minimal-intervention, N = 32) or more than nine months intervention (extended-intervention, N = 32) passively viewed emotional images whilst neural activity was recorded using electroencephalography. Significant differences in emotion processing, indicated by the LPP, were found between the two groups: the LPP did not differ according to valence in the minimal-intervention group, whereas the extended-intervention participants showed emotion processing in line with low risk populations (enhanced LPP for unpleasant images versus other images). Further, an inverse relationship between emotional reactivity (measured via the LPP) and antisocial behaviour was observed in minimal-intervention participants only. The data therefore provide preliminary cross-sectional evidence that abnormal neural responses to emotional information may be normalised following psychosocial intervention. Importantly, this study uniquely suggests that, in future randomised control trials, the LPP may be a useful biomarker to measure development and therapeutic change.

  1. A study of N250 event-related brain potential during face and non-face detection tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr, Shahin; Esteky, Hossein

    2009-05-08

    Face perception relies on activation of a complex set of different neural modules. In this study, we assessed the stimulus selectivity of the occipitotemporal N250 ERP component and the possible link between its neural substrates and modules underlying preceding (N170/VPP) and following (P400) category selective ERPs. We recorded N250 during face and leaf detection tasks while we varied stimulus visibility from trial to trial by using a backward masking paradigm. Our results revealed that N250, but not the other tested potentials, was exclusively sensitive to the visibility of faces even when the non-face stimuli served as the task target. We also found a correlation between evoked N170 and N250, in response to face stimuli and to a lesser extent in response to other non-face objects, irrespective of the subjects' task. Besides N250, P400 also showed a strong correlation with N170, but here, the amount of correlation was not affected by stimulus category. Interestingly, despite N250 and N400 correlation with N170, we did not find any correlation between N250 and P400, suggesting that modules underlying these ERP components belong to two different face-processing pathways. We suggest that N250 is initiated by N170 and indexes processes exclusively responsible for encoding faces.

  2. Effects of aging on P300 between late young-age and early middle-age adulthood: an electroencephalogram event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourisly, Ali K

    2016-09-28

    The aim of this study was to identify age-related changes of P300 peak amplitude and P300 latency between closely separated nonsenile age groups (late young-aged adults and early middle-aged adults) and to investigate whether or not P300 has the potential to be used as a measure of cognitive aging even among nonsenile age groups. Twenty-eight adults (25-55 years old) completed an event-related potential oddball task. The elicitation of both P300 peak amplitude and P300 latency indicated age-related changes of P300. The results of the study showed that the P300 target peak amplitude was significantly larger in late young age compared with early middle age and that P300 target latency was also significantly delayed in early middle age compared with late young age. The results of this work contribute toward research efforts on a consensus on how aging affects event-related potential and/or P300. The main conclusions are that there exist significant age-related P300 changes even between closely separated, relatively younger, and nonsenile age groups, and that P300 has the potential to be used as a measure for cognitive aging even in nonsenile adults.

  3. Impact of totally and partially predictive alert in distracted and undistracted subjects: An event related potential study

    OpenAIRE

    FORT, Alexandra; COLLETTE, Boris; BUENO, Mercedes; DELEURENCE, Philippe; BONNARD, Arnaud

    2013-01-01

    Rear-end collisions represent about 30% of all car crashes and generate a significant economic cost for society. Driver inattention has been identified as the most important contributing factor in rear-end collisions. One possible countermeasure is the use of systems that warn drivers of potential collisions. Nevertheless, because of technical constraints, the conception of perfect warning systems is difficult to achieve and technical literature shows that these kinds of systems can be prone ...

  4. Disturbances in Response Inhibition and Emotional Processing as Potential Pathways to Violence in Schizophrenia: A High-Density Event-Related Potential Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakowski, Menahem I; De Sanctis, Pierfilippo; Foxe, John J; Hoptman, Matthew J; Nolan, Karen; Kamiel, Stephanie; Czobor, Pal

    2016-07-01

    Increased susceptibility to emotional triggers and poor response inhibition are important in the etiology of violence in schizophrenia. Our goal was to evaluate abnormalities in neurophysiological mechanisms underlying response inhibition and emotional processing in violent patients with schizophrenia (VS) and 3 different comparison groups: nonviolent patients (NV), healthy controls (HC) and nonpsychotic violent subjects (NPV). We recorded high-density Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) and behavioral responses during an Emotional Go/NoGo Task in 35 VS, 24 NV, 28 HC and 31 NPV subjects. We also evaluated psychiatric symptoms and impulsivity. The neural and behavioral deficits in violent patients were most pronounced when they were presented with negative emotional stimuli: They responded more quickly than NV when they made commission errors (ie, failure of inhibition), and evidenced N2 increases and P3 decreases. In contrast, NVs showed little change in reaction time or ERP amplitude with emotional stimuli. These N2 and P3 amplitude changes in VSs showed a strong association with greater impulsivity. Besides these group specific changes, VSs shared deficits with NV, mostly N2 reduction, and with violent nonpsychotic subjects, particularly P3 reduction. Negative affective triggers have a strong impact on violent patients with schizophrenia which may have both behavioral and neural manifestations. The resulting activation could interfere with response inhibition. The affective disruption of response inhibition, identified in this study, may index an important pathway to violence in schizophrenia and suggest new modes of treatment. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. The bimodal P300 oddball component is decreased in patients with an adjustment disorder: An event-related potentials study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajosch, Hendrik; Gallhofer, Bernd; Corten, Philippe; From, Léon; Verbanck, Paul; Campanella, Salvatore

    2016-10-01

    We found previously that use of a bimodal oddball design with synchronized pairs of audio-visual stimuli increased the sensitivity of the P300 wave to detect subclinical anxiety-depression in otherwise healthy subjects. Here, we wished to determine whether these P300 modulations would also be encountered when a clinical population comprised of patients with an adjustment disorder (AJD) was compared to healthy controls. Two groups, each comprised of twenty-five participants (AJD patients, and controls; N=50) had to detect deviant stimuli among frequent stimuli in an oddball task by clicking on a button. Separate blocks involving audio (A), visual (V) or bimodal congruent (AV) stimuli were used and compared. P300 amplitudes of the control group were higher than those displayed by AJD patients, but only in the bimodal AV oddball task, while unimodal (visual or auditory) oddball tasks did not reveal any significant differences. The increased sensitivity of the bimodal P300 that we observed previously in subclinical anxiety-depression was also observed in AJD patients. The impaired "bimodal congruence effect" in AJD suggests that these patients have altered integrative processes, which has potential implications for cognitive therapy. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Joint Influence of Metaphor Familiarity and Mental Imagery Ability on Action Metaphor Comprehension: An Event-Related Potential Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shen, Zih-Yu; Tsai, Yi-Ting; Lee, Chia-Lin

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates whether an individual’s mental imagery ability, in addition to metaphor familiarity, affects the degree of sensory-motor involvement during action metaphor comprehension...

  7. Error Detection and Response Adjustment in Youth With Mild Spastic Cerebral Palsy : An Event-Related Brain Potential Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hakkarainen, Elina; Pirila, Silja; Kaartinen, Jukka; van der Meere, Jaap J.

    This study evaluated the brain activation state during error making in youth with mild spastic cerebral palsy and a peer control group while carrying out a stimulus recognition task. The key question was whether patients were detecting their own errors and subsequently improving their performance in

  8. Implicit and Explicit Mechanisms of Word Learning in a Narrative Context: An Event-Related Potential Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterink, Laura; Neville, Helen

    2011-01-01

    The vast majority of word meanings are learned simply by extracting them from context rather than by rote memorization or explicit instruction. Although this skill is remarkable, little is known about the brain mechanisms involved. In the present study, ERPs were recorded as participants read stories in which pseudowords were presented multiple…

  9. Association Study between Auditory P3a/P3b Event-Related Potentials and Thought Disorder in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirihara, Kenji; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Uetsuki, Miki; Yamasue, Hidenori; Hata, Akinobu; Rogers, Mark A; Iwanami, Akira; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2009-09-01

    Thought disorder is considered as one of the core features of schizophrenia and several research groups previously reported an association between P300 (P3b) amplitude and thought disorder in schizophrenia. However, previous studies have not evaluated two P300 subcomponents (P3a and P3b) to investigate whether the relationship with thought disorder was specific to P3b. In this study, we measured P3b and thought disorder of 60 patients with schizophrenia. We also measured P3a of 36 patients out of this sample. We replicated correlation between P3b amplitude and thought disorder and extended this finding by observing that this correlation was not present for the P3a subcomponent. These results suggest that specific electrophysiological abnormalities associated with context updating may underlie thought disorder in schizophrenia.

  10. Thai lexical tone perception in native speakers of Thai, English and Mandarin Chinese: an event-related potentials training study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaan, Edith; Barkley, Christopher M; Bao, Mingzhen; Wayland, Ratree

    2008-06-23

    Tone languages such as Thai and Mandarin Chinese use differences in fundamental frequency (F0, pitch) to distinguish lexical meaning. Previous behavioral studies have shown that native speakers of a non-tone language have difficulty discriminating among tone contrasts and are sensitive to different F0 dimensions than speakers of a tone language. The aim of the present ERP study was to investigate the effect of language background and training on the non-attentive processing of lexical tones. EEG was recorded from 12 adult native speakers of Mandarin Chinese, 12 native speakers of American English, and 11 Thai speakers while they were watching a movie and were presented with multiple tokens of low-falling, mid-level and high-rising Thai lexical tones. High-rising or low-falling tokens were presented as deviants among mid-level standard tokens, and vice versa. EEG data and data from a behavioral discrimination task were collected before and after a two-day perceptual categorization training task. Behavioral discrimination improved after training in both the Chinese and the English groups. Low-falling tone deviants versus standards elicited a mismatch negativity (MMN) in all language groups. Before, but not after training, the English speakers showed a larger MMN compared to the Chinese, even though English speakers performed worst in the behavioral tasks. The MMN was followed by a late negativity, which became smaller with improved discrimination. The High-rising deviants versus standards elicited a late negativity, which was left-lateralized only in the English and Chinese groups. Results showed that native speakers of English, Chinese and Thai recruited largely similar mechanisms when non-attentively processing Thai lexical tones. However, native Thai speakers differed from the Chinese and English speakers with respect to the processing of late F0 contour differences (high-rising versus mid-level tones). In addition, native speakers of a non-tone language (English

  11. Thai lexical tone perception in native speakers of Thai, English and Mandarin Chinese: An event-related potentials training study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao Mingzhen

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tone languages such as Thai and Mandarin Chinese use differences in fundamental frequency (F0, pitch to distinguish lexical meaning. Previous behavioral studies have shown that native speakers of a non-tone language have difficulty discriminating among tone contrasts and are sensitive to different F0 dimensions than speakers of a tone language. The aim of the present ERP study was to investigate the effect of language background and training on the non-attentive processing of lexical tones. EEG was recorded from 12 adult native speakers of Mandarin Chinese, 12 native speakers of American English, and 11 Thai speakers while they were watching a movie and were presented with multiple tokens of low-falling, mid-level and high-rising Thai lexical tones. High-rising or low-falling tokens were presented as deviants among mid-level standard tokens, and vice versa. EEG data and data from a behavioral discrimination task were collected before and after a two-day perceptual categorization training task. Results Behavioral discrimination improved after training in both the Chinese and the English groups. Low-falling tone deviants versus standards elicited a mismatch negativity (MMN in all language groups. Before, but not after training, the English speakers showed a larger MMN compared to the Chinese, even though English speakers performed worst in the behavioral tasks. The MMN was followed by a late negativity, which became smaller with improved discrimination. The High-rising deviants versus standards elicited a late negativity, which was left-lateralized only in the English and Chinese groups. Conclusion Results showed that native speakers of English, Chinese and Thai recruited largely similar mechanisms when non-attentively processing Thai lexical tones. However, native Thai speakers differed from the Chinese and English speakers with respect to the processing of late F0 contour differences (high-rising versus mid-level tones. In

  12. The study of different attention states under different background music based on Event-Related potential analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Yun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper conducts the research on the attention sates based on ERP analysis when the subjects are under the quiet, flute and zither background music. The amplitude and latency of P300 are analyzed. The results show that there are greater P300 amplitudes and smaller P300 latencies of CZ, PZ, OZ and CP3 in music background than those in quiet background. The PCA and ICA achieve to select the effective data components and the head model is reconstructed. The active degree of brain areas are analyzed by using the source location methods. The result shows that the brain’s excitement is very obvious under the Bach's flute background. The study also indicates that some background music might help to improve the attention.

  13. The P300 event-related potential and its possible role as an endophenotype for studying substance use disorders: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shubh M; Basu, Debasish

    2009-07-01

    The concept of endophenotypes has gained popularity in recent years. This is because of the potential that endophenotypes provide of measuring objective trait markers that are simpler to access and assess than complex behavioral disease phenotypes themselves. The simplicity, ease of measurement and the putative links to the etiology of the disease in the study of an endophenotype has the potential promise of unraveling the genetic basis of the disease in question. Of the various proposed endophenotypes, the P300 component of the event-related potential has been used in studies on alcoholism, schizophrenia and externalizing disorders. The current state of knowledge regarding the concept of endophenotypes, P300 and the validity of P300 as an endophenotype with special reference to substance use disorders is discussed in this review. The implications of the above are discussed.

  14. Cortical response variation with different sound pressure levels: a combined event-related potentials and FMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Neuner

    Full Text Available Simultaneous recording of electroencephalography (EEG and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI provides high spatial and temporal resolution. In this study we combined EEG and fMRI to investigate the structures involved in the processing of different sound pressure levels (SPLs.EEG data were recorded simultaneously with fMRI from 16 healthy volunteers using MR compatible devices at 3 T. Tones with different SPLs were delivered to the volunteers and the N1/P2 amplitudes were included as covariates in the fMRI data analysis in order to compare the structures activated with high and low SPLs. Analysis of variance (ANOVA and ROI analysis were also performed. Additionally, source localisation analysis was performed on the EEG data.The integration of averaged ERP parameters into the fMRI analysis showed an extended map of areas exhibiting covariation with the BOLD signal related to the auditory stimuli. The ANOVA and ROI analyses also revealed additional brain areas other than the primary auditory cortex (PAC which were active with the auditory stimulation at different SPLs. The source localisation analyses showed additional sources apart from the PAC which were active with the high SPLs.The PAC and the insula play an important role in the processing of different SPLs. In the fMRI analysis, additional activation was found in the anterior cingulate cortex, opercular and orbito-frontal cortices with high SPLs. A strong response of the visual cortex was also found with the high SPLs, suggesting the presence of cross-modal effects.

  15. Intracerebral Event-related Potentials to Subthreshold Target Stimuli

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brázdil, M.; Rektor, I.; Daniel, P.; Dufek, M.; Jurák, Pavel

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 4 (2001), s. 650-661 ISSN 1388-2457 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA309/98/0490 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2065902 Keywords : event-related potentials * intracerebral recordings * oddball paradigm Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 1.922, year: 2001

  16. Event-Related Potentials and Emotion Processing in Child Psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia eChronaki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been increasing interest in the neural mechanisms underlying altered emotional processes in children and adolescents with psychopathology. This review provides a brief overview of the most up-to-date findings in the field of Event-Related Potentials (ERPs to facial and vocal emotional expressions in the most common child psychopathological conditions. In regards to externalising behaviour (i.e. ADHD, CD, ERP studies show enhanced early components to anger, reflecting enhanced sensory processing, followed by reductions in later components to anger, reflecting reduced cognitive-evaluative processing. In regards to internalising behaviour, research supports models of increased processing of threat stimuli especially at later more elaborate and effortful stages. Finally, in autism spectrum disorders abnormalities have been observed at early visual-perceptual stages of processing. An affective neuroscience framework for understanding child psychopathology can be valuable in elucidating underlying mechanisms and inform preventive intervention.

  17. Hyperarticulation of vowels enhances phonetic change responses in both native and non-native speakers of English: evidence from an auditory event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uther, Maria; Giannakopoulou, Anastasia; Iverson, Paul

    2012-08-27

    The finding that hyperarticulation of vowel sounds occurs in certain speech registers (e.g., infant- and foreigner-directed speech) suggests that hyperarticulation may have a didactic function in facilitating acquisition of new phonetic categories in language learners. This event-related potential study tested whether hyperarticulation of vowels elicits larger phonetic change responses, as indexed by the mismatch negativity (MMN) component of the auditory event-related potential (ERP) and tested native and non-native speakers of English. Data from 11 native English-speaking and 10 native Greek-speaking participants showed that Greek speakers in general had smaller MMNs compared to English speakers, confirming previous studies demonstrating sensitivity of the MMN to language background. In terms of the effect of hyperarticulation, hyperarticulated stimuli elicited larger MMNs for both language groups, suggesting vowel space expansion does elicit larger pre-attentive phonetic change responses. Interestingly Greek native speakers showed some P3a activity that was not present in the English native speakers, raising the possibility that additional attentional switch mechanisms are activated in non-native speakers compared to native speakers. These results give general support for models of speech learning such as Kuhl's Native Language Magnet enhanced (NLM-e) theory. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Developmental trajectories of event related potentials related to working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriga-Paulino, Catarina I; Rodríguez-Martínez, Elena I; Arjona, Antonio; Morales, Manuel; Gómez, Carlos M

    2017-01-27

    Working memory is an important cognitive function, and it is crucial to better understand its neurophysiological mechanisms. The developmental trajectories of the Event Related Potentials related to this important function have hardly been studied. However, these ERPs may provide some clues about the individual state of maturation, as has been demonstrated for anatomical brain images. The present study aims to determine the behavioral and neurophysiological development of Working Memory (WM) processes. For this purpose, 170 subjects with ages ranging from 6 to 26 years performed a visual Delayed Match-to-Sample task (DMTS). The RTs, total errors, and Event Related Potentials (ERPs) in the phases of encoding, retention, and matching were obtained. Results revealed a decrease in the amplitude of ERPs with age, paralleled by improved performance on the DMTS task (i.e., shorter RTs and fewer errors). None of these variables were affected by gender. To determine whether memory performance was influenced by the individual pattern of maturation beyond age, the amplitude of the different ERP components was correlated with RT and errors on the WM task after removing the effect of age. Frontal N2 and posterior P1 and the Late Positive Component were the only ERPs that presented significant correlations with behavioral errors. Behavioral performance was predicted by age and by the scores on the first component extracted from Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the ERPs. Age (under 17 years old) explained 85.04% and the PCA component explained 14.96% of the variance explained by the bivariate model predicting behavioral errors (1/age + scores of 1st PCA component). From the age of 17 on, the principal PCA component ceases to be an independent component predicting error performance. The results suggest that the individual maturation of ERP components seems to be of particular importance in controlling behavioral errors in WM, as measured by the DMTS. Copyright © 2016

  19. Study of the combinatorial impact of empathy and emotion on the processing of conflicts of interest with the event-related potential technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He XL

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Xiaoli He,1 Ni Zhang2 1Department of Psychology, Ningxia University, Yinchuan, 2Center of Mental Health Education for College Students, Weifang Medical University, Weifang, China Objectives: Studies have found that empathy is important in moral development and violence suppression, and emotion also affects empathy. However, the combinatorial effect of emotion and empathy on the processing of conflicts is not known.Materials and methods: A total of 44 undergraduate students (23 in low-empathy group and 21 in high-empathy group were enrolled in this study. They were subjected to positive, negative, and neutral emotion evoking, as well as conflicting or nonconflicting proposals. Event-related potential technology was used to study the combinatorial effects of empathy and emotion on the processing of conflict of interest.Results: We found that under the influence of a positive emotion, both low- and high-empathy groups exhibited lower rejection rates. In the context of conflict, individuals in the high-empathy group showed fewer refusals under positive emotion. In the low-empathy group, there was no significant difference between responses to different emotions, but conflicting proposals induced more negative medial frontal negativity than nonconflicting proposals. Individuals in the low-empathy group showed different late positive potentials when responding to different types of proposals under both neutral and negative emotions, whereas those in the high-empathy group only showed different late positive potentials responding to different types of proposals under negative emotion.Conclusion: Our results indicate that under positive emotion, individuals with low empathy show less difference in processing either conflicting or nonconflicting proposals, whereas under negative emotion, individuals with high empathy show enhanced motivation toward nonconflicting proposals. Keywords: empathy, conflicts of interest, emotion, event-related potential, late

  20. Evidence from auditory and visual event-related potential (ERP) studies of deviance detection (MMN and vMMN) linking predictive coding theories and perceptual object representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, István; Czigler, István

    2012-02-01

    Predictive coding theories posit that the perceptual system is structured as a hierarchically organized set of generative models with increasingly general models at higher levels. The difference between model predictions and the actual input (prediction error) drives model selection and adaptation processes minimizing the prediction error. Event-related brain potentials elicited by sensory deviance are thought to reflect the processing of prediction error at an intermediate level in the hierarchy. We review evidence from auditory and visual studies of deviance detection suggesting that the memory representations inferred from these studies meet the criteria set for perceptual object representations. Based on this evidence we then argue that these perceptual object representations are closely related to the generative models assumed by predictive coding theories. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Somatosensory Event-related Potentials from Orofacial Skin Stretch Stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Ito, Takayuki; Ostry, David J; Gracco, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Cortical processing associated with orofacial somatosensory function in speech has received limited experimental attention due to the difficulty of providing precise and controlled stimulation. This article introduces a technique for recording somatosensory event-related potentials (ERP) that uses a novel mechanical stimulation method involving skin deformation using a robotic device. Controlled deformation of the facial skin is used to modulate kinesthetic inputs thro...

  2. The Phonotactic Influence on the Perception of a Consonant Cluster /pt/ by Native English and Native Polish Listeners: A Behavioral and Event Related Potential (ERP) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Monica; Shafer, Valerie L.; Martin, Brett; Steinschneider, Mitchell

    2012-01-01

    The effect of exposure to the contextual features of the /pt/ cluster was investigated in native-English and native-Polish listeners using behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) methodology. Both groups experience the /pt/ cluster in their languages, but only the Polish group experiences the cluster in the context of word onset examined in…

  3. Stimulus evaluation, event preparation, and motor action planning in young patients with mild spastic cerebral palsy: an event-related brain potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkarainen, Elina; Pirilä, Silja; Kaartinen, Jukka; Meere, Jaap J van der

    2012-04-01

    The study investigated stimulus evaluation time, event preparation, and motor action planning of patients with mild spastic cerebral palsy and a peer control group in the age range of 9 to 18 years. To this end, participants were carrying out a stimulus recognition task. Findings indicated an overall slowness and inaccurate reaction time performance of the patient group. An event-related potential analysis revealed that the stimulus evaluation processing, indexed by the parietal P300, was intact in the group of patients. Also event preparation and action planning, indexed by respectively the frontal late contingent negative variation and the frontal P2, were intact in the group of patients. It was concluded that patients' motor slowness reflected poor motor execution processes.

  4. A comparative study between a simplified Kalman filter and Sliding Window Averaging for single trial dynamical estimation of event-related potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel-Larsen, Esben; Fuglø, Jacob; Channir, Fouad

    2010-01-01

    The classical approach for extracting event-related potentials (ERPs) from the brain is ensemble averaging. For long latency ERPs this is not optimal, partly due to the time-delay in obtaining a response and partly because the latency and amplitude for the ERP components, like the P300......, are variable and depend on cognitive function. This study compares the performance of a simplified Kalman filter with Sliding Window Averaging in tracking dynamical changes in single trial P300. The comparison is performed on simulated P300 data with added background noise consisting of both simulated and real...... in the P300 component and in a considerably higher robustness towards suboptimal settings. The latter is of great importance in a clinical setting where the optimal setting cannot be determined....

  5. Auditory P300 event-related potential in tobacco smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guney, Figen; Genc, Bulent Oguz; Kutlu, Ruhusen; Ilhan, Bilge Cetin

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the chronic effects of tobacco smoking on the P300, a neurophysiological index of cognitive function. Prospective study participants were recruited from a family medicine polyclinic. We selected 32 right-handed smokers who had smoked more than 15 cigarettes per day, by inhalation, for more than 2 years. The control population consisted of 32 right-handed, age-matched healthy individuals who had never smoked. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded with the auditory "oddball" two-tone discrimination task. The data from the central (Cz) and frontal (Fz) electrodes were analyzed. The P300 and N1 amplitudes at Fz were lower in the study population compared to the control group. The early component of ERP, the measure of mental speed (N1) latency at Fz was prolonged in the study group compared to the controls, possibly because early cognitive processes such as sensory input or initial encoding of sensory information were delayed in this group. For those who smoke, a decreased N1 amplitude might indicate delayed information processing and possibly short-term memory disturbance. Thus, chronic tobacco smoking may produce prefrontal cognitive dysfunction.

  6. Effect of initiation-inhibition and handedness on the patterns of the P50 event-related potential component: a low resolution electromagnetic tomography study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capsalis Christos N

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent research recognizes the association between handedness, linguistic processes and cerebral networks subserving executive functioning, but the nature of this association remains unclear. Since the P50 event related potential (ERP is considered to reflect thalamocortical processes in association with working memory (WM operation the present study focuses on P50 patterns elicited during the performance of a linguistic related executive functioning test in right- and left-handers. Methods In 64 young adults with a high educational level (33 left-handed the P50 event-related potential was recorded while performing the initiation and inhibition condition of a modified version of the Hayling Sentence Completion test adjusted to induce WM. The manual preference of the participants was evaluated with the use of the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory (EHI. Results P50 showed greater amplitudes in left- than in right-handers, mainly in frontal leads, in the initiation condition. Reduced amplitudes in inhibition compared to initiation condition were observed in left-handers. Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA analysis showed lower frontal lobe activation in the inhibition than in the initiation condition in both right- and left-handers. Also, LORETA yielded that right-handers exhibited greater activation in the inhibition condition than left-handers. Additionally, LORETA showed assymetrical hemispheric activation patterns in right-handers, in contrast to symmetrical patterns observed in left-handers. Higher P50 amplitudes were recorded in right-hemisphere of right-handers in the initiation condition. Conclusion Brain activation, especially the one closely related to thalamocortical function, elicited during WM operation involving initiation and inhibition processes appears to be related to handedness.

  7. Auditory attention in childhood and adolescence: An event-related potential study of spatial selective attention to one of two simultaneous stories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M. Karns

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Auditory selective attention is a critical skill for goal-directed behavior, especially where noisy distractions may impede focusing attention. To better understand the developmental trajectory of auditory spatial selective attention in an acoustically complex environment, in the current study we measured auditory event-related potentials (ERPs across five age groups: 3–5 years; 10 years; 13 years; 16 years; and young adults. Using a naturalistic dichotic listening paradigm, we characterized the ERP morphology for nonlinguistic and linguistic auditory probes embedded in attended and unattended stories. We documented robust maturational changes in auditory evoked potentials that were specific to the types of probes. Furthermore, we found a remarkable interplay between age and attention-modulation of auditory evoked potentials in terms of morphology and latency from the early years of childhood through young adulthood. The results are consistent with the view that attention can operate across age groups by modulating the amplitude of maturing auditory early-latency evoked potentials or by invoking later endogenous attention processes. Development of these processes is not uniform for probes with different acoustic properties within our acoustically dense speech-based dichotic listening task. In light of the developmental differences we demonstrate, researchers conducting future attention studies of children and adolescents should be wary of combining analyses across diverse ages.

  8. Auditory attention in childhood and adolescence: An event-related potential study of spatial selective attention to one of two simultaneous stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karns, Christina M.; Isbell, Elif; Giuliano, Ryan J.; Neville, Helen J.

    2015-01-01

    Auditory selective attention is a critical skill for goal-directed behavior, especially where noisy distractions may impede focusing attention. To better understand the developmental trajectory of auditory spatial selective attention in an acoustically complex environment, in the current study we measured auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) in human children across five age groups: 3–5 years; 10 years; 13 years; 16 years; and young adults using a naturalistic dichotic listening paradigm, characterizing the ERP morphology for nonlinguistic and linguistic auditory probes embedded in attended and unattended stories. We documented robust maturational changes in auditory evoked potentials that were specific to the types of probes. Furthermore, we found a remarkable interplay between age and attention-modulation of auditory evoked potentials in terms of morphology and latency from the early years of childhood through young adulthood. The results are consistent with the view that attention can operate across age groups by modulating the amplitude of maturing auditory early-latency evoked potentials or by invoking later endogenous attention processes. Development of these processes is not uniform for probes with different acoustic properties within our acoustically dense speech-based dichotic listening task. In light of the developmental differences we demonstrate, researchers conducting future attention studies of children and adolescents should be wary of combining analyses across diverse ages. PMID:26002721

  9. Event-related potential correlates of mindfulness meditation competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchley, Rachel; Klee, Dan; Memmott, Tabatha; Goodrich, Elena; Wahbeh, Helané; Oken, Barry

    2016-01-01

    Objective This cross-sectional study evaluated event-related potentials (ERPs) across three groups: naïve, novice, and experienced meditators as potential physiological markers of mindfulness meditation competence. Methods Electroencephalographic (EEG) data was collected during a target tone detection task and a Breath Counting task. The Breath Counting task served as the mindfulness meditation condition for the novice and experienced meditator groups. Participants were instructed to respond to target tones with a button press in the first task (Tones), and then ignore the primed tones while breath counting. The primary outcomes were ERP responses to target tones, namely the N2 and P3, as markers of stimulus discrimination and attention, respectively. Results As expected, P3 amplitudes elicited by target tones were attenuated within groups during the Breath Counting task in comparison to the Tones task (p < .001). There was a task by group interaction for P3 (p = .039). Both meditator groups displayed greater change in peak-to-trough P3 amplitudes, with higher amplitudes during the Tones condition and more pronounced reductions in P3 amplitudes during the Breath Counting meditation task in comparison to the naïve group. Conclusions Meditators had stronger P3 amplitude responses to target tones when instructed to attend to the tones, and a greater attenuation of P3 amplitudes when instructed to ignore the same tones during the Breath Counting task. This study introduces the idea of identifying ERP markers as a means of measuring mindfulness meditation competence, and results suggest this may be a valid approach. This information has the potential to improve mindfulness meditation interventions by allowing objective assessment of mindfulness meditation quality. PMID:26850995

  10. Event-related oscillations versus event-related potentials in a P300 task as biomarkers for alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Colin; Fein, George

    2010-04-01

    It has been proposed that event-related oscillation (ERO) measures of EEG activity recorded in P300 tasks provide more powerful biomarkers of alcoholism than event-related potential (ERP) measures. This study examines this question in a group of long-term abstinent alcoholics (LTAAs). EEGs were recorded on 48 LTAAs and 48 age and gender-matched nonalcoholic controls (NACs) during the performance of a 3-condition visual target detection task. The event-related data were analyzed to extract ERP amplitude measures and total and evoked ERO power measures. Data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of covariance to determine the contributions of ERO versus ERP measures to discriminate between the LTAA versus NAC groups. The LTAA group showed significantly lower evoked delta ERO power and total delta and theta ERO power compared to the control group. The evoked and total ERO power measures provide an alternative (but not more powerful) representation of the group difference than does P3b amplitude. There was a weak suggestion that nonphase-locked theta ERO power (which contributes to total ERO power) might provide independent discriminatory information. Reduced evoked ERO power in the response to target stimuli provided an alternative and comparable representation of the reduced P3b amplitude in LTAA. This is not surprising as the evoked ERO power measures are derived from time-frequency representations of the ERP waveform. Induced theta oscillations might provide independent discriminatory information beyond ERP amplitude measures, but separate analysis of the event-related nonphase-locked activity is required to investigate this further.

  11. Agency attribution: event-related potentials and outcome monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednark, Jeffery G; Franz, Elizabeth A

    2014-04-01

    Knowledge about the effects of our actions is an underlying feature of voluntary behavior. Given the importance of identifying the outcomes of our actions, it has been proposed that the sensory outcomes of self-made actions are inherently different from those of externally caused outcomes. Thus, the outcomes of self-made actions are likely to be more motivationally significant for an agent. We used event-related potentials to investigate the relationship between the perceived motivational significance of an outcome and the attribution of agency in the presence of others. In our experiment, we assessed agency attribution in the presence of another agent by varying the degree of contiguity between participants' self-made actions and the sensory outcome. Specifically, we assessed the feedback correct-related positivity (fCRP) and the novelty P3 measures of an outcome's motivational significance and unexpectedness, respectively. Results revealed that both the fCRP and participants' agency attributions were significantly influenced by action-outcome contiguity. However, when action-outcome contiguity was ambiguous, novelty P3 amplitude was a reliable indicator of agency attribution. Prior agency attributions were also found to influence attribution in trials with ambiguous and low action-outcome contiguity. Participants' use of multiple cues to determine agency is consistent with the cue integration theory of agency. In addition to these novel findings, this study supports growing evidence suggesting that reinforcement processes play a significant role in the sense of agency.

  12. Sentence verification and event-related brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, J; Miyata, Y; Yagi, A

    1987-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether the decision process affected scalp recorded event-related brain potentials (ERPs). ERPs were recorded while 10 subjects evaluated the veracity of four types of Japanese sentences; true-affirmative (TA), true-negative (TN), false-affirmative (FA), and false-negative (FN). Each sentence was presented visually, one word at a time in the following order: Subject (S); object (O); and verb (V). This order of words, which is normal in Japanese grammar, allowed the ERP waveforms associated with semantic mismatch between the S and O occurring in the middle of the sentence to be separated from those elicited by the decision concerning the sentence's truth or falsity occurring at the end of the sentence. Semantic mismatch was associated with a negative component (N310) following the O-word. In addition, P3s were elicited by sentence final words. Affirmative sentences elicited larger P3s than did negative sentences, and true sentences elicited earlier P3s than did false sentences. P3s were smaller in amplitude when they followed a mismatch between the S and O words. The result suggested that by using Japanese sentences, it may be possible to examine sentence-level rather than word-level processes.

  13. Study of the combinatorial impact of empathy and emotion on the processing of conflicts of interest with the event-related potential technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaoli; Zhang, Ni

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Studies have found that empathy is important in moral development and violence suppression, and emotion also affects empathy. However, the combinatorial effect of emotion and empathy on the processing of conflicts is not known. Materials and methods A total of 44 undergraduate students (23 in low-empathy group and 21 in high-empathy group) were enrolled in this study. They were subjected to positive, negative, and neutral emotion evoking, as well as conflicting or nonconflicting proposals. Event-related potential technology was used to study the combinatorial effects of empathy and emotion on the processing of conflict of interest. Results We found that under the influence of a positive emotion, both low- and high-empathy groups exhibited lower rejection rates. In the context of conflict, individuals in the high-empathy group showed fewer refusals under positive emotion. In the low-empathy group, there was no significant difference between responses to different emotions, but conflicting proposals induced more negative medial frontal negativity than nonconflicting proposals. Individuals in the low-empathy group showed different late positive potentials when responding to different types of proposals under both neutral and negative emotions, whereas those in the high-empathy group only showed different late positive potentials responding to different types of proposals under negative emotion. Conclusion Our results indicate that under positive emotion, individuals with low empathy show less difference in processing either conflicting or nonconflicting proposals, whereas under negative emotion, individuals with high empathy show enhanced motivation toward nonconflicting proposals. PMID:28721052

  14. Variation in Event-Related Potentials by State Transitions

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    Higashi, Hiroshi; Minami, Tetsuto; Nakauchi, Shigeki

    2017-01-01

    The probability of an event's occurrence affects event-related potentials (ERPs) on electroencephalograms. The relation between probability and potentials has been discussed by using a quantity called surprise that represents the self-information that humans receive from the event. Previous studies have estimated surprise based on the probability distribution in a stationary state. Our hypothesis is that state transitions also play an important role in the estimation of surprise. In this study, we compare the effects of surprise on the ERPs based on two models that generate an event sequence: a model of a stationary state and a model with state transitions. To compare these effects, we generate the event sequences with Markov chains to avoid a situation that the state transition probability converges with the stationary probability by the accumulation of the event observations. Our trial-by-trial model-based analysis showed that the stationary probability better explains the P3b component and the state transition probability better explains the P3a component. The effect on P3a suggests that the internal model, which is constantly and automatically generated by the human brain to estimate the probability distribution of the events, approximates the model with state transitions because Bayesian surprise, which represents the degree of updating of the internal model, is highly reflected in P3a. The global effect reflected in P3b, however, may not be related to the internal model because P3b depends on the stationary probability distribution. The results suggest that an internal model can represent state transitions and the global effect is generated by a different mechanism than the one for forming the internal model. PMID:28289380

  15. Sample Selected Averaging Method for Analyzing the Event Related Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Akira; Ono, Youhei; Kimura, Tomoaki

    The event related potential (ERP) is often measured through the oddball task. On the oddball task, subjects are given “rare stimulus” and “frequent stimulus”. Measured ERPs were analyzed by the averaging technique. In the results, amplitude of the ERP P300 becomes large when the “rare stimulus” is given. However, measured ERPs are included samples without an original feature of ERP. Thus, it is necessary to reject unsuitable measured ERPs when using the averaging technique. In this paper, we propose the rejection method for unsuitable measured ERPs for the averaging technique. Moreover, we combine the proposed method and Woody's adaptive filter method.

  16. Comparison of DP3 Signals Evoked by Comfortable 3D Images and 2D Images — an Event-Related Potential Study using an Oddball Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Peng; Wu, Xiang; Gao, Dingguo; Liang, Haowen; Wang, Jiahui; Deng, Shaozhi; Xu, Ningsheng; She, Juncong; Chen, Jun

    2017-02-01

    The horizontal binocular disparity is a critical factor for the visual fatigue induced by watching stereoscopic TVs. Stereoscopic images that possess the disparity within the ‘comfort zones’ and remain still in the depth direction are considered comfortable to the viewers as 2D images. However, the difference in brain activities between processing such comfortable stereoscopic images and 2D images is still less studied. The DP3 (differential P3) signal refers to an event-related potential (ERP) component indicating attentional processes, which is typically evoked by odd target stimuli among standard stimuli in an oddball task. The present study found that the DP3 signal elicited by the comfortable 3D images exhibits the delayed peak latency and enhanced peak amplitude over the anterior and central scalp regions compared to the 2D images. The finding suggests that compared to the processing of the 2D images, more attentional resources are involved in the processing of the stereoscopic images even though they are subjectively comfortable.

  17. Deficits in Verbal Working Memory among College Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Traits: An Event-related Potential Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seulki; Kim, Myung-Sun

    2016-02-29

    This study investigated verbal working memory in college students with traits of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using event-related potentials and the 2-back task. Based on scores on the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale and Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scale, participants were assigned to the normal control (n=28) or ADHD-trait (n=29) group. The 2-back task, which was administered to evaluate working memory, consists of a congruent condition, under which the current stimulus is the same as the one presented two trials earlier, and an incongruent condition, under which the current stimulus is not the same as the one presented two trials earlier. The numbers 1, 2, 3, and 4 were used as stimuli. On the 2-back task, the ADHD-trait group committed significantly more errors in response to congruent stimuli and showed a smaller P300 amplitude than did the control group. These results indicate that college students with ADHD traits have deficits in verbal working memory, possibly due to difficulties in memory updating or attentional allocation.

  18. Visual mismatch negativity (vMMN) is elicited with para-foveal hemifield oddball stimulation: An event-related brain potential (ERP) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berti, Stefan

    2018-02-21

    The visual mismatch negativity (vMMN) is a component of the human event-related brain potential (ERP) that indicates the automatic processing and detection of changes in the visual sensory input. The study tested whether the vMMN was observable when the visual input is restricted to one visual hemifield and, with this, only para-foveal input to one of the two primary sensory cortices in the visual system is available for stimulus processing. The vMMN was elicited by the stimulation restricted to a small portion of the visual field. This demonstrates that in general vMMN elicitation is not confined to stimulations covering a broad range of the visual field or to the propagation of sensory information to both sensory visual cortices. In addition, the vMMN amplitudes showed a high variability between the different conditions, including non-significant vMMN amplitudes. This suggests that pronounced vMMNs observed in experimental settings relies on salient visual stimuli covering different channels of sensory information in vision. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. When the truth isn’t too hard to handle: An event-related potential study on the pragmatics of negation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwland, Mante S.; Kuperberg, Gina R.

    2011-01-01

    Our brains rapidly map incoming language onto what we hold to be true. Yet there are claims that such integration and verification processes are delayed in sentences containing negation words like ‘not’. However, research studies have often confounded whether a statement is true and whether it is natural thing to say during normal communication. In an event-related potential (ERP) experiment, we aimed to disentangle effects of truth-value and pragmatic licensing on the comprehension of affirmative and negated real-world statements. As in affirmative sentences, false words elicited a larger N400 ERP than true words in pragmatically licensed negated sentences (e.g., “In moderation, drinking red wine isn’t bad/good…”), whereas true and false words elicited similar responses in unlicensed negated sentences (e.g., “A baby bunny’s fur isn’t very hard/soft…”). These results suggest that negation poses no principled obstacle for readers to immediately relate incoming words to what they hold to be true. PMID:19121125

  20. A longitudinal event-related potential study of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor therapy in treatment-naïve pediatric obsessive compulsive disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamuro, Kazuhiko; Ota, Toyosaku; Iida, Junzo; Kishimoto, Naoko; Nakanishi, Yoko; Matsuura, Hiroki; Uratani, Mitsuhiro; Okazaki, Kosuke; Kishimoto, Toshifumi

    2016-11-30

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by obsessive thoughts and/or compulsive behaviors, involving specific cognition and/or information processing disorders. Event-related potentials (ERPs) are commonly used as physiological measures of cognitive function. In conscious patients, ERPs are easily and non-invasively measured. Previous ERP studies have revealed differences between OCD patients and control subjects. Whether ERPs reflect the pharmacological effects of OCD treatment, particularly in treatment-naïve pediatric patients, remains unknown. We used the Child's Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS) to evaluate the symptomatic severity of 12 treatment-naïve pediatric OCD patients. Comparisons were made with 12 age-, sex-, and intelligence-matched controls. The P300 and mismatch negativity (MMN) components were measured during an auditory odd-ball task at baseline in both groups and after the 3-year serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment in OCD patients. Compared with controls, P300 amplitudes were smaller n the OCD group at Fz, Cz, Pz, C3, and C4. After SSRI treatment, P300 amplitudes increased partly at Fz and C4 in association with symptomatic improvements. We found a significant positive correlation between P300 amplitude in C4 and CY-BOCS scores. Our findings confirm the utility of SSRIs in pediatric OCD, and suggest the utility of ERPs for evaluating pharmacological effects in treatment-naïve pediatric OCD patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Adapted wavelet transform improves time-frequency representations: a study of auditory elicited P300-like event-related potentials in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Nelly; Laursen, Bettina; Grupe, Morten; Drewes, Asbjørn M.; Graversen, Carina; Sørensen, Helge B. D.; Bastlund, Jesper F.

    2017-04-01

    Objective. Active auditory oddball paradigms are simple tone discrimination tasks used to study the P300 deflection of event-related potentials (ERPs). These ERPs may be quantified by time-frequency analysis. As auditory stimuli cause early high frequency and late low frequency ERP oscillations, the continuous wavelet transform (CWT) is often chosen for decomposition due to its multi-resolution properties. However, as the conventional CWT traditionally applies only one mother wavelet to represent the entire spectrum, the time-frequency resolution is not optimal across all scales. To account for this, we developed and validated a novel method specifically refined to analyse P300-like ERPs in rats. Approach. An adapted CWT (aCWT) was implemented to preserve high time-frequency resolution across all scales by commissioning of multiple wavelets operating at different scales. First, decomposition of simulated ERPs was illustrated using the classical CWT and the aCWT. Next, the two methods were applied to EEG recordings obtained from prefrontal cortex in rats performing a two-tone auditory discrimination task. Main results. While only early ERP frequency changes between responses to target and non-target tones were detected by the CWT, both early and late changes were successfully described with strong accuracy by the aCWT in rat ERPs. Increased frontal gamma power and phase synchrony was observed particularly within theta and gamma frequency bands during deviant tones. Significance. The study suggests superior performance of the aCWT over the CWT in terms of detailed quantification of time-frequency properties of ERPs. Our methodological investigation indicates that accurate and complete assessment of time-frequency components of short-time neural signals is feasible with the novel analysis approach which may be advantageous for characterisation of several types of evoked potentials in particularly rodents.

  2. Somatosensory Event-related Potentials from Orofacial Skin Stretch Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takayuki; Ostry, David J; Gracco, Vincent L

    2015-12-18

    Cortical processing associated with orofacial somatosensory function in speech has received limited experimental attention due to the difficulty of providing precise and controlled stimulation. This article introduces a technique for recording somatosensory event-related potentials (ERP) that uses a novel mechanical stimulation method involving skin deformation using a robotic device. Controlled deformation of the facial skin is used to modulate kinesthetic inputs through excitation of cutaneous mechanoreceptors. By combining somatosensory stimulation with electroencephalographic recording, somatosensory evoked responses can be successfully measured at the level of the cortex. Somatosensory stimulation can be combined with the stimulation of other sensory modalities to assess multisensory interactions. For speech, orofacial stimulation is combined with speech sound stimulation to assess the contribution of multi-sensory processing including the effects of timing differences. The ability to precisely control orofacial somatosensory stimulation during speech perception and speech production with ERP recording is an important tool that provides new insight into the neural organization and neural representations for speech.

  3. Possibility of reinforcement learning based on event-related potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Yuya; Tsubone, Tadashi; Wada, Yasuhiro

    2008-01-01

    We applied event-related potential (ERP) to reinforcement signals that are equivalent to reward and punishment signals.We conducted an electroencephalogram (EEG) in which volunteers identified the success or failure of a task. We confirmed that there were differences in the EEG depending on whether the task was successful or not and suggested that ERP might be used as a reward of reinforcement leaning. We used a support vector machine (SVM) for recognizing the P300. We selected the feature vector in SVM that was composed of averages of each 50 ms for each of the six channels (C3,Cz,C4,P3,Pz,P4) for a total of 700 ms. We can suggest that reinforcement learning using P300 can be performed accurately.

  4. The role of auditory transient and deviance processing in distraction of task performance: a combined behavioral and event-related brain potential study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan eBerti

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Distraction of goal-oriented performance by a sudden change in the auditory environment is an everyday life experience. Different types of changes can be distracting, including a sudden onset of a transient sound and a slight deviation of otherwise regular auditory background stimulation. With regard to deviance detection, it is assumed that slight changes in a continuous sequence of auditory stimuli are detected by a predictive coding mechanisms and it has been demonstrated that this mechanism is capable of distracting ongoing task performance. In contrast, it is open whether transient detection – which does not rely on predictive coding mechanisms – can trigger behavioral distraction, too. In the present study, the effect of rare auditory changes on visual task performance is tested in an auditory-visual cross-modal distraction paradigm. The rare changes are either embedded within a continuous standard stimulation (triggering deviance detection or are presented within an otherwise silent situation (triggering transient detection. In the event-related brain potentials, deviants elicited the mismatch negativity (MMN while transients elicited an enhanced N1 component, mirroring pre-attentive change detection in both conditions but on the basis of different neuro-cognitive processes. These sensory components are followed by attention related ERP components including the P3a and the reorienting negativity (RON. This demonstrates that both types of changes trigger switches of attention. Finally, distraction of task performance is observable, too, but the impact of deviants is higher compared to transients. These findings suggest different routes of distraction allowing for the automatic processing of a wide range of potentially relevant changes in the environment as a pre-requisite for adaptive behavior.

  5. Just Swap Out of Negative Vibes? Rumination and Inhibition Deficits in Major Depressive Disorder: Data from Event-Related Potentials Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnart, Aurore; Kornreich, Charles; Verbanck, Paul; Campanella, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    Major depression is a serious disorder of impaired emotion regulation. Emotion hyperactivity leads to excessive negative ruminations that daily hijack the patient's mental life, impacting their mood. Evidence from past researches suggest that depressive patients present several cognitive impairments in attention and working memory, leading to a more acute selective attention for negative stimuli and a greater accessibility of negative memories. Recently, is has been proposed that impaired inhibitory functioning with regard to emotional information processing might be one of the mechanisms of ruminations linking memory, attention and depression. It seems that inhibition deficit is present at both the input level (i.e., the ability to reduce the interference from emotional distracters) and the higher level (i.e., the ability to direct the attention away from emotional material that has already been processed) of emotional information processing. Event-related potentials (ERP) have widely been used to study inhibition in adults suffering from various psychopathological states. In particular, depressive disorder has been linked to ERPs modulations, at early as well as at latter stages of the information-processing stream, when processing affective material. For instance, deficits in inhibiting negative information have been indexed by changes in the parameters (amplitudes and latencies) of early P2, P1 and N1 components while other ERP studies have shown an ability to differentiate depressed patients from normal controls based upon response inhibition difficulties in go-nogo tasks, indexed by later NoGo P3 differences. In this review, we will focus on results of ERP studies investigating inhibition and its interaction with emotional related cue processing in depressive populations. Implications for future research and theoretical perspectives will be discussed within the framework of current models of depressive disorder, based upon the hypothesis that negative

  6. BOLD response to deviant face detection informed by P300 event-related potential parameters: a simultaneous ERP-fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanella, Salvatore; Bourguignon, Mathieu; Peigneux, Philippe; Metens, Thierry; Nouali, Mustapha; Goldman, Serge; Verbanck, Paul; De Tiège, Xavier

    2013-05-01

    Faces are multi-dimensional stimuli conveying parallel information about identity and emotion. Although event-related potential (ERP) studies have disclosed a P300 component in oddball responses to both deviant identity and emotional target faces, it is hypothesized that partially different neural processes should subtend emotion vs. identity within the core network of face processing. In the present study, we used simultaneous ERP-fMRI recordings and ERP-informed analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data to evidence the specific neural networks underlying P300 generation in response to different deviant emotional vs. identity faces. 18 participants were scanned during a visual oddball task in which they had to detect 3 types of deviant faces representing a change in emotion-fear or happiness-or in identity, within a series of frequent neutral ones. Amplitude and latency parameters of the P300 component, recorded for each type of deviant faces, were used to constrain fMRI analyses. Analysis of fMRI data informed by single-trial parameters of the P300 component disclosed specific activation patterns for fearful, happy and identity deviant faces. For fearful faces, P300 amplitudes were associated with BOLD changes in the left fusiform gyrus whereas latencies were linked to left superior orbito-frontal and right fusiform activations. P300 amplitude modulations for happy deviant faces involved the left posterior cingulate gyrus and right parahippocampal regions whereas P300 latencies related to the right insula and left caudate regions. Finally, identity deviant faces were associated with widespread activities involving cortical and subcortical regions when P300 amplitudes were considered, and P300 latencies were associated with activity in right hippocampal/parahippocampal regions. Our results suggest the existence of differential cerebral functional processes involved in the responses to deviant face stimuli, depending on the quality of the

  7. Does audiovisual speech offer a fountain of youth for old ears? An event-related brain potential study of age differences in audiovisual speech perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winneke, Axel H; Phillips, Natalie A

    2011-06-01

    The current study addressed the question whether audiovisual (AV) speech can improve speech perception in older and younger adults in a noisy environment. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded to investigate age-related differences in the processes underlying AV speech perception. Participants performed an object categorization task in three conditions, namely auditory-only (A), visual-only (V), and AVspeech. Both age groups revealed an equivalent behavioral AVspeech benefit over unisensory trials. ERP analyses revealed an amplitude reduction of the auditory P1 and N1 on AVspeech trials relative to the summed unisensory (A + V) response in both age groups. These amplitude reductions are interpreted as an indication of multisensory efficiency as fewer neural resources were recruited to achieve better performance. Of interest, the observed P1 amplitude reduction was larger in older adults. Younger and older adults also showed an earlier auditory N1 in AVspeech relative to A and A + V trials, an effect that was again greater in the older adults. The degree of multisensory latency shift was predicted by basic auditory functioning (i.e., higher hearing thresholds were associated with larger latency shifts) in both age groups. Together, the results show that AV speech processing is not only intact in older adults, but that the facilitation of neural responses occurs earlier in and to a greater extent than in younger adults. Thus, older adults appear to benefit more from additional visual speech cues than younger adults, possibly to compensate for more impoverished unisensory inputs because of sensory aging. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Diagnostic and symptom-based predictors of emotional processing in generalized anxiety disorder and major depressive disorder: An event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNamara, Annmarie; Kotov, Roman; Hajcak, Greg

    2016-06-01

    The delineation of specific versus overlapping mechanisms in GAD and MDD could shed light on the integrity of these diagnostic categories. For example, negative emotion generation is one mechanism that may be especially relevant to both disorders. Emotional processing abnormalities were examined among 97 outpatients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) or major depressive disorder (MDD) and 25 healthy adults, using the late positive potential (LPP), an event-related potential that is larger for emotional versus neutral stimuli. GAD and MDD were also assessed dimensionally across all participants. Both MDD diagnosis and dimensional depression scores were associated with reduced ΔLPP. When controlling for MDD diagnosis/dimension, both the diagnosis and dimension of GAD were associated with increased ΔLPP. Both MDD and GAD dimensions, but not diagnoses, were associated with increased ΔRT to targets that followed emotional pictures. Therefore, MDD and GAD have distinguishable and opposing features evident in neural measures of emotion processing.

  9. Communication of ALS Patients by Detecting Event-Related Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanou, Naoyuki; Sakuma, Kenji; Nakashima, Kenji

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis(ALS) patients are unable to successfully communicate their desires, although their mental capacity is the same as non-affected persons. Therefore, the authors put emphasis on Event-Related Potential(ERP) which elicits the highest outcome for the target visual and hearing stimuli. P300 is one component of ERP. It is positive potential that is elicited when the subject focuses attention on stimuli that appears infrequently. In this paper, the authors focused on P200 and N200 components, in addition to P300, for their great improvement in the rate of correct judgment in the target word-specific experiment. Hence the authors propose the algorithm that specifies target words by detecting these three components. Ten healthy subjects and ALS patient underwent the experiment in which a target word out of five words, was specified by this algorithm. The rates of correct judgment in nine of ten healthy subjects were more than 90.0%. The highest rate was 99.7%. The highest rate of ALS patient was 100.0%. Through these results, the authors found the possibility that ALS patients could communicate with surrounding persons by detecting ERP(P200, N200 and P300) as their desire.

  10. Retrieval deficiency in brain activity of working memory in amnesic mild cognitive impairment patients: A brain event-related potentials study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binyin eLi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the early stage of Alzheimer disease (AD or mild cognitive impairment (MCI, working memory (WM deficiency is prominent and could be attributed to failure in encoding, maintenance or retrieval of information. However, evidence for a retention or retrieval deficit remains equivocal. It is also unclear what cognitive mechanism in working memory is impaired in MCI or early AD. We enrolled forty-six subjects from our Memory Clinics and community, with 24 amnesic MCI patients and 22 normal subjects. After neurological and cognitive assessments, they performed a classic delayed match to sample task with simultaneous event-related potential (ERP recorded. The ERPs in encoding and retrieval epoch during WM were analyzed separately. The latency and amplitude of every ERP component were compared between two groups, and then analyzed to explore their relationship with neuropsychological performance. Finally, the locations of maximal difference in cortex were calculated by standard low-resolution tomographic analysis. A total of five components were found: P1, N1, P2, N2 and P300. The amplitude of P2 and P300 was larger in normal subjects than in MCI patients only during retrieval, not encoding epoch, while the latency did not show statistical difference. The latency and amplitude of P1 and N1 were similar in two groups. P2 amplitude in the retrieval epoch positively correlated with memory test (auditory verbal learning test and visual spatial score of Chinese Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R, while P300 amplitude correlated with ACE-R. The activation difference in P2 time range was maximal at medial frontal gyrus. However, the difference in cortex activation during P300 time range did not show significance. The amplitude of P2 indicated deficiency in memory retrieval process, potentially due to dysfunction of central executive in WM model. Regarding the location of P2 during WM task, medial frontal plays important role in memory

  11. Many-valued logic and event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollina, D A; Squires, N K

    1998-07-01

    In previous experiments on event-related potentials (ERPs) during linguistic judgments, the subjects' decisions have been categorical (e.g., true vs false). In this experiment, more realistic variations in truth value and subject certainty were used. Thirty-eight naive undergraduates read a story about a fictional murder. ERPs were recorded as the subjects rated the strength of their beliefs about statements relating to suspects in the crime. Because no subject was sure which of the suspects was guilty of committing the crime, binary (true-false) category judgments were inappropriate. Three components of the ERP waveforms were affected by the experimental manipulations. An early positive component was largest to sentences concerning the suspect considered most likely to have committed the crime. A subsequent broad posterior positivity (LPC) also showed significant sentence-type differences, but it was larger to sentences considered probable--whether they were true or false--than to more ambiguous sentences. A third ERP component (N400) was negative at midline electrode sites and peaked at approximately 420 ms. Subjects' truth-value judgments had no effect on the N400. N400 was, however, affected by the subject's task. It was more negative when subjects made graded judgments about truth value than when they made binary true-false judgments. Overall, naturalistic judgments of sentence validity produced a variety of brain responses that reflected different aspects of linguistic decision making.

  12. The cortical chronometry of electrogustatory event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohla, Kathrin; Hudry, Julie; le Coutre, Johannes

    2009-09-01

    Electrogustometry (EGM) is the standard tool to assess gustatory functions in clinical environments. The stimulation elicits a percept often described as metallic, sour or salty, also referred to as electric taste. To date, the neuronal mechanisms that underlie electric taste perception are not yet fully understood. Electroencephalographic (EEG) approaches will certainly complement behavioral procedures and, furthermore, extend the understanding of gustatory processing in general and disturbances of gustatory functions in particular. We used anodal pulses applied to the tip of the participants' tongue while EEG was recorded. The major disadvantage of combining EEG and EGM, namely the electrical stimulation artifact, was overcome by means of Independent Component Analysis (ICA), which separated the EGM artifact from the neural portion of the EEG. After artifact correction, we found a largely uncontaminated electrogustatory event-related potential (eGERP) at both individual and group level. Furthermore, source analysis revealed an early involvement of bilateral insular cortices and the adjacent operculi, the areas comprising the primary taste cortex. The procedures, described in detail, pave the way for the eGERP to become an affordable and objective tool for the assessment of taste function, and thus to complement behavioral measures (i.e. EGM detection thresholds). Furthermore, they render the access to different levels of the electrogustatory processing pathway possible and by doing so they may aid the identification and localisation of lesions that cause taste disturbances.

  13. Event Related Potentials Index Rapid Recalibration to Audiovisual Temporal Asynchrony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, David M.; Noel, Jean-Paul; Wallace, Mark T.

    2017-01-01

    Asynchronous arrival of multisensory information at the periphery is a ubiquitous property of signals in the natural environment due to differences in the propagation time of light and sound. Rapid adaptation to these asynchronies is crucial for the appropriate integration of these multisensory signals, which in turn is a fundamental neurobiological process in creating a coherent perceptual representation of our dynamic world. Indeed, multisensory temporal recalibration has been shown to occur at the single trial level, yet the mechanistic basis of this rapid adaptation is unknown. Here, we investigated the neural basis of rapid recalibration to audiovisual temporal asynchrony in human participants using a combination of psychophysics and electroencephalography (EEG). Consistent with previous reports, participant’s perception of audiovisual temporal synchrony on a given trial (t) was influenced by the temporal structure of stimuli on the previous trial (t−1). When examined physiologically, event related potentials (ERPs) were found to be modulated by the temporal structure of the previous trial, manifesting as late differences (>125 ms post second-stimulus onset) in central and parietal positivity on trials with large stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs). These findings indicate that single trial adaptation to audiovisual temporal asynchrony is reflected in modulations of late evoked components that have previously been linked to stimulus evaluation and decision-making. PMID:28381993

  14. Attention in essential tremor: evidence from event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauletti, C; Mannarelli, D; Locuratolo, N; Vanacore, N; De Lucia, M C; Mina, C; Fattapposta, F

    2013-07-01

    Clinically subtle executive dysfunctions have recently been described in essential tremor (ET), though the presence of attentional deficits is still unclear. We investigated the psychophysiological aspects of attention in ET, using event-related potentials (ERPs). Twenty-one non-demented patients with ET and 21 age- and sex-matched healthy controls underwent a psychophysiological evaluation. P300 components and the Contingent Negative Variation (CNV) were recorded. The latencies and amplitudes of the P3a and P3b subcomponents and CNV areas were evaluated. Possible correlations between clinical parameters and ERP data were investigated. P3a latency was significantly longer in the ET group (p memory context-updating process appears to be spared. This selective cognitive dysfunction does not appear to interfere with the attentional set linked to the expectancy evaluated during a complex choice-reaction time task, which is preserved in ET. This multitask psychophysiological approach reveals the presence of a peculiar attentional deficit in patients with ET, thus expanding the clinical features of this disease.

  15. Disrupted reinforcement learning and maladaptive behavior in women with a history of childhood sexual abuse: a high-density event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechtel, Pia; Pizzagalli, Diego A

    2013-05-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been associated with psychopathology, particularly major depressive disorder (MDD), and high-risk behaviors. Despite the epidemiological data available, the mechanisms underlying these maladaptive outcomes remain poorly understood. We examined whether a history of CSA, particularly in conjunction with a past episode of MDD, is associated with behavioral and neural dysfunction in reinforcement learning, and whether such dysfunction is linked to maladaptive behavior. Participants completed a clinical evaluation and a probabilistic reinforcement task while 128-channel event-related potentials were recorded. Academic setting; participants recruited from the community. Fifteen women with a history of CSA and remitted MDD (CSA + rMDD), 16 women with remitted MDD with no history of CSA (rMDD), and 18 healthy women (controls). Three or more episodes of coerced sexual contact (mean [SD] duration, 3.00 [2.20] years) between the ages of 7 and 12 years by at least 1 male perpetrator. Participants' preference for choosing the most rewarded stimulus and avoiding the most punished stimulus was evaluated. The feedback-related negativity and error-related negativity-hypothesized to reflect activation in the anterior cingulate cortex-were used as electrophysiological indices of reinforcement learning. No group differences emerged in the acquisition of reinforcement contingencies. In trials requiring participants to rely partially or exclusively on previously rewarded information, the CSA + rMDD group showed (1) lower accuracy (relative to both controls and the rMDD group), (2) blunted electrophysiological differentiation between correct and incorrect responses (relative to controls), and (3) increased activation in the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (relative to the rMDD group). A history of CSA was not associated with impairments in avoiding the most punished stimulus. Self-harm and suicidal behaviors correlated with poorer performance of

  16. Event-Related Potentials in a Cued Go-NoGo Task Associated with Executive Functions in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder; A Case-Control Study

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    Anne L. Høyland

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Executive functions are often affected in autism spectrum disorders (ASD. The underlying biology is however not well known. In the DSM-5, ASD is characterized by difficulties in two domains: Social Interaction and Repetitive and Restricted Behavior, RRB. Insistence of Sameness is part of RRB and has been reported related to executive functions. We aimed to identify differences between ASD and typically developing (TD adolescents in Event Related Potentials (ERPs associated with response preparation, conflict monitoring and response inhibition using a cued Go-NoGo paradigm. We also studied the effect of age and emotional content of paradigm related to these ERPs. We investigated 49 individuals with ASD and 49 TD aged 12–21 years, split into two groups below (young and above (old 16 years of age. ASD characteristics were quantified by the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ and executive functions were assessed with the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF, both parent-rated. Behavioral performance and ERPs were recorded during a cued visual Go-NoGo task which included neutral pictures (VCPT and pictures of emotional faces (ECPT. The amplitudes of ERPs associated with response preparation, conflict monitoring, and response inhibition were analyzed. The ASD group showed markedly higher scores than TD in both SCQ and BRIEF. Behavioral data showed no case-control differences in either the VCPT or ECPT in the whole group. While there were no significant case-control differences in ERPs from the combined VCPT and ECPT in the whole sample, the Contingent Negative Variation (CNV was significantly enhanced in the old ASD group (p = 0.017. When excluding ASD with comorbid ADHD we found a significantly increased N2 NoGo (p = 0.016 and N2-effect (p = 0.023 for the whole group. We found no case-control differences in the P3-components. Our findings suggest increased response preparation in adolescents with ASD older than 16 years and

  17. The effect of extensive reading and paired-associate learning on long-term vocabulary retention: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Eunjin; Choi, Sungmook; Kim, Junsoo

    2012-07-19

    We investigated the relative efficacy of extensive reading (ER) and paired-associate learning (PAL) in the ability of second language (L2) learners to retain new vocabulary words. To that end, we combined behavioral measures (i.e., vocabulary tests) and an event-related potential (ERP) investigation with a focus on the N400 ERP component to track short- and long-term vocabulary retention as a consequence of the two different approaches. Behavioral results indicated that both ER and PAL led to substantial short-term retention of the target words. In contrast, on a long-term basis, ER was more effective than PAL to a considerable degree as indicated by a large-size effect (d=1.35). Evidence from the N400 effects (d=1.70) observed in the parietal electrode group (P3, Pz, P4) provided further support for the superior effects of ER over PAL on long-term vocabulary retention. The converging evidence challenges the assumptions of some L2 researchers and makes a significant contribution to the literature of vocabulary acquisition, because it provides the first ERP evidence that ER is more conducive to long-term vocabulary retention than PAL. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Adult Attachment Styles Associated with Brain Activity in Response to Infant Faces in Nulliparous Women: An Event-Related Potentials Study

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    Xu Chen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Adult attachment style is a key for understanding emotion regulation and feelings of security in human interactions as well as for the construction of the caregiving system. The caregiving system is a group of representations about affiliative behaviors, which is guided by the caregiver’s sensitivity and empathy, and is mature in young adulthood. Appropriate perception and interpretation of infant emotions is a crucial component of the formation of a secure attachment relationship between infant and caregiver. As attachment styles influence the ways in which people perceive emotional information, we examined how different attachment styles associated with brain response to the perception of infant facial expressions in nulliparous females with secure, anxious, and avoidant attachment styles. The event-related potentials of 65 nulliparous females were assessed during a facial recognition task with joy, neutral, and crying infant faces. The results showed that anxiously attached females exhibited larger N170 amplitudes than those with avoidant attachment in response to all infant faces. Regarding the P300 component, securely attached females showed larger amplitudes to all infant faces in comparison with avoidantly attached females. Moreover, anxiously attached females exhibited greater amplitudes than avoidantly attached females to only crying infant faces. In conclusion, the current results provide evidence that attachment style differences are associated with brain responses to the perception of infant faces. Furthermore, these findings further separate the psychological mechanisms underlying the caregiving behavior of those with anxious and avoidant attachment from secure attachment.

  19. The role of stimulus cross-splicing in an event-related potentials study. Misleading formant transitions hinder automatic phonological processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Johanna; Truckenbrodt, Hubert; Jacobsen, Thomas

    2012-04-01

    The mental organization of linguistic knowledge and its involvement in speech processing can be investigated using the mismatch negativity (MMN) component of the auditory event-related potential. A contradiction arises, however, between the technical need for strict control of acoustic stimulus properties and the quest for naturalness and acoustic variability of the stimuli. Here, two methods of preparing speech stimulus material were compared. Focussing on the automatic processing of a phonotactic restriction in German, two corresponding sets of various vowel-fricative syllables were used as stimuli. The former syllables were naturally spoken while the latter ones were created by means of cross-splicing. Phonetically, natural and spliced syllables differed with respect to the appropriateness of coarticulatory information about the forthcoming fricative within the vowels. Spliced syllables containing clearly misleading phonetic information were found to elicit larger N2 responses compared to their natural counterparts. Furthermore, MMN results found for the natural syllables could not be replicated with these spliced stimuli. These findings indicate that the automatic processing of the stimuli was considerably affected by the stimulus preparation method. Thus, in spite of its unquestioned benefits for MMN experiments, the splicing technique may lead to interference effects on the linguistic factors under investigation.

  20. Adult Attachment Styles Associated with Brain Activity in Response to Infant Faces in Nulliparous Women: An Event-Related Potentials Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuanxiao; Ran, Guangming; Chen, Xu; Ma, Haijing; Hu, Na

    2017-01-01

    Adult attachment style is a key for understanding emotion regulation and feelings of security in human interactions as well as for the construction of the caregiving system. The caregiving system is a group of representations about affiliative behaviors, which is guided by the caregiver's sensitivity and empathy, and is mature in young adulthood. Appropriate perception and interpretation of infant emotions is a crucial component of the formation of a secure attachment relationship between infant and caregiver. As attachment styles influence the ways in which people perceive emotional information, we examined how different attachment styles associated with brain response to the perception of infant facial expressions in nulliparous females with secure, anxious, and avoidant attachment styles. The event-related potentials of 65 nulliparous females were assessed during a facial recognition task with joy, neutral, and crying infant faces. The results showed that anxiously attached females exhibited larger N170 amplitudes than those with avoidant attachment in response to all infant faces. Regarding the P300 component, securely attached females showed larger amplitudes to all infant faces in comparison with avoidantly attached females. Moreover, anxiously attached females exhibited greater amplitudes than avoidantly attached females to only crying infant faces. In conclusion, the current results provide evidence that attachment style differences are associated with brain responses to the perception of infant faces. Furthermore, these findings further separate the psychological mechanisms underlying the caregiving behavior of those with anxious and avoidant attachment from secure attachment.

  1. The difference in spatiotemporal dynamics between modus ponens and modus tollens in the Wason selection task: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bingbing; Zhang, Meng; Luo, Junlong; Qiu, Jiang; Liu, Yijun

    2014-06-13

    High-density, event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded to explore differences in spatiotemporal dynamics between modus ponens (MP) and modus tollens (MT) in the Wason selection task. Results showed that MP elicits a more positive P3b-like component than MT from 400 to 800 ms. MP appeared to occur earlier than MT in various stages of proposition testing, such as stimulus processing and response selection. ERP results showed that MT has a longer duration and more negative later negative component (LNC) than MP at 2,000 ms. This result suggests that MT occupies more cognitive resources than MP in the final stages of proposition testing. The short and small left frontal LNC obtained by MP implies examination of the expectable conclusion, whereas the long and large left frontal LNC elicited by MT may be involved in the retention operation of the card in working memory from the monitoring and inspecting putative conclusion in the later stages of proposition testing. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Clinical study on the value of combining neuropsychological tests with auditory event-related potential P300 for cognitive assessment in elderly patients with cerebral small vessel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-ling ZHAO

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the value of combining neuropsychological tests with auditory event-related potential (ERP P300 for cognitive assessment in elderly patients with cerebral small vessel disease (cSVD.  Methods A total of 183 elderly patients with cSVD were enrolled in this study. They were divided into 3 groups according to brain MRI: lacunar infarct (LACI group (N = 62, white matter hyperintensity (WMH group (N = 60 and LACI + WMH group (N = 61. A total of 50 brain MRI normal persons were selected as control group. Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA, Chinese version was used to evaluate the cognitive function, and the amplitude and latency of P300 were measured in each group.  Results Compared with control group, the MoCA total score in LACI, WMH and LACI + WMH groups were significantly lower (P = 0.042, 0.015, 0.000, and the score in LACI + WMH group was significantly lower than that in LACI and WMH groups (P = 0.001, 0.042. In the eight cognitive domains of MoCA scale, the visual space and executive function (P = 0.006, 0.041, 0.035, delayed memory (P = 0.006, 0.012, 0.048, language (P = 0.001, 0.032, 0.047 and calculation (P = 0.009, 0.001, 0.003 in LACI + WMH group were significantly lower than those in control, LACI and WMH groups. The delayed memory in LACI group was significantly lower than that in control group (P = 0.037. The delayed memory (P = 0.005 and language (P = 0.047 in WMH group were significantly lower than those in control group. Compared with control group, the amplitudes of P300 (P = 0.025, 0.033, 0.000 in LACI, WMH and LACI + WMH groups were significantly decreased, and the latencies (P = 0.018, 0.000, 0.000 were significantly prolonged. The amplitude of P300 in LACI + WMH group was significantly lower than that in LACI and WMH groups (P = 0.041, 0.018, and the latency was significantly prolonged (P = 0.000, 0.022.  Conclusions Elderly patients of cSVD all suffer from different degrees of cognitive impairment

  3. Introducing the event related fixed interval area (ERFIA) multilevel technique: a method to analyze the complete epoch of event-related potentials at single trial level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossen, C.J.; Vossen, H.G.M.; Marcus, M.A.E.; van Os, J.; Lousberg, R.

    2013-01-01

    In analyzing time-locked event-related potentials (ERPs), many studies have focused on specific peaks and their differences between experimental conditions. In theory, each latency point after a stimulus contains potentially meaningful information, regardless of whether it is peak-related. Based on

  4. Brain-behavioral adaptability predicts response to cognitive behavioral therapy for emotional disorders: A person-centered event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stange, Jonathan P; MacNamara, Annmarie; Kennedy, Amy E; Hajcak, Greg; Phan, K Luan; Klumpp, Heide

    2017-06-23

    Single-trial-level analyses afford the ability to link neural indices of elaborative attention (such as the late positive potential [LPP], an event-related potential) with downstream markers of attentional processing (such as reaction time [RT]). This approach can provide useful information about individual differences in information processing, such as the ability to adapt behavior based on attentional demands ("brain-behavioral adaptability"). Anxiety and depression are associated with maladaptive information processing implicating aberrant cognition-emotion interactions, but whether brain-behavioral adaptability predicts response to psychotherapy is not known. We used a novel person-centered, trial-level analysis approach to link neural indices of stimulus processing to behavioral responses and to predict treatment outcome. Thirty-nine patients with anxiety and/or depression received 12 weeks of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Prior to treatment, patients performed a speeded reaction-time task involving briefly-presented pairs of aversive and neutral pictures while electroencephalography was recorded. Multilevel modeling demonstrated that larger LPPs predicted slower responses on subsequent trials, suggesting that increased attention to the task-irrelevant nature of pictures interfered with reaction time on subsequent trials. Whereas using LPP and RT averages did not distinguish CBT responders from nonresponders, in trial-level analyses individuals who demonstrated greater ability to benefit behaviorally (i.e., faster RT) from smaller LPPs on the previous trial (greater brain-behavioral adaptability) were more likely to respond to treatment and showed greater improvements in depressive symptoms. These results highlight the utility of trial-level analyses to elucidate variability in within-subjects, brain-behavioral attentional coupling in the context of emotion processing, in predicting response to CBT for emotional disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

  5. Event-related potential responses to love-related facial stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J.E. Langeslag (Sandra); B.M. Jansma (Bernadette); I.H.A. Franken (Ingmar); J.W. van Strien (Jan)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn event-related potential (ERPs) studies, emotional stimuli usually elicit an enhanced late positive potential (LPP), which is assumed to reflect motivated attention. However, whether a stimulus elicits emotional responses may depend on the individual's state, such as experiencing

  6. Dissociation of Event-Related Potentials Indexing Arousal and Semantic Cohesion During Emotional Word Encoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Daniel G.; Cooper, Julie J.; Grent-'t-Jong, Tineke; Woldorff, Marty G.; LaBar, Kevin S.

    2006-01-01

    Event-related potential (ERP) studies have shown that emotional stimuli elicit greater amplitude late positive-polarity potentials (LPPs) than neutral stimuli. This effect has been attributed to arousal, but emotional stimuli are also more semantically coherent than uncategorized neutral stimuli. ERPs were recorded during encoding of positive,…

  7. The modulation of auditory novelty processing by working memory load in school age children and adults: a combined behavioral and event-related potential study

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    Widmann Andreas

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated the processing of task-irrelevant and unexpected novel sounds and its modulation by working-memory load in children aged 9-10 and in adults. Environmental sounds (novels were embedded amongst frequently presented standard sounds in an auditory-visual distraction paradigm. Each sound was followed by a visual target. In two conditions, participants evaluated the position of a visual stimulus (0-back, low load or compared the position of the current stimulus with the one two trials before (2-back, high load. Processing of novel sounds were measured with reaction times, hit rates and the auditory event-related brain potentials (ERPs Mismatch Negativity (MMN, P3a, Reorienting Negativity (RON and visual P3b. Results In both memory load conditions novels impaired task performance in adults whereas they improved performance in children. Auditory ERPs reflect age-related differences in the time-window of the MMN as children showed a positive ERP deflection to novels whereas adults lack an MMN. The attention switch towards the task irrelevant novel (reflected by P3a was comparable between the age groups. Adults showed more efficient reallocation of attention (reflected by RON under load condition than children. Finally, the P3b elicited by the visual target stimuli was reduced in both age groups when the preceding sound was a novel. Conclusion Our results give new insights in the development of novelty processing as they (1 reveal that task-irrelevant novel sounds can result in contrary effects on the performance in a visual primary task in children and adults, (2 show a positive ERP deflection to novels rather than an MMN in children, and (3 reveal effects of auditory novels on visual target processing.

  8. Genetics of the human electroencephalogram (EEG) and event-related brain potentials (ERPs): a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; Boomsma, D.I.

    1994-01-01

    Twin and family studies of normal variation in the human electroencephalogram (EEG) and event related potentials (ERPs) are reviewed. Most of these studies are characterized by small sample sizes. However, by summarizing these studies in one paper, we may be able to gain some insight into the

  9. Event-related Potentials Reflecting the Processing of Phonological Constraint Violations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Domahs, Ulrike; Kehrein, Wolfgang; Knaus, Johannes; Wiese, Richard; Schlesewsky, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Flow are violations of phonological constraints processed in word comprehension? The present article reports the results of ail event-related potentials (ERP) Study oil a phonological constraint of German that disallows identical segments within it syllable or word (CC(i)VC(i)). We examined three

  10. Atypical Brain Responses to Reward Cues in Autism as Revealed by Event-Related Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohls, Gregor; Peltzer, Judith; Schulte-Ruther, Martin; Kamp-Becker, Inge; Remschmidt, Helmut; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin

    2011-01-01

    Social motivation deficit theories suggest that children with autism do not properly anticipate and appreciate the pleasure of social stimuli. In this study, we investigated event-related brain potentials evoked by cues that triggered social versus monetary reward anticipation in children with autism. Children with autism showed attenuated P3…

  11. Predicting Reading Growth with Event-Related Potentials: Thinking Differently about Indexing "Responsiveness"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemons, Christopher J.; Key, Alexandra P. F.; Fuchs, Douglas; Yoder, Paul J.; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Compton, Donald L.; Williams, Susan M.; Bouton, Bobette

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if event-related potential (ERP) data collected during three reading-related tasks (Letter Sound Matching, Nonword Rhyming, and Nonword Reading) could be used to predict short-term reading growth on a curriculum-based measure of word identification fluency over 19 weeks in a sample of 29 first-grade…

  12. Event-related potentials reflecting the processing of phonological constraint violations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Domahs, U.; Kehrein, W.; Knaus, J.; Wiese, R.; Schlesewsky, M.

    2009-01-01

    How are violations of phonological constraints processed in word comprehension? The present article reports the results of an event-related potentials (ERP) study on a phonological constraint of German that disallows identical segments within a syllable or word (CC iVCi). We examined three types of

  13. Effects of stimulus repetitions on the event-related potential of humans and rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sambeth, A.; Maes, J.H.R.; Quian Quiroga, R.; Coenen, A.M.L.

    2004-01-01

    The present study compared the effects of repeated stimulus presentations on the event-related potential (ERP) of humans and rats. Both species were presented with a total of 100 auditory stimuli, divided into four blocks of 25 stimuli. By means of wavelet denoising, single-trial ERPs were

  14. Developmental Changes in Memory Encoding: Insights from Event-Related Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Leslie; Riggins, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate developmental changes in encoding processes between 6-year-old children and adults using event-related potentials (ERPs). Although episodic memory ("EM") effects have been reported in both children and adults at retrieval and subsequent memory effects have been established in adults, no…

  15. Genetic Correlation Between the P300 Event-Related Brain Potential and the EEG Power Spectrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anokhin, A.P.; van Baal, G.C.M.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Grant, J.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2001-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated moderate heritability of the P300 component of event-related brain potentials (ERPs) and high heritability of background electroencephalogram (EEG) power spectrum. However, it is unclear whether EEG and ERPs are influenced by common or independent genetic factors.

  16. Event-Related Potentials in Adolescents with Combined ADHD and CD Disorder: A Single Stimulus Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jing; Li, Jianming; Wang, Ying; Jiang, Qianjin; Livesley, W. John; Jang, Kerry L.; Wang, Kai; Wang, Wei

    2006-01-01

    Some studies of the event-related potentials demonstrated a reduction of the voluntary component P3 (P300 or P3b) in youngsters with the attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or in conduct disorders (CD), and a reduction of the automatic processing component, mismatch negativity, in patients with both ADHD and CD (ADHD+CD). Recently, a…

  17. Morphological Encoding in German Children's Language Production: Evidence from Event-Related Brain Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessen, Anna; Fleischhauer, Elisabeth; Clahsen, Harald

    2017-01-01

    This study reports developmental changes in morphological encoding across late childhood. We examined event-related brain potentials (ERPs) during the silent production of regularly vs. irregularly inflected verb forms (viz. "-t" vs. "-n" participles of German) in groups of eight- to ten-year-olds, eleven- to…

  18. Changes in event-related potentials in patients with first-episode schizophrenia and their siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chengqing; Zhang, Tianhong; Li, Zezhi; Heeramun-Aubeeluck, Anisha; Liu, Na; Huang, Nan; Zhang, Jie; He, Leiying; Li, Hui; Tang, Yingying; Chen, Fazhan; Wang, Jijun; Lu, Zheng

    2017-01-17

    This study aimed to explore the characteristics of event-related potentials induced by facial emotion recognition in patients with first-episode schizophrenia and in their siblings. In this case-control study, 30 first-episode schizophrenia patients, 26 siblings, and 30 healthy controls were enrolled. They completed facial emotion recognition tasks from the Ekman Standard Faces Database as an induction for evoked potentials. Evoked potential data were obtained using a 64-channel electroencephalography system. Average evoked potential waveforms were computed from epochs for each stimulus type. The amplitudes and latency of the event-related potentials for P100 (positive potential 100 ms after stimulus onset), N170 (negative potential 170 ms after stimulus onset), and N250 (fronto-central peak) were investigated at O1, O2, P7, and P8 electrode locations. There were significant differences between the groups for P100 amplitude (F = 11.526, P schizophrenia group at the O1, O2, P7, and P8 electrode positions. There were no significant differences between the siblings of schizophrenia patients and the healthy controls. Patients with schizophrenia showed abnormalities in P100 amplitude, but similar results were not observed in their siblings. These results provide evidence of dysfunctional event-related potential patterns underlying facial emotion processing in patients with schizophrenia. P100 may be a characteristic index of schizophrenia.

  19. Auditory event related potentials in children with peripheral hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koravand, Amineh; Jutras, Benoît; Lassonde, Maryse

    2013-07-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the neurophysiological responses in children with hearing loss. Cortical auditory evoked potentials and Mismatch Negativity (MMN) Responses were recorded in 40 children, 9-12 years old: 12 with hearing loss, 12 with central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) and 16 with normal hearing. Passive oddball paradigms were used with nonverbal and verbal stimuli. For P1, no significant group differences were observed. A significant reduction in N2 amplitude with all stimuli was observed in the group of children with hearing loss compared to the results of those with normal hearing. N2 results did not reveal any significant differences between the group of children with hearing loss and the children with CAPD. MMN amplitude indicated a trend toward larger MMN amplitude among the group of children with hearing loss compared to the value of those of children with CAPD. Abnormal N2 characteristics could be a manifestation of a specific signature in children with hearing loss. This cortical response could be considered as a neurophysiologic marker of central auditory processing deficits in these children. Results suggest maturational delays and/or deficits in central auditory processing in children with hearing loss. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Event-related potential N270 correlates of brand extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qingguo; Wang, Xiaoyi; Dai, Shenyi; Shu, Liangchao

    2007-07-02

    The aim of this study is to investigate the neural mechanism of extending a brand in a specific product category to other product categories. Facing two sequential stimuli in pairs consisting of beverage brand names (stimulus 1) and product names (stimulus 2) in other categories, 16 participants were asked to indicate the suitability of extending the brand in stimulus 1 to the product category in stimulus 2. These stimulus pairs were divided into four conditions depending on the product category in stimulus 2: beverage, snack, clothing, and household appliance. A negative component, N270, was recorded for each condition on the participants' scalps,whereas the maximum amplitude was observed at the frontal area. Greater N270 amplitude was observed when participants were presented with stronger conflict between the brand product category (stimulus 1) and the extension category (stimulus 2). It suggests that N270 can be evoked not only by a conflict of physical attributes (different shapes of words of brand and product names) but also by that of lexical content. From the marketing perspective, N270 can be potentially used as a reference measure in brand-extension attempts.

  1. The Recording and Quantification of Event-Related Potentials: II. Signal Processing and Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Paniz Tavakoli; Ken Campbell

    2015-01-01

    Event-related potentials are an informative method for measuring the extent of information processing in the brain. The voltage deflections in an ERP waveform reflect the processing of sensory information as well as higher-level processing that involves selective attention, memory, semantic comprehension, and other types of cognitive activity. ERPs provide a non-invasive method of studying, with exceptional temporal resolution, cognitive processes in the human brain. ERPs are extracted from s...

  2. The Event-related Potential P300 in Patients with Migraine

    OpenAIRE

    Titlic, Marina; Mise, Nikolina Ivica; Pintaric, Irena; Rogosic, Veljko; Vanjaka-Rogosic, Lucija; Mihalj, Mario; Jurinovic, Pavao; Katic, Ana Curkovic;; Andjelinovic, Maja

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Recording of event-related potentials by using oddball paradigm of auditory P300 has yielded conflicting results in migraine. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that migraine patients have reduced P300 amplitude and prolonged P300 latency, suggesting alterations of the cognitive-evaluative component. Methods: We recruited 29 migraine patients (24 females; median age 40 years) and 29 healthy age- and gender-matched participants. Participants were subjected to the same testing ...

  3. Learning of musical and linguistic structures: comparing event-related potentials and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois, Clément; Schön, Daniele

    2010-10-06

    To learn a new language, it is necessary for the learner to succeed in segmenting the continuous stream of sounds into significant units. Previous behavioral studies have shown that it is possible to segment a language or musical stream based only on probabilities of occurrence between adjacent syllables/tones. Here we used a sung language and tested participants' learning of both linguistic and musical structures while recording electroencephalography. Although behavioral results showed learning of the linguistic structure only, event-related potential results for both dimensions showed a negative component sensitive to the degree of familiarity of items. We discuss this component as an index of lexical search, also pointing to the greater sensitivity of the event-related potentials compared to the behavioral responses.

  4. The Recording and Quantification of Event-Related Potentials: II. Signal Processing and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paniz Tavakoli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Event-related potentials are an informative method for measuring the extent of information processing in the brain. The voltage deflections in an ERP waveform reflect the processing of sensory information as well as higher-level processing that involves selective attention, memory, semantic comprehension, and other types of cognitive activity. ERPs provide a non-invasive method of studying, with exceptional temporal resolution, cognitive processes in the human brain. ERPs are extracted from scalp-recorded electroencephalography by a series of signal processing steps. The present tutorial will highlight several of the analysis techniques required to obtain event-related potentials. Some methodological issues that may be encountered will also be discussed.

  5. Evaluation of cognitive disorders in multiple sclerosis patients by auditory event related potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Rasoulifard

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Bachground and Aim: The involvement of central auditory nervous system is relatively prevalent in patients suffering from multiple sclerosis (MS. To understand cortex function and to investigate cognitive impairment, event related potential is considered as a valuable tool. This study was aimed to compare the amplitude and latency of the event related potentials of P300 in MS patients and normal individuals.Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted on 21 MS patients and 27 normal cases aged 18-50 years. Auditory P300 was recorded with oddball paradigm, using two tone burst stimuli (1000 and 2000.Results: In MS patients, mean latencies were significantly longer (p<0.001 and mean amplitude were significantly lower (p<0.001, in both males and females. Sex did not affect P300 latencies and amplitudes significantly.Conclusion: MS patients show some degree of event related potential abnormalities. Combination of auditory P300 and neuropsychological tests may be useful to investigate cognitive impairment in MS patients.

  6. Abnormal occipital event-related potentials in Parkinson's disease with concomitant REM sleep behavior disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudreault, Pierre-Olivier; Gagnon, Jean-François; Montplaisir, Jacques; Vendette, Mélanie; Postuma, Ronald B; Gagnon, Katia; Gosselin, Nadia

    2013-02-01

    Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is found in 33-46% of patients with Parkinson's disease and was shown to be associated with cognitive deficits. Our goal was to improve our understanding of the role of this sleep disorder in cerebral dysfunction occurring in Parkinson's disease using a visual cognitive task and event-related potentials. Sixteen patients with Parkinson's disease and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, 15 patients with Parkinson's disease without rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and 16 healthy control subjects were included. The amplitude and latency of event-related potentials were compared between groups. No group differences were found for reaction times or accuracy. A Group effect was found for P2 wave amplitude; patients with rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder had increased P2 in comparison with the control group (p disorder were associated with abnormal visual P2 component of event-related potentials. Although patients with Parkinson's disease alone were not significantly different from patients with combined Parkinson's disease and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, their P2 amplitudes were not sufficiently abnormal to differ from that of control subjects. This study confirms that rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder accentuates cerebral dysfunctions in Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Pharmacodynamic Modelling of Placebo and Buprenorphine Effects on Event-Related Potentials in Experimental Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Rasmus V; Foster, David J R; Upton, Richard N

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate placebo and buprenorphine effects on event-related potentials (ERPs) in experimental pain and the potential benefit of population pharmacodynamic modelling in data analysis. Nineteen healthy volunteers received transdermal placebo and buprenorphine......-effects modelling implemented in NONMEM (V7.2.0.). Pharmacodynamic models were developed to adequately describe both placebo and buprenorphine ERP data. Models predicted significant placebo effects, but did not predict significant effects related to buprenorphine concentration. Models revealed that ERPs varied both...

  8. Stimulus Evaluation, Event Preparation, and Motor Action Planning in Young Patients With Mild Spastic Cerebral Palsy : An Event-Related Brain Potential Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hakkarainen, Elina; Pirila, Silja; Kaartinen, Jukka; van der Meere, Jaap J.

    The study investigated stimulus evaluation time, event preparation, and motor action planning of patients with mild spastic cerebral palsy and a peer control group in the age range of 9 to 18 years. To this end, participants were carrying out a stimulus recognition task. Findings indicated an

  9. Processing of Audiovisually Congruent and Incongruent Speech in School-Age Children with a History of Specific Language Impairment: A Behavioral and Event-Related Potentials Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaganovich, Natalya; Schumaker, Jennifer; Macias, Danielle; Gustafson, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that at least some aspects of audiovisual speech perception are impaired in children with specific language impairment (SLI). However, whether audiovisual processing difficulties are also present in older children with a history of this disorder is unknown. By combining electrophysiological and behavioral measures, we…

  10. Is your error my concern? An event-related potential study on own and observed error detection in cooperation and competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen R.A. De Bruijn

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available For successful goal-directed behavior it is essential for humans to continuously monitor one’s actions and detect errors as fast as possible. EEG studies have identified an error-related ERP component known as the error-related negativity or ERN. Theories on error monitoring propose a direct relation to reward processing. Whenever an error is made, the outcome of an action turns out to be worse than expected, resulting in a loss of reward and hence eliciting the ERN. However, as own errors are always associated with a loss of reward, disentangling whether the ERN is error- or reward-dependent has proven to be an extremely difficult endeavor. Recently, an ERN has also been demonstrated following the observation of other’s errors. An important difference with own errors is that other people’s errors can be associated with loss or gain depending on the cooperative or competitive context in which they are made. We conducted an ERP study to disentangle whether performance monitoring is error- or reward-dependent. Twelve pairs (N=24 of participants performed and observed a speeded-choice reaction task in two contexts. Own errors were always associated with a loss of reward. Observed errors in the cooperative context also yielded a loss of reward, but observed errors in the competitive context resulted in a gain. The results showed that the ERN was present following all types of errors independent of who made the error and the outcome of the action. Consequently, the current study demonstrates that performance monitoring as reflected by the ERN is error-specific and not directly dependent on reward.

  11. A comparative study between a simplified Kalman filter and Sliding Window Averaging for single trial dynamical estimation of event-related potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel-Larsen, Esben; Fuglø, Jacob; Channir, Fouad

    2010-01-01

    , are variable and depend on cognitive function. This study compares the performance of a simplified Kalman filter with Sliding Window Averaging in tracking dynamical changes in single trial P300. The comparison is performed on simulated P300 data with added background noise consisting of both simulated and real...... background EEG in various input signal to noise ratios. While both methods can be applied to track dynamical changes, the simplified Kalman filter has an advantage over the Sliding Window Averaging, most notable in a better noise suppression when both are optimized for faster changing latency and amplitude...

  12. A study of cognitive fatigue in Multiple Sclerosis with novel clinical and electrophysiological parameters utilizing the event related potential P300.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnadurai, Somasundaram Aadhimoolam; Venkatesan, Srinivasan Avathvadi; Shankar, Gobinathan; Samivel, Balasubramanian; Ranganathan, Lakshmi Narasimhan

    2016-11-01

    Although cognitive fatigue plays a significant part in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) related impairment, knowledge regarding it is largely lacking. Until now, not many tools are available to a clinician to detect cognitive fatigue. The subjective tools of fatigue have never been reliable.tabl OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence and clinical/ demographic profile of cognitive fatigue in MS using novel clinical and electrophysiological measures and to find their accuracy. We also aimed to test the three leading hypotheses - the temporal fatigue, cognitive load and cognitive domain hypotheses of cognitive fatigue in MS. 50 consecutive MS patients attending the Neurology OPD in Madras Medical College, Chennai from May 2015 to February 2016 satisfying the 2010 revised McDonald criteria for MS with an equal number of matched controls were recruited. Modified versions (a shorter version, and longer and more demanding versions) of the Stroop test, symbol digit modalities test, and serial addition tests were used in addition to modified tests of P300 latency and amplitude each specifically tailored to reveal cognitive fatigue. Out of the seven measures of cognitive fatigue used, 46% (n=23) of MS patients had impairment in two or more of the scores compared to that of 8% (n=4) in the healthy control group. The Expanded disability status scale (EDSS) scores were significantly higher for MS patients with cognitive fatigue compared to those without. All the clinical and electrophysiological measures used in this study had a relatively high sensitivity and specificity. In addition, all the clinical measures correlated with the electrophysiological measures of cognitive fatigue in this study. Our data also supported all three hypotheses implying that cognitive fatigue in MS may be a multifaceted entity. Cognitive fatigue is widely prevalent in MS and can be detected with specific tools. The tools developed and described in this study may be used as an effective means of detecting

  13. Adapted wavelet transform improves time-frequency representations: a study of auditory elicited P300-like event-related potentials in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richard, Nelly; Laursen, Bettina; Grupe, Morten

    2017-01-01

    ERPs was illustrated using the classical CWT and the aCWT. Next, the two methods were applied to EEG recordings obtained from prefrontal cortex in rats performing a two-tone auditory discrimination task. Main results. While only early ERP frequency changes between responses to target and non...... developed and validated a novel method specifically refined to analyse P300-like ERPs in rats. Approach. An adapted CWT (aCWT) was implemented to preserve high time-frequency resolution across all scales by commissioning of multiple wavelets operating at different scales. First, decomposition of simulated......-target tones were detected by the CWT, both early and late changes were successfully described with strong accuracy by the aCWT in rat ERPs. Increased frontal gamma power and phase synchrony was observed particularly within theta and gamma frequency bands during deviant tones. Significance. The study suggests...

  14. Evidence of a posterior cingulate involvement (Brodmann area 31) in dyslexia: a study based on source localization algorithm of event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoitsis, John; Giannakakis, Giorgos A; Papageorgiou, Charalabos; Nikita, Konstantina S; Rabavilas, Andreas; Anagnostopoulos, Dimitris

    2008-04-01

    The study investigates the differences regarding the position of intracranial generators of P50 component of ERPs in 38 dyslexic children aged 11.47+/-2.12 years compared with their 19 healthy siblings aged 12.21+/-2.25. The dipoles were extracted by solving the inverse electromagnetic problem according to the recursively applied and projected multiple signal classification (RAP-MUSIC) algorithm approach. For improved localization of the main dipole the solutions were optimized using genetic algorithms. The statistical analysis revealed differences regarding the position of intracranial generators of low frequency of P50. Particularly, dyslexics showed main activity being located at posterior cingulate cortex (Brodmann's area 31) while controls exhibited main activity being located at retrosplenial cortex (Brodmann's area 30). These results may indicate a role for the posterior cingulate cortex in the pre-attentive processing operation of dyslexia beyond of its traditional function in terms of spatial attention and motor intention.

  15. A smoking-related background helps moderate smokers to focus: An event-related potential study using a Go-NoGo task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detandt, Sandrine; Bazan, Ariane; Schröder, Elisa; Olyff, Giulia; Kajosch, Hendrik; Verbanck, Paul; Campanella, Salvatore

    2017-10-01

    Cognitive impairment is a major component in addiction. However, research has been inconclusive as to whether this is also the case for smokers. The present study aims at providing electrophysiological clue for altered inhibitory control in smokers and at investigating whether reduced inhibition was more pronounced during exposure to a smoking cue. ERPs were recorded during a visual Go-NoGo task performed by 18 smokers and 23 controls, in which either a frequent Go signal (letter "M") or a rare No-Go signal ("letter W") were superimposed on three different long-lasting background contexts: black-neutral, smoking-related and non smoking-related. (1) Smokers performed worse and had an earlier NoGo-N2 latency as compared to controls and independently of context, suggesting a general inhibition impairment; (2) with smoking-related backgrounds specifically, smokers made fewer mistakes than they did in other contexts and displayed a larger NoGo P3 amplitude. These data might suggest that background cues related to addiction may help smokers to be more accurate in an inhibition task. Our results show the classical inhibitory impairment in smokers as compared to non-smokers. However, our data also suggest that a smoking-related background may bolster the inhibitory ability of smokers specifically. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Affective visual event-related potentials: Arousal, valence, and repetition effects for normal and distorted pictures

    OpenAIRE

    Rozenkrants, Bella; Olofsson, Jonas K.; Polich, John

    2007-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to assess arousal (low, high), valence (negative, positive), and stimulus repetition effects for normal and distorted images from the International Affective Pictures System (IAPS). Distorted stimuli were constructed by dividing each image into 108 one cm squares and rearranging the segments randomly to produce a “scrambled” picture. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were elicited by presenting the normal and scrambled images as target stimuli, with a r...

  17. The light-makeup advantage in facial processing: Evidence from event-related potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Tagai, Keiko; Shimakura, Hitomi; Isobe, Hiroko; Nittono, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    The effects of makeup on attractiveness have been evaluated using mainly subjective measures. In this study, event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded from a total of 45 Japanese women (n = 23 and n = 22 for Experiment 1 and 2, respectively) to examine the neural processing of faces with no makeup, light makeup, and heavy makeup. To have the participants look at each face carefully, an identity judgement task was used: they were asked to judge whether the two faces presented in succ...

  18. Event-related potentials indicate bi-hemispherical changes in speech sound processing during aphasia rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Frank; Reinvang, Ivar

    2007-10-01

    To investigate changes in brain activation related to tone and speech sound processing during aphasia rehabilitation. Longitudinal study investigating patients with stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage and traumatic brain injury 3 and 7 months post-injury. Eight patients with aphasia, reflecting a wide range of auditory comprehension impairment. Token test and Norwegian Basic Aphasia Assessment were used to measure auditory comprehension function. Brain event-related potentials were recorded in passive paradigms with harmonically rich tones and syllables in order to obtain the mismatch negativity component that reflects automatic stimulus discrimination. In an active syllable discrimination paradigm, stimulus feature integration (N1), attended stimulus discrimination and classification (N2), and target detection (P3) were studied. Auditory comprehension scores improved approximately 10% during the observation period. Ipsilesional frontal P3- and N2-amplitude increased significantly. A significant shift in topographical distribution from the contralesional to the ipsilesional hemisphere was observed for the N2 component. The study of individual waveforms indicates inter-individual differences in reorganization after brain injury. Hemispherical distribution of brain activation correlating with speech sound processing in aphasia can change during the first months after brain injury. Event-related potentials are a potentially useful method for detecting individual activation patterns relevant to recovery in aphasia rehabilitation.

  19. Event-related potential P2 correlates of implicit aesthetic experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyi; Huang, Yujing; Ma, Qingguo; Li, Nan

    2012-10-03

    Using event-related potential measures, the present study investigated the affective responses to aesthetic experience. To differentiate the objective aesthetic value from subjective aesthetic evaluation, an amended oddball task was used in which pendant pictures were presented as frequent nontarget stimuli, whereas the landscape pictures were presented as a rare target. The pendant pictures were chosen from the largest online store in China and divided into beautiful and less beautiful conditions by the sales ranking. A positive component, P2, was recorded for each condition on the participants' frontal, central and parietal scalp areas. Less beautiful pendants elicited greater amplitudes of P2 than the beautiful ones. This indicates that emotion arousal seems to occur at the early stage of processing of aesthetics and can be detected by the P2 component, implying that the event-related potential methodology may be a more sensitive measure of the beauty-related attention bias. From the perspective of artwork design and marketing, our finding also shows that P2 can potentially be used as a reference measure in consumer aesthetic experience.

  20. Effects of white noise on event-related potentials in somatosensory Go/No-go paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohbayashi, Wakana; Kakigi, Ryusuke; Nakata, Hiroki

    2017-09-06

    Exposure to auditory white noise has been shown to facilitate human cognitive function. This phenomenon is termed stochastic resonance, and a moderate amount of auditory noise has been suggested to benefit individuals in hypodopaminergic states. The present study investigated the effects of white noise on the N140 and P300 components of event-related potentials in somatosensory Go/No-go paradigms. A Go or No-go stimulus was presented to the second or fifth digit of the left hand, respectively, at the same probability. Participants performed somatosensory Go/No-go paradigms while hearing three different white noise levels (45, 55, and 65 dB conditions). The peak amplitudes of Go-P300 and No-go-P300 in ERP waveforms were significantly larger under 55 dB than 45 and 65 dB conditions. White noise did not affect the peak latency of N140 or P300, or the peak amplitude of N140. Behavioral data for the reaction time, SD of reaction time, and error rates showed the absence of an effect by white noise. This is the first event-related potential study to show that exposure to auditory white noise at 55 dB enhanced the amplitude of P300 during Go/No-go paradigms, reflecting changes in the neural activation of response execution and inhibition processing.

  1. The Use of Auditory Event-Related Potentials in Alzheimer's Disease Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Vecchio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Event-related potentials (ERPs are important clinical and research instruments in neuropsychiatry, particularly due to their strategic role for the investigation of brain function. These techniques are often underutilized in the evaluation of neurological and psychiatric disorders, but ERPs are noninvasive instruments that directly reflect cortical neuronal activity. Previous studies using the P300, P3a, and MMN components of the ERP to study dementing illness are reviewed. The results suggest that particularly the P300 brain potential is sensitive to Alzheimer's disease processes during its early stages, and that easily performed stimulus discrimination tasks are the clinically most useful. Finally, these data suggest that the P300 ERP can aid in the diagnosis of dementia and may help in the assessment of early Alzheimer's disease.

  2. On the origin of event-related potentials indexing covert attentional selection during visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jeremiah Y; Heitz, Richard P; Schall, Jeffrey D; Woodman, Geoffrey F

    2009-10-01

    Despite nearly a century of electrophysiological studies recording extracranially from humans and intracranially from monkeys, the neural generators of nearly all human event-related potentials (ERPs) have not been definitively localized. We recorded an attention-related ERP component, known as the N2pc, simultaneously with intracranial spikes and local field potentials (LFPs) in macaques to test the hypothesis that an attentional-control structure, the frontal eye field (FEF), contributed to the generation of the macaque homologue of the N2pc (m-N2pc). While macaques performed a difficult visual search task, the search target was selected earliest by spikes from single FEF neurons, later by FEF LFPs, and latest by the m-N2pc. This neurochronometric comparison provides an empirical bridge connecting macaque and human experiments and a step toward localizing the neural generator of this important attention-related ERP component.

  3. Event-related potentials, emotion, and emotion regulation: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajcak, Greg; MacNamara, Annmarie; Olvet, Doreen M

    2010-01-01

    Progress in the study of emotion and emotion regulation has increasingly been informed by neuroscientific methods. This article focuses on two components of the event-related potential (ERP)--the P300 and the late positive potential (LPP)--and how they can be used to understand the interaction between the more automatic and controlled processing of emotional stimuli. Research is reviewed exploring: the dynamics of emotional response as indexed at early and late latencies; neurobiological correlates of emotional response; individual and developmental differences; ways in which the LPP can be utilized as a measure of emotion regulation. Future directions for the application of ERP/electroencephalogram (EEG) in achieving a more complete understanding of emotional processing and its regulation are presented.

  4. Predicting Reading Growth with Event-Related Potentials: Thinking Differently about Indexing "Responsiveness"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemons, Christopher J; Key, Alexandra P F; Fuchs, Douglas; Yoder, Paul J; Fuchs, Lynn S; Compton, Donald L; Williams, Susan M; Bouton, Bobette

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if event-related potential (ERP) data collected during three reading-related tasks (Letter Sound Matching, Nonword Rhyming, and Nonword Reading) could be used to predict short-term reading growth on a curriculum-based measure of word identification fluency over 19 weeks in a sample of 29 first-grade children. Results indicate that ERP responses to the Letter Sound Matching task were predictive of reading change and remained so after controlling for two previously validated behavioral predictors of reading, Rapid Letter Naming and Segmenting. ERP data for the other tasks were not correlated with reading change. The potential for cognitive neuroscience to enhance current methods of indexing responsiveness in a response-to-intervention (RTI) model is discussed.

  5. Emotional Granularity Effects on Event-Related Brain Potentials during Affective Picture Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ja Y; Lindquist, Kristen A; Nam, Chang S

    2017-01-01

    There is debate about whether emotional granularity, the tendency to label emotions in a nuanced and specific manner, is merely a product of labeling abilities, or a systematic difference in the experience of emotion during emotionally evocative events. According to the Conceptual Act Theory of Emotion (CAT) (Barrett, 2006), emotional granularity is due to the latter and is a product of on-going temporal differences in how individuals categorize and thus make meaning of their affective states. To address this question, the present study investigated the effects of individual differences in emotional granularity on electroencephalography-based brain activity during the experience of emotion in response to affective images. Event-related potentials (ERP) and event-related desynchronization and synchronization (ERD/ERS) analysis techniques were used. We found that ERP responses during the very early (60-90 ms), middle (270-300 ms), and later (540-570 ms) moments of stimulus presentation were associated with individuals' level of granularity. We also observed that highly granular individuals, compared to lowly granular individuals, exhibited relatively stable desynchronization of alpha power (8-12 Hz) and synchronization of gamma power (30-50 Hz) during the 3 s of stimulus presentation. Overall, our results suggest that emotional granularity is related to differences in neural processing throughout emotional experiences and that high granularity could be associated with access to executive control resources and a more habitual processing of affective stimuli, or a kind of "emotional complexity." Implications for models of emotion are also discussed.

  6. Long latency event-related potentials (P300) in gifted children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, F; Delpont, E; Suisse, G; Richelme, C; Dolisi, C

    1993-01-01

    In children, P3 latency decreases with increasing age. This decrease could be linked with the maturation of cognitive processes. According to this hypothesis, event-related potentials P3 were recording in gifted children to research an electrophysiological correlation with the mental precocity. Auditory long latency event-related potentials were recorded in 10 gifted children (IQs over 140) and 23 control subjects. The part of variance related to age was extracted by comparing deviations from regression line as a function of age. Stimulus-evoked N1 component latency was not statistically different in the two populations. Event-related P3 component latency was significantly shorter in the gifted children at Cz (P children.

  7. P300 event-related potential in abstinent methamphetamine-dependent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haifeng, Jiang; Wenxu, Zhuang; Hong, Cheng; Chuanwei, Li; Jiang, Du; Haiming, Sun; Zhikang, Chen; Din, Xu; Jijun, Wang; Min, Zhao

    2015-10-01

    Substance use and abuse are characterized by biases in the attentional processing of substance-related stimuli. There are no event related potential (ERP)-based studies of attentional bias for substance-related cues among methamphetamine (MA) dependent patients. The study aimed to measure changes in P300 event-related potentials elicited by MA-related words in MA-dependent individuals at baseline and after 3 and 6 months of abstinence, examining the relationship of ERP changes to craving. 26 MA-dependent patients (14 male) newly enrolled in two compulsory treatment centers in China and 29 healthy controls (15 male) were included in this study. At baseline (2-3 weeks in treatment) and after 3 and 6 months of abstinence from MA use, we obtained ERP data during a Stroop color-matching task using MA-related and neutral words. Self-reported craving was measured by a Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Increased P300 amplitudes elicited by MA-related words were observed over left-anterior electrode sites. Abnormal P300 amplitudes declined to the normal levels of healthy controls at the end of 3 months of abstinence, and the decrease was maintained up to the end of 6 months of abstinence. The behavioral data did not show similar changes. The positive relationship between the changes of VAS scores for MA craving and the changes of P300 amplitudes over left anterior electrode sites elicited by MA-related words within the first 3 months was significant. These findings highlight the potential use of ERP as an objective index to track changes in subjective MA craving among abstinent MA-dependent patients. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. When mental fatigue maybe characterized by Event Related Potential (P300) during virtual wheelchair navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamti, Hachem A; Gorce, Philippe; Ben Khelifa, Mohamed Moncef; Alimi, Adel M

    2016-12-01

    The goal of this study is to investigate the influence of mental fatigue on the event related potential P300 features (maximum pick, minimum amplitude, latency and period) during virtual wheelchair navigation. For this purpose, an experimental environment was set up based on customizable environmental parameters (luminosity, number of obstacles and obstacles velocities). A correlation study between P300 and fatigue ratings was conducted. Finally, the best correlated features supplied three classification algorithms which are MLP (Multi Layer Perceptron), Linear Discriminate Analysis and Support Vector Machine. The results showed that the maximum feature over visual and temporal regions as well as period feature over frontal, fronto-central and visual regions were correlated with mental fatigue levels. In the other hand, minimum amplitude and latency features didn't show any correlation. Among classification techniques, MLP showed the best performance although the differences between classification techniques are minimal. Those findings can help us in order to design suitable mental fatigue based wheelchair control.

  9. A new method for detecting interactions between the senses in event-related potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gondan, Matthias; Röder, B.

    2006-01-01

    not contain common activity: This activity would be subtracted twice from one ERP and would, therefore, contaminate the result. In the present study, ERPs to unimodal, bimodal, and trimodal auditory, visual, and tactile stimuli (T) were recorded. We demonstrate that (T + TAV) - (TA + TV) is equivalent to AV......Event-related potentials (ERPs) can be used in multisensory research to determine the point in time when different senses start to interact, for example, the auditory and the visual system. For this purpose, the ERP to bimodal stimuli (AV) is often compared to the sum of the ERPs to auditory (A......) and visual (V) stimuli: AV - (A + V). If the result is non-zero, this is interpreted as an indicator for multisensory interactions. Using this method, several studies have demonstrated auditory-visual interactions as early as 50 ms after stimulus onset. The subtraction requires that A, V, and AV do...

  10. Hostile attribution biases for relationally provocative situations and event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godleski, Stephanie A; Ostrov, Jamie M; Houston, Rebecca J; Schlienz, Nicolas J

    2010-04-01

    This exploratory study investigates how hostile attribution biases for relationally provocative situations may be related to neurocognitive processing using the P300 event-related potential. Participants were 112 (45 women) emerging adults enrolled in a large, public university in upstate New York. Participants completed self-report measures on relational aggression and hostile attribution biases and performed an auditory perseveration task to elicit the P300. It was found that hostile attribution biases for relational provocation situations was associated with a larger P300 amplitude above and beyond the role of hostile attribution biases for instrumental situations, relational aggression, and gender. Larger P300 amplitude is interpreted to reflect greater allocation of cognitive resources or enhanced "attending" to salient stimuli. Implications for methodological approaches to studying aggression and hostile attribution biases and for theory are discussed, as well as implications for the fields of developmental psychology and psychopathology. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Auditory event-related potentials as indicators of good prognosis in coma of non-anoxic etiology

    OpenAIRE

    Jabbour, Rosette; Sawaya, Raja A.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate whether auditory event-related potentials can predict the prognosis of recovery from coma resulting from different etiologies. The results of this study could then be used as an adjuvant test in helping the clinician evaluate patients in coma. We performed P300 auditory event-related potentials on 21 patients who developed a state of coma at our institution. We compared the results to the Glasgow coma scale at the onset of coma, on day 3, and day 21. We...

  12. Interactions Between Pre-Processing and Classification Methods for Event-Related-Potential Classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farquhar, J.D.R.; Hill, N.J.

    2013-01-01

    Detecting event related potentials (ERPs) from single trials is critical to the operation of many stimulus-driven brain computer interface (BCI) systems. The low strength of the ERP signal compared to the noise (due to artifacts and BCI irrelevant brain processes) makes this a challenging signal

  13. Do U Txt? Event-Related Potentials to Semantic Anomalies in Standard and Texted English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Natalie I.; Coch, Donna

    2010-01-01

    Texted English is a hybrid, technology-based language derived from standard English modified to facilitate ease of communication via instant and text messaging. We compared semantic processing of texted and standard English sentences by recording event-related potentials in a classic semantic incongruity paradigm designed to elicit an N400 effect.…

  14. (De-)Accentuation and the Processing of Information Status: Evidence from Event-Related Brain Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Stefan; Schumacher, Petra B.

    2012-01-01

    The paper reports on a perception experiment in German that investigated the neuro-cognitive processing of information structural concepts and their prosodic marking using event-related brain potentials (ERPs). Experimental conditions controlled the information status (given vs. new) of referring and non-referring target expressions (nouns vs.…

  15. Word Learning and Individual Differences in Word Learning Reflected in Event-Related Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfetti, Charles A.; Wlotko, Edward W.; Hart, Lesley A.

    2005-01-01

    Adults learned the meanings of rare words (e.g., gloaming) and then made meaning judgments on pairs of words. The 1st word was a trained rare word, an untrained rare word, or an untrained familiar word. Event-related potentials distinguished trained rare words from both untrained rare and familiar words, first at 140 ms and again at 400-600 ms…

  16. Event-related potential evidence on the influence of accentuation in spoken discourse comprehension in Chinese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, X.; Hagoort, P.; Yang, Y.

    2008-01-01

    In an event-related potential experiment with Chinese discourses as material, we investigated how and when accentuation influences spoken discourse comprehension in relation to the different information states of the critical words. These words could either provide new or old information. It was

  17. Components of the event-related potential following degraded and undegraded visual stimuli.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, A.; de Looren de Jong, H.

    1980-01-01

    Event-related potentials were recorded in response to visual stimuli in 2 reaction tasks in which 12 right-handed male undergraduates were instructed to react immediately to the stimuli, or to delay their response for 2 sec. There were 4 types of stimuli: frequent-degraded, frequent-undegraded,

  18. An event-related brain potential correlate of visual short-term memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, Peter; Talsma, D.; Wijers, Albertus; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Mulder, Gijsbertus

    1999-01-01

    EVENT-RELATED potentials (ERPs) were recorded as 12 subjects performed a delayed matching to sample task. We presented two bilateral abstract shapes and cued spatially which had to be memorized for a subsequent matching task: left, right or both. During memorization a posterior slow negative ERP

  19. P300 event-related potential in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahera, G; Pedrera, A; Cabañes, L; Fernandez-Lorente, J; Simal, P; Montes, J M; Saiz-Ruiz, J

    2009-02-01

    Auditory P300 event-related potential (ERP) and performance on Sustained Attention were evaluated in 24 euthymic bipolar patients and 38 healthy volunteers. There were no significant differences between groups, and performance in sustained attention had no significant influence in the P300 responses. P300 response might be driven by the presence of mood symptoms.

  20. Cognitive Brain Event-Related Potentials and Emotion Processing in Maltreated Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollak, Seth D.; Cicchetti, Dante; Klorman, Rafael; Brumaghim, Joan T.

    1997-01-01

    Recorded cognitive event-related potentials from maltreated and nonmaltreated children during presentations of happy, angry, or neutral facial expressions. Found that for nonmaltreated children, the average amplitude of P300 was comparable for responses to happy and neutral expressions. Maltreated children displayed larger P300 amplitude to…

  1. Impaired Phonological and Orthographic Word Representations among Adult Dyslexic Readers: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyler, Ann; Breznitz, Zvia

    2005-01-01

    The authors examined the processing of phonological and orthographic word representations among 17 dyslexic and 16 normal college-level readers using Event-Related Potential measures. They focused on 2 early components--the P200 and the P300. The results revealed P200 and P300 components of lower amplitude and later latency among dyslexic readers…

  2. Temporal Dynamics of Late Second Language Acquisition: Evidence from Event-Related Brain Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhauer, Karsten; White, Erin J.; Drury, John E.

    2009-01-01

    The ways in which age of acquisition (AoA) may affect (morpho)syntax in second language acquisition (SLA) are discussed. We suggest that event-related brain potentials (ERPs) provide an appropriate online measure to test some such effects. ERP findings of the past decade are reviewed with a focus on recent and ongoing research. It is concluded…

  3. Bilingualism and increased attention to speech: Evidence from event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, Jan Rouke; Thierry, Guillaume

    2015-10-01

    A number of studies have shown that from an early age, bilinguals outperform their monolingual peers on executive control tasks. We previously found that bilingual children and adults also display greater attention to unexpected language switches within speech. Here, we investigated the effect of a bilingual upbringing on speech perception in one language. We recorded monolingual and bilingual toddlers' event-related potentials (ERPs) to spoken words preceded by pictures. Words matching the picture prime elicited an early frontal positivity in bilingual participants only, whereas later ERP amplitudes associated with semantic processing did not differ between groups. These results add to the growing body of evidence that bilingualism increases overall attention during speech perception whilst semantic integration is unaffected. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Attentional Selection Accompanied by Eye Vergence as Revealed by Event-Related Brain Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sole Puig, Maria; Pallarés, Josep Marco; Perez Zapata, Laura; Puigcerver, Laura; Cañete, Josep; Supèr, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Neural mechanisms of attention allow selective sensory information processing. Top-down deployment of visual-spatial attention is conveyed by cortical feedback connections from frontal regions to lower sensory areas modulating late stimulus responses. A recent study reported the occurrence of small eye vergence during orienting top-down attention. Here we assessed a possible link between vergence and attention by comparing visual event related potentials (vERPs) to a cue stimulus that induced attention to shift towards the target location to the vERPs to a no-cue stimulus that did not trigger orienting attention. The results replicate the findings of eye vergence responses during orienting attention and show that the strength and time of eye vergence coincide with the onset and strength of the vERPs when subjects oriented attention. Our findings therefore support the idea that eye vergence relates to and possibly has a role in attentional selection.

  5. Attentional Selection Accompanied by Eye Vergence as Revealed by Event-Related Brain Potentials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Sole Puig

    Full Text Available Neural mechanisms of attention allow selective sensory information processing. Top-down deployment of visual-spatial attention is conveyed by cortical feedback connections from frontal regions to lower sensory areas modulating late stimulus responses. A recent study reported the occurrence of small eye vergence during orienting top-down attention. Here we assessed a possible link between vergence and attention by comparing visual event related potentials (vERPs to a cue stimulus that induced attention to shift towards the target location to the vERPs to a no-cue stimulus that did not trigger orienting attention. The results replicate the findings of eye vergence responses during orienting attention and show that the strength and time of eye vergence coincide with the onset and strength of the vERPs when subjects oriented attention. Our findings therefore support the idea that eye vergence relates to and possibly has a role in attentional selection.

  6. P300 component of event-related potentials in persons with asperger disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanami, Akira; Okajima, Yuka; Ota, Haruhisa; Tani, Masayuki; Yamada, Takashi; Yamagata, Bun; Hashimoto, Ryuichiro; Kanai, Chieko; Takashio, Osamu; Inamoto, Atsuko; Ono, Taisei; Takayama, Yukiko; Kato, Nobumasa

    2014-10-01

    In the present study, we investigated auditory event-related potentials in adults with Asperger disorder and normal controls using an auditory oddball task and a novelty oddball task. Task performance and the latencies of P300 evoked by both target and novel stimuli in the two tasks did not differ between the two groups. Analysis of variance revealed that there was a significant interaction effect between group and electrode site on the mean amplitude of the P300 evoked by novel stimuli, which indicated that there was an altered distribution of the P300 in persons with Asperger disorder. In contrast, there was no significant interaction effect on the mean P300 amplitude elicited by target stimuli. Considering that P300 comprises two main subcomponents, frontal-central-dominant P3a and parietal-dominant P3b, our results suggested that persons with Asperger disorder have enhanced amplitude of P3a, which indicated activated prefrontal function in this task.

  7. [Differential effects of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder subtypes in event-related potentials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayo-Orrego, Lukas; Osorio Forero, Alejandro; Quintero Giraldo, Lina Paola; Parra Sánchez, José Hernán; Varela, Vilma; Restrepo, Francia

    2015-01-01

    To better understand the neurophysiological substrates in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a study was performed on of event-related potentials (ERPs) in Colombian patients with inattentive and combined ADHD. A case-control, cross-sectional study was designed. The sample was composed of 180 subjects between 5 and 15 years of age (mean, 9.25±2.6), from local schools in Manizales. The sample was divided equally in ADHD or control groups and the subjects were paired by age and gender. The diagnosis was made using the DSM-IV-TR criteria, the Conners and WISC-III test, a psychiatric interview (MINIKID), and a medical evaluation. ERPs were recorded in a visual and auditory passive oddball paradigm. Latency and amplitude of N100, N200 and P300 components for common and rare stimuli were used for statistical comparisons. ADHD subjects show differences in the N200 amplitude and P300 latency in the auditory task. The N200 amplitude was reduced in response to visual stimuli. ADHD subjects with combined symptoms show a delayed P300 in response to auditory stimuli, whereas inattentive subjects exhibited differences in the amplitude of N100 and N200. Combined ADHD patients showed longer N100 latency and smaller N200-P300 amplitude compared to inattentive ADHD subjects. The results show differences in the event-related potentials between combined and inattentive ADHD subjects. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  8. Phase noise reveals early category-specific modulation of the event-related potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornél eNémeth

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have found that the amplitude of the early event-related potential (ERP components evoked by faces, such as N170 and P2, changes systematically as a function of noise added to the stimuli. This change has been linked to an increased perceptual processing demand and to enhanced difficulty in perceptual decision making about faces. However, to date it has not yet been tested whether noise manipulation affects the neural correlates of decisions about face and non-face stimuli similarly. To this end, we measured the event-related potentials for faces and cars at three different phase noise levels. Subjects performed the same two-alternative age-discrimination task on stimuli chosen from young-old morphing continua that were created from faces as well as cars and were calibrated to lead to similar performances at each noise-level. Adding phase noise to the stimuli reduced performance and enhanced response latency for the two categories to the same extent. Parallel to that, phase noise reduced the amplitude and prolonged the latency of the face-specific N170 component. The amplitude of the P1 showed category-specific noise dependence: it was enhanced over the right hemisphere for cars and over the left hemisphere for faces as a result of adding phase noise to the stimuli, but remained stable across noise levels for cars over the left and for faces over the right hemisphere. Moreover, noise modulation altered the category-selectivity of the N170, while the P2 ERP component, typically associated with task decision difficulty, was larger for the more noisy stimuli regardless of stimulus category. Our results suggest that the category-specificity of noise-induced modulations of ERP responses starts at around 100 ms post-stimulus.

  9. Event-Related Potentials Reflect Speech-Relevant Somatosensory-Auditory Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Ito

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available An interaction between orofacial somatosensation and the perception of speech was demonstrated in recent psychophysical studies (Ito et al. 2009; Ito and Ostry 2009. To explore further the neural mechanisms of the speech-related somatosensory-auditory interaction, we assessed to what extent multisensory evoked potentials reflect multisensory interaction during speech perception. We also examined the dynamic modulation of multisensory integration resulting from relative timing differences between the onsets of the two sensory stimuli. We recorded event-related potentials from 64 scalp sites in response to somatosensory stimulation alone, auditory stimulation alone, and combined somatosensory and auditory stimulation. In the multisensory condition, the timing of the two stimuli was either simultaneous or offset by 90 ms (lead and lag. We found evidence of multisensory interaction with the amplitude of the multisensory evoked potential reliably different than the sum of the two unisensory potentials around the first peak of multisensory response (100–200 ms. The magnitude of the evoked potential difference varied as a function of the relative timing between the stimuli in the interval from 170 to 200 ms following somatosensory stimulation. The results demonstrate clear multisensory convergence and suggest a dynamic modulation of multisensory interaction during speech.

  10. [Comparative study on effects of electroacupuncture stimulation of Shenmen (HT 7) and Taiyuan (LU 9) on P 300 of event-related potentials and brain electrical activity mapping in healthy young adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wu-Bin; Hu, Ling; Dong, Chao-Yang; Cai, Rong-Lin; Zhou, Yi-Ping; Wang, Ke-Ming; Zhang, Cheng; Zhou, Feng

    2013-06-01

    To observe the effect difference of electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation of Shenmen (HT 7) and Taiyuan (LU 9) on P 300 of event-related potentials (ERPs) in volunteer subjects, so as to explore functional specificity of acupoints in processing cerebral information. Sixty healthy volunteer college students were randomly and equally divided into Shenmen (HT 7) group and Taiyuan (LU 9) group (30 persons/group). EA (2 Hz, 1 mA) was applied to bilateral Shenmen (HT 7) and Taiyuan (LU 9) for 15 min. The ERPs were acquired by averaging EEG activity following Oddba II auditory tone-double stimuli and brain electrical activity mapping (BEAM) acquired by means of Scan 4.5 collection and analysis system. Data were calculated and analyzed with SPSS 17.0 for Windows. After testing, the subjects were inquired about the perception for acupuncture stimulation and other sensations or psychological activities. Following EA stimulation of both HT 7 and LU 9, the amplitude of P 300 in the ERPs were significantly decreased in comparison with pre-EA stimulation in the same one group (P 0.05). But, EA of HT 7 had a slightly stronger effect in shortening P 300 latency. With regard to the potential intensity distribution of BEAM, there were some differences between HT 7 and LU 9 groups. The high potential responses for HT 7 were found mainly in the occipital lobe, and in the left parietal lobe and the right temporal lobe, whereas those for LU 9 were found to mainly disperse in the left occipital lobe and the parietal lobe. EA stimulation of HT 7 and LU 9 has a slight difference on lowering P 300 amplitude of ERPs, and may result in different distribution of the high potential responses in different lobes of the cerebral cortex in healthy subjects. The functional specificity of EA stimulation of different acupoints needs further study.

  11. Event-related potentials elicited by social commerce and electronic-commerce reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yan; Yao, Zhong; Cong, Fengyu; Zhang, Linlin

    2015-12-01

    There is an increasing interest regarding the use of electroencephalography (EEG) in social commerce and electronic commerce (e-commerce) research. There are several reviews in the field of social commerce or e-commerce; these have great potential value and mining them is fundamental and significant. To our knowledge, EEG is rarely applied to study these. In this study, we examined the neural correlates of social commerce reviews (SCRs) and e-commerce reviews (ECRs) by using them as stimuli to evoke event-related potentials. All SCRs were from friends through a social media platform, whereas ECRs were from strangers through an e-commerce platform. The experimental design was similar to that of a priming paradigm, and included 40 pairs of stimuli consisting of product information (prime stimulus) and reviews (target stimulus). The results showed that the P300 component was successfully evoked by SCR and ECR stimuli. Moreover, the P300 components elicited by SCRs had higher amplitudes than those elicited by ECRs. These findings indicate that participants paid more attention to SCRs than to ECRs. In addition, the associations between neural responses and reviews in social commerce have the potential to assist companies in studying consumer behaviors, thus permitting them to enhance their social commerce strategies.

  12. Emotional Granularity Effects on Event-Related Brain Potentials during Affective Picture Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ja Y.; Lindquist, Kristen A.; Nam, Chang S.

    2017-01-01

    There is debate about whether emotional granularity, the tendency to label emotions in a nuanced and specific manner, is merely a product of labeling abilities, or a systematic difference in the experience of emotion during emotionally evocative events. According to the Conceptual Act Theory of Emotion (CAT) (Barrett, 2006), emotional granularity is due to the latter and is a product of on-going temporal differences in how individuals categorize and thus make meaning of their affective states. To address this question, the present study investigated the effects of individual differences in emotional granularity on electroencephalography-based brain activity during the experience of emotion in response to affective images. Event-related potentials (ERP) and event-related desynchronization and synchronization (ERD/ERS) analysis techniques were used. We found that ERP responses during the very early (60–90 ms), middle (270–300 ms), and later (540–570 ms) moments of stimulus presentation were associated with individuals’ level of granularity. We also observed that highly granular individuals, compared to lowly granular individuals, exhibited relatively stable desynchronization of alpha power (8–12 Hz) and synchronization of gamma power (30–50 Hz) during the 3 s of stimulus presentation. Overall, our results suggest that emotional granularity is related to differences in neural processing throughout emotional experiences and that high granularity could be associated with access to executive control resources and a more habitual processing of affective stimuli, or a kind of “emotional complexity.” Implications for models of emotion are also discussed. PMID:28392761

  13. Event-related potentials dissociate perceptual from response-related age effects in visual search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegand, Iris; Müller, Hermann J.; Finke, Kathrin

    2013-01-01

    measures with lateralized event-related potentials of younger and older adults performing a compound-search task, in which the target-defining dimension of a pop-out target (color/shape) and the response-critical target feature (vertical/horizontal stripes) varied independently across trials. Slower......Attentional decline plays a major role in cognitive changes with aging. However, which specific aspects of attention contribute to this decline is as yet little understood. To identify the contributions of various potential sources of age decrements in visual search, we combined response time...... responses in older participants were associated with age differences in all analyzed event-related potentials from perception to response, indicating that behavioral slowing originates from multiple stages within the information-processing stream. Furthermore, analyses of carry-over effects from one trial...

  14. Slowing of Event-Related Potentials in Primary Progressive Aphasia. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Giaquinto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA is a rare and insidious language impairment that worsens over time. It belongs to the group of fronto–temporal dementias. This study was aimed at assessing the role of speed of cognitive abilities, such as word recognition, in PPA. The design is a single-case, longitudinal study. A male patient suffering from PPA was enrolled and 15 healthy older adults were the control group. An event-related electrical potential connected with word recognition, namely the N400, was delayed by 200 msec at baseline compared to healthy controls and progressively deteriorated. One year later, the delay was greater and two years later the potential had disappeared. Reduced speed of processing is an early pathological factor that negatively affecting higher cognitive functions in APP. Event–related electrical potentials are recommended in the field of aphasia and cognitive decline. They permit observation of a speed decline in higher cognitive abilities, when pathological changes at a central level begin and language comprehension seems to be unaffected.

  15. Differences between human auditory event-related potentials (AERPs) measured at 2 and 4 months after birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, Marion I.; Otte, Renee A.; Braeken, Marijke A. K. A.; Winkler, Istvan; Kushnerenko, Elena; Van den Bergh, Bea R. H.

    2015-01-01

    Infant auditory event-related potentials (AERPs) show a series of marked changes during the first year of life. These AERP changes indicate important advances in early development. The current study examined AERP differences between 2- and 4-month-old infants. An auditory oddball paradigm was

  16. Newborn Event-Related Potentials Predict Poorer Pre-Reading Skills in Children at Risk for Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttorm, Tomi K.; Leppanen, Paavo H. T.; Hamalainen, Jarmo A.; Eklund, Kenneth M.; Lyytinen, Heikki J.

    2010-01-01

    Earlier results from the Jyvaskyla Longitudinal Study of Dyslexia showed that newborn event-related potentials (ERPs) of children with and without familial risk for dyslexia were associated with receptive language and verbal memory skills between 2.5 and 5 years of age. We further examined whether these ERPs (responses to synthetic consonant-vowel…

  17. Processing of visual semantic information to concrete words : temporal dynamics and neural mechanisms indicated by event-related brain potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schie, Hein T.; Wijers, Albertus A.; Mars, Rogier B.; Benjamins, Jeroen S.; Stowe, Laurie A.

    2005-01-01

    Event-related brain potentials were used to study the retrieval of visual semantic information to concrete words, and to investigate possible structural overlap between visual object working memory and concreteness effects in word processing. Subjects performed an object working memory task that

  18. Processing of visual semantic information to concrete words: temporal dynamics and neural mechanisms indicated by event-related brain potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schie, H.T. van; Wijers, A.A.; Mars, R.B.; Benjamins, J.S.; Stowe, L.A.

    2005-01-01

    Event-related brain potentials were used to study the retrieval of visual semantic information to concrete words, and to investigate possible structural overlap between visual object working memory and concreteness effects in word processing. Subjects performed an object working memory task that

  19. Internal consistency of event-related potentials associated with cognitive control: N2/P3 and ERN/Pe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.J.R. Rietdijk (Wim); I.H.A. Franken (Ingmar); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractRecent studies in psychophysiology show an increased attention for examining the reliability of Event-Related Potentials (ERPs), which are measures of cognitive control (e.g., Go/No-Go tasks). An important index of reliability is the internal consistency (e.g., Cronbach's alpha) of a

  20. Neurophysiological Effects of Meditation Based on Evoked and Event Related Potential Recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nilkamal; Telles, Shirley

    2015-01-01

    Evoked potentials (EPs) are a relatively noninvasive method to assess the integrity of sensory pathways. As the neural generators for most of the components are relatively well worked out, EPs have been used to understand the changes occurring during meditation. Event-related potentials (ERPs) yield useful information about the response to tasks, usually assessing attention. A brief review of the literature yielded eleven studies on EPs and seventeen on ERPs from 1978 to 2014. The EP studies covered short, mid, and long latency EPs, using both auditory and visual modalities. ERP studies reported the effects of meditation on tasks such as the auditory oddball paradigm, the attentional blink task, mismatched negativity, and affective picture viewing among others. Both EP and ERPs were recorded in several meditations detailed in the review. Maximum changes occurred in mid latency (auditory) EPs suggesting that maximum changes occur in the corresponding neural generators in the thalamus, thalamic radiations, and primary auditory cortical areas. ERP studies showed meditation can increase attention and enhance efficiency of brain resource allocation with greater emotional control. PMID:26137479

  1. Dopaminergic mechanisms of target detection - P300 event related potential and striatal dopamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogarell, Oliver; Padberg, Frank; Karch, Susanne; Segmiller, Felix; Juckel, Georg; Mulert, Christoph; Hegerl, Ulrich; Tatsch, Klaus; Koch, Walter

    2011-12-30

    The P300 is a cortically generated event related potential (ERP) widely used in neurophysiological research since it is related to cognitive functions and central information processing. Intracerebral recordings and functional neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that this potential is generated by various brain regions including frontal, temporal and parietal cortices. Regarding the neurochemical background, clinical and genetic investigations suggest that dopaminergic neurons could be involved in the generation of the P300. However, there is no direct evidence in vivo that P300 amplitudes and latencies are related to dopaminergic parameters. The aim of this study was to further elucidate dopaminergic aspects of the P300 ERP by combining neurophysiological and nuclear medicine assessments in vivo. Patients with a major depressive episode underwent both P300 recordings and dynamic [¹²³I] IBZM SPECT for the evaluation of striatal dopamine D₂/D₃-receptor availability. There were statistically significant positive correlations of the striatal dopamine D₂/D₃-receptor status with P300 amplitudes and significant negative correlations with P300 latencies. Using this combined approach, the study presents direct evidence in vivo that the central dopaminergic system might play an important role in the generation of the P300 and that central dopaminergic activity could be involved in the modulation of P300 parameters. This association might be of relevance for the interpretation of P300 studies in psychiatric disorders. 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Latency correction of event-related potentials between different experimental protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturrate, I.; Chavarriaga, R.; Montesano, L.; Minguez, J.; Millán, JdR

    2014-06-01

    Objective. A fundamental issue in EEG event-related potentials (ERPs) studies is the amount of data required to have an accurate ERP model. This also impacts the time required to train a classifier for a brain-computer interface (BCI). This issue is mainly due to the poor signal-to-noise ratio and the large fluctuations of the EEG caused by several sources of variability. One of these sources is directly related to the experimental protocol or application designed, and may affect the amplitude or latency of ERPs. This usually prevents BCI classifiers from generalizing among different experimental protocols. In this paper, we analyze the effect of the amplitude and the latency variations among different experimental protocols based on the same type of ERP. Approach. We present a method to analyze and compensate for the latency variations in BCI applications. The algorithm has been tested on two widely used ERPs (P300 and observation error potentials), in three experimental protocols in each case. We report the ERP analysis and single-trial classification. Main results. The results obtained show that the designed experimental protocols significantly affect the latency of the recorded potentials but not the amplitudes. Significance. These results show how the use of latency-corrected data can be used to generalize the BCIs, reducing the calibration time when facing a new experimental protocol.

  3. Distinct pattern of P3a event-related potential in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meares, Russell; Melkonian, Dmitriy; Gordon, Evian; Williams, Leanne

    2005-02-28

    P3a and P3b event-related brain potentials to auditory stimuli were recorded for 17 unmedicated patients with borderline personality disorder, 17 matched healthy controls and 100 healthy control participants spanning five decades. Using high-resolution fragmentary decomposition for single-trial event-related potential analysis, distinctive disturbances in P3a in borderline personality disorder patients were found: abnormally enhanced amplitude, failure to habituate and a loss of temporal locking with P3b. Normative age dependencies from 100 controls suggest that natural age-related decline in P3a amplitude is reduced in borderline personality disorder patients and is likely to indicate failure of frontal maturation. On the basis of the theories of Hughlings Jackson, this conceptualization of borderline personality disorder is consistent with an aetiological model of borderline personality disorder.

  4. Inverse Effectiveness and Multisensory Interactions in Visual Event-Related Potentials with Audiovisual Speech

    OpenAIRE

    Stevenson, Ryan A.; Bushmakin, Maxim; Kim, Sunah; Wallace, Mark T.; Puce, Aina; James, Thomas W

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, it has become evident that neural responses previously considered to be unisensory can be modulated by sensory input from other modalities. In this regard, visual neural activity elicited to viewing a face is strongly influenced by concurrent incoming auditory information, particularly speech. Here, we applied an additive-factors paradigm aimed at quantifying the impact that auditory speech has on visual event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited to visual speech. These multise...

  5. Cortical Neural Synchronization Underlies Primary Visual Consciousness of Qualia: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Babiloni, Claudio; Marzano, Nicola; Soricelli, Andrea; Cordone, Susanna; Millán-Calenti, José Carlos; Del Percio, Claudio; Buján, Ana

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews three experiments on event-related potentials (ERPs) testing the hypothesis that primary visual consciousness (stimulus self-report) is related to enhanced cortical neural synchronization as a function of stimulus features. ERP peak latency and sources were compared between “seen” trials and “not seen” trials, respectively related and unrelated to the primary visual consciousness. Three salient features of visual stimuli were considered (visuospatial, emotional face expre...

  6. Event-related brain potentials as indices of mental workload and attentional allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Arthur F.; Donchin, Emanuel; Wickens, Christopher D.

    1988-01-01

    Over the past decade considerable strides were made in explicating the antecedant conditions necessary for the elicitation, and the modulation of the amplitude and latency, of a number of components of the event-related brain potential (ERP). The focus of this report is on P300. The degree to which the psychophysiological measures contribute to issues in two real-world domains (communication devices for the motor impaired and the assessment of mental workload of aircraft pilots) are examined.

  7. Memory and event-related potentials for rapidly presented emotional pictures

    OpenAIRE

    Versace, Francesco; Bradley, Margaret M.; Lang, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    Dense array event-related potentials (ERPs) and memory performance were assessed following rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) of emotional and neutral pictures. Despite the extremely brief presentation, emotionally arousing pictures prompted an enhanced negative voltage over occipital sensors, compared to neutral pictures, replicating previous encoding effects. Emotionally arousing pictures were also remembered better in a subsequent recognition test, with higher hit rates and better dis...

  8. Comparison of Auditory Event-Related Potential P300 in Sighted and Early Blind Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Heidari

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Following an early visual deprivation, the neural network involved in processing auditory spatial information undergoes a profound reorganization. In order to investigate this process, event-related potentials provide accurate information about time course neural activation as well as perception and cognitive processes. In this study, the latency and amplitude of auditory P300 were compared in sighted and early blind individuals in age range of 18-25 years old.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, auditory P300 potential was measured in conventional oddball paradigm by using two tone burst stimuli (1000 and 2000 Hz on 40 sighted subjects and 19 early blind subjects with mean age 20.94 years old.Results: The mean latency of P300 in early blind subjects was significantly smaller than sighted subjects (p=0.00.( There was no significant difference in amplitude between two groups (p>0.05.Conclusion: Reduced latency of P300 in early blind subjects in comparison to sighted subjects probably indicates the rate of automatic processing and information categorization is faster in early blind subjects because of sensory compensation. It seems that neural plasticity increases the rate of auditory processing and attention in early blind subjects.

  9. The light-makeup advantage in facial processing: Evidence from event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagai, Keiko; Shimakura, Hitomi; Isobe, Hiroko; Nittono, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    The effects of makeup on attractiveness have been evaluated using mainly subjective measures. In this study, event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded from a total of 45 Japanese women (n = 23 and n = 22 for Experiment 1 and 2, respectively) to examine the neural processing of faces with no makeup, light makeup, and heavy makeup. To have the participants look at each face carefully, an identity judgement task was used: they were asked to judge whether the two faces presented in succession were of the same person or not. The ERP waveforms in response to the first faces were analyzed. In two experiments with different stimulus probabilities, the amplitudes of N170 and vertex positive potential (VPP) were smaller for faces with light makeup than for faces with heavy makeup or no makeup. The P1 amplitude did not differ between facial types. In a subsequent rating phase, faces with light makeup were rated as more attractive than faces with heavy makeup and no makeup. The results suggest that the processing fluency of faces with light makeup is one of the reasons why light makeup is preferred to heavy makeup and no makeup in daily life.

  10. Event-related potential signatures of perceived and imagined emotional and food real-life photos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmolejo-Ramos, Fernando; Hellemans, Kim; Comeau, Amy; Heenan, Adam; Faulkner, Andrew; Abizaid, Alfonso; D'Angiulli, Amedeo

    2015-06-01

    Although food and affective pictures share similar emotional and motivational characteristics, the relationship between the neuronal responses to these stimuli is unclear. Particularly, it is not known whether perceiving and imagining food and affective stimuli elicit similar event-related potential (ERP) patterns. In this study, two ERP correlates, the early posterior negativity (EPN) and the late positive potential (LPP) for perceived and imagined emotional and food photographs were investigated. Thirteen healthy volunteers were exposed to a set of food photos, as well as unpleasant, pleasant, and neutral photos from the International Affective Picture System. In each trial, participants were first asked to view a photo (perception condition), and then to create a visual mental image of it and to rate its vividness (imagery condition). The results showed that during perception, brain regions corresponding to sensorimotor and parietal motivational (defensive and appetitive) systems were activated to different extents, producing a graded pattern of EPN and LPP responses specific to the photo content - more prominent for unpleasant than pleasant and food content. Also, an EPN signature occurred in both conditions for unpleasant content, suggesting that, compared to food or pleasant content, unpleasant content may be attended to more intensely during perception and may be represented more distinctly during imagery. Finally, compared to LLP activation during perception, as well as imagery and perception of all other content, LPP activation was significantly reduced during imagery of unpleasant photos, suggesting inhibition of unwanted memories. Results are framed within a neurocognitive working model of embodied emotions.

  11. Neurofeedback in children with ADHD: specific event-related potential findings of a randomized controlled trial.

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    Wangler, Susanne; Gevensleben, Holger; Albrecht, Björn; Studer, Petra; Rothenberger, Aribert; Moll, Gunther H; Heinrich, Hartmut

    2011-05-01

    In a randomized controlled trial, we could demonstrate clinical efficacy of neurofeedback (NF) training for children with ADHD (Gevensleben et al., 2009a). The present investigation aimed at learning more about the neuronal mechanisms of NF training. Children with ADHD either completed a NF training or a computerized attention skills training (ratio 3:2). NF training consisted of one block of theta/beta training and one block of slow cortical potential (SCP) training, each comprising 18 training units. At three times (pre-training, between the two training blocks and at post-training), event-related potentials (ERP) were recorded during the Attention Network Test. ERP analysis focused on the P3, reflecting inter alia attentional resources for stimulus evaluation, and the contingent negative variation (CNV), primarily related to cognitive preparation. After NF training, an increase of the CNV in cue trials could be observed, which was specific for the SCP training. A larger pre-training CNV was associated with a larger reduction of ADHD symptomatology for SCP training. CNV effects reflect neuronal circuits underlying resource allocation during cognitive preparation. These distinct ERP effects are closely related to a successful NF training in children with ADHD. In future studies, neurophysiological recordings could help to optimize and individualize NF training. The findings contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying NF training in children with ADHD. Copyright © 2010 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. P300 event related potential application to cognitive status assessment of the patients with subclinical hypothyroidism

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    Dejanović M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Disturbances of thyroid function are often accompanied by cognitive and affective disorders. Assessment of cognitive status in the patients with subclinical hypothyroidism represents a possibility for early diagnostics of cognitive impairment and timely introduction of necessary pharmacotherapy treatment. The aim of this study was to quantify whether there are P3 event related potential (ERP deviations as electrophysiological markers of cognitive activity in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. P300 potentials were examined in thirty patients with subclinical hypothyroidism and in 30 healthy subjects of the control group. P300 was recorded using the classic auditory oddball paradigm, with 20% of target and 80% of non-target stimuli. The results analysis showed a significantly longer latency P300 and reduced amplitude P300 in subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism compared to euthyroid subjects. There is also a statistically significant negative correlation between the results of a mini mental state examination and the P300 latency at Fz electrode (r= -0.47, p <0.01 and Cz electrode (r= -0.43, p =0.017. P300 ERP is important in the evaluation of patients with subclinical hypothyroidism, due to the sensitivity in the detection cognitive disorders.

  13. Subliminal Emotional Words Impact Syntactic Processing: Evidence from Performance and Event-Related Brain Potentials

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    Laura Jiménez-Ortega

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies demonstrate that syntactic processing can be affected by emotional information and that subliminal emotional information can also affect cognitive processes. In this study, we explore whether unconscious emotional information may also impact syntactic processing. In an Event-Related brain Potential (ERP study, positive, neutral and negative subliminal adjectives were inserted within neutral sentences, just before the presentation of the supraliminal adjective. They could either be correct (50% or contain a morphosyntactic violation (number or gender disagreements. Larger error rates were observed for incorrect sentences than for correct ones, in contrast to most studies using supraliminal information. Strikingly, emotional adjectives affected the conscious syntactic processing of sentences containing morphosyntactic anomalies. The neutral condition elicited left anterior negativity (LAN followed by a P600 component. However, a lack of anterior negativity and an early P600 onset for the negative condition were found, probably as a result of the negative subliminal correct adjective capturing early syntactic resources. Positive masked adjectives in turn prompted an N400 component in response to morphosyntactic violations, probably reflecting the induction of a heuristic processing mode involving access to lexico-semantic information to solve agreement anomalies. Our results add to recent evidence on the impact of emotional information on syntactic processing, while showing that this can occur even when the reader is unaware of the emotional stimuli.

  14. Facial attractiveness modulates early and late event-related brain potentials.

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    Werheid, Katja; Schacht, Annekathrin; Sommer, Werner

    2007-09-01

    Facial attractiveness is of high importance for human interaction and communication, and everyday experience suggests that the mere aspect of a face elicits spontaneous appraisal of attractiveness. However, little is known about the time course of brain responses related to this process. In the present study, event-related brain potentials were recorded during attractiveness classification of facial portraits that were standardized with respect to facial expression. The faces were either preceded by another face of high or low attractiveness or by an affectively neutral object. Attractive as opposed to non-attractive target faces elicited an early posterior negativity (EPN; approximately 250 ms) and a late parietal positivity (LPC; 400-600 ms), which were not modulated by affectively congruent prime faces. Elevated LPC activity had previously been shown in response to attractive versus non-attractive faces, possibly reflecting task-related evaluative processes. An enhanced EPN had been reported for faces with emotional compared to neutral emotional expression, and related to facilitated selection of emotional information. Extending these findings, our study is the first to report an attractiveness-related ERP modulation prior to the LPC, suggesting that appraising facial attractiveness starts already at processing stages associated with stimulus selection.

  15. Multisensory integration and attention in autism spectrum disorder: evidence from event-related potentials.

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    Maurice J C M Magnée

    Full Text Available Successful integration of various simultaneously perceived perceptual signals is crucial for social behavior. Recent findings indicate that this multisensory integration (MSI can be modulated by attention. Theories of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs suggest that MSI is affected in this population while it remains unclear to what extent this is related to impairments in attentional capacity. In the present study Event-related potentials (ERPs following emotionally congruent and incongruent face-voice pairs were measured in 23 high-functioning, adult ASD individuals and 24 age- and IQ-matched controls. MSI was studied while the attention of the participants was manipulated. ERPs were measured at typical auditory and visual processing peaks, namely, P2 and N170. While controls showed MSI during divided attention and easy selective attention tasks, individuals with ASD showed MSI during easy selective attention tasks only. It was concluded that individuals with ASD are able to process multisensory emotional stimuli, but this is differently modulated by attention mechanisms in these participants, especially those associated with divided attention. This atypical interaction between attention and MSI is also relevant to treatment strategies, with training of multisensory attentional control possibly being more beneficial than conventional sensory integration therapy.

  16. The role of event-related brain potentials in assessing central auditory processing.

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    Alain, Claude; Tremblay, Kelly

    2007-01-01

    The perception of complex acoustic signals such as speech and music depends on the interaction between peripheral and central auditory processing. As information travels from the cochlea to primary and associative auditory cortices, the incoming sound is subjected to increasingly more detailed and refined analysis. These various levels of analyses are thought to include low-level automatic processes that detect, discriminate and group sounds that are similar in physical attributes such as frequency, intensity, and location as well as higher-level schema-driven processes that reflect listeners' experience and knowledge of the auditory environment. In this review, we describe studies that have used event-related brain potentials in investigating the processing of complex acoustic signals (e.g., speech, music). In particular, we examine the role of hearing loss on the neural representation of sound and how cognitive factors and learning can help compensate for perceptual difficulties. The notion of auditory scene analysis is used as a conceptual framework for interpreting and studying the perception of sound.

  17. Test-retest reliability of infant event related potentials evoked by faces.

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    Munsters, N M; van Ravenswaaij, H; van den Boomen, C; Kemner, C

    2017-04-05

    Reliable measures are required to draw meaningful conclusions regarding developmental changes in longitudinal studies. Little is known, however, about the test-retest reliability of face-sensitive event related potentials (ERPs), a frequently used neural measure in infants. The aim of the current study is to investigate the test-retest reliability of ERPs typically evoked by faces in 9-10 month-old infants. The infants (N=31) were presented with neutral, fearful and happy faces that contained only the lower or higher spatial frequency information. They were tested twice within two weeks. The present results show that the test-retest reliability of the face-sensitive ERP components is moderate (P400 and Nc) to substantial (N290). However, there is low test-retest reliability for the effects of the specific experimental manipulations (i.e. emotion and spatial frequency) on the face-sensitive ERPs. To conclude, in infants the face-sensitive ERP components (i.e. N290, P400 and Nc) show adequate test-retest reliability, but not the effects of emotion and spatial frequency on these ERP components. We propose that further research focuses on investigating elements that might increase the test-retest reliability, as adequate test-retest reliability is necessary to draw meaningful conclusions on individual developmental trajectories of the face-sensitive ERPs in infants. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Gender differences in memory processing of female facial attractiveness: evidence from event-related potentials.

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    Zhang, Yan; Wei, Bin; Zhao, Peiqiong; Zheng, Minxiao; Zhang, Lili

    2016-06-01

    High rates of agreement in the judgment of facial attractiveness suggest universal principles of beauty. This study investigated gender differences in recognition memory processing of female facial attractiveness. Thirty-four Chinese heterosexual participants (17 females, 17 males) aged 18-24 years (mean age 21.63 ± 1.51 years) participated in the experiment which used event-related potentials (ERPs) based on a study-test paradigm. The behavioral data results showed that both men and women had significantly higher accuracy rates for attractive faces than for unattractive faces, but men reacted faster to unattractive faces. Gender differences on ERPs showed that attractive faces elicited larger early components such as P1, N170, and P2 in men than in women. The results indicated that the effects of recognition bias during memory processing modulated by female facial attractiveness are greater for men than women. Behavioral and ERP evidences indicate that men and women differ in their attentional adhesion to attractive female faces; different mating-related motives may guide the selective processing of attractive men and women. These findings establish a contribution of gender differences on female facial attractiveness during memory processing from an evolutionary perspective.

  19. Event related potential (ERP) P300 after 6 months residence at 4115 meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Lalan; Ray, Koushik; Anand, J P; Panjwani, Usha

    2011-07-01

    The P300 wave is an event related potential (ERP) elicited by infrequent, task-relevant stimuli and appeared at about 300 ms, represents higher cognitive function of information processing, working memory or stimulus categorization. Hypobaric hypoxia deteriorates the cognitive function during the short term stay (days to few weeks) at high altitude. The present study was carried out to evaluate the P300 responses during long duration stay (1 month and 6 months) at high altitude (HA, 4115 m) in a sample of Indian lowlanders. The study was carried out on 18 healthy male volunteers at sea level (SL). The volunteers were stage inducted to 4115 m altitude in the Eastern Himalayas. The P300 was recorded after 1 and 6 months of their stay at HA. The latencies of peaks N100, P200 and N200 waves did not show any significant changes after 1 and 6 months of stay at HA as compared to SL. The P300 latency was significantly delayed after 1 month and further delayed after 6 month of residence at 4115 m. The P200 and P300 amplitudes did not show any changes. The increase in P300 latency indicated that long duration of stay at high altitude slows the stimulus evaluation processes. The observations suggest that hypoxia causes slowing of the signal processing at HA. The magnitude of the effects of hypobaric hypoxia may be dependent upon the duration of residence at high altitude.

  20. Event-related potentials during word mapping to object shape predict toddlers' vocabulary size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgström, Kristina; Torkildsen, Janne von Koss; Lindgren, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    What role does attention to different object properties play in early vocabulary development? This longitudinal study using event-related potentials in combination with behavioral measures investigated 20- and 24-month-olds' (n = 38; n = 34; overlapping n = 24) ability to use object shape and object part information in word-object mapping. The N400 component was used to measure semantic priming by images containing shape or detail information. At 20 months, the N400 to words primed by object shape varied in topography and amplitude depending on vocabulary size, and these differences predicted productive vocabulary size at 24 months. At 24 months, when most of the children had vocabularies of several hundred words, the relation between vocabulary size and the N400 effect in a shape context was weaker. Detached object parts did not function as word primes regardless of age or vocabulary size, although the part-objects were identified behaviorally. The behavioral measure, however, also showed relatively poor recognition of the part-objects compared to the shape-objects. These three findings provide new support for the link between shape recognition and early vocabulary development. PMID:25762957

  1. From mind to mouth: event related potentials of sentence production in classic galactosemia.

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    Inge Timmers

    Full Text Available Patients with classic galactosemia, an inborn error of metabolism, have speech and language production impairments. Past research primarily focused on speech (motor problems, but these cannot solely explain the language impairments. Which specific deficits contribute to the impairments in language production is not yet known. Deficits in semantic and syntactic planning are plausible and require further investigation. In the present study, we examined syntactic encoding while patients and matched controls overtly described scenes of moving objects using either separate words (minimal syntactic planning or sentences (sentence-level syntactic planning. The design of the paradigm also allowed tapping into local noun phrase- and more global sentence-level syntactic planning. Simultaneously, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs. The patients needed more time to prepare and finish the utterances and made more errors. The patient ERPs had a very similar morphology to that of healthy controls, indicating overall comparable neural processing. Most importantly, the ERPs diverged from those of controls in several functionally informative time windows, ranging from very early (90-150 ms post scene onset to relatively late (1820-2020 ms post scene onset. These time windows can be associated with different linguistic encoding stages. The ERP results form the first neuroscientific evidence for language production impairments in patients with galactosemia in lexical and syntactic planning stages, i.e., prior to the linguistic output phase. These findings hence shed new light on the language impairments in this disease.

  2. From mind to mouth: event related potentials of sentence production in classic galactosemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmers, Inge; Jansma, Bernadette M; Rubio-Gozalbo, M Estela

    2012-01-01

    Patients with classic galactosemia, an inborn error of metabolism, have speech and language production impairments. Past research primarily focused on speech (motor) problems, but these cannot solely explain the language impairments. Which specific deficits contribute to the impairments in language production is not yet known. Deficits in semantic and syntactic planning are plausible and require further investigation. In the present study, we examined syntactic encoding while patients and matched controls overtly described scenes of moving objects using either separate words (minimal syntactic planning) or sentences (sentence-level syntactic planning). The design of the paradigm also allowed tapping into local noun phrase- and more global sentence-level syntactic planning. Simultaneously, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs). The patients needed more time to prepare and finish the utterances and made more errors. The patient ERPs had a very similar morphology to that of healthy controls, indicating overall comparable neural processing. Most importantly, the ERPs diverged from those of controls in several functionally informative time windows, ranging from very early (90-150 ms post scene onset) to relatively late (1820-2020 ms post scene onset). These time windows can be associated with different linguistic encoding stages. The ERP results form the first neuroscientific evidence for language production impairments in patients with galactosemia in lexical and syntactic planning stages, i.e., prior to the linguistic output phase. These findings hence shed new light on the language impairments in this disease.

  3. Early event-related potential effects of syllabic processing during visual word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreiras, Manuel; Vergara, Marta; Barber, Horacio

    2005-11-01

    A number of behavioral studies have suggested that syllables might play an important role in visual word recognition in some languages. We report two event-related potential (ERP) experiments using a new paradigm showing that syllabic units modulate early ERP components. In Experiment 1, words and pseudowords were presented visually and colored so that there was a match or a mismatch between the syllable boundaries and the color boundaries. The results showed color-syllable congruency effects in the time window of the P200. Lexicality modulated the N400 amplitude, but no effects of this variable were obtained at the P200 window. In Experiment 2, high- and low-frequency words and pseudowords were presented in the congruent and incongruent conditions. The results again showed congruency effects at the P200 for low-frequency words and pseudowords, but not for high-frequency words. Lexicality and lexical frequency effects showed up at the N400 component. The results suggest a dissociation between syllabic and lexical effects with important consequences for models of visual word recognition.

  4. Topic structure affects semantic integration: evidence from event-related potentials.

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    Yang, Xiaohong; Chen, Xuhai; Chen, Shuang; Xu, Xiaoying; Yang, Yufang

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether semantic integration in discourse context could be influenced by topic structure using event-related brain potentials. Participants read discourses in which the last sentence contained a critical word that was either congruent or incongruent with the topic established in the first sentence. The intervening sentences between the first and the last sentence of the discourse either maintained or shifted the original topic. Results showed that incongruent words in topic-maintained discourses elicited an N400 effect that was broadly distributed over the scalp while those in topic-shifted discourses elicited an N400 effect that was lateralized to the right hemisphere and localized over central and posterior areas. Moreover, a late positivity effect was only elicited by incongruent words in topic-shifted discourses, but not in topic-maintained discourses. This suggests an important role for discourse structure in semantic integration, such that compared with topic-maintained discourses, the complexity of discourse structure in topic-shifted condition reduces the initial stage of semantic integration and enhances the later stage in which a mental representation is updated.

  5. Event-related potentials with the Stroop colour-word task: timing of semantic conflict.

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    Zurrón, Montserrat; Pouso, María; Lindín, Mónica; Galdo, Santiago; Díaz, Fernando

    2009-06-01

    Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) elicited by congruent and incongruent colour-word stimuli of a Stroop paradigm, in a task in which participants were required to judge the congruence/incongruence of the two dimensions of the stimuli, were recorded in order to study the timing of the semantic conflict. The reaction time to colour-word incongruent stimuli was significantly longer than the reaction time to congruent stimuli (the Stroop effect). A temporal Principal Components Analysis was applied to the data to identify the ERP components. Three positive components were identified in the 300-600 ms interval in response to the congruent and incongruent stimuli: First P3, P3b and PSW. The factor scores corresponding to the First P3 and P3b components were significantly smaller for the incongruent stimuli than for the congruent stimuli. No differences between stimuli were observed in the factor scores corresponding to the PSW or in the ERP latencies. We conclude that the temporal locus of the semantic conflict, which intervenes in generating the Stroop effect, may occur within the time interval in which the First P3 and P3b components are identified, i.e. at approximately 300-450 ms post-stimulus. We suggest that the semantic conflict delays the start of the response selection process, which explains the longer reaction time to incongruent stimuli.

  6. Brain functions after sports-related concussion: insights from event-related potentials and functional MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Nadia; Saluja, Rajeet Singh; Chen, Jen-Kai; Bottari, Carolina; Johnston, Karen; Ptito, Alain

    2010-10-01

    The high incidence of concussions in contact sports and their impact on brain functions are a major cause for concern. To improve our understanding of brain functioning after sports-related concussion, advanced functional assessment techniques, namely event-related potentials (ERPs) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), have been recently used in research studies. Contrary to neuropsychological tests that measure verbal and/or motor responses, ERPs and fMRI assess the neural activities associated with cognitive/behavioral demands, and thus provide access to better comprehension of brain functioning. In fact, ERPs have excellent temporal resolution, and fMRI identifies the involved structures during a task. This article describes ERP and fMRI techniques and reviews the results obtained with these tools in sports-related concussion. Although these techniques are not yet readily available, they offer a unique clinical approach, particularly for complex cases (ie, athletes with multiple concussions, chronic symptoms) and objective measures that provide valuable information to guide management and return-to-play decision making.

  7. Neural Basis of Intrinsic Motivation: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials.

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    Jin, Jia; Yu, Liping; Ma, Qingguo

    2015-01-01

    Human intrinsic motivation is of great importance in human behavior. However, although researchers have focused on this topic for decades, its neural basis was still unclear. The current study employed event-related potentials to investigate the neural disparity between an interesting stop-watch (SW) task and a boring watch-stop task (WS) to understand the neural mechanisms of intrinsic motivation. Our data showed that, in the cue priming stage, the cue of the SW task elicited smaller N2 amplitude than that of the WS task. Furthermore, in the outcome feedback stage, the outcome of the SW task induced smaller FRN amplitude and larger P300 amplitude than that of the WS task. These results suggested that human intrinsic motivation did exist and that it can be detected at the neural level. Furthermore, intrinsic motivation could be quantitatively indexed by the amplitude of ERP components, such as N2, FRN, and P300, in the cue priming stage or feedback stage. Quantitative measurements would also be convenient for intrinsic motivation to be added as a candidate social factor in the construction of a machine learning model.

  8. The impact of perceived quality on online buying decisions: an event-related potentials perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Han, Weiwei

    2014-10-01

    Consumer neuroscience can provide useful insights into the neural foundations of consumer decisions, such as perceived quality. One of the applications is to guide attribute configuration of products to fit consumers' expectations on the basis of individual preferences. In this study, we required 20 participants to decide whether to buy the product provided in the stimuli and to respond as soon as possible. According to their reports of expectations after the experiment, we subdivided the stimuli into two conditions. Condition 1 contained the stimuli that fit individual preferences, whereas Condition 2 contained the other stimuli. An essential component of event-related potentials (ERPs), the P300, was elicited in the two conditions and distributed over almost all parietal and occipital regions. Products in Condition 1 induced a higher P300 amplitude than those in Condition 2. The results show that evaluating product attributes is a cognitive process that modulates attention in the aforementioned regions. When participants evaluate the alternatives, categorical processing occurred on the basis of similarity judgment. The situation in Condition 1 produced a similarity overlap between the product and the expectation and resulted in a higher P300. Otherwise, there was no overlap, leading to a smaller P300. Hence, the P300 may be a useful neural endogenous indicator for measuring consumers' evaluations of products in marketing research.

  9. Effects of oxazepam on affective perception, recognition, and event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsson, Jonas K; Gospic, Katarina; Petrovic, Predrag; Ingvar, Martin; Wiens, Stefan

    2011-05-01

    Little is known about how rapid electrocortical responses (event-related potentials; ERPs) to affective pictures are modulated by benzodiazepine agonists. The present study investigated effects of oxazepam (20 mg p.o.) on behavioral measures and ERPs associated with affective picture processing during perception and recognition memory retrieval. Forty-three healthy young adults were given oxazepam or placebo treatment under a double-blind experimental procedure. Affective pictures (negatively arousing or neutral) elicited ERP responses and participants rated pictures for emotionality (during incidental encoding) and recognition. Oxazepam did not affect perceptual (P1, P2) or emotional (early posterior negativity and late parietal positivity) ERPs or ratings during perception. However, oxazepam impaired recognition performance and decreased positive mid-frontal ERP component at 420-450 ms for old vs. new pictures. The memory impairment was retained at the delayed memory test. Oxazepam does not selectively influence electrocortical or perceptual indexes of emotional perception or emotional memory. Rather, it blocks memory consolidation independent of valence category. These findings indicate that ERPs can be of use in assessing effects of benzodiazepines on memory-related processes.

  10. Event-related potential effects of superior action anticipation in professional badminton players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hua; Xu, Guiping; Zhang, John X; Gao, Hongwei; Ye, Zuoer; Wang, Pin; Lin, Huiyan; Mo, Lei; Lin, Chong-De

    2011-04-04

    The ability to predict the trajectory of a ball based on the opponent's body kinematics has been shown to be critical to high-performing athletes in many sports. However, little is known about the neural correlates underlying such superior ability in action anticipation. The present event-related potential study compared brain responses from professional badminton players and non-player controls when they watched video clips of badminton games and predicted a ball's landing position. Replicating literature findings, the players made significantly more accurate judgments than the controls and showed better action anticipation. Correspondingly, they showed enlarged amplitudes of two ERP components, a P300 peaking around 350ms post-stimulus with a parietal scalp distribution and a P2 peaking around 250ms with a posterior-occipital distribution. The P300 effect was interpreted to reflect primed access and/or directing of attention to game-related memory representations in the players facilitating their online judgment of related actions. The P2 effect was suggested to reflect some generic learning effects. The results identify clear neural responses that differentiate between different levels of action anticipation associated with sports expertise. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Indexing strategic retrieval of colour information with event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilding, E L; Fraser, C S; Herron, J E

    2005-09-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were acquired during two experiments in order to determine boundary conditions for when recollection of colour information can be controlled strategically. In initial encoding phases, participants saw an equal number of words presented in red or green. In subsequent retrieval phases, all words were shown in white. Participants were asked to endorse old words that had been shown at encoding in one colour (targets), and to reject new test words as well as old words shown in the alternate colour (non-targets). Study and test lists were longer in Experiment 1, and as a result, the accuracy of memory judgments was superior in Experiment 2. The left-parietal ERP old/new effect--the electrophysiological signature of recollection--was reliable for targets in both experiments, and reliable for non-targets in Experiment 1 only. These findings are consistent with the view that participants were able to restrict recollection to targets in Experiment 2, while recollecting information about targets as well as non-targets in Experiment 1. The fact that this selective strategy was implemented in Experiment 2 despite the close correspondence between the kinds of information associated with targets and non-targets indicates that participants were able to exert considerable control over the conditions under which recollection of task-relevant information occurred.

  12. Event-related potentials elicited during working memory are altered in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Zunini, Rocío A; Knoefel, Frank; Lord, Courtney; Dzuali, Fiatsogbe; Breau, Michael; Sweet, Lisa; Goubran, Rafik; Taler, Vanessa

    2016-11-01

    Persons with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) can experience deficits in working memory. In the present study, we investigated working memory in persons with MCI and cognitively healthy older adults using event-related potentials (ERPs). Participants performed an n-back working memory task with baseline (0-back), low load (1-back), and high load (2-back) working memory conditions. MCI participants' performance was less accurate than that of healthy older adults in both the 1-back and 2-back conditions, and reaction times were longer in MCI than control participants in the 0-back, 1-back and 2-back conditions. ERP analyses revealed delayed P200 and N200 latencies and smaller P300 amplitudes in MCI relative to control participants in the 0-back, 1-back and 2-back conditions. Deterioration in working memory performance concomitant with marked electrophysiological alterations suggests that persons with MCI exhibit deficits in several cognitive processes that include early attention, stimulus discrimination and classification, and updating and manipulation of information held in working memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Event-related potential measures of gap detection threshold during natural sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller-Gass, Alexandra; Campbell, Kenneth

    2014-08-01

    The minimum time interval between two stimuli that can be reliably detected is called the gap detection threshold. The present study examines whether an unconscious state, natural sleep affects the gap detection threshold. Event-related potentials were recorded in 10 young adults while awake and during all-night sleep to provide an objective estimate of this threshold. These subjects were presented with 2, 4, 8 or 16ms gaps occurring in 1.5 duration white noise. During wakefulness, a significant N1 was elicited for the 8 and 16ms gaps. N1 was difficult to observe during stage N2 sleep, even for the longest gap. A large P2 was however elicited and was significant for the 8 and 16ms gaps. Also, a later, very large N350 was elicited by the 16ms gap. An N1 and P2 was significant only for the 16ms gap during REM sleep. ERPs to gaps occurring in noise segments can therefore be successfully elicited during natural sleep. The gap detection threshold is similar in the waking and sleeping states. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Do Event-Related Evoked Potentials Reflect Apathy Tendency and Motivation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayoshi, Hiroyuki; Onoda, Keiichi; Yamaguchi, Shuhei

    2018-01-01

    Apathy is a mental state of diminished motivation. Although the reward system as the foundation of the motivation in the human brain has been studied extensively with neuroimaging techniques, the electrophysiological correlates of motivation and apathy have not been fully explored. Thus, in 14 healthy volunteers, we examined whether event-related evoked potentials (ERP) obtained during a simple number discrimination task with/without rewards reflected apathy tendency and a reward-dependent tendency, which were assessed separately using the apathy scale and the temperament and character inventory (TCI). Participants were asked to judge the size of a number, and received feedback based on their performance in each trial. The P3 amplitudes related to the feedback stimuli increased only in the reward condition. Furthermore, the P2 amplitudes related to the negative feedback stimuli in the reward condition had a positive correlation with the reward-dependent tendency in TCI, whereas the P3 amplitudes related to the positive feedback stimuli had a negative correlation with the apathy score. Our result suggests that the P2 and P3 ERPs to reward-related feedback stimuli are modulated in a distinctive manner by the motivational reward dependence and apathy tendency, and thus the current paradigm may be useful for investigating the brain activity associated with motivation.

  15. Event-related potentials during word mapping to object shape predict toddlers' vocabulary size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgström, Kristina; Torkildsen, Janne von Koss; Lindgren, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    What role does attention to different object properties play in early vocabulary development? This longitudinal study using event-related potentials in combination with behavioral measures investigated 20- and 24-month-olds' (n = 38; n = 34; overlapping n = 24) ability to use object shape and object part information in word-object mapping. The N400 component was used to measure semantic priming by images containing shape or detail information. At 20 months, the N400 to words primed by object shape varied in topography and amplitude depending on vocabulary size, and these differences predicted productive vocabulary size at 24 months. At 24 months, when most of the children had vocabularies of several hundred words, the relation between vocabulary size and the N400 effect in a shape context was weaker. Detached object parts did not function as word primes regardless of age or vocabulary size, although the part-objects were identified behaviorally. The behavioral measure, however, also showed relatively poor recognition of the part-objects compared to the shape-objects. These three findings provide new support for the link between shape recognition and early vocabulary development.

  16. Event-related potentials during word mapping to object shape predict toddlers’ vocabulary size

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    Kristina eBorgström

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available What role does attention to different object properties play in early vocabulary development? This longitudinal study using event-related potentials in combination with behavioral measures investigated 20- and 24-month-olds’ (n = 38; n = 34; overlapping n = 24 ability to use object shape and object part information in word-object mapping. The N400 component was used to measure semantic priming by images containing shape or detail information. At 20 months, the N400 to words primed by object shape varied in topography and amplitude depending on vocabulary size, and these differences predicted productive vocabulary size at 24 months. At 24 months, when most of the children had vocabularies of several hundred words, the relation between vocabulary size and the N400 effect in a shape context was weaker. Detached object parts did not function as word primes regardless of age or vocabulary size, although the part-objects were identified behaviorally. The behavioral measure, however, also showed relatively poor recognition of the part-objects compared to the shape-objects. These three findings provide new support for the link between shape recognition and early vocabulary development.

  17. Event-related potentials reflecting the processing of phonological constraint violations.

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    Domahs, Ulrike; Kehrein, Wolfgang; Knaus, Johannes; Wiesel, Richard; Schlesewsky, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    How are violations of phonological constraints processed in word comprehension? The present article reports the results of an event-related potentials (ERP) study on a phonological constraint of German that disallows identical segments within a syllable or word (CC(i)VC(i)). We examined three types of monosyllabic late positive CCVC words: (a) existing words [see text], (b) wellformed novel words [see text] and component (c) illformed novel words [see text] as instances of Obligatory Contour Principle non-word (OCP) violations. Wellformed and illformed novel words evoked an N400 effect processing in comparison to existing words. In addition, illformed words produced an enhanced late posterior positivity effect compared to wellformed novel words. obligatory contour Our findings support the well-known observation that novel words evoke principle higher costs in lexical integration (reflected by N400 effects). Crucially, modulations of a late positive component (LPC) show that violations of phonological phonotactic constraints influence later stages of cognitive processing even constraints when stimuli have already been detected as non-existing. Thus, the comparison of electrophysiological effects evoked by the two types of non-existing words reveals the stages at which phonologically based structural wellformedness comes into play during word processing.

  18. High contextual sensitivity of metaphorical expressions and gesture blending: A video event-related potential design.

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    Ibáñez, Agustín; Toro, Pablo; Cornejo, Carlos; Urquina, Hugo; Hurquina, Hugo; Manes, Facundo; Weisbrod, Matthias; Schröder, Johannes

    2011-01-30

    Human communication in a natural context implies the dynamic coordination of contextual clues, paralinguistic information and literal as well as figurative language use. In the present study we constructed a paradigm with four types of video clips: literal and metaphorical expressions accompanied by congruent and incongruent gesture actions. Participants were instructed to classify the gesture accompanying the expression as congruent or incongruent by pressing two different keys while electrophysiological activity was being recorded. We compared behavioral measures and event related potential (ERP) differences triggered by the gesture stroke onset. Accuracy data showed that incongruent metaphorical expressions were more difficult to classify. Reaction times were modulated by incongruent gestures, by metaphorical expressions and by a gesture-expression interaction. No behavioral differences were found between the literal and metaphorical expressions when the gesture was congruent. N400-like and LPC-like (late positive complex) components from metaphorical expressions produced greater negativity. The N400-like modulation of metaphorical expressions showed a greater difference between congruent and incongruent categories over the left anterior region, compared with the literal expressions. More importantly, the literal congruent as well as the metaphorical congruent categories did not show any difference. Accuracy, reaction times and ERPs provide convergent support for a greater contextual sensitivity of the metaphorical expressions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Event-related brain potentials for goal-related power grips.

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    Jan Westerholz

    Full Text Available Recent research has shown that neurophysiological activation during action planning depends on the orientation to initial or final action goals for precision grips. However, the neural signature for a distinct class of grasping, power grips, is still unknown. The aim of the present study was to differentiate between cerebral activity, by means of event-related potentials (ERPs, and its temporal organization during power grips executed with an emphasis on either the initial or final parts of movement sequences. In a grasp and transportation task, visual cues emphasized either the grip (the immediate goal or the target location (the final goal. ERPs differed between immediate and final goal-cued conditions, suggesting different means of operation dependent on goal-relatedness. Differences in mean amplitude occurred earlier for power grips than for recently reported precision grips time-locked to grasping over parieto-occipital areas. Time-locked to final object placement, differences occurred within a similar time window for power and precision grips over frontal areas. These results suggest that a parieto-frontal network of activation is of crucial importance for grasp planning and execution. Our results indicate that power grip preparation and execution for goal-related actions are controlled by similar neural mechanisms as have been observed during precision grips, but with a distinct temporal pattern.

  20. Sleep inertia and autonomic effects on post-nap P300 event-related potential.

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    Takahashi, M; Arito, H

    1998-10-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between post-nap measures of alertness and performance and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and parasympathetic activity during brief naps. Thirty healthy subjects were randomly assigned to no-nap, 15-min, and 45-min nap conditions after normal home sleep at prior night. Each nap was taken after lunch and monitored by electroencephalogram (EEG), electromyogram, electrooculogram, and electrocardiogram (ECG). Deep NREM sleep was quantified by EEG delta power density and the parasympathetic activity was quantified by the ECG high-frequency (HF) component of R-R interval variability during the 15- and 45-min naps. The P300 event-related potential, subjective sleepiness, and performance on a 90-min English transcription task were measured 30 min and 3 hr after the naps and tested for their association with the EEG and ECG measures. A positive correlation was obtained between EEG delta power density during the naps and P300 latency 30 min after the naps (r = 0.476, p sleep inertia prolongs the P300 latency immediately after the naps, and that the parasympathetic predominance during the naps may improve subsequent alertness as assessed by the shortened P300 latency 3 hr after the naps.

  1. Neural Basis of Intrinsic Motivation: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

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    Jia Jin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human intrinsic motivation is of great importance in human behavior. However, although researchers have focused on this topic for decades, its neural basis was still unclear. The current study employed event-related potentials to investigate the neural disparity between an interesting stop-watch (SW task and a boring watch-stop task (WS to understand the neural mechanisms of intrinsic motivation. Our data showed that, in the cue priming stage, the cue of the SW task elicited smaller N2 amplitude than that of the WS task. Furthermore, in the outcome feedback stage, the outcome of the SW task induced smaller FRN amplitude and larger P300 amplitude than that of the WS task. These results suggested that human intrinsic motivation did exist and that it can be detected at the neural level. Furthermore, intrinsic motivation could be quantitatively indexed by the amplitude of ERP components, such as N2, FRN, and P300, in the cue priming stage or feedback stage. Quantitative measurements would also be convenient for intrinsic motivation to be added as a candidate social factor in the construction of a machine learning model.

  2. "Cognitive" visual acuity estimation based on the event-related potential P300 component.

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    Heinrich, Sven P; Marhöfer, David; Bach, Michael

    2010-09-01

    An objective assessment of sensory and sensuo-cognitive function, based on physiological signals rather than on the behavioral response of a patient, is often advisable, albeit challenging. Evoked potentials are frequently used as an objective measure, but usually fail to detect defects beyond primary sensory areas, including those of psychogenic origin. Here we assess whether the event-related P300 component may be used to measure "cognitive" visual acuity. A visual oddball paradigm was used to elicit P300 responses in subjects with normal or artificially blurred vision. Probe stimuli consisted of infrequently presented gratings with spatial frequencies in the range of 2.2-16.2 cycles per degree, which could be either target or non-target stimuli depending on their orientation. Frequent stimuli were homogeneously grey fields. Without blur, rare stimuli of all spatial frequencies produced reliable P300 responses. Blur abolished the P300 to fine gratings consistently in 10 of 11 subjects. The drop in P300 amplitude was steep, rather than gradual, between visible and invisible gratings. The P300 is sensitive to identify the resolution threshold and thus may serve as a tool for estimating acuity in cases of visual impairments. The study presents a tool for the objective assessment of acuity in cases of higher-level visual impairments. The concept can most likely be extended to other sensory modalities. 2010 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Event-related Potential P300 in Patients with Migraine.

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    Titlic, Marina; Mise, Nikolina Ivica; Pintaric, Irena; Rogosic, Veljko; Vanjaka-Rogosic, Lucija; Mihalj, Mario; Jurinovic, Pavao; Katic, Ana Curkovic; Andjelinovic, Maja

    2015-12-01

    Recording of event-related potentials by using oddball paradigm of auditory P300 has yielded conflicting results in migraine. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that migraine patients have reduced P300 amplitude and prolonged P300 latency, suggesting alterations of the cognitive-evaluative component. We recruited 29 migraine patients (24 females; median age 40 years) and 29 healthy age- and gender-matched participants. Participants were subjected to the same testing procedures of auditory P300 by discrimination the target auditory stimulus from the frequent stimulus, and analyzing P300 target/frequent stimulus amplitudes, and P300 target/frequent stimulus latencies. Patients with migraine don't have prolonged P300 target stimulus latency, but have a longer P300 frequent stimulus latency for 17.5ms. Out of 29 participants with migraine 8 had pathological P300 target stimulus amplitude, and 19 had pathological P300 frequent stimulus amplitude. People with migraine have altered the P300 which indicates the presence of cognitive dysfunction in these patients and importance of early diagnosis and intervention to preventing any deterioration in cognitive functions.

  4. Reduced NGF serum levels and abnormal P300 event-related potential in first episode schizophrenia.

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    Xiong, Peng; Zeng, Yong; Zhu, Zuxin; Tan, Deyong; Xu, Fei; Lu, Jin; Wan, Jing; Ma, Mingxing

    2010-06-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) plays a crucial role in central nervous system neuron plasticity. Low levels of serum NGF in schizophrenic patients suggest that the neurotrophin contributes to the pathogenesis of the disease. NGF is also thought to alter characteristics of event-related brain potential (ERP) components. The auditory-evoked P300 ERP component, considered an index of brain activity, has reduced amplitude in acute and chronic schizophrenia. This study evaluated the relationship among serum NGF levels, P300 characteristics, and Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS) scores in first episode, neuroleptic naive schizophrenic patients (N=30) and healthy controls (N=28). Serum NGF was measured by ELISA and P300 elicited using auditory oddball paradigm. Compared to control subjects, schizophrenic patients had significantly reduced serum NGF (pP300 amplitudes at Fz (p=0.003). Additionally, there was a positive correlation between serum NGF serum and P300 amplitude at Fz. No correlation was found between serum NGF or P300 characteristics and PANSS scores. These results suggest that the effects of NGF in schizophrenia are related not only to regulation of neurodevelopment, but also to the electrophysiological characteristics of nerve growth factor. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The event-related brain potential as an index of attention allocation in complex displays

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    Wickens, C. D.; Heffley, E. F.; Kramer, A. F.; Donchin, E.

    1980-01-01

    The advantages of employing the event-related brain potential (ERP) in the assessment of allocation of attention in dynamic environments are discussed. Three experiments are presented in which the P300 component of the ERP is demonstrated to be a useful index of subjects' locus of attention. The first two experiments were concerned with the allocation of attention during discrete and continuous visual monitoring tasks. The results indicated that a P300 was elicited only by stimuli to which the subject had to attend in order to perform successfully the task. The third experiment was conducted to assess the sensitivity of P300 to the manner in which attention is allocated to different aspects of a display during the performance of a 3-dimensional target acquisition task. The amplitude of the P300 was found to reflect differences between two levels of workload, as well as the task relevance of the stimuli. The results of the experiments are discussed in terms of their utility in the evaluation of the design of man-machine systems as well as in the study of the allocation of attention in operational environments.

  6. Tyrosine ameliorates heat induced delay in event related potential P300 and contingent negative variation.

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    Kishore, Krishna; Ray, Koushik; Anand, J P; Thakur, Lalan; Kumar, Sanjeev; Panjwani, Usha

    2013-12-01

    The efficacy of tyrosine, a catecholamine precursor, as a countermeasure in the reduction of cognitive decline during heat exposure (HE) using event-related potential P300, and contingent negative variation (CNV) was evaluated. Ten healthy males, age 20-30years participated in the study. Volunteers received placebo or tyrosine (6.5g) 90min prior to HE (1.5h in 45°C+30% RH). P300 latency was significantly increased (p<0.01) during exposure with placebo, which was reduced significantly (p<0.01) after tyrosine supplementation. There was an increase in CNV M100 latency (p<0.05) and reaction time (p<0.01) and decrease in M100 amplitude (p<0.01) during HE with placebo, which returns to near normal level with the tyrosine administration. A significantly higher plasma norepinephrine (p<0.05), dopamine and epinephrine levels were detected in tyrosine supplemented group post heat exposure. HE increases the brain catecholamine activity thereby reduces the plasma norepinephrine and dopamine level leading to a reduction in cognitive performances. Tyrosine supplementation increases the catecholamine level and reduces the impairment of cognitive performance during HE. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Changes of the event related potential P300 following topiramate treatment in children with epilepsy].

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    Yang, Wen; Li, Mei

    2008-10-01

    The event related potential (ERP-P300) is useful to determine cognitive disturbances. This study examined the changes of ERP-P300 following different dosages of topiramate (TPM) treatment in children with epilepsy in order to investigate the effect of different dosages of TPM on cognitive function. Thirty cases of benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) were first administered with TPM at a dosage of 2 mg/kg/d for 6 months. Afterwards they received another 6 months of TPM treatment at a dosage of 5 mg/kg/d. ERP-P300 was tested before and after different dosages of TPM treatment. There were no significant differences in the latency and amplitude of ERP-P300 before and after 6 months low dosages of TPM treatment. However, the latency was more prolonged and the amplitude was reduced in the ERP-P300 testing after 6 months high dosage of TMP treatment (Prelated to its dosage in children with epilepsy.

  8. Subclinical alexithymia modulates early audio-visual perceptive and attentional event-related potentials

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    Dyna eDelle-Vigne

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Previous studies have highlighted the advantage of audio–visual oddball tasks (instead of unimodal ones in order to electrophysiologically index subclinical behavioral differences. Since alexithymia is highly prevalent in the general population, we investigated whether the use of various bimodal tasks could elicit emotional effects in low- versus high-alexithymic scorers. Methods:Fifty students (33 females were split into groups based on low and high scores on the Toronto Alexithymia Scale. During event-related potential recordings, they were exposed to three kinds of audio–visual oddball tasks: neutral (geometrical forms and bips, animal (dog and cock with their respective shouts, or emotional (faces and voices stimuli. In each condition, participants were asked to quickly detect deviant events occurring amongst a train of frequent matching stimuli (e.g., push a button when a sad face–voice pair appeared amongst a train of neutral face–voice pairs. P100, N100, and P300 components were analyzed: P100 refers to visual perceptive processing, N100 to auditory ones, and the P300 relates to response-related stages. Results:High-alexithymic scorers presented a particular pattern of results when processing the emotional stimulations, reflected in early ERP components by increased P100 and N100 amplitudes in the emotional oddball tasks (P100: pConclusions:Our findings suggest that high-alexithymic scorers require heightened early attentional resources when confronted with emotional stimuli.

  9. Identifying the null subject: evidence from event-related brain potentials.

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    Demestre, J; Meltzer, S; García-Albea, J E; Vigil, A

    1999-05-01

    Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded during spoken language comprehension to study the on-line effects of gender agreement violations in controlled infinitival complements. Spanish sentences were constructed in which the complement clause contained a predicate adjective marked for syntactic gender. By manipulating the gender of the antecedent (i.e., the controller) of the implicit subject while holding constant the gender of the adjective, pairs of grammatical and ungrammatical sentences were created. The detection of such a gender agreement violation would indicate that the parser had established the coreference relation between the null subject and its antecedent. The results showed a complex biphasic ERP (i.e., an early negativity with prominence at anterior and central sites, followed by a centroparietal positivity) in the violating condition as compared to the non-violating conditions. The brain reacts to NP-adjective gender agreement violations within a few hundred milliseconds of their occurrence. The data imply that the parser has properly coindexed the null subject of an infinitive clause with its antecedent.

  10. Event-Related Potentials of Bottom-Up and Top-Down Processing of Emotional Faces.

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    Moradi, Afsane; Mehrinejad, Seyed Abolghasem; Ghadiri, Mohammad; Rezaei, Farzin

    2017-01-01

    Emotional stimulus is processed automatically in a bottom-up way or can be processed voluntarily in a top-down way. Imaging studies have indicated that bottom-up and top-down processing are mediated through different neural systems. However, temporal differentiation of top-down versus bottom-up processing of facial emotional expressions has remained to be clarified. The present study aimed to explore the time course of these processes as indexed by the emotion-specific P100 and late positive potential (LPP) event-related potential (ERP) components in a group of healthy women. Fourteen female students of Alzahra University, Tehran, Iran aged 18-30 years, voluntarily participated in the study. The subjects completed 2 overt and covert emotional tasks during ERP acquisition. The results indicated that fearful expressions significantly produced greater P100 amplitude compared to other expressions. Moreover, the P100 findings showed an interaction between emotion and processing conditions. Further analysis indicated that within the overt condition, fearful expressions elicited more P100 amplitude compared to other emotional expressions. Also, overt conditions created significantly more LPP latencies and amplitudes compared to covert conditions. Based on the results, early perceptual processing of fearful face expressions is enhanced in top-down way compared to bottom-up way. It also suggests that P100 may reflect an attentional bias toward fearful emotions. However, no such differentiation was observed within later processing stages of face expressions, as indexed by the ERP LPP component, in a top-down versus bottom-up way. Overall, this study provides a basis for further exploring of bottom-up and top-down processes underlying emotion and may be typically helpful for investigating the temporal characteristics associated with impaired emotional processing in psychiatric disorders.

  11. Temporal Dynamics of Visual Attention Measured with Event-Related Potentials

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    Kashiwase, Yoshiyuki; Matsumiya, Kazumichi; Kuriki, Ichiro; Shioiri, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    How attentional modulation on brain activities determines behavioral performance has been one of the most important issues in cognitive neuroscience. This issue has been addressed by comparing the temporal relationship between attentional modulations on neural activities and behavior. Our previous study measured the time course of attention with amplitude and phase coherence of steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) and found that the modulation latency of phase coherence rather than that of amplitude was consistent with the latency of behavioral performance. In this study, as a complementary report, we compared the time course of visual attention shift measured by event-related potentials (ERPs) with that by target detection task. We developed a novel technique to compare ERPs with behavioral results and analyzed the EEG data in our previous study. Two sets of flickering stimulus at different frequencies were presented in the left and right visual hemifields, and a target or distracter pattern was presented randomly at various moments after an attention-cue presentation. The observers were asked to detect targets on the attended stimulus after the cue. We found that two ERP components, P300 and N2pc, were elicited by the target presented at the attended location. Time-course analyses revealed that attentional modulation of the P300 and N2pc amplitudes increased gradually until reaching a maximum and lasted at least 1.5 s after the cue onset, which is similar to the temporal dynamics of behavioral performance. However, attentional modulation of these ERP components started later than that of behavioral performance. Rather, the time course of attentional modulation of behavioral performance was more closely associated with that of the concurrently recorded SSVEPs analyzed. These results suggest that neural activities reflected not by either the P300 or N2pc, but by the SSVEPs, are the source of attentional modulation of behavioral performance. PMID:23976966

  12. Increased event-related potentials and alpha-, beta- and gamma-activity associated with intentional actions

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    Susanne eKarch

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Internally guided actions are defined as being purposeful, self-generated and offering choices between alternatives. Intentional actions are essential to reach individual goals. In previous empirical studies, internally guided actions were predominantly related to functional responses in frontal and parietal areas. The aim of the present study was to distinguish event-related potentials and oscillatory responses of intentional actions and externally guided actions. In addition, we compared neurobiological findings of the decision which action to perform with those referring to the decision whether or not to perform an action. Methods: Twenty-eight subjects participated in adapted go/nogo paradigms, including a voluntary selection condition allowing participants to [1] freely decide whether to press the response button or [2] to decide whether they wanted to press the response button with the right index finger or the left index finger. Results: The reaction times were increased when participants freely decided whether and how they wanted to respond compared to the go condition. Intentional processes were associated with a fronto-centrally located N2 and P3 potential. N2 and P3 amplitudes were increased during intentional actions compared to instructed responses (go. In addition, increased activity in the alpha-, beta- and gamma-frequency range was shown during voluntary behaviour rather than during externally-guided responses. Conclusion: These results may indicate that an additional cognitive process is needed for intentional actions compared to instructed behaviour. However, the neural responses were comparatively independent of the kind of decision that was made (1. decision which action to perform; 2. decision whether or not to perform an action. Significance: The study demonstrates the importance of fronto-central alpha-, beta- and gamma oscillations for voluntary behaviour.

  13. Disentangling the Attention Network Test: Behavioral, Event Related Potentials and neural source analyses.

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    Alejandro eGalvao-Carmona

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. The study of the attentional system remains a challenge for current neuroscience. The Attention Network Test (ANT was designed to study simultaneously three different attentional networks (alerting, orienting and executive based in subtraction of different experimental conditions. However, some studies recommend caution with these calculations due to the interactions between the attentional networks. In particular, it is highly relevant that several interpretations about attentional impairment have arisen from these calculations in diverse pathologies. Event Related Potentials (ERPs and neural source analysis can be applied to disentangle the relationships between these attentional networks not specifically shown by behavioural measures. Results. This study shows that there is a basic level of alerting (tonic alerting in the no cue condition, represented by a slow negative trend in the ERP trace prior to the onset of the target stimuli. A progressive increase in the CNV amplitude related to the amount of information provided by the cue conditions is also shown. Neural source analysis reveals specific modulations of the CNV related to a task-related expectancy presented in the no cue condition; a late modulation triggered by the central cue condition and probably representing a generic motor preparation; and an early and late modulation for spatial cue condition suggesting specific motor and sensory preactivation. Finally, the first component in the information processing of the target stimuli modulated by the interaction between orienting network and the executive system can be represented by N1. Conclusions. The ANT is useful as a paradigm to study specific attentional mechanisms and their interactions. However, calculation of network effects is based in subtractions with non-comparable experimental conditions, as evidenced by the present data, which can induce misinterpretations in the study of the attentional capacity in human

  14. Incorporating and integrating cognitive event-related potentials in the management of psychiatric disorders

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    Bragazzi NL

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nicola Luigi Bragazzi,1,2 Giovanni Del Puente21School of Public Health, Department of Health Sciences (DISSAL, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy; 2DINOGMI, Department of Neuroscience, Rehabilitation, Ophtalmology, Genetics, Maternal and Child Health, Section of Psychiatry, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy Dr Salvatore Campanella has recently advocated the urgent need to incorporate cognitive event-related potentials (ERPs for a proper diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of psychiatric disorders, on the basis of four working hypotheses, which are theoretically solid and experimentally supported.1View original paper by Campanella S.

  15. Attention effects on auditory scene analysis: insights from event-related brain potentials.

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    Spielmann, Mona Isabel; Schröger, Erich; Kotz, Sonja A; Bendixen, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Sounds emitted by different sources arrive at our ears as a mixture that must be disentangled before meaningful information can be retrieved. It is still a matter of debate whether this decomposition happens automatically or requires the listener's attention. These opposite positions partly stem from different methodological approaches to the problem. We propose an integrative approach that combines the logic of previous measurements targeting either auditory stream segregation (interpreting a mixture as coming from two separate sources) or integration (interpreting a mixture as originating from only one source). By means of combined behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) measures, our paradigm has the potential to measure stream segregation and integration at the same time, providing the opportunity to obtain positive evidence of either one. This reduces the reliance on zero findings (i.e., the occurrence of stream integration in a given condition can be demonstrated directly, rather than indirectly based on the absence of empirical evidence for stream segregation, and vice versa). With this two-way approach, we systematically manipulate attention devoted to the auditory stimuli (by varying their task relevance) and to their underlying structure (by delivering perceptual tasks that require segregated or integrated percepts). ERP results based on the mismatch negativity (MMN) show no evidence for a modulation of stream integration by attention, while stream segregation results were less clear due to overlapping attention-related components in the MMN latency range. We suggest future studies combining the proposed two-way approach with some improvements in the ERP measurement of sequential stream segregation.

  16. Using event related potentials to identify a user's behavioural intention aroused by product form design.

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    Ding, Yi; Guo, Fu; Zhang, Xuefeng; Qu, Qingxing; Liu, Weilin

    2016-07-01

    The capacity of product form to arouse user's behavioural intention plays a decisive role in further user experience, even in purchase decision, while traditional methods rarely give a fully understanding of user experience evoked by product form, especially the feeling of anticipated use of product. Behavioural intention aroused by product form designs has not yet been investigated electrophysiologically. Hence event related potentials (ERPs) were applied to explore the process of behavioural intention when users browsed different smart phone form designs with brand and price not taken into account for mainly studying the brain activity evoked by variety of product forms. Smart phone pictures with different anticipated user experience were displayed with equiprobability randomly. Participants were asked to click the left mouse button when certain picture gave them a feeling of behavioural intention to interact with. The brain signal of each participant was recorded by Curry 7.0. The results show that pictures with an ability to arouse participants' behavioural intention for further experience can evoke enhanced N300 and LPPs (late positive potentials) in central-parietal, parietal and occipital regions. The scalp topography shows that central-parietal, parietal and occipital regions are more activated. The results indicate that the discrepancy of ERPs can reflect the neural activities of behavioural intention formed or not. Moreover, amplitude of ERPs occurred in corresponding brain areas can be used to measure user experience. The exploring of neural correlated with behavioural intention provide an accurate measurement method of user's perception and help marketers to know which product can arouse users' behavioural intention, maybe taken as an evaluating indicator of product design. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  17. Auditory stream segregation using bandpass noises: evidence from event-related potentials

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    Yingjiu eNie

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The current study measured neural responses to investigate auditory stream segregation of noise stimuli with or without clear spectral contrast. Sequences of alternating A and B noise bursts were presented to elicit stream segregation in normal-hearing listeners. The successive B bursts in each sequence maintained an equal amount of temporal separation with manipulations introduced on the last stimulus. The last B burst was either delayed for 50% of the sequences or not delayed for the other 50%. The A bursts were jittered in between every two adjacent B bursts. To study the effects of spectral separation on streaming, the A and B bursts were further manipulated by using either bandpass-filtered noises widely spaced in center frequency or broadband noises. Event-related potentials (ERPs to the last B bursts were analyzed to compare the neural responses to the delay vs. no-delay trials in both passive and attentive listening conditions. In the passive listening condition, a trend for a possible late mismatch negativity (MMN or late discriminative negativity (LDN response was observed only when the A and B bursts were spectrally separate, suggesting that spectral separation in the A and B burst sequences could be conducive to stream segregation at the pre-attentive level. In the attentive condition, a P300 response was consistently elicited regardless of whether there was spectral separation between the A and B bursts, indicating the facilitative role of voluntary attention in stream segregation. The results suggest that reliable ERP measures can be used as indirect indicators for auditory stream segregation in conditions of weak spectral contrast. These findings have important implications for cochlear implant (CI studies – as spectral information available through a CI device or simulation is substantially degraded, it may require more attention to achieve stream segregation.

  18. Statistical analysis of event-related potential elicited by verb-complement merge in Brazilian Portuguese

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    M. Cagy

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available An interesting fact about language cognition is that stimulation involving incongruence in the merge operation between verb and complement has often been related to a negative event-related potential (ERP of augmented amplitude and latency of ca. 400 ms - the N400. Using an automatic ERP latency and amplitude estimator to facilitate the recognition of waves with a low signal-to-noise ratio, the objective of the present study was to study the N400 statistically in 24 volunteers. Stimulation consisted of 80 experimental sentences (40 congruous and 40 incongruous, generated in Brazilian Portuguese, involving two distinct local verb-argument combinations (nominal object and pronominal object series. For each volunteer, the EEG was simultaneously acquired at 20 derivations, topographically localized according to the 10-20 International System. A computerized routine for automatic N400-peak marking (based on the ascendant zero-cross of the first waveform derivative was applied to the estimated individual ERP waveform for congruous and incongruous sentences in both series for all ERP topographic derivations. Peak-to-peak N400 amplitude was significantly augmented (P < 0.05; one-sided Wilcoxon signed-rank test due to incongruence in derivations F3, T3, C3, Cz, T5, P3, Pz, and P4 for nominal object series and in P3, Pz and P4 for pronominal object series. The results also indicated high inter-individual variability in ERP waveforms, suggesting that the usual procedure of grand averaging might not be considered a generally adequate approach. Hence, signal processing statistical techniques should be applied in neurolinguistic ERP studies allowing waveform analysis with low signal-to-noise ratio.

  19. Recognition Memory in Amnestic-Mild Cognitive Impairment: Insights from Event-Related Potentials

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    David A Wolk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Episodic memory loss is the hallmark cognitive dysfunction associated with Alzheimer’s Disease (AD. Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (a-MCI frequently represents a transitional stage between normal aging and early AD. A better understanding of the qualitative features of memory loss in a-MCI may have important implications for predicting those most likely to harbor AD-related pathology and for disease monitoring. Dual process models of memory argue that recognition memory is subserved by the dissociable processes of recollection and familiarity. Work studying recognition memory in a-MCI from this perspective has been controversial, particularly with regard to the integrity of familiarity. Event-related potentials (ERPs offer an alternative means for assessing these functions without the associated assumptions of behavioral estimation methods. ERPs were recorded while a-MCI patients and cognitively normal (CN age-matched adults performed a recognition memory task. When retrieval success was measured (hits versus correct rejections in which performance was matched by group, a-MCI patients displayed similar neural correlates to that of the CN group, including modulation of the FN400 and the late parietal complex (LPC which are thought to index familiarity and recollection, respectively. Alternatively, when the integrity of these components were measured based on retrieval attempts (studied versus unstudied items, a-MCI patients displayed a reduced FN400 and LPC. Furthermore, modulation of the FN400 correlated with a behavioral estimate of familiarity and the LPC with a behavioral estimates of recollection obtained in a separate experiment in the same individuals, consistent with the proposed mappings of these indices. These results support a global decline of recognition memory in a-MCI, which suggests that the memory loss of prodromal AD may be qualitatively distinct from normal aging.

  20. Automatic Conflict Monitoring by Event-Related Potentials Could be used to Estimate Visual Acuity Levels.

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    Huang, Wenwen; Liu, Sinan; Luo, Bin; Meng, Huanhuan; Ji, Mengmeng; Li, Maojuan; Chen, Xiping; Tao, Luyang

    2018-03-15

    Numerous studies have explored the physical attribute features or face perceptions in conflict processing, while complicate gradient conflicts were rarely discussed. The aim of the study was to discuss the relationship between the event-related potential (ERP) component features and different visual acuity levels by using the modified S1-S2 task under non-attention status. Three visual acuity levels were applied, each with four orientations of "E" optotype stimuli randomly presented in the center of the visual field while participants were required to concentrate on listening to stories. The results showed that the amplitudes of P1 and P3 as well as difference P3 were larger in supra-threshold condition. In threshold condition, larger amplitudes for both N2 and difference N2 exhibited in frontal and central areas. In sub-threshold condition, there was no endogenous component elicited by mismatch stimuli except smaller anterior N1. Meanwhile, the specific distributions of N1 and N2 were presented and compared with previous face processing. The findings showed that visual conflict processing took place not only at an early stage but also at the late period, which might be as the consequences of interaction between conflict strength and involuntary attention. We concluded that automatic conflict detecting of visual icons by the serial ERP components could distinguish different visual acuity levels. The involvement of endogenous components could reveal the specific mechanism of more precise and fine conflict identification of complex physical attributes under non-attention status, furthermore could be used as valid markers to estimate the magnitude of visual acuity objectively. Copyright © 2018 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Event-related potential correlates of performance-monitoring in a lateralized time-estimation task.

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    Theo O J Gruendler

    Full Text Available Performance-monitoring as a key function of cognitive control covers a wide range of diverse processes to enable goal directed behavior and to avoid maladjustments. Several event-related brain potentials (ERP are associated with performance-monitoring, but their conceptual background differs. For example, the feedback-related negativity (FRN is associated with unexpected performance feedback and might serve as a teaching signal for adaptational processes, whereas the error-related negativity (ERN is associated with error commission and subsequent behavioral adaptation. The N2 is visible in the EEG when the participant successfully inhibits a response following a cue and thereby adapts to a given stop-signal. Here, we present an innovative paradigm to concurrently study these different performance-monitoring-related ERPs. In 24 participants a tactile time-estimation task interspersed with infrequent stop-signal trials reliably elicited all three ERPs. Sensory input and motor output were completely lateralized, in order to estimate any hemispheric processing preferences for the different aspects of performance monitoring associated with these ERPs. In accordance with the literature our data suggest augmented inhibitory capabilities in the right hemisphere given that stop-trial performance was significantly better with left- as compared to right-hand stop-signals. In line with this, the N2 scalp distribution was generally shifted to the right in addition to an ipsilateral shift in relation to the response hand. Other than that, task lateralization affected neither behavior related to error and feedback processing nor ERN or FRN. Comparing the ERP topographies using the Global Map Dissimilarity index, a large topographic overlap was found between all considered components.With an evenly distributed set of trials and a split-half reliability for all ERP components ≥.85 the task is well suited to efficiently study N2, ERN, and FRN concurrently which

  2. How Social Ties Influence Consumer: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials.

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    Jing Luan

    Full Text Available A considerable amount of marketing research has reported that consumers are more saliently influenced by friends (strong social ties than by acquaintances and strangers (weak social ties. To shed light on the neural and psychological processes underlying such phenomenon, in this study we designed an amended S1-S2 paradigm (product-[reviewer-review] that is based on realistic consumer purchase experiences. After incoming all given information (product, reviewer, review, participants were required to state their purchase intentions. The neurocognitive and emotional processes related to friend and stranger stimuli were delineated to suggest how social ties influence consumers during their shopping processes. Larger P2 (fronto-central scalp areas and P3 (central and posterior-parietal scalp areas components under stranger condition were elicited successfully. These findings demonstrate that the cognitive and emotional processing of friend and stranger stimuli occurs at stages of neural activity, and can be indicated by the P2 and P3 components. Electrophysiological data also support the hypothesis that different neural and emotional processing magnitude and strength underlie friend and stranger effect in the context of consumer purchase. During this process, the perception of stimuli evoked P2, subsequently emotional processing and attention modulation were activated and indicated by P2 and P3. The friend dominated phenomenon can be interpreted as the result of distinctive neurocognitive and emotional processing magnitude, which suggests that psychological and emotional factors can guide consumer decision making. This study consolidates that event related potential (ERP methodology is likely to be a more sensitive method for investigating consumer behaviors. From the perspectives of management and marketing, our findings show that the P2 and P3 components can be employed as an indicator to probe the influential factors of consumer purchase

  3. Attentional Bias in Patients with Decompensated Tinnitus: Prima Facie Evidence from Event-Related Potentials.

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    Li, Zhicheng; Gu, Ruolei; Zeng, Xiangli; Zhong, Weifang; Qi, Min; Cen, Jintian

    2016-01-01

    Tinnitus refers to the auditory perception of sound in the absence of external sound or electric stimuli. The influence of tinnitus on cognitive processing is at the cutting edge of ongoing tinnitus research. In this study, we adopted an objective indicator of attentional processing, i.e. the mismatch negativity (MMN), to assess the attentional bias in patients with decompensated tinnitus. Three kinds of pure tones, D1 (8,000 Hz), S (8,500 Hz) and D2 (9,000 Hz), were used to induce event-related potentials (ERPs) in the normal ear. Employing the oddball paradigm, the task was divided into two blocks in which D1 and D2 were set as deviation stimuli, respectively. Only D2 induced a significant MMN in the tinnitus group, while neither D1 nor D2 was able to induce MMN in the control group. In addition, the ERPs in the left hemisphere, which were recorded within the time window of 90-150 ms (ERP 90-150 ms), were significantly higher than those in the right hemisphere in the tinnitus group, while no significant difference was observed in the control group. Lastly, the amplitude of ERP 90-150 ms in the tinnitus group was significantly higher than that in the control group. These findings suggest that patients with decompensated tinnitus showed automatic processing of acoustic stimuli, thereby indicating that these patients allocated more cognitive resources to acoustic stimulus processing. We suggest that the difficulty in disengaging or facilitated attention of patients might underlie this phenomenon. The limitations of the current study are discussed. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. How Social Ties Influence Consumer: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials.

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    Luan, Jing; Yao, Zhong; Bai, Yan

    2017-01-01

    A considerable amount of marketing research has reported that consumers are more saliently influenced by friends (strong social ties) than by acquaintances and strangers (weak social ties). To shed light on the neural and psychological processes underlying such phenomenon, in this study we designed an amended S1-S2 paradigm (product-[reviewer-review]) that is based on realistic consumer purchase experiences. After incoming all given information (product, reviewer, review), participants were required to state their purchase intentions. The neurocognitive and emotional processes related to friend and stranger stimuli were delineated to suggest how social ties influence consumers during their shopping processes. Larger P2 (fronto-central scalp areas) and P3 (central and posterior-parietal scalp areas) components under stranger condition were elicited successfully. These findings demonstrate that the cognitive and emotional processing of friend and stranger stimuli occurs at stages of neural activity, and can be indicated by the P2 and P3 components. Electrophysiological data also support the hypothesis that different neural and emotional processing magnitude and strength underlie friend and stranger effect in the context of consumer purchase. During this process, the perception of stimuli evoked P2, subsequently emotional processing and attention modulation were activated and indicated by P2 and P3. The friend dominated phenomenon can be interpreted as the result of distinctive neurocognitive and emotional processing magnitude, which suggests that psychological and emotional factors can guide consumer decision making. This study consolidates that event related potential (ERP) methodology is likely to be a more sensitive method for investigating consumer behaviors. From the perspectives of management and marketing, our findings show that the P2 and P3 components can be employed as an indicator to probe the influential factors of consumer purchase intentions.

  5. Successful syllable detection in aphasia despite processing impairments as revealed by event-related potentials

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    Becker Frank

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of impaired sound and speech sound processing for auditory language comprehension deficits in aphasia is unclear. No electrophysiological studies of attended speech sound processing in aphasia have been performed for stimuli that are discriminable even for patients with severe auditory comprehension deficits. Methods Event-related brain potentials (ERPs were used to study speech sound processing in a syllable detection task in aphasia. In an oddball paradigm, the participants had to detect the infrequent target syllable /ta:/ amongst the frequent standard syllable /ba:/. 10 subjects with moderate and 10 subjects with severe auditory comprehension impairment were compared to 11 healthy controls. Results N1 amplitude was reduced indicating impaired primary stimulus analysis; N1 reduction was a predictor for auditory comprehension impairment. N2 attenuation suggests reduced attended stimulus classification and discrimination. However, all aphasic patients were able to discriminate the stimuli almost without errors, and processes related to the target identification (P3 were not significantly reduced. The aphasic subjects might have discriminated the stimuli by purely auditory differences, while the ERP results reveal a reduction of language-related processing which however did not prevent performing the task. Topographic differences between aphasic subgroups and controls indicate compensatory changes in activation. Conclusion Stimulus processing in early time windows (N1, N2 is altered in aphasics with adverse consequences for auditory comprehension of complex language material, while allowing performance of simpler tasks (syllable detection. Compensational patterns of speech sound processing may be activated in syllable detection, but may not be functional in more complex tasks. The degree to which compensational processes can be activated probably varies depending on factors as lesion site, time after injury, and

  6. Verbal Learning and Memory in Cannabis and Alcohol Users: An Event-Related Potential Investigation

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    Janette L. Smith

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Long-term heavy use of cannabis and alcohol are known to be associated with memory impairments. In this study, we used event-related potentials to examine verbal learning and memory processing in a commonly used behavioral task.Method: We conducted two studies: first, a small pilot study of adolescent males, comprising 13 Drug-Naive Controls (DNC, 12 heavy drinkers (HD and 8 cannabis users (CU. Second, a larger study of young adults, comprising 45 DNC (20 female, 39 HD (16 female, and 20 CU (9 female. In both studies, participants completed a modified verbal learning task (the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, RAVLT while brain electrical activity was recorded. ERPs were calculated for words which were subsequently remembered vs. those which were not remembered, and for presentations of learnt words, previously seen words, and new words in a subsequent recognition test. Pre-planned principal components analyses (PCA were used to quantify the ERP components in these recall and recognition phases separately for each study.Results: Memory performance overall was slightly lower than published norms using the standardized RAVLT delivery, but was generally similar and showed the expected changes over trials. Few differences in performance were observed between groups; a notable exception was markedly poorer delayed recall in HD relative to DNC (Study 2. PCA identified components expected from prior research using other memory tasks. At encoding, there were no between-group differences in the usual P2 recall effect (larger for recalled than not-recalled words. However, alcohol-related differences were observed in a larger P540 (indexing recollection in HD than DNC, and cannabis-related differences were observed in a smaller N340 (indexing familiarity and a lack of previously seen > new words effect for P540 in Study 2.Conclusions: This study is the first examination of ERPs in the RAVLT in healthy control participants, as well as substance

  7. Syntactic comprehension in Parkinson's disease: Investigating early automatic and late integrational processes using event-related brain potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Friederici, A; Kotz, S; Werheid, K.; Hein, G; Von Cramon, D

    2003-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) has been associated with a general impairment of procedures and with an impairment of syntactic procedures in particular. The present study investigated comprehension processes in PD using event-related brain potentials (ERPs). PD patients and controls listened to sentences that were either correct or syntactically or semantically incorrect. The language-related ERP component correlated with semantic processes (N400) was present in both groups. In the syntactic domain...

  8. Self-esteem modulates automatic attentional responses to self-relevant stimuli: Evidence from event-related brain potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Jie eChen; Qing eShui; Yiping eZhong

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have widely shown that self-esteem modulates the attention bias towards social rejection or emotion-related information. However, little is known about the influences of self-esteem on attention bias towards self-relevant stimuli. We aimed to investigate neural correlates that underlie the modulation effect of self-esteem on self-relevant processing. Event-related potentials (ERP) were recorded for subjects’ own names and close others’ names (the names of their friends) while...

  9. Tactile event-related potentials in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS): Implications for brain-computer interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvoni, S; Konicar, L; Prats-Sedano, M A; Garcia-Cossio, E; Genna, C; Volpato, C; Cavinato, M; Paggiaro, A; Veser, S; De Massari, D; Birbaumer, N

    2016-01-01

    We investigated neurophysiological brain responses elicited by a tactile event-related potential paradigm in a sample of ALS patients. Underlying cognitive processes and neurophysiological signatures for brain-computer interface (BCI) are addressed. We stimulated the palm of the hand in a group of fourteen ALS patients and a control group of ten healthy participants and recorded electroencephalographic signals in eyes-closed condition. Target and non-target brain responses were analyzed and classified offline. Classification errors served as the basis for neurophysiological brain response sub-grouping. A combined behavioral and quantitative neurophysiological analysis of sub-grouped data showed neither significant between-group differences, nor significant correlations between classification performance and the ALS patients' clinical state. Taking sequential effects of stimuli presentation into account, analyses revealed mean classification errors of 19.4% and 24.3% in healthy participants and ALS patients respectively. Neurophysiological correlates of tactile stimuli presentation are not altered by ALS. Tactile event-related potentials can be used to monitor attention level and task performance in ALS and may constitute a viable basis for future BCIs. Implications for brain-computer interface implementation of the proposed method for patients in critical conditions, such as the late stage of ALS and the (completely) locked-in state, are discussed. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of negative emotion on the framing effect: evidence from event-related potentials.

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    Ma, Qingguo; Pei, Guanxiong; Wang, Kai

    2015-04-15

    The framing effect is the phenomenon in which different descriptions of an identical problem can result in different choices. The influence of negative emotions on the framing effect and its neurocognitive basis are important issues, especially in the domain of saving lives, which is essential and highly risky. In each trial of our experiment, the emotion stimulus is presented to the participants, followed by the decision-making stimulus, which comprises certain and risky options with the same expected value. Each pair of options is positively or negatively framed. The behavioral results indicate a significant interactive effect between negative emotion and frame; thus, the risk preference under the positive frame can be enhanced by negative emotions, whereas this finding is not true under the negative frame. The event-related potential analysis indicates that choosing certain options under the positive frame with negative emotion priming generates smaller P2 and P3 amplitudes and a larger N2 amplitude than with neutral emotion priming. The event-related potential findings indicate that individuals can detect risk faster and experience more conflict and increased decision difficulty if they choose certain options under the positive frame with negative priming compared with neutral priming.

  11. Asynchronous gaze-independent event-related potential-based brain-computer interface.

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    Aloise, Fabio; Aricò, Pietro; Schettini, Francesca; Salinari, Serenella; Mattia, Donatella; Cincotti, Febo

    2013-10-01

    In this study a gaze independent event related potential (ERP)-based brain computer interface (BCI) for communication purpose was combined with an asynchronous classifier endowed with dynamical stopping feature. The aim was to evaluate if and how the performance of such asynchronous system could be negatively affected in terms of communication efficiency and robustness to false positives during the intentional no-control state. The proposed system was validated with the participation of 9 healthy subjects. A comparison was performed between asynchronous and synchronous classification technique outputs while users were controlling the same gaze independent BCI interface. The performance of both classification techniques were assessed both off-line and on-line by means of the efficiency metric introduced by Bianchi et al. (2007). This latter metric allows to set a different misclassification cost for wrong classifications and abstentions. Robustness was evaluated as the rate of false positives occurring during voluntary no-control states. The asynchronous classifier did not exhibited significantly higher accuracy or lower error rate with respect to the synchronous classifier (accuracy: 74.66% versus 87.96%, error rate: 7.11% versus 12.04% respectively). However, the on-line and off-line analysis revealed that the communication efficiency was significantly improved (pinterface is a promising solution to be further explored in order to increase the general usability of ERP-based BCI systems designed for severely disabled people with an impairment of the voluntary control of eye movements. In fact, the asynchronous classifier can improve communication efficiency automatically adapting the number of stimulus repetitions to the current user's state and suspending the control if he/she does not intend to select an item. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. An Event-Related Potential Examination of Contour Integration Deficits in Schizophrenia

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    Pamela D Butler

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Perceptual organization, which refers to the ability to integrate fragments of stimuli to form a representation of a whole edge, part, or object, is impaired in schizophrenia. A contour integration paradigm, involving detection of a set of Gabor patches forming an oval contour pointing to the right or left embedded in a field of randomly oriented Gabors, has been developed for use in clinical trials of schizophrenia. The purpose of the present study was to assess contributions of early and later stages of processing to deficits in contour integration, as well as to develop an event-related potential (ERP analog of this task. Twenty-one patients with schizophrenia and 28 controls participated. The Gabor elements forming the contours were given a low or high degree of orientational jitter, making it either easy or difficult to identify the direction in which the contour was pointing. ERP results showed greater negative peaks at ~165 (N1 component and ~270 ms for the low-jitter versus the high-jitter contours, with a much greater difference between jitter conditions at 270 ms. This later ERP component was previously termed Ncl for closure negativity. Source localization identified the Ncl in the lateral occipital object recognition area. Patients showed a significant decrease in the Ncl, but not N1, compared to controls, and this was associated with impaired behavioral ability to identify contours. In addition, an earlier negative peak was found at ~120 ms (termed N120 that differentiated jitter conditions, had a dorsal stream source, and differed between patients and controls. Patients also showed a deficit in the dorsal stream sensory P1 component. These results are in accord with impairments in distributed circuitry contributing to perceptual organization deficits and provide an ERP analog to the behavioral contour integration task.

  13. Event-related potential and eye tracking evidence of the developmental dynamics of face processing.

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    Meaux, Emilie; Hernandez, Nadia; Carteau-Martin, Isabelle; Martineau, Joëlle; Barthélémy, Catherine; Bonnet-Brilhault, Frédérique; Batty, Magali

    2014-04-01

    Although the wide neural network and specific processes related to faces have been revealed, the process by which face-processing ability develops remains unclear. An interest in faces appears early in infancy, and developmental findings to date have suggested a long maturation process of the mechanisms involved in face processing. These developmental changes may be supported by the acquisition of more efficient strategies to process faces (theory of expertise) and by the maturation of the face neural network identified in adults. This study aimed to clarify the link between event-related potential (ERP) development in response to faces and the behavioral changes in the way faces are scanned throughout childhood. Twenty-six young children (4-10 years of age) were included in two experimental paradigms, the first exploring ERPs during face processing, the second investigating the visual exploration of faces using an eye-tracking system. The results confirmed significant age-related changes in visual ERPs (P1, N170 and P2). Moreover, an increased interest in the eye region and an attentional shift from the mouth to the eyes were also revealed. The proportion of early fixations on the eye region was correlated with N170 and P2 characteristics, highlighting a link between the development of ERPs and gaze behavior. We suggest that these overall developmental dynamics may be sustained by a gradual, experience-dependent specialization in face processing (i.e. acquisition of face expertise), which produces a more automatic and efficient network associated with effortless identification of faces, and allows the emergence of human-specific social and communication skills. © 2014 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Object substitution masking in schizophrenia: an event-related potential analysis.

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    Wynn, Jonathan K; Mathis, Kristopher I; Ford, Judith; Breitmeyer, Bruno G; Green, Michael F

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia patients exhibit deficits on visual processing tasks, including visual backward masking, and these impairments are related to deficits in higher-level processes. In the current study we used electroencephalography techniques to examine successive stages and pathways of visual processing in a specialized masking paradigm, four-dot masking, which involves masking by object substitution. Seventy-six schizophrenia patients and 66 healthy controls had event-related potentials (ERPs) recorded during four-dot masking. Target visibility was manipulated by changing stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) between the target and mask, such that performance decreased with increasing SOA. Three SOAs were used: 0, 50, and 100 ms. The P100 and N100 perceptual ERPs were examined. Additionally, the visual awareness negativity (VAN) to correct vs. incorrect responses, an index of reentrant processing, was examined for SOAs 50 and 100 ms. Results showed that patients performed worse than controls on the behavioral task across all SOAs. The ERP results revealed that patients had significantly smaller P100 and N100 amplitudes, though there was no effect of SOA on either component in either group. In healthy controls, but not patients, N100 amplitude correlated significantly with behavioral performance at SOAs where masking occurred, such that higher accuracy correlated with a larger N100. Healthy controls, but not patients, exhibited a larger VAN to correct vs. incorrect responses. The results indicate that the N100 appears to be related to attentional effort in the task in controls, but not patients. Considering that the VAN is thought to reflect reentrant processing, one interpretation of the findings is that patients' lack of VAN response and poorer performance may be related to dysfunctional reentrant processing.

  15. Distinct features of auditory steady-state responses as compared to transient event-related potentials.

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    Li Zhang

    Full Text Available Transient event-related potentials (ERPs and steady-state responses (SSRs have been popularly employed to investigate the function of the human brain, but their relationship still remains a matter of debate. Some researchers believed that SSRs could be explained by the linear summation of successive transient ERPs (superposition hypothesis, while others believed that SSRs were the result of the entrainment of a neural rhythm driven by the periodic repetition of a sensory stimulus (oscillatory entrainment hypothesis. In the present study, taking auditory modality as an example, we aimed to clarify the distinct features of SSRs, evoked by the 40-Hz and 60-Hz periodic auditory stimulation, as compared to transient ERPs, evoked by a single click. We observed that (1 SSRs were mainly generated by phase synchronization, while late latency responses (LLRs in transient ERPs were mainly generated by power enhancement; (2 scalp topographies of LLRs in transient ERPs were markedly different from those of SSRs; (3 the powers of both 40-Hz and 60-Hz SSRs were significantly correlated, while they were not significantly correlated with the N1 power in transient ERPs; (4 whereas SSRs were dominantly modulated by stimulus intensity, middle latency responses (MLRs were not significantly modulated by both stimulus intensity and subjective loudness judgment, and LLRs were significantly modulated by subjective loudness judgment even within the same stimulus intensity. All these findings indicated that high-frequency SSRs were different from both MLRs and LLRs in transient ERPs, thus supporting the possibility of oscillatory entrainment hypothesis to the generation of SSRs. Therefore, SSRs could be used to explore distinct neural responses as compared to transient ERPs, and help us reveal novel and reliable neural mechanisms of the human brain.

  16. Cerebral lesions and event-related potential P300 using positron emission tomography (PET)

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    Sakai, Yasujiro; Okamoto, Kazuma; Tanaka, Makoto; Kondoh, Susumu; Hirai, Shunsaku (Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1993-06-01

    To determine what lesions are involved in prolonging event-related potential P300 latency, regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and metabolism were investigated by positron emission tomography (PET) in a total of 40 patients with neurologic diseases (12 with chronic cerebrovascular disorder, 9 with spino-cerebellar degeneration, 4 with Alzheimer's type dementia, 4 with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and 11 with miscellaneous diseases). There was inverse correlation between rCBF and P300 latency in terms of any of the whole, left, and right hemispheres: P300 latency was associated with decreased rCBF. This was more noticeable in the cerebral cortex than white matter and in the right than left hemisphere, although there was no significant difference between them. In none of the regions, however, was there significant correlation between cerebral oxygen consumption and P300 latency. When the right and left frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital cortexes, thalamus, putamen, and caudatum were examined as regions of interest, there was significantly inverse correlation between rCBF and P300 latency in all regions except for the occipital cortex. This was more noticeable on the right than the left side, although no significant difference was observed. Cerebral oxygen consumption in these lesions did not correlate with P300 latency. In the study on bilateral rCBF difference, decreased rCBF confined to the right parietal lobe, bilateral thalamus and bilateral temporal lobes was found to be associated with a significantly prolonged P300 latency. Thus, rCBF in these regions seemed to be particularly responsible for P300 latency. (N.K.).

  17. Brain Network Activation Analysis Utilizing Spatiotemporal Features for Event Related Potentials Classification

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    Yaki Stern

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to introduce an improved tool for automated classification of event-related potentials (ERPs using spatiotemporally parcellated events incorporated into a functional brain network activation (BNA analysis. The auditory oddball ERP paradigm was selected to demonstrate and evaluate the improved tool. Methods: The ERPs of each subject were decomposed into major dynamic spatiotemporal events. Then, a set of spatiotemporal events representing the group was generated by aligning and clustering the spatiotemporal events of all individual subjects. The temporal relationship between the common group events generated a network, which is the spatiotemporal reference BNA model. Scores were derived by comparing each subject’s spatiotemporal events to the reference BNA model and were then entered into a support vector machine classifier to classify subjects into relevant subgroups. The reliability of the BNA scores (test-retest repeatability using intraclass correlation and their utility as a classification tool were examined in the context of Target-Novel classification. Results: BNA intraclass correlation values of repeatability ranged between 0.51 and 0.82 for the known ERP components N100, P200 and P300. Classification accuracy was high when the trained data were validated on the same subjects for different visits (AUCs 0.93 and 0.95. The classification accuracy remained high for a test group recorded at a different clinical center with a different recording system (AUCs 0.81, 0.85 for 2 visits. Conclusion: The improved spatiotemporal BNA analysis demonstrates high classification accuracy. The BNA analysis method holds promise as a tool for diagnosis, follow-up and drug development associated with different neurological conditions.

  18. Examining Event-Related Potential (ERP correlates of decision bias in recognition memory judgments.

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    Holger Hill

    Full Text Available Memory judgments can be based on accurate memory information or on decision bias (the tendency to report that an event is part of episodic memory when one is in fact unsure. Event related potentials (ERP correlates are important research tools for elucidating the dynamics underlying memory judgments but so far have been established only for investigations of accurate old/new discrimination. To identify the ERP correlates of bias, and observe how these interact with ERP correlates of memory, we conducted three experiments that manipulated decision bias within participants via instructions during recognition memory tests while their ERPs were recorded. In Experiment 1, the bias manipulation was performed between blocks of trials (automatized bias and compared to trial-by-trial shifts of bias in accord with an external cue (flexibly controlled bias. In Experiment 2, the bias manipulation was performed at two different levels of accurate old/new discrimination as the memory strength of old (studied items was varied. In Experiment 3, the bias manipulation was added to another, bottom-up driven manipulation of bias induced via familiarity. In the first two Experiments, and in the low familiarity condition of Experiment 3, we found evidence of an early frontocentral ERP component at 320 ms poststimulus (the FN320 that was sensitive to the manipulation of bias via instruction, with more negative amplitudes indexing more liberal bias. By contrast, later during the trial (500-700 ms poststimulus, bias effects interacted with old/new effects across all three experiments. Results suggest that the decision criterion is typically activated early during recognition memory trials, and is integrated with retrieved memory signals and task-specific processing demands later during the trial. More generally, the findings demonstrate how ERPs can help to specify the dynamics of recognition memory processes under top-down and bottom-up controlled retrieval conditions.

  19. Examining Event-Related Potential (ERP) Correlates of Decision Bias in Recognition Memory Judgments

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    Hill, Holger; Windmann, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    Memory judgments can be based on accurate memory information or on decision bias (the tendency to report that an event is part of episodic memory when one is in fact unsure). Event related potentials (ERP) correlates are important research tools for elucidating the dynamics underlying memory judgments but so far have been established only for investigations of accurate old/new discrimination. To identify the ERP correlates of bias, and observe how these interact with ERP correlates of memory, we conducted three experiments that manipulated decision bias within participants via instructions during recognition memory tests while their ERPs were recorded. In Experiment 1, the bias manipulation was performed between blocks of trials (automatized bias) and compared to trial-by-trial shifts of bias in accord with an external cue (flexibly controlled bias). In Experiment 2, the bias manipulation was performed at two different levels of accurate old/new discrimination as the memory strength of old (studied) items was varied. In Experiment 3, the bias manipulation was added to another, bottom-up driven manipulation of bias induced via familiarity. In the first two Experiments, and in the low familiarity condition of Experiment 3, we found evidence of an early frontocentral ERP component at 320 ms poststimulus (the FN320) that was sensitive to the manipulation of bias via instruction, with more negative amplitudes indexing more liberal bias. By contrast, later during the trial (500–700 ms poststimulus), bias effects interacted with old/new effects across all three experiments. Results suggest that the decision criterion is typically activated early during recognition memory trials, and is integrated with retrieved memory signals and task-specific processing demands later during the trial. More generally, the findings demonstrate how ERPs can help to specify the dynamics of recognition memory processes under top-down and bottom-up controlled retrieval conditions. PMID

  20. Effects of low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on event-related potential P300

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torii, Tetsuya; Sato, Aya; Iwahashi, Masakuni; Iramina, Keiji

    2012-04-01

    The present study analyzed the effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on brain activity. P300 latency of event-related potential (ERP) was used to evaluate the effects of low-frequency and short-term rTMS by stimulating the supramarginal gyrus (SMG), which is considered to be the related area of P300 origin. In addition, the prolonged stimulation effects on P300 latency were analyzed after applying rTMS. A figure-eight coil was used to stimulate left-right SMG, and intensity of magnetic stimulation was 80% of motor threshold. A total of 100 magnetic pulses were applied for rTMS. The effects of stimulus frequency at 0.5 or 1 Hz were determined. Following rTMS, an odd-ball task was performed and P300 latency of ERP was measured. The odd-ball task was performed at 5, 10, and 15 min post-rTMS. ERP was measured prior to magnetic stimulation as a control. Electroencephalograph (EEG) was measured at Fz, Cz, and Pz that were indicated by the international 10-20 electrode system. Results demonstrated that different effects on P300 latency occurred between 0.5-1 Hz rTMS. With 1 Hz low-frequency magnetic stimulation to the left SMG, P300 latency decreased. Compared to the control, the latency time difference was approximately 15 ms at Cz. This decrease continued for approximately 10 min post-rTMS. In contrast, 0.5 Hz rTMS resulted in delayed P300 latency. Compared to the control, the latency time difference was approximately 20 ms at Fz, and this delayed effect continued for approximately 15 min post-rTMS. Results demonstrated that P300 latency varied according to rTMS frequency. Furthermore, the duration of the effect was not similar for stimulus frequency of low-frequency rTMS.

  1. Analysis of neural sources of p300 event-related potential in normal and schizophrenic participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabeti, Malihe; Moradi, Ehsan; Katebi, Serajeddin

    2011-01-01

    The P300 event-related potential (ERP) is associated with attention and memory operations of the brain. P300 is changed in many cognitive disorders such as dementia, Alzheimer, schizophrenia, and major depression disorder. Therefore, investigation on basis of this component can help to improve our understanding of pathophysiology of such disorders and fundamentals of memory and attention mechanism. In this study, electroencephalography (EEG) signals of 20 schizophrenic patients and 20 age-matched normal subjects are analyzed. The oddball paradigm has been used to record the P300, where two stimuli including target and standard are presented with different probabilities in a random order. Data analysis is carried out using conventional averaging techniques as well as P300 source localization with low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA). The results show that the P300 components stem from a wide cerebral cortex network and defining a small definite cortical zone as its generator is impossible. In normal group, cingulate gyrus, one of the essential components of working memory circuit that was reported by Papez, is found to be the most activated area and it can be in line with the hypothesis that at least a part of the P300 is elicited by working-memory circuit. In schizophrenic group, frontal lobe is the most activated area that was responsible for P300 sources. Our results show that the cingulate gyrus is not activated in comparison with normal group, which is in line with previous results that dysfunction of the anterior cingulate cortex plays a prominent role in the schizophrenia disorder.

  2. Usefulness of event-related potentials in the assessment of mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsolaki Magda

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to determine if changes in latencies and amplitudes of the major waves of Auditory Event-Related Potentials (AERP, correlate with memory status of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI and conversion to Alzheimer's disease (AD. 91 patients with MCI (mean ± SD age = 66.6 ± 5.4, MMSE score = 27.7 and 30 age-matched healthy control (AMHC subjects (mean ± SD age = 68.9 ± 9.9 were studied. 54 patients were re-examined after an average period of 14(± 5.2 months. During this time period 5 patients converted to AD. Between-group differences in latency and amplitude of the major AERP waves (N200, P300 and Slow Wave were determined. Within each group, correlation coefficients (CC between these characteristics of the different AERP waves were calculated. Finally, for patients, CCs were determined among each AERP wave and their age and MMSE scores. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA was used to examine the underlying structure of waveforms both in the control and the patient groups. Results Latencies of all major AERP components were prolonged in patients compared to controls. Patients presented with significantly higher N200 amplitudes, but no significant differences were observed in P300 amplitudes. Significant differences between follow-up and baseline measurements were found for P300 latency (p = 0.009, N200 amplitude (p Conclusion Although we were not able to establish significant correlations between latencies and amplitudes of N200, P300 and SW and the patients' performance in MMSE, which is a psychometric test for classifying patients suffering from MCI, our results point out that the disorganization of the AERP waveform in MCI patients is a potential basis upon which a neurophysiologic methodology for identifying and "staging" MCI can be sought. We also found that delayed N200 latency not only identifies memory changes better than the MMSE, but also may be a potential predictor of the MCI

  3. The interrelationship between movement and cognition: θ rhythm and the P300 event-related potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jonghan

    2011-07-01

    The relationship among brain electrophysiological activity, motor activity, and cognition has been a matter of great interest. For example, it has been discussed whether hippocampal theta rhythm reflects motor activity or cognitive activity, whereas it is widely accepted that the P300 event-related potential (ERP) reflects cognitive processes such as updating working memory. Here, we investigated the interrelationships among motor activity, hippocampal theta rhythm, and hippocampal P300 ERP using electrophysiological and behavioral data recorded from rats performing an auditory discrimination task (i.e., the auditory oddball paradigm) in a chamber with and without a running-wheel. We found that the hippocampal theta rhythm generated during locomotion codes information about self-motion, and event-related increases in hippocampal theta rhythm observed when rats performed the auditory discrimination cognitive task reflect a change in motor behavior after learning the cognitive task. Interestingly, the hippocampal P300 ERP occurred coincidently with increases in the power and frequency of hippocampal theta rhythm. In addition, we found that changes in theta rhythm observed during spontaneous wheel running without performing a cognitive task as well as when performing the cognitive task are associated with changes in delta- and gamma-band EEG activities. These major findings are discussed with respect to current hypotheses regarding P300 ERP and theta-, delta-, and gamma-band EEG activities in brain functions. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Event-related potentials as a measure of sleep disturbance: A tutorial review

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    Kenneth Campbell

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews event-related potentials (ERPs the minute responses of the human brain that are elicited by external auditory stimuli and how the ERPs can be used to measure sleep disturbance. ERPs consist of a series of negative- and positive-going components. A negative component peaking at about 100 ms, N1, is thought to reflect the outcome of a transient detector system, activated by change in the transient energy in an acoustic stimulus. Its output and thus the amplitude of N1 increases as the intensity level of the stimulus is increased and when the rate of presentation is slowed. When the output reaches a certain critical level, operations of the central executive are interrupted and attention is switched to the auditory channel. This switching of attention is thought to be indexed by a later positivity, P3a, peaking between 250 and 300 ms. In order to sleep, consciousness for all but the most relevant of stimuli must be prevented. Thus, during sleep onset and definitive non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep, the amplitude of N1 diminishes to near-baseline level. The amplitude of P2, peaking from 180 to 200 ms, is however larger in NREM sleep than in wakefulness. P2 is thought to reflect an inhibitory process protecting sleep from irrelevant disturbance. As stimulus input becomes increasingly obtrusive, the amplitude of P2 also increases. With increasing obtrusiveness particularly when stimuli are presented slowly, a later large negativity, peaking at about 350 ms, N350, becomes apparent. N350 is unique to sleep, its amplitude also increasing as the stimulus becomes more obtrusive. Many authors postulate that when the N350 reaches a critical amplitude, a very large amplitude N550, a component of the K-Complex is elicited. The K-Complex can only be elicited during NREM sleep. The P2, N350 and N550 processes are thus conceived as sleep protective mechanisms, activated sequentially as the risk for disturbance increases. During REM sleep

  5. Event-related potentials to task-irrelevant changes in facial expressions

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    Astikainen Piia

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous previous experiments have used oddball paradigm to study change detection. This paradigm is applied here to study change detection of facial expressions in a context which demands abstraction of the emotional expression-related facial features among other changing facial features. Methods Event-related potentials (ERPs were recorded in adult humans engaged in a demanding auditory task. In an oddball paradigm, repeated pictures of faces with a neutral expression ('standard', p = .9 were rarely replaced by pictures with a fearful ('fearful deviant', p = .05 or happy ('happy deviant', p = .05 expression. Importantly, facial identities changed from picture to picture. Thus, change detection required abstraction of facial expression from changes in several low-level visual features. Results ERPs to both types of deviants differed from those to standards. At occipital electrode sites, ERPs to deviants were more negative than ERPs to standards at 150–180 ms and 280–320 ms post-stimulus. A positive shift to deviants at fronto-central electrode sites in the analysis window of 130–170 ms post-stimulus was also found. Waveform analysis computed as point-wise comparisons between the amplitudes elicited by standards and deviants revealed that the occipital negativity emerged earlier to happy deviants than to fearful deviants (after 140 ms versus 160 ms post-stimulus, respectively. In turn, the anterior positivity was earlier to fearful deviants than to happy deviants (110 ms versus 120 ms post-stimulus, respectively. Conclusion ERP amplitude differences between emotional and neutral expressions indicated pre-attentive change detection of facial expressions among neutral faces. The posterior negative difference at 150–180 ms latency resembled visual mismatch negativity (vMMN – an index of pre-attentive change detection previously studied only to changes in low-level features in vision. The positive anterior difference in

  6. Spatial attention facilitates selection of illusory objects: evidence from event-related brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Antígona; Teder-Salejarvi, Wolfgang; Hillyard, Steven A

    2007-03-30

    The relationship between spatial attention and object-based attention has long been debated. On the basis of behavioral evidence it has been hypothesized that these two forms of attention share a common mechanism, such that directing spatial attention to one part of an object facilitates the selection of the entire object. In a previous study (Martinez, A., Teder-Salejarvi, W., Vazquez, M., Molholm, S., Foxe, J.J., Javitt, D.C., Di Russo, F., Worden, M.S., Hillyard, S.A., 2006. "Objects are highlighted by spatial attention." J. Cogn. Neurosci. 18(2): 298-310) we used recordings of event-related potentials (ERPs) during a paradigm modeled after that of Egly et al. (Egly, R., Driver, J., Rafal, D.R., 1994. Shifting visual attention between objects and locations: evidence from normal and parietal lesion subjects. J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. 123(2) 161-77) to investigate this relationship. As reported in numerous studies of spatial attention, we found the typical pattern of enhanced neural activity in visual cortex elicited by attended stimuli. Unattended stimuli belonging to the same object as the attended stimuli elicited a very similar spatiotemporal pattern of enhanced neural activity that was localized to lateral occipital cortex (LOC). This similarity was taken as evidence that spatial- and object-selective attention share, at least in part, a common neural mechanism. In the present study we further investigate this relationship by examining whether this spread of spatial attention within attended objects can be guided by objects defined by illusory contours. Subjects viewed a display consisting of two illusory rectangular objects and directed attention to continuous sequences of stimuli (brief onsets) at one end of one of the objects. Stimuli occurring at irrelevant locations but belonging to the same attended object elicited larger posterior N1 amplitudes than that elicited by unattended objects forming part of a different object. This object-selective N1 enhancement

  7. Auditory event-related potentials measured in kindergarten predict later reading problems at school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämäläinen, Jarmo A; Guttorm, Tomi K; Richardson, Ulla; Alku, Paavo; Lyytinen, Heikki; Leppänen, Paavo H T

    2013-01-01

    Identifying children at risk for reading problems or dyslexia at kindergarten age could improve support for beginning readers. Brain event-related potentials (ERPs) were measured for temporally complex pseudowords and corresponding non-speech stimuli from 6.5-year-old children who participated in behavioral literacy tests again at 9 years in the second grade. Children who had reading problems at school age had larger N250 responses to speech and non-speech stimuli particularly at the left hemisphere. The brain responses also correlated with reading skills. The results suggest that atypical auditory and speech processing are a neural-level risk factor for future reading problems. [Supplementary material is available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Developmental Neuropsychology for the following free supplemental resources: Sound files used in the experiments. Three speech sounds and corresponding non-speech sounds with short, intermediate, and long gaps].

  8. Event-related brain potential evidence for animacy processing asymmetries during sentence comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwland, Mante S; Martin, Andrea E; Carreiras, Manuel

    2013-08-01

    The animacy distinction is deeply rooted in the language faculty. A key example is differential object marking, the phenomenon where animate sentential objects receive specific marking. We used event-related potentials to examine the neural processing consequences of case-marking violations on animate and inanimate direct objects in Spanish. Inanimate objects with incorrect prepositional case marker 'a' ('al suelo') elicited a P600 effect compared to unmarked objects, consistent with previous literature. However, animate objects without the required prepositional case marker ('el obispo') only elicited an N400 effect compared to marked objects. This novel finding, an exclusive N400 modulation by a straightforward grammatical rule violation, does not follow from extant neurocognitive models of sentence processing, and mirrors unexpected "semantic P600" effects for thematically problematic sentences. These results may reflect animacy asymmetry in competition for argument prominence: following the article, thematic interpretation difficulties are elicited only by unexpectedly animate objects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Memory and event-related potentials for rapidly presented emotional pictures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Margaret M.; Lang, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    Dense array event-related potentials (ERPs) and memory performance were assessed following rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) of emotional and neutral pictures. Despite the extremely brief presentation, emotionally arousing pictures prompted an enhanced negative voltage over occipital sensors, compared to neutral pictures, replicating previous encoding effects. Emotionally arousing pictures were also remembered better in a subsequent recognition test, with higher hit rates and better discrimination performance. ERPs measured during the recognition test showed both an early (250–350 ms) frontally distributed difference between hits and correct rejections, and a later (400–500 ms), more centrally distributed difference, consistent with effects of recognition on ERPs typically found using slower presentation rates. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that features of affective pictures pop out during rapid serial visual presentation, prompting better memory performance. PMID:20628736

  10. Neuroprotection against vascular dementia after acupuncture combined with donepezil hydrochloride: P300 event related potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture can be used to treat various nervous system diseases. Here, 168 vascular dementia patients were orally administered donepezil hydrochloride alone (5 mg/day, once a day for 56 days, or combined with acupuncture at Shenting (DU24, Tianzhu (BL10, Sishencong (Extra, Yintang (Extra, Renzhong (DU26, Neiguan (PC6, Shenmen (HT7, Fengchi (GB20, Wangu (GB12 and Baihui (DU20 (once a day for 56 days. Compared with donepezil hydrochloride alone, P300 event related potential latency was shorter with an increased amplitude in patients treated with donepezil hydrochloride and acupuncture. Mini-Mental State Examination score was also higher. Moreover, these differences in P300 latency were identified within different infarcted regions in patients treated with donepezil hydrochloride and acupuncture. These findings indicate that acupuncture combined with donepezil hydrochloride noticeably improves cognitive function in patients with vascular dementia, and exerts neuroprotective effects against vascular dementia.

  11. A wavelet based algorithm for the identification of oscillatory event-related potential components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aniyan, Arun Kumar; Philip, Ninan Sajeeth; Samar, Vincent J; Desjardins, James A; Segalowitz, Sidney J

    2014-08-15

    Event related potentials (ERPs) are very feeble alterations in the ongoing electroencephalogram (EEG) and their detection is a challenging problem. Based on the unique time-based parameters derived from wavelet coefficients and the asymmetry property of wavelets a novel algorithm to separate ERP components in single-trial EEG data is described. Though illustrated as a specific application to N170 ERP detection, the algorithm is a generalized approach that can be easily adapted to isolate different kinds of ERP components. The algorithm detected the N170 ERP component with a high level of accuracy. We demonstrate that the asymmetry method is more accurate than the matching wavelet algorithm and t-CWT method by 48.67 and 8.03 percent, respectively. This paper provides an off-line demonstration of the algorithm and considers issues related to the extension of the algorithm to real-time applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Neuroprotection against vascular dementia after acupuncture combined with donepezil hydrochloride: P300 event related potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Wang, Xiu-Juan; Zhang, Zhe-Cheng; Xue, Rong; Li, Ping; Li, Bo

    2016-03-01

    Acupuncture can be used to treat various nervous system diseases. Here, 168 vascular dementia patients were orally administered donepezil hydrochloride alone (5 mg/day, once a day for 56 days), or combined with acupuncture at Shenting (DU24), Tianzhu (BL10), Sishencong (Extra), Yintang (Extra), Renzhong (DU26), Neiguan (PC6), Shenmen (HT7), Fengchi (GB20), Wangu (GB12) and Baihui (DU20) (once a day for 56 days). Compared with donepezil hydrochloride alone, P300 event related potential latency was shorter with an increased amplitude in patients treated with donepezil hydrochloride and acupuncture. Mini-Mental State Examination score was also higher. Moreover, these differences in P300 latency were identified within different infarcted regions in patients treated with donepezil hydrochloride and acupuncture. These findings indicate that acupuncture combined with donepezil hydrochloride noticeably improves cognitive function in patients with vascular dementia, and exerts neuroprotective effects against vascular dementia.

  13. Memory and event-related potentials for rapidly presented emotional pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versace, Francesco; Bradley, Margaret M; Lang, Peter J

    2010-08-01

    Dense array event-related potentials (ERPs) and memory performance were assessed following rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) of emotional and neutral pictures. Despite the extremely brief presentation, emotionally arousing pictures prompted an enhanced negative voltage over occipital sensors, compared to neutral pictures, replicating previous encoding effects. Emotionally arousing pictures were also remembered better in a subsequent recognition test, with higher hit rates and better discrimination performance. ERPs measured during the recognition test showed both an early (250-350 ms) frontally distributed difference between hits and correct rejections, and a later (400-500 ms), more centrally distributed difference, consistent with effects of recognition on ERPs typically found using slower presentation rates. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that features of affective pictures pop out during rapid serial visual presentation, prompting better memory performance.

  14. Event related potentials reveal differences between morphological (prefixes) and phonological (syllables) processing of words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Alberto; Alija, Maira; Cuetos, Fernando; de Vega, Mauel

    2006-11-06

    Behavioral measures in visual priming tasks show opposite effects for syllables and morphemes, which indicate that they are processed by two independent systems. We used event related potentials (ERPs) to explore two priming situations in Spanish: prefix related words (reacción-REFORMA [reaction-reform]), in which prime and target words shared a first syllable that was also a prefix, and syllable related words (regalo-REFORMA [gift-reform.]), in which the shared first syllable was a pseudoprefix in the prime word. Prefix related pairs, unlike syllable related pairs, evoked a very early positivity in reaction to the target (at 150-250ms window), suggesting that the prefix information is immediately available, at a prelexical stage. By contrast, syllable related pairs showed a larger N400 effect. This late negativity may be caused by lateral inhibition among lexical candidates activated in the lexicon by the prime's first syllable.

  15. Music training enhances the rapid plasticity of P3a/P3b event-related brain potentials for unattended and attended target sounds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seppänen, Miia; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2012-01-01

    Neurocognitive studies have shown that extensive musical training enhances P3a and P3b event-related potentials for infrequent target sounds, which reflects stronger attention switching and stimulus...

  16. Comparison of single-word and adjective-noun phrase production using event-related brain potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Violaine Michel; Perret, Cyril; Laganaro, Marina

    2015-01-01

    The present study builds upon findings from event-related potential (ERP) studies of single word production in order to shed light onto the mechanisms underlying the production of dual-word adjective-noun phrases (NPs). In a first experiment, we tested for potential differences elicited by visual...... whereas the corresponding pattern for 1W production lasted from 300 to 450 msec. Since this time window has been previously associated with phonological encoding in single word production, this result suggests that the cost of planning the second word in dual-word production may be incurred during...

  17. Neurocognitive impairment of mental rotation in major depressive disorder: evidence from event-related brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiu; Ma, Wentao; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Lai-Qi; Zhang, Zhijun; Wu, Xingqu; Deng, Zihe

    2014-08-01

    Mental rotation performance may be used as an index of mental slowing or bradyphrenia and may reflect speed of motor preparation. Previous studies suggest that major depressive disorder (MDD) presents correlates of impaired behavioral performance for mental rotation and psychomotor disturbance. Very little is known about the electrophysiological mechanism underlying this deficit. The present study was the first to investigate the event-related brain potential (ERP) correlates of mental rotation and their mental slowing or bradyphrenia in MDD. ERPs were recorded while we tested 25 MDD patients and 26 healthy controls by evaluating the performance of MDD patients on hand and letter rotation tasks at different orientations, and their 400-to-600-msec time window was measured and analyzed for latencies and peak amplitudes over the electrodes. First, individuals with MDD were slower and made more errors in mentally rotating hands and letters than healthy controls did, and individuals with MDD exhibited a greater difference in response times and errors than controls did between hands and letters. Second, the mean peak amplitude was significantly lower and the mean latency was significantly longer in the 400-to-600-msec time window at the parietal site in the hand tasks in MDD patients than in controls, but this was not seen in the letter task, with only lower mean peak amplitude. MDD patients present the absence of a typical mental rotation function for the amplitude of the rotation-related negativity in the hand and letter tasks. Third, the scalp activity maps in MDD patients exhibited the absence of activation in the left parietal site for the mental rotation of hands, as shown in healthy participants. In contrast, their brain activation for the letter task was similar to those of healthy participants. These data suggest that mental imagery of hands and letters relies on different cognitive and neural mechanisms and indicate that the left posterior parietal lobe is a

  18. Synthetic event-related potentials: a computational bridge between neurolinguistic models and experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrès, Victor; Simons, Arthur; Arbib, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Our previous work developed Synthetic Brain Imaging to link neural and schema network models of cognition and behavior to PET and fMRI studies of brain function. We here extend this approach to Synthetic Event-Related Potentials (Synthetic ERP). Although the method is of general applicability, we focus on ERP correlates of language processing in the human brain. The method has two components: Phase 1: To generate cortical electro-magnetic source activity from neural or schema network models; and Phase 2: To generate known neurolinguistic ERP data (ERP scalp voltage topographies and waveforms) from putative cortical source distributions and activities within a realistic anatomical model of the human brain and head. To illustrate the challenges of Phase 2 of the methodology, spatiotemporal information from Friederici's 2002 model of auditory language comprehension was used to define cortical regions and time courses of activation for implementation within a forward model of ERP data. The cortical regions from the 2002 model were modeled using atlas-based masks overlaid on the MNI high definition single subject cortical mesh. The electromagnetic contribution of each region was modeled using current dipoles whose position and orientation were constrained by the cortical geometry. In linking neural network computation via EEG forward modeling to empirical results in neurolinguistics, we emphasize the need for neural network models to link their architecture to geometrically sound models of the cortical surface, and the need for conceptual models to refine and adopt brain-atlas based approaches to allow precise brain anchoring of their modules. The detailed analysis of Phase 2 sets the stage for a brief introduction to Phase 1 of the program, including the case for a schema-theoretic approach to language production and perception presented in detail elsewhere. Unlike Dynamic Causal Modeling (DCM) and Bojak's mean field model, Synthetic ERP builds on models of networks

  19. Spatial-Temporal Feature Analysis on Single-Trial Event Related Potential for Rapid Face Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lei; Wang, Yun; Cai, Bangyu; Wang, Yueming; Wang, Yiwen

    2017-01-01

    The event-related potential (ERP) is the brain response measured in electroencephalography (EEG), which reflects the process of human cognitive activity. ERP has been introduced into brain computer interfaces (BCIs) to communicate the computer with the subject's intention. Due to the low signal-to-noise ratio of EEG, most ERP studies are based on grand-averaging over many trials. Recently single-trial ERP detection attracts more attention, which enables real time processing tasks as rapid face identification. All the targets needed to be retrieved may appear only once, and there is no knowledge of target label for averaging. More interestingly, how the features contribute temporally and spatially to single-trial ERP detection has not been fully investigated. In this paper, we propose to implement a local-learning-based (LLB) feature extraction method to investigate the importance of spatial-temporal components of ERP in a task of rapid face identification using single-trial detection. Comparing to previous methods, LLB method preserves the nonlinear structure of EEG signal distribution, and analyze the importance of original spatial-temporal components via optimization in feature space. As a data-driven methods, the weighting of the spatial-temporal component does not depend on the ERP detection method. The importance weights are optimized by making the targets more different from non-targets in feature space, and regularization penalty is introduced in optimization for sparse weights. This spatial-temporal feature extraction method is evaluated on the EEG data of 15 participants in performing a face identification task using rapid serial visual presentation paradigm. Comparing with other methods, the proposed spatial-temporal analysis method uses sparser (only 10% of the total) features, and could achieve comparable performance (98%) of single-trial ERP detection as the whole features across different detection methods. The interesting finding is that the N250 is

  20. The development of prospective memory (PM across adolescence: An Event-related potential analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candice eBowman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Prospective memory (PM is an important cognitive function vital for day-to-day functioning. Although there has been extensive research into the decline of PM in older adulthood, little is known about its developmental trajectory throughout adolescence, a time of important brain maturation. In the present study, the development of PM was examined in 85 participants across the following groups: 12 to 13-year-olds (n = 19, 14 to 15-year-olds (n = 21, 16 to 17-year-olds (n = 19, and 18 to 19-year-olds (n = 26. A 30-cue (30 minute event-based PM task (with font-colour stimuli as PM cues and a lexical-decision task as the ongoing task was used while recording Event-Related Potentials (ERPs. The well-established neural correlates of PM, the N300 and parietal positivity, were examined across the age groups. In addition, hierarchical multiple regressions were used to examine the unique contribution of executive functioning measures (viz., the Self-Ordered Pointing Task [SOPT], the Stroop task, and Trail Making Test [TMT] on the ERP components of PM (after controlling for age. First, the established components of ERPs associated with prospective remembering (i.e., N300 and parietal positivity were detected for each age group. Second, although there were no significant age- group differences on the amplitude of the N300, the amplitude of the parietal positivity was found to be different between the 12 to 13-year-olds and 18 to 19-year-olds (viz., the 12 to 13-year-olds had the highest amplitude. Third, for the contribution of executive functioning measures on the amplitude of the ERP components of PM, the regression on the N300 was not significant, however, the SOPT beta weights were significant predictors of the amplitude of the parietal positivity. This relationship was found to be specific for the central and right electrode region. These findings are discussed within the context of brain development and executive functioning along with particular task

  1. A step into the anarchist’s mind: examining political attitudes and ideology through event-related brain potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hiel, Alain; Pattyn, Sven; Onraet, Emma; Severens, Els

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigates patterns of event-related brain potentials following the presentation of attitudinal stimuli among political moderates (N = 12) and anarchists (N = 11). We used a modified oddball paradigm to investigate the evaluative inconsistency effect elicited by stimuli embedded in a sequence of contextual stimuli with an opposite valence. Increased late positive potentials (LPPs) of extreme political attitudes were observed. Moreover, this LPP enhancement was larger among anarchists than among moderates, indicating that an extreme political attitude of a moderate differs from an extreme political attitude of an anarchist. The discussion elaborates on the meaning of attitude extremity for moderates and extremists. PMID:21421734

  2. ERPWAVELAB A toolbox for multi-channel analysis of time-frequency transformed event related potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Morten; Hansen, Lars Kai; Arnfred, Sidse M.

    2006-01-01

    The toolbox 'ERPWAVELAB' is developed for multi-channel time-frequency analysis of event related activity of EEG and MEG data. The toolbox provides tools for data analysis and visualization of the most commonly used measures of time-frequency transformed event related data as well as data...

  3. [Event-related EEG potentials associated with error detection in psychiatric disorder: literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, Lívia; Czobor, Pál

    2010-01-01

    Error-related bioelectric signals constitute a special subgroup of event-related potentials. Researchers have identified two evoked potential components to be closely related to error processing, namely error-related negativity (ERN) and error-positivity (Pe), and they linked these to specific cognitive functions. In our article first we give a brief description of these components, then based on the available literature, we review differences in error-related evoked potentials observed in patients across psychiatric disorders. The PubMed and Medline search engines were used in order to identify all relevant articles, published between 2000 and 2009. For the purpose of the current paper we reviewed publications summarizing results of clinical trials. Patients suffering from schizophrenia, anorexia nervosa or borderline personality disorder exhibited a decrease in the amplitude of error-negativity when compared with healthy controls, while in cases of depression and anxiety an increase in the amplitude has been observed. Some of the articles suggest specific personality variables, such as impulsivity, perfectionism, negative emotions or sensitivity to punishment to underlie these electrophysiological differences. Research in the field of error-related electric activity has come to the focus of psychiatry research only recently, thus the amount of available data is significantly limited. However, since this is a relatively new field of research, the results available at present are noteworthy and promising for future electrophysiological investigations in psychiatric disorders.

  4. Brain-behavior relations in infancy: integrative approaches to examining infant looking behavior and event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Greg D; Guy, Maggie W

    2012-01-01

    This article describes three approaches to conducting integrated research on brain-behavior relations in infancy. These approaches include: conducting an integrative study that tests the same cognitive construct using behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) measures in separate experiments, measuring behavior and ERPs in different phases of the same experiment, and measuring behavior and ERPs simultaneously. We review studies that have utilized these approaches with a specific focus on research on infant visual attention and recognition memory, and discuss the application of cortical source localization with infant ERP data. Advantages and disadvantages of each approach are discussed and suggestions are made for future research.

  5. Visual Event-Related Potentials to Novel Objects Predict Rapid Word Learning Ability in 20-Month-Olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgström, Kristina; Torkildsen, Janne von Koss; Lindgren, Magnus

    In an event-related potentials (ERP) study, twenty-month-old children (n = 37) were presented with pseudowords to map to novel object referents in five presentations. Quicker attenuation of the visual Negative central component (Nc) to novel objects predicted a larger difference in N400 amplitude between congruous and incongruous presentations of pseudowords at test. Furthermore, better initial recognition of familiar objects (Nc difference between familiar and novel objects) predicted the strength of the N400 incongruity effect to the verbal labels of these real objects. This study presents novel evidence for a link between efficient visual processing of objects and word learning ability.

  6. Potential cognitive decline linked to angiotensin-converting enzyme gene but not hypertension: Evidence from cognitive event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Li-Min; Yang, Yuan-Han; Lu, Shiang-Ru; Hsu, Chung-Yao; Liu, Ching-Kuan; Lai, Chiou-Lian

    2015-12-01

    The aims of the present study were to investigate the effect of hypertension and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) genotypes on cognitive event-related potentials (ERPs), and whether the impact of ACE genotypes on P300 is related to the influence of hypertension. Using the Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI), we recruited 97 mentally healthy middle-aged and older adults. Medical histories were collected, and blood pressure, ACE insertion/deletion polymorphisms and ERPs in an auditory oddball task were measured for all participants. When the participants were stratified according to the presence or absence of hypertension, there were no differences in CASI score, percentage of ACE genotypes and ERPs. The subjects with the D/D homozygote displayed lower amplitude and longer latency of P300, although there were no differences in CASI score and the percentage of hypertension. The subjects with the D/D genotype tended to have decreased amplitude and prolonged latency of P300 ERPs which reflected subtle cognitive impairment. There were no associations between hypertension, CASI score and P300 measurements. Using ERPs, potential cognitive decline was linked to ACE genotypes, independently of the effect of hypertension. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Aesthetic appreciation of poetry correlates with ease of processing in event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermeier, Christian; Kotz, Sonja A; Jessen, Sarah; Raettig, Tim; von Koppenfels, Martin; Menninghaus, Winfried

    2016-04-01

    Rhetorical theory suggests that rhythmic and metrical features of language substantially contribute to persuading, moving, and pleasing an audience. A potential explanation of these effects is offered by "cognitive fluency theory," which stipulates that recurring patterns (e.g., meter) enhance perceptual fluency and can lead to greater aesthetic appreciation. In this article, we explore these two assertions by investigating the effects of meter and rhyme in the reception of poetry by means of event-related brain potentials (ERPs). Participants listened to four versions of lyrical stanzas that varied in terms of meter and rhyme, and rated the stanzas for rhythmicity and aesthetic liking. The behavioral and ERP results were in accord with enhanced liking and rhythmicity ratings for metered and rhyming stanzas. The metered and rhyming stanzas elicited smaller N400/P600 ERP responses than their nonmetered, nonrhyming, or nonmetered and nonrhyming counterparts. In addition, the N400 and P600 effects for the lyrical stanzas correlated with aesthetic liking effects (metered-nonmetered), implying that modulation of the N400 and P600 has a direct bearing on the aesthetic appreciation of lyrical stanzas. We suggest that these effects are indicative of perceptual-fluency-enhanced aesthetic liking, as postulated by cognitive fluency theory.

  8. Clinical Experiments of Communication by ALS Patient Utilizing Detecting Event-Related Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanou, Naoyuki; Sakuma, Kenji; Nakashima, Kenji

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis(ALS) patients are unable to successfully communicate their desires, although their mentality is normal, and so, the necessity of Communication Aids(CA) for ALS patients is realized. Therefore, the authors are focused on Event-Related Potential(ERP) which is elicited primarily for the target by visual and auditory stimuli. P200, N200 and P300 are components of ERP. These are potentials that are elicited when the subject focuses attention on stimuli that appears infrequently. ALS patient participated in two experiments. In the first experiment, a target word out of five words on a computer display was specified. The five words were linked to an each electric appliance, allowing the ALS patient to switch on a target appliance by ERP. In the second experiment, a target word in a 5×5 matrix was specified by measure of ERP. The rows and columns of the matrix were reversed randomly. The word on a crossing point of rows and columns including the target word, was specified as the target word. The rate of correct judgment in the first and second experiments were 100% in N200 and 96% in P200. For practical use of this system, it is very important to determine suitable communication algorithms for each patient by performing these experiments evaluating the results.

  9. Independent component analysis applied to the P600 component of event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventouras, E; Moatsos, M; Papageorgiou, C; Rabavilas, A; Uzunoglu, N

    2004-01-01

    The analysis of the P600 component of Event-related Potentials (ERPs) has attracted attention due to its relation to covert cognitive mechanisms, in connection to memory processes. The component may often be low-amplitude, compared to other components such as the P300. Independent component analysis (ICA) techniques have been successfully applied in ERP processing, in the framework of blind source separation (BSS) for unmixing recorded potentials into a sum of temporally independent and spatially fixed components. In the present work ICA was used for reconstructing averaged ERPs in the time window of the P600 component, selecting a subset of independent components' projections to the original electrode recording positions. The selection is based on two empirical criteria, selecting the projection that reconstructs a P600 nearest temporally to the original P600, or selecting the projection combination - up to a preselected maximum number of combined projections providing maximum reconstructed P600 amplitude. The techniques are tested on ERPs recorded from healthy subjects and psychiatric patients, notably improving the differentiation of the two groups, based on either the amplitude or the latency of the reconstructed P600 component, in comparison to results achieved using the original ERPs.

  10. Single-trial event-related potential extraction through one-unit ICA-with-reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lih Lee, Wee; Tan, Tele; Falkmer, Torbjörn; Leung, Yee Hong

    2016-12-01

    Objective. In recent years, ICA has been one of the more popular methods for extracting event-related potential (ERP) at the single-trial level. It is a blind source separation technique that allows the extraction of an ERP without making strong assumptions on the temporal and spatial characteristics of an ERP. However, the problem with traditional ICA is that the extraction is not direct and is time-consuming due to the need for source selection processing. In this paper, the application of an one-unit ICA-with-Reference (ICA-R), a constrained ICA method, is proposed. Approach. In cases where the time-region of the desired ERP is known a priori, this time information is utilized to generate a reference signal, which is then used for guiding the one-unit ICA-R to extract the source signal of the desired ERP directly. Main results. Our results showed that, as compared to traditional ICA, ICA-R is a more effective method for analysing ERP because it avoids manual source selection and it requires less computation thus resulting in faster ERP extraction. Significance. In addition to that, since the method is automated, it reduces the risks of any subjective bias in the ERP analysis. It is also a potential tool for extracting the ERP in online application.

  11. Cognitive processing in non-communicative patients: what can event-related potentials tell us?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulay Rosario Lugo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Event-related potentials (ERP have been proposed to improve the differential diagnosis of non-responsive patients. We investigated the potential of the P300 as a reliable marker of conscious processing in patients with locked-in syndrome (LIS. Eleven chronic LIS patients and ten healthy subjects (HS listened to a complex-tone auditory oddball paradigm, first in a passive condition (listen to the sounds and then in an active condition (counting the deviant tones. Seven out of nine HS displayed a P300 waveform in the passive condition and all in the active condition. HS showed statistically significant changes in peak and area amplitude between conditions. Three out of seven LIS patients showed the P3 waveform in the passive condition and 5 of 7 in the active condition. No changes in peak amplitude and only a significant difference at one electrode in area amplitude were observed in this group between conditions. We conclude that, in spite of keeping full consciousness and intact or nearly intact cortical functions, compared to HS, LIS patients present less reliable results when testing with ERP, specifically in the passive condition. We thus strongly recommend applying ERP paradigms in an active condition when evaluating consciousness in non-responsive patients.

  12. The pain-evoked P2 is not a P3a event-related potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowman, Robert

    2004-01-01

    The topographic pattern and latency of the P2 component of the somatosensory evoked potential elicited by painful electrical stimulation of the sural nerve was compared to the P3a event-related potential evoked by an infrequent task-irrelevant (deviant) innocuous sural nerve stimulus presented as part of the deviant-odd ball paradigm. Conditions typically used to record the sural nerve pain-evoked P2 (multiple stimulus levels, short fixed inter-stimulus intervals, and the subjects engaged in a pain rating task) did not elicit a P3a. The P3a was elicited when the painful stimuli were presented at a long and variable inter-stimulus interval. When present, the P3a occurred immediately following P2. These findings demonstrate that P2 is not a pain-evoked P3a. Rather, the response properties and latency of P2 present the possibility that it indexes a stimulus evaluation process where the sensory input is compared to an environmental template maintained by working memory.

  13. Event-related potential measures of a violation of an expected increase and decrease in intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Margaret; Campbell, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Unexpected physical increases in the intensity of a frequently occurring "standard" auditory stimulus are experienced as obtrusive. This could either be because of a physical change, the increase in intensity of the "deviant" stimulus, or a psychological change, the violation of the expectancy for the occurrence of the lower intensity standard stimulus. Two experiments were run in which event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded to determine whether "psychological" increments (violation of an expectancy for a lower intensity) would be processed differently than psychological decrements (violation of an expectancy for a higher intensity). Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while subjects were presented with auditory tones that alternated between low and high intensity. The subjects ignored the auditory stimuli while watching a video. Deviants were created by repeating the same stimulus. In the first experiment, pairs of stimuli alternating in intensity, were presented in separate increment (H-L...H-L...H-H...H-L, in which H = 80 dB SPL and L = 60 dB SPL) and decrement conditions (L-H...L-H...L-L... L-H, in which H = 90 dB SPL and L = 80 dB SPL). The paradigm employed in the second experiment consisted of an alternating intensity pattern (H-L-H-L-H-H-H-L) or (H-L-H-L-L-L-H-L). Importantly, the stimulus prior to the deviant (the standard) and the actual deviants in both increment and decrement conditions in both experiments were physically identical (80 dB SPL tones). The repetition of the lower intensity tone therefore acted as a psychological rather than a physical decrement (a higher intensity tone was expected) while the repetition of the higher intensity tone acted as a psychological increment (a lower intensity tone was expected). The psychological increments in both experiments elicited a larger amplitude mismatch negativity (MMN) than the decrements. Thus, regardless of whether an acoustic change signals a physical increase in intensity or

  14. Regularization and a general linear model for event-related potential estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Emmanuelle; Guerin-Dugué, Anne; Rivet, Bertrand

    2017-12-01

    The usual event-related potential (ERP) estimation is the average across epochs time-locked on stimuli of interest. These stimuli are repeated several times to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and only one evoked potential is estimated inside the temporal window of interest. Consequently, the average estimation does not take into account other neural responses within the same epoch that are due to short inter stimuli intervals. These adjacent neural responses may overlap and distort the evoked potential of interest. This overlapping process is a significant issue for the eye fixation-related potential (EFRP) technique in which the epochs are time-locked on the ocular fixations. The inter fixation intervals are not experimentally controlled and can be shorter than the neural response's latency. To begin, the Tikhonov regularization, applied to the classical average estimation, was introduced to improve the SNR for a given number of trials. The generalized cross validation was chosen to obtain the optimal value of the ridge parameter. Then, to deal with the issue of overlapping, the general linear model (GLM), was used to extract all neural responses inside an epoch. Finally, the regularization was also applied to it. The models (the classical average and the GLM with and without regularization) were compared on both simulated data and real datasets from a visual scene exploration in co-registration with an eye-tracker, and from a P300 Speller experiment. The regularization was found to improve the estimation by average for a given number of trials. The GLM was more robust and efficient, its efficiency actually reinforced by the regularization.

  15. Event-related potentials associated with masked priming of test cues reveal multiple potential contributions to recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woollams, Anna M; Taylor, Jason R; Karayanidis, Frini; Henson, Richard N

    2008-06-01

    The relationship between recognition memory and repetition priming remains unclear. Priming is believed to reflect increased processing fluency for previously studied items relative to new items. Manipulations that affect fluency can also affect the likelihood that participants will judge items as studied in recognition tasks. This attribution of fluency to memory has been related to the familiarity process, as distinct from the recollection process, that is assumed by dual-process models of recognition memory. To investigate the time courses and neural sources of fluency, familiarity, and recollection, we conducted an event-related potential (ERP) study of recognition memory using masked priming of test cues and a remember/know paradigm. During the recognition test, studied and unstudied words were preceded by a brief, masked word that was either the same or different. Participants decided quickly whether each item had been studied ("old" or "new"), and for items called old, indicated whether they "remembered" (R) the encoding event, or simply "knew" (K) the item had been studied. Masked priming increased the proportion of K, but not R, judgments. Priming also decreased response times for hits but not correct rejections (CRs). Four distinct ERP effects were found. A medial-frontal FN400 (300-500 msec) was associated with familiarity (R, K Hits > CRs) and a centro-parietal late positivity (500-800 msec) with recollection (R Hits > K Hits, CRs). A long-term repetition effect was found for studied items judged "new" (Misses > CRs) in the same time window as the FN400, but with a posterior distribution. Finally, a centrally distributed masked priming effect was visible between 150 and 250 msec and continued into the 300-500 msec time window, where it was topographically dissociable from the FN400. These results suggest that multiple neural signals are associated with repetition and potentially contribute to recognition memory.

  16. Auditory P300 event-related potentials and neurocognitive functions in opioid dependent men and their brothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shubh Mohan; Basu, Debasish; Kohli, Adarsh; Prabhakar, Sudesh

    2009-01-01

    Event-related-potentials (especially P300) and cognitive functioning as potential endophenotypes have not been studied in opioid dependence. We compared auditory P300 and cognitive functions in opioid-dependent men, their brothers and normal controls in an exploratory study with a view to find shared genetic factors in the development of opioid dependence. Twenty abstinent opioid-dependent males, their brothers and twenty matched controls were administered Wisconsin card sorting test (WCST), digit span test, trail making test-B, and auditory event-related potentials (P300) from an oddball task were recorded. The opioid dependent group performed the worst, the brothers group was intermediate, and the control group performed the best on tests of WCST, digit span and trail making test-B. The opioid dependent group had the smallest amplitudes and longest latencies of P300, and was followed by the brothers group who had an intermediate position and the control group who had the largest amplitudes and the shortest latencies. P300 and executive neurocognitive functions can be considered endophenotypes for the genetic study of vulnerability to opioid dependence. These are reflective of executive dysfunction and disrupted behavioral inhibition and the intermediate position of brothers suggests a common genetic substrate as a component of the etiology.

  17. A periodic spatio-spectral filter for event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaderi, Foad; Kim, Su Kyoung; Kirchner, Elsa Andrea

    2016-12-01

    With respect to single trial detection of event-related potentials (ERPs), spatial and spectral filters are two of the most commonly used pre-processing techniques for signal enhancement. Spatial filters reduce the dimensionality of the data while suppressing the noise contribution and spectral filters attenuate frequency components that most likely belong to noise subspace. However, the frequency spectrum of ERPs overlap with that of the ongoing electroencephalogram (EEG) and different types of artifacts. Therefore, proper selection of the spectral filter cutoffs is not a trivial task. In this research work, we developed a supervised method to estimate the spatial and finite impulse response (FIR) spectral filters, simultaneously. We evaluated the performance of the method on offline single trial classification of ERPs in datasets recorded during an oddball paradigm. The proposed spatio-spectral filter improved the overall single-trial classification performance by almost 9% on average compared with the case that no spatial filters were used. We also analyzed the effects of different spectral filter lengths and the number of retained channels after spatial filtering. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Subject Combination and Electrode Selection in Cooperative Brain-Computer Interface Based on Event Related Potentials

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    Hubert Cecotti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available New paradigms are required in Brain-Computer Interface (BCI systems for the needs and expectations of healthy people. To solve this issue, we explore the emerging field of cooperative BCIs, which involves several users in a single BCI system. Contrary to classical BCIs that are dependent on the unique subject’s will, cooperative BCIs are used for problem solving tasks where several people shall be engaged by sharing a common goal. Similarly as combining trials over time improves performance, combining trials across subjects can significantly improve performance compared with when only a single user is involved. Yet, cooperative BCIs may only be used in particular settings, and new paradigms must be proposed to efficiently use this approach. The possible benefits of using several subjects are addressed, and compared with current single-subject BCI paradigms. To show the advantages of a cooperative BCI, we evaluate the performance of combining decisions across subjects with data from an event-related potentials (ERP based experiment where each subject observed the same sequence of visual stimuli. Furthermore, we show that it is possible to achieve a mean AUC superior to 0.95 with 10 subjects and 3 electrodes on each subject, or with 4 subjects and 6 electrodes on each subject. Several emerging challenges and possible applications are proposed to highlight how cooperative BCIs could be efficiently used with current technologies and leverage BCI applications.

  19. Time-Frequency Data Reduction for Event Related Potentials: Combining Principal Component Analysis and Matching Pursuit

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    Selin Aviyente

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Joint time-frequency representations offer a rich representation of event related potentials (ERPs that cannot be obtained through individual time or frequency domain analysis. This representation, however, comes at the expense of increased data volume and the difficulty of interpreting the resulting representations. Therefore, methods that can reduce the large amount of time-frequency data to experimentally relevant components are essential. In this paper, we present a method that reduces the large volume of ERP time-frequency data into a few significant time-frequency parameters. The proposed method is based on applying the widely used matching pursuit (MP approach, with a Gabor dictionary, to principal components extracted from the time-frequency domain. The proposed PCA-Gabor decomposition is compared with other time-frequency data reduction methods such as the time-frequency PCA approach alone and standard matching pursuit methods using a Gabor dictionary for both simulated and biological data. The results show that the proposed PCA-Gabor approach performs better than either the PCA alone or the standard MP data reduction methods, by using the smallest amount of ERP data variance to produce the strongest statistical separation between experimental conditions.

  20. Gender and number processing in Chinese learners of Spanish - evidence from Event Related Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowens, Margaret Gillon; Guo, Taomei; Guo, Jingjing; Barber, Horacio; Carreiras, Manuel

    2011-06-01

    Traditionally, age of acquisition (AoA) has been considered the single most important factor in second language (L2) acquisition and processing, particularly in the area of syntax processing. However, there is now growing evidence of the importance of other factors, such as the level of proficiency attained and the degree of overlap or similarity between the first language (L1) and L2 structures and possibility of transfer of features and/or processing routines. However, the relative importance of these factors and the nature of L1-L2 transfer are still unclear. To shed light on these issues, we recorded the electrical brain activity of a group of Chinese proficient late learners of Spanish, using the Event Related Potentials technique, while they read Spanish sentences containing violations of number and grammatical gender agreement (adjective-noun agreement and article-noun agreement). Unlike Spanish, Mandarin Chinese is an isolating language in which morphosyntactic features such as gender and number are not computed and so the ERP results from this group can help to clarify the role of L1-L2 transfer in morpho-syntax processing routines. The results included P600 effects for both gender and number agreement violations, with no differences between these disagreement conditions. These results are taken to support second language acquisition models which stress the roles of proficiency and L1-L2 transfer in L2 syntax processing. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. How culture gets embrained: Cultural differences in event-related potentials of social norm violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Yan; Kitayama, Shinobu; Han, Shihui; Gelfand, Michele J

    2015-12-15

    Humans are unique among all species in their ability to develop and enforce social norms, but there is wide variation in the strength of social norms across human societies. Despite this fundamental aspect of human nature, there has been surprisingly little research on how social norm violations are detected at the neurobiological level. Building on the emerging field of cultural neuroscience, we combine noninvasive electroencephalography (EEG) with a new social norm violation paradigm to examine the neural mechanisms underlying the detection of norm violations and how they vary across cultures. EEG recordings from Chinese and US participants (n = 50) showed consistent negative deflection of event-related potential around 400 ms (N400) over the central and parietal regions that served as a culture-general neural marker of detecting norm violations. The N400 at the frontal and temporal regions, however, was only observed among Chinese but not US participants, illustrating culture-specific neural substrates of the detection of norm violations. Further, the frontal N400 predicted a variety of behavioral and attitudinal measurements related to the strength of social norms that have been found at the national and state levels, including higher culture superiority and self-control but lower creativity. There were no cultural differences in the N400 induced by semantic violation, suggesting a unique cultural influence on social norm violation detection. In all, these findings provided the first evidence, to our knowledge, for the neurobiological foundations of social norm violation detection and its variation across cultures.

  2. Inverse effectiveness and multisensory interactions in visual event-related potentials with audiovisual speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Ryan A; Bushmakin, Maxim; Kim, Sunah; Wallace, Mark T; Puce, Aina; James, Thomas W

    2012-07-01

    In recent years, it has become evident that neural responses previously considered to be unisensory can be modulated by sensory input from other modalities. In this regard, visual neural activity elicited to viewing a face is strongly influenced by concurrent incoming auditory information, particularly speech. Here, we applied an additive-factors paradigm aimed at quantifying the impact that auditory speech has on visual event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited to visual speech. These multisensory interactions were measured across parametrically varied stimulus salience, quantified in terms of signal to noise, to provide novel insights into the neural mechanisms of audiovisual speech perception. First, we measured a monotonic increase of the amplitude of the visual P1-N1-P2 ERP complex during a spoken-word recognition task with increases in stimulus salience. ERP component amplitudes varied directly with stimulus salience for visual, audiovisual, and summed unisensory recordings. Second, we measured changes in multisensory gain across salience levels. During audiovisual speech, the P1 and P1-N1 components exhibited less multisensory gain relative to the summed unisensory components with reduced salience, while N1-P2 amplitude exhibited greater multisensory gain as salience was reduced, consistent with the principle of inverse effectiveness. The amplitude interactions were correlated with behavioral measures of multisensory gain across salience levels as measured by response times, suggesting that change in multisensory gain associated with unisensory salience modulations reflects an increased efficiency of visual speech processing.

  3. Encoding focus alters diagnostic recollection and event-related potentials (ERPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leynes, P Andrew; Mok, Brittany A

    2017-10-01

    The influence of encoding focus on source memory was investigated using event-related potentials (ERPs). Encoding was focused on the self (self-focus) or on the speaker (other-focus) while hearing words spoken in a male or female voice. Examination of the behavioral and ERP evidence suggests that encoding focus alters the amount of diagnostic recollection. Self-focus encoding produced more positive encoding ERPs, led to greater old/new recognition, and elicited a greater Late Positive Component (LPC; the putative neural correlate of recollection) during the source test. Other-focus encoding led to greater source memory and a smaller LPC amplitude. Collectively, the results suggest that encoding focus alters the information bound in the memory trace that leads to varying levels of source-diagnostic features. Drawing attention to the speaker facilitates binding of source-diagnostic features (i.e., voice), whereas self-focus encoding facilitates binding a host of non-diagnostic features. The results have important implications for situations that depend on encoding processes, such as false memory or classroom learning, and they provide evidence that the LPC tracks recollected details but not necessarily diagnostic recollection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Event-related potentials reveal the relations between feature representations at different levels of abstraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, Samuel D; Shedden, Judith M; Brooks, Lee R; Grundy, John G

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we use behavioural methods and event-related potentials (ERPs) to explore the relations between informational and instantiated features, as well as the relation between feature abstraction and rule type. Participants are trained to categorize two species of fictitious animals and then identify perceptually novel exemplars. Critically, two groups are given a perfectly predictive counting rule that, according to Hannah and Brooks (2009. Featuring familiarity: How a familiar feature instantiation influences categorization. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology/Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale, 63, 263-275. Retrieved from http://doi.org/10.1037/a0017919), should orient them to using abstract informational features when categorizing the novel transfer items. A third group is taught a feature list rule, which should orient them to using detailed instantiated features. One counting-rule group were taught their rule before any exposure to the actual stimuli, and the other immediately after training, having learned the instantiations first. The feature-list group were also taught their rule after training. The ERP results suggest that at test, the two counting-rule groups processed items differently, despite their identical rule. This not only supports the distinction that informational and instantiated features are qualitatively different feature representations, but also implies that rules can readily operate over concrete inputs, in contradiction to traditional approaches that assume that rules necessarily act on abstract inputs.

  5. A hierarchy of event-related potential markers of auditory processing in disorders of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Beukema

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional neuroimaging of covert perceptual and cognitive processes can inform the diagnoses and prognoses of patients with disorders of consciousness, such as the vegetative and minimally conscious states (VS;MCS. Here we report an event-related potential (ERP paradigm for detecting a hierarchy of auditory processes in a group of healthy individuals and patients with disorders of consciousness. Simple cortical responses to sounds were observed in all 16 patients; 7/16 (44% patients exhibited markers of the differential processing of speech and noise; and 1 patient produced evidence of the semantic processing of speech (i.e. the N400 effect. In several patients, the level of auditory processing that was evident from ERPs was higher than the abilities that were evident from behavioural assessment, indicating a greater sensitivity of ERPs in some cases. However, there were no differences in auditory processing between VS and MCS patient groups, indicating a lack of diagnostic specificity for this paradigm. Reliably detecting semantic processing by means of the N400 effect in passively listening single-subjects is a challenge. Multiple assessment methods are needed in order to fully characterise the abilities of patients with disorders of consciousness.

  6. Event-related potential evidence of accessing gender stereotypes to aid source monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leynes, P Andrew; Crawford, Jarret T; Radebaugh, Anne M; Taranto, Elizabeth

    2013-01-23

    Source memory for the speaker's voice (male or female) was investigated when semantic knowledge (gender stereotypes) could and could not inform the episodic source judgment while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. Source accuracy was greater and response times were faster when stereotypes could predict the speaker's voice at test. Recollection supported source judgments in both conditions as indicated by significant parietal "old/new" ERP effects (500-800ms). Prototypical late ERP effects (the right frontal "old/new" effect and the late posterior negativity, LPN) were evident when source judgment was based solely on episodic memory. However, these two late ERP effects were diminished and a novel, frontal-negative ERP with left-central topography was observed when stereotypes aided source judgments. This pattern of ERP activity likely reflects activation of left frontal or left temporal lobes when semantic knowledge, in the form of a gender stereotype, is accessed to inform the episodic source judgment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Optimal digital filters for long-latency components of the event-related brain potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farwell, L A; Martinerie, J M; Bashore, T R; Rapp, P E; Goddard, P H

    1993-05-01

    A fundamentally important problem for cognitive psychophysiologists is selection of the appropriate off-line digital filter to extract signal from noise in the event-related brain potential (ERP) recorded at the scalp. Investigators in the field typically use a type of finite impulse response (FIR) filter known as moving average or boxcar filter to achieve this end. However, this type of filter can produce significant amplitude diminution and distortion of the shape of the ERP waveform. Thus, there is a need to identify more appropriate filters. In this paper, we compare the performance of another type of FIR filter that, unlike the boxcar filter, is designed with an optimizing algorithm that reduces signal distortion and maximizes signal extraction (referred to here as an optimal FIR filter). We applied several different filters of both types to ERP data containing the P300 component. This comparison revealed that boxcar filters reduced the contribution of high-frequency noise to the ERP but in so doing produced a substantial attenuation of P300 amplitude and, in some cases, substantial distortions of the shape of the waveform, resulting in significant errors in latency estimation. In contrast, the optimal FIR filters preserved P300 amplitude, morphology, and latency and also eliminated high-frequency noise more effectively than did the boxcar filters. The implications of these results for data acquisition and analysis are discussed.

  8. Event-related potentials for 7-month-olds' processing of animals and furniture items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsner, Birgit; Jeschonek, Susanna; Pauen, Sabina

    2013-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) to single visual stimuli were recorded in 7-month-old infants. In a three-stimulus oddball paradigm, infants watched one frequently occurring standard stimulus (either an animal or a furniture item) and two infrequently occurring oddball stimuli, presenting one exemplar from the same and one from the different superordinate category as compared to the standard stimulus. Additionally, visual attributes of the stimuli were controlled to investigate whether infants focus on category membership or on perceptual similarity when processing the stimuli. Infant ERPs indicated encoding of the standard stimulus and discriminating it from the two oddball stimuli by larger Nc peak amplitude and late-slow-wave activity for the infrequent stimuli. Moreover, larger Nc latency and positive-slow-wave activity indicated increased processing for the different-category as compared to the same-category oddball. Thus, 7-month-olds seem to encode single stimuli not only by surface perceptual features, but they also regard information of category membership, leading to facilitated processing of the oddball that belongs to the same domain as the standard stimulus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Meditation (Vipassana) and the P3a event-related brain potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahn, B Rael; Polich, John

    2009-04-01

    A three-stimulus auditory oddball series was presented to experienced Vipassana meditators during meditation and a control thought period to elicit event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in the two different mental states. The stimuli consisted of a frequent standard tone (500 Hz), an infrequent oddball tone (1000 Hz), and an infrequent distracter (white noise), with all stimuli passively presented through headphones and no task imposed. The strongest meditation compared to control state effects occurred for the distracter stimuli: N1 amplitude from the distracter was reduced frontally during meditation; P2 amplitude from both the distracter and oddball stimuli were somewhat reduced during meditation; P3a amplitude from the distracter was reduced during meditation. The meditation-induced reduction in P3a amplitude was strongest in participants reporting more hours of daily meditation practice and was not evident in participants reporting drowsiness during their experimental meditative session. The findings suggest that meditation state can decrease the amplitude of neurophysiologic processes that subserve attentional engagement elicited by unexpected and distracting stimuli. Consistent with the aim of Vipassana meditation to reduce cognitive and emotional reactivity, the state effect of reduced P3a amplitude to distracting stimuli reflects decreased automated reactivity and evaluative processing of task irrelevant attention-demanding stimuli.

  10. Clinical high risk and first episode schizophrenia: Auditory event-related potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Re, Elisabetta C.; Spencer, Kevin M.; Oribe, Naoya; Mesholam-Gately, Raquelle I.; Goldstein, Jill; Shenton, Martha E.; Petryshen, Tracey; Seidman, Larry J.; McCarley, Robert W.; Niznikiewicz, Margaret A.

    2014-01-01

    The clinical high risk (CHR) period is a phase denoting a risk for overt psychosis during which subacute symptoms often appear, and cognitive functions may deteriorate. To compare biological indices during this phase with those during first episode schizophrenia, we cross-sectionally examined sex- and age-matched clinical high risk (CHR, n=21), first episode schizophrenia patients (FESZ, n=20) and matched healthy controls (HC, n=25) on oddball and novelty paradigms and assessed the N100, P200, P3a and P3b as indices of perceptual, attentional and working memory processes. To our knowledge, this is the only such comparison using all of these event-related potentials (ERPs) in two paradigms. We hypothesized that the ERPs would differentiate between the three groups and allow prediction of a diagnostic group. The majority of ERPs were significantly affected in CHR and FESZ compared with controls, with similar effect sizes. Nonetheless, in logistic regression, only the P3a and N100 distinguished CHR and FESZ from healthy controls, suggesting that ERPs not associated with an overt task might be more sensitive to prediction of group membership. PMID:25557063

  11. The impact of attentional training on event-related potentials in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendel, Benjamin Rich; de Boysson, Chloé; Mellah, Samira; Démonet, Jean-François; Belleville, Sylvie

    2016-11-01

    Attentional control declines in older adults and is paralleled by changes in event-related brain potentials (ERPs). The N200 is associated with attentional control, thus training-related improvements in attentional control should be paralleled by enhancements to the N200. Older participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups, which focused on training different levels of attentional control: (1) single-task training (single), where participants trained on 2 tasks in isolation; (2) fixed divided attention training (fixed), where participants trained on 2 tasks simultaneously; and (3) variable divided attention training (variable), where participants trained on 2 tasks simultaneously but were instructed to alternatively prioritize each of the 2 tasks. After training, the amplitude of the N200 wave increased in dual-task conditions for the variable group, and this enhancement was correlated with improved dual-task performance. Participants in the variable group also had the greatest improvement in the ability to modulate their allocation of attention in accordance with task instructions to the less salient and less complex of the 2 tasks. Training older adults to modulate their division of attention between tasks improves neural functions associated with attentional control of the trained tasks. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Estimation of single event-related potentials utilizing the Prony method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, M; Gänsler, T; Salomonsson, G

    1996-10-01

    This paper deals with estimation of the waveform of a single event-related potential, sERP. An additive noise model is used for the measured signal and the SNR of the disturbed sERP is approximately 0 dB. The sERP is described by a series expansion where the basis functions are damped sinusoids. The fundamental basis function is estimated by the least squares Prony method, derived for colored noise. The performance of the Prony method for different forms of the power density spectrum of the noise is investigated. A white noise approximation can be used at a low signal-to-noise (SNR). The basis functions change slowly but the waveform of the sERP may vary from one stimulus to another, thus we average a small number of correlation functions in order to increase the SNR. The method is evaluated by using measurements from four subjects and the results confirm the variability of the sERP.

  13. Event-related potential correlates of serial-position effects during an elaborative memory test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushby, Jacqueline A; Barry, Robert J; Johnstone, Stuart S

    2002-10-01

    Twenty undergraduate students participated in an elaborative learning test to evaluate the relationship between electrical brain activity and subsequently recalled and not-recalled words. Data collected from the midline (Fz, Cz, Pz) and lateral scalp sites (F3, F4, C3, C4, P3, P4) were analysed. The difference between event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by subsequently recalled and not-recalled words, the ERP memory effect, was evaluated for each portion (primacy, plateau and recency) of the serial-position curve (SPC). We compared peak amplitudes for the P1, N1, P2, N400, P3 and frontal positive slow wave (FPSW) components. The electrophysiological data support the hypothesis that different mechanisms underlie primacy and recency effects during free recall paradigms. There was no support for the hypothesis that an association arises between memory and the FPSW when subjects utilise elaborative learning strategies. The P2 component predicted subsequent recall at the primacy portion of the SPC, and P1 predicted recall at the primacy and plateau portions of the curve. The findings suggest that the early positive components of the ERP (i.e. P1 and P2) are useful indices of the differential stimulus processing during elaborative learning which predicts later recall. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  14. Evidence for Attentional Gradient in the Serial Position Memory Curve from Event-related Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizian, Allen; Polich, John

    2009-01-01

    The occurrence of primacy versus recency effects in free recall is suggested to reflect either two distinct memory systems, or the operation of a single system that is modulated by allocation of attention and less vulnerable to interference. Behavioral and event-related brain potential (ERPs) measures were used to investigate the encoding substrates of the serial position curve and subsequent recall in young adults. Participants were instructed to remember lists of words consisting of 12 common nouns each presented once every 1.5 sec, with a recall signal following the last word to indicate that all remembered items should be written on paper. This procedure was repeated for 20 different word lists. Both performance and late ERP amplitudes reflected classic recall serial position effects. Greater recall and larger late positive component amplitudes were obtained for the primacy and recency items, with less recall and smaller amplitudes for the middle words. The late positive component was larger for recalled compared to unrecalled primacy items, but it did not differ between memory performance outcomes for the recency items. The close relationship between the enhanced amplitude and primacy retrieval supports the view that this positive component reflects one of a process series related to attentional gradient and encoding of events for storage in memory. Recency effects appear to index operations determined by the anticipation of the last stimulus presentation, which occurred for both recalled and unrecalled memory items. Theoretical implications are discussed. PMID:17892393

  15. High density event-related potential data acquisition in cognitive neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotnick, Scott D

    2010-04-16

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is currently the standard method of evaluating brain function in the field of Cognitive Neuroscience, in part because fMRI data acquisition and analysis techniques are readily available. Because fMRI has excellent spatial resolution but poor temporal resolution, this method can only be used to identify the spatial location of brain activity associated with a given cognitive process (and reveals virtually nothing about the time course of brain activity). By contrast, event-related potential (ERP) recording, a method that is used much less frequently than fMRI, has excellent temporal resolution and thus can track rapid temporal modulations in neural activity. Unfortunately, ERPs are under utilized in Cognitive Neuroscience because data acquisition techniques are not readily available and low density ERP recording has poor spatial resolution. In an effort to foster the increased use of ERPs in Cognitive Neuroscience, the present article details key techniques involved in high density ERP data acquisition. Critically, high density ERPs offer the promise of excellent temporal resolution and good spatial resolution (or excellent spatial resolution if coupled with fMRI), which is necessary to capture the spatial-temporal dynamics of human brain function.

  16. Inhibitory control in bilinguals and musicians: event related potential (ERP) evidence for experience-specific effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Sylvain; Wodniecka, Zofia; Tays, William; Alain, Claude; Bialystok, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Bilinguals and musicians exhibit behavioral advantages on tasks with high demands on executive functioning, particularly inhibitory control, but the brain mechanisms supporting these differences are unclear. Of key interest is whether these forms of experience influence cognition through similar or distinct information processing mechanisms. Here, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) in three groups - bilinguals, musicians, and controls - who completed a visual go-nogo task that involved the withholding of key presses to rare targets. Participants in each group achieved similar accuracy rates and responses times but the analysis of cortical responses revealed significant differences in ERP waveforms. Success in withholding a prepotent response was associated with enhanced stimulus-locked N2 and P3 wave amplitude relative to go trials. For nogo trials, there were altered timing-specific ERP differences and graded amplitude differences observed in the neural responses across groups. Specifically, musicians showed an enhanced early P2 response accompanied by reduced N2 amplitude whereas bilinguals showed increased N2 amplitude coupled with an increased late positivity wave relative to controls. These findings demonstrate that bilingualism and music training have differential effects on the brain networks supporting executive control over behavior.

  17. Modulation of early and late event-related potentials by emotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J. Hart

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Although emotionally salient stimuli influence higher order information processing, the relative vulnerability of specific stages of cognitive processing to modulation by emotional input remains elusive. To test the temporal dynamics of emotional interference during executive function, we recorded event-related potentials while participants performed an effortful anticipation task with aversive emotional and neutral distracters. Participants were presented with a modified delayed Stroop task that dissociated the anticipation of an easier or more difficult task (instructional cues to attend to word versus color from the response to the Stroop stimulus, while aversive and neutral pictures were displayed during the delay period. Our results indicated a relative decrease in the amplitude of the contingent negative variation (CNV during aversive trials that was greater during the early anticipatory phase than during the later response preparation phase, and greater during (the more difficult color than word trials. During the initial stage of cue processing, there was also significant interaction between emotion and anticipatory difficulty on N1 amplitude, where emotional stimuli led to significantly enhanced negativity during color cues relative to word cues. These results suggest that earlier processes of orientation and effortful anticipation may reflect executive engagement that is influenced by emotional interference while later phases of response preparation may be modulated by emotional interference regardless of anticipatory difficulty.

  18. Visual image retention does not contribute to modulation of event-related potentials by mental rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riečanský, Igor; Tomova, Livia; Katina, Stanislav; Bauer, Herbert; Fischmeister, Florian Ph S; Lamm, Claus

    2013-11-01

    Rotation of a visual image in mind is associated with a slow posterior negative deflection of the event-related potential (ERP), termed rotation-related negativity (RRN). Retention of a visual image in short-term memory is also associated with a slow posterior negative ERP, termed negative slow wave (NSW). We tested whether short-term memory retention, indexed by the NSW, contributes to the RRN. ERPs were recorded in the same subjects in two tasks, a mental rotation task, eliciting the RRN, and a visual short-term memory task, eliciting the NSW. Over both right and left parietal scalp, no association was found between the NSW and the RRN amplitudes. Furthermore, adjusting for the effect of the NSW had no influence on a significant association between the RRN amplitude and response time, an index of mental rotation performance. Our data indicate that the RRN reflects manipulation of a visual image but not its retention in short-term memory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Exploring consciousness in emotional face decoding: an event-related potential analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balconi, Michela

    2006-05-01

    The author analyzed the role of consciousness in emotional face comprehension. The author recorded psychophysiological measures of event-related potentials (ERPs), elicited by supraliminal and subliminal stimuli when participants viewed emotional facial expressions of 4 emotions or neutral stimuli. The author analyzed an ERP emotion-specific effect (N200 peak variation; temporal interval was 180-300 ms poststimulus) in terms of peak amplitude and latency variables. The results indicated 4 important findings. First, there was an emotional-specific ERP deflection only for emotional stimuli, not for neutral stimuli. Second, the unaware information processing was quite similar to that of aware in terms of peak morphology, but not in terms of latency. In fact, unconscious stimulation produced a more delayed peak variation than did conscious stimulation. Third, valence of facial stimulus (positive or negative) was supraliminally and subliminally decoded because it was showed by differences of peak deflection between negative high arousing (fear and anger) and low arousing (happiness, sadness, and neutral) stimuli. Finally, the author found a more posterior distribution of ERP as a function of emotional content of the stimulus. Cortical lateralization (right or left) was not correlated to conscious or unconscious stimulation. The author discussed the functional significance of her results in terms of supraliminal and subliminal conditions.

  20. Interactions between mood and the structure of semantic memory: event-related potentials evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Ana P; del Re, Elisabetta; Nestor, Paul G; McCarley, Robert W; Gonçalves, Óscar F; Niznikiewicz, Margaret

    2013-06-01

    Recent evidence suggests that affect acts as modulator of cognitive processes and in particular that induced mood has an effect on the way semantic memory is used on-line. We used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine affective modulation of semantic information processing under three different moods: neutral, positive and negative. Fifteen subjects read 324 pairs of sentences, after mood induction procedure with 30 pictures of neutral, 30 pictures of positive and 30 pictures of neutral valence: 108 sentences were read in each mood induction condition. Sentences ended with three word types: expected words, within-category violations, and between-category violations. N400 amplitude was measured to the three word types under each mood induction condition. Under neutral mood, a congruency (more negative N400 amplitude for unexpected relative to expected endings) and a category effect (more negative N400 amplitude for between- than to within-category violations) were observed. Also, results showed differences in N400 amplitude for both within- and between-category violations as a function of mood: while positive mood tended to facilitate the integration of unexpected but related items, negative mood made their integration as difficult as unexpected and unrelated items. These findings suggest the differential impact of mood on access to long-term semantic memory during sentence comprehension.

  1. Resolving the orthographic ambiguity during visual word recognition in Arabic: an event-related potential investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Haitham; Khateb, Asaid

    2013-01-01

    The Arabic alphabetical orthographic system has various unique features that include the existence of emphatic phonemic letters. These represent several pairs of letters that share a phonological similarity and use the same parts of the articulation system. The phonological and articulatory similarities between these letters lead to spelling errors where the subject tends to produce a pseudohomophone (PHw) instead of the correct word. Here, we investigated whether or not the unique orthographic features of the written Arabic words modulate early orthographic processes. For this purpose, we analyzed event-related potentials (ERPs) collected from adult skilled readers during an orthographic decision task on real words and their corresponding PHw. The subjects' reaction times (RTs) were faster in words than in PHw. ERPs analysis revealed significant response differences between words and the PHw starting during the N170 and extending to the P2 component, with no difference during processing steps devoted to phonological and lexico-semantic processing. Amplitude and latency differences were found also during the P6 component which peaked earlier for words and where source localization indicated the involvement of the classical left language areas. Our findings replicate some of the previous findings on PHw processing and extend them to involve early orthographical processes. PMID:24348367

  2. Inhibitory control in bilinguals and musicians: event related potential (ERP evidence for experience-specific effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Moreno

    Full Text Available Bilinguals and musicians exhibit behavioral advantages on tasks with high demands on executive functioning, particularly inhibitory control, but the brain mechanisms supporting these differences are unclear. Of key interest is whether these forms of experience influence cognition through similar or distinct information processing mechanisms. Here, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs in three groups - bilinguals, musicians, and controls - who completed a visual go-nogo task that involved the withholding of key presses to rare targets. Participants in each group achieved similar accuracy rates and responses times but the analysis of cortical responses revealed significant differences in ERP waveforms. Success in withholding a prepotent response was associated with enhanced stimulus-locked N2 and P3 wave amplitude relative to go trials. For nogo trials, there were altered timing-specific ERP differences and graded amplitude differences observed in the neural responses across groups. Specifically, musicians showed an enhanced early P2 response accompanied by reduced N2 amplitude whereas bilinguals showed increased N2 amplitude coupled with an increased late positivity wave relative to controls. These findings demonstrate that bilingualism and music training have differential effects on the brain networks supporting executive control over behavior.

  3. Cognitive event-related potentials and brain magnetic resonance imaging in HTLV-1 associated myelopathy (HAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, T; Ikeda, T; Uyama, E; Uchino, M; Okabe, H; Ando, M

    1994-10-01

    Auditory and visual cognitive event-related potentials (ERPs) were investigated in 14 patients with HTLV-1 associated myelopathy (HAM) and in 36 normal controls. In the HAM patients, the latencies of P300 and N200 by the auditory tone method were significantly delayed, and N100 by the auditory click method was significantly delayed in latency. No abnormal ERP components were observed with visual methods. While these auditory abnormal ERPs were present in the HAM patients, there was no evidence of visual abnormal ERPs. Abnormal lesions on the white matter were evident at magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 6 (75%) of 8 patients. There was no correlation between MRI lesions and the abnormalities of ERPs, but there was a significant correlation between bifrontal index on MRI and P300 amplitudes at Cz and Pz sites by auditory tone method. In one patient, atrophy of bilateral parietal lobes was seen on MRI and P300 latencies delayed using various methods. Therefore, the possibility that electrophysiological cognitive impairment in patients with HAM is related to brain atrophy rather than to white matter lesions requires attention.

  4. ERPLAB: An Open-Source Toolbox for the Analysis of Event-Related Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier eLopez-Calderon

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available ERPLAB Toolbox is a freely available, open-source toolbox for processing and analyzing event-related potential (ERP data in the MATLAB environment. ERPLAB is closely integrated with EEGLAB, a popular open-source toolbox that provides many EEG preprocessing steps and an excellent user interface design. ERPLAB adds to EEGLAB’s EEG processing functions, providing additional tools for filtering, artifact detection, re-referencing, and sorting of events, among others. ERPLAB also provides robust tools for averaging EEG segments together to create averaged ERPs, for creating difference waves and other recombinations of ERP waveforms through algebraic expressions, for filtering and re-referencing the averaged ERPs, for plotting ERP waveforms and scalp maps, and for quantifying several types of amplitudes and latencies. ERPLAB’s tools can be accessed either from an easy-to-learn graphical user interface or from MATLAB scripts, and a command history function makes it easy for users with no programming experience to write scripts. Consequently, ERPLAB provides both ease of use and virtually unlimited power and flexibility, making it appropriate for the analysis of both simple and complex ERP experiments. Several forms of documentation are available, including a detailed user’s guide, a step-by-step tutorial, a scripting guide, and a set of video-based demonstrations.

  5. Auditory event-related potentials and reaction time during decompression from hyperbaric trimix conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipova, D

    1998-06-01

    Auditory event-related potentials (ERP) and sensomotor reaction time (RT) were investigated in divers during decompression from hyperbaric trimix conditions in order to assess the auditory information processing of the divers. Two passive series, 30 low (800 Hz) and 30 high (1200 Hz) tones were presented as well as one simple reaction task (SRT) and one choice reaction task (CRT) series. In both task series, the subjects were instructed to press the button as quickly as possible with the right-hand thumb after a low tone was heard. The individual analyses of the decompression period ERPs and RT data were compared with the pre-diving results for the series. Despite the interindividual differences, the sensomotor reactions were retarded during the decompression period, most clearly in the CRT. A prolongation of the N2 and P3 latency in this series gives grounds to accept that a cognitive slowing takes part in the longer reaction times during decompression. The slowing of the auditory information processing during decompression manifests with task manipulation difficulties.

  6. EEG Channel Selection Using Particle Swarm Optimization for the Classification of Auditory Event-Related Potentials

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    Alejandro Gonzalez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain-machine interfaces (BMI rely on the accurate classification of event-related potentials (ERPs and their performance greatly depends on the appropriate selection of classifier parameters and features from dense-array electroencephalography (EEG signals. Moreover, in order to achieve a portable and more compact BMI for practical applications, it is also desirable to use a system capable of accurate classification using information from as few EEG channels as possible. In the present work, we propose a method for classifying P300 ERPs using a combination of Fisher Discriminant Analysis (FDA and a multiobjective hybrid real-binary Particle Swarm Optimization (MHPSO algorithm. Specifically, the algorithm searches for the set of EEG channels and classifier parameters that simultaneously maximize the classification accuracy and minimize the number of used channels. The performance of the method is assessed through offline analyses on datasets of auditory ERPs from sound discrimination experiments. The proposed method achieved a higher classification accuracy than that achieved by traditional methods while also using fewer channels. It was also found that the number of channels used for classification can be significantly reduced without greatly compromising the classification accuracy.

  7. Modafinil improves event related potentials P300 and contingent negative variation after 24 h sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Koushik; Chatterjee, Abhirup; Panjwani, Usha; Kumar, Sanjeev; Sahu, Surajit; Ghosh, Sayan; Thakur, Lalan; Anand, Jag Parvesh

    2012-08-21

    The efficacy of modafinil as a countermeasure in the reduction of cognitive decline following 24 h of sleep deprivation (SD) on subjective sleepiness scales, event-related potential (ERP) P300, and contingent negative variation (CNV) was evaluated. Eleven healthy males, age 25-30 years participated. The experiment was performed in five sessions on different days between 7 and 8a.m. Session 1, baseline recordings; Session 2, after one night's SD; Session 3, 48 h of recovery from SD; Session 4, after 1 week of Session 1, following one night's SD along with modafinil (400mg/day); Session 5, 48 h of recovery after SD+modafinil. Subjective sleepiness scores increased significantly after SD as compared to baseline (PP300 peak latencies of ERP following SD (PP300 peak latencies after SD (PP300 amplitudes and CNV N100, M200 peak latencies and M100, M200 amplitudes were observed. The results strongly suggest that modafinil in a dose of 400mg/day, reduces the subjective sleepiness and cognitive decline following 24 h of SD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A Discussion of Possibility of Reinforcement Learning Using Event-Related Potential in BCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Yuya; Tsubone, Tadashi; Wada, Yasuhiro

    Recently, Brain computer interface (BCI) which is a direct connecting pathway an external device such as a computer or a robot and a human brain have gotten a lot of attention. Since BCI can control the machines as robots by using the brain activity without using the voluntary muscle, the BCI may become a useful communication tool for handicapped persons, for instance, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients. However, in order to realize the BCI system which can perform precise tasks on various environments, it is necessary to design the control rules to adapt to the dynamic environments. Reinforcement learning is one approach of the design of the control rule. If this reinforcement leaning can be performed by the brain activity, it leads to the attainment of BCI that has general versatility. In this research, we paid attention to P300 of event-related potential as an alternative signal of the reward of reinforcement learning. We discriminated between the success and the failure trials from P300 of the EEG of the single trial by using the proposed discrimination algorithm based on Support vector machine. The possibility of reinforcement learning was examined from the viewpoint of the number of discriminated trials. It was shown that there was a possibility to be able to learn in most subjects.

  9. Single-Trial Event-Related Potential Based Rapid Image Triage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Yu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Searching for points of interest (POI in large-volume imagery is a challenging problem with few good solutions. In this work, a neural engineering approach called rapid image triage (RIT which could offer about a ten-fold speed up in POI searching is developed. It is essentially a cortically-coupled computer vision technique, whereby the user is presented bursts of images at a speed of 6–15 images per second and then neural signals called event-related potential (ERP is used as the ‘cue’ for user seeing images of high relevance likelihood. Compared to past efforts, the implemented system has several unique features: (1 it applies overlapping frames in image chip preparation, to ensure rapid image triage performance; (2 a novel common spatial-temporal pattern (CSTP algorithm that makes use of both spatial and temporal patterns of ERP topography is proposed for high-accuracy single-trial ERP detection; (3 a weighted version of probabilistic support-vector-machine (SVM is used to address the inherent unbalanced nature of single-trial ERP detection for RIT. High accuracy, fast learning, and real-time capability of the developed system shown on 20 subjects demonstrate the feasibility of a brainmachine integrated rapid image triage system for fast detection of POI from large-volume imagery.

  10. Cue Reactivity Essentials: Event-Related Potentials During Identification of Visual Alcoholic Stimuli in Social Drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroczek, Agnes M; Haeussinger, Florian B; Hudak, Justin; Vanes, Lucy D; Fallgatter, Andreas J; Ehlis, Ann-Christine

    2018-01-01

    Cue reactivity is an automatic reaction to alcohol-related cues, contributing to the maintenance of drinking behavior and relapse in alcohol dependency. The identification of valid cue-reactivity features is a prerequisite for its clinical application. We were interested in the effects of visual features of alcohol cues (e.g., color) on cue reactivity. Assuming its development at a pre-pathological stage, we analyzed cue reactivity in heavy social drinkers, with light social drinkers as controls. We investigated whether cue reactivity was independent of visual features at an attentional (P100) and a motivational level (late positive potential, LPP). Event-related potentials (ERPs; P100, LPP) were analyzed during a visual beverage classification task in heavy social drinkers and light social drinkers (N = 34 university students). Photographs of beverages were classified as alcoholic or nonalcoholic. Two additional stimulus sets depicted unrecognizable scrambled visual information and recognizable black silhouettes of the original beverages. Analysis of contrast waves inferred content (unrecognized scrambled trials subtracted from original) and color information (recognized shape trials subtracted from original) during visual processing. Linear regression was used to predict Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scores from ERPs. In heavy social drinkers, alcoholic-content LPP was increased and P100 latency was shorter compared with nonalcoholic cues. Linear regression for alcohol content condition in the overall sample revealed shorter P100 latency and increased LPP amplitude predicting AUDIT scores. None of those effects were significant in the visual-feature control condition. Alcohol cue reactivity in heavy social drinkers was related to faster early attentional processes and motivational salience. The effect occurred independently of visual features in the pictures.

  11. [Quantitative EEG and event-related potentials (P300) in partial epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongjin; Wang, Shuang; Ding, Meiping

    2013-05-01

    Quantitative EEG and event-related potential P300 were used to evaluate impairment of cerebral function in patient with partial epilepsy. W value was calculated (power of EEG δ and θ rhythm divided by power of α and β rhythm ) for the extent of focal cortical dysfunction. The W values in left partial epilepsy group, right partial epilepsy group and control group during interictal period compared. The latency, amplitude and reaction time of P300 potential change were observed in each groups. The W values in F(8), T(4) and T(6) regions in patients with left partial epilepsy (P P300 was 54. 76%, the latency, amplitude and reaction team were significantly different to the control group. The abnormal rate of P300 in left and right partial epilepsy groups were 77. 78% and 37.50%, respectively, and the former is significantly higher than the latter. The amplitudes of P300 in C(z) and P(z) of left partial epilepsy were significantly lower than those of right partial epilepsy and control group (P P300 in C(z) and P(z) of all partial epilepsy were significantly longer than those of control group (P < 0.05), however, no difference was found between left and right partial epilepsy. In partial epilepsy the cortical dysfunction occurs ipsilaterally to the epileptogenic zone, and extent of cortical dysfunction is positively correlated with duration of disease course. Cerebral dysfunction in left partial epilepsy is more severe than that in right partial epilepsy.

  12. Isolating event-related potential components associated with voluntary control of visuo-spatial attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, John J; Green, Jessica J

    2008-08-28

    Attention-directing cues presented at fixation evoke several lateralized event-related potential (ERP) components prior to the onset of visual targets. These components have been associated with the control of visuo-spatial attention, but the neuro-cognitive operations and neural generators of the components are still largely unknown. Here, we isolated cue-elicited ERP activity in different ways to home in on different neuro-cognitive operations and to gain a better understanding about the possible neuroanatomical sources of the cue-elicited ERP activities. To isolate lateralized cue-ERP activity, we compared shift-left and shift-right cue ERPs to shift-up cue ERPs. To measure all of the ERP activity related to attentional control, including spatially nonspecific activity that is removed in the process of isolating lateralized cue-ERP components, we compared shift-cue ERPs to neutral-cue (i.e., no-shift) ERPs. Isolated lateralized-ERP activity was seen in the contralateral-occipital lobe in the early phase of the cue-target interval and in the ipsilateral-occipital lobe in the late phase. The later, ipsilateral activity indicates that the late directing attention positivity (LDAP) reflected processing of the to-be-ignored location. The neutral-cue isolation revealed a shift-related positivity over posterior scalp regions and a shift-related negativity over more anterior scalp regions. The spatio-temporal sequence of shift-related activity observed on the scalp, together with estimates of distributed source activity underlying the shift-related ERP components, indicated that frontal and parietal regions of cortex participated in the control of attention and led to pre-target biasing in visual cortical areas.

  13. Distinct modulation of event-related potentials during motor preparation in patients with motor conversion disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekah L Blakemore

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Conversion paresis patients and healthy people feigning weakness both exhibit weak voluntary movement without detectable neuropathology. Uniquely, conversion patients lack a sense of conscious awareness of the origin of their impairment. We investigated whether conversion paresis patients show distinct electroencephalographic (EEG markers associated with their unconscious movement deficits. METHODS: Six unilateral upper limb conversion paresis patients, 12 feigning participants asked to mimic weakness and 12 control participants performed a precued reaction time task, requiring movements of either hand, depending on precue information. Performance measures (force, reaction and movement time, and event-related EEG potentials (ERP were compared, between groups and across hands or hemisphere, using linear mixed models. RESULTS: Feigners generated the same inter-hand difference in reaction and movement time as expressed by patients, even though no specific targets were set nor feedback given on these measures. We found novel ERP signatures specific to patients. When the symptomatic hand was precued, the P3 ERP component accompanying the precue was dramatically larger in patients than in feigning participants. Additionally, in patients the earlier N1 ERP component was diminished when the precue signalled either the symptomatic or asymptomatic hand. CONCLUSIONS: These results are consistent with previous suggestions that lack of awareness of the origin of their symptoms in conversion disorder patients may result from suppression of brain activity normally related to self-agency. In patients the diminished N1 to all precues is consistent with a generalised reduction in cognitive processing of movement-related precues. The P3 enhancement in patients is unlikely to simply reflect changes required for generation of impaired movements, because it was not seen in feigners showing the same behavioural deficits. Rather, this P3 enhancement in

  14. Feature extraction of event-related potentials using wavelets: an application to human performance monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trejo, L. J.; Shensa, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the development and evaluation of mathematical models for predicting human performance from discrete wavelet transforms (DWT) of event-related potentials (ERP) elicited by task-relevant stimuli. The DWT was compared to principal components analysis (PCA) for representation of ERPs in linear regression and neural network models developed to predict a composite measure of human signal detection performance. Linear regression models based on coefficients of the decimated DWT predicted signal detection performance with half as many free parameters as comparable models based on PCA scores. In addition, the DWT-based models were more resistant to model degradation due to over-fitting than PCA-based models. Feed-forward neural networks were trained using the backpropagation algorithm to predict signal detection performance based on raw ERPs, PCA scores, or high-power coefficients of the DWT. Neural networks based on high-power DWT coefficients trained with fewer iterations, generalized to new data better, and were more resistant to overfitting than networks based on raw ERPs. Networks based on PCA scores did not generalize to new data as well as either the DWT network or the raw ERP network. The results show that wavelet expansions represent the ERP efficiently and extract behaviorally important features for use in linear regression or neural network models of human performance. The efficiency of the DWT is discussed in terms of its decorrelation and energy compaction properties. In addition, the DWT models provided evidence that a pattern of low-frequency activity (1 to 3.5 Hz) occurring at specific times and scalp locations is a reliable correlate of human signal detection performance. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  15. Fast stimulus sequences improve the efficiency of event-related potential P300 recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mell, Dominik; Bach, Michael; Heinrich, Sven P

    2008-09-30

    The P300 is an easily recorded component of the event-related potential (ERP). Yet, it is desirable to reduce the recording duration, for instance in patient examinations. A limiting factor is the time between stimuli that is necessary for the ERP to return to baseline. We explored whether this time could be reduced, despite an overlap of responses to successive stimuli, by presenting visual stimuli at a fast rate of 4.7 s(-1)using a standard oddball paradigm. Rare stimuli occurred at a probability of 14%. The P300 was isolated by subtracting the responses to the frequent stimuli from those to the rare stimuli, thereby eliminating the influence of response overlap. We compared the efficiency of fast stimulation to that of conventionally slow stimulation by assessing the signal-to-noise ratio of the P300 amplitude. Two presentation durations of individual stimuli, namely 53 ms and 93 ms, were tested. Not unexpectedly, P300 amplitudes were smaller for the fast sequence. However, the signal-to-noise ratio improved significantly by more than 50% due to the larger number of trials within a given time interval. When targeting a given signal-to-noise ratio, fast stimulation allows for a reduction in recording time of around 35%. Median peak times were 16-56 ms shorter for the fast stimulus sequence. Topography was comparable for fast and slow stimulation, suggesting a similar functional composition of the respective responses. Fast stimulation may thus be used to replace less efficient slow stimulation schemes in clinical diagnosis and for certain experimental questions.

  16. Multivariate evaluation of brain function by measuring regional cerebral blood flow and event-related potentials

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    Koga, Yoshihiko; Mochida, Masahiko; Shutara, Yoshikazu; Nakagawa, Kazumi [Kyorin Univ., Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine; Nagata, Ken

    1998-07-01

    To measure the effect of events on human cognitive function, effects of odors by measurement regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and P300 were evaluated during the auditory odd-ball exercise. PET showed the increase in rCBF on the right hemisphere of the brain by coffee aroma. rCBF was measured by PET in 9 of right-handed healthy adults men, and P300 was by event-related potential (ERP) in each sex of 20 right-handed healthy adults. ERP showed the difference of the P300 amplitude between men and women, and showed the tendency, by odors except the lavender oil, that women had higher in the P300 amplitude than men. These results suggest the presence of effects on the cognitive function through emotional actions. Next, the relationship between rCBF and ERP were evaluated. The subjects were 9 of the right-handed healthy adults (average: 25.6{+-}3.4 years old). rCBF by PET and P300 amplitude by ERP were simultaneously recorded during the auditory odd-ball exercise using the tone-burst method (2 kHz of the low frequency aimed stimuli and 1 kHz of the high frequency non-aimed stimuli). The rCBF value was the highest at the transverse gyrus of Heschl and the lowest at the piriform cortex among 24 regions of interest (ROI) from both sides. The difference of P300 peak latent time among ROI was almost the same. The brain waves from Cz and Pz were similar and the average amplitude was highest at Pz. We found the high correlation in the right piriform cortex (Fz), and right (Fz, Cz) and left (Cz, Pz) transverse gyrus of Heschl between the P300 amplitude and rCBF. (K.H.)

  17. Effects of etizolam and ethyl loflazepate on the P300 event-related potential in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukami, Goro; Hashimoto, Tasuku; Shirayama, Yukihiko; Hasegawa, Tadashi; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Fujisaki, Mihisa; Hashimoto, Kenji; Iyo, Masaomi

    2010-11-03

    Benzodiazepines carry the risk of inducing cognitive impairments, which may go unnoticed while profoundly disturbing social activity. Furthermore, these impairments are partly associated with the elimination half-life (EH) of the substance from the body. The object of the present study was to examine the effects of etizolam and ethyl loflazepate, with EHs of 6 h and 122 h, respectively, on information processing in healthy subjects. Healthy people were administered etizolam and ethyl loflazepate acutely and subchronically (14 days). The auditory P300 event-related potential and the neuropsychological batteries described below were employed to assess the effects of drugs on cognition. The P300 event-related potential was recorded before and after drug treatments. The digit symbol test, trail making test, digit span test and verbal paired associates test were administered to examine mental slowing and memory functioning. Acute administration of drugs caused prolongation in P300 latency and reduction in P300 amplitude. Etizolam caused a statistically significant prolongation in P300 latency compared to ethyl loflazepate. Furthermore, subchronic administration of etizolam, but not ethyl loflazepate, still caused a weak prolongation in P300 latency. In contrast, neuropsychological tests showed no difference. The results indicate that acute administration of ethyl loflazepate induces less effect on P300 latency than etizolam.

  18. [Evaluation of the event-related potential (ERP-P300) in patients with hepatic cirrhosis without encephalopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodoro, Vinicius; Bragagnolo Jr, Maurício; Lucchesi, Lígia; Kondo, Mário; Tufik, Sérgio

    2008-01-01

    In hepatic cirrhosis structural liver alterations occur leading to the loss of the organ functions with neuro-psychiatric consequence, as cognitive dysfunctions. One of the most effective ways of objectively evaluating cognition is to measure electrophysiological activity in the central nervous system trough event-related potentials (ERP-P300). To assess the value of the event-related potential (ERP) in order to determine cognitive disturbances in patients with liver cirrhosis and to assist in the diagnosis of minimal hepatic encephalopathy. Fifty patients with liver cirrhosis were selected, without clinical symptoms of hepatic encephalopathy and 35 healthy volunteers, matched by sex and age. The patients were submitted to clinical-neurological and laboratorial examination. The ERP-P300 was performed by the two groups to determine cognitive disturbances. The study showed significant differences between the ERP-P300 latency averages of the two groups. The ERP-P300 is simple to use and depends on controllable variables. It is also easy to reproduce and, when properly used, can be useful both to determine cognitive disturbances in patients with hepatic cirrhosis and to assist in minimal hepatic encephalopathy diagnosis.

  19. Temporal dynamics of the face familiarity effect: bootstrap analysis of single-subject event-related potential data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Prieto, Esther; Pancaroglu, Raika; Dalrymple, Kirsten A; Handy, Todd; Barton, Jason J S; Oruc, Ipek

    2015-01-01

    Prior event-related potential studies using group statistics within a priori selected time windows have yielded conflicting results about familiarity effects in face processing. Our goal was to evaluate the temporal dynamics of the familiarity effect at all time points at the single-subject level. Ten subjects were shown faces of anonymous people or celebrities. Individual results were analysed using a point-by-point bootstrap analysis. While familiarity effects were less consistent at later epochs, all subjects showed them between 130 and 195 ms in occipitotemporal electrodes. However, the relation between the time course of familiarity effects and the peak latency of the N170 was variable. We concluded that familiarity effects between 130 and 195 ms are robust and can be shown in single subjects. The variability of their relation to the timing of the N170 potential may lead to underestimation of familiarity effects in studies that use group-based statistics.

  20. Cortical Neural Synchronization Underlies Primary Visual Consciousness of Qualia: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiloni, Claudio; Marzano, Nicola; Soricelli, Andrea; Cordone, Susanna; Millán-Calenti, José Carlos; Del Percio, Claudio; Buján, Ana

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews three experiments on event-related potentials (ERPs) testing the hypothesis that primary visual consciousness (stimulus self-report) is related to enhanced cortical neural synchronization as a function of stimulus features. ERP peak latency and sources were compared between “seen” trials and “not seen” trials, respectively related and unrelated to the primary visual consciousness. Three salient features of visual stimuli were considered (visuospatial, emotional face expression, and written words). Results showed the typical visual ERP components in both “seen” and “not seen” trials. There was no statistical difference in the ERP peak latencies between the “seen” and “not seen” trials, suggesting a similar timing of the cortical neural synchronization regardless the primary visual consciousness. In contrast, ERP sources showed differences between “seen” and “not seen” trials. For the visuospatial stimuli, the primary consciousness was related to higher activity in dorsal occipital and parietal sources at about 400 ms post-stimulus. For the emotional face expressions, there was greater activity in parietal and frontal sources at about 180 ms post-stimulus. For the written letters, there was higher activity in occipital, parietal and temporal sources at about 230 ms post-stimulus. These results hint that primary visual consciousness is associated with an enhanced cortical neural synchronization having entirely different spatiotemporal characteristics as a function of the features of the visual stimuli and possibly, the relative qualia (i.e., visuospatial, face expression, and words). In this framework, the dorsal visual stream may be synchronized in association with the primary consciousness of visuospatial and emotional face contents. Analogously, both dorsal and ventral visual streams may be synchronized in association with the primary consciousness of linguistic contents. In this line of reasoning, the ensemble

  1. Cortical Neural Synchronization Underlies Primary Visual Consciousness of Qualia: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiloni, Claudio; Marzano, Nicola; Soricelli, Andrea; Cordone, Susanna; Millán-Calenti, José Carlos; Del Percio, Claudio; Buján, Ana

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews three experiments on event-related potentials (ERPs) testing the hypothesis that primary visual consciousness (stimulus self-report) is related to enhanced cortical neural synchronization as a function of stimulus features. ERP peak latency and sources were compared between "seen" trials and "not seen" trials, respectively related and unrelated to the primary visual consciousness. Three salient features of visual stimuli were considered (visuospatial, emotional face expression, and written words). Results showed the typical visual ERP components in both "seen" and "not seen" trials. There was no statistical difference in the ERP peak latencies between the "seen" and "not seen" trials, suggesting a similar timing of the cortical neural synchronization regardless the primary visual consciousness. In contrast, ERP sources showed differences between "seen" and "not seen" trials. For the visuospatial stimuli, the primary consciousness was related to higher activity in dorsal occipital and parietal sources at about 400 ms post-stimulus. For the emotional face expressions, there was greater activity in parietal and frontal sources at about 180 ms post-stimulus. For the written letters, there was higher activity in occipital, parietal and temporal sources at about 230 ms post-stimulus. These results hint that primary visual consciousness is associated with an enhanced cortical neural synchronization having entirely different spatiotemporal characteristics as a function of the features of the visual stimuli and possibly, the relative qualia (i.e., visuospatial, face expression, and words). In this framework, the dorsal visual stream may be synchronized in association with the primary consciousness of visuospatial and emotional face contents. Analogously, both dorsal and ventral visual streams may be synchronized in association with the primary consciousness of linguistic contents. In this line of reasoning, the ensemble of the cortical neural networks

  2. Effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation on the cognitive event-related potential p300: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rêgo, Samuel R M; Marcolin, Marco A; May, Geoffrey; Gjini, Klevest

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review regarding the effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) on the cognitive event-related potential P300. A search was performed of the PubMed database, using the keywords "transcranial magnetic stimulation" and "P300." Eight articles were selected and, after analysis of references, one additional article was added to the list. We found the comparison among studies to be difficult, as the information regarding the effects of TMS on P300 is both scarce and heterogeneous with respect to the parameters used in TMS stimulation and the elicitation of P300. However, 7 of 9 studies found positive results. New studies need to be carried out in order to understand the contribution of these variables and others to the alteration in the latency and amplitude of the P300 wave.

  3. Using visual advance information: an event-related functional MRI study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, P.; Fell, J.; Weis, S.; Greiff, A. de; Ruhlmann, J.; Reul, J.; Elger, C.E.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2004-01-01

    Our event-related functional MRI (efMRI) study investigates whether visual advance information (AI) affects rather perceptual or central response-related processing areas. Twelve subjects were required to make a go/no-go decision to a conjunction of a specific color and motion direction. The stimuli

  4. Influence of Concussion History and Genetics on Event-Related Potentials in Athletes: Potential Use in Concussion Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Guth

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sports-related concussions are an increasing public health issue with much concern about the possible long-term decrements in cognitive function and quality of life that may occur in athletes. The measurement of cognitive function is a common component of concussion management protocols due to cognitive impairments that occur after sustaining a concussion; however, the tools that are often used may not be sensitive enough to expose long term problems with cognitive function. The current paper is a brief review, which suggests that measuring cognitive processing through the use of event related potentials (ERPs may provide a more sensitive assessment of cognitive function, as shown through recent research showing concussion history to influence ERPs components. The potential influence of genetics on cognitive function and ERPs components will also be discussed in relation to future concussion management.