WorldWideScience

Sample records for evening

  1. Evening Primrose Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... U V W X Y Z Evening Primrose Oil Share: On This Page Background How Much Do ... fact sheet provides basic information about evening primrose oil—common names, usefulness and safety, and resources for ...

  2. Even Superheroes Need Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Mel

    2018-01-01

    It is not clear exactly when school leaders first started wearing an "S" on their chests and began defiantly uttering the phrase, "I can do it all myself!" But after days, weeks, months, or even years of racing wildly from task to task, many a superhero principal has come to the stark realization that nothing could be further…

  3. Even order snake resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.

    1993-01-01

    We found that the perturbed spin tune due to the imperfection resonance plays an important role in beam depolarization at snake resonances. We also found that even order snake resonances exist in the overlapping intrinsic and imperfection resonances. Due to the perturbed spin tune shift of imperfection resonances, each snake resonance splits into two

  4. Collective description of magnetic properties of even-even nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruhn, V.

    1975-01-01

    The generalized collective model is modified by introducing a number of quadrupole deformations for protons and neutrons. The coupling potential is described by physical approaches, and the overall model is applied to even-even nuclei. (WL) [de

  5. Vibrational collective model for spheric even-even nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, M.T.F. da.

    1985-01-01

    A review is made on the evidences of collective motions in spherical even-even nuclei. The several multipole transitions occuring in such a nuclei are discussed. Some hypothesis which are necessary in order to build-up the model are presented. (L.C.) [pt

  6. Excited bands in even-even rare-earth nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, Carlos E.; Hirsch, Jorge G.

    2004-01-01

    The energetics of states belonging to normal parity bands in even-even dysprosium isotopes, and their B(E2) transition strengths, are studied using an extended pseudo-SU(3) shell model. States with pseudospin 1 are added to the standard pseudospin 0 space, allowing for a proper description of known excited normal parity bands

  7. Alpha Decay of Even-Even Superheavy Nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudih, M.R.; Hamza, Y.; Fellah, M.; Allal, N.H.; Fellah, M.; Allal, N.H.

    2011-01-01

    Alpha decay properties of even-even superheavy nuclei with 112.Z.120 have been investigated using the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov approach. The method is based on the SkP Skyrme interaction and the Lipkin-Nogami prescription for treating the pairing correlations. The alpha decay energies are extracted from the binding energies and then used for the calculation of the decay half-lives using a formula similar to that of Viola-Seaborg. The parameters of the formula were obtained through a least square fit to even-even heavy nuclei taken from the tables of Audi- Wapstra and some more recent references. The results are compared with other theoretical evaluations.

  8. Collective states of nonspherical deformable even--even nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tartakovskii, V.K.

    1989-01-01

    A more correct method, as compared with some earlier studies, of finding the wave functions and corresponding energies of longitudinal quadrupole vibrations of nonspherical even--even nuclei is proposed. The wave functions and energies of collective motions in nuclei have been obtained in explicit form for a number of dependences of the potential energy of longitudinal vibrations V(β), including the dependence V(β), not previously used, of the most general form. Explicit dependences of the potential energy of transverse vibrations and the corresponding wave functions and eigenvalues for nuclear states with zero spins are proposed

  9. Evaluation of airfield pavement evenness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietruszewski, Paweł; Poświata, Adam; Wesołowski, Mariusz

    2018-05-01

    The evenness of airfield pavements is one of the basic operating parameters, which characterize them. The evenness determines not only comfort of traffic along an airfield pavement, but also influences the size of dynamic effect on the pavement, hence, the safety of air operations. In addition, the evenness condition changing as a result of dynamic loads, adverse weather conditions or inappropriate airfield pavement construction technology, lead to deviations from the desired condition in the form of longitudinal and transverse unevenness. As a result, systematic and correct performance of tests is a very significant and required factor impacting the improvement of traffic safety on airfield pavements. If the data obtained through the measurements are not sufficiently reliable, they may consequently lead to making incorrect decisions, which can ultimately impact the safety of air operations.

  10. The Relation between Evenness and Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lou Jost

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to common belief, decomposition of diversity into independent richness and evenness components is mathematically impossible. However, richness can be decomposed into independent diversity and evenness or inequality components. The evenness or inequality component derived in this way is connected to most of the common measures of evenness and inequality in ecology and economics. This perspective justifies the derivation of measures of relative evenness, which give the amount of evenness relative to the maximum and minimum possible for a given richness. Pielou’s [1] evenness measure J is shown to be such a measure.

  11. The new break-even analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskaris, James; Regan, Katie

    2013-12-01

    Changes in the economic and legislative environment have complicated the capital acquisition landscape. Hospitals and health systems should: Question the assumptions that underlie their break-even analysis. Revamp the break-even calculator. Engage in discussions about the clinical aspects of equipment and technology acquisition decisions.

  12. Matrix models with non-even potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzban, C.; Raju Viswanathan, R.

    1990-07-01

    We study examples of hermitian 1-matrix models with even and odd terms present in the potential. A definition of criticality is presented which in these cases leads to multicritical models falling into the same universality classes as those of the purely even potentials. We also show that, in our examples, for polynomial potentials ending in odd powers (unbounded) the coupling constants, in addition to their expected real critical values, also admit critical values which alternate between imaginary/real values in the odd/even terms. We find that, remarkably, the ensuing statistical models are insensitive to the real/imaginary nature of these critical values. This feature may be of relevance in the recently-studied connection between matrix models and the moduli space of Riemann surfaces. (author). 9 refs

  13. The collapse of turbulence in the evening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiel, van de B.J.H.; Moene, A.F.; Jonker, H.J.J.; Baas, P.; Basu, S.; Sun, J.; Holtslag, A.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    A common experience in everyday weather is the fact that near-surface wind speeds tend to weaken in the evening, particularly in fair weather conditions. This cessation of wind usually coincides with the collapse of turbulence which leads to a quiet flow near the ground. As the absence of turbulent

  14. Isotopic yield in cold binary fission of even-even 230-244U isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyriac, Annu; Krishnan, Sreejith; Santhosh, K.P.

    2017-01-01

    The binary fission of even-even 230-244 U isotopes has been studied using the concept of cold reaction valley which was introduced in relation to the structure of minima in the so called driving potential

  15. Morning or evening administration of nasal calcitonin?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlemmer, A; Ravn, Pernille; Hassager, C

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of intranasal salmon calcitonin (sCT) administration (200 IE), given either in the morning (8:00) or evening (21:00), on the known circadian variation in biochemical markers of bone turnover. An open, placebo-controlled, randomized, crossover......). Serum osteocalcin (sOC) was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The first 24 h study was performed without intervention. Prior to this control study the participants were randomized to either morning (8:00) or evening (21:00) sCT (200 IE). sCT administrations were given 4-5 days prior to and during...... the second study. After a washing-out period of 2 weeks the participants were given 200 IE of sCT at the reverse time of the day 5 days prior to and during the third study. At all timepoints, urinary CrossLaps/Cr exhibited a significant (p

  16. STARE velocities: 2. Evening westward electron flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Uspensky

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Four evening events and one morning event of joint EISCAT/STARE observations during ~22h are considered and the differences between observed STARE line-of-sight (l-o-s velocities and EISCAT electron drift velocities projected onto the STARE beams are studied. We demonstrate that the double-pulse technique, which is currently in use in the STARE routine data handling, typically underestimates the true phase velocity as inferred from the multi-pulse STARE data. We show that the STARE velocities are persistently smaller (1.5–2 times than the EISCAT velocities, even for the multi-pulse data. The effect seems to be more pronounced in the evening sector when the Finland radar observes at large flow angles. We evaluate the performance of the ion-acoustic approach (IAA, Nielsen and Schlegel, 1985 and the off-orthogonal fluid approach (OOFA, Uspensky et al., 2003 techniques to predict the true electron drift velocity for the base event of 12 February 1999. The IAA technique predicts the convection reasonably well for enhanced flows of >~1000m/s, but not so well for slower ones. By considering the EISCAT N(h profiles, we derive the effective aspect angle and effective altitude of backscatter, and use this information for application of the OOFA technique. We demonstrate that the OOFA predictions for the base event are superior over the IAA predictions and thus, we confirm that OOFA predicts the electron velocities reasonably well in the evening sector, in addition to the morning sector, as concluded by Uspensky et al. (2003. To check how "robust" the OOFA model is and how successful it is for convection estimates without the EISCAT support, we analysed three additional evening events and one additional morning event for which information on N(h profiles was intentionally ignored. By accepting the mean STARE/EISCAT velocity ratio of 0.55 and the mean azimuth rotation of 9° (derived for the basic event, we show that the OOFA performs

  17. Collective excitation spectra of transitional even nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quentin, P.; Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay; Deloncle, I.; Libert, J.; Sauvage, J.

    1990-01-01

    This talk is dealing with the nuclear low energy collective motion as described in the context of microscopic versions of the Bohr Hamiltonian. Two different ways of building microscopically Bohr collective Hamiltonians will be sketched; one within the framework of the Generator Coordinate Method, the other using the Adiabatic Time-Dependent Hartree-Fock-Boholyubov approximation. A sample of recent results will be presented which pertains to the description of transitional even nuclei and to the newly revisited phenomenon of superdeformation at low spin

  18. Even flow heaters are besieged by germs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-02-01

    Legionella were, quite naturally, one of the subjects of the international conference on the technical equipment of buildings that took place in Berlin at the end of October. Even in July 1987 the Federal Health Authorities had, as is generally known, published recommendations for diminishing the risk of infection by legionellan. These recommendations suggested various methods. Public administration will have to make special efforts to abide by these suggestions. Dr. Boerner from Lower Saxony's Ministry of Economics, technology and transport reported about the results of the attempt made to minimise legionella contamination by keeping water temperatures relatively low and at the same time operating with small storage containers.

  19. The evens and odds of CMB anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruppuso, A.; Kitazawa, N.; Lattanzi, M.; Mandolesi, N.; Natoli, P.; Sagnotti, A.

    2018-06-01

    The lack of power of large-angle CMB anisotropies is known to increase its statistical significance at higher Galactic latitudes, where a string-inspired pre-inflationary scale Δ can also be detected. Considering the Planck 2015 data, and relying largely on a Bayesian approach, we show that the effect is mostly driven by the even - ℓ harmonic multipoles with ℓ ≲ 20, which appear sizably suppressed in a way that is robust with respect to Galactic masking, along with the corresponding detections of Δ. On the other hand, the first odd - ℓ multipoles are only suppressed at high Galactic latitudes. We investigate this behavior in different sky masks, constraining Δ through even and odd multipoles, and we elaborate on possible implications. We include low- ℓ polarization data which, despite being noise-limited, help in attaining confidence levels of about 3 σ in the detection of Δ. We also show by direct forecasts that a future all-sky E-mode cosmic-variance-limited polarization survey may push the constraining power for Δ beyond 5 σ.

  20. Systematics of even-a polonium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younes, W.; Cizewski, J.A.; Bernstein, L.A.

    1995-01-01

    Polonium nuclei, with two valence protons, provide fertile ground for the study of the onset of collectivity: from the textbook two-particle levels of 210 Po to the phonon-like multiplets of 196 Po. In their earlier work the authors described the low-lying structure of even-A Po nuclei down to 196 Po as two protons interacting via a surface-δ interaction and adiabatically coupled to a vibrating core. However, this particle-core model (PCM) fails to adequately describe the recently measured level scheme of 194 Po. Also because it assumes a pre-existing vibrational core, this model does not help to understand the single particle contributions to the collective motion. Therefore, the authors have also studied the Po systematics using a more microscopic model: the quasi-particle random phase approximation (QRPA). They will present a phenomenological analysis of the rapidity of the onset of collectivity for the Po isotopes as well as results of both PCM and QRPA calculations. The microscopic nature of the collectivity for the even-A Po isotopes will be discussed

  1. Nonlinear self-duality in even dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aschieri, Paolo; Brace, Daniel; Morariu, Bogdan; Zumino, Bruno

    2000-01-01

    We show that the Born-Infeld theory with n complex abelian gauge fields written in an auxiliary field formulation has a U(n, n) duality group. We conjecture the form of the Lagrangian obtained by eliminating the auxiliary fields and then introduce a new reality structure leading to a Born-Infeld theory with n real gauge fields and an Sp(2n, IR) duality symmetry. The real and complex constructions are extended to arbitrary even dimensions. The maximal noncompact duality group is U(n, n) for complex fields. For real fields the duality group is Sp(2n, IR) if half of the dimension of space-time is even and O(n, n) if it is odd. We also discuss duality under the maximal compact subgroup, which is the self-duality group of the theory obtained by fixing the expectation value of a scalar field. Supersymmetric versions of self-dual theories in four dimensions are also discussed

  2. Anisotropy of favoured alpha transitions producing even-even deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, O.A.P.

    1997-05-01

    The anisotropy in favoured alpha transitions which produce even-even deformed nuclei is discussed. A simple, Gamow's-like model which takes into account the quadrupole deformation of the product nucleus has been formulated to calculate the alpha decay half-life. It is assumed that before tunneling into a purely Coulomb potential barrier the two-body system oscillated isotropically, thus giving rise to an equivalent, average preferential polar direction θ 0 (referred to the symmetry axis of the ellipsoidal shape of the product nucleus) for alpha emission in favoured alpha transitions of even-even nuclei. (author)

  3. KT gets even closer to CERN people

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    For several years, the Knowledge Transfer (KT) group has been helping CERN people to disseminate their results, know-how and technologies to new fields of application. This may be anything from working with a school, hospital or a company through a licence or collaboration agreement, to securing CERN’s intellectual property rights or even starting a company. In order to maximise the impact of CERN’s work and to provide a service adapted to its users’ needs, the KT group has launched a survey.   Assessing the needs and wishes of the CERN personnel with regard to knowledge transfer activities: this is the goal of the survey that the KT group has launched this week. “Science and engineering are key disciplines in tackling the fundamental challenges facing the planet, such as energy, security, climate change, the sustainability of natural resources and economic resilience,” says Thierry Lagrange, head of the Finance, Procurement and Knowledge Transfer...

  4. Even nanomechanical modes transduced by integrated photonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westwood-Bachman, J. N.; Diao, Z.; Sauer, V. T. K.; Hiebert, W. K., E-mail: wayne.hiebert@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton T6G 2E1 (Canada); National Institute for Nanotechnology, 11421 Saskatchewan Drive, Edmonton T6G 2M9 (Canada); Bachman, D. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton T6G 2V4 (Canada)

    2016-02-08

    We demonstrate the actuation and detection of even flexural vibrational modes of a doubly clamped nanomechanical resonator using an integrated photonics transduction scheme. The doubly clamped beam is formed by releasing a straight section of an optical racetrack resonator from the underlying silicon dioxide layer, and a step is fabricated in the substrate beneath the beam. The step causes uneven force and responsivity distribution along the device length, permitting excitation and detection of even modes of vibration. This is achieved while retaining transduction capability for odd modes. The devices are actuated via optical force applied with a pump laser. The displacement sensitivities of the first through third modes, as obtained from the thermomechanical noise floor, are 228 fm Hz{sup −1/2}, 153 fm Hz{sup −1/2}, and 112 fm Hz{sup −1/2}, respectively. The excitation efficiency for these modes is compared and modeled based on integration of the uneven forces over the mode shapes. While the excitation efficiency for the first three modes is approximately the same when the step occurs at about 38% of the beam length, the ability to tune the modal efficiency of transduction by choosing the step position is discussed. The overall optical force on each mode is approximately 0.4 pN μm{sup −1} mW{sup −1}, for an applied optical power of 0.07 mW. We show a potential application that uses the resonant frequencies of the first two vibrational modes of a buckled beam to measure the stress in the silicon device layer, estimated to be 106 MPa. We anticipate that the observation of the second mode of vibration using our integrated photonics approach will be useful in future mass sensing experiments.

  5. Even Shallower Exploration with Airborne Electromagnetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auken, E.; Christiansen, A. V.; Kirkegaard, C.; Nyboe, N. S.; Sørensen, K.

    2015-12-01

    Airborne electromagnetics (EM) is in many ways undergoing the same type rapid technological development as seen in the telecommunication industry. These developments are driven by a steadily increasing demand for exploration of minerals, groundwater and geotechnical targets. The latter two areas demand shallow and accurate resolution of the near surface geology in terms of both resistivity and spatial delineation of the sedimentary layers. Airborne EM systems measure the grounds electromagnetic response when subject to either a continuous discrete sinusoidal transmitter signal (frequency domain) or by measuring the decay of currents induced in the ground by rapid transmission of transient pulses (time domain). In the last decade almost all new developments of both instrument hardware and data processing techniques has focused around time domain systems. Here we present a concept for measuring the time domain response even before the transient transmitter current has been turned off. Our approach relies on a combination of new instrument hardware and novel modeling algorithms. The newly developed hardware allows for measuring the instruments complete transfer function which is convolved with the synthetic earth response in the inversion algorithm. The effect is that earth response data measured while the transmitter current is turned off can be included in the inversion, significantly increasing the amount of available information. We demonstrate the technique using both synthetic and field data. The synthetic examples provide insight on the physics during the turn off process and the field examples document the robustness of the method. Geological near surface structures can now be resolved to a degree that is unprecedented to the best of our knowledge, making airborne EM even more attractive and cost-effective for exploration of water and minerals that are crucial for the function of our societies.

  6. Present state and prospect of systematics for the properties of even-even nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yumin; Gu Jinnan

    1993-01-01

    The study of systematics for the properties of even-even nuclei, which is a new research field in nuclei structure, is reviewed. The primary results, including systematic analysis of energy spectra and electromagnetic transition, and the empirical law extracted from experimental data, are presented. It is expected that there will be new developments in the next few years in this fields

  7. Search for α + core states in even-even Cr isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, M.A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Sao Paulo, Departamento de Mecanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Miyake, H. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-15

    The α + core structure is investigated in even-even Cr isotopes from the viewpoint of the local potential model. The comparison of Q{sub α}/A values for even-even Cr isotopes and even-even A = 46, 54, 56, 58 isobars indicates that {sup 46}Cr and {sup 54}Cr are the most favorable even-even Cr isotopes for the α + core configuration. The ground state bands of the two Cr isotopes are calculated through a local α + core potential containing a nuclear term with (1 + Gaussian) x (W.S. + W.S.{sup 3}) shape. The calculated spectra give a very good description of most experimental {sup 46}Cr and {sup 54}Cr levels, including the 0{sup +} bandheads. The reduced α-widths, rms intercluster separations and B(E2) transition rates are determined for the ground state bands. The calculations reproduce the order of magnitude of the available experimental B(E2) values without using effective charges, indicate that the low-spin members of the ground state bands present a stronger α-cluster character, and point out that the {sup 46}Cr ground state band has a significant degree of α-clustering in comparison with {sup 44}Ti. The volume integral per nucleon pair and rms radius obtained for the α + {sup 50}Ti potential are consistent with those reported previously in the analysis of α elastic scattering on {sup 50}Ti. (orig.)

  8. "Towards an even healthier Mediterranean diet".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estruch, R; Salas-Salvadó, J

    2013-12-01

    Dietary guidelines to promote good health are usually based on foods, nutrients, and dietary patterns predictive of chronic disease risk in epidemiologic studies. However, sound nutritional recommendations for cardiovascular prevention should be based on the results of large randomized clinical trials with "hard" end-points as the main outcome. Such evidence has been obtained for the Mediterranean diet from the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) trial and the Lyon Heart Study. The traditional Mediterranean diet was that found in olive growing areas of Crete, Greece, and Southern Italy in the late 1950s. Their major characteristics include: a) a high consumption of cereals, legumes, nuts, vegetables, and fruits; b) a relatively high-fat consumption, mostly provided by olive oil; c) moderate to high fish consumption; d) poultry and dairy products consumed in moderate to small amounts; e) low consumption of red meats, and meat products; and f) moderate alcohol intake, usually in the form of red wine. However, these protective effects of the traditional Mediterranean diet may be even greater if we upgrade the health effects of this dietary pattern changing the common olive oil used for extra-virgin olive oil, increasing the consumption of nuts, fatty fish and whole grain cereals, reducing sodium intake, and maintaining a moderate consumption of wine with meals. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Universal bounds in even-spin CFTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qualls, Joshua D. [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University,Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2015-12-01

    We prove using invariance under the modular S− and ST−transformations that every unitary two-dimensional conformal field theory (CFT) having only even-spin primary operators (with no extended chiral algebra and with right- and left-central charges c,c̃>1) contains a primary operator with dimension Δ{sub 1} satisfying 0<Δ{sub 1}<((c+c̃)/24)+0.09280…. After deriving both analytical and numerical bounds, we discuss how to extend our methods to bound higher conformal dimensions before deriving lower and upper bounds on the number of primary operators in a given energy range. Using the AdS{sub 3}/CFT{sub 2} dictionary, the bound on Δ{sub 1} proves the lightest massive excitation in appropriate theories of 3D matter and gravity with cosmological constant Λ<0 can be no heavier than 1/8G{sub N}+O(√(−Λ)); the bounds on the number of operators are related via AdS/CFT to the entropy of states in the dual gravitational theory. In the flat-space approximation, the limiting mass is exactly that of the lightest BTZ black hole.

  10. Quartetting in even-even and odd-odd N=Z nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambataro, M.; Sandulescu, N.

    2018-02-01

    We report on a microscopic description of even-even N = Z nuclei in a formalism of quartets. Quartets are four-body correlated structures characterized by isospin T and angular momentum J. We show that the ground state correlations induced by a realistic shell model interaction can be well accounted for in terms of a restricted set of T = 0 low-J quartets, the J = 0 one playing by far a leading role among them. A conceptually similar description of odd-odd self-conjugate nuclei is given in terms of two distinct families of building blocks, one formed by the same T = 0 quartets employed for the even-even systems and the other by collective pairs with either T = 0 or T = 1. Some applications of this formalism are discussed for nuclei in the sd shell.

  11. Microscopic description of average level spacing in even-even nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huong, Le Thi Quynh; Hung, Nguyen Quang; Phuc, Le Tan

    2017-01-01

    A microscopic theoretical approach to the average level spacing at the neutron binding energy in even-even nuclei is proposed. The approach is derived based on the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory at finite temperature and projection M of the total angular momentum J , which is often used to describe the superfluid properties of hot rotating nuclei. The exact relation of the J -dependent total level density to the M -dependent state densities, based on which the average level spacing is calculated, was employed. The numerical calculations carried out for several even-even nuclei have shown that in order to reproduce the experimental average level spacing, the M -dependent pairing gaps as well as the exact relation of the J -dependent total level density formula should be simultaneously used. (paper)

  12. Multiphonon states in even-even spherical nuclei. Pt.1. Calculation of the overlap matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piepenbring, R.; Protasov, K.V.; Silvestre-Brac, B.

    1995-01-01

    The multiphonon method, previously developed for deformed nuclei is extended to the case of even-even spherical nuclei. Recursion formulae, well suited for numerical calculations are given for the overlap matrix elements. The method is illustrated for a single j-shell, where S-, D-, G-, .. phonons are introduced. In such an approach, the Pauli principle is fully and properly taken into account. ((orig.))

  13. Rotational-vibrational states of nonaxial deformable even-even nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porodzinskii, Yu.V.; Sukhovitskii, E.Sh.

    1991-01-01

    The rotational-vibrational excitations of nonaxial even-even nuclei are studied on the basis of a Hamiltonian operator with five dynamical variables. Explicit forms of the wave functions and energies of the rotational-vibrational excitations of such nuclei are obtained. The experimental energies of excited positive-parity states of the 238 U nucleus and those calculated in terms of the model discussed in the article are compared

  14. Spin-dependent γ softness or triaxiality in even-even 132-138Nd nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Qing-Zhen; Wang, Hua-Lei; Yang, Qiong; Liu, Min-Liang

    2015-02-01

    The properties of γ instability in rapidly rotating even-even 132-138Nd isotopes have been investigated using the pairing-deformation self-consistent total-Routhian-surface calculations in a deformation space of (β2, γ, β4). It is found that even-even 134-138Nd nuclei exhibit triaxiality in both ground and excited states, even up to high-spin states. The lightest isotope possesses a well-deformed prolate shape without a γ deformation component. The current numerical results are compared with previous calculations and available observables such as quadrupole deformation β2 and the feature of γ-band levels, showing basically a general agreement with the observed trend of γ correlations (e.g. the pattern of the odd-even energy staggering of the γ band). The existing differences between theory and experiment are analyzed and discussed briefly. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (10805040,11175217), Foundation and Advanced Technology Research Program of Henan Province(132300410125) and S & T Research Key Program of Henan Province Education Department (13A140667)

  15. Low-spin identical bands in neighboring odd-A and even-even nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baktash, C.; Winchell, D.F.; Garrett, J.D.; Smith, A.

    1992-01-01

    A comprehensive study of odd-A rotational bands in normally deformed rare-earth nuclei indicates that a large number of seniority-one configurations (21% for odd-Z nuclei) at low spin have moments of inertia nearly identical to that of the seniority-zero configuration of the neighboring even-even nucleus with one less nucleon. It is difficult to reconcile these results with conventional models of nuclear pair correlation, which predict variations of about 15% in the moments of inertia of configurations differing by one unit in seniority

  16. Global set of quadrupole deformation parameters for even-even nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman, S.; Nestor, C.W. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A compilation of experimental results has been completed for the reduced electric quadrupole transition probability [B(E2)up arrow] between the 0 + ground state and the first 2 + state in even-even nuclei. This compilation together with certain simple relationships noted by other authors can be used to make reasonable predictions of unmeasured B(E2)up arrow values. The quadrupole deformation parameter β 2 immediately follows, because β 2 is proportional to [B(E2)up arrow]/sup 1/2/. 8 refs., 7 figs

  17. Low-spin identical bands in neighboring odd-A and even-even nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baktash, C.; Winchell, D.F.; Garrett, J.D.; Smith, A.

    1993-01-01

    A comprehensive study of odd-A rotational bands in normally deformed rare-earth nuclei indicates that a large number of seniority-one configurations (21 % for odd-Z nuclei) at low spin have moments of inertia nearly identical to that of the seniority-zero configuration of the neighboring even-even nucleus with one less nucleon. It is difficult to reconcile these results with conventional models of nuclear pair correlation, which predict variations of about 15% in the moments of inertia of configurations differing by one unit in seniority. (orig.)

  18. Low-lying collective quadrupole and octupole strengths in even-even nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman, S.; Nestor, C.W. Jr.; Kahane, S.; Bhatt, K.H.

    1991-01-01

    The B(E2)↑ values for the first 2 + state of even-even nuclei in the Z≥50 region are compared with the predictions of several theoretical models. Comparative estimates of the overall agreement with the data are provided. Gaps and discrepancies in the data and examples that show interesting features such as shape changes are discussed. The B(E2)↑ values are examined critically to search for the dynamical Pauli effects predicted by the fermion dynamic symmetry model. The empirical B(E2)↑ and B(E3)↑ systematics are employed to obtain a measure of the harmonicity of the quadrupole and octupole vibrations. The fraction of the energy-weighted sum-rule strength exhausted by the sum of all known low-lying 2 + states below 2.3 MeV is found to be surprisingly constant in the 60< A<250 region except near closed shells

  19. Alpha decay and nuclear deformation: the case for favoured alpha transitions of even-even emitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, F. [Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilheus, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas; Rodriguez, O.; Guzman, F. [Instituto Superior de Ciencias y Tecnologia Nucleares (ISCTN), La Habana (Cuba); Goncalves, M. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria IRD/CNEN, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Duarte, S.B.; Tavares, O.A.P. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). E-mail: sbd@cbpf.br

    2000-02-01

    Alpha-decay half-life for ground-state transitions of 174 even-even alpha emitters has been calculated from a simple, Gamow-like model in which the quadrupole deformation of the product nucleus (assumed to have an ellipsoidal shape) is taken into account. The assumption made is that before tunneling through a purely Coulomb potential barrier the two-body system oscillates isotropically, thus giving rise to an equivalent, average polar direction {theta} (referred to the symmetry axis of the ellipsoid) for alpha emission. It is shown that the experimental half-life data are much better reproduced by the present description than in the spherical-shaped approximation for the daughter nucleus. (author)

  20. Alpha decay and nuclear deformation: the case for favoured alpha transitions of even-even emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, F.; Goncalves, M.; Duarte, S.B.; Tavares, O.A.P.

    2000-02-01

    Alpha-decay half-life for ground-state transitions of 174 even-even alpha emitters has been calculated from a simple, Gamow-like model in which the quadrupole deformation of the product nucleus (assumed to have an ellipsoidal shape) is taken into account. The assumption made is that before tunneling through a purely Coulomb potential barrier the two-body system oscillates isotropically, thus giving rise to an equivalent, average polar direction θ (referred to the symmetry axis of the ellipsoid) for alpha emission. It is shown that the experimental half-life data are much better reproduced by the present description than in the spherical-shaped approximation for the daughter nucleus. (author)

  1. Damping of isovector giant dipole resonances in hot even-even spherical nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, N.D.

    1989-01-01

    An approach based on the finite temperature quasiparticle phonon nuclear model (FT-QPNM) with the couplings to (2p2h) states at finite temperature taken into account is suggested for calculations of the damping of giant multipole resonances in hot even-even spherical nuclei. The strength functions for the isovector giant dipole resonance (IV-GDR) are calculated in 58 Ni and 90 Zr for a range of temperatures up to 3 MeV. The results show that the contribution of the interactions with (2p2h) configurations to the IV-GDR spreading width changes weakly with varying temperature. The IV-GDR centroid energy decreases slightly with increasing temperature. The nonvanishing superfluid pairing gap due to thermal fluctuations is included. (orig.)

  2. Collective motions and band structures in A = 60 to 80, even--even nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, J.H.; Robinson, R.L.; Ramayya, A.V.

    1978-01-01

    Evidence for and the theoretical understanding of the richness of the collective band structures as illustrated by at least seven bands seen in levels of 68 Ge, 74 Se are reviewed. The experimental data on even-even nuclei in the A = 60 to 80 region have now revealed a wide variety of collective bands with different structures. The even parity yrast cascades alone are seen to involve multiple collective structures. In addition to the ground-state bands, strong evidence is presented for both neutron and proton rotation-aligned bands built on the same orbital, (g 9 / 2 ) 2 , in one nucleus. Several other nuclei also show the crossing of RAL bands around the 8 + level in this region. Evidence continues to be strong experimentally and supported theoretically that there is some type of shape transition and shape coexistence occurring now both in the Ge and Se isotopes around N = 40. Negative parity bands with odd and even spins with very collective nature are seen in several nuclei to high spin. These bands seem best understood in the RAL model. Very collective bands with ΔI = 1, extending from 2 + to 9 + are seen with no rotation-alignment. The purity of these bands and their persistence to such high spin establish them as an independent collective mode which is best described as a gamma-type vibration band in a deformed nucleus. In addition to all of the above bands, new bands are seen in 76 Kr and 74 Se. The nature of these bands is not presently known. 56 references

  3. Quasi-SU(3) truncation scheme for even-even sd-shell nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, C.E.; Hirsch, J.G.; Draayer, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    The quasi-SU(3) symmetry was uncovered in full pf and sdg shell-model calculations for both even-even and odd-even nuclei. It manifests itself through a dominance of single-particle and quadrupole-quadrupole terms in a Hamiltonian used to describe well-deformed nuclei. A practical consequence of the quasi-SU(3) symmetry is an efficient basis truncation scheme. In [C.E. Vargas et al., Phys. Rev. C 58 (1998) 1488] it is shown that when this type of Hamiltonian is diagonalized in an SU(3) basis, only a few irreducible representations (irreps) of SU(3) are needed to describe the yrast band, the leading S=0 irrep augmented with the leading S=1 irreps in the proton and neutron subspaces. In the present article the quasi-SU(3) truncation scheme is used, in conjunction with a 'realistic but schematic' Hamiltonian that includes the most important multipole terms, to describe the energy spectra and B(E2) transition strengths of 20,22 Ne, 24 Mg and 28 Si. The effect of the size of the Hilbert space on both sets of observables is discussed, as well as the structure of the yrast band and the importance of the various terms in the Hamiltonian. The limitations of the model are explicitly discussed

  4. Quasi-SU(3) truncation scheme for even-even sd-shell nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, C.E. E-mail: cvargas@fis.cinvestav.mx; Hirsch, J.G. E-mail: hirsch@nuclecu.unam.mx; Draayer, J.P. E-mail: draayer@lsu.edu

    2001-07-30

    The quasi-SU(3) symmetry was uncovered in full pf and sdg shell-model calculations for both even-even and odd-even nuclei. It manifests itself through a dominance of single-particle and quadrupole-quadrupole terms in a Hamiltonian used to describe well-deformed nuclei. A practical consequence of the quasi-SU(3) symmetry is an efficient basis truncation scheme. In [C.E. Vargas et al., Phys. Rev. C 58 (1998) 1488] it is shown that when this type of Hamiltonian is diagonalized in an SU(3) basis, only a few irreducible representations (irreps) of SU(3) are needed to describe the yrast band, the leading S=0 irrep augmented with the leading S=1 irreps in the proton and neutron subspaces. In the present article the quasi-SU(3) truncation scheme is used, in conjunction with a 'realistic but schematic' Hamiltonian that includes the most important multipole terms, to describe the energy spectra and B(E2) transition strengths of {sup 20,22}Ne, {sup 24}Mg and {sup 28}Si. The effect of the size of the Hilbert space on both sets of observables is discussed, as well as the structure of the yrast band and the importance of the various terms in the Hamiltonian. The limitations of the model are explicitly discussed.

  5. Coexistence in even-even nuclei with emphasis on the germanium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carchidi, M.A.V.

    1985-01-01

    No simple model to date can explain in a self-consistent way the results of direct transfer data and BE2 electromagnetic rates in the germanium isotopes. The simplest models use a two-state interaction for describing the ground state and first excited O + state. In all cases, these models can account for some of the data, but they are in drastic conflict with other experimental measurements. In this thesis, it is shown that a two-state model can consistently account for two-neutron and alpha transfer O + 2 /g.s. cross-section ratio data in the germanium region (ie. zinc, germanium, and selenium), proton occupation number data in the ground states of the even stable zinc, germanium, and selenium isotopes, and BE2 transition rates in isotopes of germanium and zinc. In addition the author can account for most of the one-neutron and two-neutron transfer O + 2 /g.s. and (9/2 + 2 )/(9/2 + 1 ) cross-section ratio data in the odd-mass germanium isotopes. In this generalized two-state model (called Rerg1), the author makes as few assumptions as possible about the nature of the basis states; rather the author allows the experimental data to dictate the properties of the basis-state overlaps. In this sense, the author has learned much about the basis states and has a useful tool for constructing them. The author also shows that the Rerg1 model can quantitatively account for all two-neutron O + 2 /g.s. cross-section ratio data in all even-even nuclei from calcium to uranium

  6. A united phenomenological description of quadrupole excitations in even-even nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipas, P.O.; Haapakoski, P.; Honkaranta, T.

    1975-05-01

    A phenomenological model is developed for the collective quadrupole properties of all even-even nuclei. Rotational, vibrational, and transitional nuclei are included in the model on an equal footing. A Bohr-type intrinsic Hamiltonian for harmonic quadrupole vibrations about an axially deformed shape is solved exactly. States of good angular momentum are projected out of the intrinsic states, and they are made orthogonal by a Schmidt scheme. The angular-momentum and phonon-number composition of the states is analyzed at various stages; states with K=1 are found spurious. Excitation energies for the ground, β and γ bands are calculated as expectation values of a radically simplified nuclear Hamiltonian in our projected and orthogonalized states. With increasing deformation the calculated energies evolve smoothly from the evenly spaced phonon spectrum to the Bohr-Mottelson rotational-vibrational spectrum according to the scheme of Sheline and Sakai. The basic model contains only two parameters (deformation d and energy scale) to fix the entire quadrupole spectrum of a nucleus. The results are given in the form of graphs suitable for immediate application; numerical results are readily produced by our computer code. The ground bands are fitted comparably to the VMI model, while the β and γ bands are reproduced qualitatively. The nuclei 152 Sm, 152 Gd, and 114 Cd are used as test cases. Quadrupole moments and E2 transition rates are also calculated. Intra-ground-band transition ratios and branching ratios from the β and γ bands are given in terms of the single parameter d. The results are applied to 152 Sm, with fair success. Finally the model to include two more parameters (anisotropy) is extended. The improvement over the basic model is modest in view of added parameters and computational effort. (author)

  7. Comparison of the Porter-Thomas distribution with neutron resonance data of even-even nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camarda, H.S.

    1994-01-01

    The low-energy neutron resonance data of the even-even nuclei 152 Sm, 158 Gd, 162 Dy, 166,168 Er, 182 W, 232 Th, and 236,238 U have been examined in order to test the validity of the Porter-Thomas distribution of the reduced neutron widths---a chi-squared distribution with one degree of freedom (v=1). In an attempt to circumvent the ever-present problems of missed or spurious s wave levels as well as extra p wave levels, a maximum likelihood statistic was employed which used only measured widths greater than some minimum value. A Bayes-theory test applied to the data helped to ensure that p wave contamination of the s wave level population was not significant. The error-weighted value of the number of degrees of freedom for the nine nuclei studied, left-angle v right-angle=0.98±0.10, is consistent with the theoretical expectation of v=1

  8. Reduced widths of alpha -decay of near-magic even-even nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Kar Yan, N

    1972-01-01

    Precision on-line investigations on the linear heavy-ion Berkeley accelerator, and on the CERN synchrophasotron were carried out recently on new alpha -emitters. The results obtained are analysed with a view to finding the degree of correspondence, or disagreement, with the authors' own ideas about alpha -decay processes. The discussion is confined to examining even isotopes of polonium, radon, radium and thorium Several theoretical and experimental plots are given of reduced widths of alpha -disintegration for different regions of shell filling and a comparison is made between barrier penetration coefficients, obtained by rigorous methods and with the aid of WKB- approximation, for /sup 212/Po, /sup 208/Po and /sup 212/Po isotopes. (24 refs).

  9. Prediction of energies of yrast band in some even-even nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varshney, A.K.; Singh, Yuvraj; Gupta, D.K.; Singh, M.; Gupta, K.K.; Bihari, Chhail; Dhiman, S.K.

    2012-01-01

    The deformation parameter β and γ of the collective model of Bohr and Mottelson are basic descriptors of the nuclear equilibrium shape and structure. The researchers found that the values of γ obtained from energies (= γ e ) are nearly equal to the value of γ derived from transition rate (= γ b ) in even Xe, Ba and Ce nuclei (A∼120-140) and Hf, W, Os, Pt and Hg nuclei (A∼160-200) using rigid triaxial rotor model of Davydov-Filippov. In the present study, the relatively light mass nuclei (Mo, Ru and Pd) have been taken. As far as γ is concerned, it is known that the Ru chains of nuclei is intermediate between the two having opposite trends for parameter γ, decreasing for Mo and increasing for Pd, and has an irregular behaviour in itself with the increase of neutron number

  10. Fragmentation of two-quasiparticle states in 92Zr and even-even Sn isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solov'ev, V.G.; Stoyanova, O.; Voronov, V.V.

    1981-01-01

    The fragmentation of two-quasiparticle states in doubly even spherical nuclei is calculated within the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model. The fragmentation is due to the interactions leading to the formation of phonons and to the quasiparticle-phonon interaction. The spectroscopic factors for the ''particle-valence particle'' states in 92 Zr are calculated. The agreement with the experimental data of the reaction 91 Zr(d, p) 92 Zr is obtained. The centroid energy Esub(jjsub(0)) and width GITAsub(jjsub(0)) are calculated for the configurations excited in the (p, d) reactions on odd-A isotopes of Cd, Sn and Te. It is shown that the valence particle-hole lgsub(9/2) configuration is localized at the excitation energies of 7-9 MeV. The corresponding experimental data are well described

  11. Systematics of B(E2;01+→21+) values for even-even nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman, S.; Nestor, C.W. Jr.; Bhatt, K.H.

    1988-01-01

    We have completed a compilation of experimental results for the electric quadrupole transition probability B(E2)up-arrow between the 0 + ground state and the first 2 + state in even-even nuclei. The adopted B(E2)up-arrow values have been employed to test the various systematic, empirical, and theoretical relationships proposed by several authors (Grodzins, Bohr and Mottelson, Wang et al., Ross and Bhaduri, Patnaik et al., Hamamoto, Casten, Moeller and Nix, and Kumar) on a global, local, or regional basis. These systematics offer methods for making reasonable predictions of unmeasured B(E2) values. For nuclei away from closed shells, the SU(3) limit of the intermediate boson approximation implies that the B(E2)up-arrow values are proportional to (e/sub p/N/sub p/+e/sub n/N/sub n/) 2 , where e/sub p /(e/sub n/) is the proton (neutron) effective charge and N/sub p/ (N/sub n/) refers to the number of valence protons (neutrons). This proportionality is consistent with the observed behavior of B(E2)up-arrow vs N/sub p/N/sub n/. For deformed nuclei and the actinides, the B(E2)up-arrow values calculated in a schematic single-particle ''SU(3)'' simulation or large single-j simulation of major shells successfully reproduce not only the empirical variation of the B(E2)up-arrow values but also the observed saturation of these values when plotted against N/sub p/N/sub n/. .AE

  12. Predicting the optical observables for nucleon scattering on even-even actinides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyanov, D. S.; Soukhovitskiĩ, E. Sh.; Capote, R.; Quesada, J. M.; Chiba, S.

    2017-09-01

    The previously derived Lane consistent dispersive coupled-channel optical model for nucleon scattering on 232Th and 238U nuclei is extended to describe scattering on even-even actinides with Z = 90-98. A soft-rotator-model (SRM) description of the low-lying nuclear structure is used, where the SRM Hamiltonian parameters are adjusted to the observed collective levels of the target nucleus. SRM nuclear wave functions (mixed in K quantum number) have been used to calculate the coupling matrix elements of the generalized optical model. The “effective” deformations that define inter-band couplings are derived from the SRM Hamiltonian parameters. Conservation of nuclear volume is enforced by introducing a dynamic monopolar term to the deformed potential, leading to additional couplings between rotational bands. The fitted static deformation parameters are in very good agreement with those derived by Wang and collaborators using the Weizsäcker-Skyrme global mass model (WS4), allowing use of the latter to predict cross sections for nuclei without experimental data. A good description of the scarce “optical” experimental database is achieved. SRM couplings and volume conservation allow a precise calculation of the compound-nucleus formation cross sections, which is significantly different from that calculated with rigid-rotor potentials coupling the ground-state rotational band. The derived parameters can be used to describe both neutron- and proton-induced reactions. Supported by International Atomic Energy Agency, through the IAEA Research Contract 19263, by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitivity under Contracts FPA2014-53290-C2-2-P and FPA2016-77689-C2-1-R.

  13. Validity of single term energy expression for ground state rotational band of even-even nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S.; Kumar, R.; Gupta, J.B.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: There are large numbers of empirical studies of gs band of even-even nuclei in various mass regions. The Bohr-Mottelson's energy expression is E(I) = AX + BX 2 +CX 3 +... where X = I(I+1). The anharmonic vibrator energy expression is: E(I) = al + bl 2 + cl 3 SF model with energy expression: E(I)= pX + qI + rXI... where the terms represents the rotational, vibrational and R-V interaction energy, respectively. The validity f the various energy expressions with two terms had been tested by Sharma for light, medium and heavy mass regions using R I s. R 4 plots (where, spin I=6, 8, 10, 12), which are parameter independent. It was also noted, that of the goodness of energy expression can be judged with the minimum input of energies (i.e. only 2 parameters) and predictability's of the model p to high spins. Recently, Gupta et. al proposed a single term energy expression (SSTE) which was applied for rare earth region. This proposed power law reflected the unity of rotation - vibration in a different way and was successful in explaining the structure of gs-band. It will be useful for test the single term energy expression for light and heavy mass region. The single term expression for energy of ground state band can be written as: E I =axI b , where the index b and the coefficient a are the constant for the band. The values of b+1 and a 1 are as follows: b 1 =log(R 1 )/log(I/2) and a 1 =E I /I b ... The following results were gained: 1) The sharp variation in the value of index b at given spin will be an indication of the change in the shape of the nucleus; 2) The value of E I /I b is fairly constant with spin below back-bending, which reflects the stability of shape with spin; 3) This proposed power law is successful in explaining the structure of gs-band of nuclei

  14. Break-even analysis in a nurse-managed center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBryde-Foster, Merry J

    2005-01-01

    The concept of break-even analysis as a financial assessment tool is defined and demonstrated in evaluation of a proposed nurse-managed center. The advantages of using break-even analysis during proposal development are explored.

  15. n-Colour even self-inverse compositions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An -colour even self-inverse composition is defined as an -colour self-inverse composition with even parts. In this paper, we get generating functions, explicit formulas and recurrence formulas for -colour even self-inverse compositions. One new binomial identity is also obtained.

  16. Calculation of ground state deformation of even-even rare-earth nuclei in sdg interacting boson model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Baolin

    1995-01-01

    The analytical calculation of the nuclear ground state deformation of the even-even isotopes in the rare-earth region is given by utilizing the intrinsic states of the sdg interacting boson model. It is compared systematically with the reported theoretical and experimental results. It is shown that the sdg interacting boson model is a reasonable scheme for the description of even-even nuclei deformation

  17. Nuclear spectroscopy of doubly-even130,132Ba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Anuradha; Gupta, Surbhi; Singh, Suram; Bharti, Arun

    2018-05-01

    A comparative study of some high-spin characteristic nuclear structure properties of doubly-even 130,132Ba nuclei has been made using two microscopic frameworks - CHFB and PSM. The yrast spectra, intrinsic quadrupole moment and deformation systematics of these nuclei have been successfully calculated. Further, the calculated data from both the frameworks is also compared with the available experimental data and a good agreement has been obtained. The present CHFB calculations describes very well the low spin structure of even-even 130,132Ba nuclei whereas PSM calculations provide a qualitative description of the high-spin band structure of doubly-even 130,132Ba nuclei.

  18. Even and odd symplectic and Kaehlerian structures on projective superspaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khudaverdyan, O.M.; Nersessyan, A.P.

    1992-01-01

    Supergeneralization of CP(N) provided by even and odd Kaehlerian structures from Hamiltonian reduction are construct. Operator Δ which used in Batalin - Vilkovsky quantization formalism and mechanics which are bi-Hamiltonian under corresponding even and odd Poisson brackets are considered. 21 refs

  19. Formulation of Hamiltonian mechanics with even and odd Poisson brackets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khudaverdyan, O.M.; Nersesyan, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    A possibility is studied as to constrict the odd Poisson bracket and odd Hamiltonian by the given dynamics in phase superspace - the even Poisson bracket and even Hamiltonian so the transition to the new structure does not change the equations of motion. 9 refs

  20. How applicable is even-aged silviculture in the northeast?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph H. Griffin

    1977-01-01

    The applicability of even-aged silviculture in the management of forest stands in the Northeast is examined through consideration of the forest stand, stand development, intermediate cuttings, and regeneration methods. It is concluded that even-aged silviculture is quite applicable in the management of forest stands in the Northeast.

  1. Faith Development of the Teenager during the Sunday Evening ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From church conversations with teenagers (born between 1974 and 1994), publications in recent times appeared worldwide and the qualitative investigation in the article is utilized. It seems there are problems in the practice of the faith formation of teenagers in the evening service. The aim of an evening service must ...

  2. Distinct Evening Fatigue Profiles in Oncology Outpatients Receiving Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Fay; Cooper, Bruce A.; Conley, Yvette P.; Hammer, Marilyn J.; Chen, Lee-May; Paul, Steven M.; Levine, Jon D.; Miaskowski, Christine; Kober, Kord M.

    2018-01-01

    Background Fatigue is the most common and debilitating symptom experienced by oncology patients during chemotherapy (CTX). Fatigue severity demonstrates a large amount of inter-individual and diurnal variability. Purpose Study purposes were to evaluate for subgroups of patients with distinct evening fatigue profiles and evaluate how these subgroups differed on demographic, clinical, and symptom characteristics. Methods Outpatients with breast, gastrointestinal, gynecological, or lung cancer (n=1332) completed questionnaires six times over two cycles of CTX. Lee Fatigue Scale (LFS) evaluated evening fatigue severity. Latent profile analysis was used to identify distinct evening fatigue profiles. Results Four distinct evening fatigue classes (i.e., Low (14.0%), Moderate (17.2%), High (36.0%), Very High (32.8%)) were identified. Compared to the Low class, patients in the Very High evening fatigue class were: younger, female, had childcare responsibilities, had more years of education, had a lower functional status, had a higher comorbidity burden, and were diagnosed with breast cancer. Patients in the Very High class reported higher levels of depressive symptoms, sleep disturbance, and evening fatigue at enrollment. Conclusions Findings provide new insights into modifiable risk factors for higher levels of evening fatigue. Clinicians can use this information to identify higher risk patients and plan appropriate interventions. PMID:29725554

  3. “Malaysia-China Friendship Evening 2009”Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Our Staff Reporter

    2009-01-01

    <正>The CPAFFC, the Embassy of Malaysia in China, the Malaysia-China Friendship Association and the Malaysia-China Business Council jointly hosted the "Malaysia-China Friendship Evening 2009"at the Conference Hall of the Chi-

  4. Odd - even staggering, a result of γ - band split

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, M.; Gupta, D.K.; Singh, Yuvraj; Gupta, K.K.; Bihari, Chhail; Sharma, Aparna; Varshney, A.K.; Varshney, Mani

    2011-01-01

    The structure of low - lying K = 2+ gamma band in even - even nuclei represents quadrupole vibration breaking axial symmetry in unified collective model of Bohr-Mottelson. In the group theoretical approach of the Interacting boson model (IBM) the band structure can belong to one of the three limiting symmetries of U (6) algebra viz. U (5), SU (3) and O (6), corresponding to the anharmonic vibrator, deformed rotor and γ - unstable respectively

  5. The first observation of EO transitions from negative parity states in even-even nucleus 160Dy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoriev, E.P.

    1988-01-01

    In even-even deformed nuclei up to now EO-transitions were found only between the states of the same spin belonging to Κ π = O + rotational bands. There is no forbidenness for EO-transitions between states belonging to bands with any other quantum number Κ provided both initial and final states have the same J π Κ values. EO-transitions may depopulate odd-parity states. In odd nuclei β-vibrational states are identified by transition with EO-components. Here transitions also proceed between states with the same J π K numbers. Even-even nuclide 160 Dy is the first nucleus where the EO-transitions between odd-parity states have been found

  6. Systematic study of even-even nuclei with Hartree-Fock+BCS method using Skyrme SIII force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajima, Naoki; Takahara, Satoshi; Onishi, Naoki [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Coll. of Arts and Sciences

    1997-03-01

    We have applied the Hartree-Fock+BCS method with Skyrme SIII force formulated in a three-dimensional Cartesian-mesh representation to even-even nuclei with 2 {<=} Z {<=} 114. We discuss the results concerning the atomic masses, the quadrupole (m=0, 2) and hexadecapole (m=0, 2, 4) deformations, the skin thicknesses, and the halo radii. We also discuss the energy difference between oblate and prolate solutions and the shape difference between protons and neutrons. (author)

  7. The neutron-proton pairing and the moments of inertia of the rare earth even-even nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calik, A. E.; Deniz, C.; Gerceklioglu, M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the possible effect of the neutron-proton pairing interaction in the heavy nuclei has been investigated in the framework of the BCS model by making a simple approximation. This effect has been searched realistically by calculating the moments of inertia of deformed even-even nuclei. Calculations show that the moments of inertia of rare earth nuclei changed dramatically and approached the experimental values.

  8. Pushing the pseudo-SU(3) model towards its limits: Excited bands in even-even Dy isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, Carlos E.; Hirsch, Jorge G.

    2004-01-01

    The energetics of states belonging to normal parity bands in even-even dysprosium isotopes, and their B(E2) transition strengths, are studied using an extended pseudo-SU(3) shell model. States with pseudospin 1 are added to the standard pseudospin 0 space, allowing for a proper description of known excited normal parity bands. A realistic Hamiltonian is employed. Both the success of model and its limitations are discussed

  9. Geogrid reinforced road subgrade influence on the pavement evenness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šiukščius, A.; Vorobjovas, V.; Vaitkus, A.

    2018-05-01

    As a result of increasing geogrid reinforcement applications in the road subgrade, there are number of projects where geogrid reinforcement is used to control road pavement evenness when there are small layers of peat or mud deeper under road construction. For this task geogrid reinforcement application is not documented but widely used in Lithuania for over a decade. This paper evaluates the long term influence of the geogrid reinforced soil influence on the road surface evenness, when the organic soils stratify in the deeper layers of the subgrade. The geological conditions of the investigated sections are reviewed. The experiment methodology and test results are described, which leads to the conclusions and insights how the pavement evenness depend on the geological conditions and its enhancement. The question is raised about the need for including this geogrid application to the normative documentation. Explanation of the problems that are encountered and the need for further research is given.

  10. Use break-even analysis to optimize bit runs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, J. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Applying a technique known as break-even analysis during the bit selection process enables the operator to more definitively estimate drilling costs. The break-even chart can be used in a variety of ways to evaluate bit and operating parameter alternatives. Frequent application of this technique significantly improves the user's understanding of drilling economics and their ability to plan more effective drilling programs. This paper reports on several examples of drilling cost estimates obtained through application of the break-even analysis, which determines the bit performance required to match established drilling cost records in similar applications. It is especially helpful when new bit features are being considered for the first time. Two common examples with today's rolling cutter bits are changes from steel teeth to tungsten carbide inserts (TCI) and O-ring to metal bearing seals

  11. Apparatus Producing an Even Distribution of Strain into Carries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrabovský, Leopold

    2017-10-01

    In many high-rise residential buildings or multi-storey warehouses, machinery, so called lifts, is used for the vertical transportation of people or weights between two or more altitudinally distant places. Carriers used for lifts are steel ropes or sprocket chains, on which a cage or a counterbalance is hinged. Apparatus of all carriers, attached to the hinge of the cage or counterbalance, should be even. This can be made only by hammer hinge. Fixed or springe hinge cannot be a perfect equalizing apparatus. This article describes an apparatus, which allows an even distribution of the strain into lift carriers, which use springe hinge of carrier ropes.

  12. A Faster Algorithm to Recognize Even-Hole-Free Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Hsien-Chih; Lu, Hsueh-I

    2013-01-01

    We study the problem of determining whether an $n$-node graph $G$ has an even hole, i.e., an induced simple cycle consisting of an even number of nodes. Conforti, Cornu\\'ejols, Kapoor, and Vu\\v{s}kovi\\'c gave the first polynomial-time algorithm for the problem, which runs in $O(n^{40})$ time. Later, Chudnovsky, Kawarabayashi, and Seymour reduced the running time to $O(n^{31})$. The best previously known algorithm for the problem, due to da Silva and Vu\\v{s}kovi\\'c, runs in $O(n^{19})$ time. I...

  13. Feeding styles and evening family meals among recent immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The protective effect of family meals on unhealthy weight gain and diet has been shown across multiple age groups; however, it is unknown whether a similar effect is present among diverse immigrant populations. In addition, little research has focused on factors associated with the frequency of evening family meals, such as feeding styles (how parents interact with their child around feeding). Therefore the goals of this paper are to explore the 1) association between the frequency of evening family meals and child weight status among new immigrant families, and 2) influence of immigrant mothers’ feeding styles on the frequency of evening family meals. Baseline self-reported socio-demographic information and measured heights and weights were collected for both mother and child (age range: 3–12 years) among 387 mother-child dyads enrolled in Live Well, a community-based, participatory-research, randomized controlled lifestyle intervention to prevent excessive weight gain in recent (eating dinner in front of the TV, acculturation and responses to the Caregiver’s Feeding Styles Questionnaire (CFSQ) were also obtained from the mother. Children were categorized as “eating evening family meals regularly” if they had an evening family meal ≥5 times per week. Overall, 20% of children were overweight and 25% were obese. Less than half (40.9%) of families had regular evening family meals. In multivariate analyses, adjusting for covariates, children who were overweight/obese were significantly less likely to have ≥5 evening family meals/week compared with normal weight children (OR = 0.51, 95% CI 0.32-0.82) . Mothers who had a low demanding/high responsive or a low demanding/low responsive feeding style, were less likely to have ≥5 evening family meals/week compared to mothers with a high demanding/high responsive feeding style (OR = 0.41, 95% CI 0.18-0.0.96, OR = 0.33, 95% CI 0.13-0.87, respectively). Future interventions and programs that seek

  14. Nonfatal bicycle accident risk after an evening of alcohol consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verster, J.C.; van Herwijnen, J.; Volkerts, E.R.; Olivier, B.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: After an evening of alcohol consumption, blood alcohol concentration (BAC) may reach intoxication levels above legal limits for operating a car or bicycle. In the Netherlands, legal limits for participating in traffic are 0.05% for experienced drivers and 0.02% for novice drivers. The

  15. Under the Law: Vouchers Multiply Even without Public Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Public funding of private K-12 schooling through vouchers continues to be a contentious issue across the U.S., even though a solid majority of Americans continues to oppose them. The voucher plans run the risk of legal challenge for how they handle the rights of students with disabilities and whether they violate state constitutional provisions…

  16. Feeding styles and evening family meals among recent immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    The protective effect of family meals on unhealthy weight gain and diet has been shown across multiple age groups; however, it is unknown whether a similar effect is present among diverse immigrant populations. In addition, little research has focused on factors associated with the frequency of even...

  17. The memory effect for particle scattering in even spacetime dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfinkle, David; Hollands, Stefan; Ishibashi, Akihiro; Tolish, Alexander; Wald, Robert M.

    2017-07-01

    We explicitly calculate the gravitational wave memory effect for classical point particle sources in linearized gravity off an even dimensional Minkowski background. We show that there is no memory effect in d  >  4 dimensions, in agreement with the general analysis of Hollands et al (2016 arXiv:1612.03290).

  18. Break-Even Point for a Proof Slip Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James F.

    1972-01-01

    Break-even analysis is applied to determine what magnitude of titles added per year is sufficient to utilize economically Library of Congress proof slips and a Xerox 914 copying machine in the cataloging operation of a library. A formula is derived, and an example of its use is given. (1 reference) (Author/SJ)

  19. Atmospheric boundary layer evening transitions over West Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    A systemic analysis of the atmospheric boundary layer behavior during some evening transitions over West Texas was done using the data from an extensive array of instruments which included small and large aperture scintillometers, net radiometers, and meteorological stations. The analysis also comp...

  20. Steady-state equations of even flux and scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verwaerde, D.

    1985-11-01

    Some mathematical properties of steady-state equation of even flux are shown in variational formalism. This theoretical frame allows to study the existence of a solution and its asymptotical behavior in opaque media (i.e. the relation with scattering equation). At last it allows to qualify the convergence velocity of resolution iterative processes used practically [fr

  1. Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger nonlocality in arbitrary even dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jinhyoung; Lee, Seung-Woo; Kim, M. S.

    2006-01-01

    We generalize Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) nonlocality to every even-dimensional and odd-partite system. For the purpose we employ concurrent observables that are incompatible and nevertheless have a common eigenstate. It is remarkable that a tripartite system can exhibit the genuinely high-dimensional GHZ nonlocality

  2. A comparative analysis of alpha-decay half-lives for even-even 178Pb to 234U isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, S. S.; Hassanabadi, H.; Zarrinkamar, S.

    2018-02-01

    The feasibility for the alpha decay from the even-even transitions of 178Pb to 234U isotopes has been studied within the Coulomb and proximity potential model (CPPM). The alpha decay half-lives are considered from different theoretical approaches using Semi-empirical formula of Poenaru et al. (SemFIS), the Universal Decay law (UDL) of Qi et al., Akrawy-Dorin formula of Akrawy and Poenaru (ADF), the Scaling law of Brown (SLB) and the Scaling Law of Horoi et al. (SLH). The numerical results obtained by the CPPM and compared with other method as well the experimental data.

  3. A systematic fast-timing study of even-even nuclei in the well deformed A 170-180 region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolie, J.; Regis, J.M.; Dannhoff, M.; Gerst, R.B.; Karayonchev, V.; Mueller-Gatermann, C.; Saed-Samii, N.; Stegemann, S.; Blazhev, A. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet zu Koeln (Germany); Rudigier, M. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet zu Koeln (Germany); Department of Physics, University of Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-01

    At the Cologne Tandem accelerator we are performing a systematic study of lifetimes in the ground state bands of well deformed even-even nuclei in order to increase the precision of the ns-ps lifetimes and to solve inconsistencies in the literature. The measurements are done using Orange spectrometers, LaBr{sub 3}(Ce) scintillators and Ge detectors. The data are analyzed using the slope and the generalized centroid difference method. The latter allows the measurement of lifetimes down to 5 ps. First results on Yb, Hf and W isotopes are presented.

  4. E2,M1 multipole mixing ratios in even-even nuclei, 58< or =A< or =150

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krane, K.S.

    1977-01-01

    A survey is presented of E2,M1 multipole mixing ratios of gamma-ray transitions in even-even nuclei in the mass range 58< or =A< or =150. Angular distribution and correlation data from the literature are analyzed in terms of a consistent choice of the phase relationship between the E2 and M1 matrix elements. A set of recommended values of the mixing ratios is included based on averages of results from various studies. The survey includes data available in the literature up to December 1976

  5. E2,M1 multipole mixing ratios in even--even nuclei, A greater than or equal to 152

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krane, K.S.

    1975-01-01

    A survey is presented of E2,M1 mixing ratios of gamma-ray transitions in even-even nuclei with mass numbers A greater than or equal to 152. Angular distribution and correlation data from the literature are analyzed in terms of a consistent choice of the phase relationship between the E2 and M1 matrix elements. The cutoff date for the literature was June 1975. Based on an average of the experimental results from the literature, a recommended value of the E2,M1 mixing ratio for each transition is included

  6. Morning versus evening induction of labour for improving outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Jannet J H; van der Goes, Birgit Y; Pel, Maria; Mol, Ben Willem J; van der Post, Joris A M

    2013-02-28

    Induction of labour is a common intervention in obstetric practice. Traditionally, in most hospitals induction of labour with medication starts early in the morning, with the start of the working day for the day shift. In human and animal studies spontaneous onset of labour is proven to have a circadian rhythm with a preference for start of labour in the evening. Moreover, when spontaneous labour starts in the evening, the total duration of labour and delivery shortens and fewer obstetric interventions are needed. Based on these observations one might assume that starting induction of labour in the evening, in harmony with the circadian rhythm of natural birth, is more beneficial for both mother and child. To assess whether induction of labour starting in the evening, coinciding with the endogenous circadian rhythm, improves the outcome of labour compared with induction of labour starting in the early morning, organised to coincide with office hours. We contacted the Trials Search Co-ordinator to search the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (28 February 2012). In addition, we searched MEDLINE (1966 to 16 February 2012) and EMBASE (1980 to 16 February 2012). We included all published and unpublished randomised controlled trials. We excluded trials that employed quasi-random methods of treatment allocation. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias. Two review authors independently extracted data. Data were checked for accuracy. Where necessary, we contacted study authors for additional information. The search resulted in 2693 articles that we screened on title and abstract for eligibility.Thirteen studies were selected for full text assessment. We included three randomised trials involving 1150 women. Two trials compared the administration of prostaglandins in the morning versus the evening in women with an unfavourable cervix, and one trial compared induction of labour in the morning versus the evening

  7. How to recover casuality for tachyons even in macrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavsic, M.

    1976-11-01

    The postulate that negative energy particles do not exist (travelling forward in time) leads automatically to the ''re-interpretation principle'' by Stueckelberg and Feynman. It has already been shown that such a ''principle'', assumed as the third postulate of special relativity, ensures the validity of the law of (retarded) casuality both in standard relativity and in (extended) relativity with tachyons and with superluminal inertial frames. Our third postulate, moreover, alloys to one predict antiparticle existence in a purely relativistic context. The paper shown that the third postulate is sufficient to implement the law of casuality even in macrophysics, when usual macro-objects interact with micro-tachyons and macro-tachyons. To that aim, some tachyon kinematics is further developed, which can be useful even in understanding elementary particle interactions (and may be hadron structure). Many other related problems are discussed

  8. Development and characterization of evening primrose (Oenothera biennis oil nanoemulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Railane F. Rodrigues

    Full Text Available AbstractEvening primrose (Oenothera biennis L., Onagraceae seeds oil has great economic importance due to its wide industrial application, mainly for medicines and nutraceutics. However, to our knowledge, it remains almost unexplored regarding development of innovative formulations, such as nanoemulsions. On the present study, required Hydroprophile–Lipophile Balance of evening primrose seeds oil was determined (HLB 12 and a stable nanoemulsion (Day 1: mean droplet size: 214.3 ± 0.69 nm, polydispersity index: 0.253 ± 0.012. Day 7: mean droplet size: 202.8 ± 0.23 nm, polydispersity index: 0.231 ± 0.008 was achieved. Moreover, pseudo-ternary diagram allowed delimitation of nanoemulsion region, contributing to nanobiotechnology of natural products.

  9. A Vision-Based Method For Analyzing Yarn Evenness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SN Niles

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Yarn evenness is a key factor in its performance and in the properties of the material produced from the yarn. The presence of defects in a yarn will result in the deterioration in the quality and usability of the yarn. While many methods are available to ascertain the yarn evenness many of them are tedious and dependent on the operator for its results while others though less subjective and of high speed are prohibitively expensive. This paper outlines a method which uses a cost-effective image capture device and image processing algorithms to process the captured images generate a diameter variation plot and analyse the same to count the number of thick and thin places in the yarn.

  10. Fluorinated monovacancies in graphene: Even-odd effect

    KAUST Repository

    Kaloni, Thaneshwor P.

    2012-11-01

    The electronic and structural properties of fluorinated monovacancies in graphene are studied using density functional theory. Our calculations show that an odd number of F atoms adsorbed on a monovacancy gives rise to a p-type metallic state with a local magnetic moment of 1μ B. In contrast, an even number of F atoms leads to a non-magnetic semiconducting state. We explain the behaviour in terms of local structure properties. © Copyright EPLA, 2012.

  11. Fluorinated monovacancies in graphene: Even-odd effect

    KAUST Repository

    Kaloni, Thaneshwor P.; Cheng, Yingchun; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2012-01-01

    The electronic and structural properties of fluorinated monovacancies in graphene are studied using density functional theory. Our calculations show that an odd number of F atoms adsorbed on a monovacancy gives rise to a p-type metallic state with a local magnetic moment of 1μ B. In contrast, an even number of F atoms leads to a non-magnetic semiconducting state. We explain the behaviour in terms of local structure properties. © Copyright EPLA, 2012.

  12. Gamma band odd-even staggering in some deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairy, M.K.; Talaat, SH.M.; Morsy, M.

    2005-01-01

    A complete investigation was carried out in studying the odd-even staggering (OES) of gamma bands energy levels in some deformed nuclei up to angular momentum L=13 . With the help of Minkov treatment in the framework of a collective Vector Boson Model (VBM) with broken SU (3) symmetry. The OES behavior of deformed isotopes 162 E r, 164 E r, 166 E r, 156 G d, 170 Y b and 232 T h was studied and discussed

  13. Global gauge anomaly of classical groups in even dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okubo, S.; Zhang, H.

    1989-01-01

    Explicit expression of global gauge anomaly coefficients A(ω) of locally anomaly-free representation ωof classical groups SU(N), Sp(2N) and SO(N) have been calculated in even dimensional space-time by uses of group theory and homotopy theory. As a by-product, the authors prove some modular relations involving the n-th Dynkin indices Q n ω of these groups

  14. Improving Immunizations in Children: A Clinical Break-even Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kyle Bradford; Spain, Chad; Wright, Hannah; Gren, Lisa H

    2015-06-01

    Immunizing the population is a vital public health priority. This article describes a resident-led continuous quality improvement project to improve the immunization rates of children under 3 years of age at two urban family medicine residency clinics in Salt Lake City, Utah, as well as a break-even cost analysis to the clinics for the intervention. Immunization records were distributed to provider-medical assistant teamlets daily for each pediatric patient scheduled in clinic to decrease missed opportunities. An outreach intervention by letter, followed by telephone call reminders, was conducted to reach children under 3 years of age who were behind on recommended immunizations for age (total n=457; those behind on immunizations n=101). Immunization rates were monitored at 3 months following start of intervention. A break-even analysis to the clinics for the outreach intervention was performed. Immunizations were improved from a baseline of 75.1% (n=133) and 79.6% (n=223) at the two clinics to 92.1% (n=163) and 89.6% (n=251), respectively, at 3 months following the start of intervention (Pbreak-even point required 36 immunizations to be administered. Significant improvement in the immunization rate of patients under 3 years of age at two family medicine residency training clinics was achieved through decreasing missed opportunities for immunization in clinic, and with outreach through letters and follow-up phone calls. The intervention showed positive revenue to both clinics. © 2015 Marshfield Clinic.

  15. A break-even analysis of major ear surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasson, J D; Phillips, J S

    2015-10-01

    To determine variables which affect cost and profit for major ear surgery and perform a break-even analysis. Retrospective financial analysis. UK teaching hospital. Patients who underwent major ear surgery under general anaesthesia performed by the senior author in main theatre over a 2-year period between dates of 07 September 2010 and 07 September 2012. Income, cost and profit for each major ear patient spell. Variables that affect major ear surgery profitability. Seventy-six patients met inclusion criteria. Wide variation in earnings, with a median net loss of £-1345.50 was observed. Income was relatively uniform across all patient spells; however, theatre time of major ear surgery at a cost of £953.24 per hour varied between patients and was the main determinant of cost and profit for the patient spell. Bivariate linear regression of earnings on theatre time identified 94% of variation in earnings was due to variation in theatre time (r = -0.969; P break-even time for major ear surgery of 110.6 min. Theatre time was dependent on complexity of procedure and number of OPCS4 procedures performed, with a significant increase in theatre time when three or more procedures were performed during major ear surgery (P = 0.015). For major ear surgery to either break-even or return a profit, total theatre time should not exceed 110 min and 36 s. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Evening primrose (Oenothera paradoxa) cake as an unconventional protein source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golabczak, J; Py, R

    2003-01-01

    An efficient procedure of a protein isolate production from the evening primrose cake was developed. The cake is a by-product of oil extraction from seeds by using the cold pressing method. The evening primrose cake contains 22.7% of protein. Its content in the protein isolate derived from the cake is 74%. Proteins present in evening primrose seeds are rich in Trp (7%) and Met (3%), but Lys-deficient (1.3%) as compared to the FAO protein standard. Apart from the proteins, the protein isolate contains 8.5% (w/w per s.s.) dietary fiber, that negatively affects its digestibility. To enhance the bio-availability of the protein isolate, it was partially hydrolyzed with commercial preparations of trypsin and other proteases (Alcalase and Flavourzyme, Novozymes. Denmark). The most advanced proteolysis (52%) was achieved by 6 h digestion of 2% protein suspension with a mixture of Flavourzyme and Alcalase (350 and 600 U per g of protein, respectively) at 50 degrees C and pH 9.0.

  17. Two quasi-particle excitations with particle-hole core polarization in even-even single closed shell nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillet, V.; Giraud, B.; Rho, M.

    1976-01-01

    The energy levels and transition properties of the even-even N=28, 50 isotones and Z=28, 50, 82 isotopes are calculated in the framework of the Tamm-Dancoff and Random Phase Approximation, with an effective central interaction in an extended space consisting of two quasi-particle configurations for the open shell and particle-hole configurations for the closed core. Using the results of the Inverse Gap Equation Method, practically all the necessary input data (single quasi-particle energies, force strength) are extracted from the odd-mass nuclei. The ratios of the force components are kept at fixed values for all studied nuclei and no effective charge is used. An overall excellent agreement is obtained for the energies of the vibrational states. On the other hand, while the transition properties of the 3 - states are always well reproduced, those of the 2 + and 4 + states are often too small by about one order of magnitude [fr

  18. A systematic study of even-even nuclei up to the drip lines within the relativistic mean field framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, D.; Sumiyoshi, K.; Tanihata, I.; Sugahara, Y.; Tachibana, T.; Toki, H.

    1997-01-01

    We apply the relativistic mean field theory to study the ground state properties of about 2000 even-even nuclei from Z=8 to Z=120 up to the proton and neutron drip lines. The calculations have been done under the axial symmetry assumption and a quadratic constraint method in order to obtain all possible ground state configurations. We do not take into account the pairing correlation in the present study. The calculations are performed with the TMA parameter set. We explore the generaI trend of masses, radii and deformations in the whole region of the nuclear chart. Using the masses obtained from RMF theory, we calculate the r-process abundances and the r-process path. (orig.)

  19. Characteristic 7- and 5- states observed in the (p,t) reactions on even-even rare earth nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizaki, Y.; Kubono, S.; Iwasaki, Y.

    1984-01-01

    The (p,t) reactions have been studied for the even-even rare earth nuclei with 40 MeV proton beam from the INS SF cyclotron. A pair of 7 - and 5 - states was observed with large cross sections in each of the nuclei with the neutron number (N) ranging from 86 to 100. For sup(140,142)Nd of N = 80 and 82 the data were obtained at KVI in Groningen, and the data for 152 Sm of N = 90 at MSU. Q value systematics of (p,t) reactions to these states seem to suggest that these are excited by the two neutron pick-up from the neutron core of N = 82. The (p,t) cross sections leading to these states of N from 82 to 96 are nearly constant. (author)

  20. A systematic study of even-even nuclei in the nuclear chart by the relativistic mean field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumiyoshi, K.; Hirata, D.; Tanihata, I.; Sugahara, Y.; Toki, H. [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Wako, Saitama (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    We study systematically the properties of nuclei in the whole mass range up to the drip lines by the relativistic mean field (RMF) theory with deformations as a microscopic framework to provide the data of nuclear structure in the nuclear chart. The RMF theory is a phenomenological many-body framework, in which the self-consistent equations for nucleons and mesons are solved with arbitrary deformation, and has a potential ability to provide all the essential information of nuclear structure such as masses, radii and deformations together with single particle states and wave functions from the effective lagrangian containing nuclear interaction. As a first step toward the whole project, we study the ground state properties of even-even nuclei ranging from Z=8 to Z=120 up to the proton and neutron drip lines in the RMF theory. We adopt the parameter set TMA, which has been determined by the experimental masses and charge radii in a wide mass range, for the effective lagrangian of the RMF theory. We take into account the axially symmetric deformation using the constrained method on the quadrupole moment. We provide the properties of all even-even nuclei with all the possible ground state deformations extracted from the deformation energy curves by the constrained calculations. By studying the calculated ground state properties systematically, we aim to explore the general trend of masses, radii and deformations in the whole region of the nuclear chart. We discuss the agreement with experimental data and the predictions such as magicness and triaxial deformations beyond the experimental frontier. (author)

  1. Even zinc isotopes in the interacting boson model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druce, C.H.; McCullen, J.D.; Duval, P.D.; Barrett, B.R. (Arizona Univ., Tucson (USA). Dept. of Physics)

    1982-11-01

    The interacting boson model is applied to the even zinc isotopes /sup 62/Zn-/sup 72/Zn. Two boson configurations are used to account for the behaviour of excited O/sup +/ states; one is the usual particle boson configuration and the other a configuration representing proton excitation from the /sup 56/Ni core. The parameter variation in the model is constrained as much as possible to agree with calculations from a non-degenerate multi-shell fermion basis for the bosons. Energy levels, quadrupole moments and B(E2) values are calculated. Values obtained compare favourably with experiment and with other calculations.

  2. Even and odd combinations of nonlinear coherent states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De los Santos-Sanchez, O; Recamier, J

    2011-01-01

    In this work we present some statistical properties of even and odd combinations of nonlinear coherent states associated with two nonlinear potentials; one supporting a finite number of bound states and the other supporting an infinite number of bound states, within the framework of an f-deformed algebra. We calculate their normalized variance and the temporal evolution of their dispersion relations using nonlinear coherent states defined as (a) eigensates of the deformed annihilation operator and (b) those states created by the application of a deformed displacement operator upon the ground state of the oscillator.

  3. Even Faster Web Sites Performance Best Practices for Web Developers

    CERN Document Server

    Souders, Steve

    2009-01-01

    Performance is critical to the success of any web site, and yet today's web applications push browsers to their limits with increasing amounts of rich content and heavy use of Ajax. In this book, Steve Souders, web performance evangelist at Google and former Chief Performance Yahoo!, provides valuable techniques to help you optimize your site's performance. Souders' previous book, the bestselling High Performance Web Sites, shocked the web development world by revealing that 80% of the time it takes for a web page to load is on the client side. In Even Faster Web Sites, Souders and eight exp

  4. New timetable for a Regular morning and evening shuttle

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department

    2008-01-01

    Starting from 31 March 2008, for one month, a new timetable for a regular morning and evening shuttle serving LHC Points 2 and 5 will be put in place. You can find all the corresponding details on the FM group WEB page: http://ts-dep.web.cern.ch/ts-dep/groups/fm/logistique/shuttle_timetable.htm Please note that during April, all other requests for transport from Meyrin and Prévessin to the LHC Points via tel. 76969 during the day (between 8:30 and 17:30) will not be met. TS/FM group Tel. 160239

  5. New timetable for a morning and evening regular shuttle

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department

    2008-01-01

    Starting from the 31st of March 2008 and for one month, a new timetable for a morning and evening regular shuttle serving LHC Points 2 and 5, will be put in place. You can find all the corresponding details in the FM group WEB page http://ts-dep.web.cern.ch/ts-dep/groups/fm/logistique/shuttle_timetable.htm Please note that during April, every other request of transfer from Meyrin and Prevessin towards LHC Points reaching the 76969 during the day (between 8:30 and 17:30) will not be satisfied. TS/FM group 160239

  6. New even and odd parity levels of neutral praseodymium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed, T I; Siddiqui, I; Shamim, K; Uddin, Z; Guthöhrlein, G H; Windholz, L

    2011-01-01

    The hyperfine (hf) structure of some spectral lines of the praseodymium atom has been investigated by the laser-induced fluorescence method in a hollow cathode discharge lamp. We report the discovery of 18 new energy levels of even parity and 22 new energy levels of odd parity and their magnetic dipole hf interaction constants A. Using these newly discovered levels, 268 lines were classified by means of laser spectroscopy, 97 of them by laser excitation and 171 via laser-induced fluorescence. In addition, 23 lines, observed in a Fourier transform spectrum, were classified by means of their wavenumbers and their hf patterns.

  7. Note on soft theorems and memories in even dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Pujian; Ouyang, Hao

    2017-11-01

    Recently, it has been shown that the Weinberg's formula for soft graviton production is essentially a Fourier transformation of the formula for gravitational memory which provides an effective way to understand how the classical calculation arises as a limiting case of the quantum result. In this note, we propose a general framework that connects the soft theorems to the radiation fields obtained from classical computation for different theories in even dimensions. We show that the latter is nothing but Fourier transformation of the former. The memory formulas can be derived from radiation fields explicitly.

  8. Instability of small Lovelock black holes in even dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Tomohiro; Soda, Jiro

    2009-01-01

    We study the stability of static black holes in Lovelock theory, which is a natural higher dimensional generalization of Einstein theory. We derive a master equation for tensor perturbations in general Lovelock theory. It turns out that the resultant equation is characterized by one functional which determines the background black hole solutions. Thus, the stability issue of static black holes under tensor perturbations in general dimensions is reduced to an algebraic problem. We show that small Lovelock black holes in even-dimensions are unstable.

  9. Even-dimensional topological gravity from Chern-Simons gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merino, N.; Perez, A.; Salgado, P.

    2009-01-01

    It is shown that the topological action for gravity in 2n-dimensions can be obtained from the (2n+1)-dimensional Chern-Simons gravity genuinely invariant under the Poincare group. The 2n-dimensional topological gravity is described by the dynamics of the boundary of a (2n+1)-dimensional Chern-Simons gravity theory with suitable boundary conditions. The field φ a , which is necessary to construct this type of topological gravity in even dimensions, is identified with the coset field associated with the non-linear realizations of the Poincare group ISO(d-1,1).

  10. Even-Odd Differences and Shape Deformation of Metal Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Hidetoshi, Nishioka; Yoshio, Takahashi; Department of Physics, Konan University; Faculty of General Education, Yamagata University

    1994-01-01

    The relation between even-odd difference of metal cluster and the deformation of equilibrium shape is studied in terms of two different models; (i) tri-axially deformed harmonic oscillator model, (ii) rectangular box model. Having assumed the matter density ρ kept constant for different shapes of a cluster, we can determine the equilibrium shape both for the two models. The enhancement of HOMO-LUMO gap is obtained and it is ascribed to Jahn-Teller effect. Good agreement of the calculated resu...

  11. Ziajan tunnettuuden kartoitus Sellon ja Sellon Even asiakkaiden keskuudessa

    OpenAIRE

    Huovinen, Soile

    2010-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli kartoittaa puolalaisen päivittäiskosmetiikkasarja Ziajan tunnettuutta Kauppakeskus Sellon ja siellä sijaitsevan kauneusmyymälä Even asiakkaiden keskuudessa. Opinnäytetyössä tutkittiin myös asiakkaiden yleistä kosmetiikan käyttöä, heidän tyytyväisyyttään Ziajan tuotteisiin sekä sitä, kuinka Ziaja tuotemerkin tunnettuutta pystyttäisiin Suomen kosmetiikkamarkkinoilla laajentamaan. Työn tutkimusaihe tuli toimeksiantona Ziajan päivittäiskosmetiikan jakelijalta, Face...

  12. Shape coexistence in the neutron-deficient even-even (182-188)Hg isotopes studied via coulomb excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bree, N; Wrzosek-Lipska, K; Petts, A; Andreyev, A; Bastin, B; Bender, M; Blazhev, A; Bruyneel, B; Butler, P A; Butterworth, J; Carpenter, M P; Cederkäll, J; Clément, E; Cocolios, T E; Deacon, A; Diriken, J; Ekström, A; Fitzpatrick, C; Fraile, L M; Fransen, Ch; Freeman, S J; Gaffney, L P; García-Ramos, J E; Geibel, K; Gernhäuser, R; Grahn, T; Guttormsen, M; Hadinia, B; Hadyńska-Kle K, K; Hass, M; Heenen, P-H; Herzberg, R-D; Hess, H; Heyde, K; Huyse, M; Ivanov, O; Jenkins, D G; Julin, R; Kesteloot, N; Kröll, Th; Krücken, R; Larsen, A C; Lutter, R; Marley, P; Napiorkowski, P J; Orlandi, R; Page, R D; Pakarinen, J; Patronis, N; Peura, P J; Piselli, E; Rahkila, P; Rapisarda, E; Reiter, P; Robinson, A P; Scheck, M; Siem, S; Singh Chakkal, K; Smith, J F; Srebrny, J; Stefanescu, I; Tveten, G M; Van Duppen, P; Van de Walle, J; Voulot, D; Warr, N; Wenander, F; Wiens, A; Wood, J L; Zielińska, M

    2014-04-25

    Coulomb-excitation experiments to study electromagnetic properties of radioactive even-even Hg isotopes were performed with 2.85  MeV/nucleon mercury beams from REX-ISOLDE. Magnitudes and relative signs of the reduced E2 matrix elements that couple the ground state and low-lying excited states in Hg182-188 were extracted. Information on the deformation of the ground and the first excited 0+ states was deduced using the quadrupole sum rules approach. Results show that the ground state is slightly deformed and of oblate nature, while a larger deformation for the excited 0+ state was noted in Hg182,184. The results are compared to beyond mean field and interacting-boson based models and interpreted within a two-state mixing model. Partial agreement with the model calculations was obtained. The presence of two different structures in the light even-mass mercury isotopes that coexist at low excitation energy is firmly established.

  13. New PN Even Balanced Sequences for Spread-Spectrum Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inácio JAL

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A new class of pseudonoise even balanced (PN-EB binary spreading sequences is derived from existing classical odd-length families of maximum-length sequences, such as those proposed by Gold, by appending or inserting one extra-zero element (chip to the original sequences. The incentive to generate large families of PN-EB spreading sequences is motivated by analyzing the spreading effect of these sequences from a natural sampling point of view. From this analysis a new definition for PG is established, from which it becomes clear that very high processing gains (PGs can be achieved in band-limited direct-sequence spread-spectrum (DSSS applications by using spreading sequences with zero mean, given that certain conditions regarding spectral aliasing are met. To obtain large families of even balanced (i.e., equal number of ones and zeros sequences, two design criteria are proposed, namely the ranging criterion (RC and the generating ranging criterion (GRC. PN-EB sequences in the polynomial range are derived using these criteria, and it is shown that they exhibit secondary autocorrelation and cross-correlation peaks comparable to the sequences they are derived from. The methods proposed not only facilitate the generation of large numbers of new PN-EB spreading sequences required for CDMA applications, but simultaneously offer high processing gains and good despreading characteristics in multiuser SS scenarios with band-limited noise and interference spectra. Simulation results are presented to confirm the respective claims made.

  14. BREAK-EVEN IN THE DECISION MAKING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Mihaela IONESCU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Integrated in a competitive environment, the companies are forced to know better their costs, to determine as precisely as possible the sales prices and the profit margins achievable per product. When the entrepreneurs initiate a new business, invest in a new project or when they supervise the current work, the study of breakeven allows minimizing of the risks and the uncertainties, and also allows measuring the performance of the projects. Break-Even is an indicator that allows the company management to set minimal commercial targets to meet the expenses of the enterprise or that sets the degree of utilization of production capacities in relation to a desired level of profit. It highlights the correlations between the dynamic of production, implicit of income and the dynamic of costs, grouped into variable costs and fixed costs. Used in a prospective fashion, Break-Even allows planning and optimizing of the enterprise's sales and costs, not only short-term but also medium and long term.

  15. The reduced transition probabilities for excited states of rare-earths and actinide even-even nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghumman, S. S. [Department of Physics, Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering and Technology (Deemed University), Longowal, Sangrur-148106, Punjab, India s-ghumman@yahoo.com (India)

    2015-08-28

    The theoretical B(E2) ratios have been calculated on DF, DR and Krutov models. A simple method based on the work of Arima and Iachello is used to calculate the reduced transition probabilities within SU(3) limit of IBA-I framework. The reduced E2 transition probabilities from second excited states of rare-earths and actinide even–even nuclei calculated from experimental energies and intensities from recent data, have been found to compare better with those calculated on the Krutov model and the SU(3) limit of IBA than the DR and DF models.

  16. Even 'safe' medications need to be administered with care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutwak, Nancy; Howland, Mary Ann; Gambetta, Rosemarie; Dill, Curt

    2013-01-02

    A 60-year-old man with a history of hepatic cirrhosis and cardiomyopathy underwent transoesophageal echocardiogram. He received mild sedation and topical lidocaine. During the recovery period the patient developed ataxia and diplopia for about 30 mins, a result of lidocaine toxicity. The patient was administered a commonly used local anaesthetic, a combination of 2% viscous lidocaine, 4% lidocaine gargle and 5% lidocaine ointment topically to the oropharnyx. The total dose was at least 280 mg. Oral lidocaine undergoes extensive first pass metabolism and its clearance is quite dependent on rates of liver blood flow as well as other factors. The patient's central nervous system symptoms were mild and transient but remind us that to avoid adverse side effects, orally administered drugs with fairly high hepatic extraction ratio given to patients with chronic liver disease need to be given in reduced dosages. Even 'Safe' medications need to be carefully administered.

  17. Evenly distributed unitaries: On the structure of unitary designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, D.; Audenaert, K.; Eisert, J.

    2007-01-01

    We clarify the mathematical structure underlying unitary t-designs. These are sets of unitary matrices, evenly distributed in the sense that the average of any tth order polynomial over the design equals the average over the entire unitary group. We present a simple necessary and sufficient criterion for deciding if a set of matrices constitutes a design. Lower bounds for the number of elements of 2-designs are derived. We show how to turn mutually unbiased bases into approximate 2-designs whose cardinality is optimal in leading order. Designs of higher order are discussed and an example of a unitary 5-design is presented. We comment on the relation between unitary and spherical designs and outline methods for finding designs numerically or by searching character tables of finite groups. Further, we sketch connections to problems in linear optics and questions regarding typical entanglement

  18. Even-parity quartet autodetaching states of He-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazi, A.U.

    1981-01-01

    The total photodetachment cross section of the metastable, (1s2s2p) 4 P 0 state of He - has been recently measured at several wavelengths between 10 μ and 308 nm. As part of these calculations, the even parity, quartet, autodetaching states of He - which are optically connected to the metastable 4 P 0 state and which are associated with the n = 2 and n = 3 states of He were studied. In both the photodetachment and electron scattering calculations, extensive configuration interaction (CI) wavefunctions were used to describe the He target states, the He - resonance states and the photodetachment continua. The Stieltjes moment-theory technique was used to extract the partial photodetachment cross sections from the discrete representations of the electron scattering continua. The use of the Stieltjes technique allowed the inclusion of both channel-channel coupling and fully correlated He 3 S and 3 P 0 wavefunctions in the calculations. Results are presented and discussed

  19. Distribution of auroral surges in the evening sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kidd, S.R.; Rostoker, G.

    1991-01-01

    Over the past dacades a large statistical data base has been gathered consisting of both ground-based magnetometer and all-sky camera records from which researchers have inferred the distribution of substorm expansive phase events across the nighttime sector. Almost without exception, the activity distribution has been based on single station data acquired over periods of years. However, to truly establish the occurrence frequency of substorm expansive phase events, it is necessary to view the entire nighttime sector instantaneously in the light of evidence which shows that more than one expansive phase disturbance can be in progress across the broad expanse of the evening sector. In this paper, the authors study the distribution of regions of localized auroral luminosity in the poleward portion of the evening sectorauroral oval using images in the ultraviolet portion of the auroral spectrum acquired by the Viking satellite over 9 months in 1986. They find that auroral surge activity peaks in the hour before local magnetic midnight, with the probability of detecting a surge steadily decreasing to 10% of the probability of finding a surge in the hour prior to midnight as one moves westward towards 1,900 MLT. They show that their conclusion is not dependent on the threshold chosen for surge identification over a reasonable portion of the intensity range covered by the Viking imager. They further show that for the interval of several months near sunspot minimum in 1986 there is better than a 90% chance that no surge will be detected in a 1-hour range of magnetic local time if one were to sample that segment of the auroral oval at any arbitrary time

  20. Constraints on a parity-even/time-reversal-odd interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oers, Willem T.H. van

    2000-01-01

    Time-Reversal-Invariance non-conservation has for the first time been unequivocally demonstrated in a direct measurement, one of the results of the CPLEAR experiment. What is the situation then with regard to time-reversal-invariance non-conservation in systems other than the neutral kaon system? Two classes of tests of time-reversal-invariance need to be distinguished: the first one deals with parity violating (P-odd)/time-reversal-invariance non-conserving (T-odd) interactions, while the second one deals with P-even/T-odd interactions (assuming CPT conservation this implies C-conjugation non-conservation). Limits on a P-odd/T-odd interaction follow from measurements of the electric dipole moment of the neutron. This in turn provides a limit on a P-odd/T-odd pion-nucleon coupling constant which is 10 -4 times the weak interaction strength. Limits on a P-even/T-odd interaction are much less stringent. The better constraint stems also from the measurement of the electric dipole moment of the neutron. Of all the other tests, measurements of charge-symmetry breaking in neutron-proton elastic scattering provide the next better constraint. The latter experiments were performed at TRIUMF (at 477 and 347 MeV) and at IUCF (at 183 MeV). Weak decay experiments (the transverse polarization of the muon in K + →π 0 μ + ν μ and the transverse polarization of the positrons in polarized muon decay) have the potential to provide comparable or possibly better constraints

  1. Oral evening primrose oil and borage oil for eczema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamford, Joel T M; Ray, Sujoy; Musekiwa, Alfred; van Gool, Christel; Humphreys, Rosemary; Ernst, Edzard

    2013-04-30

    Eczema is a chronic inflammatory skin condition, which usually develops in early childhood. Many children outgrow this disorder as they reach secondary school age, and although It may improve with age, there is no cure. Constant itch makes life uncomfortable for those with this condition, no matter what age they are, so it may have a significant effect on a person's quality of life. Its prevalence seems to be increasing as populations move from rural locations to cities. Some people, who do not see an adequate improvement or fear side-effects of conventional medical products, try complementary alternatives to conventional treatment. This is a review of evening primrose oil (EPO) and borage oil (BO) taken orally (by mouth); these have been thought to be beneficial because of their gamma-linolenic acid content. To assess the effects of oral evening primrose oil or borage oil for treating the symptoms of atopic eczema. We searched the following databases up to August 2012: Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (from 1946), EMBASE (from 1974), AMED (from 1985), and LILACS (from 1982). We also searched online trials registers and checked the bibliographies of included studies for further references to relevant trials. We corresponded with trial investigators and pharmaceutical companies to try to identify unpublished and ongoing trials. We performed a separate search for adverse effects of evening primrose oil and borage oil in November 2011. All randomised controlled, parallel, or cross-over trials investigating oral intake of evening primrose oil or borage oil for eczema. Two review authors independently applied eligibility criteria, assessed risk of bias, and extracted data. We pooled dichotomous outcomes using risk ratios (RR), and continuous outcomes using the mean difference (MD). Where possible, we pooled study results using random-effects meta-analysis and tested statistical heterogeneity using both the Chi(²) test

  2. High-spin states in 214Rn, 216Ra and a study of even-even N = 128 systematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loennroth, T.; Horn, D.; Baktash, C.; Lister, C.J.; Young, G.R.

    1983-01-01

    High-spin states in 214 Rn and 216 Ra have been studied by means of the reaction 208 Pb( 13 C, α 3n #betta#) 214 Rn and 208 Pb( 13 C, 5n #betta#) 216 Ra at beam energies in the range 75--95 MeV. In-beam spectroscopy techniques, including #betta#-decay excitation functions, α-#betta# coincidences, #betta#-#betta# coincidences, #betta#-ray angular distributions, and pulsed-beam-#betta# timing, were utilized to establish level energies, #betta#-ray multipolarities, J/sup π/ assignments, and isomeric lifetimes. Excited states with spins up to 23h in 214 Rn and roughly-equal30h in 216 Ra were observed. Isomers were found in 214 Rn at 1625 keV (T/sub 1/2/ = 9 ns, J/sup π/ = 8 + ), 1787 keV (22 ns, 10 + ), 3485 keV (95 ns, 16), 4509 keV (230 ns, 20), and 4738 keV (8 ns, 22), and in 216 Ra at 1708 keV (8 ns, 8 + ) and 5868 keV (10 ns, approx.24). B(EL) values were deduced and compared to previously known lead-region electric transition rates. Shell-model calculations were performed and used to make configurational assignments. The absence of major α-decay branching in the isomers is explained and the systematic behavior of N = 128 even-even nuclei is discussed

  3. High-spin states in 214Rn, 216Ra and a study of even-even N = 128 systematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loennroth, T.; Horn, D.; Baktash, C.; Lister, C.J.; Young, G.R.

    1981-09-01

    High-spin states in 214 Rn and 216 Ra have been studied by means of the reaction 208 Pb( 13 C,α3nγ) 214 Rn and 208 Pb( 13 C,5nγ) 216 Ra at beam energies in the range 75-95 MeV. In-beam spectroscopy techniques, including γ-decay excitation functions, α-γ coincidences, γ-γ coincidences, γ-ray angular distributions and pulsed-beam-γ timing, were utilized to establish level energies, γ-ray multipolarities, JHπ assignments and isomeric lifetimes. Excited states with spins up to 23 h/2π in 214 Rn and 30 h/2π in 216 Ra were established. Isomers are found in 214 Rn at 1625 keV (9 ns, 8 + ), 1787 keV (22 ns, 10 + ), 3485 keV (95 ns, 16 + ), 4509 keV (230 ns, 20 + ) and 4735 keV (8.0 ns, 22 + ) and in 216 Ra at 1710 keV (8 ns, 8 + ) and 5868 keV (10 ns, 24 - ). B(EL) values are derived and compared to previously known lead-region electric transition rates. Shell-model calculations are performed on the basis of which configuration assignment is made. The absence of α-decay branching in the isomers is explained. The systematical behaviour of N = 128 even-even nuclei is discussed. Effective moments of inertia are derived. (author)

  4. Symmetries of Quadrupole-Collective Vibrational Motion in Transitional Even-Even 124−134Xenon Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Pietralla, N; Rainovski, G; Ahn, T; Bauer, C; Leske, J; Möller, O; Möller, T

    2010-01-01

    Projectile-Coulomb excitation of Xe isotopes has been performed at ANL using the Gammasphere array for the detection of γ-rays. The one-quadrupole phonon 2+ 1,ms mixed-symmetry state (MSS) has been traced in the stable N=80 isotones down to 134Xe. First, the data on absolute E2 andM1 transition rates quantify the amount of F-spin symmetry in these nuclei and provide a new local measure for the pn-QQ interaction. Second, the evolution of the 2+ 1,ms state has been studied along the sequence of stable even-even 124−134Xe isotopes that are considered to form a shape transition path from vibrational nuclei with vibrational U(5) symmetry near N=82 to γ-softly deformed shapes with almost O(6) symmetry. Third, our data on more than 50 absolute E2 transition rates between off-yrast low-spin states of 124,126Xe enable us to quantitatively test O(6) symmetry in these nuclei. As a result we find that O(6) symmetry is more strongly broken in the A=130 mass region than previously thought. The data will be discussed.

  5. Time of administration important? Morning versus evening dosing of valsartan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappe, Dion H; Crikelair, Nora; Kandra, Albert; Palatini, Paolo

    2015-02-01

    Studies suggest that bedtime dosing of an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker shows a more sustained and consistent 24-h antihypertensive profile, including greater night-time blood pressure (BP) reduction. We compared the antihypertensive effects of morning (a.m.) and evening (p.m.) dosing of valsartan on 24-h BP. This 26-week, multicentre, randomized, double-blind study evaluated the efficacy and safety of valsartan 320 mg, dosed a.m. or p.m., versus lisinopril 40 mg (a.m.), a long-acting ACE-inhibitor, in patients with grade 1-2 hypertension and at least one additional cardiovascular risk factor. Patients (n = 1093; BP = 156 ± 11/91 ± 8 mmHg; 62 years, 56% male, 99% white) received (1 : 1 : 1) valsartan 160 mg a.m. or p.m. or lisinopril 20 mg a.m. for 4 weeks, then force-titrated to double the initial dose for 8 weeks. At Week 12, hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) 12.5 mg was added for 14 weeks if office BP was more than 140/90 mmHg and/or ambulatory BP more than 130/80 mmHg. Mean 24-h ambulatory SBP change from baseline to Weeks 12 and 26 was comparable between valsartan a.m. (-10.6 and -13.3 mmHg) and p.m. (-9.8 and -12.3 mmHg) and lisinopril (-10.7 and -13.7 mmHg). There was no benefit of valsartan p.m. versus a.m. on night-time BP, early morning BP and morning BP surge. Evening dosing also did not improve BP lowering in patients requiring add-on HCTZ or in nondippers at baseline. All treatments were well tolerated. Once-daily dosing of valsartan 320 mg results in equally effective 24-h BP efficacy, regardless of dosing time. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00241124.

  6. Calculations of the Low-Lying Structures in the Even-Even Nd/Sm/Gd/Dy Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su Youn; Lee, J. H.; Lee, Young Jun

    2018-05-01

    The nuclear structure of deformed nuclei has been studied using the interacting boson model (IBM). In this study, energy levels and E2 transition probabilities were determined for even nuclei in the Nd/Sm/Gd/Dy chains which have a transition characteristic between the rotational, SU(3) and vibrational, U(5) limits. The structure of the nuclei exhibits a slight breaking of the SU(3) symmetry in the direction of U(5), and therefore, we add the d-boson number operator n d , which is the main term of the U(5) symmetric Hamiltonian, to the SU(3) Hamiltonian of the IBM. The calculated results for low-lying energy levels and E2 transition rates in Nd/Sm/Gd/Dy isotopes are in reasonably good agreement with known experimental results.

  7. Theoretical estimates of supernova-neutrino cross sections for the stable even-even lead isotopes: Charged-current reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almosly, W.; Carlsson, B. G.; Suhonen, J.; Toivanen, J.; Ydrefors, E.

    2016-10-01

    A detailed study of the charged-current supernova electron neutrino and electron antineutrino scattering off the stable even-mass lead isotopes A =204 , 206, and 208 is reported in this work. The proton-neutron quasiparticle random-phase approximation (pnQRPA) is adopted to construct the nuclear final and initial states. Three different Skyrme interactions are tested for their isospin and spin-isospin properties and then applied to produce (anti)neutrino-nucleus scattering cross sections for (anti)neutrino energies below 80 MeV. Realistic estimates of the nuclear responses to supernova (anti)neutrinos are computed by folding the computed cross sections with a two-parameter Fermi-Dirac distribution of the electron (anti)neutrino energies. The computed cross sections are compared with earlier calculations and the analyses are extended to take into account the effects coming from the neutrino oscillations.

  8. High-spin states in 214Rn, 216Ra and a study of even-even N=128 systematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnroth, T.; Horn, D.; Baktash, C.; Lister, C. J.; Young, G. R.

    1983-01-01

    High-spin states in 214Rn and 216Ra have been studied by means of the reaction 208Pb(13C, α 3n γ)214Rn and 208Pb(13C, 5n γ)216Ra at beam energies in the range 75-95 MeV. In-beam spectroscopy techniques, including γ-decay excitation functions, α-γ coincidences, γ-γ coincidences, γ-ray angular distributions, and pulsed-beam-γ timing, were utilized to establish level energies, γ-ray multipolarities, Jπ assignments, and isomeric lifetimes. Excited states with spins up to 23ℏ in 214Rn and ~30ℏ in 216Ra were observed. Isomers were found in 214Rn at 1625 keV (T12=9 ns, Jπ=8+), 1787 keV (22 ns, 10+), 3485 keV (95 ns, 16), 4509 keV (230 ns, 20), and 4738 keV (8 ns, 22), and in 216Ra at 1708 keV (8 ns, 8+) and 5868 keV (10 ns, ~24). B(EL) values were deduced and compared to previously known lead-region electric transition rates. Shell-model calculations were performed and used to make configurational assignments. The absence of major α-decay branching in the isomers is explained and the systematic behavior of N=128 even-even nuclei is discussed. NUCLEAR STRUCTURE 208Pb(13C, α 3n γ)214Rn, 208Pb(13C, 5n γ) 216Ra, Elab=75-95 MeV. Measured α-γ coin, γ-γ(t) coin, I(θ), pulsed-beam-γ timing. Deduced level schemes, Jπ, T12, B(EL), multipolarities. Shell model calculations, Ge(Li) and Si detectors, enriched target.

  9. Why do even satisfied newlyweds eventually go on to divorce?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavner, Justin A; Bradbury, Thomas N

    2012-02-01

    Although divorce typically follows an extended period of unhappiness that begins early in marriage, some couples who are very happy throughout the first several years of marriage will also go on to divorce. This study aimed to identify risk factors early in marriage that distinguish initially satisfied couples who eventually divorce from those who remain married. We identified 136 couples reporting stably high levels of relationship satisfaction in the first 4 years of marriage. We compared the couples who went on to divorce by the 10-year follow-up with the couples who remained married on initial measures of commitment, observed communication, stress, and personality. Divorcing couples displayed more negative communication, emotion, and social support as newlyweds compared with couples who did not divorce. No significant differences were found in the other domains, in relationship satisfaction, or in positive behaviors. Overall, results indicate that even couples who are very successful at navigating the early years of marriage can be vulnerable to later dissolution if their interpersonal exchanges are poorly regulated. We speculate that, paradoxically, the many strengths possessed by these couples may mask their potent interpersonal liabilities, posing challenges for educational interventions designed to help these couples.

  10. FOCUS PARTICLES (JUST, EVEN, AND, ETC. IN THE ADVERTISEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danguolė Valančė

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article has been prepared by carrying out the analysis of focus particles: just, even, and, etc. It is important to note that particles play a very important role in linguistic pragmatics: they convey additional meanings called the conventional implicatures, and in that way they strengthen their effect on the consumers. First, the article discusses slogans which were advertised in January – March 2014; then, it discusses how focus particles are used in these slogans, besides the attention which is drawn to the visual advertising and invitation design. The research of advertisements and slogans has approved the prior statement just partially, and for this reason two corpora of advertisement articles (from the fields of education and medicine were formed. They were analysed separately and later on compared in order to find out whether the focus particles are used similarly in different discourse advertisements. The comparison of the data has disclosed that the focus particles are more commonly used in the original texts related to Lithuania’s education than in the medical advertisements, which are mostly translations used to inform about new medical tools or medical treatment innovations. The research has been carried out by applying the method of corpus linguistics.

  11. Even good bots fight: The case of Wikipedia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Tsvetkova

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a huge increase in the number of bots online, varying from Web crawlers for search engines, to chatbots for online customer service, spambots on social media, and content-editing bots in online collaboration communities. The online world has turned into an ecosystem of bots. However, our knowledge of how these automated agents are interacting with each other is rather poor. Bots are predictable automatons that do not have the capacity for emotions, meaning-making, creativity, and sociality and it is hence natural to expect interactions between bots to be relatively predictable and uneventful. In this article, we analyze the interactions between bots that edit articles on Wikipedia. We track the extent to which bots undid each other's edits over the period 2001-2010, model how pairs of bots interact over time, and identify different types of interaction trajectories. We find that, although Wikipedia bots are intended to support the encyclopedia, they often undo each other's edits and these sterile "fights" may sometimes continue for years. Unlike humans on Wikipedia, bots' interactions tend to occur over longer periods of time and to be more reciprocated. Yet, just like humans, bots in different cultural environments may behave differently. Our research suggests that even relatively "dumb" bots may give rise to complex interactions, and this carries important implications for Artificial Intelligence research. Understanding what affects bot-bot interactions is crucial for managing social media well, providing adequate cyber-security, and designing well functioning autonomous vehicles.

  12. Even good bots fight: The case of Wikipedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvetkova, Milena; García-Gavilanes, Ruth; Floridi, Luciano; Yasseri, Taha

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a huge increase in the number of bots online, varying from Web crawlers for search engines, to chatbots for online customer service, spambots on social media, and content-editing bots in online collaboration communities. The online world has turned into an ecosystem of bots. However, our knowledge of how these automated agents are interacting with each other is rather poor. Bots are predictable automatons that do not have the capacity for emotions, meaning-making, creativity, and sociality and it is hence natural to expect interactions between bots to be relatively predictable and uneventful. In this article, we analyze the interactions between bots that edit articles on Wikipedia. We track the extent to which bots undid each other's edits over the period 2001-2010, model how pairs of bots interact over time, and identify different types of interaction trajectories. We find that, although Wikipedia bots are intended to support the encyclopedia, they often undo each other's edits and these sterile "fights" may sometimes continue for years. Unlike humans on Wikipedia, bots' interactions tend to occur over longer periods of time and to be more reciprocated. Yet, just like humans, bots in different cultural environments may behave differently. Our research suggests that even relatively "dumb" bots may give rise to complex interactions, and this carries important implications for Artificial Intelligence research. Understanding what affects bot-bot interactions is crucial for managing social media well, providing adequate cyber-security, and designing well functioning autonomous vehicles.

  13. Quantifying evenly distributed states in exclusion and nonexclusion processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Benjamin J.; Landman, Kerry A.

    2011-04-01

    Spatial-point data sets, generated from a wide range of physical systems and mathematical models, can be analyzed by counting the number of objects in equally sized bins. We find that the bin counts are related to the Pólya distribution. New measures are developed which indicate whether or not a spatial data set, generated from an exclusion process, is at its most evenly distributed state, the complete spatial randomness (CSR) state. To this end, we define an index in terms of the variance between the bin counts. Limiting values of the index are determined when objects have access to the entire domain and when there are subregions of the domain that are inaccessible to objects. Using three case studies (Lagrangian fluid particles in chaotic laminar flows, cellular automata agents in discrete models, and biological cells within colonies), we calculate the indexes and verify that our theoretical CSR limit accurately predicts the state of the system. These measures should prove useful in many biological applications.

  14. The Problem with Probability: Why rare hazards feel even rarer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    Even as scientists improve the accuracy of their forecasts for large-scale events like natural hazards and climate change, a gap remains between the confidence the scientific community has in those estimates, and the skepticism with which the lay public tends to view statements of uncertainty. Beyond the challenges of helping the public to understand probabilistic forecasts lies yet another barrier to effective communication: the fact that even when humans can estimate or state the correct probability of a rare event, we tend to distort that probability in our minds, acting as if the likelihood is higher or lower than we know it to be. A half century of empirical research in psychology and economics leaves us with a clear view of the ways that people interpret stated, or described probabilities--e.g., "There is a 6% chance of a Northridge-sized earthquake occurring in your area in the next 10 years." In the past decade, the focus of cognitive scientists has turned to the other method humans use to learn probabilities: intuitively estimating the chances of a rare event by assessing our personal experience with various outcomes. While it is well understood that described probabilities are over-weighted when they are small (e.g., a 5% chance might be treated more like a 10% or 12% chance), it appears that in many cases, experienced rare probabilities are in fact under-weighted. This distortion is not an under-estimation, and therefore cannot be prevented by reminding people of the described probability. This paper discusses the mechanisms and effects of this difference in the way probability is used when a number is provided, as opposed to when the frequency of a rare event is intuited. In addition to recommendations based on the current state of research on the way people appear to make decisions from experience, suggestions are made for how to present probabilistic information to best take advantage of people's tendencies to either amplify risk or ignore it, as well

  15. Even good bots fight: The case of Wikipedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvetkova, Milena; García-Gavilanes, Ruth; Floridi, Luciano; Yasseri, Taha

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a huge increase in the number of bots online, varying from Web crawlers for search engines, to chatbots for online customer service, spambots on social media, and content-editing bots in online collaboration communities. The online world has turned into an ecosystem of bots. However, our knowledge of how these automated agents are interacting with each other is rather poor. Bots are predictable automatons that do not have the capacity for emotions, meaning-making, creativity, and sociality and it is hence natural to expect interactions between bots to be relatively predictable and uneventful. In this article, we analyze the interactions between bots that edit articles on Wikipedia. We track the extent to which bots undid each other’s edits over the period 2001–2010, model how pairs of bots interact over time, and identify different types of interaction trajectories. We find that, although Wikipedia bots are intended to support the encyclopedia, they often undo each other’s edits and these sterile “fights” may sometimes continue for years. Unlike humans on Wikipedia, bots’ interactions tend to occur over longer periods of time and to be more reciprocated. Yet, just like humans, bots in different cultural environments may behave differently. Our research suggests that even relatively “dumb” bots may give rise to complex interactions, and this carries important implications for Artificial Intelligence research. Understanding what affects bot-bot interactions is crucial for managing social media well, providing adequate cyber-security, and designing well functioning autonomous vehicles. PMID:28231323

  16. Antibiotics impact plant traits, even at small concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloy, Andrea; Volkert, Anna Martina; Leonhardt, Sara Diana; Pufal, Gesine

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Antibiotics of veterinary origin are released to agricultural fields via grazing animals or manure. Possible effects on human health through the consumption of antibiotic exposed crop plants have been intensively investigated. However, information is still lacking on the effects of antibiotics on plants themselves, particularly on non-crop species, although evidence suggests adverse effects of antibiotics on growth and performance of plants. This study evaluated the effects of three major antibiotics, penicillin, sulfadiazine and tetracycline, on the germination rates and post-germinative traits of four plant species during ontogenesis and at the time of full development. Antibiotic concentrations were chosen as to reflect in vivo situations, i.e. concentrations similar to those detected in soils. Plant species included two herb species and two grass species, and represent two crop-species and two non-crop species commonly found in field margins, respectively. Germination tests were performed in climate chambers and effects on the remaining plant traits were determined in greenhouse experiments. Results show that antibiotics, even in small concentrations, significantly affect plant traits. These effects include delayed germination and post-germinative development. Effects were species and functional group dependent, with herbs being more sensitive to antibiotics then grasses. Responses were either negative or positive, depending on plant species and antibiotic. Effects were generally stronger for penicillin and sulfadiazine than for tetracycline. Our study shows that cropland species respond to the use of different antibiotics in livestock industry, for example, with delayed germination and lower biomass allocation, indicating possible effects on yield in farmland fertilized with manure containing antibiotics. Also, antibiotics can alter the composition of plant species in natural field margins, due to different species-specific responses, with unknown

  17. Decay out of the yrast and excited highly-deformed bands in the even-even nucleus {sup 134}Nd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrache, C.M.; Bazzacco, D.; Lunardi, S. [Sezione di Padova (Italy)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The resolving power achieved by the new generation of {gamma}-ray detector arrays allows now to observe transitions with intensities of the order of {approximately}10{sup {minus}3} of the population of the final residual nucleus, making therefore feasible the study of the very weakly populated excited bands built on the superdeformed (SD) minimum or of the decay out of the SD bands. As a matter of fact, numerous excited SD bands have been observed in the different regions of superdeformation, which led to a deeper understanding of the single-particle excitation in the second minimum. The first experimental breakthrough in the study of the decay out process has been achieved in the odd-even {sup 133,135}Nd nuclei of the A=130 mass region. There, the observation of the discrete linking transitions has been favored by the relatively higher intensity of the highly-deformed (HD) bands ({approximately}10%), as well as by the small excitation energy with respect to the yrast line in the decay-out region ({approximately}1 MeV). No discrete linking transitions have been so far observed in the A=80, 150 mass regions. The present results suggest that the decay out of the HD bands in {sup 134}Nd is triggered by the crossing with the N=4 [402]5/2{sup +} Nilsson orbital, that has a smaller deformation than the corresponding N=6 intruder configuration. The crossing favours the mixing with the ND rotational bands strongly enhancing the decay-out process and weakening the in-band transition strength. The HD band becomes fragmented and looses part of its character. The intensity of the decay-out transitions increases when the spin of the HD state decreases, indicating enhanced ND amplitude in the wavefunction when going down the band. Lifetime measurements of the HD bands are crucial to further elucidate the decay-out process.

  18. 34 CFR 200.80 - Migrant Education Even Start Program definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Migrant Education Even Start Program definition. 200.80... DISADVANTAGED Even Start Family Literacy Program § 200.80 Migrant Education Even Start Program definition. Eligible participants under the Migrant Education Even Start Program (MEES) must meet the definitions of a...

  19. Particle-number fluctuations and neutron-proton pairing effects on proton and neutron radii of even-even N Almost-Equal-To Z nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douici, M.; Allal, N. H.; Fellah, M.; Benhamouda, N.; Oudih, M. R. [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Faculte de Physique, USTHB BP 32 El-Alia, 16111 Bab-Ezzouar, Alger (Algeria) and Institut des Sciences et Technologie, Centre Universitaire de Khemis Miliana, Route de Theniet-El-Had, 44225 Khemis-Milia (Algeria); Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Faculte de Physique, USTHB BP 32 El-Alia, 16111 Bab-Ezzouar, Alger (Algeria) and Centre de Recherche Nucleaire d' Alger, COMENA, BP399 Alger-Gare, Alger (Algeria); Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Faculte de Physique, USTHB BP 32 El-Alia, 16111 Bab-Ezzouar, Alger (Algeria)

    2012-10-20

    The particle-number fluctuation effect on the root-mean-square (rms) proton and neutron radii of even-even N Almost-Equal-To Z nuclei is studied in the isovector neutron-proton (np) pairing case using an exact particle-number projection method and the Woods-Saxon model.

  20. Deformation properties of even-even Os, Pt, Hg nuclei and spectroscopic properties of odd Re, Os, Ir, Pt, Au, Hg nuclei from self-consistent calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Desthuilliers-Porquet, M G; Quentin, P; Sauvage-Letessier, J

    1981-01-01

    Static properties of even-even Os, Pt, Hg nuclei have been obtained from HF+BCS calculations. Single-particle wave functions which come from these self-consistent calculations have been used to calculate some spectroscopic properties of odd Re, Os, Ir, Pt, Au, and Hg nuclei, within the rotor-quasiparticle coupling model. The authors' calculations are able to give a good description of most of available experimental data. (12 refs).

  1. Anomalous Josephson Effect between Even-and Odd-Frequency Superconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanaka, Yukio; Golubov, Alexandre Avraamovitch; Kashiwaya, Satoshi; Ueda, Masahito

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate that, contrary to standard wisdom, the lowest-order Josephson coupling is possible between odd- and even-frequency superconductors. The origin of this effect is the induced odd- (even-)frequency pairing component at the interface of bulk even- (odd-)frequency superconductors. The

  2. Guide to Improving Parenting Education in Even Start Family Literacy Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Douglas R.; D'Angelo, Diane

    This guide provides a framework and suggestions for strengthening the quality and impact of parenting education services in Even Start. It is aimed at Even Start state coordinators and local program administrators responsible for supporting and monitoring the quality of parenting education services in Even Start, and at local program staff…

  3. AN INVESTIGATION OF THE ENERGY L.EVELS AND MUL TIPOLE MIXING RATIO OF ELECTROMAGNETIC TRANSITIONSIN THE EVEN-EVEN ISOTOPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. KARAKAYA

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work some of the electromagnetic interactions of even-even Haf nium isotopes in the 150lt;k:;l90 defoıınation region were studied in a detailed manner. l n this region� us ing the experimental 8(E2/lv11 ınultipole ınixing ratios the deformation parameters �o and the quadrupole moments q0 and q'2 were calculated. The obtained results are in a good agreement ·with the ge neral systematic of the defoıınation region under consideration.

  4. Risk of injury after evening and night work - findings from the Danish Working Hour Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena B; Larsen, Ann D; Dyreborg, Johnny

    2018-01-01

    during the past week increases risk of injury when reducing recall bias and unmeasured confounding. Methods We linked daily working hours at the individual level of 69 200 employees (167 726 person years from 2008-2015), primarily working at hospitals to registry information on 11 834 injuries leading......Objectives Evening and night work have been associated with higher risk of injury than day work. However, previous findings may be affected by recall bias and unmeasured confounding from differences between day, evening and night workers. This study investigates whether evening and night work...... to emergency room visits or death. Analyses were conducted with Poisson regression models in the full population including permanent day, evening and night workers, and in two sub-populations of evening and night workers, with both day and evening or night work, respectively. Thus, the exchangeability between...

  5. Spatial pattern of tree diversity and evenness across forest types in Majella National Park, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Redowan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Estimation of tree diversity at broader scale is important for conservation planning. Tree diversity should be measured and understood in terms of diversity and evenness, two integral components to describe the structure of a biological community. Variation of the tree diversity and evenness with elevation, topographic relief, aspect, terrain shape, slope, soil nutrient, solar radiation etc. are well documented. Methods Present study explores the variation of tree diversity (measured as Shannon diversity and evenness indices of Majella National Park, Italy with five available forest types namely evergreen oak woods, deciduous oak woods, black/aleppo pine stands, hop-hornbeam forest and beech forest, using satellite, environmental and field data. Results Hop-hornbeam forest was found to be most diverse and even while evergreen Oak woods was the lowest diverse and even. Diversity and evenness of forest types were concurrent to each other i.e. forest type which was more diverse was also more even. As a broad pattern, majority portion of the study area belonged to medium diversity and high evenness class. Conclusions Satellite images and other GIS data proved useful tools in monitoring variation of tree diversity and evenness across various forest types. Present study findings may have implications in prioritizing conservation zones of high tree diversity at Majella.

  6. Signature effects in 2qp bands of doubly even rare-earth nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalra, Kawalpreet [Amity University, AUUP, Department of Physics, Amity Institute of Applied Sciences (AIAS), Noida (India); Goel, Alpana [Amity University, AUUP, Amity Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (AINST), Noida (India); Jain, A.K. [Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Department of Physics, Roorkee (India)

    2016-12-15

    The two-quasiparticle rotational bands in deformed doubly even nuclei in the rare-earth region have been studied in detail. A number of interesting features like odd-even staggering and signature inversion have been observed. The phenomenon of signature inversion/reversal is observed experimentally in {sup 162}{sub 66}Dy, {sup 170}{sub 70}Yb and {sup 170}{sub 74}W in even-even nuclei. Two quasiparticle plus rotor model (TQPRM) calculations are carried out to explain the reverse pattern of signature in {sup 170}{sub 74}W for the rotational band having configuration {(h_1_1_/_2)_p x (d_5_/_2)_p}. (orig.)

  7. Associations among evening snacking, screen time, weight status, and overall diet quality in young adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccone, Jillian; Woodruff, Sarah J; Fryer, Katherine; Campbell, Ty; Cole, Mary

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the associations among evening snacking (food choices, portion sizes), afterschool-evening screen time, overall diet quality, and weight status. Participants consisted of 1008 young adolescents (secondary analyses, n = 651) from schools in Windsor-Essex, Ontario. The Web-based Food Behaviour Questionnaire, including a 24-h diet recall, was used to assess eating and screen time behaviours (television and video and computer games), as well as nutrient intake; height and weight for BMI were measured using a stadiometer. Results indicated that the majority of participants (62%) consumed an evening snack that contributed approximately 11% of their daily caloric intake. Evening snacking was associated with an overall good diet quality compared with that of non-evening snackers (p snack servings of vegetables and fruit (p snack food portion sizes (p snacking factors, participants with greater than 6 h of afterschool-evening screen time were less likely to have a good overall diet quality compared with those with less than 1 h of afterschool-evening screen time. Therefore, increased screen time, because it is associated with greater evening snack portion sizes and overall poor diet quality, is of great concern regarding young adolescents' evening behaviour.

  8. Consistent evaluations of (n,2n) and (n,np) reaction excitation functions for some even-even isotopes using empirical systematics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manokhin, Vassily N. [Russian Nuclear Data Center, Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Odano, Naoteru; Hasegawa, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    An approach for consistent evaluation of (n,2n) and (n,np) reaction excitation functions for some even-even isotopes with the (n,np) reaction thresholds lower than (n,2n) reaction ones is described. For determination of cross sections in the maximum of the (n,2n) and (n,np) reaction excitation functions some empirical systematics developed by Manokhin were used together with trends in dependence of gaps between the (n,2n) and (n,np) thresholds on atomic mass number A. The shapes of the (n,2n) and (n,np) reaction excitation functions were calculated using the normalized functions from the Manokhin's systematics. Excitation functions of (n,2n) and (n,np) reactions were evaluated for several nuclei by using the systematics and it was found that the approach used for the present study gives reasonable results. (author)

  9. Forthcoming Break-Even Conditions of Tokamak Plasma Performance for Fusion Energy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiwatari, Ryoji; Okano, Kunihiko; Asaoka, Yoshiyuki; Tokimatsu, Koji; Konishi, Satoshi; Ogawa, Yuichi

    The present study reveals forthcoming break-even conditions of tokamak plasma performance for the fusion energy development. The first condition is the electric break-even condition, which means that the gross electric power generation is equal to the circulating power in a power plant. This is required for fusion energy to be recognized as a suitable candidate for an alternative energy source. As for the plasma performance (normalized beta value ΒN), confinement improvement factor for H-mode HH, the ratio of plasma density to Greenwald density fnGW), the electric break-even condition requires the simultaneous achievement of 1.2 market. By using a long-term world energy scenario, a break-even price for introduction of fusion energy in the year 2050 is estimated to lie between 65 mill/kWh and 135 mill/kWh under the constraint of 550 ppm CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. In the present study, this break-even price is applied to the economic break-even condition. However, because this break-even price is based on the present energy scenario including uncertainties, the economic break-even condition discussed here should not be considered the sufficient condition, but a necessary condition. Under the conditions of Btmax = 16 T, ηe = 40 %, plant availability 60 %, and a radial build with/without CS coil, the economic break-even condition requires ΒN ˜ 5.0 for 65 mill/kWh of lower break-even price case. Finally, the present study reveals that the demonstration of steady-state operation with ΒN ˜ 3.0 in the ITER project leads to the upper region of the break-even price in the present world energy scenario, which implies that it is necessary to improve the plasma performance beyond that of the ITER advanced plasma operation.

  10. Quantum information with even and odd states of orbital angular momentum of light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perumangatt, Chithrabhanu, E-mail: chithrabhanu@prl.res.in [Physical Research laboratory, Navarangpura, Ahmedabad, 380009 (India); Lal, Nijil [Physical Research laboratory, Navarangpura, Ahmedabad, 380009 (India); IIT Gandhinagar, Palaj, Ahmedabad, 382355 (India); Anwar, Ali [Physical Research laboratory, Navarangpura, Ahmedabad, 380009 (India); Gangi Reddy, Salla [University of Electro-communications, Chofu, Tokyo, 1828585 (Japan); Singh, R.P. [Physical Research laboratory, Navarangpura, Ahmedabad, 380009 (India)

    2017-06-15

    We address the possibility of using even/odd states of orbital angular momentum (OAM) of photons for the quantum information tasks. Single photon qubit states and two photon entangled states in even/odd basis of OAM are considered. We present a method for the tomography and general projective measurement in even/odd basis. With the general projective measurement, we show the Bell violation and quantum cryptography with Bell's inequality. We also describe hyper and hybrid entanglement of even/odd OAM states along with polarization, which can be applied in the implementation of quantum protocols like super dense coding. - Highlights: • We propose to use even and odd states of orbital angular momentum (OAM) of light for quantum information tasks. • We describe the OAM qubits and entangled states in even/odd basis and the corresponding projective operators. • We present a method for the tomography and the Bell's inequality violation for photons entangled in even/odd OAM states. • We also describe hyper and hybrid entanglement of even/odd OAM states along with polarization and their applications.

  11. The even and the odd spectral flows on the N=2 superconformal algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gato-Rivera, B.

    1998-01-01

    There are two different spectral flows on the N=2 superconformal algebras (four in the case of the topological algebra). The usual spectral flow, first considered by Schwimmer and Seiberg, is an even transformation, whereas the spectral flow previously considered by the author and Rosado is an odd transformation. We show that the even spectral flow is generated by the odd spectral flow, and therefore only the latter is fundamental. We also analyze thoroughly the four ''topological'' spectral flows, writing two of them here for the first time. Whereas the even and the odd spectral flows have quasi-mirrored properties acting on the antiperiodic or the periodic algebras, the topological even and odd spectral flows have drastically different properties acting on the topological algebra. The other two topological spectral flows have mixed even and odd properties. We show that the even and the even-odd topological spectral flows are generated by the odd and the odd-even topological spectral flows, and therefore only the latter are fundamental. (orig.)

  12. Analysis of Even Harmonics Generation in an Isolated Electric Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanao, Norikazu; Hayashi, Yasuhiro; Matsuki, Junya

    Harmonics bred from loads are mainly odd order because the current waveform has half-wave symmetry. Since the even harmonics are negligibly small, those are not generally measured in electric power systems. However, even harmonics were measured at a 500/275/154kV substation in Hokuriku Electric Power Company after removal of a transmission line fault. The even harmonics caused malfunctions of protective digital relays because the relays used 4th harmonics at the input filter as automatic supervisory signal. This paper describes the mechanism of generation of the even harmonics by comparing measured waveforms with ATP-EMTP simulation results. As a result of analysis, it is cleared that even harmonics are generated by three causes. The first cause is a magnetizing current of transformers due to flux deviation by DC component of a fault current. The second one is due to harmonic conversion of a synchronous machine which generates even harmonics when direct current component or even harmonic current flow into the machine. The third one is that increase of harmonic impedance due to an isolated power system produces harmonic voltages. The design of the input filter of protective digital relays should consider even harmonics generation in an isolated power system.

  13. Work All Day, Study at Night: The Interactive Evening Lecture to Invigorate Working Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Gerard Stone was asked to present the evening lecture in a first-year undergraduate accounting subject. The aim of the subject matter was to provide students with an understanding of fundamental accounting issues and concepts. The subject coordinator advised Stone that, from past experience, most students who attend the evening lecture would be…

  14. Subjective and objective napping and sleep in older adults: are evening naps "bad" for nighttime sleep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dautovich, Natalie D; McCrae, Christina S; Rowe, Meredeth

    2008-09-01

    To compare objective and subjective measurements of napping and to examine the relationship between evening napping and nocturnal sleep in older adults. For 12 days, participants wore actigraphs and completed sleep diaries. Community. One hundred individuals who napped, aged 60 to 89 (including good and poor sleepers with typical age-related medical comorbidities). Twelve days of sleep diary and actigraphy provided subjective and objective napping and sleep data. Evening naps (within 2 hours of bedtime) were characteristic of the sample, with peak nap time occurring between 20:30 and 21:00 (average nap time occurred between 14:30 and 15:00). Two categories of nappers were identified: those who took daytime and evening naps and daytime-only. No participants napped during the evening only. Day-and-evening nappers significantly underreported evening napping and demonstrated lower objectively measured sleep onset latencies (20.0 vs 26.5 minutes), less wake after sleep onset (51.4 vs 72.8 minutes), and higher sleep efficiencies (76.8 vs 82%) than daytime-only nappers. Day and evening napping was prevalent in this sample of community-dwelling good and poor sleepers but was not associated with impaired nocturnal sleep. Although the elimination or restriction of napping is a common element of cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia, these results suggest that a uniform recommendation to restrict or eliminate napping (particularly evening napping) may not meet the needs of all older individuals with insomnia.

  15. Break-Even Cost for Residential Photovoltaics in the United States: Key Drivers and Sensitivities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, P.; Margolis, R. M.; Ong, S.; Roberts, B.

    2009-12-01

    Grid parity--or break-even cost--for photovoltaic (PV) technology is defined as the point where the cost of PV-generated electricity equals the cost of electricity purchased from the grid. Break-even cost is expressed in $/W of an installed system. Achieving break-even cost is a function of many variables. Consequently, break-even costs vary by location and time for a country, such as the United States, with a diverse set of resources, electricity prices, and other variables. In this report, we analyze PV break-even costs for U.S. residential customers. We evaluate some key drivers of grid parity both regionally and over time. We also examine the impact of moving from flat to time-of-use (TOU) rates, and we evaluate individual components of the break-even cost, including effect of rate structure and various incentives. Finally, we examine how PV markets might evolve on a regional basis considering the sensitivity of the break-even cost to four major drivers: technical performance, financing parameters, electricity prices and rates, and policies. We find that local incentives rather than ?technical? parameters are in general the key drivers of the break-even cost of PV. Additionally, this analysis provides insight about the potential viability of PV markets.

  16. Effects of edge contrast on redback salamander distribution in even-aged northern hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard M. DeGraaf; Mariko. Yamasaki

    2002-01-01

    Terrestrial salamanders are sensitive to forest disturbance associated with even-aged management. We studied the distribution of redback salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) for 4 yr at edges between even-aged northern hardwood stands along three replicate transects in each of three edge contrast types: regeneration/mature, sapling/mature, and...

  17. Can even-order laser harmonics exhibited by Bohmian trajectories in symmetric potentials be observed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peatross, J; Johansen, J

    2014-01-13

    Strong-field laser-atom interactions provide extreme conditions that may be useful for investigating the de Broglie-Bohm quantum interpretation. Bohmian trajectories representing bound electrons in individual atoms exhibit both even and odd harmonic motion when subjected to a strong external laser field. The phases of the even harmonics depend on the random initial positions of the trajectories within the wave function, making the even harmonics incoherent. In contrast, the phases of odd harmonics remain for the most part coherent regardless of initial position. Under the conjecture that a Bohmian point particle plays the role of emitter, this suggests an experiment to determine whether both even and odd harmonics are produced at the atomic level. Estimates suggest that incoherent emission of even harmonics may be detectable out the side of an intense laser focus interacting with a large number of atoms.

  18. Forthcoming break-even conditions of tokamak plasma performance for fusion energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiwatari, Ryoji; Okano, Kunihiko; Asaoka, Yoshiyuki; Tokimatsu, Koji; Konishi, Satoshi; Ogawa, Yuichi

    2005-01-01

    The present study reveals forthcoming break-even conditions of tokamak plasma performance for the fusion energy development. The first condition is the electric break-even condition, which means that the gross electric power generation is equal to the circulating power in a power plant. This is required for fusion energy to be recognized as a suitable candidate for an alternative energy source. As for the plasma performance (normalized beta value β N , confinement improvement factor for H-mode HH, the ratio of plasma density to Greenwald density fn GW ), the electric break-even condition requires the simultaneous achievement of 1.2 N GW tmax =16 T, thermal efficiency η e =30%, and current drive power P NBI N ∼1.8, HH≠1.0, and fn GW ∼0.9, which correspond to the ITER reference operation parameters, have a strong potential to achieve the electric break-even condition. The second condition is the economic break-even condition, which is required for fusion energy to be selected as an alternative energy source in the energy market. By using a long-term world energy scenario, a break-even price for introduction of fusion energy in the year 2050 is estimated to lie between 65 mill/kWh and 135 mill/kWh under the constraint of 550 ppm CO 2 concentration in the atmosphere. In the present study, this break-even price is applied to the economic break-even condition. However, because this break-even price is based on the present energy scenario including uncertainties, the economic break-even condition discussed here should not be considered the sufficient condition, but a necessary condition. Under the conditions of B tmax =16 T, η e =40%, plant availability 60%, and a radial build with/without CS coil, the economic break-even condition requires β N ∼5.0 for 65 mill/kWh of lower break-even price case. Finally, the present study reveals that the demonstration of steady-state operation with β N ∼3.0 in the ITER project leads to the upper region of the break-even

  19. Dim Light Melatonin Onset and Affect in Adolescents With an Evening Circadian Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolsen, Michael R; Harvey, Allison G

    2018-01-01

    A shift toward an evening circadian preference and the onset of mood problems often occur during adolescence. Although these changes are linked to poorer outcomes, few studies have considered how positive and negative affect are related to the circadian rhythm during adolescence. This study examined the relationship between evening and morning affect ratings and dim light melatonin onset (DLMO), a measure of endogenous circadian rhythm. Age and sex were tested as moderators. This study is based on a subset of 163 (94 female, age = 14.7) adolescents with an evening circadian preference from a National Institute of Child Health and Human Development-funded study. Participants provided saliva for melatonin analysis and rated evening and morning affect. Higher evening negative affect was related to a later DLMO. Evening positive affect was not significantly related to DLMO timing. Age but not sex was a significant moderator such that higher negative and lower positive affect were related to a later DLMO for 10- to 13-year-olds, whereas higher positive affect was related to a later DLMO for 17- to 18-year-olds. DLMO was not significantly related to morning affect ratings. There is evidence that higher negative and lower positive affect may be related to the shift toward an evening circadian preference observed in adolescents, particularly for younger adolescents. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Economics of Garlic Production in Baran District of Rajasthan; Break Even Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Meena, Lokesh Kumar; Sen, Chandra; Bairwa, Shoji lal; Arunjhajharia; Raghuwanshi, N. K.

    2013-01-01

    The study focuses on economic analysis of garlic production in the Baran District of Rajasthan. The study is carried out to determine break even analysis and constraints of garlic production in the study area. Break even analysis is carried out to arrive at that minimum level at which optimum conditions of cost and returns is equated that is no profit no loss point. In this study selected small, medium and large farmers will not be at loss even if their actual yield of garlic is decline by 56...

  1. Analisis Break Even Point Penjualan Pupuk Kompos Toar Organic Fertilizer di Kakaskasen Kota Tomohon

    OpenAIRE

    Sianipar, Maya Basaria; Mandei, Juliana R; Katiandagho, Theodora M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the value of sales of compos at break even. Starting from of 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015. Analysis of break even point is an analysis tools that is used by management of a company that serves to determine the level of sales, so the company doesn't profit and loss. Analysis of break even points can be used by a manager or a leader of the company with the aim to determine the level of sales volume before experiencing benefits and losses.Research uses the d...

  2. Estimating the Break-Even Price for Forest Protection in Central Kalimantan

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Yuki; Takeuchi, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    This paper estimates the break-even price in Central Kalimantan province, Indonesia and evaluates the effectiveness of a REDD+ mechanism in this area. On the basis of data collected through a field survey, we found that the break-even price is $17.14 per ton of carbon or $4.68 per ton of carbon dioxide. The figure can be even lower when we take the peat thickness of the area into account. Our analysis shows that the current level of carbon price can provide adequate compensation for Indonesia...

  3. Evaluation of a digital method to assess evening meal intake in a free-living

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Anne Dahl; Poulsen, Sanne; Andersen, Lotte Ernst

    2010-01-01

    Background: In recent years new applications of technologies, including digital images, to capture dietary behaviour in real time have been explored. Objectives: To validate a digital method for estimating evening meal intake in a free-living adult population, and to examine the feasibility...... of the method for recording evening meal intake over a prolonged period of time. Design: The digital method was compared against weighed records of 19 participants’ usual evening meals for five consecutive days. Two trained image analysts independently estimated the weight of individual foods within the meals...... estimation in real-time where a prolonged recording period of participants’ meals is needed....

  4. A cereal-based evening meal rich in indigestible carbohydrates increases plasma butyrate the next morning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Anne C; Östman, Elin M; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2010-01-01

    , mean ± SD: 25.9 ± 3.2 y, BMI meals (50 g available starch) varying in content of indigestible carbohydrates. Each participant consumed all test meals in a random order on separate evenings. At a standardized breakfast following evening test meals......, the postprandial glucose response (incremental area under the curve, 0-120 min) was inversely related to plasma butyrate (r = -0.26; P meals composed of high-amylose barley kernels or high-ß-glucan barley kernels resulted in higher plasma butyrate...... concentrations the following morning compared with an evening meal with white wheat bread (P

  5. Reduced electric-octupole transition probabilities, B(E3;O1+ → 31-), for even-even nuclides throughout the periodic table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spear, R.H.

    1988-11-01

    Adopted values for the excitation energy, E x( 3 1 - ), of the first 3 - state of the even-even nuclei are tabulated. Values of the reduced electric-octupole transition probability, B(E3;O 1 + → 3 1 - ), from the ground state to this state, as determined from Coulomb excitation, lifetime measurements, inelastic electron scattering, deformation parameters β 3 obtained from angular distributions of inelastically scattered nucleons and light ions, and other miscellaneous procedures are listed in separate Tables. Adopted values for B(E3; O 1 + → 3 1 - ) are presented in Table VII, together with the E3 transition strengths, in Weisskopf units, and the product E x( 3 1 - ) x B(E3; O 1 + → 3 1 - - ) expressed as a percentage of the energy-weighted E3 sum-rule strength. An evaluation is made of the reliability of B(E3; O 1 + → 3 1 - ) values deduced from deformation parameters β 3 . The literature has been covered to March 1988

  6. Study of the deexcitation by monopole pair emission from the first J=0+ states in some even-even nuclei of the 2s-1d shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souw, Kenghok.

    1975-01-01

    A new high efficiency plastic scintillation pair spectrometer was used to measure the E0 branching ratio GAMMAsub(π)/GAMMA(tot) (GAMMAsub(π)=pair emission partial width, GAMMA(tot)=total width) of the transition from the first excited Jsup(π)=0 + state to the Jsup(π)=0 + ground state in some even-even nuclei of the 2s-1d shell. Experiments were performed on 18 O, 26 Mg, 30 Si, 32 S, 34 S and 38 Ar nuclei. The method consisted in detecting the electron and positron of the pair in coincidence in two telescopes. A surface barrier counter placed downstream the target, working in coincidence with the spectrometer, allowed the relevant pair-decays to be selected and the feeding yield to be determined from direct spectra. The branching ratios were such directly determined. These ratios combined with the values available for the lifetimes of these states give the monopole matrix elements Msub(π). The single particle strength of these decays passes through a minimum in the middle of the shell ( 30 Si) and reaches a maximum around the closed shells ( 18 O, and 48 Ca) [fr

  7. The salient features of charge density distributions of medium and heavy even-even nuclei determined from a systematic analysis of elastic electron scattering from factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, J.; Voegler, N.

    1982-01-01

    All available information on charge distributions of even-even nuclei is analysed systematically. For medium and heavy nuclei five general features of p(r) are investigated: (i) The extension for which we discuss several different definitions. The measured extension together with experimental binding energies allows a determination of nuclear compressibility within the framework of the droplet model, the resulting value being K = 165 +- 10 MeV. (ii) The surface thickness. Here too, several definitions are discussed. A close relationship between the surface thickness and binding energies is demonstrated. (iii) The average slope in the inner part of the nucleus. A method is formulated to separate this slope from the oscillations observed. All nuclei show a positive slope of comparable size. (iv) The oscillations on p(r). They are related to an abrupt breakdown in the form factor around q = 2.25 fm -1 . This effect seems to be closely related to the fact that p(r) is built up out of single particles, details however being unimportant. (v) The high-q components of the form factor are indicative for a scattering mechanism involving pairs of nucleons. (orig.)

  8. The Determination of Neutron-Induced Reaction Cross Section Data on Even-Even, Magic- Number Nuclide Chromium 52 Using EXIFON Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonah, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    The EXIFON code version 2.0 is a calculational tool, which is based on both many-body theory and random matrix physics. In this work, it has been used to calculate neutron induced reaction cross section data from 0 to 20 MeV on an even-even, magic number nuclide 52 Cr with neutron number, N=28. Specifically, the (n,p), (n,α) and (n,2n) reaction cross section data were calculated as functions of incident energy of neutrons. Data obtained from the experimental data in the IAEA, EXFOR data Library and recommended data libraries around the globe, JENDL, ENDF and JEFF were used to validate the calculated data. The data indicate that the calculated data without shell corrections are in good agreement with experimental data as well as the recommended data from the evaluated data libraries. The calculated results could provide useful insight into the choice of some input parameters near closed shells using the EXIFON code.

  9. The B(E2;4^+1->2^+1) / B(E2;2^+1->0^+1) Ratio in Even-Even Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loelius, C.; Sharon, Y. Y.; Zamick, L.; G"Urdal, G.

    2009-10-01

    We considered 207 even-even nuclei throughout the chart of nuclides for which the NNDC Tables had data on the energies and lifetimes of the 2^+1 and 4^+1 states. Using these data we calculated for each nucleus the electric quadrupole transition strengths B(E2;4^+1->2^+1) and B(E2;2^+1->0^+1), as well as their ratio. The internal conversion coefficients were obtained by using the NNDC HSICC calculator. For each nucleus we plotted the B(E2) ratio against A, N, and Z. We found that for close to 90% of the nuclei considered the ratio had values between 0.5 and 2.5. Most of the outliers had magic numbers of protons or neutrons. Our ratio results were compared with the theoretical predictions for this ratio by different models--10/7 in the rotational model and 2 in the simplest vibrational model. In the rotational regions (for 150 220) the ratios were indeed close to 10/7. For the few nuclei thought to be vibrational the ratios were usually less than 2. Otherwise, we got a wide scatter of ratio values. Hence other models, including the NpNn scheme, must be considered in interpreting these results.

  10. Fermionic symmetries: Extension of the two to one relationship between the spectra of even-even and neighboring odd mass nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamick, L.; Devi, Y.D.

    1999-01-01

    In the single j shell there is a two to one relationship between the spectra of certain even-even and neighboring odd mass nuclei; e.g., the calculated energy levels of J=0 + states in 44 Ti are at twice the energies of corresponding levels in 43 Ti( 43 Sc) with J=j=7/2. Here an approximate extension of the relationship is made by adopting a truncated seniority scheme; i.e., for 46 Ti and 45 Sc we get the relationship if we do not allow the seniority v=4 states to mix with the v=0 and v=2 states. Better than that, we get very close to the two to one relationship if seniority v=4 states are admixed perturbatively. In addition, it is shown that for the J=0 T=3 state in 46 Ti and for the J=j T=5/2 state in 45 Sc (i.e., the states of higher isospin) there are no admixtures in which the neutrons have seniority 4. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  11. Atypical evening cortisol profile induces visual recognition memory deficit in healthy human subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilpin Heather

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diurnal rhythm-mediated endogenous cortisol levels in humans are characterised by a peak in secretion after awakening that declines throughout the day to an evening trough. However, a significant proportion of the population exhibits an atypical cycle of diurnal cortisol due to shift work, jet-lag, aging, and mental illness. Results The present study has demonstrated a correlation between elevation of cortisol in the evening and deterioration of visual object recognition memory. However, high evening cortisol levels have no effect on spatial memory. Conclusion This study suggests that atypical evening salivary cortisol levels have an important role in the early deterioration of recognition memory. The loss of recognition memory, which is vital for everyday life, is a major symptom of the amnesic syndrome and early stages of Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, this study will promote a potential physiologic marker of early deterioration of recognition memory and a possible diagnostic strategy for Alzheimer's disease.

  12. AFSC/ABL: Population structure of odd- and even-broodline Asian pink salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Electrophoretic analysis of Asian even brood-year pink salmon stocks has shown regional heterogeneity (Noll et al. in review). Hypothetical mixed fisheries were...

  13. OSCILLATION BEHAVIOR OF SOLUTIONS FOR EVEN ORDER NEUTRAL FUNCTIONAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T.Candan

    2006-01-01

    Even order neutral functional differential equations are considered. Sufficient conditions for the oscillation behavior of solutions for this differential equation are presented. The new results are presented and some examples are also given.

  14. Asymptotic analysis of fundamental solutions of Dirac operators on even dimensional Euclidean spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, A.

    1985-01-01

    We analyze the short distance asymptotic behavior of some quantities formed out of fundamental solutions of Dirac operators on even dimensional Euclidean spaces with finite dimensional matrix-valued potentials. (orig.)

  15. Break-even Analysis: A Practical Tool for Administrators of Continuing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, James

    1982-01-01

    Explains how break-even analysis can help the continuing education administrator in planning by clarifying the relationship between costs, volume, and surplus revenues. Also explains the concepts of fixed, variable, and semivariable costs. (CT)

  16. [Sleep quality and hormone levels in the morning and evening hours under chemical pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budkevich, R O; Budkevich, E V

    To evaluate self-assessment of sleep and the level of hormones in the morning and evening in chemical pollution conditions. Three hundred adolescent and adult men living in the regions with low and high levels of chemical pollution were examined using questionnaires for self-assessment of quality of sleep, sleep hygiene, daytime sleepiness. Levels of cortisol and testosterone in the saliva were determined in the morning and evening hours by ELISA. In areas with low pollution level, there were normal changes in hormone levels with an increase in the morning and decrease in the evening. In high pollution conditions, the average levels of hormones increased, the morning-evening gradient disappeared. These conditions were also associated with an increase in daytime sleepiness and disturbances in the sleep-wake cycle and the endocrine regulation system that indicate the possibility of the development of internal desynchronosis.

  17. Revisiting the even-odd staggering in fission-fragment yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caamano, M.; Rejmund, F.; Schmidt, K. H.

    2010-01-01

    The even-odd staggering observed in the experimental fission-fragment nuclear-charge yields is investigated over a wide systematics of fission fragments measured at Lohengrin in direct kinematics and at GSI in inverse kinematics. The general increase of the even-odd staggering in the fission-fragment charge yields towards asymmetric charge splits is explained by the absorption of the unpaired nucleons by the heavy fragment. As a consequence, the well established trend of even-odd staggering in the fission fragment charge yields to decrease with the fissility is attributed in part to the asymmetry evolution of the charge distribution. This interpretation is strongly supported by the data measured at GSI, which cover the complete charge distribution and include precise yields at symmetry. They reveal that the even-odd effect around symmetry remains constant over a large range of fissility. (authors)

  18. Burnout correlations for even- and odd-numbered peripheral rod clusters over low pressure range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akaho, E.H.K.

    1995-01-01

    Burnout data with low pressure Freon-113 for even- and odd- numbered peripheral rod clusters with relatively large spacings were used to derive equations in terms of dimensionless parameters suggested by Barnett. The equations which are for three different flow regimes for each rod geometry (even or odd) were found to predict burnout data with maximum RMS deviation being 3.8%. (author). 11 figs., 3 tabs., 15 refs

  19. Charged-Current Neutrino-Nucleus Scattering off the Even Molybdenum Isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ydrefors

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutrinos from supernovae constitute important probes of both the currently unknown supernova mechanisms and of neutrino properties. Reliable information about the nuclear responses to supernova neutrinos is therefore crucial. In this work, we compute the cross sections for the charged-current neutrino-nucleus scattering off the even-even molybdenum isotopes. The nuclear responses to supernova neutrinos are subsequently calculated by folding the cross sections with a Fermi-Dirac distribution.

  20. Localization of periodic orbits of polynomial vector fields of even degree by linear functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starkov, Konstantin E. [CITEDI-IPN, Av. del Parque 1310, Mesa de Otay, Tijuana, BC (Mexico)] e-mail: konst@citedi.mx

    2005-08-01

    This paper is concerned with the localization problem of periodic orbits of polynomial vector fields of even degree by using linear functions. Conditions of the localization of all periodic orbits in sets of a simple structure are obtained. Our results are based on the solution of the conditional extremum problem and the application of homogeneous polynomial forms of even degrees. As examples, the Lanford system, the jerky system with one quadratic monomial and a quartically perturbed harmonic oscillator are considered.

  1. Localization of periodic orbits of polynomial vector fields of even degree by linear functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starkov, Konstantin E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the localization problem of periodic orbits of polynomial vector fields of even degree by using linear functions. Conditions of the localization of all periodic orbits in sets of a simple structure are obtained. Our results are based on the solution of the conditional extremum problem and the application of homogeneous polynomial forms of even degrees. As examples, the Lanford system, the jerky system with one quadratic monomial and a quartically perturbed harmonic oscillator are considered

  2. Break-even analysis of the enterprise at one product level

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela Ghicajanu; Manuel-Viorel Semen

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents some significant aspects regarding the break-even analysis of an economic organization. The analysis will consider a case study for a company which produces a certain production volume, considering a certain value of its sales and determining its Break-Even Point, under two possible hypotheses: the first case by only operating with a normal profit, and the second one by considering a requested profit (opportunity cost) of 3%.

  3. Systematics of gamma decay through low-lying vibrational levels of even--even nuclei excited by (p,p') and (n,n') reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koopman, R.P.

    1977-01-01

    A series of experiments was performed in which gamma-ray spectra were measured, using a Ge(Li) detector, for incident 7 to 26-MeV protons on the even-even vibrational nuclei 56 Fe, 62 Ni, 64 Zn, 108 Pd, 110 Cd, 114 Cd, 116 Cd, 116 Sn, 120 Sn, and 206 Pb, and for incident 14-MeV neutrons on natural Fe, Ni, Zn, Cd, Sn, and Pb. These measurements yielded gamma-ray cross sections from which it was inferred that almost all of the gamma cascades from (p,p') and (n,n') reactions passed down through the first 2 + levels. Consequently, the strength of the 2 + → 0 + gamma transitions were found to be an indirect measure of the (p,p') or (n,n') cross sections. Several types of nuclear model calculations were performed and compared with experimental results. These calculations included coupled-channel calculations to reproduce the direct, collective excitation of the low-lying levels, and statistical plus pre-equilibrium model calculations to reproduce the (p,p') and the (n,n') cross sections for comparison with the 2 + → 0 + gamma measurements. The agreement between calculation and experiment was generally good except at high energies, where pre-equilibrium processes dominate (i.e. around 26-MeV). Here discrepancies between calculations from the two different pre-equilibrium models and between the data and the calculations were found. Significant isospin mixing of T/sub greater than/ into T/sub less than/ states was necessary in order to have the calculations match the data for the (p,p') reactions, up to about 18-MeV

  4. Calculation of multidimensional potential energy surfaces for even-even transuranium nuclei: systematic investigation of the triaxiality effect on the fission barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Qing-Zhen; Zhao, Wei-Juan; Liu, Min-Liang; Wang, Hua-Lei

    2018-05-01

    Static fission barriers for 95 even-even transuranium nuclei with charge number Z = 94–118 have been systematically investigated by means of pairing self-consistent Woods-Saxon-Strutinsky calculations using the potential energy surface approach in multidimensional (β 2, γ, β 4) deformation space. Taking the heavier 252Cf nucleus (with the available fission barrier from experiment) as an example, the formation of the fission barrier and the influence of macroscopic, shell and pairing correction energies on it are analyzed. The results of the present calculated β 2 values and barrier heights are compared with previous calculations and available experiments. The role of triaxiality in the region of the first saddle is discussed. It is found that the second fission barrier is also considerably affected by the triaxial deformation degree of freedom in some nuclei (e.g., the Z=112–118 isotopes). Based on the potential energy curves, general trends of the evolution of the fission barrier heights and widths as a function of the nucleon numbers are investigated. In addition, the effects of Woods-Saxon potential parameter modifications (e.g., the strength of the spin-orbit coupling and the nuclear surface diffuseness) on the fission barrier are briefly discussed. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11675148, 11505157), the Project of Youth Backbone Teachers of Colleges and Universities of Henan Province (2017GGJS008), the Foundation and Advanced Technology Research Program of Henan Province (162300410222), the Outstanding Young Talent Research Fund of Zhengzhou University (1521317002) and the Physics Research and Development Program of Zhengzhou University (32410017)

  5. ALGORITMA PARALEL ODD EVEN TRANSPOSITION PADA MODEL JARINGAN NON-LINIER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernastuti .

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Odd-even-transposition adalah suatu algoritma paralel yang merupakan pengembangan dari algoritma sekuensial “bubble sort”. Algoritma odd-even-transposition ini didesain khusus untuk model jaringan array linier (homogen. Untuk n elemen data, kompleksitas waktu dari algoritma bubble sort adalah O(n2, sedangkan pada odd-even-transposition yang bekerja di atas n prosesor adalah (n. Ada peningkatan kecepatan waktu pada kinerja algoritma paralel ini sebesar n kali dibanding algoritma sekuensialnya. Hypercube dimensi k adalah model jaringan non-linier (non-homogen terdiri dari n = 2k prosesor, di mana setiap prosesor berderajat k. Model jaringan Fibonacci cube dan extended Lucas cube masing-masing merupakan model subjaringan hypercube dengan jumlah prosesor < 2k prosesor dan maksimum derajat prosesornya adalah k. Pada paper ini, diperlihatkan bagaimana algoritma odd-even-transposition dapat dijalankan juga pada model jaringan komputer cluster non-linier hypercube, Fibonacci cube, dan extended Lucas cube dengan kompleksitas waktu O(n. Odd-even-transposition is a parallel algorithm which is the development of sequential algorithm “bubble sort”. Odd-even transposition algorithm is specially designed for linear array network model (homogeneous. For n data elements, the time complexity of bubble sort algorithm is O(n2, while the odd-even-transposition that works with n processor is (n. There in an increase in the speed of time on the performance of this parallel algorithms for n times than its sequential algorithm. K-dimensional hypercube is a non-linear network model (non-homogeneous consists of n = 2k processors, where each processor has k degree . Network model of Fibonacci cube and extended Lucas cube are the hypercube sub-network model with the number of processors

  6. Extinction of conditioned fear is better learned and recalled in the morning than in the evening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace-Schott, Edward F; Spencer, Rebecca M C; Vijayakumar, Shilpa; Ahmed, Nafis A K; Verga, Patrick W; Orr, Scott P; Pitman, Roger K; Milad, Mohammed R

    2013-11-01

    Sleep helps emotional memories consolidate and may promote generalization of fear extinction memory. We examined whether extinction learning and memory might differ in the morning and evening due, potentially, to circadian and/or sleep-homeostatic factors. Healthy men (N = 109) in 6 groups completed a 2-session protocol. In Session 1, fear conditioning was followed by extinction learning. Partial reinforcement with mild electric shock produced conditioned skin conductance responses (SCRs) to 2 differently colored lamps (CS+), but not a third color (CS-), within the computer image of a room (conditioning context). One CS+ (CS + E) but not the other (CS + U) was immediately extinguished by un-reinforced presentations in a different room (extinction context). Delay durations of 3 h (within AM or PM), 12 h (morning-to-evening or evening-to-morning) or 24 h (morning-to-morning or evening-to-evening) followed. In Session 2, extinction recall and contextual fear renewal were tested. We observed no significant effects of the delay interval on extinction memory but did observe an effect of time-of-day. Fear extinction was significantly better if learned in the morning (p = .002). Collapsing across CS + type, there was smaller morning differential SCR at both extinction recall (p = .003) and fear renewal (p = .005). Morning extinction recall showed better generalization from the CS + E to CS + U with the response to the CS + U significantly larger than to the CS + E only in the evening (p = .028). Thus, extinction is learned faster and its memory is better generalized in the morning. Cortisol and testosterone showed the expected greater salivary levels in the morning when higher testosterone/cortisol ratio also predicted better extinction learning. Circadian factors may promote morning extinction. Alternatively, evening homeostatic sleep pressure may impede extinction and favor recall of conditioned fear. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. When could a stigma program to address mental illness in the workplace break even?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewa, Carolyn S; Hoch, Jeffrey S

    2014-10-01

    To explore basic requirements for a stigma program to produce sufficient savings to pay for itself (that is, break even). A simple economic model was developed to compare reductions in total short-term disability (SDIS) cost relative to a stigma program's costs. A 2-way sensitivity analysis is used to illustrate conditions under which this break-even scenario occurs. Using estimates from the literature for the SDIS costs, this analysis shows that a stigma program can provide value added even if there is no reduction in the length of an SDIS leave. To break even, a stigma program with no reduction in the length of an SDIS leave would need to prevent at least 2.5 SDIS claims in an organization of 1000 workers. Similarly, a stigma program can break even with no reduction in the number of SDIS claims if it is able to reduce SDIS episodes by at least 7 days in an organization of 1000 employees. Modelling results, such as those presented in our paper, provide information to help occupational health payers become prudent buyers in the mental health market place. While in most cases, the required reductions seem modest, the real test of both the model and the program occurs once a stigma program is piloted and evaluated in a real-world setting.

  8. Learning styles differences among engineering students of daytime and evening classes programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio DÍAZ DÍAZ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this exploratory research was to identify if there were any differences in the student’s learning styles of three engineering academic programs from daytime and evening classes. The motivation aroused from the observation that the academic performance of these two populations, in response to equally demanding academic programs, was equivalent, despite having far less demanding requirements for the acceptance in the evening class program. The results of this research showed no relevant differences in the learning styles of the students of the two programs, giving rise to more questions than answers, mainly regarding the motivations of the evening class students and the academic requirements for the acceptance in a tertiary institution. 

  9. Lande gJ factors for even-parity electronic levels in the holmium atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanska, D.; Werbowy, S.; Krzykowski, A.; Furmann, B.

    2018-05-01

    In this work the hyperfine structure of the Zeeman splitting for 18 even-parity levels in the holmium atom was investigated. The experimental method applied was laser induced fluorescence in a hollow cathode discharge lamp. 20 spectral lines were investigated involving odd-parity levels from the ground multiplet, for which Lande gJ factors are known with high precision, as the lower levels; this greatly facilitated the evaluation of gJ factors for the upper levels. The gJ values for the even-parity levels considered are reported for the first time. They proved to compare fairly well with the values obtained recently in a semi-empirical analysis for the even-parity level system of Ho I.

  10. Fine- and hyperfine structure investigations of the even-parity configuration system of the atomic holmium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanska, D.; Ruczkowski, J.; Elantkowska, M.; Furmann, B.

    2018-04-01

    In this work new experimental results concerning the hyperfine structure (hfs) for the even-parity level system of the holmium atom (Ho I) were obtained; additionally, hfs data obtained recently as a by-product in investigations of the odd-parity level system were summarized. In the present work the values of the magnetic dipole and the electric quadrupole hfs constants A and B were determined for 24 even-parity levels, for 14 of them for the first time. On the basis of these results, as well as on available literature data, a parametric study of the fine structure and the hyperfine structure for the even-parity configurations of atomic holmium was performed. A multi-configuration fit of 7 configurations was carried out, taking into account second-order of the perturbation theory. For unknown electronic levels predicted values of the level energies and hfs constants are given, which can facilitate further experimental investigations.

  11. Contextual and environmental influences on reported dietary energy intake at evening eating occasions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Chelsea; Brindal, Emily; Hendrie, Gilly A; Cox, David N

    2016-04-01

    This study sought to determine the simultaneous effect of immediate eating environment variables; portion size, plate size, proximity to food, variety of food, side serves of salad/vegetables and presence of distraction on dietary energy intake (EI), of a reported evening meal, in the participants' real world setting. A retrospective computer assisted telephone interview collected data on ten immediate eating environment variables, covariates and a 24-hour dietary recall of EI at an evening meal. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to determine relationships of these variables with EI. Significant (Phunger score also had a positive relationship with EI (β=0.190), explaining 17.5% of the variance. This study provides evidence that some immediate food environment variables at an evening eating occasion are associated with EI. Findings suggest there are several strategies that people could implement to assist in controlling their EI and help address over consumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Target recognition of ladar range images using even-order Zernike moments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheng-Jun; Li, Qi; Xia, Zhi-Wei; Wang, Qi

    2012-11-01

    Ladar range images have attracted considerable attention in automatic target recognition fields. In this paper, Zernike moments (ZMs) are applied to classify the target of the range image from an arbitrary azimuth angle. However, ZMs suffer from high computational costs. To improve the performance of target recognition based on small samples, even-order ZMs with serial-parallel backpropagation neural networks (BPNNs) are applied to recognize the target of the range image. It is found that the rotation invariance and classified performance of the even-order ZMs are both better than for odd-order moments and for moments compressed by principal component analysis. The experimental results demonstrate that combining the even-order ZMs with serial-parallel BPNNs can significantly improve the recognition rate for small samples.

  13. Does evening work predict sickness absence among female carers of the elderly?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tüchsen, Finn; Christensen, Karl Bang; Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to predict the risk ratio of sickness absence lasting > or = 2 weeks due to shift work among Danish workers caring for the elderly during the evening and at night. METHODS: A sample of Danish carers of the elderly were interviewed in 2005. The response...... rate was 78%. A cohort of 5627 shift and day workers was followed for sickness absence lasting > or = 2 weeks and for sickness absence lasting > or = 8 weeks in a sickness compensation register covering all social transfer payments in Denmark. RESULTS: Among the evening workers, the rate ratio (RR......) of sickness absence lasting > or = 2 weeks was 1.29 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.10-1.52). The rate ratio for sickness absence lasting > or = 8 weeks was 1.24 (95% CI 0.99-1.56). CONCLUSIONS: Evening work may cause long-term sickness absence lasting > or = 2 weeks....

  14. High-harmonic spectroscopy of oriented OCS molecules: emission of even and odd harmonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, P M; Rupenyan, A; Wörner, H J

    2012-12-07

    We study the emission of even and odd high-harmonic orders from oriented OCS molecules. We use an intense, nonresonant femtosecond laser pulse superimposed with its phase-controlled second harmonic field to impulsively align and orient a dense sample of molecules from which we subsequently generate high-order harmonics. The even harmonics appear around the full revivals of the rotational dynamics. We demonstrate perfect coherent control over their intensity through the subcycle delay of the two-color fields. The odd harmonics are insensitive to the degree of orientation, but modulate with the degree of axis alignment, in agreement with calculated photorecombination dipole moments. We further compare the shape of the even and odd harmonic spectra with our calculations and determine the degree of orientation.

  15. Bedtime and evening light exposure influence circadian timing in preschool-age children: A field study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lameese D. Akacem

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Light exposure and sleep timing are two factors that influence inter-individual variability in the timing of the human circadian clock. The aim of this study was to quantify the degree to which evening light exposure predicts variance in circadian timing over and above bedtime alone in preschool children. Participants were 21 children ages 4.5–5.0 years (4.7±0.2 years; 9 females. Children followed their typical sleep schedules for 4 days during which time they wore a wrist actigraph to assess sleep timing and a pendant light meter to measure minute-by-minute illuminance levels in lux. On the 5th day, children participated in an in-home dim-light melatonin onset (DLMO assessment. Light exposure in the 2 h before bedtime was averaged and aggregated across the 4 nights preceding the DLMO assessment. Mean DLMO and bedtime were 19:22±01:04 and 20:07±00:46, respectively. Average evening light exposure was 710.1±1418.2 lux. Children with later bedtimes (lights-off time had more delayed melatonin onset times (r=0.61, p=0.002. Evening light exposure was not independently associated with DLMO (r=0.32, p=0.08; however, a partial correlation between evening light exposure and DLMO when controlling for bedtime yielded a positive correlation (r=0.46, p=0.02. Bedtime explained 37.3% of the variance in the timing of DLMO, and evening light exposure accounted for an additional 13.3% of the variance. These findings represent an important step in understanding factors that influence circadian phase in preschool-age children and have implications for understanding a modifiable pathway that may underlie late sleep timing and the development of evening settling problems in early childhood.

  16. Shape coexistence measurements in even-even neutron-deficient polonium isotopes by Coulomb excitation, using REX-ISOLDE and the Ge MINIBALL array

    CERN Multimedia

    Butler, P; Bastin, B; Kruecken, R; Voulot, D; Rahkila, P J; Orr, N A; Srebrny, J; Grahn, T; Clement, E; Paul, E S; Gernhaeuser, R A; Dorsival, A; Diriken, J V J; Huyse, M L; Iwanicki, J S

    The neutron-deficient polonium isotopes with two protons outside the closed Z=82 shell represent a set of nuclei with a rich spectrum of nucleus structure phenomena. While the onset of the deformation in the light Po isotopes is well established experimentally, questions remain concerning the sign of deformation and the magnitude of the mixing between different configurations. Furthermore, controversy is present with respect to the transition from the vibrational-like character of the heavier Po isotopes to the shape coexistence mode observed in the lighter Po isotopes. We propose to study this transition in the even-mass neutron-deficient $^{198,200,202}$Po isotopes by using post-accelerated beams from REX-ISOLDE and "safe"-energy Coulomb excitation. $\\gamma$- rays will be detected by the MINIBALL array. The measurements of the Coulomb excitation differential cross section will allow us to deduce both the transition and diagonal matrix elements for these nuclei and, combined with lifetime measurements, the s...

  17. Systematics of triaxial moment of inertia and deformation parameters (β, γ) in even-even nuclei of mass region A = 90-120

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Yuvraj; Gupta, D.K.; Singh, M.; Gupta, K.K.; Bihari, Chhail; Varshney, A.K.; Dhiman, S.K.

    2012-01-01

    The deformation parameter β and γ of the collective model of Bohr and Mottelson are basic descriptors of the nuclear equilibrium shape and structure. In recent past the sets of deformation parameters ((β, γ) have been extracted from both level energies and E2 transition rates in even Xe, Ba and Ce nuclei (A∼120-140) and Hf, W, Os, Pt and Hg nuclei (A∼160-200) using rigid triaxial rotor model of Davydov-Filippov (DF). Researcher have found that the values of β obtained separately from energy and transition rate (β e and β b respectively), though, are found almost equal in heavy mass region (A ∼160-200) but, not so in medium mass (A∼120-140) nuclei. This observation puts a question mark whether the ββ dependence of moment of inertia in hydrodynamic model is reliable. The purpose of the present work is to study a relatively lighter mass region (A∼90-120) where the gap between values of two sets of β may further increase. To improve the calculations for extracting β e , the use of Grodzins rule will be made along with uncertainties, since only through this rule the E2 1 + is related with β G (value of β for symmetric nucleus and evaluated using Grodzins rule)

  18. Negative masses, even if isolated, imply self-acceleration, hence a catastrophic world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalleri, G.; Tonni, E.

    1997-01-01

    The conjecture of the existence of negative masses together with ordinary positive masses leads to runaway motions even if no self-reaction is considered. Pollard and Dunning-Davies have shown other constraints as a modification of the principle of least action and that negative masses can only exist at negative temperature, and must be adiabatically separate from positive masses. They show here that the self-reaction on a single isolated negative mass implies a runaway motion. Consequently, the consideration of self-fields and relevant self-reaction excludes negative masses even if isolated

  19. Continuous-variable quantum teleportation of even and odd coherent states through varied gain channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ying; Zhang Jing; Zhang Jun-Xiang; Zhang Tian-Cai

    2006-01-01

    This paper has investigated quantum teleportation of even and odd coherent states in terms of the EPR entanglement states for continuous variables. It discusses the relationship between the fidelity and the entanglement of EPR states, which is characterized by the degree of squeezing and the gain of classical channels. It shows that the quality of teleporting quantum states also depends on the characteristics of the states themselves. The properties of teleporting even and odd coherent states at different intensities are investigated. The difference of teleporting two such kinds of quantum states are analysed based on the quantum distance function.

  20. Instability in near-horizon geometries of even-dimensional Myers–Perry black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanahashi, Norihiro; Murata, Keiju

    2012-01-01

    We study the gravitational, electromagnetic and scalar field perturbations on the near-horizon geometries of the even-dimensional extremal Myers–Perry black holes. By dimensional reduction, the perturbation equations are reduced to effective equations of motion in AdS 2 . We find that some modes in the gravitational perturbations violate the Breitenlöhner–Freedman bound in AdS 2 . This result suggests that the even-dimensional (near-)extremal Myers–Perry black holes are unstable against gravitational perturbations. We also discuss implications of our results to the Kerr–CFT correspondence. (paper)

  1. Quasi-phase-matching of only even-order high harmonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diskin, Tzvi; Cohen, Oren

    2014-03-24

    High harmonic spectrum of a quasi-monochromatic pump that interacts with isotropic media consists of only odd-order harmonics. Addition of a secondary pump, e.g. a static field or the second harmonic of the primary pump, can results with generation of both odd and even harmonics of the primary pump. We propose a method for quasi-phase matching of only the even-order harmonics of the primary pump. We formulate a theory for this process and demonstrate it numerically. We also show that it leads to attosecond pulse trains with constant carrier envelop phase and high repetition rate.

  2. Measurement of total angular momentum values of high-lying even ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Spectrally resolved laser-induced fluorescence technique was used to uniquely assign total angular momentum () values to high-lying even-parity energy levels of atomic samarium. Unique value assignment was done for seven energy levels in the energy region 34,800–36,200 cm-1 , recently observed and reported in ...

  3. Super Hamiltonian structure of the even order SKP hierarchy without reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yoshihide

    1987-01-01

    The super Hamiltonian operator which is different from that of Manin and Radul is derived from the even order SKP hierarchy without reduction and in terms of the operator, the equation in the hierarchy is written in a Hamiltonian form. (orig.)

  4. Collective effects in even-mass samarium isotopes by polarized-proton scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petit, R.M.A.L.; Hall, van P.J.; Klein, S.S.; Moonen, W.H.L.; Nijgh, G.J.; Overveld, van C.W.A.M.; Poppema, O.J.

    1993-01-01

    The even-mass samarium isotopes 148,...,152Sm have been investigated by polarized proton scattering at 20.4 MeV beam energy. The data have been analysed with an 'extended' optical model, where the intensities of the first maxima of the main inelastic channels are fitted in a coupled-channels

  5. An odd–even effect on solubility of dicarboxylic acids in organic solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hui; Yin, Qiuxiang; Liu, Zengkun; Gong, Junbo; Bao, Ying; Zhang, Meijing; Hao, Hongxun; Hou, Baohong; Xie, Chuang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The solubilities of the homologous series of C2–C10 dicarboxylic acids were determined in four selected solvents. • The experimental data were well correlated with the modified Apelblat equation. • The odd–even effect of solubility was found and explained. • The enthalpy, entropy and the molar Gibbs free energy of solution were predicted. - Abstract: The solubility of the homologous series of dicarboxylic acids, HOOC-(CH 2 ) n−2 -COOH (n = 2 to 10), in ethanol, acetic acid, acetone and ethyl acetate was measured at temperatures ranging from (278.15 to 323.15) K by a static analytic method at atmospheric pressure. Dicarboxylic acids with even number of carbon atoms exhibit lower values of solubility than adjacent homologues with odd carbon numbers. This odd–even effect of solubility is attributed to the twist of molecules and interlayer packing in solid state as explained in our previous work. The alternation varies in different solvents, which is believed to be associated with the properties of solvents. Finally, the dissolution enthalpy, dissolution entropy and the molar Gibbs free energy were calculated using the fitting parameters of the modified Apelblat equation. The molar Gibbs free energy also showed apparent odd–even alternation in keeping with the alternation of solubility

  6. Why the Faulhaber Polynomials Are Sums of Even or Odd Powers of (n + 1/2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersh, Reuben

    2012-01-01

    By extending Faulhaber's polynomial to negative values of n, the sum of the p'th powers of the first n integers is seen to be an even or odd polynomial in (n + 1/2) and therefore expressible in terms of the sum of the first n integers.

  7. Evening daylight may cause adolescents to sleep less in spring than in winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiro, Mariana G.; Rea, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    Sleep restriction commonly experienced by adolescents can stem from greater sleep pressure by the homeostatic processes and from phase delays of the circadian system. With regard to the latter potential cause, we hypothesized that because there is more natural evening light during the spring than winter, a sample of adolescent students would be more phase delayed in spring than in winter, would have later sleep onset times and, because of fixed school schedules, would have shorter sleep durations. Sixteen eighth-grade subjects were recruited for the study. We collected sleep logs and saliva samples to determine their dim light melatonin onset (DLMO), a well-established circadian marker. Actual circadian light exposures experienced by a subset of twelve subjects over the course of seven days in winter and in spring using a personal, head-worn, circadian light measurement device are also reported here. Results showed that this sample of adolescents was exposed to significantly more circadian light in spring than in winter, especially in the evening hours when light exposure would likely delay circadian phase. Consistent with the light data, DLMO and sleep onset times were significantly more delayed, and sleep durations were significantly shorter in spring than in winter. The present ecological study of light, circadian phase, and self-reported sleep suggests that greater access to evening daylight in the spring may lead to sleep restriction in adolescents while attending school. Therefore, lighting schemes that reduce evening light in the spring may encourage longer sleep times in adolescents. PMID:20653452

  8. Establishing even-age northern hardwood regeneration by the shelterwood method--a preliminary guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard M. Godman; Carl H. Tubbs

    1973-01-01

    The shelterwood system of regeneration with northern hardwoods is a reliable method of obtaining even-age stands of both tolerant and moderately tolerant species. Details of applying the two-cut system are described along with the necessary modifications for encouraging moderately tolerant species.

  9. The Relationship between Phytoplankton Evenness and Copepod Abundance in Lake Nansihu, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Tian

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning is a central issue in ecology. Previous studies have shown that producer diversity can impact the consumer community via predator-prey interactions. However, direct observations of this relationship remain rare, in particular for aquatic ecosystems. In this research, the relationship between phytoplankton diversity (species richness and evenness and the abundance of copepods was analyzed in Lake Nansihu, a meso-eutrophic lake in China. The results showed that copepods abundance was significantly decreased with increasing phytoplankton evenness throughout the year. However, both species richness and phytoplankton biomass showed no significant relationship with the abundance of copepods. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that phytoplankton evenness was negatively correlated with Thermocyclops kawamurai, Cyclops vicinus, Eucyclops serrulatus, Mesocyclops leuckarti, Sinocalanus tenellus, Sinocalanus dorrii, Copepods nauplius, but positively correlated with many Cyanophyta species (Chroococcus minutus, Dactylococcopsis acicularis, Microcystis incerta, Merismopedia tenuissima, Merismopedia sinica and Lyngbya limnetica. Based on our results, phytoplankton evenness was a better predictor of copepods abundance in meso-eutrophic lakes. These results provide new insights into the relationship between diversity and ecosystem functioning in aquatic ecosystems.

  10. Evaluation of the Even Start--Padres y Progreso Program in the Houston Independent School District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Carla J.; And Others

    The Even Start-Padres y Progreso program is a nationally funded program designed to prepare young children to enter school by not only offering early childhood education, but also assisting their families with adult literacy and English as a Second Language (ESL), parenting-skills training, and employment-skills training. An evaluation of the…

  11. Evaluation of the Fourth and Final Year of the Even Start--Padres y Progreso Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Carla J.; And Others

    The Even Start--Padres y Progreso program was a nationally funded program in Houston (Texas) designed to prepare young children to enter school not only by offering early childhood education, but also assisting their families with adult literacy/English as a second language, parenting skills training, and employment skills training. The program…

  12. Shape transition and collective dynamics in even 94-100Zr nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skalski, J.; Heenen, P.H.; Flocard, H.; Bonche, P.

    1992-01-01

    Quadrupole and octupole excitations in even 94-100 Zr nuclei were studied within the fully microscopic generator coordinate method, using a basis generated by the self-consistent Hartree-Fock method with the Skyrme force. Results relevant for the A=100 shape transition and for the octupole mode properties are reported. (authors) 17 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  13. Energy analysis and break-even distance for transportation for biofuels in comparison to fossil fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the present analysis various forms fuel from biomass and fossil sources, their mass and energy densities, and their break-even transportation distances to transport them effectively were analyzed. This study gives an insight on how many times more energy spent on transporting the fuels to differe...

  14. Attempting to Answer a Meaningful Question Enhances Subsequent Learning Even When Feedback Is Delayed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornell, Nate

    2014-01-01

    Attempting to retrieve information from memory enhances subsequent learning even if the retrieval attempt is unsuccessful. Recent evidence suggests that this benefit materializes only if subsequent study occurs immediately after the retrieval attempt. Previous studies have prompted retrieval using a cue (e.g., "whale-???") that has no…

  15. The interacting boson approximation and the spectroscopy of the even Cadmium and Tin isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, I.; Smith, R.

    1981-01-01

    Within the framework of the Interacting Boson Approximation (IBA), the authors investigate, using the even-mass isotopes Cd 108 to Cd 116 and Sn 116 to Sn 124 , whether a single two-boson interaction can describe the energy, B(E2), quadrupole moment and some inelastic nucleon scattering systematics of these nuclei

  16. Abduction aiming at empirical progress or even at truth approximation, leading to challenge for computational modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, Theo A.F.

    1999-01-01

    This paper primarily deals with the conceptual prospects for generalizing the aim of abduction from the standard one of explaining surprising or anomalous observations to that of empirical progress or even truth approximation. It turns out that the main abduction task then becomes the

  17. On the correspondence between the dynamics with odd and even brackets and generalized Nambu's mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhaldiani, N.; Voskresenskaya, O.

    1998-01-01

    We consider selected problems of Hamiltonization and integrability of a general dynamical system described by a system of ordinary differential equations; odd and even symplectic structures; a new approach to the linearization of non-linear systems by the extended Hamiltonian and Nambu's mechanics

  18. Student Diversity Requires Different Approaches to College Teaching, Even in Math and Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Craig E.

    1996-01-01

    Asserts that traditional teaching methods are unintentionally biased towards the elite and against many non-traditional students. Outlines several easily accessible changes in teaching methods that have fostered dramatic changes in student performance with no change in standards. These approaches have proven effective even in the fields of…

  19. Activation analysis of trace metals in several kinds of tissues of even-toed ungulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, M.; Tamate, H.; Sato, S.; Terui, S.; Mitsugashira, T.

    1999-01-01

    The normal concentration levels of trace metals in several kinds of tissues of even-toed ungulates have been determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis, photon activation analysis, and flame atomic absorption spectrometry. In the present work the concentrations of 13 elements (Ag, Br, Ca, Co, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Rb, Se, and Zn) were analyzed. (author)

  20. Retrospective analysis of the financial break-even point for intrathecal morphine pump use in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Kyoung; Shin, Ji Yeon; Castañeda, Anyela Marcela; Lee, Seung Jae; Yoon, Hyun Kyu; Kim, Yong Chul; Moon, Jee Youn

    2017-10-01

    The high cost of intrathecal morphine pump (ITMP) implantation may be the main obstacle to its use. Since July 2014, the Korean national health insurance (NHI) program began paying 50% of the ITMP implantation cost in select refractory chronic pain patients. The aims of this study were to investigate the financial break-even point and patients' satisfaction in patients with ITMP treatment after the initiation of the NHI reimbursement. We collected data retrospectively or via direct phone calls to patients who underwent ITMP implantation at a single university-based tertiary hospital between July 2014 and May 2016. Pain severity, changes in the morphine equivalent daily dosage (MEDD), any adverse events, and patients' satisfaction were determined. We calculated the financial break-even point of ITMP implantation via investigating the patient's actual medical costs and insurance information. During the studied period, 23 patients received ITMP implantation, and 20 patients were included in our study. Scores on an 11-point numeric rating scale (NRS) for pain were significantly reduced compared to the baseline value ( P break-even point was 28 months for ITMP treatment after the NHI reimbursement policy. ITMP provided effective chronic pain management with improved satisfaction and reasonable financial break-even point of 28 months with 50% financial coverage by NHI program.

  1. Break-Even Income Analysis of Pharmacy Graduates Compared to High School and College Graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm-Burns, Marie A; Gatwood, Justin; Spivey, Christina A; Dickey, Susan E

    2016-04-25

    Objective. To project the net cumulative income break-even point between practicing pharmacists and those who enter the workforce directly after high school graduation or after obtaining a bachelor's degree. Methods. Markov modeling and break-even analysis were conducted. Estimated costs of education were used in calculating net early career earnings of high school graduates, bachelor's degree holders, pharmacists without residency training, and pharmacists with residency training. Results. Models indicate that over the first 10 years of a pharmacist's career, they accumulate net earnings of $716 345 to $1 064 840, depending on cost of obtaining the PharmD degree and career path followed. In the break-even analysis, all pharmacy career tracks surpassed net cumulative earnings of high school graduates by age 33 and bachelor's degree holders by age 34. Conclusion. Regardless of the chosen pharmacy career track and the typical cost of obtaining a PharmD degree, the model under study assumptions demonstrates that pharmacy education has a positive financial return on investment, with a projected break-even point of less than 10 years upon career entry.

  2. The numerology of gender: gendered perceptions of even and odd numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkie, James E B; Bodenhausen, Galen V

    2015-01-01

    Do numbers have gender? Wilkie and Bodenhausen (2012) examined this issue in a series of experiments on perceived gender. They examined the perceived gender of baby faces and foreign names. Arbitrary numbers presented with these faces and names influenced their perceived gender. Specifically, odd numbers connoted masculinity, while even numbers connoted femininity. In two new studies (total N = 315), we further examined the gendering of numbers. The first study examined explicit ratings of 1-digit numbers. We confirmed that odd numbers seemed masculine while even numbers seemed feminine. Although both men and women showed this pattern, it was more pronounced among women. We also examined whether this pattern holds for automatic as well as deliberated reactions. Results of an Implicit Association Test showed that it did, but only among the women. The implicit and explicit patterns of numerical gender ascription were moderately correlated. The second study examined explicit perceptions of 2-digit numbers. Again, women viewed odd numbers as more masculine and less feminine than even numbers. However, men viewed 2-digit numbers as relatively masculine, regardless of whether they were even or odd. These results indicate that women and men impute gender to numbers in different ways and to different extents. We discuss possible implications for understanding how people relate to and are influenced by numbers in a variety of real-life contexts.

  3. 26 CFR 301.6323(b)-1 - Protection for certain interests even though notice filed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... Subsequent to his purchase, B learns of the existence of the tax lien against A. Even though notice of lien... the basis of the facts and circumstances of each individual case. It is immaterial that the notice of... savings deposit, share, or other account evidenced by a passbook (as defined in subparagraph (2) of this...

  4. The numerology of gender: Gendered perceptions of even and odd numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James eWilkie

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Do numbers have gender? Wilkie and Bodenhausen (2012 examined this issue in a series of experiments on perceived gender. They examined the perceived gender of baby faces and foreign names. Arbitrary numbers presented with these faces and names influenced their perceived gender. Specifically, odd numbers connoted masculinity, while even numbers connoted femininity. In two new studies (total N = 315, we further examined the gendering of numbers. The first study examined explicit ratings of 1-digit numbers. We confirmed that odd numbers seemed masculine while even numbers seemed feminine. Although both men and women showed this pattern, it was more pronounced among women. We also examined whether this pattern holds for automatic as well as deliberated reactions. Results of an Implicit Association Test showed that it did, but only among the women. The implicit and explicit patterns of numerical gender ascription were moderately correlated. The second study examined explicit perceptions of 2-digit numbers. Again, women viewed odd numbers as more masculine and less feminine than even numbers. However, men viewed 2-digit numbers as relatively masculine, regardless of whether they were even or odd. These results indicate that women and men impute gender to numbers in different ways and to different extents. We discuss possible implications for understanding how people relate to and are influenced by numbers in a variety of real-life contexts.

  5. Neutron roton pairing effect on some even ven rare-earth proton-rich nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhtari, D.

    2004-01-01

    The neutron roton pairing effect on some even ven rare-earth proton-rich nuclei is studied. It is taken into account, in the isovector case, within the framework of the generalized Bogoliubov-Valatin transformation, using Woods-Saxon single-particle energies. (author)

  6. Oklahoma City FILM Even Start Family Literacy Program Evaluation, 2000-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Donna Castle; Shove, Joanie; Brickman, Sharon; Terrell, Sherry; Shields, Jane

    This report presents findings from the evaluation of the Oklahoma City Public Schools Even Start Program, also called the Family Intergenerational Literacy Model (FILM), now in its twelfth full year of operation. The evaluation focuses on the total population of adult students, preschoolers, adult graduates, and preschool graduates. The…

  7. First-ever evening public engine test of a Space Shuttle Main Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Thousands of people watch the first-ever evening public engine test of a Space Shuttle Main Engine at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center. The spectacular test marked Stennis Space Center's 20th anniversary celebration of the first Space Shuttle mission.

  8. The normal squamocolumnar junction is circumferentially even and minimal irregularities are manifestations of gastroesophageal acid reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero Garcia Hall, Mats; Wenner, Jörgen; Öberg, Stefan

    2017-03-01

    The macroscopic appearance of the normal squamocolumnar junction (SCJ) is often described as serrated with short projections of columnar mucosa that extend into the esophagus. As studies of the normal SCJ are sparse, the aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the normal SCJ is even and that irregularities are manifestations of acid reflux. Fifty asymptomatic subjects and 149 patients with symptoms suggestive of gastroesophageal reflux disease underwent endoscopy and 48-h pH monitoring with a pH electrode positioned immediately above the SCJ. The shape of the SCJ was assessed according to the Z-line appearance classification and correlated with clinical characteristics and the degree of esophageal acid exposure in the most distal esophagus. Even SCJs without irregularities were significantly more common in asymptomatic subjects compared with patients (50% versus 10%, p acid exposure in individuals with an even SCJ was within normal limits. With increasing degree of irregularity of the SCJ, the frequency and duration of reflux episodes, the degree of distal esophageal acid exposure, and the prevalence of abnormal acid exposure increased progressively and significantly. The shape of the normal SCJ is even and also minimal irregularities are a consequence of acid reflux, likely due to the formation of small areas of metaplastic columnar mucosa.

  9. Diurnal roosts of male evening bats (Nycticeius humeralis) in diversely managed pine-hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger W. Perry; Ronald E. Thill

    2008-01-01

    We examined attributes of 45 roost sites used by 17 adult male evening bats (Nycticeius humeralis) in a diverse forested landscape within the Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas. Bats roosted in a diverse array of substrates, including live or dead Pinus echinata $15 cm diam at breast height (29% of roosts) and small (,10 cm) understory or midstory...

  10. Genetic evidence of hybridization between Onothera wolfii (Wolf's evening primrose) and O. glaziovana, a garden escape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer DeWoody; Leonel Arguello; David Imper; Robert D. Westfall; Valerie D. Hipkins

    2008-01-01

    Isozyme analysis of the rare Oenothera wolfii (Wolf's evening primrose) and the garden escape, O. glazioviana, indicates that hybridization between these species may be more widespread than morphological evidence indicates. Although both species contained low amounts of genetic variation, unique alleles were identified in...

  11. 78 FR 46813 - Safety Zone; Evening on the Bay Fireworks; Sturgeon Bay, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Evening on the Bay Fireworks; Sturgeon Bay, WI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION.... This temporary safety zone will restrict vessels from a portion of Sturgeon Bay due to a fireworks... hazards associated with the fireworks display. DATES: This rule is effective from 8 p.m. until 10 p.m. on...

  12. On the existence of cycles of every even length on generalized Fibonacci cubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Zagaglia Salvi

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available A new topology for the interconnection of computing nodes in multiprocessors systems is the generalized Fibonacci cube.It can be embedded as a subgraph in the Boolean cube and it is also a supergraph of other structures. We prove that every edge of such a graph, but few initial cases, belongs to cycles of every even length.

  13. The Differential Hormonal Milieu of Morning versus Evening May Have an Impact on Muscle Hypertrophic Potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon D Burley

    Full Text Available Substantial gains in muscle strength and hypertrophy are clearly associated with the routine performance of resistance training. What is less evident is the optimal timing of the resistance training stimulus to elicit these significant functional and structural skeletal muscle changes. Therefore, this investigation determined the impact of a single bout of resistance training performed either in the morning or evening upon acute anabolic signalling (insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3, myogenic index and differentiation and catabolic processes (cortisol. Twenty-four male participants (age 21.4±1.9yrs, mass 83.7±13.7kg with no sustained resistance training experience were allocated to a resistance exercise group (REP. Sixteen of the 24 participants were randomly selected to perform an additional non-exercising control group (CP protocol. REP performed two bouts of resistance exercise (80% 1RM in the morning (AM: 0800 hrs and evening (PM: 1800 hrs, with the sessions separated by a minimum of 72 hours. Venous blood was collected immediately prior to, and 5 min after, each resistance exercise and control sessions. Serum cortisol and IGFBP-3 levels, myogenic index, myotube width, were determined at each sampling period. All data are reported as mean ± SEM, statistical significance was set at P≤0.05. As expected a significant reduction in evening cortisol concentration was observed at pre (AM: 98.4±10.5, PM: 49.8±4.4 ng/ml, P0.05. Timing of resistance training regimen in the evening appears to augment some markers of hypertrophic potential, with elevated IGFBP-3, suppressed cortisol and a superior cellular environment. Further investigation, to further elucidate the time course of peak anabolic signalling in morning vs evening training conditions, are timely.

  14. The Differential Hormonal Milieu of Morning versus Evening May Have an Impact on Muscle Hypertrophic Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, Simon D; Whittingham-Dowd, Jayde; Allen, Jeremy; Grosset, Jean-Francois; Onambele-Pearson, Gladys L

    2016-01-01

    Substantial gains in muscle strength and hypertrophy are clearly associated with the routine performance of resistance training. What is less evident is the optimal timing of the resistance training stimulus to elicit these significant functional and structural skeletal muscle changes. Therefore, this investigation determined the impact of a single bout of resistance training performed either in the morning or evening upon acute anabolic signalling (insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), myogenic index and differentiation) and catabolic processes (cortisol). Twenty-four male participants (age 21.4±1.9yrs, mass 83.7±13.7kg) with no sustained resistance training experience were allocated to a resistance exercise group (REP). Sixteen of the 24 participants were randomly selected to perform an additional non-exercising control group (CP) protocol. REP performed two bouts of resistance exercise (80% 1RM) in the morning (AM: 0800 hrs) and evening (PM: 1800 hrs), with the sessions separated by a minimum of 72 hours. Venous blood was collected immediately prior to, and 5 min after, each resistance exercise and control sessions. Serum cortisol and IGFBP-3 levels, myogenic index, myotube width, were determined at each sampling period. All data are reported as mean ± SEM, statistical significance was set at P≤0.05. As expected a significant reduction in evening cortisol concentration was observed at pre (AM: 98.4±10.5, PM: 49.8±4.4 ng/ml, P0.05). Timing of resistance training regimen in the evening appears to augment some markers of hypertrophic potential, with elevated IGFBP-3, suppressed cortisol and a superior cellular environment. Further investigation, to further elucidate the time course of peak anabolic signalling in morning vs evening training conditions, are timely.

  15. When Mothers' Work Matters for Youths' Daily Time Use: Implications of Evening and Weekend Shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soomi; Davis, Kelly D; McHale, Susan M; Kelly, Erin L; Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Crouter, Ann C

    2017-08-01

    Drawing upon the work-home resources model, this study examined the implications of mothers' evening and weekend shifts for youths' time with mother, alone, and hanging out with peers unsupervised, with attention to both the amount and day-to-day consistency of time use. Data came from 173 mothers who worked in the long-term care industry and their youths who provided daily diaries. Multilevel modeling revealed that youths whose mothers worked more evening shifts on average spent less time with their mothers compared to youths whose mothers worked fewer evening shifts. Youths whose mothers worked more weekend shifts, however, spent more time with their mothers and exhibited less consistency in their time in all three activity domains compared to youths whose mothers worked fewer weekend shifts. Girls, not boys, spent less time alone on days when mothers worked weekend shifts than on days with standard shifts. Older but not younger adolescents spent more time hanging out with friends on evening and weekend shift days, and their unsupervised peer time was less consistent across days when mothers worked more evening shifts. These effects adjusted for sociodemographic and day characteristics, including school day, number of children in the household, mothers' marital status and work hours, and time with fathers. Our results illuminate the importance of the timing and day of mothers' work for youths' daily activities. Future interventions should consider how to increase mothers' resources to deal with constraints on parenting due to their work during nonstandard hours, with attention to child gender and age.

  16. [Experience of a Break-Even Point Analysis for Make-or-Buy Decision.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yunhee

    2006-12-01

    Cost containment through continuous quality improvement of medical service is required in an age of a keen competition of the medical market. Laboratory managers should examine the matters on make-or-buy decision periodically. On this occasion, a break-even point analysis can be useful as an analyzing tool. In this study, cost accounting and break-even point (BEP) analysis were performed in case that the immunoassay items showing a recent increase in order volume were to be in-house made. Fixed and variable costs were calculated in case that alpha fetoprotein (AFP), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), prostate-specific antigen (PSA), ferritin, free thyroxine (fT4), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), CA 125, CA 19-9, and hepatitis B envelope antibody (HBeAb) were to be tested with Abbott AxSYM instrument. Break-even volume was calculated as fixed cost per year divided by purchasing cost per test minus variable cost per test and BEP ratio as total purchasing costs at break-even volume divided by total purchasing costs at actual annual volume. The average fixed cost per year of AFP, CEA, PSA, ferritin, fT4, T3, TSH, CA 125, CA 19-9, and HBeAb was 8,279,187 won and average variable cost per test, 3,786 won. Average break-even volume was 1,599 and average BEP ratio was 852%. Average BEP ratio without including quality costs such as calibration and quality control was 74%. Because the quality assurance of clinical tests cannot be waived, outsourcing all of 10 items was more adequate than in-house make at the present volume in financial aspect. BEP analysis was useful as a financial tool for make-or-buy decision, the common matter which laboratory managers meet with.

  17. Morning and Evening Blue-Enriched Light Exposure Alters Metabolic Function in Normal Weight Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivy N Cheung

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence points to associations between light-dark exposure patterns, feeding behavior, and metabolism. This study aimed to determine the acute effects of 3 hours of morning versus evening blue-enriched light exposure compared to dim light on hunger, metabolic function, and physiological arousal. Nineteen healthy adults completed this 4-day inpatient protocol under dim light conditions (<20lux. Participants were randomized to 3 hours of blue-enriched light exposure on Day 3 starting either 0.5 hours after wake (n = 9; morning group or 10.5 hours after wake (n = 10; evening group. All participants remained in dim light on Day 2 to serve as their baseline. Subjective hunger and sleepiness scales were collected hourly. Blood was sampled at 30-minute intervals for 4 hours in association with the light exposure period for glucose, insulin, cortisol, leptin, and ghrelin. Homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and area under the curve (AUC for insulin, glucose, HOMA-IR and cortisol were calculated. Comparisons relative to baseline were done using t-tests and repeated measures ANOVAs. In both the morning and evening groups, insulin total area, HOMA-IR, and HOMA-IR AUC were increased and subjective sleepiness was reduced with blue-enriched light compared to dim light. The evening group, but not the morning group, had significantly higher glucose peak value during blue-enriched light exposure compared to dim light. There were no other significant differences between the morning or the evening groups in response to blue-enriched light exposure. Blue-enriched light exposure acutely alters glucose metabolism and sleepiness, however the mechanisms behind this relationship and its impacts on hunger and appetite regulation remain unclear. These results provide further support for a role of environmental light exposure in the regulation of metabolism.

  18. The Effect of Evening Primrose Plant on Physical Symptoms of Menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Motaghi Dastenaie

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Menopause is a global phenomenon for women and about 74 to 80% of women worldwide suffer from symptoms of menopause. The symptoms women experience during this period include night sweats, sleep disorders, heart problems and flushing. The treatment currently used for these complications is hormone replacement method, which has serious side effects. One alternative method for the hormone replacement method is the use of plants from the family of phytoestrogens such as evening primrose. METHODS: This triple-blind clinical trial was conducted among 100 postmenopausal women with menopausal symptoms in both drug and placebo groups. First, the symptoms of menopause were measured based on scores of 0 – 16. The participants arbitrarily used placebo or evening primrose oil 1g perle twice a day for one month. After one month, the symptoms of menopause were measured and compared using Menopause Health Questionnaire. IRCT:1N2017012432161. FINDINGS: The results of the study demonstrated that evening primrose has considerable effects on the reduction of flushing (3.33±0.79 vs. 0.89±0.64, sleep disorders (2.65±0.6 vs. 1.3±0.66 and musculo-skeletal disorders (3.41±0.74 vs. 3.41±0.73 vs. 0.82±0.73 in evening primrose group compared with placebo group (p<0.001. In this study, the mean physical symptom score before menopause was 11.15±1.78, while it was 4.78±1.60 at the end of the study (p<0.001. CONCLUSION: Results of the study demonstrated that the use of evening primrose is effective in reducing the physical symptoms in postmenopausal women and can be used as a complementary therapy or an alternative method for hormone replacement method to improve the symptoms of menopause in women.

  19. Does physical activity attenuate, or even eliminate, the detrimental association of sitting time with mortality?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, Ulf; Steene-Johannessen, Jostein; Brown, Wendy J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High amounts of sedentary behaviour have been associated with increased risks of several chronic conditions and mortality. However, it is unclear whether physical activity attenuates or even eliminates the detrimental effects of prolonged sitting. We examined the associations of seden......BACKGROUND: High amounts of sedentary behaviour have been associated with increased risks of several chronic conditions and mortality. However, it is unclear whether physical activity attenuates or even eliminates the detrimental effects of prolonged sitting. We examined the associations...... of sedentary behaviour and physical activity with all-cause mortality. METHODS: We did a systematic review, searching six databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, Web of Science, Sport Discus, and Scopus) from database inception until October, 2015, for prospective cohort studies that had individual level exposure...

  20. Social inequality in breakfast, lunch and evening meal frequency among adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meilstrup, Charlotte; Pagh Pedersen, Trine; Holstein, Bjørn Evald

    Abstract Purpose: Regular meal habits facilitate healthy dietary habits and especially low breakfast frequency shows associations with risk of overweight among adolescents. Studies on social inequality in meal frequencies among children and adolescents are limited, and especially studies of lunch...... measured by frequency questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted adjusted by age, gender and family structure. Results: Analyses showed that adolescents from low family social class had significantly higher odds of low breakfast, lunch and evening meal frequency than adolescents from...... high family social class (breakfast: odds ratio (OR) = 2.22, lunch: OR = 1.56, evening meal: OR = 1.80). For all three meal types the odds of low frequency increased gradually by decreasing social class. There were no significant interactions with gender. Conclusion: The results indicate social...

  1. Two-loop integrals for CP-even heavy quarkonium production and decays: elliptic sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long-Bin; Jiang, Jun; Qiao, Cong-Feng

    2018-04-01

    By employing the differential equations, we compute analytically the elliptic sectors of two-loop master integrals appearing in the NNLO QCD corrections to CP-even heavy quarkonium exclusive production and decays, which turns out to be the last and toughest part in the relevant calculation. The integrals are found can be expressed as Goncharov polylogarithms and iterative integrals over elliptic functions. The master integrals may be applied to some other NNLO QCD calculations about heavy quarkonium exclusive production, like {γ}^{\\ast}γ \\to Q\\overline{Q} , {e}+{e}-\\to γ +Q\\overline{Q} , and H/{Z}^0\\to γ +Q\\overline{Q} , heavy quarkonium exclusive decays, and also the CP-even heavy quarkonium inclusive production and decays.

  2. Parent information evenings: filling a gap in Irish child and adolescent mental health services?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNicholas, F

    2010-02-01

    It is estimated that 20% of children experience psychological problems at any one time. 1 Child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) in Ireland are under-resourced. Recent economic downturn has hindered the possibility of increased funding to alleviative these deficits. It is now imperative that mental health professionals create innovative and cost effective solutions to promote positive mental health. Recent literature has focused on the benefits of self delivered parenting programmes, with minimal costs incurred. 2,3 Based on the developing evidence supporting self directed approaches, the Lucena Foundation has initiated a series of parent information evenings. These evenings are offered on a monthly basis, and are free to attend. To date 1,538 parents have attended. Feedback from parents has been very positive with 80.5% of them finding them useful or very useful.

  3. CP-even and CP-odd transverse polarization of the electron in muon decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, A.

    1981-01-01

    A model of the weak interaction which contains intermediate vector bosons of the most general form and which admits CP violation in muon decay is used to calculate the CP-even and CP-odd transverse polarization of the μ-decay electrons with inclusion of radiative corrections. It is shown that these corrections are important only at the beginning of the spectrum, and their contribution reduces the observed effects of the transverse polarization. The transverse polarization grows appreciably at electron energies close to the maximum energy and at small emission angles. It is expedient to search for the CP-even and CP-odd transverse polarization of the electrons at energies E/sub e/ = 0.975E/sup max//sub e/ and emission angles theta = 25--35 0

  4. Wigner functions and tomograms of the photon-depleted even and odd coherent states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jisuo; Meng Xiangguo

    2008-01-01

    Using the coherent state representation of Wigner operator and the technique of integration within an ordered product (IWOP) of operators, this paper derives the Wigner functions for the photon-depleted even and odd coherent states (PDEOCSs). Moreover, in terms of the Wigner functions with respect to the complex parameter α the nonclassical properties of the PDEOCSs are discussed. The results show that the nonclassicality for the state |β, m) o (or |β, m) e ) is more pronounced when m is even (or odd). According to the marginal distributions of the Wigner functions, the physical meaning of the Wigner functions is given. Further, the tomograms of the PDEOCSs are calculated with the aid of newly introduced intermediate coordinate-momentum representation in quantum optics

  5. Triggering radiation alarm at security checks. Patients should be informed even after diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Barbara; Neumann, Irmgard; Havlik, Ernst; Palumbo, Renato; Sinzinger, Helmut

    2009-01-01

    During the last few years an increasing number of nuclear medicine patients in various countries evoked a radiation alarm after therapeutic or diagnostic procedures, and even after passive exposure. A prospective calculation of activity retention in the patient's body is difficult due to extremely high variation of uptake and kinetics. Furthermore, different sensitivities and distances of the detectors make a prospective calculation even more difficult. In this article a number of cases are being reported, related problems are discussed and the surprisingly very limited literature reviewed. In order to minimize problems after eventually triggering alarms, we strongly recommend that each patient receives a certificate providing personal data, tracer, dose, half-life of the radionuclide, type and date of procedure applied as well as the nuclear medicine unit to contact for further information. Furthermore, a closer cooperation and exchange of information between the authorities and local nuclear medicine societies, would be welcome.

  6. [Facing the difficult experience even with support: the underage adolescent experiencing motherhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Paula Rosenberg de; Ohara, Conceição Vieira da Silva; Borba, Regina Issuzu Hirooka de; Ribeiro, Circéa Amalia

    2015-01-01

    To understand the meaning of childcare for the underage adolescent mother, to reveal the demands of care and to build a theoretical model based on this experience. Qualitative research with symbolic interactionism as the theoretical framework and the grounded theory as the methodological framework; nine adolescents participated in the study. The semi-structured interview was used to collect data from September 2008 to September 2011, during paediatric nursing consultation at the Centro Assistencial Cruz de Malta, a philanthropic institution in the city of São Paulo/Brazil. Data analysis led to the construction of the theoretical model,Facing a difficult experience even with support. The experience shows that the difficulties to care for a child, even with help, are not met, only mitigated, and that underage adolescents do not have the maturity to cope with this experience.

  7. Pairing correlations. II. Microscopic analysis of odd-even mass staggering in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duguet, T.; Bonche, P.; Heenen, P.-H.; Meyer, J.

    2002-01-01

    The odd-even mass staggering in nuclei is analyzed in the context of self-consistent mean-field calculations, for spherical as well as for deformed nuclei. For these nuclei, the respective merits of the energy differences Δ (3) and Δ (5) to extract both the pairing gap and the time-reversal symmetry breaking effect at the same time are extensively discussed. The usual mass formula Δ (3) is shown to contain additional mean-field contributions when realistic pairing is used in the calculation. A simple tool is proposed in order to remove the time-reversal symmetry breaking effects from Δ (5) . Extended comparisons with the odd-even mass staggering obtained in the zero-pairing limit (schematic model and self-consistent calculations) show the nonperturbative contribution of pairing correlations on this observable

  8. Decomposing the (seafood vs. meat) evening meal decision-making sequence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrea, Toula; Brunsø, Karen; Altintzoglou, Themistoklis

    2012-01-01

    as the content of the family’s daily food (i.e. seafood and meat-related) decision-making process. Design/methodology/approach – Twenty-four families in Denmark, Norway and Iceland were asked to fill in a one-to-two-week semi-structured diary regarding any thoughts they had about the decision-making sequence...... regarding their evening meals. Data were analysed by means of content analysis so as to gain insight into the main themes and distinctive patterns with respect to the four stages of the decision-making sequence by identifying a number of codes and sub-codes of high and lower abstraction level. Findings...... – The main results were similar across the three countries. Planning was the most important phase of the evening meal decision-making sequence, where Nordic respondents considered practical issues, and engaged in a more rational type of thinking, allowing cognitive aspects to prevail at this particular stage...

  9. Stability of elongated cross-section tokamaks to axisymmetric even poloidal mode number deformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiner, R.; Jardin, S.C.; Pomphrey, N.

    1989-06-01

    A recent paper by Nakayama, Sato and Matsuoka suggests that elliptical cross section tokamaks with aspect ratio R/a = 3.2 and with elongation κ = 2.6 are unstable to a splitting (m = 2, n = 0) instability for plasma β > 5%, and that κ /> =/ 4.0 plasmas are unstable to splitting for β /> =/ 1%. We have tried to reproduce these results using the MHD evolution code TSC, but find these configurations to be stable, not even near a stability boundary. Even a κ = 3.7 plasma with β = 23.0% is stable to the splitting mode. However, the addition of pinching coils at the waist will cause the plasma to split if the current in these coils exceeds a critical value I/sub c/ which decreases with increasing β. 8 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

  10. CP-even and CP-odd transverse polarization of the electron in the muon decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, A.V.

    1981-01-01

    In the most general weak interaction model with intermediate vector bosons, allowing CP breaking in the muon decay, CP- even and CP-odd transverse polarization of the μ-decay electrons is calculated taking into account the radiative corrections. It is shown that such corrections are essential only at the beginning of the spectrum reducing the observed transverse polarization effects. When the electron energy is close to its maximum and the emission angles are small, the transverse polarization considerably grows. Search for CP-even and CP-odd transverse polarization of the electrons should be carried out at energies Esub(e) approximately equal to O.975 Esub(e)sup(max) and emission angles THETA approximately equal to 25+35 deg [ru

  11. Novel odd/even effect of alkylene chain length on the photopolymerizability of organogelators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Ken'ichi; Kudo, Masabumi; Tamaoki, Nobuyuki

    2004-10-28

    [reaction: see text] Starting from diactylene diacarboxylic acids, we have synthesized a series of photopolymerizable organogelators that possess simple amide structures, different alkylene chain lengths, and either optically active or racemic 3,7-dimethyl-1-octylamine units. The alkylene chain length of these compounds exhibits a prominent odd/even effect with respect to the photopolymerization in the gel state and is accompanied by a stereostructural effect on the gelation ability.

  12. Trait Rumination Predicts Elevated Evening Cortisol in Sexual and Gender Minority Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Peggy M. Zoccola; Andrew W. Manigault; Wilson S. Figueroa; Cari Hollenbeck; Anna Mendlein; Alex Woody; Katrina Hamilton; Matt Scanlin; Ryan C. Johnson

    2017-01-01

    Stress may contribute to illness through the impaired recovery or sustained activity of stress-responsive biological systems. Rumination, or mental rehearsal of past stressors, may alter the body’s stress-responsive systems by amplifying and prolonging exposure to physiological mediators, such as cortisol. The primary aim of the current investigation was to test the extent to which the tendency to ruminate on stress predicts diminished diurnal cortisol recovery (i.e., elevated evening cortiso...

  13. Prenatal and Postpartum Evening Salivary Cortisol Levels in Association with Peripartum Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliadis, Stavros I.; Comasco, Erika; Sylvén, Sara; Hellgren, Charlotte; Sundström Poromaa, Inger; Skalkidou, Alkistis

    2015-01-01

    Background The biology of peripartum depression remains unclear, with altered stress and the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal axis response having been implicated in its pathophysiology. Methods The current study was undertaken as a part of the BASIC project (Biology, Affect, Stress, Imaging, Cognition), a population-based longitudinal study of psychological wellbeing during pregnancy and the postpartum period in Uppsala County, Sweden, in order to assess the association between evening salivary cortisol levels and depressive symptoms in the peripartum period. Three hundred and sixty-five pregnant women from the BASIC cohort were recruited at pregnancy week 18 and instructed to complete a Swedish validated version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale at the 36th week of pregnancy as well as the sixth week after delivery. At both times, they were also asked to provide evening salivary samples for cortisol analysis. A comprehensive review of the relevant literature is also provided. Results Women with postpartum EPDS score ≥ 10 had higher salivary evening cortisol at six weeks postpartum compared to healthy controls (median cortisol 1.19 vs 0.89 nmol/L). A logistic regression model showed a positive association between cortisol levels and depressive symptoms postpartum (OR = 4.1; 95% CI 1.7–9.7). This association remained significant even after controlling for history of depression, use of tobacco, partner support, breastfeeding, stressful life events, and sleep problems, as possible confounders (aOR = 4.5; 95% CI 1.5–14.1). Additionally, women with postpartum depressive symptoms had higher postpartum cortisol levels compared to both women with depressive symptoms antenatally and controls (p = 0.019 and p = 0.004, respectively). Conclusions Women with depressive symptoms postpartum had higher postpartum cortisol levels, indicating an altered response of the HPA-axis in postpartum depression. PMID:26322643

  14. Isotopic dependence of the giant quadrupole resonance in the stable even-mass molybdenum nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moalem, A.; Gaillard, Y.; Bemolle, A.M.; Buenerd, M.; Chauvin, J.; Duhamel, G.; Lebrun, D.; Martin, P.; Perrin, G.; de Saintignon, P.

    1979-01-01

    Inelastic scattering of 110 MeV 3 He particles is used to probe the quadrupole strength in the even Mo isotopes. The peak position of the giant quadrupole resonance is found to decrease more rapidly than predicted by the A/sup -1/3/ law, a behavior very similar to that exhibited by the photonuclear giant dipole resonance. The width and strength of the giant quadrupole resonance are practically constant in 92 Mo through 100 Mo

  15. Extinction of Conditioned Fear is Better Learned and Recalled in the Morning than in the Evening

    OpenAIRE

    Pace-Schott, Edward F.; Spencer, Rebecca M.C.; Vijayakumar, Shilpa; Ahmed, Nafis; Verga, Patrick W.; Orr, Scott P.; Pitman, Roger K.; Milad, Mohammed R.

    2013-01-01

    Sleep helps emotional memories consolidate and may promote generalization of fear extinction memory. We examined whether extinction learning and memory might differ in the morning and evening due, potentially, to circadian and/or sleep-homeostatic factors. Healthy men (N=109) in 6 groups completed a 2-session protocol. In Session 1, fear conditioning was followed by extinction learning. Partial reinforcement with mild electric shock produced conditioned skin conductance responses (SCR) to 2 d...

  16. New estimates of quadrupole deformation β of some nearly spherical even Mo nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Y.; Gupta, K.K.; Singh, M.; Bihari, Chhail; Varshney, A.K.; Gupta, D.K.

    2013-01-01

    The deformation parameter β and γ of the collective model of Bohr and Mottelson are basic descriptors of the nuclear equilibrium shape and structure. In recent past the sets of deformation parameters (β, γ) have been extracted from both level energies and E2 transition rates in even Xe, Ba and Ce nuclei and Hf, W, Os, Pt and Hg nuclei using rigid triaxial rotor model of Davydov – Filippov

  17. Effects of crown release on growth and quality of even-aged red maple stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry F. Strong; Audra E. Hubbell; Adam H. Weise; Gayne G. Erdmann

    2006-01-01

    The effects of six crown-release treatments on growth and bole quality of 54 dominant, codominant, and intermediate red maples (Acer rubrum L.) were examined in an even-aged stand in upper Michigan. Treatments included an unreleased control, a single-tree and a two-tree crown release, and a full crown-to-crown release of 5, 10, and 15ft. Twenty-two...

  18. The evening diffuse radio aurora, field-aligned currents and particle precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unwin, R.S.

    1980-01-01

    The relationship of the afternoon/evening diffuse radio aurora, proton and electron precipitation and field-aligned currents is studied with data from the auroral radar at Slope Point, New Zealand, and the ISIS 2 satellite. It is shown that there is a very close association between the radio aurora and (primarily downward) field-aligned currents, which confirms and extends previous work, but that there is no clear relation with either proton or electron precipitation. (author)

  19. Calculations from the Hadley Centre: The ocean is rising even with stable CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenaas, Sigbjoern

    2000-01-01

    The article presents calculations and forecasts for the atmospheric CO 2 level changes in the period of 2000 to 2350. Correlations between the levels and the average global temperature and the sea level are studied for the period of 1850 to 2200. The main conclusion is that the sea level will continue to rise for several hundred years even with a stable atmospheric CO 2 concentration in the next century due to the slow response of oceans to global warming

  20. Three-photon laser spectroscopy of even-parity bound states of samarium atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomonaj, O.Yi.; Kudelich, O.Yi.

    2002-01-01

    The energy spectrum of highly-excited even-parity bound states of a Sm atom, lying in the energy range 34421.1 - 36031.8 cm -1 , is investigated using three-photon resonance-ionization spectroscopy. The energies and total momenta of 48 levels are determined. Eight new levels not observed before are discovered. Thirteen intense two-photon transitions, which can be used in the schemes of Sm atom effective photoionization, are observed

  1. Evenly spaced Detrended Fluctuation Analysis: Selecting the number of points for the diffusion plot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddy, Joshua J.; Haddad, Jeffrey M.

    2018-02-01

    Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) has become a widely-used tool to examine the correlation structure of a time series and provided insights into neuromuscular health and disease states. As the popularity of utilizing DFA in the human behavioral sciences has grown, understanding its limitations and how to properly determine parameters is becoming increasingly important. DFA examines the correlation structure of variability in a time series by computing α, the slope of the log SD- log n diffusion plot. When using the traditional DFA algorithm, the timescales, n, are often selected as a set of integers between a minimum and maximum length based on the number of data points in the time series. This produces non-uniformly distributed values of n in logarithmic scale, which influences the estimation of α due to a disproportionate weighting of the long-timescale regions of the diffusion plot. Recently, the evenly spaced DFA and evenly spaced average DFA algorithms were introduced. Both algorithms compute α by selecting k points for the diffusion plot based on the minimum and maximum timescales of interest and improve the consistency of α estimates for simulated fractional Gaussian noise and fractional Brownian motion time series. Two issues that remain unaddressed are (1) how to select k and (2) whether the evenly-spaced DFA algorithms show similar benefits when assessing human behavioral data. We manipulated k and examined its effects on the accuracy, consistency, and confidence limits of α in simulated and experimental time series. We demonstrate that the accuracy and consistency of α are relatively unaffected by the selection of k. However, the confidence limits of α narrow as k increases, dramatically reducing measurement uncertainty for single trials. We provide guidelines for selecting k and discuss potential uses of the evenly spaced DFA algorithms when assessing human behavioral data.

  2. Sociopathic Knowledge Bases: Correct Knowledge Can Be Harmful Even Given Unlimited Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-01

    1757 I Sociopathic Knowledge Bases: Correct Knowledge Can Be Harmful Even Given Unlimited Computation DTIC5 by flELECTE 5David C. Wilkins and Yong...NUMBERSWOKNI PROGRAM RAT TSWOKUI 61153N RR04206 OC 443g-008 11 TITLE (Include Security Classification) Sociopathic Knowledge Bases: Correct Knowledge Can be...probabilistic rules are shown to be sociopathic and so this problem is very widespread. Sociopathicity has important consequences for rule induction

  3. Plantar reflex excitability is increased in the evening in restless legs syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafkin, Chloe; Green, Andrew; Olivier, Benita; McKinon, Warrick; Kerr, Samantha

    2017-11-01

    To investigate if diurnal changes in spinal excitability (plantar reflex) occur in restless legs syndrome (RLS) participants compared to healthy matched controls. Thirteen RLS participants and 13 healthy control participants' plantar reflex responses were evaluated in the evening (PM) and the morning (AM). Plantar reflex responses were assessed electromyographically, using motion analysis (kinematically) and by subjective nociception (Visual Analogue Scale). RLS participants showed a circadian variation in plantar reflex responses whilst control participants did not. Evening ankle angle changes were larger and faster in RLS participants compared to morning responses. In addition RLS participants displayed significantly smaller change in ankle angle and significantly slower ankle movements in the evening and the morning as well as significantly lower lateral gastrocnemius maximum amplitude in the compared to control participants. The findings of the current study support the theory of RLS circadian fluctuations in spinal excitability. An unexpected finding was decreased plantar reflex responses in RLS participants compared to healthy control participants. However this finding supports the theory of mechanical hypoesthesia in RLS. The results of this study provide further insight into the pathophysiology of RLS, highlighting that not all sensory processing is affected in the same manner. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Observations of the Early Evening Boundary-Layer Transition Using a Small Unmanned Aerial System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Timothy; Chilson, Phillip; Zielke, Brett; Fedorovich, Evgeni

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of the lower portion of the planetary boundary layer is investigated using the Small Multifunction Research and Teaching Sonde (SMARTSonde), an unmanned aerial vehicle developed at the University of Oklahoma. The study focuses on the lowest 200 m of the atmosphere, where the most noticeable thermodynamic changes occur during the day. Between October 2010 and February 2011, a series of flights was conducted during the evening hours on several days to examine the vertical structure of the lower boundary layer. Data from a nearby Oklahoma Mesonet tower was used to supplement the vertical profiles of temperature, humidity, and pressure, which were collected approximately every 30 min, starting 2 h before sunset and continuing until dusk. From the profiles, sensible and latent heat fluxes were estimated. These fluxes were used to diagnose the portion of the boundary layer that was most affected by the early evening transition. During the transition period, a shallow cool and moist layer near the ground was formed, and as the evening progressed the cooling affected an increasingly shallower layer just above the surface.

  5. Effect of Breakfast Omission on Energy Intake and Evening Exercise Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, David J; Barutcu, Asya; Machin, Claire; Stensel, David J; James, Lewis J

    2015-12-01

    Breakfast omission may reduce daily energy intake. Exercising fasted impairs performance compared with exercising after breakfast, but the effect breakfast omission has on evening exercise performance is unknown. This study assessed the effect of omitting breakfast on evening exercise performance and within-day energy intake. Ten male, habitual breakfast eaters completed two trials in a randomized, counterbalanced order. Subjects arrived at the laboratory in an overnight-fasted state and either consumed or omitted a 733 ± 46 kcal (3095 ± 195 kJ) breakfast. Ad libitum energy intake was assessed at 4.5 h (lunch) and 11 h (dinner). At 9 h, subjects completed a 30-min cycling exercise at approximately 60% VO2peak, followed by a 30-min maximal cycling performance test. Food was not permitted for subjects once they left the laboratory after dinner until 0800 h the following morning. Acylated ghrelin, GLP-1(7-36), glucose, and insulin were assessed at 0, 4.5, and 9 h. Subjective appetite sensations were recorded throughout. Energy intake was 199 ± 151 kcal greater at lunch (P daily energy intake but may impair performance later that day, even after consuming lunch.

  6. Odd-even parity splittings and octupole correlations in neutron-rich Ba isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Y.; Wang, H.; Wang, L.-J.; Yao, J. M.

    2018-02-01

    The odd-even parity splittings in low-lying parity-doublet states of atomic nuclei with octupole correlations have usually been interpreted as rotational excitations on top of octupole vibration in the language of collective models. In this paper, we report a deep analysis of the odd-even parity splittings in the parity-doublet states of neutron-rich Ba isotopes around neutron number N =88 within a full microscopic framework of beyond-mean-field multireference covariant energy density functional theory. The dynamical correlations related to symmetry restoration and quadrupole-octupole shape fluctuation are taken into account with a generator coordinate method combined with parity, particle-number, and angular-momentum projections. We show that the behavior of odd-even parity splittings is governed by the interplay of rotation, quantum tunneling, and shape evolution. Similar to 224Ra, a picture of rotation-induced octupole shape stabilization in the positive-parity states is exhibited in the neutron-rich Ba isotopes.

  7. The interacting quasiparticle–phonon picture and odd–even nuclei. Overview and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishev, S., E-mail: mishev@theor.jinr.ru; Voronov, V. V., E-mail: voronov@theor.jinr.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-15

    The role of the nucleon correlations in the ground states of even–even nuclei on the properties of low-lying states in odd–even spherical and transitional nuclei is studied. We reason about this subject using the language of the quasiparticle–phonon model which we extend to take account of the existence of quasiparticle⊗phonon configurations in the wave functions of the ground states of the even–even cores. Of paramount importance to the structure of the low-lying states happens to be the quasiparticle–phonon interaction in the ground states which we evaluated using both the standard and the extended random phase approximations. Numerical calculations for nuclei in the barium and cadmium regions are performed using pairing and quadrupole–quadrupole interaction modes which have the dominant impact on the lowest-lying states’ structure. It is found that states with same angular momentum and parity become closer in energy as compared to the predictions of models disregarding the backward amplitudes, which turns out to be in accord with the experimental data. In addition we found that the interaction between the last quasiparticle and the ground-state phonon admixtures produces configurations which contribute significantly to the magnetic dipolemoment of odd-A nuclei. It also reveals a potential for reproducing their experimental values which proves impossible if this interaction is neglected.

  8. Proposition for Improvement of Economics Situation with Use of Analysis of Break Even Point

    OpenAIRE

    Starečková, Alena

    2015-01-01

    Bakalářská práce se zabývá realizací Break-even-point analýzy v podniku, analýzou nákladů a návrhem na zlepšení finanční situace podniku zejména z pohledu nákladů. V první části práce jsou vymezeny pojmy a vzorce týkajících se Break-even-point analýzy a problematiky nákladů. Ve druhé části pak na konkrétním podniku bude provedena analýza bodu zvratu a následné návrhy na zlepšení stávajícího stavu. Bachelor work is dealing with realization of break even point analysis of company, analysis o...

  9. The use of a break-even analysis: financial analysis of a fast-track program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saywell, R M; Cordell, W H; Nyhuis, A W; Giles, B K; Culler, S D; Woods, J R; Chu, D K; McKinzie, J P; Rodman, G H

    1995-08-01

    To calculate the financial break-even point and illustrate how changes in third-party reimbursement and eligibility could affect a program's fiscal standing. Demographic, clinical, and financial data were collected retrospectively for 446 patients treated in a fast-track program during June 1993. The fast-track program is located within the confines of the emergency medicine and trauma center at a 1,050-bed tertiary care Midwestern teaching hospital and provides urgent treatment to minimally ill patients. A financial break-even analysis was performed to determine the point where the program generated enough revenue to cover its total variable and fixed costs, both direct and indirect. Given the relatively low average collection rate (62%) and high percentage of uninsured patients (31%), the analysis showed that the program's revenues covered its direct costs but not all of the indirect costs. Examining collection rates or payer class mix without examining both costs and revenues may lead to an erroneous conclusion about a program's fiscal viability. Sensitivity analysis also shows that relatively small changes in third-party coverage or eligibility (income) requirements can have a large impact on the program's financial solvency and break-even volumes.

  10. The dose makes the poison. Even for radiation; Die Dosis macht das Gift. Auch bei Strahlenbelastung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langeheine, Juergen

    2014-11-15

    The dose makes the poison, a quote by Paracelsus a doctor who lived half a millennium ago, is still valid today. Nevertheless this general accepted fact is being excluded in relation to ionizing radiation, which is wrongly considered as radioactive radiation. Here applies the LNT-Hypothesis (Linear No Threshold), agreed on by the ICRP, the Commission on Radiological Protection, a dose-to-effect relationship, which is based on the EU directives and the German Radiation Protection Ordinance. The LNT-hypothesis states, that even every smallest dose of radiation already provides a potentiality of danger and was introduced as precaution assuming that self-healing mechanisms even through weak radiation of damaged cells can be excluded and every damage caused by radiation inevitably leads to cell mutation and with it to cancer development. Without any further knowledge assumptions were made, that the same mechanism for cancer development applies for high and small doses. This assumption turned out to be wrong, as it is increasingly reported on findings which show, that smaller doses of ionized radiation demonstrably does not cause any damage, but on the contrary can even be healthy.

  11. Canonic FFT flow graphs for real-valued even/odd symmetric inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Yingjie; Parhi, Keshab K.

    2017-12-01

    Canonic real-valued fast Fourier transform (RFFT) has been proposed to reduce the arithmetic complexity by eliminating redundancies. In a canonic N-point RFFT, the number of signal values at each stage is canonic with respect to the number of signal values, i.e., N. The major advantage of the canonic RFFTs is that these require the least number of butterfly operations and only real datapaths when mapped to architectures. In this paper, we consider the FFT computation whose inputs are not only real but also even/odd symmetric, which indeed lead to the well-known discrete cosine and sine transforms (DCTs and DSTs). Novel algorithms for generating the flow graphs of canonic RFFTs with even/odd symmetric inputs are proposed. It is shown that the proposed algorithms lead to canonic structures with N/2 +1 signal values at each stage for an N-point real even symmetric FFT (REFFT) or N/2 -1 signal values at each stage for an N-point RFFT real odd symmetric FFT (ROFFT). In order to remove butterfly operations, several twiddle factor transformations are proposed in this paper. We also discuss the design of canonic REFFT for any composite length. Performances of the canonic REFFT/ROFFT are also discussed. It is shown that the flow graph of canonic REFFT/ROFFT has less number of interconnections, less butterfly operations, and less twiddle factor operations, compared to prior works.

  12. Chronic sleep curtailment, even without extended (>16-h) wakefulness, degrades human vigilance performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHill, Andrew W; Hull, Joseph T; Wang, Wei; Czeisler, Charles A; Klerman, Elizabeth B

    2018-05-21

    Millions of individuals routinely remain awake for more than 18 h daily, which causes performance decrements. It is unknown if these functional impairments are the result of that extended wakefulness or from the associated shortened sleep durations. We therefore examined changes in objective reaction time performance and subjective alertness in a 32-d inpatient protocol in which participants were scheduled to wakefulness durations below 16 h while on a 20-h "day," with randomization into standard sleep:wake ratio (1:2) or chronic sleep restriction (CSR) ratio (1:3.3) conditions. This protocol allowed determination of the contribution of sleep deficiency independent of extended wakefulness, since individual episodes of wakefulness in the CSR condition were only 15.33 h in duration (less than the usual 16 h of wakefulness in a 24-h day) and sleep episodes were 4.67 h in duration each cycle. We found that chronic short sleep duration, even without extended wakefulness, doubled neurobehavioral reaction time performance and increased lapses of attention fivefold, yet did not uniformly decrease self-reported alertness. Further, these impairments in neurobehavioral performance were worsened during the circadian night and were not recovered during the circadian day, indicating that the deleterious effect from the homeostatic buildup of CSR is expressed even during the circadian promotion of daytime arousal. These findings reveal a fundamental aspect of human biology: Chronic insufficient sleep duration equivalent to 5.6 h of sleep opportunity per 24 h impairs neurobehavioral performance and self-assessment of alertness, even without extended wakefulness.

  13. Finite differences versus finite elements in slab geometry, even-parity transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.F. Jr.; Noh, T.

    1993-01-01

    There continues to be considerable interest in the application of the even-parity transport equation to problems of radiation transfer and neutron transport. The motivation for this interest arises from several potential advantages of this equation when compared with the more traditional first-order form of the equation. First, assuming that the scalar flux is of primary interest, the angular domain under consideration is one-half of that required for the first-order equation. Thus, for the same degree of accuracy, one would hopefully require substantiably fewer unknown values of the dependent variable to be determined. Secondly, the elliptic-like nature of the set of even-parity equations should allow certain parallel computer architectures to be used more readily. In a recent paper, it was shown that for neutron transport applications in slab geometry, finite differencing the even-parity equation on the cell edges yields algebraic equations with numerical properties that are superior to the traditional diamond difference approach. Specifically, a positive, second-order method with a rapidly convergent iteration approach emerged from cell-edge differencing. Additionally, for radiation transfer problems that are optically thick, it was shown that cell-edge differencing demonstrates better behavior than does diamond-differencing. However, some problems in accuracy could occur due to vacuum boundaries as well as at interfaces between very different types of material regions. These problems emerge from a boundary-layer analysis of the so called open-quotes thickclose quotes diffusion limit. For neutronics calculations, which are the subject of this paper, however, the open-quotes thickclose quotes diffusion limit analysis has little applicability, and the cell-edge differencing derived previously seems to have considerable promise. 13 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  14. A CPT-even and Lorentz-Violating nonminimal coupling in the Dirac equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira Junior, Manoel; Casana, M.R.; Santos, Frederico E.P. dos; Silva, E.O.; Passos, E.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: The Standard Model Extension (SME) has been the usual framework for investigating signals of Lorentz violation in physical systems. It is the natural framework for studying properties of physical systems with Lorentz-violation since it includes Lorentz-violating terms in all sectors of the minimal standard model. The Lorentz-violating (LV) terms are generated as vacuum expectation values of tensors defined in a high energy scale. This framework has inspired a great deal of investigation in recent years. Such works encompass several distinct aspects involving fermion systems and radiative corrections, CPT- probing experiments, the electromagnetic CPT- and Lorentz-odd term, the 19 electromagnetic CPT-even coefficients. Recently, some studies involving higher dimensional operators have also been reported with great interest, including nonminimal interactions. These many contributions have elucidated the effects induced by Lorentz violation and served to set up stringent upper bounds on the LV coefficients. In the present work, we propose a new CPT-even, dimension-five, nonminimal coupling linking the fermionic and gauge fields in the context of the Dirac equation, involving the CPT-even tensor of the gauge term of the SME. By considering the nonrelativistic limit of the modified Dirac equation, we explicitly evaluate the new contributions to the nonrelativistic Hamiltonian. These new terms imply a direct correction on the anomalous magnetic moment, a kind of electrical Zeeman-like effect on the atomic spectrum, and a Rashba-like coupling term. These effects are then used to impose upper bounds on the magnitude of the non minimally coupled LV coefficients at the level of 1 part in 10 16 . (author)

  15. Prolonged hypoxia increases survival even in Zebrafish (Danio rerio showing cardiac arrhythmia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renate Kopp

    Full Text Available Tolerance towards hypoxia is highly pronounced in zebrafish. In this study even beneficial effects of hypoxia, specifically enhanced survival of zebrafish larvae, could be demonstrated. This effect was actually more pronounced in breakdance mutants, which phenotypically show cardiac arrhythmia. Breakdance mutants (bre are characterized by chronically reduced cardiac output. Despite an about 50% heart rate reduction, they become adults, but survival rate significantly drops to 40%. Normoxic bre animals demonstrate increased hypoxia inducible factor 1 a (Hif-1α expression, which indicates an activated hypoxic signaling pathway. Consequently, cardiovascular acclimation, like cardiac hypertrophy and increased erythrocyte concentration, occurs. Thus, it was hypothesized, that under hypoxic conditions survival might be even more reduced. When bre mutants were exposed to hypoxic conditions, they surprisingly showed higher survival rates than under normoxic conditions and even reached wildtype values. In hypoxic wildtype zebrafish, survival yet exceeded normoxic control values. To specify physiological acclimation, cardiovascular and metabolic parameters were measured before hypoxia started (3 dpf, when the first differences in survival rate occurred (7 dpf and when survival rate plateaued (15 dpf. Hypoxic animals expectedly demonstrated Hif-1α accumulation and consequently enhanced convective oxygen carrying capacity. Moreover, bre animals showed a significantly enhanced heart rate under hypoxic conditions, which reached normoxic wildtype values. This improvement in convective oxygen transport ensured a sufficient oxygen and nutrient supply and was also reflected in the significantly higher mitochondrial activity. The highly optimized energy metabolism observed in hypoxic zebrafish larvae might be decisive for periods of higher energy demand due to organ development, growth and increased activity. However, hypoxia increased survival only during a

  16. A CPT-even and Lorentz-Violating nonminimal coupling in the Dirac equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira Junior, Manoel; Casana, M.R.; Santos, Frederico E.P. dos; Silva, E.O. [UFMA, Sao Luis (Brazil); Passos, E. [UFCG, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: The Standard Model Extension (SME) has been the usual framework for investigating signals of Lorentz violation in physical systems. It is the natural framework for studying properties of physical systems with Lorentz-violation since it includes Lorentz-violating terms in all sectors of the minimal standard model. The Lorentz-violating (LV) terms are generated as vacuum expectation values of tensors defined in a high energy scale. This framework has inspired a great deal of investigation in recent years. Such works encompass several distinct aspects involving fermion systems and radiative corrections, CPT- probing experiments, the electromagnetic CPT- and Lorentz-odd term, the 19 electromagnetic CPT-even coefficients. Recently, some studies involving higher dimensional operators have also been reported with great interest, including nonminimal interactions. These many contributions have elucidated the effects induced by Lorentz violation and served to set up stringent upper bounds on the LV coefficients. In the present work, we propose a new CPT-even, dimension-five, nonminimal coupling linking the fermionic and gauge fields in the context of the Dirac equation, involving the CPT-even tensor of the gauge term of the SME. By considering the nonrelativistic limit of the modified Dirac equation, we explicitly evaluate the new contributions to the nonrelativistic Hamiltonian. These new terms imply a direct correction on the anomalous magnetic moment, a kind of electrical Zeeman-like effect on the atomic spectrum, and a Rashba-like coupling term. These effects are then used to impose upper bounds on the magnitude of the non minimally coupled LV coefficients at the level of 1 part in 10{sub 16}. (author)

  17. A break-even analysis of a community rehabilitation falls prevention service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comans, Tracy; Brauer, Sandy; Haines, Terry

    2009-06-01

    To identify and compare the minimum number of clients that a multidisciplinary falls prevention service delivered through domiciliary or centre-based care needs to treat to allow the service to reach a 'break-even' point. A break-even analysis was undertaken for each of two models of care for a multidisciplinary community rehabilitation falls prevention service. The two models comprised either a centre-based group exercise and education program or a similar program delivered individually in the client's home. The service consisted of a physiotherapist, occupational therapist and therapy assistant. The participants were adults aged over 65 years who had experienced previous falls. Costs were based on the actual cost of running a community rehabilitation team located in Brisbane. Benefits were obtained by estimating the savings gained to society from the number of falls prevented by the program on the basis of the falls reduction rates obtained in similar multidisciplinary programs. It is estimated that a multi-disciplinary community falls prevention team would need to see 57 clients per year to make the service break-even using a centre-based model of care and 78 clients for a domiciliary-based model. The service this study was based on has the capability to see around 300 clients per year in a centre-based service or 200-250 clients per year in a home-based service. Based on the best available estimates of costs of falls, multidisciplinary falls prevention teams in the community targeting people at high risk of falls are worthwhile funding from a societal viewpoint.

  18. Energy farming in Dutch desiccation abatement areas. Effects on break-even biomass price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Londo, M.; Dekker, J.; Vleeshouwers, L.; De Graaf, H.

    1999-09-01

    Measures in Dutch nature areas to combat desiccation of nature areas often have effects on surrounding agricultural lands, or buffer areas. Generally, these soils become moister, which can lead to lower yields for most common crops. Cultivation of the flooding-tolerant energy crop willow may be an alternative. In this study, the performance of willow production is compared to that of grass for roughage, in buffer areas as well as in a hydrologically optimal situation. Financial consequences are evaluated by calculating the biomass price that makes willow equally competitive to grass (break-even). The effect of high groundwater tables on yields of both crops is estimated using the agro-hydrological model SWAP. The calculated price that gives break-even between willow and grass is lower on wet soils than in a hydrologically optimal situation. At a groundwater table class of II, a groundwater situation quite common in buffer areas, this break-even price is 20% lower. The physical yield of willow is lower than its optimum, but grass yields decrease stronger, making willow more competitive. The biomass price in a hydrologically optimal situation, as calculated in this study, is comparable to values found in other studies. However, this comparison is complicated by differences in assumptions in the cost calculations, and by the fact that grass as roughage has less value added than food crops such as potatoes and wheat. This study contains considerable uncertainties with respect to the data used and the methodology. A sensitivity analysis shows that several parameters with a strong influence on the biomass price have low uncertainties. An uncertain value with strong influence is the optimal willow yield, which could not be estimated on practical data. Methodological limitations of the study, both in the economic comparison between willow and grass and in the yield estimations, are also discussed. 50 refs

  19. Aggression as an independent entity even in psychosis - The role of cortisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sourav; Sengupta, Soumik; Pathak, Kangkan; Sah, Divyashree; Mehta, Sumit; Avinash, Priya Ranjan; Baruah, Aparajeeta; Deuri, Sailendra Kumar; Sarmah, Anil; Gogoi, Vijay; Kalita, Kamal Narayan; Hazarika, Jyoti

    2018-01-01

    Aggression is a common entity in psychiatric disorders, particularly psychotic disorders. Glucocorticoid hypofunction has been linked to abnormal forms of aggressive behavior in various studies in a 'possibly causal' role. We hypothesise that aggression, even among those having psychosis is associated with glucocorticoid alterations similar to those who are aggressive but not psychotic. To our knowledge, this is the first study attempting to look at the cortisol functioning in relation to both aggression and psychosis. The present study included 80 participants divided into four groups depending upon presence or absence of aggression and psychosis. Morning cortisol, afternoon cortisol and their variability were measured using ELISA. The groups were compared on measures of aggression, psychosis, morning cortisol, afternoon cortisol and their variability using standard statistical instruments. The present study found lower levels of morning cortisol, afternoon cortisol and cortisol variability among the aggressive group (vs. non aggressive group) and among the diseased group (vs. non diseased group). The differences were most marked for cortisol variability which was related to both aggression and psychosis independently. There were statistically significant correlation between cortisol variability and aggression, which was retained even after controlling for psychosis. There was no significant correlation of cortisol variability with psychosis severity (after controlling for aggression score) or with age, gender or duration of psychosis. We conclude that aggression, even among patients with psychosis, is an independent entity characterized by lower levels of morning cortisol and cortisol variability. The etio-pathology may lie in some altered neuro-immune parameters executed by cortisol and psychosis as trigger. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Predictors and Trajectories of Morning Fatigue Are Distinct from Evening Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Fay; Melkus, Gail D’Eramo; Hammer, Marilyn; Schmidt, Brian L.; Knobf, M. Tish; Paul, Steven M.; Cartwright, Frances; Mastick, Judy; Cooper, Bruce A.; Chen, Lee-May; Melisko, Michelle; Levine, Jon D.; Kober, Kord; Aouizerat, Bradley E.; Miaskowski, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Context Fatigue is the most common symptom in oncology patients during chemotherapy (CTX). Little is known about the predictors of interindividual variability in initial levels and trajectories of morning fatigue severity in these patients. Objectives An evaluation was done to determine which demographic, clinical, and symptom characteristics were associated with initial levels as well as the trajectories of morning fatigue and to compare findings with our companion paper on evening fatigue. Methods A sample of outpatients with breast, gastrointestinal, gynecological, and lung cancer (N=586) completed demographic and symptom questionnaires a total of six times over two cycles of CTX. Fatigue severity was evaluated using the Lee Fatigue Scale. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was used to answer the study objectives. Results A large amount of interindividual variability was found in the morning fatigue trajectories. A piecewise model fit the data best. Patients with higher body mass index (BMI), who did not exercise regularly, with a lower functional status, and who had higher levels of state anxiety, sleep disturbance and depressive symptoms, reported higher levels of morning fatigue at enrollment. Variations in the trajectories of morning fatigue were predicted by the patients’ ethnicity and younger age. Conclusion The modifiable risk factors that were associated with only morning fatigue were BMI, exercise, and state anxiety. Modifiable risk factors that were associated with both morning and evening fatigue included functional status, depressive symptoms, and sleep disturbance. Using this information, clinicians can identify patients at higher risk for more severe morning fatigue and evening fatigue, provide individualized patient education, and tailor interventions to address the modifiable risk factors. PMID:25828559

  1. The hockey-stick method to estimate evening dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilenko, Konstantin V; Verevkin, Evgeniy G; Antyufeev, Viktor S; Wirz-Justice, Anna; Cajochen, Christian

    2014-04-01

    The onset of melatonin secretion in the evening is the most reliable and most widely used index of circadian timing in humans. Saliva (or plasma) is usually sampled every 0.5-1 hours under dim-light conditions in the evening 5-6 hours before usual bedtime to assess the dim-light melatonin onset (DLMO). For many years, attempts have been made to find a reliable objective determination of melatonin onset time either by fixed or dynamic threshold approaches. The here-developed hockey-stick algorithm, used as an interactive computer-based approach, fits the evening melatonin profile by a piecewise linear-parabolic function represented as a straight line switching to the branch of a parabola. The switch point is considered to reliably estimate melatonin rise time. We applied the hockey-stick method to 109 half-hourly melatonin profiles to assess the DLMOs and compared these estimates to visual ratings from three experts in the field. The DLMOs of 103 profiles were considered to be clearly quantifiable. The hockey-stick DLMO estimates were on average 4 minutes earlier than the experts' estimates, with a range of -27 to +13 minutes; in 47% of the cases the difference fell within ±5 minutes, in 98% within -20 to +13 minutes. The raters' and hockey-stick estimates showed poor accordance with DLMOs defined by threshold methods. Thus, the hockey-stick algorithm is a reliable objective method to estimate melatonin rise time, which does not depend on a threshold value and is free from errors arising from differences in subjective circadian phase estimates. The method is available as a computerized program that can be easily used in research settings and clinical practice either for salivary or plasma melatonin values.

  2. On the duality in CPT-even Lorentz-breaking theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarpelli, A.P.B. [Departamento de Policia Federal, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Ribeiro, R.F.; Nascimento, J.R.; Petrov, A.Yu. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica (Brazil)

    2015-07-15

    We generalize the duality between self-dual and Maxwell-Chern-Simons theories for the case of a CPT-even Lorentz-breaking extension of these theories. The duality is shown using the gauge embedding procedure, both in free and coupled cases, and with the master action approach. The physical spectra of both Lorentz-breaking theories are studied. The massive poles are shown to coincide and to respect the requirements for unitarity and causality at tree level. The extra massless poles which are present in the dualized model are shown to be nondynamical. (orig.)

  3. Two-proton transfer reactions on even Ni and Zn isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucenna, A.; Kraus, L.; Linck, I.; Tsan Ung Chan

    1988-01-01

    Two-proton transfer reactions induced by 112 MeV 12 C ions on even Ni and Zn isotopes are found to be less selective than the analogous two-neutron transfer reactions induced on the same targets in a similar incident energy range. The additional collective aspects observed in the proton transfer are examined in view of a semiphenomenological model of two quasi-particles coupled to a triaxial asymmetric rotor. Tentative spin and parity assignments emerge from this comparison, from crude shell model calculations and from systematic trends

  4. Positive parity states and some electromagnetic transition properties of even-odd europium isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazar, Harun Resit, E-mail: yazar@nevsehir.edu.tr [Nevsehir University, Faculty of Art and Science (Turkey)

    2013-06-15

    The positive-parity low-spin states of even-odd Europium isotopes ({sup 151-155}Eu) were studied within the framework of the interacting boson-fermion model. The calculated positive low-spin state energy spectra of the odd Eu isotope were found to agree quite well with the experimental data. The B(E2) values were also calculated and it was found that the calculated positive-parity low-spin state energy spectra of the odd-A Eu isotopes agree quite well with the experimental data.

  5. Probabilistic analysis of the torsional effects on the tall building resistance due to earthquake even

    Science.gov (United States)

    Králik, Juraj; Králik, Juraj

    2017-07-01

    The paper presents the results from the deterministic and probabilistic analysis of the accidental torsional effect of reinforced concrete tall buildings due to earthquake even. The core-column structural system was considered with various configurations in plane. The methodology of the seismic analysis of the building structures in Eurocode 8 and JCSS 2000 is discussed. The possibilities of the utilization the LHS method to analyze the extensive and robust tasks in FEM is presented. The influence of the various input parameters (material, geometry, soil, masses and others) is considered. The deterministic and probability analysis of the seismic resistance of the structure was calculated in the ANSYS program.

  6. Stieltjes-Bethe equations in higher genus and branched coverings with even ramifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotkin, Dmitry

    2018-02-01

    We describe projective structures on a Riemann surface corresponding to monodromy groups which have trivial SL (2) monodromies around singularities and trivial PSL (2) monodromies along homologically non-trivial loops on a Riemann surface. We propose a natural higher genus analog of Stieltjes-Bethe equations. Links with branched projective structures and with Hurwitz spaces with ramifications of even order are established. We find a higher genus analog of the genus zero Yang-Yang function (the function generating accessory parameters) and describe its similarity and difference with Bergman tau-function on the Hurwitz spaces.

  7. ANALISIS BREAK EVEN TERHADAP PENJUALAN JASA SEWA KAMAR PADA HOTEL BAHAGIA MAKASSAR

    OpenAIRE

    -, MIRWAYANTI

    2016-01-01

    2016 This study aimed to calculate the break-even level on Hotel Bahagia, especially on the sales room rental services in 2014, which includes the sale room rental services Happy Suite, Deluxe, Superior and Standard rooms. From the results of this study are expected to know the level of sales of rental services at the Hotel Bahagia. This analysis aims to calculates the level of sales so that the proceeds equal to the sum of all variable costs and fixed costs. In calcula...

  8. Even- and Odd-Parity Charmed Meson Masses in Heavy Hadron Chiral Perturbation Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Mehen; Roxanne Springer

    2005-03-01

    We derive mass formulae for the ground state, J{sup P} = 0{sup -} and 1{sup -}, and first excited even-parity, J{sup P} = 0{sup +} and 1{sup +}, charmed mesons including one loop chiral corrections and {Omicron}(1/m{sub c}) counterterms in heavy hadron chiral perturbation theory. We show a variety of fits to the current data. We find that certain parameter relations in the parity doubling model are not renormalized at one loop, providing a natural explanation for the equality of the hyperfine splittings of ground state and excited doublets.

  9. Triaxiality in the even-mass Hg isotopes: A discontinuity at 200Hg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, I.; Spear, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    The mass dependence of excitation energies of the 2 + 1 , 2 + 2 , and 4 + 1 states of the even-mass Hg isotopes, and of some related B(E2) values, shows a marked discontinuity at 200 Hg. Analysis of B(E2;0 + 1 →2 + 1 ) values in terms of an extended interacting boson approximation model suggests that this discontinuity is due to a change in the proton and neutron distributions at 200 Hg. Apart from 200 Hg, the data favor γ-soft models rather than the rigid triaxial-rotor model

  10. The Hamiltonian structures of the super KP hierarchy associated with an even parity superlax operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barcelos Neto, J.; Ghosh, S.; Roy, S.

    1993-07-01

    We consider the even parity superLax operator for the supersymmetric KP hierarchy of the form L = D 2 + Σ ∞ i=0 u i-2 D -i+1 and obtain the two Hamiltonian structures following the standard method of Gelfand and Dikii. We observe that the first Hamiltonian structure is local and linear whereas the second Hamiltonian structure is non-local and nonlinear among the superfields appearing in the Lax operator. We discuss briefly on their connections with the super ω ∞ algebra. (author). 23 refs

  11. On the odd-even effect in the charge radii of isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talmi, I.

    1984-01-01

    Core polarization by valence neutrons is suggested as a possible mechanism for producing odd-even variation in the charge radii of isotopes. The nuclei considered have closed proton shells and neutrons in states with lowest seniority or generalized seniority. Simple expressions are derived for jsup(n) neutron configurations and various multipole terms of the pn interaction. The resulting expressions give a good fit to the radii of calcium isotopes and also of lead isotopes for which these expressions are only approximate. (orig.)

  12. Absence of even-integer ζ-function values in Euclidean physical quantities in QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamin, Matthias; Miravitllas, Ramon

    2018-04-01

    At order αs4 in perturbative quantum chromodynamics, even-integer ζ-function values are present in Euclidean physical correlation functions like the scalar quark correlation function or the scalar gluonium correlator. We demonstrate that these contributions cancel when the perturbative expansion is expressed in terms of the so-called C-scheme coupling αˆs which has recently been introduced in Ref. [1]. It is furthermore conjectured that a ζ4 term should arise in the Adler function at order αs5 in the MS ‾-scheme, and that this term is expected to disappear in the C-scheme as well.

  13. PERMANENT GENETIC RESOURCES: Isolation and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite loci in common evening primrose (Oenothera biennis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, E L; Bogdanowicz, S M; Agrawal, A A; Johnson, M T J; Harrison, R G

    2008-03-01

    We developed nine polymorphic microsatellite loci for evening primrose (Oenothera biennis). These loci have two to 18 alleles per locus and observed heterozygosities ranging from 0 to 0.879 in a sample of 34 individuals. In a pattern consistent with the functionally asexual reproductive system of this species, 17/36 pairs of loci revealed significant linkage disequilibrium and three loci showed significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The loci will be informative in identifying genotypes in multigenerational field studies to assess changes in genotype frequencies. © 2007 The Authors.

  14. High frequency plant regeneration from leaf explants derived callus of evening primrose (oenothera biennis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghauri, E.G.; Shafi, N.; Ghani, S.; Fatima, A.

    2008-01-01

    The seeds of Evening primrose were aseptically grown and leaf explants were used for establishment of callus culture. The Excellent growth in callus biomass was achieved on MS medium supplemented with 2, 4, -D and TDZ. For optimal growth of bud and shoot regeneration, fortification of IAA along with TDZ, or BAP was found to be essential. Rooting (70%) could be inducted on hormone free MS-medium. This percentage improved to 98 when NAA was added to the medium. The plantlets thus obtained were transferred to the field successfully after passing through the process of hardening. (author)

  15. On the duality in CPT-even Lorentz-breaking theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarpelli, A.P.B.; Ribeiro, R.F.; Nascimento, J.R.; Petrov, A.Yu.

    2015-01-01

    We generalize the duality between self-dual and Maxwell-Chern-Simons theories for the case of a CPT-even Lorentz-breaking extension of these theories. The duality is shown using the gauge embedding procedure, both in free and coupled cases, and with the master action approach. The physical spectra of both Lorentz-breaking theories are studied. The massive poles are shown to coincide and to respect the requirements for unitarity and causality at tree level. The extra massless poles which are present in the dualized model are shown to be nondynamical. (orig.)

  16. High blood pressure and sedentary behavior in adolescents are associated even after controlling for confounding factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofaro, Diego Giulliano Destro; De Andrade, Selma Maffei; Cardoso, Jefferson Rosa; Mesas, Arthur Eumann; Codogno, Jamile Sanches; Fernandes, Rômulo Araújo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether high blood pressure (HBP) is associated with sedentary behavior in young people even after controlling for potential confounders (gender, age, socioeconomic level, tobacco, alcohol, obesity and physical activity). In this epidemiological study, 1231 adolescents were evaluated. Blood pressure was measured with an oscillometric device and waist circumference with an inextensible tape. Sedentary behavior (watching television, computer use and playing video games) and physical activity were assessed by a questionnaire. We used mean and standard deviation to describe the statistical analysis, and the association between HBP and sedentary behavior was assessed by the chi-squared test. Binary logistic regression was used to observe the magnitude of association and cluster analyses (sedentary behavior and abdominal obesity; sedentary behavior and physical inactivity). HBP was associated with sedentary behaviors [odds ratio (OR) = 2.21, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.41-3.96], even after controlling for various confounders (OR = 1.68, CI = 1.03-2.75). In cluster analysis the combination of sedentary behavior and elevated abdominal obesity contributed significantly to an increased likelihood of having HBP (OR = 13.51, CI 7.21-23.97). Sedentary behavior was associated with HBP, and excess fat in the abdominal region contributed to the modulation of this association.

  17. What type of person are you? Old-fashioned thinking even in modern science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Kenneth M; Lambert, Brian W

    2014-01-01

    People around the world have folk origin myths, stories that explain where they came from and account for their place in the world and their differences from other peoples. As scientists, however, we claim to be seeking literal historical truth. In Western culture, typological ideas about human variation are at least as ancient as written discussion of the subject, and have dominated both social and scientific thinking about race. From Herodotus to the Biblical lost tribes of Israel, and surprisingly even to today, it has been common to view our species as composed of distinct, or even discrete groups, types, or "races," with other individuals admixed from among those groups. Such rhetoric goes so much against the well-known evolutionary realities that it must reflect something deep about human thought, at least in Western culture. Typological approaches can be convenient for some pragmatic aspects of scientific analysis, but they can be seductively deceiving. We know how to think differently and should do so, given the historical abuses that have occurred as a result of typological thinking that seem always to lurk in the human heart.

  18. High-precision predictions for the light CP-even Higgs boson mass of the MSSM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, T.; Hollik, W. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Heinemeyer, S. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria (CSIC-UC), Santander (Spain); Rzehak, H. [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Weiglein, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-03-15

    For the interpretation of the signal discovered in the Higgs searches at the LHC it will be crucial in particular to discriminate between the minimal Higgs sector realised in the Standard Model (SM) and its most commonly studied extension, the Minimal Supersymmetric SM (MSSM). The measured mass value, having already reached the level of a precision observable with an experimental accuracy of about 500 MeV, plays an important role in this context. In the MSSM the mass of the light CP-even Higgs boson, M{sub h}, can directly be predicted from the other parameters of the model. The accuracy of this prediction should at least match the one of the experimental result. The relatively high mass value of about 126 GeV has led to many investigations where the scalar top quarks are in the multi-TeV range. We improve the prediction for M{sub h} in the MSSM by combining the existing fixed-order result, comprising the full one-loop and leading and subleading two-loop corrections, with a resummation of the leading and subleading logarithmic contributions from the scalar top sector to all orders. In this way for the first time a high-precision prediction for the mass of the light CP-even Higgs boson in the MSSM is possible all the way up to the multi-TeV region of the relevant supersymmetric particles. The results are included in the code FeynHiggs.

  19. Women live longer than men even during severe famines and epidemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarulli, Virginia; Barthold Jones, Julia A; Oksuzyan, Anna; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Christensen, Kaare; Vaupel, James W

    2018-01-23

    Women in almost all modern populations live longer than men. Research to date provides evidence for both biological and social factors influencing this gender gap. Conditions when both men and women experience extremely high levels of mortality risk are unexplored sources of information. We investigate the survival of both sexes in seven populations under extreme conditions from famines, epidemics, and slavery. Women survived better than men: In all populations, they had lower mortality across almost all ages, and, with the exception of one slave population, they lived longer on average than men. Gender differences in infant mortality contributed the most to the gender gap in life expectancy, indicating that newborn girls were able to survive extreme mortality hazards better than newborn boys. Our results confirm the ubiquity of a female survival advantage even when mortality is extraordinarily high. The hypothesis that the survival advantage of women has fundamental biological underpinnings is supported by the fact that under very harsh conditions females survive better than males even at infant ages when behavioral and social differences may be minimal or favor males. Our findings also indicate that the female advantage differs across environments and is modulated by social factors. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  20. Enhanced subcarrier-index modulation-based asymmetrically clipped optical OFDM using even subcarriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Rui; Xu, Wei; Yang, Zhaohui; Huang, Nuo; Wang, Jin-Yuan; Chen, Ming

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a subcarrier-index modulation-based asymmetrically clipped optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (SACO-OFDM) scheme for optical wireless communication (OWC) systems, which benefits from the subcarrier-index modulation (SIM) and asymmetrically clipped optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (ACO-OFDM) techniques. SACO-OFDM conveys additional information via the subcarrier indexing, and the error rate of the bit transmitted by the subcarrier indexing is much lower than that of the conventional M-ary modulation scheme. On the other hand, as the signal constellation in M-ary modulation is relieved, SACO-OFDM has simple transceiver structure and low detection complexity. Moreover, considering the spectral, an enhanced SACO-OFDM (ESACO-OFDM) using even subcarriers is proposed. In this technique, the odd subcarriers are activated for SACO-OFDM, and the imaginary part of even subcarriers are activated for pulse-amplitude-modulated discrete multitone (PAM-DMT). Clearly, ESACO-OFDM achieves better spectral efficiency than the conventional optical OFDM, since all subcarriers are used for data transmission. Simulation results verify the significant bit error rate (BER) and peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) improvement by the proposed ESACO-OFDM, especially for the medium-to-high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regime.

  1. Theory of even-parity states and two-photon spectra of conjugated polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, P. C. M.; Hayden, G. W.; Soos, Z. G.

    1991-04-01

    The two-photon absorption (TPA) spectrum of interacting π electrons in conjugated polymers is shown to be qualitatively different from any single-particle description, including the Hartree-Fock limit. Alternating transfer integrals t(1+/-δ) along the backbone lead to a weak TPA below the one-photon gap Eg for arbitrarily weak correlations at δ=0, for intermediate correlations at δ=0.07 in polyenes, and for strong correlations at any δtheory to Eg in the limit of strong correlations in Hubbard models and is around 1.5Eg for Pariser-Parr-Pople (PPP) parameters. The PPP model, which accounts for one- and two-photon excitations of finite polyenes, is extended to even-parity states in polydiacetylenes (PDA's), polyacetylene (PA), and polysilanes (PS's). Previous experimental data for PDA and PS support both the strong TPA above Eg and weak TPA slightly below Eg for δ=0.15 in PDA and above Eg for δ~0.3 in PS. The strong TPA expected around 1.5Eg in isolated PA strands shifts to ~Eg due to interchain π-electron dispersion forces. TPA intensities in correlated states are shown to reflect both ionicity and mean-square charge separation. The even-parity states of conjugated polymers, like those of polyenes, show qualitatively different features associated with electron-electron correlations.

  2. Trait Rumination Predicts Elevated Evening Cortisol in Sexual and Gender Minority Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoccola, Peggy M; Manigault, Andrew W; Figueroa, Wilson S; Hollenbeck, Cari; Mendlein, Anna; Woody, Alex; Hamilton, Katrina; Scanlin, Matt; Johnson, Ryan C

    2017-11-09

    Stress may contribute to illness through the impaired recovery or sustained activity of stress-responsive biological systems. Rumination, or mental rehearsal of past stressors, may alter the body's stress-responsive systems by amplifying and prolonging exposure to physiological mediators, such as cortisol. The primary aim of the current investigation was to test the extent to which the tendency to ruminate on stress predicts diminished diurnal cortisol recovery (i.e., elevated evening cortisol) in a sample of sexual and gender minority young adults. Participants included 58 lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender young adults ( M age = 25.0, SD = 4.1) who completed an initial online survey that assessed trait rumination and current depressed mood. Participants completed daily evening questionnaires and provided salivary cortisol samples at wake, 45 min post-wake, 12 h post-wake, and at bedtime over seven consecutive days. Trait rumination predicted significantly higher cortisol concentrations at bedtime, but was unrelated to other cortisol indices (e.g., morning cortisol, diurnal slope, total output). The association with trait rumination was not accounted for by daily negative affect, and was largely independent of depressed mood. These results have implications for identifying and treating those who may be at risk for impaired diurnal cortisol recovery and associated negative health outcomes.

  3. Contaminants reduce the richness and evenness of marine communities: A review and meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, Emma L.; Roberts, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Biodiversity of marine ecosystems is integral to their stability and function and is threatened by anthropogenic processes. We conducted a literature review and meta-analysis of 216 studies to understand the effects of common contaminants upon diversity in various marine communities. The most common diversity measures were species richness, the Shannon-Wiener index (H') and Pielou evenness (J). Largest effect sizes were observed for species richness, which tended to be the most sensitive index. Pollution was associated with marine communities containing fewer species or taxa than their pristine counterparts. Marine habitats did not vary in their susceptibility to contamination, rather a ∼40% reduction in richness occurred across all habitats. No class of contaminant was associated with significantly greater impacts on diversity than any other. Survey studies identified larger effects than laboratory or field experiments. Anthropogenic contamination is strongly associated with reductions in the species richness and evenness of marine habitats. - Contamination substantially reduces the biodiversity of marine communities in all major habitat types and across all major contaminant classes.

  4. Women live longer than men even during severe famines and epidemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarulli, Virginia; Barthold Jones, Julia A.; Oksuzyan, Anna; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Christensen, Kaare; Vaupel, James W.

    2018-01-01

    Women in almost all modern populations live longer than men. Research to date provides evidence for both biological and social factors influencing this gender gap. Conditions when both men and women experience extremely high levels of mortality risk are unexplored sources of information. We investigate the survival of both sexes in seven populations under extreme conditions from famines, epidemics, and slavery. Women survived better than men: In all populations, they had lower mortality across almost all ages, and, with the exception of one slave population, they lived longer on average than men. Gender differences in infant mortality contributed the most to the gender gap in life expectancy, indicating that newborn girls were able to survive extreme mortality hazards better than newborn boys. Our results confirm the ubiquity of a female survival advantage even when mortality is extraordinarily high. The hypothesis that the survival advantage of women has fundamental biological underpinnings is supported by the fact that under very harsh conditions females survive better than males even at infant ages when behavioral and social differences may be minimal or favor males. Our findings also indicate that the female advantage differs across environments and is modulated by social factors. PMID:29311321

  5. A conformation-dependent stereochemical library improves crystallographic refinement even at atomic resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tronrud, Dale E.; Karplus, P. Andrew

    2011-01-01

    A script was created to allow SHELXL to use the new CDL v.1.2 stereochemical library which defines the target values for main-chain bond lengths and angles as a function of the residue’s ϕ/ψ angles. Test refinements using this script show that the refinement behavior of structures at resolutions even better than 1 Å is substantially enhanced by the use of the new conformation-dependent ideal geometry paradigm. To utilize a new conformation-dependent backbone-geometry library (CDL) in protein refinements at atomic resolution, a script was written that creates a restraint file for the SHELXL refinement program. It was found that the use of this library allows models to be created that have a substantially better fit to main-chain bond angles and lengths without degrading their fit to the X-ray data even at resolutions near 1 Å. For models at much higher resolution (∼0.7 Å), the refined model for parts adopting single well occupied positions is largely independent of the restraints used, but these structures still showed much smaller r.m.s.d. residuals when assessed with the CDL. Examination of the refinement tests across a wide resolution range from 2.4 to 0.65 Å revealed consistent behavior supporting the use of the CDL as a next-generation restraint library to improve refinement. CDL restraints can be generated using the service at http://pgd.science.oregonstate.edu/cdl_shelxl/

  6. Evaluation of behavioral states among morning and evening active healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Hidalgo

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The Horne-Östberg questionnaire partly covers some factors that may be important determinants of peak time and characterize patterns of behavior. We conducted a study for the evaluation of self-reported behavioral states (hunger sensation, availability for study, physical exercise, solving daily problems, and time preferences as expressions of underlying cyclic activity. Three hundred and eighteen community subjects without history of medical, psychiatric, or sleep disorders were evaluated in a cross-sectional design. A self-report about daily highest level of activity was used to categorize individuals into morning, evening, and indifferently active. Time-related behavioral states were evaluated with 23 visual analog questions. The responses to most analogic questions were significantly different between morning and evening active subjects. Logistic regression analysis identified a group of behaviors more strongly associated with the self-reported activity pattern (common wake up time, highest subjective fatigue, as well as wake up, bedtime, exercise and study preferences. These findings suggested that the patterns of activity presented by normal adults were related to specific common behavioral characteristics that may contribute to peak time.

  7. Anisotropy of susceptibility in rocks which are magnetically nonlinear even in low fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrouda, František; Chadima, Martin; Ježek, Josef

    2018-06-01

    Theory of the low-field anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) assumes a linear relationship between magnetization and magnetizing field, resulting in field-independent susceptibility. This is valid for diamagnetic and paramagnetic minerals by definition and also for pure magnetite, while in titanomagnetite, pyrrhotite and hematite the susceptibility may be clearly field-dependent even in low fields used in common AMS meter. Consequently, the use of the linear AMS theory is fully legitimate in the former minerals, but in principle incorrect in the latter ones. Automated measurement of susceptibility in 320 directions in variable low-fields ranging from 5 to 700 A m-1 was applied to more than 100 specimens of various pyrrhotite-bearing and titanomagnetite-bearing rocks. Data analysis showed that the anisotropic susceptibility remains well represented by an ellipsoid in the entire low-field span even though the ellipsoid increases its volume and eccentricity. The principal directions do not change their orientations with low-field in most specimens. Expressions for susceptibility as a function of field were found in the form of diagonal tensor whose elements are polynomials of low order. In a large proportion of samples, the susceptibility expressions can be further simplified to have one common skeleton polynomial.

  8. Electrostatic Interactions Govern "Odd/Even" Effects in Water-Induced Gemini Surfactant Self-Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantha, Sriteja; McDaniel, Jesse G; Perroni, Dominic V; Mahanthappa, Mahesh K; Yethiraj, Arun

    2017-01-26

    Gemini surfactants comprise two single-tailed surfactants connected by a linker at or near the hydrophilic headgroup. They display a variety of water-concentration-dependent lyotropic liquid crystal morphologies that are sensitive to surfactant molecular structure and the nature of the headgroups and counterions. Recently, an interesting dependence of the aqueous-phase behavior on the length of the linker has been discovered; odd-numbered linker length surfactants exhibit characteristically different phase diagrams than even-numbered linker surfactants. In this work, we investigate this "odd/even effect" using computer simulations, focusing on experimentally studied gemini dicarboxylates with Na + counterions, seven nonterminal carbon atoms in the tails, and either three, four, five, or six carbon atoms in the linker (denoted Na-73, Na-74, Na-75, and Na-76, respectively). We find that the relative electrostatic repulsion between headgroups in the different morphologies is correlated with the qualitative features of the experimental phase diagrams, predicting destabilization of hexagonal phases as the cylinders pack close together at low water content. Significant differences in the relative headgroup orientations of Na-74 and Na-76 compared to those of Na-73 and Na-75 surfactants lead to differences in linker-linker packing and long-range headgroup-headgroup electrostatic repulsion, which affects the delicate electrostatic balance between the hexagonal and gyroid phases. Much of the fundamental insight presented in this work is enabled by the ability to computationally construct and analyze metastable phases that are not observable in experiments.

  9. A break-even analysis of delivering a memory clinic by videoconferencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comans, Tracy A; Martin-Khan, Melinda; Gray, Leonard C; Scuffham, Paul A

    2013-10-01

    We analysed the costs of two kinds of dementia clinic. In the conventional clinic, held in a rural area, the specialist travels to the clinic from the city. In the videoconferencing clinic, patients are also seen in a rural area, but the specialist conducts the assessment by video from the city. The fixed costs common to both modalities, such as clinic infrastructure, were ignored. The total fixed cost of a monthly conventional clinic was $522 and the total fixed cost of a monthly videoconferencing clinic was $881. The additional variable cost of the specialist travelling to the conventional clinic was $2.62 per minute of the specialist's travelling time. The break-even point at which the cost of the two modalities is the same was just over two hours (138 min round trip). A sensitivity analysis showed that the break-even point was not particularly sensitive to changes in staff wages, but slightly more sensitive to the non labour costs of videoconferencing. Air travel is not an efficient alternative to travel by car. Reducing the number of clinics to six per year results in a much higher cost of running the videoconferencing service compared to the conventional service. Videoconferencing for the purpose of diagnosing dementia is both a reliable and cost effective method of health service provision when a specialist is required to drive for more than about two hours (round trip) to provide a memory disorder clinic service.

  10. Trait Rumination Predicts Elevated Evening Cortisol in Sexual and Gender Minority Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peggy M. Zoccola

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Stress may contribute to illness through the impaired recovery or sustained activity of stress-responsive biological systems. Rumination, or mental rehearsal of past stressors, may alter the body’s stress-responsive systems by amplifying and prolonging exposure to physiological mediators, such as cortisol. The primary aim of the current investigation was to test the extent to which the tendency to ruminate on stress predicts diminished diurnal cortisol recovery (i.e., elevated evening cortisol in a sample of sexual and gender minority young adults. Participants included 58 lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender young adults (Mage = 25.0, SD = 4.1 who completed an initial online survey that assessed trait rumination and current depressed mood. Participants completed daily evening questionnaires and provided salivary cortisol samples at wake, 45 min post-wake, 12 h post-wake, and at bedtime over seven consecutive days. Trait rumination predicted significantly higher cortisol concentrations at bedtime, but was unrelated to other cortisol indices (e.g., morning cortisol, diurnal slope, total output. The association with trait rumination was not accounted for by daily negative affect, and was largely independent of depressed mood. These results have implications for identifying and treating those who may be at risk for impaired diurnal cortisol recovery and associated negative health outcomes.

  11. Phonon-particle coupling effects in odd-even mass differences of semi-magic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saperstein, E. E.; Baldo, M.; Pankratov, S. S.; Tolokonnikov, S. V.

    2017-11-01

    A method to evaluate the particle-phonon coupling (PC) corrections to the single-particle energies in semi-magic nuclei, based on a direct solving the Dyson equation with PC corrected mass operator, is used for finding the odd-even mass difference between 18 even Pb isotopes and their odd-proton neighbors. The Fayans energy density functional (EDF) DF3-a is used which gives rather high accuracy of the predictions for these mass differences already on the mean-field level, with the average deviation from the existing experimental data equal to 0.389 MeV. It is only a bit worse than the corresponding value of 0.333 MeV for the Skyrme EDF HFB-17, which belongs to a family of Skyrme EDFs with the highest overall accuracy in describing the nuclear masses. Account for the PC corrections induced by the low-laying phonons 2 1 + and 3 1 - significantly diminishes the deviation of the theory from the data till 0.218 MeV.

  12. Emerging ecosystems change the spatial distribution of top carnivores even in poorly populated areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Facundo Barbar

    Full Text Available Humans affect biological diversity and species distribution patterns by modifying resource availability and generating novel environments where generalist species benefit and specialist species are rare. In particular, cities create local homogenization while roads fragment habitat, although both processes can increase food availability for some species that may be able to take advantage of this new source. We studied space use by birds of prey in relation to human construction, hypothesizing that these birds would be affected even in poorly populated areas. We worked in Northwestern Patagonia, Argentina, which is experiencing a high population growth, but still having very large unpopulated areas. We related the presence of raptors with different sources of human disturbance and found that both the abundance and richness of these birds were positively associated with anthropogenic environments. These results are driven mostly by a strong association between the medium-sized generalist species and these novel environments (mainly roads and cities. This may create an imbalance in intra-guild competitive abilities, modifying the normal structures of top carnivore hierarchies. Indeed, the structure of raptor communities seems to be changing, even in poorly populated areas, with anthropogenic constructions seemingly producing changes in wild areas more promptly than thought, a cause for concern in ecosystems conservation issues.

  13. Lorentz-violating vortex solutions in the CPT-even electrodynamics of the Standard Model Extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casana, Rodolfo; Ferreira Junior, Manoel M.; Hora, E. da

    2011-01-01

    Full text: In this work, we investigate the formation of static rotationally symmetric solutions on the (1+3) dimensional CPT-even and Lorentz-violating photonic sector of the Standard Model Extension (SME). The main goal of this work is to show the possibility of obtaining these solutions, even in the presence of Lorentz-breaking fields. A secondary goal is to examine the effects of these fields on topologically non-trivial configurations. In order to obtain these results, we focus on specific components of Lorentz-violating background, dealing with static Euler-Lagrange equations, from which we fix temporal gauge (absence of electric field) as a proper gauge choice. We assume the usual rotationally symmetric Ansatz, inserting it in the Euler-Lagrange equations previously obtained. This Ansatz describes the Higgs and gauge fields via profile functions g(r) and a(r), respectively. From this Ansatz, we construct suitable boundary conditions near the origin. Also, we write the energy density in terms of these two profile functions, obtaining from it asymptotic boundary conditions. This set of conditions is used to numerically solve the Euler-Lagrange equations (by means of the shooting method). Finally, we plot solutions for some physical quantities (Higgs field, magnetic field and energy density) for several values of the Lorentz-violating parameters. From these plots, we discuss the influence of these coefficients on the topologically non-trivial rotationally symmetric configurations, focusing on the profiles of both magnetic field and energy density. (author)

  14. Quantitative analysis of anti-inflammatory and radical scavenging triterpenoid esters in evening primrose seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaugg, Janine; Potterat, Olivier; Plescher, Andreas; Honermeier, Bernd; Hamburger, Matthias

    2006-09-06

    Lipophilic triterpenoidal esters with radical scavenging and cyclooxygenase inhibitory properties were recently found in cold-pressed, nonraffinated evening primrose oil (EPO). A quantitative assay for the analysis of 3-O-trans-caffeoyl derivatives of betulinic, morolic, and oleanolic acid in evening primrose seeds was developed and validated. Extraction efficiency >99% was achieved by means of pressurized liquid extraction with two extraction cycles and 80% (v/v) ethanol at 120 degrees C. Analysis of esters was by normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography on a Diol column and hexane/ethyl acetate (containing 0.1% formic acid) (65:35) as the eluent. The analytes were determined without further prepurification. Seeds from defined cultures of Oenothera biennis, Oenothera lamarckiana, and Oenothera ammophila, grown under identical conditions, were analyzed. The cultures originated from seeds from eight collections in the wild and from selections from five cultivars. The content of total triterpenoidal esters in seeds varied between 1.34 and 2.78 mg/g. Three types of qualitative patterns were observed for the triterpenoidal esters. The influence of different harvest times and plant treatments was studied with the cultivar Anothera. Variations between 1.5 and 2.3 mg/g were found.

  15. No evidence that sex and transposable elements drive genome size variation in evening primroses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ågren, J Arvid; Greiner, Stephan; Johnson, Marc T J; Wright, Stephen I

    2015-04-01

    Genome size varies dramatically across species, but despite an abundance of attention there is little agreement on the relative contributions of selective and neutral processes in governing this variation. The rate of sex can potentially play an important role in genome size evolution because of its effect on the efficacy of selection and transmission of transposable elements (TEs). Here, we used a phylogenetic comparative approach and whole genome sequencing to investigate the contribution of sex and TE content to genome size variation in the evening primrose (Oenothera) genus. We determined genome size using flow cytometry for 30 species that vary in genetic system and find that variation in sexual/asexual reproduction cannot explain the almost twofold variation in genome size. Moreover, using whole genome sequences of three species of varying genome sizes and reproductive system, we found that genome size was not associated with TE abundance; instead the larger genomes had a higher abundance of simple sequence repeats. Although it has long been clear that sexual reproduction may affect various aspects of genome evolution in general and TE evolution in particular, it does not appear to have played a major role in genome size evolution in the evening primroses. © 2015 The Author(s).

  16. Spatial properties of odd and even low order harmonics generated in gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, G; Andreev, A; Gautier, J; Giannessi, L; Malka, V; Petralia, A; Sebban, S; Stremoukhov, S; Tissandier, F; Vodungbo, B; Zeitoun, Ph

    2015-01-14

    High harmonic generation in gases is developing rapidly as a soft X-ray femtosecond light-source for applications. This requires control over all the harmonics characteristics and in particular, spatial properties have to be kept very good. In previous literature, measurements have always included several harmonics contrary to applications, especially spectroscopic applications, which usually require a single harmonic. To fill this gap, we present here for the first time a detailed study of completely isolated harmonics. The contribution of the surrounding harmonics has been totally suppressed using interferential filtering which is available for low harmonic orders. In addition, this allows to clearly identify behaviors of standard odd orders from even orders obtained by frequency-mixing of a fundamental laser and of its second harmonic. Comparisons of the spatial intensity profiles, of the spatial coherence and of the wavefront aberration level of 5ω at 160 nm and 6ω at 135 nm have then been performed. We have established that the fundamental laser beam aberrations can cause the appearance of a non-homogenous donut-shape in the 6ω spatial intensity distribution. This undesirable effect can be easily controlled. We finally conclude that the spatial quality of an even harmonic can be as excellent as in standard generation.

  17. Generation of even harmonics in a relativistic laser plasma of atomic clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krainov, V.P.; Rastunkov, V.S.

    2004-01-01

    It is shown that the irradiation of atomic clusters by a superintense femtosecond laser pulse gives rise to various harmonics of the laser field. They arise as a result of elastic collisions of free electrons with atomic ions inside the clusters in the presence of the laser filed. The yield of even harmonics whose electromagnetic field is transverse is attributed to the relativism of the motion of electrons and the consideration of their drift velocity associated with the internal ionization of atoms and atomic ions of a cluster. These harmonics are emitted in the same direction as odd harmonics. The conductivities and electromagnetic fields of the harmonics are calculated. The generation efficiency of the harmonics slowly decreases as the harmonic number increases. The generation of even harmonics ceases when the drift velocity of electrons becomes equal to zero and only the oscillation velocity of electrons is nonzero. The results can also be applied to the irradiation of solid-state targets inside a skin layer

  18. Class I self-splicing introns are found in the T-even bacteriophage family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, F.K.; Maley, F.; Maley, G.F.

    1987-01-01

    The thymidylate synthase gene (td) and ribonucleotide reductase B2 subunit gene (nrdB) EMBO both of bacteriophage T4 in origin, are procaryotic intron-containing protein-encoding genes. To screen for other procaryotic introns, southern hybridization analysis of several procaryotic genomes was carried out, using T4 phage td DNA restriction fragments and synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides defining strategic td exon and intron regions. Furthermore, the labeling pattern of total RNA with [α- 32 P]GTP, a typical reaction of self-splicing RNAs (class I), was examined. Experimental data implicate multiple self-splicing introns only in the T-even phages: five (1, 0.9, 0.83, 0.75 and 0.6 kb) in T4 and three (1, 0.9 and 0.75 kb) each in T2 and T6 phages. Northern hybridization analysis of total RNA extracted from T-even phage-infected cells confirms that the 1 kb RNA from each phage is in fact the excised intron segment from the precursor RNA transcribed from an intron-containing td gene in each case. This RNA cyclizes to form a contiguous circular molecule. The 0.6 kb RNA is most likely the T4 phage nrdB intron which seems to be absent from the corresponding gene in T2 and T6. The remaining RNA species are candidates for other self-splicing introns in these phages

  19. Unique sudden onsets capture attention even when observers are in feature-search mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalek, Thomas M; Yanko, Matthew R; Poiese, Paola; Lagroix, Hayley E P

    2012-01-01

    Two sources of attentional capture have been proposed: stimulus-driven (exogenous) and goal-oriented (endogenous). A resolution between these modes of capture has not been straightforward. Even such a clearly exogenous event as the sudden onset of a stimulus can be said to capture attention endogenously if observers operate in singleton-detection mode rather than feature-search mode. In four experiments we show that a unique sudden onset captures attention even when observers are in feature-search mode. The displays were rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) streams of differently coloured letters with the target letter defined by a specific colour. Distractors were four #s, one of the target colour, surrounding one of the non-target letters. Capture was substantially reduced when the onset of the distractor array was not unique because it was preceded by other sets of four grey # arrays in the RSVP stream. This provides unambiguous evidence that attention can be captured both exogenously and endogenously within a single task.

  20. Fluticasone furoate: once-daily evening treatment versus twice-daily treatment in moderate asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woodcock Ashley

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inhaled corticosteroids are the recommended first-line treatment for asthma but adherence to therapy is suboptimal. The objectives of this study were to compare the efficacy and safety of once-daily (OD evening and twice-daily (BD regimens of the novel inhaled corticosteroid fluticasone furoate (FF in asthma patients. Methods Patients with moderate asthma (age ≥ 12 years; pre-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 40-85% predicted; FEV1 reversibility of ≥ 12% and ≥ 200 ml were randomized to FF or fluticasone propionate (FP regimens in a double-blind, crossover study. Patients were not permitted to have used any ICS for ≥ 8 weeks prior to enrolment and subsequently received doses of FF or FP 200 μg OD, FF or FP 100 μg BD and matching placebo by inhalation for 28 days each. Primary endpoint was Day 28 evening pre-dose (trough FEV1; non-inferiority of FF 200 μg OD and FF 100 μg BD was assessed, as was superiority of all active treatment relative to placebo. Adverse events (AEs and 24-hour urinary cortisol excretion were assessed. Results The intent-to-treat population comprised 147 (FF and 43 (FP patients. On Day 28, pre-dose FEV1 showed FF 200 μg OD to be non-inferior (pre-defined limit -110 ml to FF 100 μg BD (mean treatment difference 11 ml; 95% CI: -35 to +56 ml; all FF and FP regimens were significantly superior to placebo (p ≤ 0.02. AEs were similar to placebo; no serious AEs were reported. Urinary cortisol excretion at Day 28 for FF was lower than placebo (ratios: 200 μg OD, 0.75; 100 μg BD, 0.84; p ≤ 0.02. Conclusions FF 200 μg OD in the evening is an efficacious and well tolerated treatment for asthma patients and is not inferior to the same total BD dose. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov; NCT00766090.

  1. Effects of evening light conditions on salivary melatonin of Japanese junior high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harada Tetsuo

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a previous study, when adult subjects were exposed to a level of 400 lux light for more than 30 min or a level of 300 lux light for more than 2 hours, salivary melatonin concentration during the night dropped lower than when the subjects were exposed to dim illumination. It was suggested that such light exposure in adolescents or children during the first half of subjective night in normal life might decrease the melatonin level and prevent the falling into sleep. However, there has been no actual study on the effects of light exposure in adolescents. Methods Effects of exposure to the bright light (2000 lux from fluorescent light bulbs during a period of three hours from 19:30 to 22:30 in one evening were examined on evening salivary melatonin concentrations from 19:45 to 23:40. The control group was exposed to dim light (60 lux during these three hours. Both the dim light control group [DLCG] and the bright light experimental group [BLEG] consisted of two female and three male adolescent participants aged 14–15 y. Results The salivary melatonin level increased rapidly from 3.00 pg/ml at 21:45 to 9.18 pg/ml at 23:40 in DLCG, whereas it remained at less than 1.3 pg/ml for the three hours in BLEG. Melatonin concentration by BLEG at 22:30 of the experimental day was lower than that at the same time on the day before the experimental day, whereas it was significantly higher in the experimental day than on the day before the experimental day in DLCG. Conclusions Bright lights of 2000 lux and even moderate lights of 200–300 lux from fluorescent light bulbs can inhibit nocturnal melatonin concentration in adolescents. Ancient Japanese lighting from a traditional Japanese hearth, oil lamp or candle (20–30 lux could be healthier for children and adolescents because rapid and clear increase in melatonin concentration in blood seems to occur at night under such dim light, thus facilitating a smooth falling into night sleep.

  2. Validity of the broken-pair approximation for N = 50, even-A nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haq, S.; Gambhir, Y.K.

    1977-01-01

    The validity of the broken-pair approximation as an approximation to the seniority shell model is investigated. The results of the broken-pair approximation and the seniority shell model, obtained by employing identical input information (single-particle levels and their energies, effective two-body matrix elements, 88 Sr inert core) for N = 50, even-A nuclei are compared. A close agreement obtained between the calculated broken-pair approximation and the seniority shell model energies for 90 Zr, 92 Mo, 94 Ru, and 96 Pd nuclei and large (95--100 %) overlaps between the broken-pair approximation and the senority shell model wave functions for 92 Mo, demonstrates the validity of the broken-pair approximation in this region and in general its usefulness as a good approximation to the seniority shell model

  3. False memories and lexical decision: even twelve primes do not cause long-term semantic priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeelenberg, René; Pecher, Diane

    2002-03-01

    Semantic priming effects are usually obtained only if the prime is presented shortly before the target stimulus. Recent evidence obtained with the so-called false memory paradigm suggests, however, that in both explicit and implicit memory tasks semantic relations between words can result in long-lasting effects when multiple 'primes' are presented. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether these effects would generalize to lexical decision. In four experiments we showed that even as many as 12 primes do not cause long-term semantic priming. In all experiments, however, a repetition priming effect was obtained. The present results are consistent with a number of other results showing that semantic information plays a minimal role in long-term priming in visual word recognition.

  4. Even ‘safe’ medications need to be administered with care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutwak, Nancy; Howland, Mary Ann; Gambetta, Rosemarie; Dill, Curt

    2013-01-01

    A 60-year-old man with a history of hepatic cirrhosis and cardiomyopathy underwent transoesophageal echocardiogram. He received mild sedation and topical lidocaine. During the recovery period the patient developed ataxia and diplopia for about 30 mins, a result of lidocaine toxicity. The patient was administered a commonly used local anaesthetic, a combination of 2% viscous lidocaine, 4% lidocaine gargle and 5% lidocaine ointment topically to the oropharnyx. The total dose was at least 280 mg. Oral lidocaine undergoes extensive first pass metabolism and its clearance is quite dependent on rates of liver blood flow as well as other factors. The patient's central nervous system symptoms were mild and transient but remind us that to avoid adverse side effects, orally administered drugs with fairly high hepatic extraction ratio given to patients with chronic liver disease need to be given in reduced dosages. Even ‘Safe’ medications need to be carefully administered. PMID:23283606

  5. Asymmetric power device rating selection for even temperature distribution in NPC inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Uimin; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    the power rating and lifetime of the NPC inverter are limited by the most stressed devices. In this paper, an asymmetric power device rating selection method for the NPC inverter is proposed in order to balance the lifetimes of the power devices. The thermal distribution of the power devices is analyzed......A major drawback of the NPC inverter is an unequal power loss distribution among the power devices which leads to unequal temperature stress among them. Therefore, certain power devices experience higher temperature stress, which is the main cause of power device module failure and thus both...... based on 30 kW NPC inverter as a case study. Analytical power loss and thermal impedance models depending on the chip size are derived. Finally, using these models, the junction temperatures of the power devices depending on the chip size is discussed and a proper chip size for an even temperature...

  6. Scalar Casimir energies in M4≥/sup N/ for even N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantowski, R.; Milton, K.A.

    1987-01-01

    We construct a Green's-function formalism for computing vacuum-fluctuation energies of scalar fields in 4+N dimensions, where the extra N dimensions are compactified into a hypersphere S/sup N/ of radius a. In all cases a leading cosmological energy term u/sub cosmo/proportionala/sup N//b/sup 4+N/ results. Here b is an ultraviolet cutoff at the Planck scale. In all cases an unambiguous Casimir energy is computed. For odd N these energies agree with those calculated by Candelas and Weinberg. For even N, the Casimir energy is logarithmically divergent: u/sub Casimir/--(α/sub N//a 4 )ln(a/b). The coefficients α/sub N/ are computed in terms of Bernoulli numbers

  7. Distinction between even and odd steps in the magnetization of a Mn_12-acetate crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoko; Mertes, K. M.; Sarachik, M. P.; Paltiel, Y.; Shtrikman, H.; Zeldov, E.; Rumberger, E. M.; Hendrickson, D. N.; Christou, G.

    2002-03-01

    Data for the magnetization of a Mn_12-acetate crystal obtained for different sweep rates of a magnetic field applied along the anisotropy axis have been shown(K. M. Mertes, Y. Suzuki, M. P. Sarachik, Y. Paltiel, H. Shtrikman, E . Zeldov, E. M. Rumberger, D. N. Hendrickson, and G. Christou, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87), 227205 (2001). to collapse onto the single scaled curve predicted by Chudnovsky and Garanin(E. M. Chudnovsky and D. A. Garanin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 187203 (2001).) for the case when the dominant symmetry-breaking term that drives tunneling is a second order transverse anisotropy. A detailed analysis of the data indicates there is a clear distinction between even resonances, driven by transverse anisotropy, and odd resonances which require a contribution due to a transverse internal magnetic field. It will also be shown that scaling is not obtained if one assumes that the tunneling is driven solely by transverse fields.

  8. States with a great number of quasi-particles in even lead isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auger, G.; Manfredi, V.R.

    1975-01-01

    The even lead isotopes have been studied by means of a spectral distribution calculation in the sub-spaces defined by their number of quasi-particles. The comparison with results obtained in the thin isotopes shows that the overlap of the various sub-spaces is strongly dependent on the residual interaction used; namely, states with a great number of quasi-particles do exist in the low energy part of the spectra. The problem of spurious states implied by this method, states responsible for an over-estimation of the sub-space coupling, is treated and various corrections are proposed for the dimensions as well as for the centroids and widths of the sub-spaces [fr

  9. Pair phase transition and its evolution on even 64-68Ge isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Hong; Shi Zhuyi

    2004-01-01

    By using a microscopic sdIBM-2+2q . p . approach which is the phenomenological core plus two-quasi-particle model and the experimental single-particle energies, the levels of the ground-band, β-band, γ-band, and partial two-quasi-particle states on 64-68 Ge isotopes are successfully reproduced. Based on the phenomenological model and microscopic approach, it has been deduced that no s-boson in the nucleus is breaking up and aligning; and that when one d-boson does, the minimum aligned energy can be calculated. This paper explicitly indicates that, with the increase of neutron number, an evolution process of PPT objects, i.e. from the two-quasi-proton states (on 64 Ge nucleus) to the two-quasi-neutron states (on 68 Ge nucleus) may take place in even Ge isotopes. (authors)

  10. SU(6) quadrupole phonon model for even and odd nuclei and the SU(3) limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paar, V; Brant, S [Zagreb Univ. (Yugoslavia). Prirodoslovno Matematicki Fakultet; Canto, L F [Rio de Janeiro Univ. (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Leander, G [Lund Inst. of Tech. (Sweden). Dept. of Mathematical Physics; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Vouk, M [Zagreb Univ. (Yugoslavia). Computing Centre SRCE

    1982-04-05

    Analogous to the equivalence between the SU(6) quadrupole-phonon model (TQM) and the interacting boson model (IBM), the equivalence is pointed out for odd systems between the SU(6) particle quadrupole-phonon coupling model (PTQM) and the interacting boson-fermion model (IBFM). PTQM is formulated starting from the Dyson representation for the odd system. Different aspects of the SU(3) limit of TQM and PTQM are studied; the quadrupole-phonon block structure of rotational bands in even and odd nuclei and analytic expressions based on the coherent state; signature effects generated in PTQM; electromagnetic properties and correction factors for PTQM; overlaps of the PTQM analogs of Nilsson states with Coriolis-coupled Nilsson states and the relation to the rotational model representation.

  11. Isotope shifts in odd and even energy levels of the neutral and singly ionised gadolinium atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, S.A.; Venugopalan, A.; Saksena, G.D.

    1979-01-01

    Isotope shift studies in the gadolinium spectra have been extended in the region 4140 to 4535 A. Isotope shift Δσ(156 to 160) have been measured in 315 lines of the neutral and singly ionised gadolinium atom using a recording Fabry-Perot Spectrometer and gadolinium samples enriched in 156 Gd and 160 Gd isotopes. Some of the Gd I lines studied involve transitions from newly identified high odd levels of 4f 8 6s6p, 4f 7 5d6s7s and 4f 7 5d 3 configurations to low even levels of 4f 8 6s 2 and 4f 7 6s 2 6p configurations. Electronic configurations of the energy levels have been discussed on the basis of observed isotope shifts. In some cases assigned configurations have been revised and probable configurations have been suggested. (author)

  12. EVEN-SKIPPED HOMEOBOX 1 controls human ES cell differentiation by directly repressing GOOSECOID expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalisz, Mark; Winzi, Maria Karin; Bisgaard, Hanne Cathrine

    2012-01-01

    (EVX1) and GOOSECOID (GSC) regulate cell fate decisions in streak-like progenitors derived from human ES cells exposed to BMP4 and/or activin. We found that EVX1 repressed GSC expression and promoted formation of posterior streak-like progeny in response to BMP4, and conversely that GSC repressed EVX1...... expression and was required for development of anterior streak-like progeny in response to activin. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that EVX1 bound to the GSC 5'-flanking region in BMP4 treated human ES cells, and band shift assays identified two EVX1 binding sites in the GSC 5'-region......TGFß signaling patterns the primitive streak, yet little is known about transcriptional effectors that mediate the cell fate choices during streak-like development in mammalian embryos and in embryonic stem (ES) cells. Here we demonstrate that cross-antagonistic actions of EVEN-SKIPPED HOMEOBOX 1...

  13. Effect of the Pauli principle on the excited states of doubly-even deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolos, R.V.; Molina, J.L.; Soloviev, V.G.

    1980-01-01

    It is shown that the commutation relations between the quasiparticles forming phonons can correctly be taken into account within the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model. The doubly-even deformed nuclei with the isoscalar and isovector multipole-multipole forces are studied. The exact and approximate secular equations are derived. It is shown that the two-phonon poles in the secular equation are shifted due to the Pauli principle. These shifts are large for the two identical collective phonons. In some cases pronounced shifts are found for the poles composed of a low-lying collective phonon and a collective phonon forming the giant resonance. In other cases the shifts are not large, as a rule. (orig.) 891 FKS/orig. 892 MB

  14. Systematic behavior of B(E2) values in the yrast bands of doubly even nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrejtscheff, W.; Rutgers - the State Univ., New Brunswick, NJ; Nadjakov, E.; Venkova, T.

    1980-01-01

    The experimental information on B(E2) transition rates in the yrast bands of doubly even nuclei (126 2 (J: moment of inertia) are plotted versus the rotational frequency squared h/2π 2 ω 2 for each nucleus. In strongly deformed nuclei (N >= 90), the Ssub(exp) curves smoothly increase for low rotational frequencies suggesting that up to spin values I approx. 8 the ratio Q 2 0 /J is nearly constant (Q 0 : quadrupole moment). This is not the case in nuclei with a soft core (N <= 88). In the relevant discussion, the hydrodynamical model as well as the CAP effect are considered. The results in the backbending region are qualitatively discussed in terms of the two-band crossing model. Evidence is found supporting the prediction of an oscillating behavior of the yrast-yrare interaction. (orig.)

  15. An odd manifestation of the Capgras syndrome: loss of familiarity even with the sexual partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas Antérion, C; Convers, P; Desmales, S; Borg, C; Laurent, B

    2008-06-01

    We report the case of a patient who presented visual hallucinations and identification disorders associated with a Capgras syndrome. During the Capgras periods, there was not only a misidentification of his wife's face, but also a more global perceptive and emotional sexual identification disorder. Thus, he had sexual intercourse with his wife's "double" without having the slightest recollection feeling of familiarity towards his "wife" and even changed his sexual habits. To the best of our knowledge, he is the only neurological patient who made his wife a mistress. Starting from this global familiarity loss, we discuss the mechanism of Capgras delusion with reference to the role of the implicit system of face recognition. Such behavior of familiarity loss not only with face but also with all intimacy aspects argues for a specific disconnection between the ventral visual pathway of face identification and the limbic system involved in emotional and episodic memory contents.

  16. The second lightest CP-even Higgs boson signals in the NMSSM at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almarashi, M. M.

    2018-04-01

    We study the signal rates of the second lightest CP-even Higgs boson, h2, of the NMSSM produced in gluon fusion, in association with bottom quarks and in association with top quarks, which is not the SM-like Higgs boson, at the LHC. We evaluate the production rates of h2 in the SM fermionic and bosonic final states in addition to a1a1, h1h1 and Za1 final states. It is observed that the size of the signal rates in some regions of the NMSSM parameter space is quite large and that could help extracting h2 signals at the LHC through a variety of decay channels.

  17. Early environmental exposures influence schizophrenia expression even in the presence of strong genetic predisposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husted, Janice A; Ahmed, Rashid; Chow, Eva W C; Brzustowicz, Linda M; Bassett, Anne S

    2012-05-01

    There are few studies of environmental factors in familial forms of schizophrenia. We investigated whether childhood adversity or environmental factors were associated with schizophrenia in a familial sample where schizophrenia is associated with the NOSA1P gene. We found that a cumulative adversity index including childhood illness, family instability and cannabis use was significantly associated with narrow schizophrenia, independent of NOSA1P risk genotype, previously measured childhood trauma, covariates and familial clustering (adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval)=1.55 (1.01, 2.38)). The results provide further support that early environmental exposures influence schizophrenia expression even in the presence of strong genetic predisposition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. CP-even scalar boson production via gluon fusion at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Anastasiou, Charalampos; Dulat, Falko; Furlan, Elisabetta; Gehrmann, Thomas; Herzog, Franz; Lazopoulos, Achilleas; Mistlberger, Bernhard

    2016-09-07

    In view of the searches at the LHC for scalar particle resonances in addition to the 125 GeV Higgs boson, we present the cross section for a CP-even scalar produced via gluon fusion at N3LO in perturbative QCD assuming that it couples directly to gluons in an effective theory approach. We refine our prediction by taking into account the possibility that the scalar couples to the top-quark and computing the corresponding contributions through NLO in perturbative QCD. We assess the theoretical uncertainties of the cross section due to missing higher-order QCD effects and we provide the necessary information for obtaining the cross section value and uncertainty from our results in specific scenarios beyond the Standard Model. We also give detailed results for the case of a 750 GeV scalar, which will be the subject of intense experimental studies.

  19. Spontaneous-fission half-lives for even nuclei with Z> or =92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randrup, J.; Larsson, S.E.; Moller, P.; Nilsson, S.G.; Pomorski, K.; Sobiczewski, A.

    1976-01-01

    The spontaneous-fission process for doubly even nuclei with Z> or =92 is studied in a semiempirical WKB framework. One-dimensional fission barrier potentials are established from theoretical deformation-energy surfaces based on the droplet model and the modified-oscillator model. The effects of axial asymmetry as well as reflection asymmetry have been taken into account. Macroscopic (irrotational flow) inertial-mass functions and, alternatively, microscopic (cranking model) inertial mass parameters have been employed for the calculation of the fission half-lives. With one over-all normalization parameter it is possible to fit the experimental half-lives to within a factor of 20 on the average. The resulting effective inertial-mass functions are used to estimate the stability of the transactinide elements. Only minor differences with previous estimates for the r process and superheavy nuclei are encountered

  20. Partition functions in even dimensional AdS via quasinormal mode methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeler, Cynthia; Ng, Gim Seng

    2014-01-01

    In this note, we calculate the one-loop determinant for a massive scalar (with conformal dimension Δ) in even-dimensional AdS d+1 space, using the quasinormal mode method developed in http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0264-9381/27/12/125001 by Denef, Hartnoll, and Sachdev. Working first in two dimensions on the related Euclidean hyperbolic plane H 2 , we find a series of zero modes for negative real values of Δ whose presence indicates a series of poles in the one-loop partition function Z(Δ) in the Δ complex plane; these poles contribute temperature-independent terms to the thermal AdS partition function computed in http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0264-9381/27/12/125001. Our results match those in a series of papers by Camporesi and Higuchi, as well as Gopakumar et al. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP11(2011)010 and Banerjee et al. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP03(2011)147. We additionally examine the meaning of these zero modes, finding that they Wick-rotate to quasinormal modes of the AdS 2 black hole. They are also interpretable as matrix elements of the discrete series representations of SO(2,1) in the space of smooth functions on S 1 . We generalize our results to general even dimensional AdS 2n , again finding a series of zero modes which are related to discrete series representations of SO(2n,1), the motion group of H 2n .

  1. Even low alcohol concentrations affect obstacle avoidance reactions in healthy senior individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nienhuis Bart

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol is a commonly used social drug and driving under influence is a well-established risk factor for traffic accidents1. To improve road safety, legal limits are set for blood alcohol concentration (BAC and driving, usually at 0.05% (most European countries or 0.08% (most US states, Canada and UK. In contrast, for walking there are no legal limits, yet there are numerous accounts of people stumbling and falling after drinking. Alcohol, even at these low concentrations, affects brain function and increases fall risk. An increased fall risk has been associated with impaired obstacle avoidance skills. Low level BACs are likely to affect obstacle avoidance reactions during gait, since the brain areas that are presumably involved in these reactions have been shown to be influenced by alcohol. Therefore we investigated the effect of low to moderate alcohol consumption on such reactions. Thirteen healthy senior individuals (mean(SD age: 61.5(4.4 years, 9 male were subjected to an obstacle avoidance task on a treadmill after low alcohol consumption. Fast stepping adjustments were required to successfully avoid suddenly appearing obstacles. Response times and amplitudes of the m. biceps femoris, a prime mover, as well as avoidance failure rates were assessed. Findings After the first alcoholic drink, 12 of the 13 participants already had slower responses. Without exception, all participants' biceps femoris response times were delayed after the final alcoholic drink (avg ± sd:180 ± 20 ms; p r = 0.6; p Conclusions The present results clearly show that even with BACs considered to be safe for driving, obstacle avoidance reactions are inadequate, late, and too small. This is likely to contribute to an increased fall risk. Therefore we suggest that many of the alcohol-related falls are the result of the disruptive effects of alcohol on the online corrections of the ongoing gait pattern when walking under challenging conditions.

  2. Scheduled evening sleep and enhanced lighting improve adaptation to night shift work in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinoy, Evan D; Harris, Michael P; Kim, Min Ju; Wang, Wei; Duffy, Jeanne F

    2016-12-01

    We tested whether a sleep and circadian-based treatment shown to improve circadian adaptation to night shifts and attenuate negative effects on alertness, performance and sleep in young adults would also be effective in older adults. We assessed subjective alertness, sustained attention (psychomotor vigilance task, PVT), sleep duration (actigraphy) and circadian timing (salivary dim-light melatonin onset, DLMO) in 18 older adults (57.2±3.8 years; mean±SD) in a simulated shift work protocol. 4 day shifts were followed by 3 night shifts in the laboratory. Participants slept at home and were randomised to either the treatment group (scheduled evening sleep and enhanced lighting during the latter half of night shifts) or control group (ad-lib sleep and typical lighting during night shifts). Compared with day shifts, alertness and sustained attention declined on the first night shift in both groups, and was worse in the latter half of the night shifts. Alertness and attention improved on nights 2 and 3 for the treatment group but remained lower for the control group. Sleep duration in the treatment group remained similar to baseline (6-7 hours) following night shifts, but was shorter (3-5 hours) following night shifts in the control group. Treatment group circadian timing advanced by 169.3±16.1 min (mean±SEM) but did not shift (-9.7±9.9 min) in the control group. The combined treatment of scheduled evening sleep and enhanced lighting increased sleep duration and partially aligned circadian phase with sleep and work timing, resulting in improved night shift alertness and performance. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. Sleep and sleepiness among working and non-working high school evening students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Liliane Reis; Lowden, Arne; Turte, Samantha Lemos; Nagai, Roberta; Moreno, Claudia Roberta de Castro; Latorre, Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira; Fischer, Frida Marina

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate patterns of sleepiness, comparing working and non-working students. The study was conducted on high school students attending evening classes (19:00-22:30 h) at a public school in São Paulo, Brazil. The study group consisted of working (n=51) and non-working (n=41) students, aged 14-21 yrs. The students answered a questionnaire about working and living conditions and reported health symptoms and diseases. For seven consecutive days, actigraphy measurements were recorded, and the students also filled in a sleep diary. Sleepiness ratings were given six times per day, including upon waking and at bedtime, using the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale. Statistical analyses included three-way ANOVA and t-test. The mean sleep duration during weekdays was shorter among workers (7.2 h) than non-workers (8.8 h) (t=4.34; pSleep efficiency was lower on Fridays among non-workers. Working students were moderately sleepier than non-workers during the week and also during class on specific days: Mondays (13:00-15:00 h), Wednesdays (19:00-22:00 h), and Fridays (22:00-00:59 h). The study found that daytime sleepiness of workers is moderately higher in the evening. This might be due to a work effect, reducing the available time for sleep and shortening the sleep duration. Sleepiness and shorter sleep duration can have a negative impact on the quality of life and school development of high school students.

  4. Even a Chronic Mild Hyperglycemia Affects Membrane Fluidity and Lipoperoxidation in Placental Mitochondria in Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-García, María del Consuelo; Espinosa-García, María Teresa; Martinez-Montes, Federico; Palomar-Morales, Martín; Mejía-Zepeda, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    It is known the deleterious effects of diabetes on embryos, but the effects of diabetes on placenta and its mitochondria are still not well known. In this work we generated a mild hyperglycemia model in female wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin in 48 hours-old rats. The sexual maturity onset of the female rats was delayed around 6–7 weeks and at 16 weeks-old they were mated, and sacrificed at day 19th of pregnancy. In placental total tissue and isolated mitochondria, the fatty acids composition was analyzed by gas chromatography, and lipoperoxidation was measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Membrane fluidity in mitochondria was measured with the excimer forming probe dipyrenylpropane and mitochondrial function was measured with a Clark-type electrode. The results show that even a chronic mild hyperglycemia increases lipoperoxidation and decreases mitochondrial function in placenta. Simultaneously, placental fatty acids metabolism in total tissue is modified but in a different way than in placental mitochondria. Whereas the chronic mild hyperglycemia induced a decrease in unsaturated to saturated fatty acids ratio (U/S) in placental total tissue, the ratio increased in placental mitochondria. The measurements of membrane fluidity showed that fluidity of placenta mitochondrial membranes increased with hyperglycemia, showing consistency with the fatty acids composition through the U/S index. The thermotropic characteristics of mitochondrial membranes were changed, showing lower transition temperature and activation energies. All of these data together demonstrate that even a chronic mild hyperglycemia during pregnancy of early reproductive Wistar rats, generates an increment of lipoperoxidation, an increase of placental mitochondrial membrane fluidity apparently derived from changes in fatty acids composition and consequently, mitochondrial malfunction. PMID:26630275

  5. Influence of evenness of poultry manure application on grain crops productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Yu. Anisimova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Possibility of increase of efficiency of poultry manure application due to more evenness of fertilizer application into the soil was investigated. Machines with a wide range of regulation of an application rate, for example ROU-6 with interval from 4 to 80 t/ha are for this purpose necessary. Efficiency of poultry manure application for grain crops was increased due to using of machines of drum type with optimum doses fertilizing (12-16 t/ha. An assessment of efficiency was carried out. The drums rotation speed, shovel quantity and shape, their installation angle and a design of the directing board were determined. The developed modified working of a spreader of drum type allowed to reduce unevenness of width fertilizing by 12-14 percent, on length of unit pass - by 5 percent. It was established that if the dose increases more than 8 t/ha, the crop productivity growths not significant. At reduction of fertilizing unevenness from 97 to 72 percent yield losses decrease by 54.4 percent. At reduction of fertilizing unevenness more than 97 percent, efficiency worsens by 58 percent. Poultry manure spreading by the machine and tractor unit MTZ-82.1 + ROU-6M afforded an yield by 38 percent higher, in comparison with the machine and tractor unit T-150K + PRT-10. At decrease in unevenness from 82 to 43 percent of barley loss decreased by 29 percent. It was revealed that spreading by machine ROU-6M provided a yield increase by 8.6 percent more, than by machine PRT-10. Yield losses because of spreading unevenness made: by the PRT-10 operating - 30 percent; by the ROU-6M operating - 0.33 percent. The grain yield increase was higher thanks to more evenness of fertilizer application by ROU-6M with the new spreading working element.

  6. The cost effectiveness of vancomycin for preventing infections after shoulder arthroplasty: a break-even analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, M Daniel; Daniels, Stephen D; Glerum, Kimberly M; Higgins, Laurence D

    2017-03-01

    Increasing methicillin resistance and recognition of Propionibacterium acnes as a cause of infection in shoulder arthroplasty has led to the adoption of local vancomycin powder application as a more effective method to prevent expensive periprosthetic infections. However, no study has analyzed the cost effectiveness of vancomycin powder for preventing infection after shoulder replacement. Cost data for infection-related care of 16 patients treated for deep periprosthetic shoulder infection was collected from our institution for the break-even analysis. An equation was developed and applied to the data to determine how effective vancomycin powder would need to be at reducing a baseline infection rate to make prophylactic use cost effective. The efficacy of vancomycin (absolute risk reduction [ARR]) was evaluated at different unit costs, baseline infection rates, and average costs of treating infection. We determined vancomycin to be cost effective if the initial infection rate decreased by 0.04% (ARR). Using the current costs of vancomycin reported in the literature (range: $2.50/1000 mg to $44/1000 mg), we determined vancomycin to be cost effective with an ARR range of 0.01% at a cost of $2.50/1000 mg to 0.19% at $44/1000 mg. Baseline infection rate does not influence the ARR obtained at any specific cost of vancomycin or the cost of treating infection. We have derived and used a break-even equation to assess efficacy of prophylactic antibiotics during shoulder surgery. We further demonstrated the prophylactic administration of local vancomycin powder during shoulder arthroplasty to be a highly cost-effective practice. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Aggression as an independent entity even in psychosis- the role of inflammatory cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sourav; Deuri, Sailendra Kumar; Sarmah, Anil; Pathak, Kangkan; Baruah, Aparajeeta; Sengupta, Soumik; Mehta, Sumit; Avinash, Priya Ranjan; Kalita, Kamal Narayan; Hazarika, Jyoti

    2016-03-15

    Aggression is very common in psychosis (prevalence ranging from 34% to 70%) and is often the main or first symptom for which the patient receives medical attention. Studies have associated alteration in cytokine profiles among healthy persons with aggressive traits. We hypothesise that even among those with psychosis, aggression is an independent entity, irrespective of psychotic state and is associated with cytokine alterations. To our knowledge, this is the first study attempting to look at the inflammatory cytokines in aggressive psychotic patients. Study included 80 participants divided into four groups viz. aggressive diseased, non aggressive diseased, aggressive non diseased and non aggressive non diseased depending upon presence or absence of aggression and psychosis. Interferon gamma(IFN-G), Interleukin 10(IL10) plasma concentrations and their ratio were measured using ELISA based assay kits read at absorbance of 450 nm wavelength using Double beam spectrophotometer. The four groups were compared on measures of aggression, psychosis, Interferon Gamma levels, Interleukin 10 levels, Proinflammatory: Antiinflammatory cytokine ratio using standard statistical instruments. In patients with psychosis, the cytokines IFN-G and IL10 were significantly lower compared to those without. The cytokines IFN-G and IL10 are both significantly associated both with aggression and psychosis. IL10, but not IFN-G is associated with aggression in absence of psychosis. The proinflammatory: antiinflammatory cytokine ratio, is more significantly associated with aggression, irrespective of psychosis. In fact, there is no significant relationship between the above ratio and psychosis. Strong correlation exists between the proinflammatory: antiinflammatory cytokine ratio and aggression scores, even after controlling for severity of psychosis. It may be concluded from this study that in spite of a high prevalence of aggression in patients of psychosis, it is more likely to be an

  8. The influence of odd-even car trial on fine and coarse particles in Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prashant; Gulia, Sunil; Harrison, Roy M; Khare, Mukesh

    2017-06-01

    The odd-even car trial scheme, which reduced car traffic between 08.00 and 20.00 h daily, was applied from 1 to 15 January 2016 (winter scheme, WS) and 15-30 April 2016 (summer scheme, SS). The daily average PM 2.5 and PM 10 exceeded national standards, with highest concentrations (313 μg m -3 and 639 μg m -3 , respectively) during winter and lowest (53 μg m -3 and 130 μg m -3 ) during the monsoon (June-August). PM concentrations during the trials can be interpreted either as reduced or increased, depending on the periods used for comparison purposes. For example, hourly average net PM 2.5 and PM 10 (after subtracting the baseline concentrations) reduced by up to 74% during the majority (after 1100 h) of trial hours compared with the corresponding hours during the previous year. Conversely, daily average PM 2.5 and PM 10 were higher by up to 3-times during the trial periods when compared with the pre-trial days. A careful analysis of the data shows that the trials generated cleaner air for certain hours of the day but the persistence of overnight emissions from heavy goods vehicles into the morning odd-even hours (0800-1100 h) made them probably ineffective at this time. Any further trial will need to be planned very carefully if an effect due to traffic alone is to be differentiated from the larger effect caused by changes in meteorology and especially wind direction. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. The atmospheric boundary layer evening transitions: an observational and numerical study from two different datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastre, Mariano; Yagüe, Carlos; Román-Cascón, Carlos; Maqueda, Gregorio; Ander Arrillaga, Jon

    2015-04-01

    In this work we study the temporal evolution of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) along the transition period from a diurnal typical convection to a nocturnal more frequently stable situation. This period is known as late afternoon or evening transition, depending on the specific definitions employed by different authors [1]. In order to obtain a proper characterization, we try to learn whether or not the behaviour of these transitional boundary layers is strongly dependent on local conditions. To do so, two sets of evening transitions are studied from data collected at two different experimental sites. These locations correspond to research facilities named CIBA (Spain) and CRA (France), which are the places where atmospheric field campaigns have been conducted during the last years, such as CIBA2008 and BLLAST 2011, respectively. In order to get comparable situations, we focus especially on transitions with weak synoptic forcing, and consider daily astronomical sunset as a reference time. A statistical analysis on main parameters related to the transition is carried out for both locations, and the average behaviour is shown as well as extreme values according to the timing. A similar pattern in the qualitative evolution of many variables is found. Nevertheless, several relevant differences in the progress of key variables are obtained too. Moisture, both from the soil and the air, is thought to have great relevance in explaining many of the differences found between the two sites. Some case studies are explored, focusing on the role played by the atmospheric turbulence. Complementary, numerical experiments are also performed using the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) mesoscale model, in order to test the role of humidity, by artificially varying it in some of the simulations. [1] Lothon, M. and coauthors (2014): The BLLAST field experiment: Boundary-Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10931-10960.

  10. Scheduled Evening Sleep and Enhanced Lighting Improve Adaptation to Night Shift Work in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinoy, Evan D.; Harris, Michael P.; Kim, Min Ju; Wang, Wei; Duffy, Jeanne F.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives We tested whether a sleep and circadian-based treatment shown to improve circadian adaptation to night shifts and attenuate negative effects on alertness, performance, and sleep in young adults would also be effective in older adults. Methods We assessed subjective alertness, sustained attention (psychomotor vigilance task, PVT), sleep duration (actigraphy), and circadian timing (salivary dim-light melatonin onset, DLMO) in eighteen older adults (57.2±3.8 y; mean±SD) in a simulated shift work protocol. Four day shifts were followed by three night shifts in the laboratory. Participants slept at home and were randomized to either the Treatment Group (scheduled evening sleep and enhanced lighting during the latter half of night shifts), or Control Group (ad lib sleep and typical lighting during night shifts). Results Compared to day shifts, alertness and sustained attention declined on the first night shift in both groups, and was worse in the latter half of the night shifts. Alertness and attention improved on nights 2 and 3 for the Treatment Group but remained lower for the Control Group. Sleep duration in the Treatment Group remained similar to baseline (6–7 h) following night shifts, but was shorter (3–5 h) following night shifts in the Control Group. Treatment Group circadian timing advanced by 169.3±16.1 min (mean±SEM) but did not shift (−9.7±9.9 min) in the Control Group. Conclusions The combined treatment of scheduled evening sleep and enhanced lighting increased sleep duration and partially aligned circadian phase with sleep and work timing, resulting in improved night shift alertness and performance. PMID:27566781

  11. Long term evolution of temperature in the venus upper atmosphere at the evening and morning terminators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, P.; Sornig, M.; Wischnewski, C.; Kostiuk, T.; Livengood, T. A.; Herrmann, M.; Sonnabend, G.; Stangier, T.; Wiegand, M.; Pätzold, M.; Mahieux, A.; Vandaele, A. C.; Piccialli, A.; Montmessin, F.

    2018-01-01

    This paper contains a comprehensive dataset of long-term observations between 2009 and 2015 at the upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere providing temperature values at different locations of the morning and evening side of the terminator of Venus. Temperature information is obtained by line-resolved spectroscopy of Doppler broadened CO2 transitions features. Results are restricted to a pressure level of 1 μbar, ∼110 km altitude due the nature of the addressed non-LTE CO2 emission line at 10 μm. The required high spectral resolution of the instrumentation is provided by the ground-based spectrometers THIS (University of Cologne) and HIPWAC (NASA GSFC). For the first time upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere temperatures at the Venusian terminator derived from IR-het spectroscopy between 2009 and 2015 are investigated in order to clarify the local-time dependences, latitudinal dependences and the long-term trend. Measured temperatures were distributed in the range between 140 K and 240 K, with mean values equal to 199 K ± 17 K for the morning side of the terminator and 195 K ± 19 K for the evening side of the terminator. Within the uncertainty no difference between the averaged morning and evening terminator side temperature is found. In addition, no strong latitudinal dependency is observed at these near terminator local times. In contrast IR-het data from 2009 show a strong latitudinal dependency at noon, with a temperature difference of around 60 K between the equatorial and polar region (Sonnabend et al., 2012). Accord with the instruments of the Venus Express mission a northern-southern hemispherical symmetry is observed (Mahieux et al., 2012; Piccialli et al., 2015). The data shows no consistent long-term temperature trend throughout the six years of observation, but a variability in the order of tens of Kelvin for the different observing runs representing a time step of few month to two years. This is about the same order of magnitude as the variability

  12. Towards evenly distributed grazing patterns: including social context in sheep management strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina di Virgilio

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. A large proportion of natural grasslands around the world is exposed to overgrazing resulting in land degradation and biodiversity loss. Although there is an increasing effort in the promotion of sustainable livestock management, rangeland degradation still occurs because animals’ foraging behaviour is highly selective at different spatial scales. The assessment of the ecological mechanisms modulating the spatial distribution of grazing and how to control it has critical implications for long term conservation of resources and the sustainability of livestock production. Considering the relevance of social interactions on animals’ space use patterns, our aim was to explore the potential effects of including animals’ social context into management strategies using domestic sheep grazing in rangelands as case study. Methods. We used GPS data from 19 Merino sheep (approximately 10% of the flock grazing on three different paddocks (with sizes from 80 to 1000 Ha during a year, to estimate resource selection functions of sheep grazing in flocks of different levels of heterogeneity. We assessed the effects of sheep class (i.e., ewes, wethers, and hoggets, age, body condition and time since release on habitat selection patterns. Results. We found that social rank was reflected on sheep habitat use, where dominant individuals (i.e., reproductive females used more intensively the most preferred areas and low-ranked (i.e., yearlings used less preferred areas. Our results showed that when sheep grazed on more heterogeneous flocks, grazing patterns were more evenly distributed at all the paddocks considered in this study. On the other hand, when high-ranked individuals were removed from the flock, low-ranked sheep shifted their selection patterns by increasing the use of the most preferred areas and strongly avoided to use less preferred sites (i.e., a highly selective grazing behaviour. Discussion. Although homogenization and segregation of

  13. Spatial variability of turbulent fluxes in the roughness sublayer of an even-aged pine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katul, G.; Hsieh, C.-I.; Bowling, D.; Clark, K.; Shurpali, N.; Turnipseed, A.; Albertson, J.; Tu, K.; Hollinger, D.; Evans, B. M.; Offerle, B.; Anderson, D.; Ellsworth, D.; Vogel, C.; Oren, R.

    1999-01-01

    The spatial variability of turbulent flow statistics in the roughness sublayer (RSL) of a uniform even-aged 14 m (= h) tall loblolly pine forest was investigated experimentally. Using seven existing walkup towers at this stand, high frequency velocity, temperature, water vapour and carbon dioxide concentrations were measured at 15.5 m above the ground surface from October 6 to 10 in 1997. These seven towers were separated by at least 100 m from each other. The objective of this study was to examine whether single tower turbulence statistics measurements represent the flow properties of RSL turbulence above a uniform even-aged managed loblolly pine forest as a best-case scenario for natural forested ecosystems. From the intensive space-time series measurements, it was demonstrated that standard deviations of longitudinal and vertical velocities (??(u), ??(w)) and temperature (??(T)) are more planar homogeneous than their vertical flux of momentum (u(*)2) and sensible heat (H) counterparts. Also, the measured H is more horizontally homogeneous when compared to fluxes of other scalar entities such as CO2 and water vapour. While the spatial variability in fluxes was significant (> 15%), this unique data set confirmed that single tower measurements represent the 'canonical' structure of single-point RSL turbulence statistics, especially flux-variance relationships. Implications to extending the 'moving-equilibrium' hypothesis for RSL flows are discussed. The spatial variability in all RSL flow variables was not constant in time and varied strongly with spatially averaged friction velocity u(*), especially when u(*) was small. It is shown that flow properties derived from two-point temporal statistics such as correlation functions are more sensitive to local variability in leaf area density when compared to single point flow statistics. Specifically, that the local relationship between the reciprocal of the vertical velocity integral time scale (I(w)) and the arrival

  14. Towards evenly distributed grazing patterns: including social context in sheep management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Virgilio, Agustina; Morales, Juan Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Background. A large proportion of natural grasslands around the world is exposed to overgrazing resulting in land degradation and biodiversity loss. Although there is an increasing effort in the promotion of sustainable livestock management, rangeland degradation still occurs because animals' foraging behaviour is highly selective at different spatial scales. The assessment of the ecological mechanisms modulating the spatial distribution of grazing and how to control it has critical implications for long term conservation of resources and the sustainability of livestock production. Considering the relevance of social interactions on animals' space use patterns, our aim was to explore the potential effects of including animals' social context into management strategies using domestic sheep grazing in rangelands as case study. Methods. We used GPS data from 19 Merino sheep (approximately 10% of the flock) grazing on three different paddocks (with sizes from 80 to 1000 Ha) during a year, to estimate resource selection functions of sheep grazing in flocks of different levels of heterogeneity. We assessed the effects of sheep class (i.e., ewes, wethers, and hoggets), age, body condition and time since release on habitat selection patterns. Results. We found that social rank was reflected on sheep habitat use, where dominant individuals (i.e., reproductive females) used more intensively the most preferred areas and low-ranked (i.e., yearlings) used less preferred areas. Our results showed that when sheep grazed on more heterogeneous flocks, grazing patterns were more evenly distributed at all the paddocks considered in this study. On the other hand, when high-ranked individuals were removed from the flock, low-ranked sheep shifted their selection patterns by increasing the use of the most preferred areas and strongly avoided to use less preferred sites (i.e., a highly selective grazing behaviour). Discussion. Although homogenization and segregation of flocks by classes

  15. Direct Repression of Evening Genes by CIRCADIAN CLOCK-ASSOCIATED1 in the Arabidopsis Circadian Clock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamioka, Mari; Takao, Saori; Suzuki, Takamasa; Taki, Kyomi; Higashiyama, Tetsuya; Kinoshita, Toshinori; Nakamichi, Norihito

    2016-03-01

    The circadian clock is a biological timekeeping system that provides organisms with the ability to adapt to day-night cycles. Timing of the expression of four members of the Arabidopsis thaliana PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATOR(PRR) family is crucial for proper clock function, and transcriptional control of PRRs remains incompletely defined. Here, we demonstrate that direct regulation of PRR5 by CIRCADIAN CLOCK-ASSOCIATED1 (CCA1) determines the repression state of PRR5 in the morning. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by deep sequencing (ChIP-seq) analyses indicated that CCA1 associates with three separate regions upstream of PRR5 CCA1 and its homolog LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY) suppressed PRR5 promoter activity in a transient assay. The regions bound by CCA1 in the PRR5 promoter gave rhythmic patterns with troughs in the morning, when CCA1 and LHY are at high levels. Furthermore,ChIP-seq revealed that CCA1 associates with at least 449 loci with 863 adjacent genes. Importantly, this gene set contains genes that are repressed but upregulated incca1 lhy double mutants in the morning. This study shows that direct binding by CCA1 in the morning provides strong repression of PRR5, and repression by CCA1 also temporally regulates an evening-expressed gene set that includes PRR5. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  16. Even low to medium nitrogen deposition impacts vegetation of dry, coastal dunes around the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remke, Eva; Brouwer, Emiel; Kooijman, Annemieke; Blindow, Irmgard; Esselink, Hans; Roelofs, Jan G.M.

    2009-01-01

    Coastal dunes around the Baltic Sea have received small amounts of atmospheric nitrogen and are rather pristine ecosystems in this respect. In 19 investigated dune sites the atmospheric wet nitrogen deposition is 3-8 kg N ha -1 yr -1 . The nitrogen content of Cladonia portentosa appeared to be a suitable biomonitor of these low to medium deposition levels. Comparison with EMEP-deposition data showed that Cladonia reflects the deposition history of the last 3-6 years. With increasing nitrogen load, we observed a shift from lichen-rich short grass vegetation towards species-poor vegetation dominated by the tall graminoid Carex arenaria. Plant species richness per field site, however, does not decrease directly with these low to medium N deposition loads, but with change in vegetation composition. Critical loads for acidic, dry coastal dunes might be lower than previously thought, in the range of 4-6 kg N ha -1 yr -1 wet deposition. - Even low to medium nitrogen deposition impacts Baltic dune vegetation promoting a dominance of taller graminoids

  17. Evening and morning alterations in Obstructive Sleep Apnea red blood cell proteome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélia Feliciano

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents proteomics data referenced in [1] Using proteomics-based evaluation of red blood cells (RBCs, we have identified differentially abundant proteins associated with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSA. RBCs were collected from peripheral blood of patients with moderate/severe OSA or snoring at pre- (evening and post-night (morning polysomnography, so that proteome variations between these time points could be assessed. RBC cytoplasmic fraction depleted of hemoglobin, using Hemovoid™ system, were analyzed by two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE, the 2D image software-based analyzed and relevant differentially abundant proteins identified by mass spectrometry (MS. MS identified 31 protein spots differentially abundant corresponding to 21 unique proteins possibly due to the existence of post-translational modification regulations. Functional analysis by bioinformatics tools indicated that most proteins are associated with catalytic, oxidoreductase, peroxidase, hydrolase, ATPase and anti-oxidant activity. At morning a larger numbers of differential proteins including response to chemical stimulus, oxidation reduction, regulation of catalytic activity and response to stress were observed in OSA. The data might support further research in OSA biomarker discovery and validation.

  18. Functional diversity exhibits a diverse relationship with area, even a decreasing one

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadimou, Elpida K.; Kallimanis, Athanasios S.; Tsiripidis, Ioannis; Dimopoulos, Panayotis

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between species richness and area is one of the few well-established laws in ecology, and one might expect a similar relationship with functional diversity (FD). However, only a few studies investigate the relationship between trait-based FD and area, the Functional Diversity - Area Relationship (FDAR). To examine FDAR, we constructed the species accumulation curve and the corresponding FD curve. We used plant diversity data from nested plots (1–128 m2), recorded on the Volcanic islands of Santorini Archipelagos, Greece. Six multidimensional FD indices were calculated using 26 traits. We identified a typology of FDARs depending on the facet of FD analyzed: (A) strongly positive for indices quantifying the range of functional traits in the community, (B) negative correlation for indices quantifying the evenness in the distribution of abundance in the trait space, (C) no clear pattern for indices reflecting the functional similarity of species and (D) idiosyncratic patterns with area for functional divergence. As area increases, the range of traits observed in the community increases, but the abundance of traits does not increase proportionally and some traits become dominant, implying a reliance on some functions that may be located in either the center or the periphery of the trait space. PMID:27752086

  19. Alterations of hippocampal glucose metabolism by even versus uneven medium chain triglycerides

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Tanya S; Tan, Kah Ni; Hodson, Mark P; Borges, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Medium chain triglycerides (MCTs) are used to treat neurologic disorders with metabolic impairments, including childhood epilepsy and early Alzheimer's disease. However, the metabolic effects of MCTs in the brain are still unclear. Here, we studied the effects of feeding even and uneven MCTs on brain glucose metabolism in the mouse. Adult mice were fed 35% (calories) of trioctanoin or triheptanoin (the triglycerides of octanoate or heptanoate, respectively) or a matching control diet for 3 weeks. Enzymatic assays and targeted metabolomics by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry were used to quantify metabolites in extracts from the hippocampal formations (HFs). Both oils increased the levels of β-hydroxybutyrate, but no other significant metabolic alterations were observed after triheptanoin feeding. The levels of glucose 6-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate were increased in the HF of mice fed trioctanoin, whereas levels of metabolites further downstream in the glycolytic pathway and the pentose phosphate pathway were reduced. This indicates that trioctanoin reduces glucose utilization because of a decrease in phosphofructokinase activity. Trioctanoin and triheptanoin showed similar anticonvulsant effects in the 6 Hz seizure model, but it remains unknown to what extent the anticonvulsant mechanism(s) are shared. In conclusion, triheptanoin unlike trioctanoin appears to not alter glucose metabolism in the healthy brain. PMID:24169853

  20. Morning and Evening Oscillators Cooperate to Reset Circadian Behavior in Response to Light Input

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    Pallavi Lamba

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Light is a crucial input for circadian clocks. In Drosophila, short light exposure can robustly shift the phase of circadian behavior. The model for this resetting posits that circadian photoreception is cell autonomous: CRYPTOCHROME senses light, binds to TIMELESS (TIM, and promotes its degradation, which is mediated by JETLAG (JET. However, it was recently proposed that interactions between circadian neurons are also required for phase resetting. We identify two groups of neurons critical for circadian photoreception: the morning (M and the evening (E oscillators. These neurons work synergistically to reset rhythmic behavior. JET promotes acute TIM degradation cell autonomously in M and E oscillators but also nonautonomously in E oscillators when expressed in M oscillators. Thus, upon light exposure, the M oscillators communicate with the E oscillators. Because the M oscillators drive circadian behavior, they must also receive inputs from the E oscillators. Hence, although photic TIM degradation is largely cell autonomous, neural cooperation between M and E oscillators is critical for circadian behavioral photoresponses.

  1. The Effect of Potassium on the Controlling of Salt in Evening Primrose (Oenothera macrocarpa

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    M. Goldani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Salinity has been recognized as one of the major abiotic factors affecting crop yields in arid and semi-arid irrigated areas of the world and efforts for breeding salt-resistant crop plants have been made. Approximately one-third of the world irrigated soils and a large proportion of soils in dry land are saline. Two major effects have been identified as the probable causes of high salt toxicity in crop plant i.e., the ionic effect and the osmotic effect. The ionic effect results in alterations in enzymatic processes, disturbances in accumulation and transport of different ions or a combination of all these factors. As a result, shoot and root growing reduce and uptake of nutrient elements by plants is adversely affected. While excess Na accumulated in plants under salinity stress conditions hinders K uptake; Cl hinders NO3 uptake by plants and destroys ionic balance in plants. Evening primrose is a plant which belongs to Onagraceae. Its seed oil has a special arrangement in Glycerol molecule, so it has been used a lot in medical treatments and also feeding. Researchers showed that using the best techniques and methods in farming can increase the amount of oil in the seeds of this plant. The wrong method of agricultural activities in Iran caused increasing salt in the soil, so growing plants in this situation isn’t possible. For confronting with this phenomenon knowing and choosing kinds of plants that can resist the situation of salt is really a necessary. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted as a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with three replicates was performed with five levels of NaCl salinity on Oenothera macrocarpa (0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 mM and potassium chloride levels (zero and 15.02 mM and three times in the Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in 1390. Salt treatment to prevent osmotic shock was applied to four-leaf stage and treated with potassium was gradually

  2. Gender perspectives on access to public debate: reflecting on the evening news contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Cabecinhas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article aims to analyze the reception of media content within a gender perspective. The women’s full exercise of citizenship and access to public debate depends greatly on the way media presents them to the world. This study considers that balanced representation of men and women in the news is an important criterion to take into account in order to produce quality journalism. Considering the various television news programs, the evening news is definitely one of the most important and, yet, one of the less studied. Daily broadcast on a prime time schedule, it is considered to be an important source of information through which citizens acknowledge themain events of the news agenda and, also, their social roles and responsibilities. Therefore, several focus groups have been organized with the purpose of debating news contents and understanding how gender meanings are negotiated by audiences. The analysis of these debates displayed important gender perspectives among focus groups participants. Its outputs allowed a better understanding of how audiences interpret gender meanings in the media and emphasized the need to develop alternative proposals of journalistic practices capable of promoting a critical, balanced and diversified gender perspective within the audiences.

  3. Combined eating behaviors and overweight: Eating quickly, late evening meals, and skipping breakfast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Su; Mishra, Gita; Hayashi, Kunihiko; Watanabe, Etsuko; Mori, Katsumi; Kawakubo, Kiyoshi

    2016-04-01

    Various eating behaviors have been linked with body weight management. However, combined effects of major eating behaviors are not fully understood. This study aimed to clarify the association of the combination of eating quickly (EQ), late evening meals (LEM), and skipping breakfast (SB) with being overweight. A cross-sectional study with standardized questions for EQ, LEM, and SB was conducted. Stratified random sampling of 5% of residents aged 20 to 80years was surveyed in a city in northeast Japan in 2011, and 4249 (84.9%) residents were analyzed. Association of combinations of eating behaviors on being overweight (BMI (kg/m(2)≥25.0)) was estimated by using logistic analysis, and odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidential interval were calculated after adjustment for potential covariates. LEM, SB, or a combination of LEM and SB was not significantly associated with being overweight. However, the combination of EQ or only EQ was significantly associated with being overweight. As the number of eating behavior practices increased, there was a linear increase in OR for being overweight. The OR of all three combined eating behaviors was higher than that of any combined two behaviors or of each behavior. This study result supports the evidence that EQ increases the risk of being overweight whether by itself or in combinations with LEM and/or SB. However, only LEM or only SB did not increase the risk of being overweight. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Contextual cueing improves attentional guidance, even when guidance is supposedly optimal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Anthony M; Remington, Roger W

    2017-05-01

    Visual search through previously encountered contexts typically produces reduced reaction times compared with search through novel contexts. This contextual cueing benefit is well established, but there is debate regarding its underlying mechanisms. Eye-tracking studies have consistently shown reduced number of fixations with repetition, supporting improvements in attentional guidance as the source of contextual cueing. However, contextual cueing benefits have been shown in conditions in which attentional guidance should already be optimal-namely, when attention is captured to the target location by an abrupt onset, or under pop-out conditions. These results have been used to argue for a response-related account of contextual cueing. Here, we combine eye tracking with response time to examine the mechanisms behind contextual cueing in spatially cued and pop-out conditions. Three experiments find consistent response time benefits with repetition, which appear to be driven almost entirely by a reduction in number of fixations, supporting improved attentional guidance as the mechanism behind contextual cueing. No differences were observed in the time between fixating the target and responding-our proxy for response related processes. Furthermore, the correlation between contextual cueing magnitude and the reduction in number of fixations on repeated contexts approaches 1. These results argue strongly that attentional guidance is facilitated by familiar search contexts, even when guidance is near-optimal. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Vegetative Propagule Pressure and Water Depth Affect Biomass and Evenness of Submerged Macrophyte Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-Li; Wang, Yong-Yang; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Pu; Zhang, Ming-Xiang; Yu, Fei-Hai

    2015-01-01

    Vegetative propagule pressure may affect the establishment and structure of aquatic plant communities that are commonly dominated by plants capable of clonal growth. We experimentally constructed aquatic communities consisting of four submerged macrophytes (Hydrilla verticillata, Ceratophyllum demersum, Elodea nuttallii and Myriophyllum spicatum) with three levels of vegetative propagule pressure (4, 8 and 16 shoot fragments for communities in each pot) and two levels of water depth (30 cm and 70 cm). Increasing vegetative propagule pressure and decreasing water level significantly increased the growth of the submerged macrophyte communities, suggesting that propagule pressure and water depth should be considered when utilizing vegetative propagules to re-establish submerged macrophyte communities in degraded aquatic ecosystems. However, increasing vegetative propagule pressure and decreasing water level significantly decreased evenness of the submerged macrophyte communities because they markedly increased the dominance of H. verticillata and E. nuttallii, but had little impact on that of C. demersum and M. spicatum. Thus, effects of vegetative propagule pressure and water depth are species-specific and increasing vegetative propagule pressure under lower water level can facilitate the establishment success of submerged macrophyte communities.

  6. Vegetative Propagule Pressure and Water Depth Affect Biomass and Evenness of Submerged Macrophyte Communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Li Li

    Full Text Available Vegetative propagule pressure may affect the establishment and structure of aquatic plant communities that are commonly dominated by plants capable of clonal growth. We experimentally constructed aquatic communities consisting of four submerged macrophytes (Hydrilla verticillata, Ceratophyllum demersum, Elodea nuttallii and Myriophyllum spicatum with three levels of vegetative propagule pressure (4, 8 and 16 shoot fragments for communities in each pot and two levels of water depth (30 cm and 70 cm. Increasing vegetative propagule pressure and decreasing water level significantly increased the growth of the submerged macrophyte communities, suggesting that propagule pressure and water depth should be considered when utilizing vegetative propagules to re-establish submerged macrophyte communities in degraded aquatic ecosystems. However, increasing vegetative propagule pressure and decreasing water level significantly decreased evenness of the submerged macrophyte communities because they markedly increased the dominance of H. verticillata and E. nuttallii, but had little impact on that of C. demersum and M. spicatum. Thus, effects of vegetative propagule pressure and water depth are species-specific and increasing vegetative propagule pressure under lower water level can facilitate the establishment success of submerged macrophyte communities.

  7. Study of even-Z nuclei up to Mg with the Gogny force using AMD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugawa, Yoshio; Kimura, Masaaki; Horiuchi, Hisashi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    2001-12-01

    Employing the Gogny force as an effective force, we study the ground state properties of light nuclei using antisymmetrized molecular dynamics (AMD). In this study, we are mainly concerned with the binding energies and radii of light even-Z isotopes, namely He, Be, C, O, Ne and Mg. Using a new technique to calculate the density dependent term of the effective force, we have realized fast and accurate calculations. From a comparison with Skyrme SIII results within the same AMD framework, we find that the Gogny and SIII forces well reproduce the experimental binding energies of stable nuclei. The two forces give almost equal radii, except in the case of {sup 7}Be and {sup 9}Be. For both forces, approximate treatment of the center-of-mass kinetic energy causes overestimation of the binding energy compared with the exact treatment. It also causes a decrease of the nuclear deformation compared with the exact treatment. We also carry out an energy variation after the parity projection. With regard to the binding energies and radii, parity-projected calculations do not exhibit a large difference compared to non-projected results, although the density distribution and clustering features are often significantly changed by the parity projection. (author)

  8. Study of even-Z nuclei up to Mg with the Gogny force using AMD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugawa, Yoshio; Kimura, Masaaki; Horiuchi, Hisashi

    2001-01-01

    Employing the Gogny force as an effective force, we study the ground state properties of light nuclei using antisymmetrized molecular dynamics (AMD). In this study, we are mainly concerned with the binding energies and radii of light even-Z isotopes, namely He, Be, C, O, Ne and Mg. Using a new technique to calculate the density dependent term of the effective force, we have realized fast and accurate calculations. From a comparison with Skyrme SIII results within the same AMD framework, we find that the Gogny and SIII forces well reproduce the experimental binding energies of stable nuclei. The two forces give almost equal radii, except in the case of 7 Be and 9 Be. For both forces, approximate treatment of the center-of-mass kinetic energy causes overestimation of the binding energy compared with the exact treatment. It also causes a decrease of the nuclear deformation compared with the exact treatment. We also carry out an energy variation after the parity projection. With regard to the binding energies and radii, parity-projected calculations do not exhibit a large difference compared to non-projected results, although the density distribution and clustering features are often significantly changed by the parity projection. (author)

  9. Tank Riser Pit Decontamination System (Pit Viper) Return on Investment and Break-Even Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, Joan K.; Weimar, Mark R.; Balducci, Patrick J.; Fassbender, Linda L.; Hernandez, Melissa

    2003-01-01

    This study assessed the cost benefit of Pit Viper deployment for 80 tank farm pits between October 1, 2003 and September 30, 2012 under the technical baseline for applicable double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) projects. After this assessment had been completed, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Operations Office (RL) and Office of River Protection (ORP) published the Hanford Performance Management Plan (August 2003), which accelerated the schedule for SST retrieval. Then, DOE/CH2M HILL contract modification M064 (October 2002) and The Integrated Mission Acceleration Plan (March 2003) further accelerated SST retrieval and closure schedules. Twenty-six to 40 tanks must be retrieved by 2006. Thus the schedule for SST pit entries is accelerated and the number of SST pit entries is increased. This study estimates the return on investment (ROI) and the number of pits where Pit Viper deployment would break even or save money over current manual practices. The results of the analysis indicate a positive return on the federal investment for deployment of the Pit Viper provided it is used on a sufficient number of pits

  10. Break-Even Points of Battery Energy Storage Systems for Peak Shaving Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Rahmann

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, several investigations have been carried out in the field of optimal sizing of energy storage systems (ESSs at both the transmission and distribution levels. Nevertheless, most of these works make important assumptions about key factors affecting ESS profitability such as efficiency and life cycles and especially about the specific costs of the ESS, without considering the uncertainty involved. In this context, this work aims to answer the question: what should be the costs of different ESS technologies in order to make a profit when considering peak shaving applications? The paper presents a comprehensive sensitivity analysis of the interaction between the profitability of an ESS project and some key parameters influencing the project performance. The proposed approach determines the break-even points for different ESSs considering a wide range of life cycles, efficiencies, energy prices, and power prices. To do this, an optimization algorithm for the sizing of ESSs is proposed from a distribution company perspective. From the results, it is possible to conclude that, depending on the values of round trip efficiency, life cycles, and power price, there are four battery energy storage systems (BESS technologies that are already profitable when only peak shaving applications are considered: lead acid, NaS, ZnBr, and vanadium redox.

  11. Why can rossing uranium mine keep mining even in low price conditions of uranium market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Chenglong

    2004-01-01

    Rossing uranium mine is the only operating uranium mine in the world where the uranium occurs in intrusive alaskite. In the past 10 years, uranium market regressed in the world, uranium production weakened, expenditures of capital for uranium exploration were insufficient. Uranium spot market price rapidly decreased from $111.8/kg U in late 1970's to $22.1/kg U in mid-1990's. Why can Rossing uranium mine mined with traditional underground and open pit operation can keep running even in low price conditions of uranium market? Augumenting research on the deposit, mineral and technology, decreasing production cost and improving selling strategy can not only maintain Rossing's uranium production at present, but also ensure sustainable development in the coming 15 years. Exploration of low-costed uranium deposits is very important. However, obvious economic benefits can be obtained, as Rossing uranium mine does, by augumenting geological-economical research on the known uranium deposits of hard-rock type and by using new techniques to improve the conventional techniques in the uranium mine development. (authors)

  12. Planar version of the CPT-even gauge sector of the standard model extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira Junior, Manoel M.; Casana, Rodolfo; Gomes, Adalto Rodrigues; Carvalho, Eduardo S.

    2011-01-01

    The CPT-even abelian gauge sector of the Standard Model Extension is represented by the Maxwell term supplemented by (K F ) μνρσ F μν F ρσ , where the Lorentz-violating background tensor, (K F ) μνρσ , possesses the symmetries of the Riemann tensor and a double null trace, which renders nineteen independent components. From these ones, ten components yield birefringence while nine are nonbirefringent ones. In the present work, we examine the planar version of this theory, obtained by means of a typical dimensional reduction procedure to (1 + 2) dimensions. We obtain a kind of planar scalar electrodynamics, which is composed of a gauge sector containing six Lorentz-violating coefficients, a scalar field endowed with a noncanonical kinetic term, and a coupling term that links the scalar and gauge sectors. The dispersion relation is exactly determined, revealing that the six parameters related to the pure electromagnetic sector do not yield birefringence at any order. In this model, the birefringence may appear only as a second order effect associated with the coupling tensor linking the gauge and scalar sectors.The equations of motion are written and solved in the stationary regime. The Lorentz-violating parameters do not alter the asymptotic behavior of the fields but induce an angular dependence not observed in the Maxwell planar theory. The energy-momentum tensor was evaluated as well, revealing that the theory presents energy stability. (author)

  13. Large odd-even staggering in the very light platinum isotopes from laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Le Blanc, F; Cabaret, L A; Crawford, J E; Duong, H T; Genevey, J; Girod, M; Huber, G; Krieg, M; Lee, J K P; Lettry, Jacques; Lunney, M D; Obert, J; Oms, J; Peru, S; Putaux, J C; Roussière, B; Sauvage, J; Sebastian, V; Zemlyanoi, S G

    1998-01-01

    Laser spectroscopy measurements have been carried out on very neutron-deficient platinum isotopes with the COMPLIS experimental set-up on line with the ISOLDE-Booster facility. For the first time, Hg alpha -decay was exploited to extend the very light platinum chain. Using the 5d/sup 9/6s /sup 3/D/sub 3/ to 5d/sup 9/6p /sup 3/P /sub 2/ optical transition, hyperfine spectra of /sup 182,181,180,179,178/Pt and /sup 183/Pt/sup m/ were recorded for the first time. The variation of the mean square charge radius between these nuclei, the magnetic moments of the odd isotopes and the quadrupole moment of /sup 183/Pt/sup m/ were thus measured. A large deformation change between /sup 183/Pt/sup 9/ and /sup 183/Pt/sup m/, an odd-even staggering of the charge radius and a deformation drop from A=179 are clearly observed. All these results are discussed and compared with microscopic theoretical predictions using Hartree-Fock- Bogolyubov calculations using the Gogny force. (20 refs).

  14. Spatial updating depends on gaze direction even after loss of vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuschel, Johanna; Rösler, Frank; Henriques, Denise Y P; Fiehler, Katja

    2012-02-15

    Direction of gaze (eye angle + head angle) has been shown to be important for representing space for action, implying a crucial role of vision for spatial updating. However, blind people have no access to vision yet are able to perform goal-directed actions successfully. Here, we investigated the role of visual experience for localizing and updating targets as a function of intervening gaze shifts in humans. People who differed in visual experience (late blind, congenitally blind, or sighted) were briefly presented with a proprioceptive reach target while facing it. Before they reached to the target's remembered location, they turned their head toward an eccentric direction that also induced corresponding eye movements in sighted and late blind individuals. We found that reaching errors varied systematically as a function of shift in gaze direction only in participants with early visual experience (sighted and late blind). In the late blind, this effect was solely present in people with moveable eyes but not in people with at least one glass eye. Our results suggest that the effect of gaze shifts on spatial updating develops on the basis of visual experience early in life and remains even after loss of vision as long as feedback from the eyes and head is available.

  15. Creatine salts provide neuroprotection even after partial impairment of the creatine transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriano, E; Garbati, P; Salis, A; Damonte, G; Millo, E; Balestrino, M

    2017-01-06

    Creatine, a compound that is critical for energy metabolism of nervous cells, crosses the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the neuronal plasma membrane with difficulty, and only using its specific transporter. In the hereditary condition where the creatine transporter is defective (creatine transporter deficiency) there is no creatine in the brain, and administration of creatine is useless lacking the transporter. The disease is severe and incurable. Creatine-derived molecules that could cross BBB and plasma membrane independently of the transporter might be useful to cure this condition. Moreover, such molecules could be useful also in stroke and other brain ischemic conditions. In this paper, we investigated three creatine salts, creatine ascorbate, creatine gluconate and creatine glucose. Of these, creatine glucose was ineffective after transporter block with guanidine acetic acid (GPA) administration. Creatine ascorbate was not superior to creatine in increasing tissue creatine and phosphocreatine content after transporter impairment, however even after such impairment it delayed synaptic failure during anoxia. Finally, creatine gluconate was superior to creatine in increasing tissue content of creatine after transporter block and slowed down PS disappearance during anoxia, an effect that creatine did not have. These findings suggest that coupling creatine to molecules having a specific transporter may be a useful strategy in creatine transporter deficiency. In particular, creatine ascorbate has effects comparable to those of creatine in normal conditions, while being superior to it under conditions of missing or impaired creatine transporter. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. About mutually unbiased bases in even and odd prime power dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durt, Thomas

    2005-06-01

    Mutually unbiased bases generalize the X, Y and Z qubit bases. They possess numerous applications in quantum information science. It is well known that in prime power dimensions N = pm (with p prime and m a positive integer), there exists a maximal set of N + 1 mutually unbiased bases. In the present paper, we derive an explicit expression for those bases, in terms of the (operations of the) associated finite field (Galois division ring) of N elements. This expression is shown to be equivalent to the expressions previously obtained by Ivanovic (1981 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 14 3241) in odd prime dimensions, and Wootters and Fields (1989 Ann. Phys. 191 363) in odd prime power dimensions. In even prime power dimensions, we derive a new explicit expression for the mutually unbiased bases. The new ingredients of our approach are, basically, the following: we provide a simple expression of the generalized Pauli group in terms of the additive characters of the field, and we derive an exact groupal composition law between the elements of the commuting subsets of the generalized Pauli group, renormalized by a well-chosen phase-factor.

  17. About mutually unbiased bases in even and odd prime power dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durt, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Mutually unbiased bases generalize the X, Y and Z qubit bases. They possess numerous applications in quantum information science. It is well known that in prime power dimensions N = p m (with p prime and m a positive integer), there exists a maximal set of N + 1 mutually unbiased bases. In the present paper, we derive an explicit expression for those bases, in terms of the (operations of the) associated finite field (Galois division ring) of N elements. This expression is shown to be equivalent to the expressions previously obtained by Ivanovic (1981 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 14 3241) in odd prime dimensions, and Wootters and Fields (1989 Ann. Phys. 191 363) in odd prime power dimensions. In even prime power dimensions, we derive a new explicit expression for the mutually unbiased bases. The new ingredients of our approach are, basically, the following: we provide a simple expression of the generalized Pauli group in terms of the additive characters of the field, and we derive an exact groupal composition law between the elements of the commuting subsets of the generalized Pauli group, renormalized by a well-chosen phase-factor

  18. Even and odd subharmonic frequencies and chaos in Josephson junctions: Impact on parametric amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levinsen, M.T.

    1982-01-01

    The Stewart-McCumber model of a Josephson junction has been shown to exhibit period-doubling bifurcation cascades, as described by the Feigenbaum bifurcation theory. Chaotic states, sometimes associated with the bifurcations, are also prevalent. The present paper deals with the questions of subharmonic generation and chaotic states in the aforementioned model, and in addition with the problem of the ubiquitous noise rise found in Josephson junction parametric amplifiers. The bifurcation is first discussed by drawing on analytical results on the Duffing equation which is an approximation to the complete ac-driven Stewart-McCumber model. The complete model is then solved on an analog computer. Thereafter it is shown that besides the even subharmonics predicted by the bifurcation theory, the natural subharmonic to expect at small dc currents is the odd. This may then have associated its own bifurcation tree. The role of spontaneous symmetry breaking will be discussed. This reconciles the earlier treatment of the 3-photon amplifier with the Feigenbaum scheme. Finally, analog calculations on a model of an externally pumped Josephson junction parametric amplifier will be discussed. The conclusion seems to be that chaotic noise cannot account for the noise rise

  19. Translocations of chromosome end-segments and facultative heterochromatin promote meiotic ring formation in evening primroses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golczyk, Hieronim; Massouh, Amid; Greiner, Stephan

    2014-03-01

    Due to reciprocal chromosomal translocations, many species of Oenothera (evening primrose) form permanent multichromosomal meiotic rings. However, regular bivalent pairing is also observed. Chiasmata are restricted to chromosomal ends, which makes homologous recombination virtually undetectable. Genetic diversity is achieved by changing linkage relations of chromosomes in rings and bivalents via hybridization and reciprocal translocations. Although the structural prerequisite for this system is enigmatic, whole-arm translocations are widely assumed to be the mechanistic driving force. We demonstrate that this prerequisite is genome compartmentation into two epigenetically defined chromatin fractions. The first one facultatively condenses in cycling cells into chromocenters negative both for histone H3 dimethylated at lysine 4 and for C-banding, and forms huge condensed middle chromosome regions on prophase chromosomes. Remarkably, it decondenses in differentiating cells. The second fraction is euchromatin confined to distal chromosome segments, positive for histone H3 lysine 4 dimethylation and for histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation. The end-segments are deprived of canonical telomeres but capped with constitutive heterochromatin. This genomic organization promotes translocation breakpoints between the two chromatin fractions, thus facilitating exchanges of end-segments. We challenge the whole-arm translocation hypothesis by demonstrating why reciprocal translocations of chromosomal end-segments should strongly promote meiotic rings and evolution toward permanent translocation heterozygosity. Reshuffled end-segments, each possessing a major crossover hot spot, can furthermore explain meiotic compatibility between genomes with different translocation histories.

  20. Bet hedging via seed banking in desert evening primroses (Oenothera, Onagraceae): demographic evidence from natural populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Margaret E K; Ferrière, Régis; Kane, Michael J; Venable, D Lawrence

    2007-02-01

    Bet hedging is one solution to the problem of an unpredictably variable environment: fitness in the average environment is sacrificed in favor of lower variation in fitness if this leads to higher long-run stochastic mean fitness. While bet hedging is an important concept in evolutionary ecology, empirical evidence that it occurs is scant. Here we evaluate whether bet hedging occurs via seed banking in natural populations of two species of desert evening primroses (Oenothera, Onagraceae), one annual and one perennial. Four years of data on plants and 3 years of data on seeds yielded two transitions for the entire life cycle. One year was exceptionally dry, leading to reproductive failure in the sample areas, and the other was above average in precipitation, leading to reproductive success in four of five populations. Stochastic simulations of population growth revealed patterns indicative of bet hedging via seed banking, particularly in the annual populations: variance in fitness and fitness in the average environment were lower with seed banking than without, whereas long-run stochastic mean fitness was higher with seed banking than without across a wide range of probabilities of the wet year. This represents a novel, unusually rigorous demonstration of bet hedging from field data.

  1. Breeding system variation in 10 evening primroses (Oenothera sections Anogra and Kleinia; Onagraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theiss, Kathryn E; Holsinger, Kent E; Evans, Margaret E K

    2010-06-01

    We examined two accounts of the relationship between breeding system and life history variation in a clade of evening primroses (Oenothera, Onagraceae): (1) selection for reproductive assurance should generate an association between self-compatibility and monocarpy and (2) phylogenetic conservatism leads to retention of breeding system and life history traits among closely related taxa. • We performed over 4000 hand pollinations under greenhouse conditions to determine the compatibility of 10 Oenothera taxa (sections Anogra [17 taxa] and Kleinia [2 taxa)] for which breeding systems had not previously been reported. We used generalized linear mixed models to evaluate the influence of pollination treatment, parents, and population on fruiting success. • Among the taxa tested, six were self-incompatible, two were variable in compatibility, and two were self-compatible. We combined these data with published studies in Anogra and Kleinia and mapped breeding system and life history onto a published phylogeny. • We found no evidence for phylogenetic conservatism, but detected considerable evolutionary lability in both traits. Additionally, we found no evidence for a consistent relationship between breeding system and life history. Only eight of 19 taxa followed the predicted association between self-incompatibility and polycarpy vs. self-compatibility and monocarpy. Instead, many taxa have retained self-incompatibility, regardless of monocarpy or polycarpy.

  2. Long term repeated prescribed burning increases evenness in the basidiomycete laccase gene pool in forest soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artz, Rebekka R E; Reid, Eileen; Anderson, Ian C; Campbell, Colin D; Cairney, John W G

    2009-03-01

    Repeated prescribed burning alters the biologically labile fraction of nutrients and carbon of soil organic matter (SOM). Using a long-term (30 years) repeated burning experiment where burning has been carried out at a 2- or 4-year frequency, we analysed the effect of prescribed burning on gross potential C turnover rates and phenol oxidase activity in relation to shifts in SOM composition as observed using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. In tandem, we assessed the genetic diversity of basidiomycete laccases. While the overall effect of burning was a decline in phenol oxidase activity, Shannon diversity and evenness of laccases was significantly higher in burned sites. Co-correspondence analysis of SOM composition and laccase operational taxonomic unit frequency data also suggested a strong correlation. While this correlation could indicate that the observed increase in laccase genetic diversity due to burning is due to increased resource diversity, a temporal replacement of the most abundant members of the assembly by an otherwise dormant pool of fungi cannot be excluded. As such, our results fit the intermediate disturbance hypothesis. Effects were stronger in plots burned in 2-year rotations, suggesting that the 4-year burn frequency may be a more sustainable practice to ensure the long-term stability of C cycling in such ecosystems.

  3. Auditory white noise reduces postural fluctuations even in the absence of vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jessica Marie; Balasubramaniam, Ramesh

    2015-08-01

    The contributions of somatosensory, vestibular, and visual feedback to balance control are well documented, but the influence of auditory information, especially acoustic noise, on balance is less clear. Because somatosensory noise has been shown to reduce postural sway, we hypothesized that noise from the auditory modality might have a similar effect. Given that the nervous system uses noise to optimize signal transfer, adding mechanical or auditory noise should lead to increased feedback about sensory frames of reference used in balance control. In the present experiment, postural sway was analyzed in healthy young adults where they were presented with continuous white noise, in the presence and absence of visual information. Our results show reduced postural sway variability (as indexed by the body's center of pressure) in the presence of auditory noise, even when visual information was not present. Nonlinear time series analysis revealed that auditory noise has an additive effect, independent of vision, on postural stability. Further analysis revealed that auditory noise reduced postural sway variability in both low- and high-frequency regimes (> or noise. Our results support the idea that auditory white noise reduces postural sway, suggesting that auditory noise might be used for therapeutic and rehabilitation purposes in older individuals and those with balance disorders.

  4. Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs versus oil of evening primrose in the treatment of mastalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, S; Sultan, N

    2005-02-01

    To compare oil of evening primrose (OEP) and topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAIDs) with respect to safety, effectiveness, rapidity of response, cost effectiveness and acceptability in the treatment of breast pain. An open, non-randomised, comparative study of topical (NSAI) gel versus OEP was carried out, over a period of one year. Fifty female patients attending the outpatient department with moderate to severe breast pain were given one of the two agents alternatively, after selection. Results showed that out of 25 patients treated with OEP, 64% had a clinically significant response after three months of treatment, compared with 92% with topical NSAIDs. Only one patient (4%) had side effects with OEP, while no patient had side effects with topical NSAIDs. Twenty per cent and seventy per cent showed acceptability as far as costs were concerned and mode of administration respectively, with OEP. The acceptability rate was 68% and 96% respectively, with topical NSAIDs. This study has shown topical NSAIDs to be safe, effective, rapid and acceptable mode of treatment for cyclical and non-cyclical mastalgia.

  5. Corrective results for the even-parity-quartet P states of lithium isoelectronic sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holoien, E.

    1982-01-01

    In order to secure a proper p-type behavior of the radial Slater orbitals r/sup n/exp(-etar/2) for the two p electrons near origin in the 1s2p2p configuration, the fixed n power must always be chosen greater than or equal to unity. Unfortunately, this restriction has not been applied to both p electrons in all 30 basic products of the 1967 trial wave function for the even-parity 4 p states, only correct for the one p electron in the case of 4p 0 states. According to this restriction only 14 basic products used are allowed. The remaining 16 basic products are not allowed and therefore have been omitted in the present investigation. This error has made the 1967 calculated total energies too low. Corrective results of the total energy using the allowed correlated 14-term wave function are given in this Communication. The present result for He - 1s2p 2 4 p indicates a position 148 meV in the continuum above the He 2 3 P threshold, in good agreement with recent theoretical calculations

  6. Future agriculture and food supply chain - not even doomsday preppers got it right

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Stefanic

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Future agriculture and food supply chain is one of the pillars of human survival and prosperity in the long run. The planet’s ecosystem is very fragile and influenced by a large array of very diverse natural and human factors which are frequently interdependent. Regardless of root cause, climate change, pollution and depletion of non-renewable resources and several other unfavorable processes are in place. We can argue that the increase of the average temperature is just a part of a long-term natural cycle and not the consequence of human negligence and pollution, but in the end, it doesn’t matter. The ecosystem is changed and agricultural plants might not survive the change and adopt in time. Relevant and fairly reliable indicators are available, but it seems that nobody is paying attention to those staggering numbers and trends. Doomsday preppers are well known to be a rather suspicious and concerned group of people about the reliability of future food supply chain. But even they somehow assume that agricultural production will go on, and the only problems that could occur are short run disruptions in distribution. The main challenge for future agriculture and food supply chain is to produce more food with considerably less resources in a sustainable manner for a rapidly growing population, preferably even reducing current levels of pollution. Securing future agriculture and food supply chain is a complex task which requires not only new technologies but a paradigm shift in the current technological and economic system. Possibly the most important change is the change in current agricultural practices and agricultural education. Reliability of the food system is heavily dependent on mineral oil and significant amount of transportation. Moreover, global agriculture is extremely centralized and profit oriented. Intense push of GMOs into standard agricultural practice lead to severe reduction of biodiversity in agriculture. Once upon a time

  7. Laparoendoscopic Rendezvous for Concomitant Cholecystocholedocholithiasis: A Successful Modality Even in the Most Difficult Presentations Including Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirah, Bader Hamza; Mikwar, Zaher Abdulaziz; Ahmad, Akram Neyaz; Dahlan, Yaser Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Background . Laparoendoscopic rendezvous (LERV) technique is emerging as an attractive treatment option for concomitant cholecystocholedocholithiasis. In this paper, we report our experience in performing the LERV technique in patients with unusual presentations in terms of anatomical difficulty, pregnancy, multiple comorbid diseases, and postlaparotomy. We aim to highlight the effectiveness of the LERV technique in some clinical situations where conventional methods would fail or carry high risks in adequately managing concomitant cholecystocholedocholithiasis. Methods . Four patients diagnosed to have concomitant cholecystocholedocholithiasis with associated difficult presentation or comorbid diseases were treated using the LERV technique. One patient presented with difficult anatomy where ERCP failed at initial attempts. Another patient was pregnant (first trimester). A third patient had complex comorbid diseases (bronchial asthma, hypertension, congestive heart failure, and end-stage renal disease on regular hemodialysis). A fourth patient had previous laparotomy and sigmoidectomy for diverticular disease and had severe hospital phobia. Results . All patients tolerated the LERV technique very well; no intraoperative occurrence was reported. The mean operative time was 86.3 ± 17.2 minutes; mean time of the endoscopic part was 29.4 ± 3.57 minutes. The mean blood loss was 44.3 ± 18.2 mL (range 20-85). Residual stone, postoperative complications, postoperative morbidity, and postoperative mortality were 0 (0%). Postoperative short hospital stay was reported in all patients, average 3 days (range 2-4). Conclusion . LERV procedure is a safe and effective treatment option for the management of concomitant cholecystocholedocholithiasis, even in difficult situations where other methods would fail or carry high risks, or in patients presenting with severe comorbid diseases or pregnancy. This procedure may emerge as an attractive alternative option for high

  8. Review of even element super-heavy nuclei and search for element 120

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, S. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt, Institut fuer Physik, Frankfurt (Germany); Heinz, S.; Mann, R.; Maurer, J.; Barth, W.; Burkhard, H.G.; Dahl, L.; Kindler, B.; Kojouharov, I.; Lang, R.; Lommel, B.; Runke, J.; Scheidenberger, C.; Schoett, H.J.; Tinschert, K. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Muenzenberg, G. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Manipal University, Manipal Centre for Natural Sciences, Manipal, Karnataka (India); Antalic, S.; Saro, S. [Comenius University, Department of Nuclear Physics and Biophysics, Bratislava (Slovakia); Eberhardt, K.; Thoerle-Pospiech, P.; Trautmann, N. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Grzywacz, R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Hamilton, J.H. [Vanderbuilt University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nashville, TN (United States); Henderson, R.A.; Kenneally, J.M.; Moody, K.J.; Shaughnessy, D.A.; Stoyer, M.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Miernik, K. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); University of Warsaw, Warsaw (Poland); Miller, D. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Morita, K. [RIKEN Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, Wako, Saitama (Japan); Nishio, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Popeko, A.G.; Yeremin, A.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Roberto, J.B.; Rykaczewski, K.P. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Uusitalo, J. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    2016-06-15

    The reaction {sup 54}Cr + {sup 248}Cm was investigated at the velocity filter SHIP at GSI, Darmstadt, with the intention to study production and decay properties of isotopes of element 120. Three correlated signals were measured, which occurred within a period of 279ms. The heights of the signals correspond with the expectations for a decay sequence starting with an isotope of element 120. However, a complete decay chain cannot be established, since a signal from the implantation of the evaporation residue cannot be identified unambiguously. Measured properties of the event chain are discussed in detail. The result is compared with theoretical predictions. Previously measured decay properties of even element super-heavy nuclei were compiled in order to find arguments for an assignment from the systematics of experimental data. In the course of this review, a few tentatively assigned data could be corrected. New interpretations are given for results which could not be assigned definitely in previous studies. The discussion revealed that the cross-section for production of element 120 could be high enough so that a successful experiment seems possible with presently available techniques. However, a continuation of the experiment at SHIP for a necessary confirmation of the results obtained in a relatively short irradiation of five weeks is not possible at GSI presently. Therefore, we decided to publish the results of the measurement and of the review as they exist now. In the summary and outlook section we also present concepts for the continuation of research in the field of super-heavy nuclei. (orig.)

  9. Urinary arsenic profile affects the risk of urothelial carcinoma even at low arsenic exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pu, Y.-S.; Yang, S.-M.; Huang, Y.-K.; Chung, C.-J.; Huang, Steven K.; Chiu, Allen Wen-Hsiang; Yang, M.-H.; Chen, C.-J.; Hsueh, Y.-M.

    2007-01-01

    Arsenic exposure is associated with an increased risk of urothelial carcinoma (UC). To explore the association between individual risk and urinary arsenic profile in subjects without evident exposure, 177 UC cases and 313 age-matched controls were recruited between September 2002 and May 2004 for a case-control study. Urinary arsenic species including the following three categories, inorganic arsenic (As III + As V ), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA V ) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA V ), were determined with high-performance liquid chromatography-linked hydride generator and atomic absorption spectrometry. Arsenic methylation profile was assessed by percentages of various arsenic species in the sum of the three categories measured. The primary methylation index (PMI) was defined as the ratio between MMA V and inorganic arsenic. Secondary methylation index (SMI) was determined as the ratio between DMA V and MMA V . Smoking is associated with a significant risk of UC in a dose-dependent manner. After multivariate adjustment, UC cases had a significantly higher sum of all the urinary species measured, higher percent MMA V , lower percent DMA V , higher PMI and lower SMI values compared with controls. Smoking interacts with the urinary arsenic profile in modifying the UC risk. Differential carcinogenic effects of the urinary arsenic profile, however, were seen more prominently in non-smokers than in smokers, suggesting that smoking is not the only major environmental source of arsenic contamination since the UC risk differs in non-smokers. Subjects who have an unfavorable urinary arsenic profile have an increased UC risk even at low exposure levels

  10. Secure Communications over Wireless Networks Even 1-bit Feedback Helps Achieving Security

    KAUST Repository

    Rezki, Zouheir

    2016-01-06

    Recently, there have been a surge toward developing sophisticated security mechanisms based on a cross layer design. While an extensive progress has been realized toward establishing physical layer security as an important design paradigm to enhance security of existing wireless networks, only a little effort has been made toward designing practical coding schemes that achieve or approach the secrecy capacity. Most of existing results are tied to some simplifying assumptions that do not seem always reasonable (passive eavesdropper, perfect channel state information (CSI), etc.). Furthermore, it is still not very clear how to exploit physical layer security paradigms, together with existing cryptosystems, in order to add a supplementary level of protection for information transmission or to achieve key agreement. In this talk, we address the first part of the above problematic, i.e., the effect of channel uncertainty on network security. Particularly, we show that even a coarse estimate of the main channel (channel between the transmitter and the legitimate receiver) can help providing a positive secrecy rate. Specifically, we assume two types of channel uncertainty at the transmitter. The first one is a rate-limited feedback in a block fading channel where the feedback information can be proactive (at the beginning of the coherence block) or of ARQ-type. The second type of uncertainty takes the form of a noisy estimate of the main channel at the transmitter in a fast fading channel. In both cases, we provide upper and lower bounds on the secrecy capacity. We argue how our achievable schemes and upper bounding techniques extend to multi-user setting (broadcasting a single confidential message or multiple confidential messages to multiple legitimate receivers) and to multiple antenna channels.

  11. Break-even cost of cloning in genetic improvement of dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dematawewa, C M; Berger, P J

    1998-04-01

    Twelve different models for alternative progeny-testing schemes based on genetic and economic gains were compared. The first 10 alternatives were considered to be optimally operating progeny-testing schemes. Alternatives 1 to 5 considered the following combinations of technologies: 1) artificial insemination, 2) artificial insemination with sexed semen, 3) artificial insemination with embryo transfer, 4) artificial insemination and embryo transfer with few bulls as sires, and 5) artificial insemination, embryo transfer, and sexed semen with few bulls, respectively. Alternatives 6 to 12 considered cloning from dams. Alternatives 11 and 12 considered a regular progeny-testing scheme that had selection gains (intensity x accuracy x genetic standard deviation) of 890, 300, 600, and 89 kg, respectively, for the four paths. The sums of the generation intervals of the four paths were 19 yr for the first 8 alternatives and 19.5, 22, 29, and 29.5 yr for alternatives 9 to 12, respectively. Rates of genetic gain in milk yield for alternatives 1 to 5 were 257, 281, 316, 327, and 340 kg/yr, respectively. The rate of gain for other alternatives increased as number of clones increased. The use of three records per clone increased both accuracy and generation interval of a path. Cloning was highly beneficial for progeny-testing schemes with lower intensity and accuracy of selection. The discounted economic gain (break-even cost) per clone was the highest ($84) at current selection levels using sexed semen and three records on clones of the dam. The total cost associated with cloning has to be below $84 for cloning to be an economically viable option.

  12. Why Even Mind? -- On The A Priori Value Of “Life”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amien Kacou

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available span style="font-size: 12pt; font-family: Arial"span style="font-weight: normal; font-size: 12pt; text-decoration: none"font face="Times New Roman"span style="font-size: 12pt; font-family: #39;Times New Roman#39;"This article presentsnbsp;an analysis of the matter of the ldquo;meaningrdquo; of life in terms of whether it should even be lived in the first place. It begins with an attempt at defining the question as an inquiry on the ema priori/em value of attention in general, and develops into an axiological reflection distantly inspired from Martin Heideggerrsquo;s notion of ldquo;care.rdquo; The main objective of the article is (1 to ldquo;answerrdquo; the question (or to proceed as if the question could be answered objectively by ldquo;playing alongrdquo; with its naiuml;ve logicmdash;that is, by finding a basis for comparing the good that can be found ema priori/em in life (mainly, pleasure with the good that can be found ema priori/em in death (mainly, the absence of painmdash;and, then, (2 to suggest why we have no good reason to feel dissatisfied with where this leaves us (i.e., possibly facing a certain specter of ethical foundationalism: the question of the ldquo;value of valuerdquo;. Its basic conclusion is, assuming we are committed to assigning value to life emin general/em, that we should be able to say that life is good emirrespective of /emany explanation for its existence./span/font/span/span

  13. Even mild respiratory distress alters tissue oxygenation significantly in preterm infants during neonatal transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwaberger, Bernhard; Pichler, Gerhard; Binder, Corinna; Pocivalnik, Mirjam; Urlesberger, Berndt; Avian, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) enables continuous non-invasive measurements of regional oxygen saturation (rSO 2 ). The aim was to evaluate the dynamics of rSO 2 of the brain, preductal and postductal tissues during postnatal transition in preterm infants with and without respiratory support (RS). This single-centre study was designed as an exploratory prospective observational study. Fifty one preterm infants (≥ 30 + 0 and < 37 + 0 weeks) delivered by caesarean section were included. RS using a T-Piece-Resuscitator and supplemental oxygen were given according to guidelines. NIRS measurements were carried out by using Invos Monitor (Covidien; USA) for the first 15 min of life. Three NIRS transducers were attached on the forehead (rSO 2 brain), the right forearm (rSO 2 arm) and the left lower leg (rSO 2 leg). Two groups were compared based on need for RS: normal transition (NT) and RS group. Results: In NT group rSO 2 brain increased over time and was significantly higher than rSO 2 arm, whereas in RS group rSO 2 brain and rSO 2 arm increased without significant differences. Courses of rSO 2 arm and rSO 2 leg increased over time and showed a converging pattern with initially lower values of rSO 2 leg in NT group and a diverging pattern with lower levels of rSO 2 leg in RS group. Overall, rSO 2 levels were higher in NT compared to RS group. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that the decreased rSO 2 levels in RS group compared to NT group are not only caused by lower arterial oxygen saturation levels, but also by a compromised perfusion even in infants with only mild respiratory distress. (paper)

  14. Why AGU is important in Eastern Europe and should increase its role even more?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocanu, V.

    2007-12-01

    , to push the frontiers of science. This is why AGU is a certain model to follow and we expect even closer relationships with its sister societies from East Europe.

  15. High and specialty-related musculoskeletal disorders afflict dental professionals even since early training years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianru YI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine how early musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs develop in dental professionals and to explore the potential differences among distinct dental specialties. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 271 dental postgraduates majoring in five dental specialties were recruited, i.e., orthodontics, prosthodontics, endodontics, periodontics and alveolar surgery. 254 age-matched non-dental postgraduates served as the control. The standardized Nordic questionnaire on MSDs and a self-report questionnaire regarding correlative factors (only for dental postgraduates were answered through emails. Reliability of responses was assessed applying test-retest method. RESULTS: The intraclass correlation coefficient of participants' answers ranged from 0.89 to 0.96. Dental postgraduates had significantly higher prevalence of MSDs than the control group, especially at neck, upper back and lower back. In all dental specialties included, high prevalence of MSDs was reported at neck (47.5%-69.8%, shoulders (50.8%-65.1%, lower back (27.1%-51.2% and upper back (25.6%-46.5%, with lower prevalence at elbows (5.1%-18.6%, hips (3.4%-16.3% and ankles (5.1%-11.6%. Periodontics students reported the worst MSDs in most body regions except wrists and knees, which were more prevalent for prosthodontic and alveolar surgery students, respectively. Furthermore, year of clinical work, clinical hours per week and desk hours per week were found as risk factors for MSDs, whereas physical exercise and rest between patients as protective factors. CONCLUSIONS: High and specialty-related MSDs afflict dental professionals even since very early stage of careers. Prevention aimed at the specialty-related characteristics and the risk/protective factors revealed in this study should be introduced to dental personnel as early as possible.

  16. Even between-lap pacing despite high within-lap variation during mountain biking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Louise; Lambeth-Mansell, Anneliese; Beretta-Azevedo, Liane; Holmes, Lucy A; Wright, Rachel; St Clair Gibson, Alan

    2012-09-01

    Given the paucity of research on pacing strategies during competitive events, this study examined changes in dynamic high-resolution performance parameters to analyze pacing profiles during a multiple-lap mountain-bike race over variable terrain. A global-positioning-system (GPS) unit (Garmin, Edge 305, USA) recorded velocity (m/s), distance (m), elevation (m), and heart rate at 1 Hz from 6 mountain-bike riders (mean±SD age=27.2±5.0 y, stature=176.8±8.1 cm, mass=76.3±11.7 kg, VO2max=55.1±6.0 mL·kg(-1)·min1) competing in a multilap race. Lap-by-lap (interlap) pacing was analyzed using a 1-way ANOVA for mean time and mean velocity. Velocity data were averaged every 100 m and plotted against race distance and elevation to observe the presence of intralap variation. There was no significant difference in lap times (P=.99) or lap velocity (P=.65) across the 5 laps. Within each lap, a high degree of oscillation in velocity was observed, which broadly reflected changes in terrain, but high-resolution data demonstrated additional nonmonotonic variation not related to terrain. Participants adopted an even pace strategy across the 5 laps despite rapid adjustments in velocity during each lap. While topographical and technical variations of the course accounted for some of the variability in velocity, the additional rapid adjustments in velocity may be associated with dynamic regulation of self-paced exercise.

  17. Evenly-spaced columns in the Bishop Tuff as relicts of hydrothermal convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph-Flagg, N. G.; Breen, S. J.; Hernandez, A.; Self, S.; Manga, M.

    2015-12-01

    A few square km of the Bishop Tuff in eastern California, USA have evenly spaced erosional columns. These columns are more resistant to erosion due to the precipitation of the low-temperature zeolite (120-200 ºC), mordenite, which is not found in the surrounding tuff. Similar features observed in the Bandelier Tuff were hypothesized to form when cold water from above infiltrated into the still-hot tuff interior. This water would become gravitationally unstable and produced convection with steam upwellings and liquid water downwellings. These downwellings became cemented with mordenite while the upwellings were too dry for chemical reactions. We use two methods to quantitatively assess this hypothesis. First, scaling that ignores the effects of latent heat and mineral precipitation suggests the Rayleigh number (Ra, a measure of convective vigor) for this system is ~103 well above the critical Ra of 4π2. Second, to account for the effect of multiphase flow and latent heat, we use two-dimensional numerical models in the finite difference code HYDROTHERM. We find that the geometry of flow is consistent with field observations and confirm that geometry is sensitive to permeability and topography. These tests suggest a few things about low-pressure hydrothermal systems. 1) The geometry of at least some convection appears to be broadly captured by linear stability theory that ignores reactive transport, heterogeneity of host rock, and the effects of latent heat. 2) Topographic flow sets the wavelength of convection meaning that these columns formed somewhere without topography—probably a lake. Finally, these observations imply a wet paleoclimate in the Eastern Sierra namely that, in the aftermath of the Long Valley eruption, either rain or snow was able to pool in the caldera before the tuff cooled on the order of a hundred years after the eruption.

  18. Secure Communications over Wireless Networks Even 1-bit Feedback Helps Achieving Security

    KAUST Repository

    Rezki, Zouheir

    2016-01-01

    Recently, there have been a surge toward developing sophisticated security mechanisms based on a cross layer design. While an extensive progress has been realized toward establishing physical layer security as an important design paradigm to enhance security of existing wireless networks, only a little effort has been made toward designing practical coding schemes that achieve or approach the secrecy capacity. Most of existing results are tied to some simplifying assumptions that do not seem always reasonable (passive eavesdropper, perfect channel state information (CSI), etc.). Furthermore, it is still not very clear how to exploit physical layer security paradigms, together with existing cryptosystems, in order to add a supplementary level of protection for information transmission or to achieve key agreement. In this talk, we address the first part of the above problematic, i.e., the effect of channel uncertainty on network security. Particularly, we show that even a coarse estimate of the main channel (channel between the transmitter and the legitimate receiver) can help providing a positive secrecy rate. Specifically, we assume two types of channel uncertainty at the transmitter. The first one is a rate-limited feedback in a block fading channel where the feedback information can be proactive (at the beginning of the coherence block) or of ARQ-type. The second type of uncertainty takes the form of a noisy estimate of the main channel at the transmitter in a fast fading channel. In both cases, we provide upper and lower bounds on the secrecy capacity. We argue how our achievable schemes and upper bounding techniques extend to multi-user setting (broadcasting a single confidential message or multiple confidential messages to multiple legitimate receivers) and to multiple antenna channels.

  19. Towards 100Sn: Studies on neutron-deficient even isotopes of tin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathke, G.E.

    1987-02-01

    Neutron-deficient 108,106,104 Sn isotopes were produced by heavy ion induced fusion reactions using high-intensity 59 Ni beams from the UNILAC of the GSI. Their decay properties were studied by techniques of gamma and conversion electron spectroscopy employing the mass separator on-line to the UNILAC. Earlier information on the 108 Sn → 108 In and 106 Sn → 106 In decays was complemented and improved in the course of this work. The new nucleus 104 Sn and its decay to excited states in 104 In was identified and studied for the first time. These investigations yield the following results: the mass of 104 Sn and of nuclei linked to it by alpha decay or proton radioactivity, 108 Te, 112 Xe and 109 I, 113 Cs, respectively were determined from the measured Q EC value of 104 Sn and the known mass value of 104 In. These are nuclei very close or beyond the proton drip line. In addition, information on the quenching of the fast Gamow-Teller beta decay of the even neutron-deficient tin isotopes was obtained. This complements investigations on the N = 50 isotones 94 Ru and 96 Pd, and allows a systematic comparison of these transition strengths for nuclei near the doubly magic 100 Sn. The spreading of the vertical strokeπg 9/2 -1 vg 7/2 , 1 + > configuration over several states, due to residual interactions, and the centroid energies of these magnetic dipole states were determined for the corresponding odd-odd indium isotopes. (orig./HSI)

  20. Odd-even mass differences from self-consistent mean field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertsch, G. F.; Bertulani, C. A.; Nazarewicz, W.; Schunck, N.; Stoitsov, M. V.

    2009-01-01

    We survey odd-even nuclear binding energy staggering using density functional theory with several treatments of the pairing interaction including the BCS, Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov, and the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov with the Lipkin-Nogami approximation. We calculate the second difference of binding energies and compare the results with 443 measured neutron energy differences in isotope chains and 418 measured proton energy differences in isotone chains. The particle-hole part of the energy functional is taken as the SLy4 Skyrme parametrization, and the pairing part of the functional is based on a contact interaction with possible density dependence. An important feature of the data, reproduced by the theory, is the sharp gap quenching at magic numbers. With the strength of the interaction as a free parameter, the theory can reproduce the data to an rms accuracy of about 0.25 MeV. This is slightly better than a single-parameter phenomenological description but slightly poorer than the usual two-parameter phenomenological form c/A α . The following conclusions can be made about the performance of common parametrization of the pairing interaction: (i) there is a weak preference for a surface-peaked neutron-neutron pairing, which might be attributable to many-body effects, (ii) a larger strength is required in the proton pairing channel than in the neutron pairing channel, and (iii) pairing strengths adjusted to the well-known spherical isotope chains are too weak to give a good overall fit to the mass differences

  1. Heat generation above break-even from laser-induced fusion in ultra-dense deuterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif Holmlid

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous results from laser-induced processes in ultra-dense deuterium D(0 give conclusive evidence for ejection of neutral massive particles with energy >10 MeV u−1. Such particles can only be formed from nuclear processes like nuclear fusion at the low laser intensity used. Heat generation is of interest for future fusion energy applications and has now been measured by a small copper (Cu cylinder surrounding the laser target. The temperature rise of the Cu cylinder is measured with an NTC resistor during around 5000 laser shots per measured point. No heating in the apparatus or the gas feed is normally used. The fusion process is suboptimal relative to previously published studies by a factor of around 10. The small neutral particles HN(0 of ultra-dense hydrogen (size of a few pm escape with a substantial fraction of the energy. Heat loss to the D2 gas (at <1 mbar pressure is measured and compensated for under various conditions. Heat release of a few W is observed, at up to 50% higher energy than the total laser input thus a gain of 1.5. This is uniquely high for the use of deuterium as fusion fuel. With a slightly different setup, a thermal gain of 2 is reached, thus clearly above break-even for all neutronicity values possible. Also including the large kinetic energy which is directly measured for MeV particles leaving through a small opening gives a gain of 2.3. Taking into account the lower efficiency now due to the suboptimal fusion process, previous studies indicate a gain of at least 20 during long periods.

  2. Laparoendoscopic Rendezvous for Concomitant Cholecystocholedocholithiasis: A Successful Modality Even in the Most Difficult Presentations Including Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bader Hamza Shirah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Laparoendoscopic rendezvous (LERV technique is emerging as an attractive treatment option for concomitant cholecystocholedocholithiasis. In this paper, we report our experience in performing the LERV technique in patients with unusual presentations in terms of anatomical difficulty, pregnancy, multiple comorbid diseases, and postlaparotomy. We aim to highlight the effectiveness of the LERV technique in some clinical situations where conventional methods would fail or carry high risks in adequately managing concomitant cholecystocholedocholithiasis. Methods. Four patients diagnosed to have concomitant cholecystocholedocholithiasis with associated difficult presentation or comorbid diseases were treated using the LERV technique. One patient presented with difficult anatomy where ERCP failed at initial attempts. Another patient was pregnant (first trimester. A third patient had complex comorbid diseases (bronchial asthma, hypertension, congestive heart failure, and end-stage renal disease on regular hemodialysis. A fourth patient had previous laparotomy and sigmoidectomy for diverticular disease and had severe hospital phobia. Results. All patients tolerated the LERV technique very well; no intraoperative occurrence was reported. The mean operative time was 86.3±17.2 minutes; mean time of the endoscopic part was 29.4±3.57 minutes. The mean blood loss was 44.3±18.2 mL (range 20–85. Residual stone, postoperative complications, postoperative morbidity, and postoperative mortality were 0 (0%. Postoperative short hospital stay was reported in all patients, average 3 days (range 2–4. Conclusion. LERV procedure is a safe and effective treatment option for the management of concomitant cholecystocholedocholithiasis, even in difficult situations where other methods would fail or carry high risks, or in patients presenting with severe comorbid diseases or pregnancy. This procedure may emerge as an attractive alternative option for high

  3. Brief Parenteral Nutrition Accelerates Weight Gain, Head Growth Even in Healthy VLBWs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisaki, Naho; Belfort, Mandy B.; McCormick, Marie C.; Mori, Rintaro; Noma, Hisashi; Kusuda, Satoshi; Fujimura, Masanori

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Whether parenteral nutrition benefits growth of very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants in the setting of rapid enteral feeding advancement is unclear. Our aim was to examine this issue using data from Japan, where enteral feeding typically advances at a rapid rate. Methods We studied 4005 hospitalized VLBW, very preterm (23–32 weeks' gestation) infants who reached full enteral feeding (100 ml/kg/day) by day 14, from 75 institutions in the Neonatal Research Network Japan (2003–2007). Main outcomes were weight gain, head growth, and extra-uterine growth restriction (EUGR, measurement parenteral nutrition. Adjusting for maternal, infant, and institutional characteristics, infants who received parenteral nutrition had greater weight gain [0.09 standard deviation (SD), 95% CI: 0.02, 0.16] and head growth (0.16 SD, 95% CI: 0.05, 0.28); lower odds of EUGR by head circumference (OR 0.66, 95% CI: 0.49, 0.88). No statistically significant difference was seen in the proportion of infants with EUGR at discharge. SGA infants and infants who took more than a week until full feeding had larger estimates. Discussion Even in infants who are able to establish enteral nutrition within 2 weeks, deprivation of parenteral nutrition in the first weeks of life could lead to under nutrition, but infants who reached full feeding within one week benefit least. It is important to predict which infants are likely or not likely to advance on enteral feedings within a week and balance enteral and parenteral nutrition for these infants. PMID:24586323

  4. Effects of functionally asexual reproduction on quantitative genetic variation in the evening primroses (Oenothera, Onagraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Ryan M; Johnson, Marc T J

    2014-11-01

    It has long been predicted that a loss of sexual reproduction leads to decreased heritable variation within populations and increased differentiation between populations. Despite an abundance of theory, there are few empirical tests of how sex affects genetic variation in phenotypic traits, especially for plants. Here we test whether repeated losses of two critical components of sex (recombination and segregation) in the evening primroses (Oenothera L., Onagraceae) affect quantitative genetic variation within and between populations. We sampled multiple genetic families from 3-5 populations from each of eight Oenothera species, which represented four independent transitions between sexual reproduction and a functionally asexual genetic system called "permanent translocation heterozygosity." We used quantitative genetics methods to partition genetic variation within and between populations for eight plant traits related to growth, leaf physiology, flowering, and resistance to herbivores. Heritability was, on average, 74% higher in sexual Oenothera populations than in functionally asexual populations, with plant growth rate, specific leaf area, and the percentage of leaf water content showing the strongest differences. By contrast, genetic differentiation among populations was 2.8× higher in functionally asexual vs. sexual Oenothera species. This difference was particularly strong for specific leaf area. Sexual populations tended to exhibit higher genetic correlations among traits, but this difference was weakly supported. These results support the prediction that sexual reproduction maintains higher genetic variation within populations, which may facilitate adaptive evolution. We also found partial support for the prediction that a loss of sex leads to greater population differentiation, which may elevate speciation rates. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  5. A role for circadian evening elements in cold-regulated gene expression in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, Michael D; Thomashow, Michael F

    2009-10-01

    The plant transcriptome is dramatically altered in response to low temperature. The cis-acting DNA regulatory elements and trans-acting factors that regulate the majority of cold-regulated genes are unknown. Previous bioinformatic analysis has indicated that the promoters of cold-induced genes are enriched in the Evening Element (EE), AAAATATCT, a DNA regulatory element that has a role in circadian-regulated gene expression. Here we tested the role of EE and EE-like (EEL) elements in cold-induced expression of two Arabidopsis genes, CONSTANS-like 1 (COL1; At5g54470) and a gene encoding a 27-kDa protein of unknown function that we designated COLD-REGULATED GENE 27 (COR27; At5g42900). Mutational analysis indicated that the EE/EEL elements were required for cold induction of COL1 and COR27, and that their action was amplified through coupling with ABA response element (ABRE)-like (ABREL) motifs. An artificial promoter consisting solely of four EE motifs interspersed with three ABREL motifs was sufficient to impart cold-induced gene expression. Both COL1 and COR27 were found to be regulated by the circadian clock at warm growth temperatures and cold-induction of COR27 was gated by the clock. These results suggest that cold- and clock-regulated gene expression are integrated through regulatory proteins that bind to EE and EEL elements supported by transcription factors acting at ABREL sequences. Bioinformatic analysis indicated that the coupling of EE and EEL motifs with ABREL motifs is highly enriched in cold-induced genes and thus may constitute a DNA regulatory element pair with a significant role in configuring the low-temperature transcriptome.

  6. Suicide Attempt as a Risk Factor for Completed Suicide: Even More Lethal Than We Knew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostwick, J Michael; Pabbati, Chaitanya; Geske, Jennifer R; McKean, Alastair J

    2016-11-01

    prevalence. Our findings support suicide attempt as an even more lethal risk factor for completed suicide than previously thought. Research should focus on identifying risk factors for populations vulnerable to making first attempts and target risk reduction in those groups.

  7. Why criminal behavior of chronic delinquents could be even strengthen after forensic treatment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radulović Danka M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The efforts of the formal system of government to achieve social reintegration of chronic offenders is reflected, inter alia, through the application of a large number of educational and training retrain and therapeutic treatment in penal institutions. However, they still do not give the desired results. So, in this paper we analyze the results of studies that investigate effects of various forms of forensic treatment on the criminal re-offend. It was found that, in this context, it is important to determine whether the offender has a psychological predisposition toward antisocial behaviour, and whether deviations are present which do not have the character of mental illness, but have the impact on stubbornly chronically maintaining delinquency. Based on the results of empirical data from the relevant studies and practical experiences of forensic therapeutic experts, it was found that some forms of treatment, including training for development social skills, life skills, and empathy, for certain categories of violent offenders, not only does not lead to the expected reduction of violence, but even at first glance, paradoxical result, as many as five times more frequent criminal recovery, compared to the same category of offenders who are not covered by treatment. When this tendency is particularly worrying that in these cases the victims are subjected to insidious attacks against and become more vulnerable because they are representatives of the criminal justice system misled the attackers to make treatment safer. The paper points out the possible reasons for such negative outcomes of treatment and is located contraindicated category form of forensic psychotherapy to the riskiest psychological profile. It was estimated that the usual methods of psychotherapy and mental needs advisory applied in clinical trials in patients unsuitable for delinquent population. It was concluded that any rehabilitation treatment must be designed in accordance with

  8. Day and night shift schedules are associated with lower sleep quality in Evening-types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeanne Sophie; Laberge, Luc; Sasseville, Alexandre; Bérubé, Marilie; Alain, Samuel; Houle, Jérôme; Hébert, Marc

    2015-06-01

    Eveningness has been suggested as a facilitating factor in adaptation to shift work, with several studies reporting evening chronotypes (E-types) as better sleepers when on night shifts. Conversely, eveningness has been associated with more sleep complaints during day shifts. However, sleep during day shifts has received limited attention in previous studies assessing chronotypes in shift workers. Environmental light exposure has also been reported to differ between chronotypes in day workers. Activity is also known to provide temporal input to the circadian clock. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare objective sleep, light exposure and activity levels between chronotypes, both during the night and day shifts. Thirty-nine patrol police patrol officers working on a fast rotating shift schedule (mean age ± SD: 28.9 ± 3.2 yrs; 28 males) participated in this study. All subjects completed the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ). Sleep and activity were monitored with actigraphy (Actiwatch-L; Mini-Mitter/Respironics, Bend, OR) for four consecutive night shifts and four consecutive day shifts (night work schedule: 00:00 h-07:00 h; day work schedule: 07:00 h-15:00 h). Sleep and activity parameters were calculated with Actiware software. MEQ scores ranged from 26 to 56; no subject was categorized as Morning-type. E-types (n = 13) showed significantly lower sleep efficiency, longer snooze time and spent more time awake after sleep onset than Intermediate-types (I-types, n = 26) for both the night and day shifts. E-types also exhibited shorter and more numerous sleep bouts. Furthermore, when napping was taken into account, E-types had shorter total sleep duration than I-types during the day shifts. E-types were more active during the first hours of their night shift when compared to I-types. Also, all participants spent more time active and had higher amount of activity per minute during day shifts when compared to night shifts. No

  9. Progressive increase in point mutations associates chloroquine resistance: Even after withdrawal of chloroquine use in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabyasachi Das

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Chloroquine (CQ is highly effective against P. vivax, due to the rapid spread of CQ resistance in P. falciparum parasites; it is no longer the drug of choice against P. falciparum. This study elucidates the scenario of chloroquine efficacy at times that coincided with a new drug policy and especially assessed the chloroquine resistant molecular markers after withdrawal of chloroquine in Kolkata and Purulia, two malaria endemic zones of West Bengal, India. In vitro CQ susceptibility was tested in 781 patients with P. falciparum mono infections between 2008 and 2013, of which 338 patients had received CQ in 2008–2009. Genotyping of the pfcrt and the pfmdr1 gene was carried out in all isolates. Early treatment failure was detected in 114 patients {43 (31·39% from Kolkata and 71 (35·32% from Purulia} while recrudescence was identified in 13 (9.49% and 17 (8.46% patients from Kolkata and Purulia respectively. In vivo chloroquine resistance was strongly associated with CVMNT-YYSNY (p < 0.01 and SVMNT-YYSNY (p < 0.05 allele in Kolkata. In Purulia chloroquine resistance was associated with CVMNK-YYSNY (P < 0.005, SVMNT-YYSNY (P < 0.01 allele. The proportion of in vitro chloroquine resistance increased in subsequent years to 87.23% and 93·10% in 2013, in Kolkata and Purulia, respectively. Isolates with SVMNT-YFSND, SVMNT-YFSNY, CVIET-YFSND and CVIET-YYSNY haplotypes increased gradually (p < 0.05 from 2010 to 2013, leading to a rise in IC50 (p < 0.05 of chloroquine. An increase in in vitro chloroquine resistance and candidate gene mutations even after five years of chloroquine withdrawal against P. falciparum calls for synchronized research surveillance and proper containment strategies. Keywords: Plasmodium falciparum, ChloroQuine resistance in India, pfcrt polymorphism, pfmdr1 mutation, In vitro chloroquine resistance

  10. Driving environment in Iran increases blood pressure even in healthy taxi drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soodabeh Navadeh Khodadadi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: Nowadays, driving is an unseparated part of our new modern lifestyle; and we are exposed to this environment all the days for several hours whether as drivers or as riders. Many reports indicated that Iran is on the top rank of automobile-related morbidity and mortality among developed and even many developing countries that can be due to dangerous driving habits in Iran. We designed this study to find out if environment of driving have clinically important effects on blood pressure (BP and how strong is the effect. We also examined if there were any predictors for the BP rises in driving time.
    • METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, 31 healthy male taxi drivers were included through a multistage proportional sampling method in winter and spring 2007. They were referred to the clinic of hypertension in Shafa Hospital, Kerman. A trained nurse measured the BPs. She also did set up the Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitor (ABPM on the drivers’ left arms for BP recording every 30 minutes during the day. Based on the diurnal recorded BPs, the subjects were allocated into normotensive and hypertensive (systolic BP > 135 or diastolic BP > 85mmHg groups. The difference among the clinic BPs and the driving BPs was examined by t-test in Stata version 8, followed by a multivariate analysis for exploring the main predictors for BP rises in driving time.
    • RESULTS: Both mean systolic and mean diastolic BPs were significantly increased from 116.85 (SE 2.28 and 74.44 (SE 2.22 mmHg in clinic to 138.64 (SE 2.77 and 95.70 (SE 2.55 mmHg during driving, respectively (P = 0.0001. Pulse pressure remained constant (P = 0.87. The difference between clinic's and driving time measurements was higher in hypertensive group. Those with higher systolic blood pressures in clinic had more frequent and higher BP rises in driving time (P = 0.02.
    • CONCLUSIONS: Driving

    • Climate and life-history evolution in evening primroses (Oenothera, Onagraceae): a phylogenetic comparative analysis.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Evans, Margaret E K; Hearn, David J; Hahn, William J; Spangle, Jennifer M; Venable, D Lawrence

      2005-09-01

      Evolutionary ecologists have long sought to understand the conditions under which perennial (iteroparous) versus annual (semelparous) plant life histories are favored. We evaluated the idea that aridity and variation in the length of droughts should favor the evolution of an annual life history, both by decreasing adult survival and by increasing the potential for high seedling survival via reduced plant cover. We calculated phylogenetically independent contrasts of climate with respect to life history in a clade of winter-establishing evening primroses (sections Anogra and Kleinia; Oenothera; Onagraceae), which includes seven annuals, 12 perennials, and two variable taxa. Climate variables were quantified from long-term records at weather stations near collection localities. To explicitly account for phylogenetic uncertainty, contrasts were calculated on a random sample of phylogenetic trees from the posterior distribution of a Bayesian analysis of DNA sequence data. Statements of association are based on comparing the per-tree mean contrast, which has a null expectation of zero, to a set of per-tree mean contrasts calculated on the same trees, after randomizing the climate data. As predicted, increased annual aridity, increased annual potential evapotranspiration, and decreased annual precipitation were associated with transitions to the annual habit, but these trends were not significantly different from the null pattern. Transitions to the annual habit were not significantly associated with increases in one measure of aridity in summer nor with increased summer drought, but they were associated with significantly increased maximum summer temperatures. In winter, increased aridity and decreased precipitation were significantly associated with transitions to the annual habit. Changes in life history were not significantly associated with changes in the coefficient of variation of precipitation, either on an annual or seasonal (summer vs. winter) basis. Though we

    • Microscopic mechanism of moments of inertia and odd-even differences for well-deformed actinide nuclei

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Yu Lei; Liu Shuxin; Zeng Jinyan

      2004-01-01

      The microscopic mechanism of the variation with rotational frequency of moments of inertia and their odd-even differences for well-deformed actinide nuclei are analyzed by using the particle-number conserving (PNC) method for treating nuclear pairing interaction. The moments of inertia for bands building on high j intruder orbitals in odd-A nuclei, e.g., the 235 U (ν[743]7/2) band, are found to be much larger than those of ground-state bands in neighboring even-even nuclei. Moreover, there exist large odd-even differences in the ω variation of moments of inertia. All these experimental odd-even differences are reproduced quite well in the PNC calculation, in which the effective monopole and quadrupole pairing interaction strengths are determined by the experimental odd-even differences in binding energies and bandhead moments of inertia, and no free parameter is involved in the PNC calculation

    • Bile: Kullanım Değerleri Even: Use-Values

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Ece KORKUT

      2012-12-01

      Full Text Available In this article, different values of the word “even” in Turkish were studied and discussed, with the adverb and conjunction functions. 87 usages of “even” in the corpus obtained from Cumhuriyet news portal between 22 to 29 July 2012 is classified in terms of the values assumed in the utterance, and also is evaluated in terms of "presupposition" and "implied meaning" (implicit. Presupposition, producing an utterance, is supposed as a true knowledge, and it can be found in the informationgiven. As a result of the examination, it is reached in all to 7 use values:one to be associated with the "even-adverb" ("time" value, others whitthe “even-conjunction”: 1. time; 2. probability / hypothesis; 3. expectedto be, but not realized; 4. considered as the last (most surprisinglysituation, case or person; 5. the lower limit to be thought; 6. the mostunfavorable situation, case or person to be thought; 7. in thecomparison, the increased content or importance. Each use-value of“even” takes one syntax up to six. The results obtained are comparedand shown numerically. Although the presupposition in all uses,suggestive significance used frequently was determined in only 2 usevalues(third and fourth values. In addition, in some stereotypes werefound a cultural presupposition generally accepted, and in the outers,subjective value judgments and implicit meanings. Finally, someproblematic uses have been examined and analyzed. Bu makalede zarf ve bağlaç işlevleriyle ele alınan “bile” sözcüğünün kullanım değerleri incelenmiştir. 22-29 Temmuz 2012 tarihleri arasında Cumhuriyet Haber Portalı’nda yer alan 84 sözceden oluşturulan bütüncede bulunan 87 “bile” kullanımı, sözce içinde üstlendiği değerler açısından sınıflandırılmış, ayrıca “önvarsayım” ve “imalı anlam” açısından değerlendirilmiştir. Önvarsayım, bir sözce üretilirken gerçek olduğu varsayılan bilgidir ve verili bilgiden

    • Ecologically relevant geomorphic attributes of streams are impaired by even low levels of watershed effective imperviousness

      Science.gov (United States)

      Vietz, Geoff J.; Sammonds, Michael J.; Walsh, Christopher J.; Fletcher, Tim D.; Rutherfurd, Ian D.; Stewardson, Michael J.

      2014-02-01

      -20% of their watershed is covered by impervious surfaces (total imperviousness, TI; Bledsoe and Watson, 2001; Chin, 2006; Table 1). Many of these studies may, however, underestimate the influence of urbanization by using insensitive channel metrics and assessing streams in early stages of urbanization. Most importantly, TI, as a measure of urban density, may not adequately represent the way in which urbanization alters the master variables of flow and sediment within a watershed.Hydrologists have long recognized that, rather than the proportion of impervious cover within a watershed, it is the proportion that is directly connected to the stream through stormwater drainage systems that may be a better predictor of urban-induced hydrologic change (Leopold, 1968). Referred to as effective imperviousness (EI) the proportion of impervious cover directly connected to the stream through stormwater drainage systems may also be a better predictor of geomorphic response than is TI. Over the last decade a direct measure of EI has been found to be a better predictor of ecological response in urban streams (Walsh et al., 2012), but use of such a metric has not found its way into geomorphic studies even though TI has been found to be ineffective (e.g., Bledsoe et al., 2012). A direct measure of EI - one that specifically accounts for the drainage from each impervious surface rather than using a generic reduction factor (e.g., Booth and Jackson, 1997; Wang et al., 2001) - has not previously been used in geomorphic investigations. In this paper, we advance on past studies by testing if EI is a stronger predictor than TI for urban-induced channel change.A second limitation of previous studies of urban-induced morphologic change is the common focus on channel dimensions (Chin, 2006). These are important for infrastructure and flood protection but do not necessarily have a strong mechanistic link to stream ecosystems. While some notable exceptions exist (Finkenbine et al., 2000; Mc

    • Subjective and Objective Napping and Sleep in Older Adults: Are Evening Naps ‘Bad’ for Nighttime Sleep?

      Science.gov (United States)

      Dautovich, Natalie D.; McCrae, Christina S.; Rowe, Meredeth

      2014-01-01

      Objectives To compare objective and subjective measurements of napping, and to examine the relationship between evening napping and nocturnal sleep in older adults. Design For twelve days, participants wore actigraphs and completed sleep diaries. Setting Community Participants 100 individuals who napped, 60–89 years (including good and poor sleepers with typical age-related medical comorbidities). Measurements Twelve days of sleep diary and actigraphy provided subjective and objective napping and sleep data. Results Evening naps (within 2 hours of bedtime) were characteristic of the sample with peak nap time occurring between 20:30–21:00 (average nap time occurred between 14:30–15:00). Two categories of nappers were identified: 1) day/evening – those who took both daytime and evening naps, and 2) daytime-only. Interestingly, no participants napped during the evening only. Day/evening nappers significantly underreported evening napping and demonstrated lower objectively measured sleep onset latencies (20 vs 26.5 minutes), less wake after sleep onset (51.4 vs 72.8 minutes), and higher sleep efficiencies (76.8 vs 82%) than daytime-only nappers. Conclusion Day/evening napping was prevalent amongst this sample of community-dwelling good/poor sleepers, but was not associated with impaired nocturnal sleep. Although the elimination or restriction of napping is a common element of cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTi), these results suggest that a uniform recommendation to restrict/eliminate napping (particularly evening napping) may not meet the needs of all older individuals with insomnia. PMID:18691289

    • Thermal performance evaluation of a latent heat storage unit for late evening cooking in a solar cooker having three reflectors

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Buddhi, D.; Sharma, A. [Devi Ahilya University, Indore (India). School of Energy and Environmental Studies, Thermal Energy Storage Laboratory; Sharma, S.D. [Mie University, Tsu (Japan). Faculty of Engineering, Department of Architecture

      2003-04-01

      In this paper, a phase change material (PCM) storage unit for a solar cooker was designed and developed to store energy during sunshine hours. The stored energy was utilised to cook food in the late evening. Commercial grade acetanilide (melting point 118.9 {sup o}C, latent heat of fusion 222 kJ/kg) was used as a latent heat storage material. Evening cooking experiments were conducted with different loads and loading times during the winter season. The experimental results showed that late evening cooking is possible in a solar cooker having three reflectors to enhance the incident solar radiation with the PCM storage unit. (author)

    • Perencanaan Penetapan Laba Melalui Pendekatan Analisis Break Even Point (BEP) Perusahaan Wingko UD. TUJUH TUJUH ELOK Babat - Lamongan

      OpenAIRE

      Zulyanti, Noer Rafikah

      2017-01-01

      This research is a type quantitative descriptiveresearch on companies wingko UD TUJUH TUJUH ELOK Babat whit the title “Planing the estabilishment of profit though analysis approach break even point (BEP) on the company wingko UD. TUJUH TUJUH ELOK Babat Lamongan”. Analyzing profit planning methods break even point on wingko to find large companies and large minimum targets to be achieved by the company the stages of analysis used by the autor in the study ware: (1) separation costs (2) The cal...

    • Perencanaan Penetapan Laba melalui Pendekatan Analisis Break Even Point (BEP) Perusahaan Wingko UD. TUJUH TUJUH ELOK Babat - Lamongan

      OpenAIRE

      Zulyanti, Noer Rafikah

      2017-01-01

      This research is a type quantitative descriptiveresearch on companies wingko UD TUJUH TUJUH ELOK Babat whit the title “Planing the estabilishment of profit though analysis approach break even point (BEP) on the company wingko UD. TUJUH TUJUH ELOK Babat Lamongan”. Analyzing profit planning methods break even point on wingko to find large companies and large minimum targets to be achieved by the company the stages of analysis used by the autor in the study ware: (1) separation costs (2) The cal...

    • On hamiltonian systems with even and odd Poisson brackets and on the duality of their conservation laws

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Volkov, D.V.; Pashnev, A.I.; Soroka, V.A.; Tkach, V.I.

      1986-01-01

      Taking as example the Witten supersymmetric mechanics it is shown that the hamiltonian system with equal number of even and odd canonical variables admits simultaneously the introduction of even and odd Poisson brackets. When using bracket operations of different graduation the canonical variable equations are not varied whereas the motion integrals with opposite Grassman graduation become dual transforming into each other at the transition to Poisson bracket with opposite graduation

    • The impact of friends on young adults' drinking over the course of the evening-an event-level analysis

      OpenAIRE

      Thrul Johannes; Kuntsche Emmanuel

      2014-01-01

      © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction. Aims: To examine whether young adults' alcohol consumption during the course of an evening was affected by the number of friends present and the interaction between participants' gender and number of friends present. Design: Participants used the internet based cellphone optimized assessment technique (ICAT) to complete a series of cellphone questionnaires every Thursday Friday and Saturday evening over five weekends. A multi level growth curve model...

  1. Effects of Acute Endurance Exercise Performed in the Morning and Evening on Inflammatory Cytokine and Metabolic Hormone Responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon-Ki Kim

    Full Text Available To compare the effects of endurance exercise performed in the morning and evening on inflammatory cytokine responses in young men.Fourteen healthy male participants aged 24.3 ± 0.8 years (mean ± standard error performed endurance exercise in the morning (0900-1000 h on one day and then in the evening (1700-1800 h on another day with an interval of at least 1 week between each trial. In both the morning and evening trials, the participants walked for 60 minutes at approximately 60% of the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max on a treadmill. Blood samples were collected to determine hormones and inflammatory cytokines at pre-exercise, immediately post exercise, and 2 h post exercise.Plasma interleukin (IL-6 and adrenaline concentrations were significantly higher immediately after exercise in the evening trial than in the morning trial (P < 0.01, both. Serum free fatty acids concentrations were significantly higher in the evening trial than in the morning trial at 2 h after exercise (P < 0.05. Furthermore, a significant correlation was observed between the levels of IL-6 immediately post-exercise and free fatty acids 2 h post-exercise in the evening (r = 0.68, P < 0.01.These findings suggest that the effect of acute endurance exercise in the evening enhances the plasma IL-6 and adrenaline concentrations compared to that in the morning. In addition, IL-6 was involved in increasing free fatty acids, suggesting that the evening is more effective for exercise-induced lipolysis compared with the morning.

  2. Break-Even Cost for Residential Solar Water Heating in the United States: Key Drivers and Sensitivities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassard, H.; Denholm, P.; Ong, S.

    2011-02-01

    This paper examines the break-even cost for residential rooftop solar water heating (SWH) technology, defined as the point where the cost of the energy saved with a SWH system equals the cost of a conventional heating fuel purchased from the grid (either electricity or natural gas). We examine the break-even cost for the largest 1,000 electric and natural gas utilities serving residential customers in the United States as of 2008. Currently, the break-even cost of SWH in the United States varies by more than a factor of five for both electricity and natural gas, despite a much smaller variation in the amount of energy saved by the systems (a factor of approximately one and a half). The break-even price for natural gas is lower than that for electricity due to a lower fuel cost. We also consider the relationship between SWH price and solar fraction and examine the key drivers behind break-even costs. Overall, the key drivers of the break-even cost of SWH are a combination of fuel price, local incentives, and technical factors including the solar resource location, system size, and hot water draw.

  3. The impact of friends on young adults' drinking over the course of the evening--an event-level analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrul, Johannes; Kuntsche, Emmanuel

    2015-04-01

    To examine whether young adults' alcohol consumption during the course of an evening was affected by the number of friends present, and the interaction between participants' gender and number of friends present. Participants used the internet-based cellphone-optimized assessment technique (ICAT) to complete a series of cellphone questionnaires every Thursday, Friday and Saturday evening over five weekends. A multi-level growth curve model (hourly assessments, clustered within evenings, clustered within individuals) with time-invariant and time-varying covariates was estimated. French-speaking Switzerland. A total of 183 young adults (53.0% female, mean age = 23.1) who completed 7205 questionnaires on 1441 evenings. Alcohol consumption and number of friends present assessed at 8 p.m., 9 p.m., 10 p.m., 11 p.m. and midnight. Drinking pace accelerated notably over the course of the evening on Saturdays (b = 0.047; P impact of friends was accounted for (b = 0.096; P = 0.139). The higher the number of friends present, the higher the number of drinks consumed at a given time during the course of the evening (b = 0.070; P impact of the drinking group size on alcohol use is stronger for men than women. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  4. Even Geniuses Work Hard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dweck, Carol S.

    2010-01-01

    In her well-known research, Carol Dweck has documented how individuals' attitudes about intelligence affect their behavior and achievement. People with a fixed mindset, she writes, believe that intelligence is inborn and unchangeable, whereas those with a growth mindset believe that intelligence can grow through practice and effort. In this…

  5. Making Microbiology Even Smaller!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Linda Mull; Motz, Vicki Abrams

    2013-01-01

    We outline protocols for producing slant-minis (SLINIs) and mini-deeps (MEEPs) and examples of their use in simple microbiology experiments suitable for high school students. The principal benefits of these protocols are decreased cost associated with significantly reduced media use; easier, less expensive disposal of waste; and increased safety…

  6. Growing evening primroses (Oenothera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan eGreiner

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The model plant Oenothera has contributed significantly to the biological sciences and it dominated the early development of plant genetics, cytogenetics, and evolutionary biology. The great advantage of using Oenothera as a model system is a large body of genetic, cytological, morphological, and ecological information collected over more than a century. The Oenothera system offers a well-studied taxonomy, population structure, and ecology. Cytogenetics and formal genetics at the population level are extensively developed, providing an excellent basis to study evolutionary questions. Further, Oenothera is grown as an oil seed crop for the production of essential fatty acids (gamma-linoleic acid and is considered to be a medicinal plant due to its many pharmaceutically active secondary metabolites, such as ellagitannins. Although Oenothera has been cultivated as a laboratory organism since the end of the 19th century, there is a substantial lack of literature dealing with modern greenhouse techniques for the genus. This review compiles an overview about the growth requirements for the genus Oenothera, with a special focus on its genetically best-studied subsections Oenothera and Munzia. Requirements for greenhouse, field, and agronomic cultures are presented, together with information on substrate types, pest control, as well as vegetative and seed propagation, cross pollination, harvest and seed storage. Particular aspects like germination, bolting and flowering induction in taxonomically diverse material are reviewed. Methods recommended are supported by ecological and experimental data. An overview of the possibilities for wide hybridization and polyploidy induction in the genus is given. Germplasm resources are referenced. In summary, a comprehensive guideline for successful laboratory cultivation of Oenothera species is provided.

  7. Growing evening primroses (Oenothera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Stephan; Köhl, Karin

    2014-01-01

    The model plant Oenothera has contributed significantly to the biological sciences and it dominated the early development of plant genetics, cytogenetics, and evolutionary biology. The great advantage of using Oenothera as a model system is a large body of genetic, cytological, morphological, and ecological information collected over more than a century. The Oenothera system offers a well-studied taxonomy, population structure, and ecology. Cytogenetics and formal genetics at the population level are extensively developed, providing an excellent basis to study evolutionary questions. Further, Oenothera is grown as an oil seed crop for the production of essential fatty acids (gamma-linoleic acid) and is considered to be a medicinal plant due to its many pharmaceutically active secondary metabolites, such as ellagitannins. Although Oenothera has been cultivated as a laboratory organism since the end of the 19th century, there is a substantial lack of literature dealing with modern greenhouse techniques for the genus. This review compiles an overview about the growth requirements for the genus Oenothera, with a special focus on its genetically best-studied subsections Oenothera and Munzia. Requirements for greenhouse, field, and agronomic cultures are presented, together with information on substrate types, pest control, as well as vegetative and seed propagation, cross pollination, harvest, and seed storage. Particular aspects like germination, bolting, and flowering induction in taxonomically diverse material are reviewed. Methods recommended are supported by ecological and experimental data. An overview of the possibilities for wide hybridization and polyploidy induction in the genus is given. Germplasm resources are referenced. In summary, a comprehensive guideline for successful laboratory cultivation of Oenothera species is provided.

  8. Growing evening primroses (Oenothera)

    OpenAIRE

    Greiner, Stephan; Köhl, Karin

    2014-01-01

    The model plant Oenothera has contributed significantly to the biological sciences and it dominated the early development of plant genetics, cytogenetics, and evolutionary biology. The great advantage of using Oenothera as a model system is a large body of genetic, cytological, morphological, and ecological information collected over more than a century. The Oenothera system offers a well-studied taxonomy, population structure, and ecology. Cytogenetics and formal genetics at the population l...

  9. Break-even analysis of Medicaid vs fee for service in orthodontic practice: North Carolina as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, John E; Phillips, Ceib; Beane, Richard; Quinonez, Rocio

    2010-03-01

    Access to orthodontic services for children enrolled in Medicaid is limited nationwide. Orthodontists cite low fee reimbursement as a significant barrier to Medicaid participation. The purpose of this study was to examine, under a specific set of practice assumptions, the simulated effect on profitability of treating patients covered by Medicaid in orthodontic practices in North Carolina by using a break-even analysis for the 2005 fiscal year. Questionnaires were mailed to 154 orthodontists in active practice in North Carolina. The response rate was 58%. Seventy respondents met the eligibility criteria. Respondents were categorized into 4 groups based on the number of 2005 Medicaid case starts (I, 0; II, 1-5; III, 6-12; IV, 13 or more). By using the aggregated responses for treatment fees, treatment times, and overhead percentages for each group, average per-patient costs were calculated for each group and used in a break-even analysis. Group I accounted for 60% of respondents; group II, 20%; group III, 9%; and group IV, 11%. Assuming that the break-even point had not been reached, the group I practice would have an average estimated loss of $164 per patient whereas groups II, III, and IV would realize average profits from $98 to $256. The break-even point increased slightly in groups I, II, and III after the total number of patients in the patient pool was increased by 5%, assuming that additional patients were enrolled in Medicaid: group I, 203 to 210; group II, 220 to 226; group III, 158 to 160. The break-even point for group IV was 234 patients. Assuming that the break-even point had been reached, all groups were estimated to realize average per-patient profits of $1483 to $1897. Break-even analysis is a basic economic concept applicable to orthodontic practices. Under the specific conditions of this study, the inclusion of 5% of patients enrolled in Medicaid in the active patient pool had minimal effect on the financial break-even point and, assuming that the

  10. Influence of isovector pairing and particle-number projection effects on spectroscopic factors for one-pair like-particle transfer reactions in proton-rich even-even nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbouzid, Y.; Allal, N. H.; Fellah, M.; Oudih, M. R.

    2018-04-01

    Isovector neutron-proton (np) pairing and particle-number fluctuation effects on the spectroscopic factors (SF) corresponding to one-pair like-particle transfer reactions in proton-rich even-even nuclei are studied. With this aim, expressions of the SF corresponding to two-neutron stripping and two-proton pick-up reactions, which take into account the isovector np pairing effect, are established within the generalized BCS approach, using a schematic definition proposed by Chasman. Expressions of the same SF which strictly conserve the particle number are also established within the Sharp-BCS (SBCS) discrete projection method. In both cases, it is shown that these expressions generalize those obtained when only the pairing between like particles is considered. First, the formalism is tested within the Richardson schematic model. Second, it is applied to study even-even proton-rich nuclei using the single-particle energies of a Woods-Saxon mean-field. In both cases, it is shown that the np pairing effect and the particle-number projection effect on the SF values are important, particularly in N = Z nuclei, and must then be taken into account.

  11. Specifics of formation the portfolio of orders on the basis of break even analysis for Iron and Steel Works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zambrzhitskaia Evgenia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of orders portfolio formation becomes more and more actual in terms of evolving economy crisis, consequences of which turned into the growing competition both in domestic and foreign markets. Goals of research – formalization of order portfolio formation procedure. The purpose of our academic research – to develop the algorithm for order portfolio formation suitable for iron and steel works. The article suggests the possibility of using break-even analysis indices, in particular, the research introduces a «break-even point» concept in terms of efficient order portfolio. Usage of break-even point indices is more preferable to others (marginal revenue, cost-effectiveness and etc. the main advantages of the suggested analysis are: 1 great information capacity from the point of management decision making; 2 the suggested analysis is less governed by price factor than marginal revenue.

  12. EFFECT OF MORNING AND EVENING RAMIPRIL TAKING ON AMBULATORY BLOOD PRESSURE PROFILE IN PATIENTS WITH ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Gorbunov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To compare antihypertensive effect of ramipril monotherapy at morning and evening taking.Material and methods. 22 patients (10 men, 12 women; aged 62,1±1,9 y.o. with arterial hypertension of 1-2 stage were involved into the open randomized crossover study. Patients were randomized into 2 groups depending on ramipril taking time (morning or evening. Ambulatory blood pressure (BP monitoring (ABPM was performed. Patients of both groups were comparable in basic clinical characteristics and initial ABPM indices. Analysis of peak and phase characteristics of 24 hour BP profile was used as well as standard evaluation. Treatment duration was 3 weeks. Ramipril dose titration was made in 1,5 weeks. The average daily dose of ramipril was 6,1 mg in the morning taking, and 5,0 mg in the evening taking.Results. 20 patients finished study completely. 24 hour initial level of systolic (SBP and diastolic BP (DBP was 141,5±1,6/85,3±1,1 mm Hg. After ramipril monotherapy with evening taking BP reduced to 132,6±1,6/79,8±1,1 mm Hg (p<0,001 and with morning taking – to 131,8±1,6/79,2±1,1 mm Hg (p<0,001. Evening ramipril taking led to significant improvement of 24 hour BP profile. Night SBP/DBP reduction became deeper from 7,7±1,2/11,5±1,3% to 12,5±1,2/19,1±1,3 % (p<0,01. Morning taking did not have significant influence on these indices. Ramipril did not result in clinically significant hypotension including night one.Conclusion. Evening ramipril taking is effective and safe. It can be recommended to patients with insufficient night BP dipping (non dippers. 

  13. EFFECT OF MORNING AND EVENING RAMIPRIL TAKING ON AMBULATORY BLOOD PRESSURE PROFILE IN PATIENTS WITH ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Gorbunov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To compare antihypertensive effect of ramipril monotherapy at morning and evening taking.Material and methods. 22 patients (10 men, 12 women; aged 62,1±1,9 y.o. with arterial hypertension of 1-2 stage were involved into the open randomized crossover study. Patients were randomized into 2 groups depending on ramipril taking time (morning or evening. Ambulatory blood pressure (BP monitoring (ABPM was performed. Patients of both groups were comparable in basic clinical characteristics and initial ABPM indices. Analysis of peak and phase characteristics of 24 hour BP profile was used as well as standard evaluation. Treatment duration was 3 weeks. Ramipril dose titration was made in 1,5 weeks. The average daily dose of ramipril was 6,1 mg in the morning taking, and 5,0 mg in the evening taking.Results. 20 patients finished study completely. 24 hour initial level of systolic (SBP and diastolic BP (DBP was 141,5±1,6/85,3±1,1 mm Hg. After ramipril monotherapy with evening taking BP reduced to 132,6±1,6/79,8±1,1 mm Hg (p<0,001 and with morning taking – to 131,8±1,6/79,2±1,1 mm Hg (p<0,001. Evening ramipril taking led to significant improvement of 24 hour BP profile. Night SBP/DBP reduction became deeper from 7,7±1,2/11,5±1,3% to 12,5±1,2/19,1±1,3 % (p<0,01. Morning taking did not have significant influence on these indices. Ramipril did not result in clinically significant hypotension including night one.Conclusion. Evening ramipril taking is effective and safe. It can be recommended to patients with insufficient night BP dipping (non dippers. 

  14. Evaluation of a digital method to assess evening meal intake in a free-living adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Dahl Lassen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years new applications of technologies, including digital images, to capture dietary behaviour in real time have been explored. Objectives: To validate a digital method for estimating evening meal intake in a free-living adult population, and to examine the feasibility of the method for recording evening meal intake over a prolonged period of time. Design: The digital method was compared against weighed records of 19 participants’ usual evening meals for five consecutive days. Two trained image analysts independently estimated the weight of individual foods within the meals into major food categories, and the nutrient content was calculated. A second study included interviews with 28 participants recording their evening meals on weekdays for three consecutive weeks to get their perspective on the feasibility of the method. Results: High correlation coefficients between the digital method and weighed records were found for all measured food categories and nutrients. Comparable means and acceptable limits of agreement (mean difference +/− 2 SD were found with regard to macronutrient distribution (e.g. fat content −5 to 6 E%, energy density (−75 to 91 kJ/100 g, and energy-adjusted foods (e.g. fruit and vegetable content −241 to 236 g/10 MJ. The majority of the participants expressed satisfaction with the method and were willing to record their evening meals for 1 month or more using the digital method. Conclusion: The digital method is valid and feasible for evening meal estimation in real-time where a prolonged recording period of participants’ meals is needed.

  15. No Additional Benefits of Block- Over Evenly-Distributed High-Intensity Interval Training within a Polarized Microcycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGawley, Kerry; Juudas, Elisabeth; Kazior, Zuzanna; Ström, Kristoffer; Blomstrand, Eva; Hansson, Ola; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The current study aimed to investigate the responses to block- versus evenly-distributed high-intensity interval training (HIT) within a polarized microcycle. Methods: Twenty well-trained junior cross-country skiers (10 males, age 17.6 ± 1.5 and 10 females, age 17.3 ± 1.5) completed two, 3-week periods of training (EVEN and BLOCK) in a randomized, crossover-design study. In EVEN, 3 HIT sessions (5 × 4-min of diagonal-stride roller-skiing) were completed at a maximal sustainable intensity each week while low-intensity training (LIT) was distributed evenly around the HIT. In BLOCK, the same 9 HIT sessions were completed in the second week while only LIT was completed in the first and third weeks. Heart rate (HR), session ratings of perceived exertion (sRPE), and perceived recovery (pREC) were recorded for all HIT and LIT sessions, while distance covered was recorded for each HIT interval. The recovery-stress questionnaire for athletes (RESTQ-Sport) was completed weekly. Before and after EVEN and BLOCK, resting saliva and muscle samples were collected and an incremental test and 600-m time-trial (TT) were completed. Results: Pre- to post-testing revealed no significant differences between EVEN and BLOCK for changes in resting salivary cortisol, testosterone, or IgA, or for changes in muscle capillary density, fiber area, fiber composition, enzyme activity (CS, HAD, and PFK) or the protein content of VEGF or PGC-1α. Neither were any differences observed in the changes in skiing economy, [Formula: see text] or 600-m time-trial performance between interventions. These findings were coupled with no significant differences between EVEN and BLOCK for distance covered during HIT, summated HR zone scores, total sRPE training load, overall pREC or overall recovery-stress state. However, 600-m TT performance improved from pre- to post-training, irrespective of intervention ( P = 0.003), and a number of hormonal and muscle biopsy markers were also significantly

  16. An alternative to Even Swaps for modeling decision in a multi attribute problem; the case of Labor Formality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Tetaz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses two different alternatives to deal with the problem of multiple objectives in decision making. Even Swaps and Choice Based Conjoint are analyzed using an election between hypothetical jobs as a frame of decision. We show that not only Choice Based Conjoint Analysis can be used to value the different tradeoffs associated, but it can also be used to predict people choices even when they are not aware of the trades involved between objectives. Finally a tailored pilot survey is used to show the Choice Based Method in practice, allowing us to obtain important conclusions regarding people willingness to pay for several Labor Formality aspects. 

  17. Analytic study of transverse shunt resistance and even-odd mode coupling of a rod type RFQ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koscielniak, S.

    1994-06-01

    To minimize the ohmic power losses, it is necessary to maximize the transverse shunt resistance, R shunt . The cell of a rod-type RFQ is modelled by a parallel two-rod transmission line supported above a parallel ground conductor by two legs. Due to coupling between neighboring supports, the loading impedance is modified depending on the leg spacing. The shunt resistance is improved by reducing the cell length and increasing the leg spacing, and maximized when the legs are equally spaced. However, this is also the condition for strong excitation of the unwanted 'even-mode' in which a potential difference exists between the ends of the rods mid-plane and the grounding conductor or tank, Once the legs of the support are longitudinally separated, some even-mode excitation of the structure is inevitable because some current must be injected into the ground conductor; the even-mode excitation rises as leg separation increases. Further, when the desired odd-mode voltage is symmetric about the cell centre, the even-mode voltage is anti-symmetric This paper is a very much abridged version of two internal design notes[3], [4]. (author). 4 refs.,1 fig

  18. Economic decision-making in morning/evening-type people as a function of time of day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Angel; Ruiz-Herrera, Noelia; Ruz, Maria; Tonetti, Lorenzo; Martoni, Monica; Fabbri, Marco; Natale, Vincenzo

    2017-01-01

    Decision-making is affected by psychological factors like emotional state or cognitive control, which may also vary with circadian rhythmicity. Here, we tested the influence of chronotype (32 morning-type versus 32 evening-type) and time of day (9 a.m. versus 5 p.m.) on interpersonal decision-making as measured by the Ultimatum Game. Participants had to accept or reject different economic offers proposed by a virtual participant. Acceptance involved distribution of gains as proposed, whereas rejection resulted in no gain for either player. The results of the game showed a deviation from rational performance, as participants usually rejected the unfair offers. This behaviour was similar for both chronotype groups, and in both times of day. This result may reflect the robustness of decision-making strategies across standard circadian phases under ecological conditions. Furthermore, morning-types invested more time than evening-types to respond to high-uncertainty offers. This more cautious decision-making style of morning-types fits with our finding of higher proactive control as compared to evening-types when performing the AX-Continuous Performance Task. In line with the literature on personality traits, our results suggest that morning-types behave with more conscientiousness and less risk-taking than evening-type individuals.

  19. Admission medical records made at night time have the same quality as day and evening time records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirian, Ilda; Mortensen, Jacob F; Rosenberg, Jacob; Gögenur, Ismail

    2014-07-01

    A thorough and accurate admission medical record is an important tool in ensuring patient safety during the hospital stay. Surgeons' performance might be affected during night shifts due to sleep deprivation. The aim of the study was to assess the quality of admission medical records during day, evening and night time. A total of 1,000 admission medical records were collected from 2009 to 2013 based equally on four diagnoses: mechanical bowel obstruction, appendicitis, gallstone disease and gastrointestinal bleeding. The records were reviewed for errors by a pre-defined checklist based on Danish standards for admission medical records. The time of dictation for the medical record was registered. A total of 1,183 errors were found in 778 admission medical records made during day- and evening time, and 322 errors in 222 admission medical records from night time shifts. No significant overall difference in error was found in the admission medical records when day and evening values were compared to night values. Subgroup analyses made for all four diagnoses showed no difference in day and evening values compared with night time values. Night time deterioration was not seen in the quality of the medical records.

  20. Resonance phase and sings of P-odd and P-even effects, observable in the reactions with neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smotritskij, L.M.

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that introduction of the resonance phase for two quasistationary states with a similar spin and counter parity makes it possible to correlate the sing dependence of both the P-odd and P-even effects, experimentally observed in the reactions with neutrons. The common description of such effects enables determination of the theory unknown (free) parameters from the experiment [ru

  1. Polarization transfer between oriented metastable helium atoms and neon atoms. A comparison of even and odd isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pepper, D M; Wang, H T.M.

    1983-11-01

    Collision-induced polarization transfer from optically pumped helium to excited states of neon is studied using various combinations of even and odd isotopes. It is found that, within our experimental accuracy of 10%, the resultant polarization is independent of the isotopic composition of the binary mixture. Possible applications using this mechanism are discussed.

  2. Methods of cutting ponderosa pine in the Southwest - Establishment report: Even-aged yield study, Plot 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert H. Schubert

    1963-01-01

    The objectie of the study is to obtain information on the growth and yield of even-aged stands of different stocking levels. The plot will also serve as the start of a detailed growing stock study for the ponderosa pine region.

  3. Even More Brain-Powered Science: Teaching and Learning with Discrepant Events. Brain-Powered Science Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    How can water and a penny demonstrate the power of mathematics and molecular theory? Do spelling and punctuation really matter to the human brain? The third of Thomas O'Brien's books designed for 5-12 grade science teachers, "Even More Brain-Powered Science" uses the questions above and 11 other inquiry-oriented discrepant events--experiments or…

  4. An Evaluation of Practical Applicability of Multi-Assortment Production Break-Even Analysis based on Mining Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuksa, Dariusz; Trzaskuś-Żak, Beata; Gałaś, Zdzisław; Utrata, Arkadiusz

    2017-03-01

    In the practice of mining companies, the vast majority of them produce more than one product. The analysis of the break-even, which is referred to as CVP (Cost-Volume-Profit) analysis (Wilkinson, 2005; Czopek, 2003) in their case is significantly constricted, given the necessity to include multi-assortment structure in the analysis, which may have more than 20 types of assortments (depending on the grain size) in their offer, as in the case of open-pit mines. The article presents methods of evaluation of break-even (volume and value) for both a single-assortment production and a multi-assortment production. The complexity of problem of break-even evaluation for multi-assortment production has resulted in formation of many methods, and, simultaneously, various approaches to its analysis, especially differences in accounting fixed costs, which may be either totally accounted for among particular assortments, relating to the whole company or partially accounted for among particular assortments and partially relating to the company, as a whole. The evaluation of the chosen methods of break-even analysis, given the availability of data, was based on two examples of mining companies: an open-pit mine of rock materials and an underground hard coal mine. The selection of methods was set by the available data provided by the companies. The data for the analysis comes from internal documentation of the mines - financial statements, breakdowns and cost calculations.

  5. The Porter-Whitesides Discrepancy: Revisiting Odd-Even Effects in Wetting Properties of n-Alkanethiolate SAMs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengjia Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses the Porter-Whitesides discrepancy in wetting properties of n-alkanethiolate self-assembled monolayers (SAMs. About 25 years ago, Whitesides and coworker failed to observe any odd-even effect in wetting, however, Porter and his coworker did, albeit in select cases. Most previous studies agreed with Whitesides’ results, suggesting the absence of the odd-even effect in hydrophobicity of n-alkanethiolate SAMs. Recent reports have, however, found the odd-even effect in hydrophobicity of n-alkanethiolate SAMs on smooth substrates, indicating that hydrophobicity, and analogous interfacial properties, of n-alkanethiolate SAMs significantly depends on the properties of substrate. Unfortunately, the Whitesides and Porter papers do not report on the quality of the surfaces used. Based on recent work, we inferred that the original discrepancy between Whitesides and Porter can be attributed to the quality of the surface. Odd-even effect of SAMs in charge transport, capacitance, friction, and SAM structure are also discussed in this review to inform the general discussion. The discrepancy between Porter's group and Whitesides’ group could be due to surface roughness, morphology, oxidation, and adventitious contaminants.

  6. Noise annoyance from stationary sources: Relationships with exposure metric day-evening-night level (DENL) and their confidence intervals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, H.M.E.; Vos, H.

    2004-01-01

    Relationships between exposure to noise [metric: day-evening-night levels (DENL)] from stationary sources (shunting yards, a seasonal industry, and other industries) and annoyance are presented. Curves are presented for expected annoyance score, the percentage "highly annoyed" (%HA, cutoff at 72 on

  7. Evaluation of the odd-even effect in limits of detection for electron microprobe analysis of natural minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Surendra P., E-mail: spv@cie.unam.mx [Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Priv. Xochicalco s/no., Col Centro, A.P. 34, Temixco, Mor. 62580 (Mexico); Pandarinath, Kailasa [Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Priv. Xochicalco s/no., Col Centro, A.P. 34, Temixco, Mor. 62580 (Mexico); Velasco-Tapia, Fernando [Facultad de Ciencias de la Tierra, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Carretera Linares-Cerro Prieto km. 8, Linares, N.L. 67700 (Mexico); Rodriguez-Rios, Rodolfo [Facultad de Ingenieria e Instituto de Geologia, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Av. Dr. Manuel Nava No. 8, Zona Universitaria, San Luis Potosi, S.L.P. 78240 (Mexico)

    2009-04-13

    Limit of detection (LOD), being a fundamental quality parameter for analytical techniques, has been recently investigated and a systematic behavior has been observed for most odd-even element pairs for many techniques. However, to the best of our knowledge very few LOD data are available in published literature for electron microprobe analysis; these consist of three papers, two being on rare-earth elements and the third covering a large number of elements of atomic number between 21 and 92. These data confirm the systematic behavior of LODs for many odd-even pairs. To initiate to full this gap, we determined LODs for several major rock-forming chemical elements from Na to Fe with atomic numbers between 11 and 26, during the microprobe analysis of common minerals (olivine, plagioclase, pyroxene, amphibole, quartz, and opaques) in volcanic rocks. The odd-even effect of nuclear stability seems to be present in LOD data for most odd-even pairs investigated. Nevertheless, the experimental strategy concerning the reference materials, calibration procedure, and blank measurements, should be substantially modified to better evaluate the systematic behavior of LOD values in microprobe analysis.

  8. Thermodynamic study of alkane-α,ω-diamines - evidence of odd-even pattern of sublimation properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fulem, Michal; Růžička, K.; Červinka, C.; Bazyleva, A.; Della Gatta, G.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 371, Jun (2014), s. 93-105 ISSN 0378-3812 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : alkane-diamines * odd–even effect * vapor pressure * sublimation and vaporization thermodynamic properties * statistical thermodynamics Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.200, year: 2014

  9. Evaluation of the odd-even effect in limits of detection for electron microprobe analysis of natural minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Surendra P.; Pandarinath, Kailasa; Velasco-Tapia, Fernando; Rodriguez-Rios, Rodolfo

    2009-01-01

    Limit of detection (LOD), being a fundamental quality parameter for analytical techniques, has been recently investigated and a systematic behavior has been observed for most odd-even element pairs for many techniques. However, to the best of our knowledge very few LOD data are available in published literature for electron microprobe analysis; these consist of three papers, two being on rare-earth elements and the third covering a large number of elements of atomic number between 21 and 92. These data confirm the systematic behavior of LODs for many odd-even pairs. To initiate to full this gap, we determined LODs for several major rock-forming chemical elements from Na to Fe with atomic numbers between 11 and 26, during the microprobe analysis of common minerals (olivine, plagioclase, pyroxene, amphibole, quartz, and opaques) in volcanic rocks. The odd-even effect of nuclear stability seems to be present in LOD data for most odd-even pairs investigated. Nevertheless, the experimental strategy concerning the reference materials, calibration procedure, and blank measurements, should be substantially modified to better evaluate the systematic behavior of LOD values in microprobe analysis.

  10. Activity Report: "Escola de Cultura de Pau", the Laureate of the First Evens Prize for Peace Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvou, Marjolein

    2011-01-01

    On March 18th 2011 an independent jury of experts convened in Antwerp, Belgium, to select the laureate of the first Evens Prize for Peace Education from a shortlist of eleven organizations from all over Europe. After a long day of intense discussions, the jury agreed unanimously to award the prize to the "Escola de Cultura de Pau"…

  11. Underlying physics of identical odd- and even-mass bands in normally deformed rare-earth nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Lei; Liu Shuxin; Lei Yian; Zeng Jinyan

    2001-01-01

    The microscopic mechanism of the identical odd- and even-mass number nuclear bands in normally deformed rare-earth nuclei was investigated using the particle-number conserving (PNC) method for treating nuclear pairing correlation. It was found that the odd particle of an odd-A identical band always occupied a cranked low j and high Ω Nilsson orbital (e.g. proton [404]7/2, [402]5/2. On the contrary, if the odd particle occupies an intruder high j orbital (e.g. neutron [633]7/2, proton[514]9/2), the moment of inertia of the odd-A band was much larger than that of neighboring even-even ground state band. The observed variation of moment of inertia (below band crossing) was reproduced quite well by the PNC calculation, in which no free parameter was involved. The strengths of monopole and Y 20 quadrupole interactions were determined by the experimental odd-even differences in binding energy and band head moment of inertia

  12. Leaf area and tree increment dynamics of even-aged and multiaged lodgepole pine stands in Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassandra L. Kollenberg; Kevin L. O' Hara

    1999-01-01

    Age structure and distribution of leaf area index (LAI) of even and multiaged lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Engelm.) stands were examined on three study areas in western and central Montana. Projected leaf area was determined based on a relationship with sapwood cross-sectional area at breast height. Stand structure and LAI varied considerably between...

  13. The impact of friends on young adults' drinking over the course of the evening-an event-level analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thrul, J.; Kuntsche, E.N.

    2015-01-01

    Aims To examine whether young adults' alcohol consumption during the course of an evening was affected by the number of friends present, and the interaction between participants' gender and number of friends present. Design Participants used the internet-based cellphone-optimized assessment

  14. Class and Homework Problems: The Break-Even Radius of Insulation Computed Using Excel Solver and WolframAlpha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Greg

    2014-01-01

    A problem that illustrates two ways of computing the break-even radius of insulation is outlined. The problem is suitable for students who are taking an introductory module in heat transfer or transport phenomena and who have some previous knowledge of the numerical solution of non- linear algebraic equations. The potential for computer algebra,…

  15. Effects of morning vs evening statin administration on lipid profile: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Kamal; Serban, Maria-Corina; Penson, Peter; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Toth, Peter P; Jones, Steven R; Rizzo, Manfredi; Howard, George; Lip, Gregory Y H; Banach, Maciej

    Evidence about the optimal time of day at which to administer statins is lacking. The objective of this study is to synthesize evidence about effects of morning vs evening statin administration on lipid profile. We searched PubMed, SCOPUS, Web of Science, and Embase databases (from inception up to July 24, 2016) to identify the relevant studies. Mean differences (MDs) between the change scores in lipid parameters were pooled using a fixed-effect model. Eleven articles with 1034 participants were eligible for the analysis. The pooled analysis comparing effects of morning vs evening administration of statins on plasma total cholesterol (TC; P = .10), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = .90), and triglycerides (P = .45) was not statistically significant. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering was statistically greater in the evening-dose group (MD: 3.24 mg/dL, 95% CI: 1.23-5.25, P = .002). Subgroup analysis according to statin half-lives showed that evening dose of statins was significantly superior to morning dose for lowering LDL-C in case of both short and long half-life statins (MD: 9.68 mg/dL, 95% CI: 3.32-16.03, P = .003 and MD: 2.53 mg/dL, 95% CI: 0.41-4.64, P = .02, respectively) and also for TC reduction in case of short half-life statins only (P = .0005). LDL-C and TC lowering was significantly greater in the evening dose than in the morning dose in case of short-acting statins. Besides slight but significant effect on LDL-C, the efficacy of long-acting statins was equivalent for both regimens. Therefore, long-acting statins should be given at a time that will best aid compliance. Short-acting statins should be given in the evening. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. ActiWiz – a tool to reduce activation levels in CERN’s accelerators even further

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2014-01-01

    CERN operates accelerators to deliver high-energy particle beams for physics. This requires extremely precise beam steering, and tremendous efforts are invested to keep beam losses at the absolute minimum.   However, it is inevitable that some particles escape from their ideal path and, furthermore, the beam is sometimes even intentionally directed to hit equipment like targets or collimators. This results in the creation of radioactive nuclei in the matter with which the beam interacts. The physical processes driving this phenomenon are quite complex and the level of activation depends on a multitude of parameters like the location of the material with respect to the beam loss, the length of the irradiation period and potentially the chemical composition of the irradiated material. Sometimes the presence of chemical elements that are found only in traces, even fractions of weight-percent, can cause considerable differences when it comes to the beam-impact-driven production of radioactivity. The...

  17. Summer Roost Tree Selection by Eastern Red, Seminole, and Evening Bats in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, M.A.; Carter, T.C.; Ford, W.M.; Chapman, B.R.; Ozier, J.

    2000-01-01

    Radiotraction of six eastern red bats, six seminole bats and twenty-four evening bats to 55, 61, and 65 day roosts during 1996 to 1997 in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina. For each species, testing was done for differences between used roost trees and randomly located trees. Also tested for differences between habitat characteristics surrounding roost trees and randomly located trees. Eastern Red and Seminole bats generally roosted in canopies of hardwood and pine while clinging to foilage and small branches. Evening bats roosted in cavities or under exfoliating bark in pines and dead snags. Forest management strategies named within the study should be beneficial for providing roosts in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina.

  18. Simple relations for the excitation energies E2 and the transition probabilities B (E2) of neighboring doubly even nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patnaik, R.; Patra, R.; Satpathy, L.

    1975-01-01

    For even-even nuclei, the excitation energy E2 and the reduced transition probability B (E2) between the ground state and the first excited 2 + state have been considered. On the basis of different models, it is shown that for a nucleus N, Z the relations E2N, Z + E2N + 2,Z + 2 - E2N + 2, Z - E2N, Z + 2 approx. = 0 and B (E2)N, Z + B (E2)N + 2,Z + 2 - B (E2)N + 2,Z - B (E2)N, Z + 2 approx. = 0 hold good, except in certain specified regions. The goodness of these difference equations is tested with the available experimental data. The difference equation of Ross and Bhaduri is shown to follow from our approach. Some predictions of unmeasured E2 and B (E2) values have been made

  19. Scalable multi-grid preconditioning techniques for the even-parity S_N solver in UNIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadevan, Vijay S.; Smith, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    The Even-parity neutron transport equation with FE-S_N discretization is solved traditionally using SOR preconditioned CG method at the lowest level of iterations in order to compute the criticality in reactor analysis problems. The use of high order isoparametric finite elements prohibits the formation of the discrete operator explicitly due to memory constraints in peta scale architectures. Hence, a h-p multi-grid preconditioner based on linear tessellation of the higher order mesh is introduced here for the space-angle system and compared against SOR and Algebraic MG black-box solvers. The performance and scalability of the multi-grid scheme was determined for two test problems and found to be competitive in terms of both computational time and memory requirements. The implementation of this preconditioner in an even-parity solver like UNIC from ANL can further enable high fidelity calculations in a scalable manner on peta flop machines. (author)

  20. Sense of agency in continuous action: Assistance-induced performance improvement is self-attributed even with knowledge of assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Kazuya; Takeda, Yuji; Kimura, Motohiro

    2017-02-01

    In a task involving continuous action to achieve a goal, the sense of agency increases with an improvement in task performance that is induced by unnoticed computer assistance. This study investigated how explicit instruction about the existence of computer assistance affects the increase of sense of agency that accompanies performance improvement. Participants performed a continuous action task in which they controlled the direction of motion of a dot to a goal by pressing keys. When instructions indicated the absence of assistance, the sense of agency increased with performance improvement induced by computer assistance, replicating previous findings. Interestingly, this increase of sense of agency was also observed even when instructions indicated the presence of assistance. These results suggest that even when a plausible cause of performance improvement other than one's own action exists, the improvement can be misattributed to one's own control of action, resulting in an increased sense of agency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Parity-even and time-reversal-odd neutron optical potential in spinning matter induced by gravitational torsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, A.N., E-mail: ivanov@kph.tuwien.ac.at [Atominstitut, Technische Universität Wien, Stadionallee 2, A-1020 Wien (Austria); Snow, W.M., E-mail: wsnow@indiana.edu [Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47408 (United States); Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47408 (United States)

    2017-01-10

    Recent theoretical work has shown that spin 1/2 particles moving through unpolarized matter which sources torsion fields experience a new type of parity-even and time-reversal-odd optical potential if the matter is spinning in the lab frame. This new type of optical potential can be sought experimentally using the helicity dependence of the total cross sections for longitudinally polarized neutrons moving through a rotating cylindrical target. In combination with recent experimental constraints on short-range P-odd, T-even torsion interactions derived from polarized neutron spin rotation in matter one can derive separate constraints on the time components of scalar and pseudoscalar torsion fields in matter. We estimate the sensitivity achievable in such an experiment and briefly outline some of the potential sources of systematic error to be considered in any future experimental search for this effect.

  2. Parity-even and time-reversal-odd neutron optical potential in spinning matter induced by gravitational torsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Ivanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent theoretical work has shown that spin 1/2 particles moving through unpolarized matter which sources torsion fields experience a new type of parity-even and time-reversal-odd optical potential if the matter is spinning in the lab frame. This new type of optical potential can be sought experimentally using the helicity dependence of the total cross sections for longitudinally polarized neutrons moving through a rotating cylindrical target. In combination with recent experimental constraints on short-range P-odd, T-even torsion interactions derived from polarized neutron spin rotation in matter one can derive separate constraints on the time components of scalar and pseudoscalar torsion fields in matter. We estimate the sensitivity achievable in such an experiment and briefly outline some of the potential sources of systematic error to be considered in any future experimental search for this effect.

  3. A novel method for computation of the discrete Fourier transform over characteristic two finite field of even extension degree

    OpenAIRE

    Fedorenko, Sergei V.

    2011-01-01

    A novel method for computation of the discrete Fourier transform over a finite field with reduced multiplicative complexity is described. If the number of multiplications is to be minimized, then the novel method for the finite field of even extension degree is the best known method of the discrete Fourier transform computation. A constructive method of constructing for a cyclic convolution over a finite field is introduced.

  4. Emotional Experience in the Mornings and the Evenings: Consideration of Age Differences in Specific Emotions by Time of Day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tammy eEnglish

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Considerable evidence points to age-related improvements in emotional well-being with age. In order to gain a more nuanced understanding of the nature of these apparent shifts in experience, we examined age differences in a range of emotional states in the mornings and evenings in a sample of 135 community-residing participants across 10 consecutive days. Participants ranged in age from 22 to 93 years. Each participant completed a diary in the morning and again in the evening every day for the study period. During each of the assessments, participants reported the degree to which they experienced emotions sampled from all four quadrants of the affective circumplex. Overall, participants felt less positive and more negative in the evenings than in the mornings. As expected, older adults reported a relatively more positive emotional experience than younger adults at both times of day. Importantly, however, age effects varied based on emotion type and time of day. Older adults reported experiencing more positive emotion than relatively younger adults across a range of different positive states (although age differences emerged most consistently for low arousal positive states. Age-related reductions in negative experience were observed only for reports of low arousal negative emotions. There were no age differences in anger, anxiety, or sadness. For some emotions, age differences were stronger in the mornings (e.g., relaxed whereas for other emotions age differences were more pronounced in the evenings (e.g., enthusiastic. Findings are discussed in the context of adulthood changes in motivation and emotional experience.

  5. Systematics of the properties of excited states of odd-even nuclei in the mass range A approximately 100

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleymann, G.

    1976-01-01

    This paper is a compilation of results of experimental and theoretical studies on the term diagrams of odd-even nuclei from the isotope series of Nb, Tc, Rh and Ag, published until October 1975. As a relatively simple interpretation of the excitements of these nuclei, De Shalit proposed the coupling of a particle, whose quantum numbers may be derived from a shell model, to excited states of the core of the nucleus. (orig./BJ) [de

  6. Determinants of the Morning-Evening Home Blood Pressure Difference in Treated Hypertensives: The HIBA-Home Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas S. Aparicio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The morning home blood pressure (BP rise is a significant asymptomatic target organ damage predictor in hypertensives. Our aim was to evaluate determinants of home-based morning-evening difference (MEdiff in Argentine patients. Methods. Treated hypertensive patients aged ≥18 years participated in a cross-sectional study, after performing home morning and evening BP measurement. MEdiff was morning minus evening home average results. Variables identified as relevant predictors were entered into a multivariable linear regression analysis model. Results. Three hundred sixty-seven medicated hypertensives were included. Mean age was 66.2 (14.5, BMI 28.1 (4.5, total cholesterol 4.89 (1.0 mmol/L, 65.9% women, 11.7% smokers, and 10.6% diabetics. Mean MEdiff was 1.1 (12.5 mmHg systolic and 2.3 (6.1 mmHg diastolic, respectively. Mean self-recorded BP was 131.5 (14.1 mmHg systolic and 73.8 (7.6 mmHg diastolic, respectively. Mean morning and evening home BPs were 133.1 (16.5 versus 132 (15.7 systolic and 75.8 (8.4 versus 73.5 (8.2 diastolic, respectively. Significant beta-coefficient values were found in systolic MEdiff for age and smoking and in diastolic MEdiff for age, smoking, total cholesterol, and calcium-channel blockers. Conclusions. In a cohort of Argentine medicated patients, older age, smoking, total cholesterol, and use of calcium channel blockers were independent determinants of home-based MEdiff.

  7. Emotional experience in the mornings and the evenings: consideration of age differences in specific emotions by time of day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Tammy; Carstensen, Laura L

    2014-01-01

    Considerable evidence points to age-related improvements in emotional well-being with age. In order to gain a more nuanced understanding of the nature of these apparent shifts in experience, we examined age differences in a range of emotional states in the mornings and evenings in a sample of 135 community-residing participants across 10 consecutive days. Participants ranged in age from 22 to 93 years. Each participant completed a diary in the morning and again in the evening every day for the study period. During each of the assessments, participants reported the degree to which they experienced emotions sampled from all four quadrants of the affective circumplex. Overall, participants felt less positive and more negative in the evenings than in the mornings. As expected, older adults reported a relatively more positive emotional experience than younger adults at both times of day. Importantly, however, age effects varied based on emotion type and time of day. Older adults reported experiencing more positive emotion than relatively younger adults across a range of different positive states (although age differences emerged most consistently for low arousal positive states). Age-related reductions in negative experience were observed only for reports of low arousal negative emotions. There were no age differences in anger, anxiety, or sadness. For some emotions, age differences were stronger in the mornings (e.g., relaxed) whereas for other emotions age differences were more pronounced in the evenings (e.g., enthusiastic). Findings are discussed in the context of adulthood changes in motivation and emotional experience.

  8. The comparision of Vitex Agnus Castus and Evening Primrose oil on women’s depression: a clinical trial.

    OpenAIRE

    hamid Momeni; ashraf salehi; abalfazl seraji

    2013-01-01

    Background: Substantial number of people, for the treatment of various diseases, are seeking an alternative to conventional medicine. Depression is one of the most common mental disorders which is observed twice in women than in men and one of its causes in women is hormonal imbalance. Since the medicinal plants are effective in the treatment of this disorder, this research carried out to study the effect of Evening primrose oil, Vitex Agnus Castus and vitamin E, on depression in women with ...

  9. In silico design of supramolecules from their precursors: odd-even effects in cage-forming reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelfs, Kim E; Eden, Edward G B; Culshaw, Jamie L; Shakespeare, Stephen; Pyzer-Knapp, Edward O; Thompson, Hugh P G; Bacsa, John; Day, Graeme M; Adams, Dave J; Cooper, Andrew I

    2013-06-26

    We synthesize a series of imine cage molecules where increasing the chain length of the alkanediamine precursor results in an odd-even alternation between [2 + 3] and [4 + 6] cage macrocycles. A computational procedure is developed to predict the thermodynamically preferred product and the lowest energy conformer, hence rationalizing the observed alternation and the 3D cage structures, based on knowledge of the precursors alone.

  10. Even-odd charged multiplicity distributions and energy dependence of normalized multiplicity moments in different rapidity windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yuanfang; Liu Lianshou

    1990-01-01

    The even and odd multiplicity distributions for hadron-hadron collision in different rapidity windows are calculated, starting from a simple picture for charge correlation with non-zero correlation length. The coincidence and separation of these distributions are explained. The calculated window-and energy-dependence of normalized moments recovered the behaviour found in experiments. A new definition for normalized moments is propossed, especially suitable for narrow rapidity windows

  11. Genetic manipulation of gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) synthesis in a commercial variety of evening primrose (Oenothera sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gyves, Emilio Mendoza; Sparks, Caroline A; Sayanova, Olga; Lazzeri, Paul; Napier, Johnathan A; Jones, Huw D

    2004-07-01

    A robust Agrobacterium-mediated transformation procedure was developed for Rigel, a commercial cultivar of evening primrose, and used to deliver a cDNA encoding a Delta(6)-desaturase from borage under the control of a cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter. Analysis of the transformed plants demonstrated an altered profile of polyunsaturated fatty acids, with an increase in gamma-linolenic acid and octadecatetraenoic acid in leaf tissues when compared with control lines.

  12. Seniority four admixures in the low-lying 0+ states of even-mass tin and lead nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quesne, C.; Salmon, Y.; Spitz, S.

    1977-01-01

    New statistical measures of symmetry breaking are used to evaluate the total seniority four admixtures in the low-lying 0 + states of even-mass tin and lead nuclei. This approach is based on the centroid energies and partial widths of fixed total seniority and parity spectral distributions. Some seniority four states are found to be surprisingly low. However, the ground state is always a very pure seniority zero state

  13. Sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors reduce evening home blood pressure in type 2 diabetes with nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Tsuneo; Kishimoto, Miyako; Ohta, Mari; Tomonaga, Osamu; Suzuki, Hiromichi

    2017-05-01

    The effects of sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors on home blood pressure were examined in type 2 diabetes with nephropathy. The patients with diabetic nephropathy were screened from medical records in our hospitals. Among them, 52 patients who measured home blood pressure and started to take sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors were selected. Clinical parameters including estimated glomerular filtration rate, albuminuria and home blood pressure for 6 months were analysed. Sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors (luseogliflozin 5 mg/day or canagliflozin 100 mg/day) reduced body weight, HbA1c, albuminuria, estimated glomerular filtration rate and office blood pressure. Although sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors did not alter morning blood pressure, it reduced evening systolic blood pressure. Regression analyses revealed that decreases in evening blood pressure predicted decrements in albuminuria. The present data suggest that sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors suppress sodium overload during daytime to reduce evening blood pressure and albuminuria.

  14. The quiet evening auroral arc and the structure of the growth phase near-Earth plasma sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coroniti, F. V.; Pritchett, P. L.

    2014-03-01

    The plasma pressure and current configuration of the near-Earth plasma sheet that creates and sustains the quiet evening auroral arc during the growth phase of magnetospheric substorms is investigated. We propose that the quiet evening arc (QEA) connects to the thin near-Earth current sheet, which forms during the development of the growth phase enhancement of convection. The current sheet's large polarization electric fields are shielded from the ionosphere by an Inverted-V parallel potential drop, thereby producing the electron precipitation responsible for the arc's luminosity. The QEA is located in the plasma sheet region of maximal radial pressure gradient and, in the east-west direction, follows the vanishing of the approximately dawn-dusk-directed gradient or fold in the plasma pressure. In the evening sector, the boundary between the Region1 and Region 2 current systems occurs where the pressure maximizes (approximately radial gradient of the pressure vanishes) and where the approximately radial gradient of the magnetic flux tube volume also vanishes in an inflection region. The proposed intricate balance of plasma sheet pressure and currents may well be very sensitive to disruption by the arrival of equatorward traveling auroral streamers and their associated earthward traveling dipolarization fronts.

  15. Simulated geographic variations of plant species richness, evenness and abundance using climatic constraints on plant functional diversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleidon, Axel; Pavlick, Ryan; Reu, Bjoern; Adams, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    Among the most pronounced large-scale geographic patterns of plant biodiversity are the increase in plant species richness towards the tropics, a more even distribution of the relative abundances of plant species in the tropics, and a nearly log-normal relative abundance distribution. Here we use an individual-based plant diversity model that relates climatic constraints to feasible plant growth strategies to show that all three basic diversity patterns can be predicted merely from the climatic constraints acting upon plant ecophysiological trade-offs. Our model predicts that towards objectively 'harsher' environments, the range of feasible growth strategies resulting in reproductive plants is reduced, thus resulting in lower functional plant species richness. The reduction of evenness is attributed to a more rapid decline in productivity from the most productive to less productive plant growth strategies since the particular setup of the strategy becomes more important in maintaining high productivity in harsher environments. This approach is also able to reproduce the increase in the deviation from a log-normal distribution towards more evenly distributed communities of the tropics. Our results imply that these general biodiversity relationships can be understood primarily by considering the climatic constraints on plant ecophysiological trade-offs.

  16. B(E2) ↑ (01+ -> 21+) predictions for even–even nuclei in the differential equation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayak, R.C.; Pattnaik, S.

    2015-01-01

    We use the recently developed differential equation model (DEM) for the reduced electric quadrupole transition probability B(E2)↑ for the transition from the ground to the first 2 + state for predicting its values for a wide range of even–even nuclides almost throughout the nuclear landscape from Neon to Californium. This is made possible as the principal equation in the model, namely, the differential equation connecting the B(E2)↑ value of a given even–even nucleus with its derivatives with respect to the neutron and proton numbers, provides two different recursion relations, each connecting three different neighboring even–even nuclei from lower- to higher-mass numbers and vice versa. These relations are primarily responsible in extrapolating from known to unknown terrain of the B(E2)↑-landscape and thereby facilitate the predictions throughout. As a result, we have succeeded in predicting its hitherto unknown value for the adjacent 251 isotopes lying on either side of the known B(E2)↑ database. (author)

  17. Solar Cooker Study under Oman Conditions for Late Evening Cooking Using Stearic Acid and Acetanilide as PCM Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraj Nayak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy is an alternative source of nonrenewable energy in Oman. Sultanate of Oman government showed initiation into utilization of solar energy for domestic applications. Conversion of solar radiation into useful heat is the simplest application of solar energy, in which it can be used for late evening cooking. In this context, present work highlighted the design and development of solar cooker for Oman climatic conditions. The current work signifies usage of solar cooker for late evening cooking using stearic acid and acetanilide as phase change materials (PCM. Solar cooker parts are developed in-house and connected to water heating system compounded with evacuated tubes solar collector and storage tank. The circumference of cooker unit is incorporated with spiral stainless steel heat exchanger and annulus area of the pot is filled with PCM material. PCM releases heat at late evening and effective cooking up to 7:30 PM is noticed. The experimental results indicated the cooker efficiency of 30% and collector efficiency of 60–65% during the study. Overall, experiments showed satisfactory performance on the developed cooker.

  18. Post-Exercise Hypotension and Its Mechanisms Differ after Morning and Evening Exercise: A Randomized Crossover Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro C de Brito

    Full Text Available Post-exercise hypotension (PEH, calculated by the difference between post and pre-exercise values, it is greater after exercise performed in the evening than the morning. However, the hypotensive effect of morning exercise may be masked by the morning circadian increase in blood pressure. This study investigated PEH and its hemodynamic and autonomic mechanisms after sessions of aerobic exercise performed in the morning and evening, controlling for responses observed after control sessions performed at the same times of day. Sixteen pre-hypertensive men underwent four sessions (random order: two conducted in the morning (7:30 am and two in the evening (5 pm. At each time of day, subjects underwent an exercise (cycling, 45 min, 50%VO2peak and a control (sitting rest session. Measurements were taken pre- and post-interventions in all the sessions. The net effects of exercise were calculated for each time of day by [(post-pre exercise-(post-pre control] and were compared by paired t-test (P<0.05. Exercise hypotensive net effects (e.g., decreasing systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure occurred at both times of day, but systolic blood pressure reductions were greater after morning exercise (-7±3 vs. -3±4 mmHg, P<0.05. Exercise decreased cardiac output only in the morning (-460±771 ml/min, P<0.05, while it decreased stroke volume similarly at both times of day and increased heart rate less in the morning than in the evening (+7±5 vs. +10±5 bpm, P<0.05. Only evening exercise increased sympathovagal balance (+1.5±1.6, P<0.05 and calf blood flow responses to reactive hyperemia (+120±179 vs. -70±188 U, P<0.05. In conclusion, PEH occurs after exercise conducted at both times of day, but the systolic hypotensive effect is greater after morning exercise when circadian variations are considered. This greater effect is accompanied by a reduction of cardiac output due to a smaller increase in heart rate and cardiac sympathovagal balance.

  19. Methods of a large prospective, randomised, open-label, blinded end-point study comparing morning versus evening dosing in hypertensive patients: the Treatment In Morning versus Evening (TIME) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rorie, David A; Rogers, Amy; Mackenzie, Isla S; Ford, Ian; Webb, David J; Willams, Bryan; Brown, Morris; Poulter, Neil; Findlay, Evelyn; Saywood, Wendy; MacDonald, Thomas M

    2016-02-09

    Nocturnal blood pressure (BP) appears to be a better predictor of cardiovascular outcome than daytime BP. The BP lowering effects of most antihypertensive therapies are often greater in the first 12 h compared to the next 12 h. The Treatment In Morning versus Evening (TIME) study aims to establish whether evening dosing is more cardioprotective than morning dosing. The TIME study uses the prospective, randomised, open-label, blinded end-point (PROBE) design. TIME recruits participants by advertising in the community, from primary and secondary care, and from databases of consented patients in the UK. Participants must be aged over 18 years, prescribed at least one antihypertensive drug taken once a day, and have a valid email address. After the participants have self-enrolled and consented on the secure TIME website (http://www.timestudy.co.uk) they are randomised to take their antihypertensive medication in the morning or the evening. Participant follow-ups are conducted after 1 month and then every 3 months by automated email. The trial is expected to run for 5 years, randomising 10,269 participants, with average participant follow-up being 4 years. The primary end point is hospitalisation for the composite end point of non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), non-fatal stroke (cerebrovascular accident; CVA) or any vascular death determined by record-linkage. Secondary end points are: each component of the primary end point, hospitalisation for non-fatal stroke, hospitalisation for non-fatal MI, cardiovascular death, all-cause mortality, hospitalisation or death from congestive heart failure. The primary outcome will be a comparison of time to first event comparing morning versus evening dosing using an intention-to-treat analysis. The sample size is calculated for a two-sided test to detect 20% superiority at 80% power. TIME has ethical approval in the UK, and results will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. UKCRN17071; Pre-results. Published by the BMJ

  20. E0 and E2 decay of low-lying 0+ states in the even-even nuclei 206Pb, 208Po, 112-120 Sn and 112114Cd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julin, Rauno.

    1979-04-01

    Several new methods of in-beam conversion-electron and γ-ray spectrometry, applicable in the determination of E0 and E2 decay properties of low-lying 0 + states in even-mass nuclei, have been developed. The main attention has been paid to direct lifetime-measurement and coincidence methods based on the use of the natural pulsing of a cyclotron beam. With the aid of these methods, the similarity of the absolute decay rates of the two-neutron-hole 0 + 2 states in the N = 124 nuclei 206 Pb and 208 Po has been shown. A systematic investigation of the de-excitation of the 0 + 2 and 0 + 3 states in 112 , 11 4 , 116 , 118 , 120 Sn has been carried out. Twelve E0 transitions connecting the 0 + states have been observed, including very strong low-energy E0 transitions between the excited 0 + states, and several absolute transition probabilities have been determined. Furthermore, the new techniques have been applied successfully in determining the absolute E0 and E2 transition rates from the 0 + 2 and 0 + 3 states in 112 Cd and 114 Cd. The use of isotope-shift data in the calculation of the monopole strengths in 206 Pb and 208 Po is discussed. The results on even Sn and Cd nuclei are discussed within the framework of the coexistence of different shapes and of configuration mixing. (author)

  1. Study of the first collective levels of the even-even nuclei between masses 182 and 206; Etude des premiers niveaux collectifs des noyaux pairs-pairs entre les masses 182 et 206

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barloutaud, R; Leveque, A; Lehmann, P; Quidort, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    The reduced probabilities of deexcitation of the first two 2 + levels of {sup 184}W, {sup 186}W, {sup 188}Os, {sup 190}Os, {sup 192}Os and {sup 194}Pt have been deduced from coulombic excitation experiments on these nuclei.The results are included in a chart of the properties of the first two 2 + levels of even-even nuclei situated between masses 182 and 206. The variation of these properties as a function of nuclear distortion is compared with the various theoretical predictions concerning vibration levels. (author) [French] Les probabilites reduites de desexcitation des deux premiers niveaux 2 + de {sup 184}W, {sup 186}W, {sup 188}Os, {sup 190}Os, {sup 192}Os and {sup 194}Pt ont ete deduites des experiences d'excitation coulombienne de ces noyaux. Les resultats sont inseres dans une systematique des proprietes des deux premiers niveaux 2 + des noyaux pairs-pairs situes entre les masses 182 et 206. La variation de ces proprietes en fonction de la deformation nucleaire est comparee aux diverses predictions theoriques concernant les niveaux de vibration. (auteur)

  2. Prediction of the light CP-even Higgs-boson mass of the MSSM. Towards the ILC precision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, T.; Hollik, W.; Rzehak, H.

    2014-04-01

    The signal discovered in the Higgs searches at the LHC can be interpreted as the Higgs boson of the Standard Model as well as the light CP-even Higgs boson of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). In this context the measured mass value, having already reached the level of a precision observable with an experimental accuracy of about 500 MeV, plays an important role. This precision can be improved substantially below the level of ∝50 MeV at the future International Linear Collider (ILC). Within the MSSM the mass of the light CP-even Higgs boson, M h , can directly be predicted from the other parameters of the model. The accuracy of this prediction should match the one of the experimental measurements. The relatively high experimentally observed value of the mass of about 125.6 GeV has led to many investigations where the supersymmetric (SUSY) partners of the top quark have masses in the multi-TeV range. We review the recent improvements for the prediction for M h in the MSSM for large scalar top masses. They were obtained by combining the existing fixed-order result, comprising the full one-loop and leading and subleading two-loop corrections, with a resummation of the leading and subleading logarithmic contributions from the scalar top sector to all orders. In this way for the first time a high-precision prediction for the mass of the light CP-even Higgs boson in the MSSM is possible all the way up to the multi-TeV region of the relevant supersymmetric particles. However, substantial further improvements will be needed to reach the ILC precision. The newly obtained corrections to M h are included into the code FeynHiggs.

  3. Testing T-odd, p-even interactions with gamma-rays from neutron p-wave resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barabanov, A.L.

    1992-01-01

    A new method for the study of time reversal violation is described. It consists of measurements of the forward-backward asymmetry in individual gamma-ray transitions resulting from unpolarized neutron capture in p-wave resonance. An experiment with a 113 Cd target performed at the Dubna pulsed neutron source has been analyzed and a limit on the time reversal odd, parity even interaction extracted. The possibilities of experiments using the powerful pulsed neutron source at Los Alamos are considered. 23 refs.; 2 figs

  4. Optogalvanic spectroscopy of the hyperfine structure of weak La I lines: discovery of new even parity fine structure levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, Imran; Khan, Shamim; Gamper, B; Windholz, L; Dembczyński, J

    2013-01-01

    The hyperfine structure of weak La I lines was experimentally investigated using laser optogalvanic spectroscopy in a hollow cathode discharge lamp. More than 100 La I lines were investigated and 40 new energy levels were discovered, most of them having even parity. The magnetic hyperfine interaction constants A and in some cases the electric quadrupole interaction constants B for these levels were determined. All the newly discovered levels were confirmed either by additional laser excitations (from other known levels) or by lines in a Fourier transform spectrum which could now be classified. (paper)

  5. Assessment of the critical neutron number for internal break-even in explosion-induced thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaliski, S.

    1979-01-01

    An analysis is performed of the systems of an explosion-induced thermonuclear microfusion from the angle of attaining an internal break-even. A critical-state meter is defined, i.e. the critical neutron yield Nsub(cr) as the most convenient for characterizing the experimental setups. It is demonstrated that in a number of designed systems of an explosion-induced microfusion, Nsub(cr) is attained. In the experiments actually carried out the N-yield efficiency is of about three orders of magnitude. (author)

  6. A 20MeV (p,d) study of nuclear structure in the even and odd tin isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, D.G.; Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay

    1978-01-01

    The even and odd tin isotopes have been studied by 20 MeV (p,d) reactions. States strongly populated in the odd isotopes are due to the valence neutron shells and extend up to only 2 MeV of excitation energy; 'deep hole' states were not identified. The occupation probabilities extracted from finite-range distorted-wave-Born-approximation calculations generally agree well with the predictions of the BCS theory of superconducting nuclei, particularly with the calculations of Clement and Baranger. In the even tin isotopes, strongly populated states are characterized predominantly by L=2 transfers extending up to 4 MeV excitation energy. The experimental spectroscopic factors are compared with the BCS calculated values of Clement and Baranger, Alzetta and Sawicki, and Van Gunsteren; relatively good agreement is obtained for L=2 transitions, but not for L=0 transitions. A considerable fraction of the sum rule L=2 strength in 118 Sn is missing in the 119 Sn(p,d) 118 Sn experimental spectrum; in like manner, no 4 + strength could be identified in either 114 Sn or 118 Sn

  7. The ancient Romans knew that lead is a dangerous metal but they tolerated it: Is it happening even today?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sič Magdolna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In ancient Rome lead was used frequently. The most exposed to the noxiousness of lead were the miners and the workers that were treating the metal. The Romans noticed the lead caused illness with miners, but they nevertheless thought that small amounts of lead do not jeopardize the life of the rest of the population. Moreover, they used lead even for medical treatments. The ancient Romans were not conscious enough about the level of harmfulness of this metal for everyone's health, even for the wealthiest. New scientific methods proved a high level of environmental lead pollution at the time of the Roman Empire. Today, as the harmfulness of lead is scientifically proved, and is therefore eliminated as an addition to petrol. Moreover, most developed countries strive towards further elimination of lead from the environment. Serbia is only at the beginning of this process. Having in mind that in taking actions for the protection of environment we stay behind many countries, we should not take it only as part of the harmonization process with EU law, but as a common task that is in the interests of all.

  8. Morning-evening type and burnout level as factors influencing sleep quality of shift nurses: a questionnaire study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir Zencirci, Ayten; Arslan, Sümeyye

    2011-01-01

    Aim To assess the relationship between sleep quality and demographic variables, morning-evening type, and burnout in nurses who work shifts. Methods We carried out a cross-sectional self-administered study with forced choice and open-ended structured questionnaires – Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index, Morningness-eveningness Questionnaire, and Maslach Burnout Inventory. The study was carried out at Gazi University Medicine Faculty Hospital of Ankara on 524 invited nurses from July to September 2008, with a response rate of 89.94% (n = 483). Descriptive and inferential statistics were applied to determine the risk factors of poor sleep quality. Results Most socio-demographic variables did not affect sleep quality. Participants with poor sleep quality had quite high burnout levels. Most nurses who belonged to a type that is neither morning nor evening had poor sleep quality. Nurses who experienced an incident worsening their sleep patterns (P burnout dimensions were high. Conclusions Nurses working consistently either in the morning or at night had better sleep quality than those working rotating shifts. Further studies are still needed to develop interventions that improve sleep quality and decrease burnout in nurses working shifts. PMID:21853548

  9. Effects of habitat-forming species richness, evenness, identity, and abundance on benthic intertidal community establishment and productivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Lemieux

    Full Text Available In a context of reduced global biodiversity, the potential impacts from the loss of habitat-forming species (HFS on ecosystem structure and functioning must be established. These species are often the main community primary producers and have a major role in the establishment of organisms through facilitation processes. This study focuses on macroalgae and mussels as HFS within an intertidal zone along the St. Lawrence estuary (Quebec, Canada. Over a 16-week period, we manipulated the in situ diversity profile (richness, evenness, identity, and abundance of the dominant HFS (Fucus distichus edentatus, F. vesiculosus, and Mytilus spp. in order to define their role in both the establishment of associated species and community primary production. Contrary to expectation, no general change in HFS richness, evenness, abundance, or identity on associated species community establishment was observed. However, over the study period, the HFS diversity profile modified the structure within the trophic guilds, which may potentially affect further community functions. Also, our results showed that the low abundance of HFS had a negative impact on the primary productivity of the community. Our results suggest that HFS diversity profiles have a limited short-term role in our study habitat and may indicate that biological forcing in these intertidal communities is less important than environmental conditions. As such, there was an opportunistic establishment of species that ensured rapid colonization regardless of the absence, or the diversity profile, of facilitators such as HFS.

  10. Casimir energies in M4≥/sup N/ for even N. Green's-function and zeta-function techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantowski, R.; Milton, K.A.

    1987-01-01

    The Green's-function technique developed in the first paper in this series is generalized to apply to massive scalar, vector, second-order tensor, and Dirac spinor fields, as a preliminary to a full graviton calculation. The Casimir energies are of the form u/sub Casimir/ = (1/a 4 )[α/sub N/lna/b)+β/sub N/], where N (even) is the dimension of the internal sphere, a is its radius, and b/sup -1/ is an ultraviolet cutoff (presumably at the Planck scale). The coefficient of the divergent logarithm, α/sub N/, is unambiguously obtained for each field considered. The Green's-function technique gives rise to no difficulties in the evaluation of imaginary-mass-mode contributions to the Casimir energy. In addition, a new, simplified zeta-function technique is presented which is very easily implemented by symbolic programs, and which, of course, gives the same results. An error in a previous zeta-function calculation of the Casimir energy for even N is pointed out

  11. High-precision predictions for the light CP-even Higgs boson mass of the minimal supersymmetric standard model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, T; Heinemeyer, S; Hollik, W; Rzehak, H; Weiglein, G

    2014-04-11

    For the interpretation of the signal discovered in the Higgs searches at the LHC it will be crucial in particular to discriminate between the minimal Higgs sector realized in the standard model (SM) and its most commonly studied extension, the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM). The measured mass value, having already reached the level of a precision observable with an experimental accuracy of about 500 MeV, plays an important role in this context. In the MSSM the mass of the light CP-even Higgs boson, Mh, can directly be predicted from the other parameters of the model. The accuracy of this prediction should at least match the one of the experimental result. The relatively high mass value of about 126 GeV has led to many investigations where the scalar top quarks are in the multi-TeV range. We improve the prediction for Mh in the MSSM by combining the existing fixed-order result, comprising the full one-loop and leading and subleading two-loop corrections, with a resummation of the leading and subleading logarithmic contributions from the scalar top sector to all orders. In this way for the first time a high-precision prediction for the mass of the light CP-even Higgs boson in the MSSM is possible all the way up to the multi-TeV region of the relevant supersymmetric particles. The results are included in the code FEYNHIGGS.

  12. Measurement of the rapidity-even dipolar flow in Pb-Pb collisions with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Jia, Jiangyong

    2012-01-01

    The rapidity-even dipolar flow $v_1$ associated with dipole asymmetry of in the initial geometry is measured over broad ranges in $p_T$ ($0.5-9$ GeV) and centrality (0-50%) in Pb-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{_{\\mathrm{NN}}}}=2.76$ TeV, recorded by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. The $v_1$ coefficient is obtained via a two-component fit of the first order Fourier coefficient $v_{1,1}=\\langle\\cos \\Delta\\phi \\rangle$ of two particle correlation in relative azimuthal angle $\\Delta\\phi=\\phi_{\\mathrm{a}}-\\phi_{\\mathrm{b}}$ as a function of $p_T^{\\mathrm a}$ and $p_T^{\\mathrm b}$. This fit is motivated by the finding that the $p_T$ dependence of the $v_{1,1}(p_T^{\\mathrm a},p_T^{\\mathrm b})$ data are consistent with the combined contributions from a rapidity-even $v_1$ and global momentum conservation. The extracted $v_1$ is observed to cross zero at $p_T\\approx1.0$ GeV, reaches a maximum at 4--5 GeV with a value comparable to that for $v_3$, and decreases at higher $p_T$. Interestingly, the magnitude of $v_1$ at hig...

  13. Influence of Odd and Even Alkyl Chains on Supramolecular Nanoarchitecture via Self-Assembly of Tetraphenylethylene-Based AIEgens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Salimimarand

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Tetraphenylethylene (TPE based dumbbell shaped molecules TPE-Pi, TPE-Su, TPE-Az, and TPE-Se were synthesised bearing odd-even alkyl chains containing 7, 8, 9 and 10 carbons respectively. These molecules reveal typical Aggregation Induced Emission (AIE behaviour. The influence of the odd or even alkyl chain length was shown by studying the morphology of self-assembled nanostructures formed in a range of tetrahydrofuran (THF/water solvent systems. For example, with a water fraction of 80%, TPE derivatives with odd alkyl chains (TPE-Pi and TPE-Az self-assembled into nanosphere structures, while TPE-Su with 8 alkyl chains formed microbelts and TPE-Se with 10 alkyl chains aggregated into flower-like superstructures. These TPE derivatives also revealed interesting mechanochromic properties upon grinding, fuming and heating, which reveal the importance of molecular stacking in the crystal structure to the luminescent properties of the aggregates .The mechanochromic properties of TPE-Pi, TPE-Su, and TPE-Az were also demonstrated by the process of grounding, fuming, and heating.

  14. Effects of Odd–Even Side Chain Length of Alkyl-Substituted Diphenylbithiophenes on First Monolayer Thin Film Packing Structure

    KAUST Repository

    Akkerman, Hylke B.

    2013-07-31

    Because of their preferential two-dimensional layer-by-layer growth in thin films, 5,5′bis(4-alkylphenyl)-2,2′-bithiophenes (P2TPs) are model compounds for studying the effects of systematic chemical structure variations on thin-film structure and morphology, which in turn, impact the charge transport in organic field-effect transistors. For the first time, we observed, by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD), a strong change in molecular tilt angle in a monolayer of P2TP, depending on whether the alkyl chain on the P2TP molecules was of odd or even length. The monolayers were deposited on densely packed ultrasmooth self-assembled alkane silane modified SiO2 surfaces. Our work shows that a subtle change in molecular structure can have a significant impact on the molecular packing structure in thin film, which in turn, will have a strong impact on charge transport of organic semiconductors. This was verified by quantum-chemical calculations that predict a corresponding odd-even effect in the strength of the intermolecular electronic coupling. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  15. Even-parity resonances with synchrotron radiation from Laser Excited Lithium at 1s^22p State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ming-Tie; Wehlitz, Ralf

    2010-03-01

    Correlated many-body dynamics is still one of the unsolved fundamental problems in physics. Such correlation effects can be most clearly studied in processes involving single atoms for their simplicity.Lithium, being the simplest open shell atom, has been under a lot of study. Most of the studies focused on ground state lithium. However, only odd parity resonances can be populated through single photon (synchrotron radiation) absorption from ground state lithium (1s^22s). Lithium atoms, after being laser excited to the 1s^22p state, allow the study of even parity resonances. We have measured some of the even parity resonances of lithium for resonant energies below 64 eV. A single-mode diode laser is used to excite lithium from 1s^22s ground state to 1s^22p (^2P3/2) state. Photoions resulting from the interaction between the excited lithium and synchrotron radiation were analyzed and collected by an ion time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometer with a Z- stack channel plate detector. The Li^+ ion yield was recorded while scanning the undulator along with the monochromator. The energy scans have been analyzed regarding resonance energies and parameters of the Fano profiles. Our results for the observed resonances will be presented.

  16. A spatially adaptive grid-refinement approach for the finite element solution of the even-parity Boltzmann transport equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, Anwar M.; Iqbal, Shaukat; Rahman, Faizur

    2007-01-01

    A spatially adaptive grid-refinement approach has been investigated to solve the even-parity Boltzmann transport equation. A residual based a posteriori error estimation scheme has been utilized for checking the approximate solutions for various finite element grids. The local particle balance has been considered as an error assessment criterion. To implement the adaptive approach, a computer program ADAFENT (adaptive finite elements for neutron transport) has been developed to solve the second order even-parity Boltzmann transport equation using K + variational principle for slab geometry. The program has a core K + module which employs Lagrange polynomials as spatial basis functions for the finite element formulation and Legendre polynomials for the directional dependence of the solution. The core module is called in by the adaptive grid generator to determine local gradients and residuals to explore the possibility of grid refinements in appropriate regions of the problem. The a posteriori error estimation scheme has been implemented in the outer grid refining iteration module. Numerical experiments indicate that local errors are large in regions where the flux gradients are large. A comparison of the spatially adaptive grid-refinement approach with that of uniform meshing approach for various benchmark cases confirms its superiority in greatly enhancing the accuracy of the solution without increasing the number of unknown coefficients. A reduction in the local errors of the order of 10 2 has been achieved using the new approach in some cases

  17. A spatially adaptive grid-refinement approach for the finite element solution of the even-parity Boltzmann transport equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirza, Anwar M. [Department of Computer Science, National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences, NUCES-FAST, A.K. Brohi Road, H-11, Islamabad (Pakistan)], E-mail: anwar.m.mirza@gmail.com; Iqbal, Shaukat [Faculty of Computer Science and Engineering, Ghulam Ishaq Khan (GIK) Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Topi-23460, Swabi (Pakistan)], E-mail: shaukat@giki.edu.pk; Rahman, Faizur [Department of Physics, Allama Iqbal Open University, H-8 Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2007-07-15

    A spatially adaptive grid-refinement approach has been investigated to solve the even-parity Boltzmann transport equation. A residual based a posteriori error estimation scheme has been utilized for checking the approximate solutions for various finite element grids. The local particle balance has been considered as an error assessment criterion. To implement the adaptive approach, a computer program ADAFENT (adaptive finite elements for neutron transport) has been developed to solve the second order even-parity Boltzmann transport equation using K{sup +} variational principle for slab geometry. The program has a core K{sup +} module which employs Lagrange polynomials as spatial basis functions for the finite element formulation and Legendre polynomials for the directional dependence of the solution. The core module is called in by the adaptive grid generator to determine local gradients and residuals to explore the possibility of grid refinements in appropriate regions of the problem. The a posteriori error estimation scheme has been implemented in the outer grid refining iteration module. Numerical experiments indicate that local errors are large in regions where the flux gradients are large. A comparison of the spatially adaptive grid-refinement approach with that of uniform meshing approach for various benchmark cases confirms its superiority in greatly enhancing the accuracy of the solution without increasing the number of unknown coefficients. A reduction in the local errors of the order of 10{sup 2} has been achieved using the new approach in some cases.

  18. [Economic assessment of low flow anesthesia with analysis of the break-even point. Experience at an underutilized operating room].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varesio, V; Agosta, I; Masullo, F; Malnati, R; Martegani, G M

    1997-04-01

    Many authors indicate the importance of economic saving obtained with the use of the inhalation rebreathing anaesthesia instead of non rebreathing anaesthesia, always referring to parameters which are the duration of anesthesia (1 hour) and the use of the operating theatre each year. It is presumed that the utilization of rebreathing system is at least a 1.000 hours/year. However it is not necessary that all the operating theatres employ 1.000 hours/year in rebreathing anesthesia. This method requires annual depreciation costs of the capital invested for the purchase of new adequate ventilators, to modificative those already existing and guarantee adequate monitoring and the maintenance of these equipment. The importance is stressed of individuating a method of economical evaluation comparing the effective savings obtained with the real utilization of rebreathing anesthesia for each operating theatre and the costs of purchasing and maintaining the equipment. From our point of view the break-even point analysis has demonstrated to be a consistent instrument for the evaluation of the real economic advantage of rebreathing system in each hospital. It is suggested to utilize a conventional formula for the determination of the break even point, which means the minimal number of hours for year that justifies economically the adoption of rebreathing anaesthesia. An example of this analysis has been applied for an operating theatre in the hospital of Morbegno, where the major utilization of regional anaesthesia leads to a reduced number hours/year of rebreathing anesthesia which remains anyhow economically advantageous.

  19. How copying affects the amount, evenness and persistence of cultural knowledge: insights from the social learning strategies tournament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendell, L; Boyd, R; Enquist, M; Feldman, M W; Fogarty, L; Laland, K N

    2011-04-12

    Darwinian processes should favour those individuals that deploy the most effective strategies for acquiring information about their environment. We organized a computer-based tournament to investigate which learning strategies would perform well in a changing environment. The most successful strategies relied almost exclusively on social learning (here, learning a behaviour performed by another individual) rather than asocial learning, even when environments were changing rapidly; moreover, successful strategies focused learning effort on periods of environmental change. Here, we use data from tournament simulations to examine how these strategies might affect cultural evolution, as reflected in the amount of culture (i.e. number of cultural traits) in the population, the distribution of cultural traits across individuals, and their persistence through time. We found that high levels of social learning are associated with a larger amount of more persistent knowledge, but a smaller amount of less persistent expressed behaviour, as well as more uneven distributions of behaviour, as individuals concentrated on exploiting a smaller subset of behaviour patterns. Increased rates of environmental change generated increases in the amount and evenness of behaviour. These observations suggest that copying confers on cultural populations an adaptive plasticity, allowing them to respond to changing environments rapidly by drawing on a wider knowledge base.

  20. How copying affects the amount, evenness and persistence of cultural knowledge: insights from the social learning strategies tournament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendell, L.; Boyd, R.; Enquist, M.; Feldman, M. W.; Fogarty, L.; Laland, K. N.

    2011-01-01

    Darwinian processes should favour those individuals that deploy the most effective strategies for acquiring information about their environment. We organized a computer-based tournament to investigate which learning strategies would perform well in a changing environment. The most successful strategies relied almost exclusively on social learning (here, learning a behaviour performed by another individual) rather than asocial learning, even when environments were changing rapidly; moreover, successful strategies focused learning effort on periods of environmental change. Here, we use data from tournament simulations to examine how these strategies might affect cultural evolution, as reflected in the amount of culture (i.e. number of cultural traits) in the population, the distribution of cultural traits across individuals, and their persistence through time. We found that high levels of social learning are associated with a larger amount of more persistent knowledge, but a smaller amount of less persistent expressed behaviour, as well as more uneven distributions of behaviour, as individuals concentrated on exploiting a smaller subset of behaviour patterns. Increased rates of environmental change generated increases in the amount and evenness of behaviour. These observations suggest that copying confers on cultural populations an adaptive plasticity, allowing them to respond to changing environments rapidly by drawing on a wider knowledge base. PMID:21357234