Sample records for evaluation model sem

  1. Evaluating Neighborhoods Livability in Nigeria: A Structural Equation Modelling (SEM Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sule Abass Iyanda


    Full Text Available There is a growing concern about city livability around the world and of particular concern is the aspects of the person-environment relationship which encompasses many characteristics suffice to make a place livable. Extant literature provides livability dimensions such as housing unit characteristics, neighborhood facilities, economic vitality and safety environment. These livability dimensions as well as their attributes found in the extant literature have been reported to have high reliability measurement level. Although, various methods have been applied to examine relationships among the variables however structural equation modeling (SEM has been found more holistic as a modeling technique to understand and explain the relationships that may exist among variable measurements. Structural equation modeling simultaneously performs multivariate analysis including multiple regression, path and factor analysis in the cause-effect relationships between latent constructs. Therefore, this study investigates the key factors of livability of planned residential neighborhoods in Minna, Nigeria with the research objectives of – (a to study the livability level of the selected residential neighborhoods, (b to determine the dimensions and indicators which most influence the level of livability in the selected residential neighborhoods, and (c to reliably test the efficacy of structural equation modeling (SEM in the assessment of livability. The methodology adopted in this study includes- Data collection with the aid of structured questionnaire survey administered to the residents of the study area based on stratified random sampling. The data collected was analyzed with the aid of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 22.0 and AMOS 22.0 software for structural equation modeling (a second-order factor. The study revealed that livability as a second-order factor is indicated by economic vitality, safety environment, neighborhood facilities

  2. semPLS: Structural Equation Modeling Using Partial Least Squares

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    Armin Monecke


    Full Text Available Structural equation models (SEM are very popular in many disciplines. The partial least squares (PLS approach to SEM offers an alternative to covariance-based SEM, which is especially suited for situations when data is not normally distributed. PLS path modelling is referred to as soft-modeling-technique with minimum demands regarding mea- surement scales, sample sizes and residual distributions. The semPLS package provides the capability to estimate PLS path models within the R programming environment. Different setups for the estimation of factor scores can be used. Furthermore it contains modular methods for computation of bootstrap confidence intervals, model parameters and several quality indices. Various plot functions help to evaluate the model. The well known mobile phone dataset from marketing research is used to demonstrate the features of the package.

  3. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM of Performance Evaluation Indices in General Directorate of Youth and Sport of Guilan Province with Partial Least Squares (PLS

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    Hamidreza Goharrostami


    Full Text Available Purpose : to evaluate the performance evaluation the indexes of general directorate of youth and sport of Guilan province by using the BSC approach. Material : This was a descriptive and field -based survey. The population included managers and experts from the general directorate of youth and sport of Guilan province. The purposive sampling was used. A questionnaire was used to collect data. Content validity and reliability were approved by experts Cronbach's alpha test (0.89 respectively. For data analyzing and model fitting the structural equation modeling (SEM with PLS software was used. Results : performance evaluation model of general directorate of youth and sport of Guilan province has four factors, 12 dimensions and 55 indicators. So that learning and development factor has 4 dimensions and 13 indicators, internal processes have 4 dimensions and 23 indicators, financial factor has 2 dimensions and 7 indicators and customer and sport results have 2 dimensions 12 indicators. Internal processes, customer and sporting results, learning and development and financial factors had coefficients of factor loading of 0.91, 0.83, 0.81 and 0.80 respectively. Conclusion : We concluded that, in evaluating the performance of the organization, special attention should be paid on four studied terms and their confirmed dimensions and indicators. Based on the factor loading priority of activities and evaluation should be allocated to internal processes, customer and sporting results, learning and development and financial factors. So this index can be used to design a model to evaluate the performance of the general directorate of youth and sport of Guilan province.

  4. Using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) to predict use of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    subsequently the use of VCT services are generally lacking. We employed Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) ... Voluntary counselling and testing (VCT), Structural equation modelling (SEM), AMOS program Introduction ..... similar to those reported in hospital or satellite. (stand-alone) VCT centres, we feel that our findings.

  5. The use of Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) in Capital Structure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    analytic structural equation modelling (SEM) methodology. ... Consistent with the dominant theory, the findings of this study are that non-debt tax shields, business risk and probability of bankruptcy are negatively related to gearing, while tangibility, ...

  6. Comparing SVARs and SEMs : Two models of the UK economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, J.P.A.M.; Wallis, K.F.


    The structural vector autoregression (SVAR) and simultaneous equation macroeconometric model (SEM) styles of empirical macroeconomic modelling are compared and contrasted, with reference to two models of the UK economy, namely the long-run structural VAR model of Garratt, Lee, Pesaran and Shin and

  7. Primary enamel permeability: a SEM evaluation in vivo. (United States)

    Lucchese, A; Bertacci, A; Chersoni, S; Portelli, M


    The aim of this study was to evaluate in vivo the occurrence of outward fluid flow on primary tooth sound enamel surface. Sixty primary upper canines from preadolescent patients (mean age 8.0±1.9) and 24 retained primary upper canines from adult subjects (mean age 35.0±1.8) were analysed. The enamel surface was gently polished and air dried for 10 s. An impression was immediately obtained by vinyl polyxiloxane. Replicas were then obtained by polyether impression material, gold coated and inspected under SEM. The hydrophobic vinyl polyxiloxane material enabled to obtain in situ a morphological image of the presence of droplets, most likely resulting from outward fluids flow through outer enamel. For each sample three different representative areas of 5μ² in the cervical, medium and incisal third were examined and droplets presence values was recorded. All data were analysed by by Fisher's exact test. Primary enamel showed a substantial permeability expressed as droplets discharge on its surface. Droplets distribution covered, without any specific localisation, the entire enamel surface in all the samples. No signs of post-eruptive maturation with changes in droplets distribution were observed in samples from adult subjects. No statistically significant differences (P = 0.955) were noted in the percentage distribution of enamel area covered with droplets among the two group studied. SEM evaluation of droplets distribution on enamel surface indicated a substantial enamel permeability in primary teeth, accordingly with histological features, without changes during aging. A relationship between enamel permeability, caries susceptibility and bonding procedures effectiveness could be hypothesised.

  8. Rapid evaluation of particle properties using inverse SEM simulations (United States)

    Bekar, Kursat B.; Miller, Thomas M.; Patton, Bruce W.; Weber, Charles F.


    The characteristic X-rays produced by the interactions of the electron beam with the sample in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) are usually captured with a variable-energy detector, a process termed energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). The purpose of this work is to exploit inverse simulations of SEM-EDS spectra to enable rapid determination of sample properties, particularly elemental composition. This is accomplished using penORNL, a modified version of PENELOPE, and a modified version of the traditional Levenberg-Marquardt nonlinear optimization algorithm, which together is referred to as MOZAIK-SEM. The overall conclusion of this work is that MOZAIK-SEM is a promising method for performing inverse analysis of X-ray spectra generated within a SEM. As this methodology exists now, MOZAIK-SEM has been shown to calculate the elemental composition of an unknown sample within a few percent of the actual composition.

  9. Rapid evaluation of particle properties using inverse SEM simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekar, Kursat B [ORNL; Miller, Thomas Martin [ORNL; Patton, Bruce W [ORNL; Weber, Charles F [ORNL


    The characteristic X-rays produced by the interactions of the electron beam with the sample in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) are usually captured with a variable-energy detector, a process termed energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). The purpose of this work is to exploit inverse simulations of SEM-EDS spectra to enable rapid determination of sample properties, particularly elemental composition. This is accomplished using penORNL, a modified version of PENELOPE, and a modified version of the traditional Levenberg Marquardt nonlinear optimization algorithm, which together is referred to as MOZAIK-SEM. The overall conclusion of this work is that MOZAIK-SEM is a promising method for performing inverse analysis of X-ray spectra generated within a SEM. As this methodology exists now, MOZAIK-SEM has been shown to calculate the elemental composition of an unknown sample within a few percent of the actual composition.

  10. Subjective Values of Quality of Life Dimensions in Elderly People. A SEM Preference Model Approach (United States)

    Elosua, Paula


    This article proposes a Thurstonian model in the framework of Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) to assess preferences among quality of life dimensions for the elderly. Data were gathered by a paired comparison design in a sample comprised of 323 people aged from 65 to 94 years old. Five dimensions of quality of life were evaluated: Health,…

  11. Rapid Evaluation of Particle Properties using Inverse SEM Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekar, Kursat B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Miller, Thomas Martin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Patton, Bruce W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Weber, Charles F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    This report is the final deliverable of a 3 year project whose purpose was to investigate the possibility of using simulations of X-ray spectra generated inside a scanning electron microscope (SEM) as a means to perform quantitative analysis of the sample imaged in the SEM via an inverse analysis methodology. Using the nine point Technology Readiness Levels (TRL) typically used by the US Department of Defense (DOD) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), this concept is now at a TRL of 3. In other words, this work has proven the feasibility of this concept and is ready to be further investigated to address some of the issues highlighted by this initial proof of concept.





    Causal analysis greatly affects the efficiency of decision-making. Scholars usually adopt structural equation modeling (SEM) to establish a causal model recently. However, statistical data allow researchers to modify the model frequently to arrive at good model fitness, and SEM is often misapplied when the data are merely fitted to an SEM and the theory is then extended from the analytical result based on presumed hypotheses. This paper proposed SEM modified by DEMATEL technique, taking causa...

  13. Benefits from bremsstrahlung distribution evaluation to get unknown information from specimen in SEM and TEM (United States)

    Eggert, F.; Camus, P. P.; Schleifer, M.; Reinauer, F.


    The energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS or EDX) is a commonly used device to characterise the composition of investigated material in scanning and transmission electron microscopes (SEM and TEM). One major benefit compared to wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectrometers (WDS) is that EDS systems collect the entire spectrum simultaneously. Therefore, not only are all emitted characteristic X-ray lines in the spectrum, but also the complete bremsstrahlung distribution is included. It is possible to get information about the specimen even from this radiation, which is usually perceived more as a disturbing background. This is possible by using theoretical model knowledge about bremsstrahlung excitation and absorption in the specimen in comparison to the actual measured spectrum. The core aim of this investigation is to present a method for better bremsstrahlung fitting in unknown geometry cases by variation of the geometry parameters and to utilise this knowledge also for characteristic radiation evaluation. A method is described, which allows the parameterisation of the true X-ray absorption conditions during spectrum acquisition. An ‘effective tilt’ angle parameter is determined by evaluation of the bremsstrahlung shape of the measured SEM spectra. It is useful for bremsstrahlung background approximation, with exact calculations of the absorption edges below the characteristic peaks, required for P/B-ZAF model based quantification methods. It can even be used for ZAF based quantification models as a variable input parameter. The analytical results are then much more reliable for the different absorption effects from irregular specimen surfaces because the unknown absorption dependency is considered. Finally, the method is also applied for evaluation of TEM spectra. In this case, the real physical parameter optimisation is with sample thickness (mass thickness), which is influencing the emitted and measured spectrum due to different absorption with TEM

  14. A combined technique using SEM and TOPSIS for the commercialization capability of R&D project evaluation

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    Charttirot Karaveg


    Full Text Available There is a high risk of R&D based innovation being commercialized, especially in the innovation transfer process which is a concern to many entrepreneurs and researchers. The purpose of this research is to develop the criteria of R&D commercialization capability and to propose a combined technique of Structural Equation Modelling (SEM and Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS for R&D project evaluation. The research utilized a mixed-method approach. The first phase comprised a qualitative study on commercialization criteria development though the survey research of 272 successful entrepreneurs and researchers in all industrial sectors in Thailand. The data was collected with a structured questionnaire and analyzed by SEM. The second phase was involved with SEM-TOPSIS technique development and a case study of 45 R&D projects in research institutes and incubators for technique validation. The research results reveal that there were six criteria for R&D project commercialization capability, these are arranged according to the significance; marketing, technology, finance, non-financial impact, intellectual property, and human resource. The holistic criteria is presented in decreasing order on the ambiguous subjectivity of the fuzzy-expert system, to help with effectively funding R&D and to prevent a resource meltdown. This study applies SEM to the relative weighting of hierarchical criteria. The TOPSIS approach is employed to rank the alternative performance. An integrated SEM-TOPSIS is proposed for the first time and applied to present R&D projects shown to be effective and feasible in evaluating R&D commercialization capacity.

  15. Maximum Likelihood Dynamic Factor Modeling for Arbitrary "N" and "T" Using SEM (United States)

    Voelkle, Manuel C.; Oud, Johan H. L.; von Oertzen, Timo; Lindenberger, Ulman


    This article has 3 objectives that build on each other. First, we demonstrate how to obtain maximum likelihood estimates for dynamic factor models (the direct autoregressive factor score model) with arbitrary "T" and "N" by means of structural equation modeling (SEM) and compare the approach to existing methods. Second, we go beyond standard time…

  16. CD-SEM metrology and OPC modeling for 2D patterning in advanced technology nodes (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Wallow, Thomas I.; Zhang, Chen; Fumar-Pici, Anita; Chen, Jun; Laenens, Bart; Spence, Christopher A.; Rio, David; van Adrichem, Paul; Dillen, Harm; Wang, Jing; Yang, Peng-Cheng; Gillijns, Werner; Jaenen, Patrick; van Roey, Frieda; van de Kerkhove, Jeroen; Babin, Sergey


    on OPC model accuracy, and evaluate potential consequences for CD-SEM metrology capabilities and practices.

  17. Comparative sem evaluation of three solvents used in endodontic retreatment: an ex vivo study

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    Miriam F. Zaccaro Scelza


    Full Text Available This study compared, by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, the efficacy of three solvents on the removal of filling materials from dentinal tubules during endodontic retreatment. Forty human maxillary canines with straight canals were prepared according to a crown-down technique and enlarged to a#30 apical file size, before obturation with gutta-percha and a zinc-oxide-eugenol based sealer. The samples were stored for 3 months before being randomly assigned to four groups: chloroform (n=10, orange oil (n=10, eucalyptol (n=10 and control (n=10. Solvents were applied to a reservoir created on the coronal root third using Gates Glidden drills. The total time for retreatment using the solvents was 5 minutes per tooth. Following retreatment the roots were split longitudinally for SEM evaluation. SEM images were digitized, analyzed using Image ProPlus 4.5 software, and the number of dentinal tubules free of filling material from the middle and apical thirds was recorded. No significant difference was found among the solvent groups regarding the number of dentinal tubules free of root filling remnants in the middle and apical root thirds (p>0.05. However, the control group had fewer dentinal tubules free of filling material (p<0.05. Under the tested conditions, it may be concluded that there was no significant difference among the solvents used to obtain dentinal tubules free of filling material remnants.

  18. BIB-SEM of representative area clay structures paving towards an alternative model of porosity (United States)

    Desbois, G.; Urai, J. L.; Houben, M.; Hemes, S.; Klaver, J.


    A major contribution to understanding the sealing capacity, coupled flow, capillary processes and associated deformation in clay-rich geomaterials is based on detailed investigation of the rock microstructures. However, the direct characterization of pores in representative elementary area (REA) and below µm-scale resolution remains challenging. To investigate directly the mm- to nm-scale porosity, SEM is certainly the most direct approach, but it is limited by the poor quality of the investigated surfaces. The recent development of ion milling tools (BIB and FIB; Desbois et al, 2009, 2011; Heath et al., 2011; Keller et al., 2011) and cryo-SEM allows respectively producing exceptional high quality polished cross-sections suitable for high resolution porosity SEM-imaging at nm-scale and investigating samples under wet conditions by cryogenic stabilization. This contribution focuses mainly on the SEM description of pore microstructures in 2D BIB-polished cross-sections of Boom (Mol site, Belgium) and Opalinus (Mont Terri, Switzerland) clays down to the SEM resolution. Pores detected in images are statistically analyzed to perform porosity quantification in REA. On the one hand, BIB-SEM results allow retrieving MIP measurements obtained from larger sample volumes. On the other hand, the BIB-SEM approach allows characterizing porosity-homogeneous and -predictable islands, which form the elementary components of an alternative concept of porosity/permeability model based on pore microstructures. Desbois G., Urai J.L. and Kukla P.A. (2009) Morphology of the pore space in claystones - evidence from BIB/FIB ion beam sectioning and cryo-SEM observations. E-Earth, 4, 15-22. Desbois G., Urai J.L., Kukla P.A., Konstanty J. and Baerle C. (2011). High-resolution 3D fabric and porosity model in a tight gas sandstone reservoir: a new approach to investigate microstructures from mm- to nm-scale combining argon beam cross-sectioning and SEM imaging . Journal of Petroleum Science

  19. An evaluation testing technique of single event effect using Beam Blanking SEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, J.; Hada, T.; Pesce, A.; Akutsu, T.; Matsuda, S. [National Space Development Agency of Japan, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). Tsukuba Space Center; Igarashi, T.; Baba, S.


    Beam Blanking SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) testing technique has been applied to CMOS SRAM devices to evaluate the occurence of soft errors on memory cells. Cross-section versus beam current and LET curves derived from BBSEM and heavy ion testing technique, respectively, have been compared. A linear relation between BBSEM current and heavy ion LET has been found. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that the application of focused pulsed electron beam could be a reliable, convenient and inexpensive tool to investigate the effects of heavy ions and high energy particles on memory devices for space application. (author)

  20. FE-SEM Evaluation of Dental Specimens Prepared by Different Methods for In Vitro Contamination. (United States)

    Nakamura, Vitor Cesar; Kataoka, Simony Hidee Hamoy; Gavini, Giulio; Ferrari, Patrícia Helena; Cai, Silvana


    Objective. To evaluate through FE-SEM the cleanliness and dentinal alterations promoted by different methods of dental sample preparation. Methods. Twenty-five human single-rooted teeth were used. The teeth were cleaned and autoclaved in wet medium and randomly divided into 5 groups (n = 5), according to the preparation methods employed-control group: no solutions applied; group 1: cement removal and irrigation with 5.25% NaOCl  + 17 % EDTA for 4 minutes each; group 2: 17%  EDTA + 2.5% NaOCl (4 minutes ultrasonic bath); group 3: cement removal and 17%  EDTA + 5.25%  NaOCl + phosphate buffer solution + distilled water (10 minutes ultrasonic); group 4: 17%  EDTA + 5.25% NaOCl (3 minutes ultrasonic bath). Specimens were analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), at 1500x magnification. Data were submitted to qualitative analysis according to a scoring system and submitted to Kruskal-Wallis test. Results. In ascending order, as to bind parameters, (i) cleanliness: control, group 2, group 3, group 5, and group 4, (ii) dentinal alterations: group 1, group 5, group 2, group 3, and group 4. Conclusion. The proposed protocol was suitable for subsequent microbiological contamination, because it showed less dentinal morphological alterations with increased removal of organic waste.

  1. SEM Evaluation of Internal Adaptation of Bases and Liners under Composite Restorations

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    Dimitrios Dionysopoulos


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the interfacial microgaps generating between different materials and between materials and dentin after polymerization of the composite restorations, using SEM. Methods: The materials investigated were a composite, an adhesive, a RMGI, and a calcium hydroxide. Thirty third molars were selected and two circular class V cavities (5 mm × 3 mm for each tooth were made. The teeth were randomly assigned into six groups and restored with a combination of the materials. The specimens were subjected to thermocycling and each tooth was sectioned mesiodistally in two halves. Each half was sectioned along the longitudinal axis through the center of the restorations to obtain a slice of 2 mm. The specimens were examined under SEM. The interfaces between the liners, the liners and dentin, and between the liners and the composite were examined for microgaps. Results: The results showed that there was not any significant difference in the mean width of microgaps in the interfaces between Dycal-dentin and Vitrebond-dentin (p>0.05. However, the width of microgaps in the interfaces between dentin-Clearfil Tri-S Bond was significantly smaller (p<0.05. The use of Clearfil Tri-S Bond reduced the possibility of microgap formation between the bonded interface and the materials tested.

  2. Analysis of Balance Scorecards Model Performance and Perspective Strategy Synergized by SEM

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    Waluyo Minto


    Full Text Available The performance assessment analysis after the economic crisis by using Balanced Scorecard (BSC method becomes a powerful and effective tool and can provide an integrated view of the performance of an organization. This strategy led to the Indonesian economy being stretched positively after the economic crisis. Taking effective decisions is not spared from combining four BSC perspectives and strategies that focus on a system with different behavior or steps. This paper combines two methods of BSC with structural equation modeling (SEM because they have the same concept, which is a causal relationship, where the research model concept SEM variables use BSC variable. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of variables that synergized between balanced scorecard with SEM as a means of strategic planning in the future. This study used primary data with a large enough sample to meet the maximum likelihood estimation by assessment scale of seven semantic points. This research model is a combination of one and two step models. The next step is to test the measurement model, structural equation modeling, and modification models. The test results indicated that the model has multi colinearities. Therefore, the model is converted into one step model. The test results after being modified into a model of the goodness of fit indices showed a good score. All BSC variables have direct significant influence, including the perspective of strategic goals and sustainable competitive advantage. The implication of the simulation model of goodness of fit-modification results are DF = 227, Chi-square =276.550, P =0.058, CMIN/DF = 1.150, GFI = 0.831, AGFI = 0.791, CFI = 0.972, TLI = 0.965 and RMSEA = 0.039.

  3. Modelling and analysis of FMS productivity variables by ISM, SEM and GTMA approach (United States)

    Jain, Vineet; Raj, Tilak


    Productivity has often been cited as a key factor in a flexible manufacturing system (FMS) performance, and actions to increase it are said to improve profitability and the wage earning capacity of employees. Improving productivity is seen as a key issue for survival and success in the long term of a manufacturing system. The purpose of this paper is to make a model and analysis of the productivity variables of FMS. This study was performed by different approaches viz. interpretive structural modelling (ISM), structural equation modelling (SEM), graph theory and matrix approach (GTMA) and a cross-sectional survey within manufacturing firms in India. ISM has been used to develop a model of productivity variables, and then it has been analyzed. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) are powerful statistical techniques. CFA is carried by SEM. EFA is applied to extract the factors in FMS by the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS 20) software and confirming these factors by CFA through analysis of moment structures (AMOS 20) software. The twenty productivity variables are identified through literature and four factors extracted, which involves the productivity of FMS. The four factors are people, quality, machine and flexibility. SEM using AMOS 20 was used to perform the first order four-factor structures. GTMA is a multiple attribute decision making (MADM) methodology used to find intensity/quantification of productivity variables in an organization. The FMS productivity index has purposed to intensify the factors which affect FMS.

  4. Developments on a SEM-based X-ray tomography system: Stabilization scheme and performance evaluation (United States)

    Gomes Perini, L. A.; Bleuet, P.; Filevich, J.; Parker, W.; Buijsse, B.; Kwakman, L. F. Tz.


    Recent improvements in a SEM-based X-ray tomography system are described. In this type of equipment, X-rays are generated through the interaction between a highly focused electron-beam and a geometrically confined anode target. Unwanted long-term drifts of the e-beam can lead to loss of X-ray flux or decrease of spatial resolution in images. To circumvent this issue, a closed-loop control using FFT-based image correlation is integrated to the acquisition routine, in order to provide an in-line drift correction. The X-ray detection system consists of a state-of-the-art scientific CMOS camera (indirect detection), featuring high quantum efficiency (˜60%) and low read-out noise (˜1.2 electrons). The system performance is evaluated in terms of resolution, detectability, and scanning times for applications covering three different scientific fields: microelectronics, technical textile, and material science.

  5. Purity evaluation of carbon nanotube materials by thermogravimetric, TEM, and SEM methods. (United States)

    Trigueiro, João Paulo C; Silva, Glaura G; Lavall, Rodrigo L; Furtado, Clascidia A; Oliveira, Sérgio; Ferlauto, Andre S; Lacerda, Rodrigo G; Ladeira, Luiz O; Liu, Jiang-Wen; Frost, Ray L; George, Graeme A


    Raw and purified samples of carbon nanotubes are considered as multicomponent systems with a distribution of carbonaceous, amorphous, multishell graphitic particles and nanotubes, together with the particles of metal compounds from the catalyst. With respect to the carbon nanotube fractions, a distribution of size, defect concentrations, and functionalities needs to be taken into account. In order to address the problem of quantitative evaluation of purity it is necessary to measure the quality and distribution of the carbon nanotubes. In this research conventional and high resolution thermogravimetry are applied to quantify different fractions of carbonaceous and metallic materials in raw and moderately purified single walled and multiwalled carbon nanotubes. For each oxidized fraction, defined by careful line shape analysis of the derivative thermogravimetric curves (DTG), the temperature of maximum rate of oxidation, the temperature range for this oxidation, related to the degree of homogeneity, and the amount of associated material is specified. The attribution of carbonaceous materials to each fraction in the distribution was based on SEM and TEM measurements and the literature. The MWNT purified sample with 1.6 wt% metal oxide was investigated by high resolution thermogravimetry (HRTG). The quantitative assessment for the carbonaceous fractions was 25 wt% of amorphous and high defect carbonaceous materials including nanotubes, 54 wt% MWNT and 20 wt% multishell graphitic particles. A qualitative evaluation of these fractions was obtained from the SEM and TEM images and supports these results. The accuracy of the values, taking into account other measurements performed on the same batch of material, should be more sensible than +/-4 wt%.

  6. In vitro evaluation of Biosilicate® dissolution on dentin surface: a SEM analysis

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    Michele Carolina Pinheiro

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Biomaterials such as bioactive glasses and glass-ceramics have been proposed for the treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity. OBJECTIVE: to evaluate by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, the dissolution of a novel bioactive glass-ceramic (Biosilicate® 1-20 µm particles on dentin surface samples, with different application methods and different dilution medium used for applying Biosilicate®. MATERIAL AND METHOD: 280 dentin samples were randomly divided into four groups: (1 Biosilicate® plus fluoride gel applied with Robinson brush; (2 Biosilicate® plus fluoride gel applied with microbrush; (3 Biosilicate® plus distilled water applied with Robinson brush; (4 Biosilicate® plus distilled water applied with microbrush. After treatment, the samples were immersed in saliva at different periods (0, 15 and 30 minutes, 1, 2, 12 and 24 hours. Two photomicrographs were obtained from each sample and were further analyzed by a blind calibrated examiner according to a "Particle Dissolution Index" created for this study. RESULT: The data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests. There was no statistical difference among the degrees of dissolution between the 4 groups in any period. CONCLUSION: Biosilicate® can be incorporated in both substances without differences in the degree of dissolution of the particles in any of the evaluated periods and the application of dentine can be performed with both methods evaluated.

  7. iSemServ: A model-driven approach to developing semantic web services

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mtsweni, J


    Full Text Available could annotate the service model with WSDL stereotypes to indicate the preference to generate WSDL service descriptions. In conforming to the decoupling requirement, at this layer once the syntactic descriptions are generated, and the service logic... capturing the properties of ser- vices need to be modelled following the novel iSemServ UML profile. In a nutshell, UML profiles are a group of custom keywords (i.e. stereotypes), data types and tag values that could be used to annotate and extend UML...

  8. Strategic Enrolment Management (SEM) in Self-Financed Higher Education of Hong Kong: Evaluation and Measurement (United States)

    Ng, Peggy; Galbraith, Craig


    The purpose of this study is to examine how the dimensions of strategic enrolment management (SEM) tie to the success metrics in the area of enrolment, retention and graduation from senior and programme management perspectives of a self-financed institution in Hong Kong. The literature on SEM has demonstrated that managing enrolment is a global…

  9. CUFE at SemEval-2016 Task 4: A Gated Recurrent Model for Sentiment Classification

    KAUST Repository

    Nabil, Mahmoud


    In this paper we describe a deep learning system that has been built for SemEval 2016 Task4 (Subtask A and B). In this work we trained a Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU) neural network model on top of two sets of word embeddings: (a) general word embeddings generated from unsupervised neural language model; and (b) task specific word embeddings generated from supervised neural language model that was trained to classify tweets into positive and negative categories. We also added a method for analyzing and splitting multi-words hashtags and appending them to the tweet body before feeding it to our model. Our models achieved 0.58 F1-measure for Subtask A (ranked 12/34) and 0.679 Recall for Subtask B (ranked 12/19).

  10. Assessing Actual Visit Behavior through Antecedents of Tourists Satisfaction among International Tourists in Jordan: A Structural Equation Modeling (SEM Approach

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    Ayed Moh’d Al Muala


    Full Text Available Jordan tourism industry is facing fluctuating tourist visit provoked by dissatisfaction, high visit risk, low hotel service, or negative Jordan image. This study aims to examine the relationships between the antecedents of tourist satisfaction and actual visit behavior in tourism of Jordan, and the mediating effect of tourist satisfaction (SAT in the relationship between Jordan image (JOM, service climate (SER and actual visit behavior (ACT. A total of 850 international tourists completed a survey that were conducted at southern sites in Jordan. Using structural equation modeling (SEM technique, confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA was performed to examine the reliability and validity of the measurement, and the structural equation modeling techniques (Amos 6.0 were used to evaluate the casual model. Results of the study demonstrate the strong predictive power and explain of international tourists’ behavior in Jordan. The findings highlighted that the relationship between Jordan image and service climate are significant and positive on actual visit behavior.

  11. An SEM Approach for the Evaluation of Intervention Effects Using Pre-Post-Post Designs (United States)

    Mun, Eun Young; von Eye, Alexander; White, Helene R.


    This study analyzes latent change scores using latent curve models (LCMs) for evaluation research with pre-post-post designs. The article extends a recent article by Willoughby, Vandergrift, Blair, and Granger (2007) on the use of LCMs for studies with pre-post-post designs, and demonstrates that intervention effects can be better tested using…

  12. Clinical performance and SEM evaluation of direct composite restorations in primary molars. (United States)

    Puppin-Rontani, Regina Maria; de Góes, Mario Fernando; Voelske, Cleane Elizabete; García-Godoy, Franklin


    To evaluate the clinical outcome of composite restorations performed in primary molars after 18 months and the morphology of the dentin/resin interface. 41 primary molars from children aged 4-9 years were restored with Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus adhesive system and Z100 resin-based composite. The restorations were evaluated at baseline, 6, 12 and 18 months using the USPHS method for direct clinical analysis. Plaster models were made at each evaluation period for indirect evaluation. For the morphologic analysis of the dentin/resin interface, seven exfoliated teeth were sectioned longitudinally in a mesio/distal direction and observed in the electro scanning electron microscope. 100% (n = 40) of the restorations evaluated at 6 months were scored as Alpha for anatomical form, color matching, secondary caries, color alteration, and marginal degradation. At 12 months, 96.4% (n = 28) of the restorations received Alpha score and 3.4% Charlie score. At 18 months, all restorations evaluated (27/27) received Alpha score. 23 restorations were indirectly evaluated at 6, 12 and 18 months postoperatively. No significant wear or fractures were observed in any of the restorations. In the evaluation of the dentin/resin interface, the formation of a consistent hybrid layer was observed and the restorations were well adapted to the dentin at 18 months postoperatively.

  13. SEM-microphotogrammetry, a new take on an old method for generating high-resolution 3D models from SEM images. (United States)

    Ball, A D; Job, P A; Walker, A E L


    The method we present here uses a scanning electron microscope programmed via macros to automatically capture dozens of images at suitable angles to generate accurate, detailed three-dimensional (3D) surface models with micron-scale resolution. We demonstrate that it is possible to use these Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images in conjunction with commercially available software originally developed for photogrammetry reconstructions from Digital Single Lens Reflex (DSLR) cameras and to reconstruct 3D models of the specimen. These 3D models can then be exported as polygon meshes and eventually 3D printed. This technique offers the potential to obtain data suitable to reconstruct very tiny features (e.g. diatoms, butterfly scales and mineral fabrics) at nanometre resolution. Ultimately, we foresee this as being a useful tool for better understanding spatial relationships at very high resolution. However, our motivation is also to use it to produce 3D models to be used in public outreach events and exhibitions, especially for the blind or partially sighted. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  14. Application of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM to Solve Environmental Sustainability Problems: A Comprehensive Review and Meta-Analysis

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    Abbas Mardani


    Full Text Available Most methodological areas assume common serious reflections to certify difficult study and publication practices, and, therefore, approval in their area. Interestingly, relatively little attention has been paid to reviewing the application of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM in environmental sustainability problems despite the growing number of publications in the past two decades. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to fill this gap by conducting a wide search in two main databases including Web of Science and Scopus to identify the studies which used SEM techniques in the period from 2005 to 2016. A critical analysis of these articles addresses some important key issues. On the basis of our results, we present comprehensive guidelines to help researchers avoid general pitfalls in using SEM. The results of this review are important and will help researchers to better develop research models based on SEM in the area of environmental sustainability.

  15. Porcine sclera as a model of human sclera for in vitro transport experiments: histology, SEM, and comparative permeability (United States)

    Ferrari, G.; Quarta, M.; Macaluso, C.; Govoni, P.; Dallatana, D.; Santi, P.


    Purpose To evaluate porcine sclera as a model of human sclera for in vitro studies of transscleral drug delivery of both low and high molecular weight compounds. Methods Human and porcine scleras were characterized for thickness and water content. The tissue surface was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the histology was studied with hematoxylin-eosin staining. Comparative permeation experiments were performed using three model molecules, acetaminophen as the model compound for small molecules; a linear dextran with a molecular weight of 120 kDa as the model compound for high molecular weight drugs; and insulin, which was chosen as the model protein. Permeation parameters such as flux, lag time, and permeability coefficient were determined and compared. Results Human and porcine scleras have a similar histology and collagen bundle organization. The water content is approx 70% for both tissues while a statistically significant difference was found for the thickness, porcine sclera being approximately twofold thicker than human sclera. Differences in thickness produced differences in the permeability coefficient. In fact, human sclera was found to be two to threefold more permeable toward the three molecules studied than porcine sclera. Conclusions The results obtained in the present paper prove that porcine sclera can be considered a good model for human sclera for in vitro permeation experiments of both low and high molecular weight compounds. In fact, if the different tissue thickness is taken into account, comparable permeability was demonstrated. This suggests a possible use of this model in the evaluation of the transscleral permeation of new biotech compounds, which currently represent the most innovative and efficient therapeutic options for the treatment of ocular diseases. PMID:19190734

  16. FE-SEM Evaluation of Dental Specimens Prepared by Different Methods for In Vitro Contamination

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    Vitor Cesar Nakamura


    % EDTA for 4 minutes each; group 2: 17%  EDTA+2.5% NaOCl (4 minutes ultrasonic bath; group 3: cement removal and 17%  EDTA+5.25%  NaOCl+phosphate buffer solution + distilled water (10 minutes ultrasonic; group 4: 17%  EDTA+5.25% NaOCl (3 minutes ultrasonic bath. Specimens were analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM, at 1500x magnification. Data were submitted to qualitative analysis according to a scoring system and submitted to Kruskal-Wallis test. Results. In ascending order, as to bind parameters, (i cleanliness: control, group 2, group 3, group 5, and group 4, (ii dentinal alterations: group 1, group 5, group 2, group 3, and group 4. Conclusion. The proposed protocol was suitable for subsequent microbiological contamination, because it showed less dentinal morphological alterations with increased removal of organic waste.

  17. The SEM Risk Behavior (SRB) Model: A New Conceptual Model of how Pornography Influences the Sexual Intentions and HIV Risk Behavior of MSM. (United States)

    Wilkerson, J Michael; Iantaffi, Alex; Smolenski, Derek J; Brady, Sonya S; Horvath, Keith J; Grey, Jeremy A; Rosser, B R Simon


    While the effects of sexually explicit media (SEM) on heterosexuals' sexual intentions and behaviors have been studied, little is known about the consumption and possible influence of SEM among men who have sex with men (MSM). Importantly, conceptual models of how Internet-based SEM influences behavior are lacking. Seventy-nine MSM participated in online focus groups about their SEM viewing preferences and sexual behavior. Twenty-three participants reported recent exposure to a new behavior via SEM. Whether participants modified their sexual intentions and/or engaged in the new behavior depended on three factors: arousal when imagining the behavior, pleasure when attempting the behavior, and trust between sex partners. Based on MSM's experience, we advance a model of how viewing a new sexual behavior in SEM influences sexual intentions and behaviors. The model includes five paths. Three paths result in the maintenance of sexual intentions and behaviors. One path results in a modification of sexual intentions while maintaining previous sexual behaviors, and one path results in a modification of both sexual intentions and behaviors. With this model, researchers have a framework to test associations between SEM consumption and sexual intentions and behavior, and public health programs have a framework to conceptualize SEM-based HIV/STI prevention programs.

  18. SEM evaluation of resin-carious dentin interfaces formed by two dentin adhesive systems. (United States)

    Hsu, Kuang-Wei; Marshall, Sally J; Pinzon, Lilliam M; Watanabe, Larry; Saiz, Eduardo; Marshall, Grayson W


    We investigated the influence of dentin tubule direction and identifiable zone of carious dentin on the microstructure and the thickness of the hybrid-like layer (HL) formed by self-etch and etch-rinse adhesive systems. An etch-rinse and a self-etching adhesive were bonded to dentin carious zones divided into groups with parallel or perpendicular orientation relative to the dentin tubules at the resin-carious dentin interface (N=5/variable). Bonds were prepared to each of the four zones of carious dentin apparent after staining with Caries Detector: pink, light pink, transparent and apparently normal; six non-carious third molars were controls. The microstructure and thickness of the HL were determined by SEM and compared using three-way ANOVA and Tukey's multiple comparisons (pbonded with the etch-rinse system. For both adhesives, HL thickness in the pink zone was significantly greater than in light pink for the perpendicular group, but no significant differences were found among other variables. HL microstructure was more granular and rougher for the etch-rinse than for the self-etching system. Pores and cracks were obvious in the more demineralized zones. Resin tags were shorter and irregular in the transparent zone and often were completely absent in the outer demineralized zones (pink, light pink). Microstructure of bonded interfaces varies markedly depending on adhesive system, tubule orientation and carious zone.

  19. SEM evaluation of human gingival fibroblasts growth onto CAD/CAM zirconia and veneering ceramic for zirconia. (United States)

    Zizzari, Vincenzo; Borelli, Bruna; De Colli, Marianna; Tumedei, Margherita; Di Iorio, Donato; Zara, Susi; Sorrentino, Roberto; Cataldi, Amelia; Gherlone, Enrico Felice; Zarone, Fernando; Tetè, Stefano


    To evaluate the growth of Human Gingival Fibroblasts (HGFs) cultured onto sample discs of CAD/CAM zirconia and veneering ceramic for zirconia by means of Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis at different experimental times. A total of 26 experimental discs, divided into 2 groups, were used: Group A) CAD/CAM zirconia (3Y-TZP) discs (n=13); Group B) veneering ceramic for zirconia discs (n=13). HGFs were obtained from human gingival biopsies, isolated and placed in culture plates. Subsequently, cells were seeded on experimental discs at 7,5×10(3)/cm(2) concentration and cultured for a total of 7 days. Discs were processed for SEM observation at 3h, 24h, 72h and 7 days. In Group A, after 3h, HGFs were adherent to the surface and showed a flattened profile. The disc surface covered by HGFs resulted to be wider in Group A than in Group B samples. At SEM observation, after 24h and 72h, differences in cell attachment were slightly noticeable between the groups, with an evident flattening of HGFs on both surfaces. All differences between Group A and group B became less significant after 7 days of culture in vitro. SEM analysis of HGFs showed differences in terms of cell adhesion and proliferation, especially in the early hours of culture. Results showed a better adhesion and cell growth in Group A than in Group B, especially up to 72h in vitro. Differences decreased after 7 days, probably because of the rougher surface of CAD/CAM zirconia, promoting better cell adhesion, compared to the smoother surface of veneering ceramic.

  20. Optical microscope and SEM evaluation of roofing slate fissility and durability

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    Ward, C. R.


    Full Text Available The fissility and durability of representative samples of commercial roofing slates from ten deposits in the NW of Spain have been evaluated using transmitted and reflectedlight optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, chemical testing and geomechanical procedures. The dominant sulphides in the different slate samples are pyrite and pyrrhotite, the weathering potential of which can be highly variable. The dominant carbonate mineral is ankerite, which explains the low reactivity of these slates in acidic media. The minimum commercial plate thickness varies between 3.5 and 5 mm, depending on the microtexture of the rock. The methodology used in this paper is proposed in order to eliminate the subjectivity of input data that are used in current methods of evaluation and modelling of slate deposits, thus producing an improvement in the profitability of mining operations and a reduction in waste materials.Para evaluar la fisibilidad y la durabilidad de pizarras de techar comerciales, muestras representativas de diez yacimientos del NO de España han sido estudiadas mediante microscopía óptica de luz transmitida y reflejada, microscopía electrónica de barrido y ensayos tecnológicos. Los sulfuros dominantes en las diferentes pizarras estudiadas son pirita o pirrotina, por lo que la alterabilidad de estas es muy variable. La especie carbonatada dominante es ankerita, lo que explica la baja reactividad de estas pizarras en medios ácidos. El espesor comercial mínimo varía en función de la microtextura de la roca, oscilando entre 3,5 y 5 mm. Se propone el uso de la metodología desarrollada en este trabajo, con objeto de eliminar la subjetividad de los inputs de entrada utilizados en las metodologías actuales de evaluación y modelización de yacimientos, lo que incidiría en la mejora de los rendimientos de las explotaciones y en la minimización de la producción de estériles.

  1. Evaluation of the effect of duration of application of Smear Clear in removing intracanal smear layer: SEM study


    Ankur Dua; Deepti Dua; Uppin, Veerendra M


    Aim: To evaluate the effect of duration of application of 17% ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) and SmearClear on the removal of intracanal smear layer by SEM. Materials and Methods: Seventy-two extracted maxillary incisors were root canal instrumented and randomly distributed into three groups of 24 teeth each according to different final irrigation regimens, Group A-17% EDTA + 1% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), Group B-SmearClear + 1% NaOCl, Group C (Control group)-Distilled water + 1% ...


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    Budi Setyo Utomo


    Full Text Available As a company engaged in the industrial sector by producing certain components and localized in an industrial area, there will be an impact on the environment. These impacts can be positive in the form of employment, reducing dependence on imported heavy equipment, increase in foreign exchange due to reduced imports and increased exports, increased government revenue from taxes, public facilities improvement and supporting infrastructure, and opening up opportunities for other related industries. These impacts can also be negative in the form of environmental degradation such as noise disturbance, dust, and micro climate change, and changes in social and cultural conditions surrounding the industry. Data analysis was performed descriptively and with the Structural Equation Model (SEM. SEM is a multivariate statistical technique which is a combination of factor analysis and regression analysis (correlation, which aims to test the connections between existing variables in a model, whether it is between the indicator with the construct, or the connections between constructs. SEM model consists of two parts, which is the latent variable model and the observed variable model. In contrast to ordinary regression linking the causality between the observed variables, it is also possible in SEM to identify the causality between latent variables. The results of SEM analysis showed that the developed model has a fairly high level of validity that is shown by the minimum fit chi-square value of 93.15 (P = 0.00029. Based on said model, it shows that the company's performance in waste management is largely determined by employee integrity and objectivity of the new employees followed later by the independence of the employees in waste management. The most important factor that determines the employee integrity in waste management in the model is honesty, individual wisdom, and a sense of responsibility. The most important factor in the employee objectivity

  3. Development of high-temperature strain instrumentation for in situ SEM evaluation of ductility dip cracking. (United States)

    Torres, E A; Montoro, F; Righetto, R D; Ramirez, A J


    Nowadays, the implementation of sophisticated in situ electron microscopy tests is providing new insights in several areas. In this work, an in situ high-temperature strain test into a scanning electron microscope was developed. This setup was used to study the grain boundary sliding mechanism and its effect on the ductility dip cracking. This methodology was applied to study the mechanical behaviour of Ni-base filler metal alloys ERNiCrFe-7 and ERNiCr-3, which were evaluated between 700°C and 1000°C. The ductility dip cracking susceptibility (threshold strain; εmin) for both alloys was quantified. The εmin of ERNiCrFe-7 and ERNiCr-3 alloys were 7.5% and 16.5%, respectively, confirming a better resistance of ERNiCr-3 to ductility dip cracking. Furthermore, two separate components of grain boundary sliding, pure sliding (Sp) and deformation sliding (Sd), were identified and quantified. A direct and quantitative link between grain boundary tortuosity, grain boundary sliding and ductility dip cracking resistance has been established for the ERNiCrFe-7 and ERNiCr-3 alloys. © 2014 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2014 Royal Microscopical Society.

  4. SEM evaluation of marginal sealing on composite restorations using different photoactivation and composite insertion methods

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    Lopes Murilo


    Full Text Available Aim: This in vitro study evaluates the influence of marginal sealing methods in composite restorations with different adhesive systems submitted to mechanical load. Materials and Methods: Eighty bovine incisor crowns were embedded in Polyvinyl chloride (PVC molds with the buccal surface exposed, where cavities (4mm x 4mm x 3mm were made. Samples had the adhesive systems, Single Bond or Clearfil SE Bond, applied according to the manufacturer′s recommendations. The cavities were filled with a Z-250 composite according to the restoration technique (bulk filling or three increments and photoactivation (conventional, soft start, pulsatile light or light-emitting diode [LED]. The samples were duplicated with epoxy resin for scanning electron microscopy observations. Samples were also submitted to mechanical load (200,000 cycles; 2 Hz and new replicas were made. Results: The results, in percentages, were submitted to ANOVA followed by Tukey′s test (P < 0.05. There was statistical difference between the cycle group (23.84% and the non cycle group (18.63%. Comparing the restoration technique, there was no statistical difference between bulk filling (19.62% and three increments (22.84%. There was no statistical difference among the groups: Pulsatile light (24.38%, soft start (22.75%, LED (21.47% or conventional (16.34%. Furthermore, there were no statistical differences between the adhesive systems: Clearfil SE Bond (21.32% and Single Bond (20.83%. Conclusions: The photoactivation methods, the restorative techniques and the adhesive systems did not influence gap formation.

  5. Calibration of ultra high speed laser engraving processes by correlating influencing variables including correlative evaluation with SEM and CLSM (United States)

    Bohrer, Markus; Vaupel, Matthias; Nirnberger, Robert; Weinberger, Bernhard


    Laser engraving is used for decades as a well-established process e. g. for the production of print and embossing forms for many goods in daily life, e. g. decorated cans and printed bank notes. Up to now it is more or less a so-called fire-and-forget process. From the original artist's plan to the digitization, then from the laser source itself (with electronic signals, RF and plasma discharge regarding CO2 lasers) to the behavior of the optical beam delivery — especially if an AOM is used — to the interaction of the laser beam with the material itself is a long process chain. The most recent results using CO2 lasers with AOMs and the research done with scanning electron microscope (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) — as a set for correlative microscopy to evaluate the high speed engraving characteristics — are presented in this paper.

  6. SEM and microCT validation for en face OCT imagistic evaluation of endodontically treated human teeth (United States)

    Negrutiu, Meda L.; Nica, Luminita; Sinescu, Cosmin; Topala, Florin; Ionita, Ciprian; Bradu, Adrian; Petrescu, Emanuela L.; Pop, Daniela M.; Rominu, Mihai; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.


    Successful root canal treatment is based on diagnosis, treatment planning, knowledge of tooth anatomy, endodontic access cavity design, controlling the infection by thorough cleaning and shaping, methods and materials used in root canal obturation. An endodontic obturation must be a complete, three-dimensional filling of the root canal system, as close as possible to cemento-dentinal junction, without massive overfilling or underfilling. There are several known methods which are used to assess the quality of the endodontic sealing, but most are invasive. These lead to the destruction of the samples and often no conclusion could be drawn in respect to the existence of any microleakage in the investigated areas of interest. Using an time domain en-face OCT system, we have recently demonstrated real time thorough evaluation of quality of root canal fillings. The purpose of this in vitro study was to validate the en face OCT imagistic evaluation of endodontically treated human teeth by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and microcomputer tomography (μCT). SEM investigations evidenced the nonlinear aspect of the interface between the endodontic filling material and the root canal walls and materials defects in some samples. The results obtained by μCT revealed also some defects inside the root-canal filling and at the interfaces between the material and the root canal walls. The advantages of the OCT method consist in non-invasiveness and high resolution. In addition, en face OCT investigations permit visualization of the more complex stratified structure at the interface between the filling material and the dental hard tissue.

  7. SEM Evaluation and Comparision of Marginal Integrity in Glass-Ionomer and Copmposite Class Restoratins With Immediate or Delay Polishing

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    Ranjbar Omidi B


    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Marginal seal in class V cavities and determining the best restorative material to decrease microleakage is of great importance in operative dentistry. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of polishing time on the microleakage of three types of tooth-colored restorative materials in class V cavity preparations and to assess the marginal integrity of these materials using scanning electron microscope (SEM.Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, class V cavity preparations were made on the buccal and lingual surfaces of 30 bovine incisors (60 cavities. The specimens were divided into three groups each containing 10 teeth (20 cavities: group 1, Filtek Z350 (nanocomposite; group 2, Fuji IX/G Coat Plus (CGIC; and group 3, Fuji II LC (RMGI. In each group, half of the specimens (n = 20 were finished/polished immediately and the rest of them were finished/polished after 24 hours. All the specimens were thermocycled for 2000 cycles (5-50 °C. Epoxy resin replicas of 12 specimens (2 restorations in each subgroup were evaluated using SEM and the interfacial gaps were measured. Finally, the teeth were immersed in 0.5% basic fuchsin dye for 24 hours at room temperature, sectioned and observed under stereomicroscope. The data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests and the comparison between incisal and cervical microleakage was made with Wilcoxon test.Results: Incisal and cervical microleakage were not affected by polishing time in none of the three restorative materials (P>0.05. Cervical microleakage only in Fuji IX with immediate polishing was significantly higher than incisal microleakage (P0.05.Conclusion: Immediate polishing is recommended in tooth-colored class V restorations.

  8. A comparative evaluation of the efficacy of manual, magnetostrictive and piezoelectric ultrasonic instruments: an in vitro profilometric and SEM study

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    Sumita Singh


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The debridement of diseased root surface is usually performed by mechanical scaling and root planing using manual and power driven instruments. Many new designs in ultrasonic powered scaling tips have been developed. However, their effectiveness as compared to manual curettes has always been debatable. Thus, the objective of this in vitro study was to comparatively evaluate the efficacy of manual, magnetostrictive and piezoelectric ultrasonic instrumentation on periodontally involved extracted teeth using profilometer and scanning electron microscope (SEM. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 30 periodontally involved extracted human teeth were divided into 3 groups. The teeth were instrumented with hand and ultrasonic instruments resembling clinical application. In Group A all teeth were scaled with a new universal hand curette (Hu Friedy Gracey After Five Vision curette; Hu Friedy, Chicago, USA. In Group B CavitronTM FSI - SLI TM ultrasonic device with focused spray slimline inserts (Dentsply International Inc., York, PA, USA were used. In Group C teeth were scaled with an EMS piezoelectric ultrasonic device with prototype modified PS inserts. The surfaces were analyzed by a Precision profilometer to measure the surface roughness (Ra value in µm consecutively before and after the instrumentation. The samples were examined under SEM at magnifications ranging from 17x to 300x and 600x. RESULTS: The mean Ra values (µm before and after instrumentation in all the three groups A, B and C were tabulated. After statistically analyzing the data, no significant difference was observed in the three experimental groups. Though there was a decrease in the percentage reduction of Ra values consecutively from group A to C. CONCLUSION: Within the limits of the present study, given that the manual, magnetostrictive and piezoelectric ultrasonic instruments produce the same surface roughness, it can be concluded that their efficacy for creating a biologically

  9. Model of fracture micro mechanism of Cu-Cr-Zr system by in-situ tensile test in SEM

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    Besterci M.


    Full Text Available In the present work fracture mechanism of the Cu-Cr-Zr system was studied by "in-situ tensile test in SEM". It has been shown, that during tensile strain over the critical deformation the first cracks appeared due to the decohesion of matrix - large Cr particles interphase or by Cr particles failure. The further stress increase causes the cracks formation on matrix small Cr particles interfaces and in the clusters of Cu5Zr intermetalics. The trajectory affinal fracture was formed preferably by coalescence of cracks oriented about 67° to the loading direction. The model, presenting fracture mechanism in the investigated system was suggested.

  10. Model-based approaches to synthesize microarray data : A unifying review using mixture of SEMs

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    Martella, F.; Vermunt, J.K.


    Several statistical methods are nowadays available for the analysis of gene expression data recorded through microarray technology. In this article, we take a closer look at several Gaussian mixture models which have recently been proposed to model gene expression data. It can be shown that these

  11. Investigating the controllable factors influencing the weight loss of grinding ball using SEM/EDX analysis and RSM model

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    Asghar Azizi


    Full Text Available This study was aimed to investigate the effects of individual variables and their interactions on weight loss of grinding ball using the SEM/EDX analysis and RSM model. The results SEM/EDX analysis indicated that corrosion mechanism type for steel balls is pitting. In addition, abrasive corrosion was observed on high carbon chromium steel ball surface. It was also found that steel balls were formed from corrosion phases of Fe, O, S and Si. The results of RSM model showed that the linear effects of all factors and the quadratic effects of solid concentration and charge weight of balls were significant parameters on wear rate. Also, it was observed no interactions between factors. Furthermore, results indicated that degree of influence of factors on the wear rate was in the order of ball type > solid percentage > pH > solid percentage2 > charge weight2 > grinding time > rotation speed of mill > charge weight > throughout.

  12. Theory of planned behavior and smoking: meta-analysis and SEM model

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    Gabriela Topa


    Full Text Available Gabriela Topa, Juan Antonio MorianoDepartment of Social and Organizational Psychology, UNED, Madrid, SpainAbstract: To examine if the theory of planned behavior (TPB predicts smoking behavior, 35 data sets (N = 267,977 have been synthesized, containing 219 effect sizes between the model variables, using a meta-analytic structural equation modeling approach (MASEM. Consistent with the TPB's predictions, 1 smoking behavior was related to smoking intentions (weighted mean r = 0.30, 2 intentions were based on attitudes (weighted mean r = 0.16, and subjective norms (weighted mean r = 0.20. Consistent with TPB's hypotheses, perceived behavioral control was related to smoking intentions (weighted mean r = -0.24 and behaviors (weighted mean r = -0.20 and it contributes significantly to cigarette consumption. The strength of the associations, however, was influenced by the characteristics of the studies and participants.Keywords: theory of planned behavior, smoking, meta-analysis, structural equation modeling

  13. Filipino Nursing Students' Behavioral Intentions toward Geriatric Care: A Structural Equation Model (SEM) (United States)

    de Guzman, Allan B.; Jimenez, Benito Christian B.; Jocson, Kathlyn P.; Junio, Aileen R.; Junio, Drazen E.; Jurado, Jasper Benjamin N.; Justiniano, Angela Bianca F.


    Anchored on the key constucts of Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior (1985), this paper seeks to test a model that explores the influence of knowledge, attitude, and caring behavior on nursing students' behavioral intention toward geriatric care. A five-part survey-questionnaire was administered to 839 third and fourth year nursing students from a…

  14. The emetic activity of staphylococcal enterotoxins, SEK, SEL, SEM, SEN and SEO in a small emetic animal model, the house musk shrew. (United States)

    Ono, Hisaya K; Hirose, Shouhei; Naito, Ikunori; Sato'o, Yusuke; Asano, Krisana; Hu, Dong-Liang; Omoe, Katsuhiko; Nakane, Akio


    Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) produced by Staphylococcus aureus are the most recognizable causative agents of emetic food poisoning in humans. New types of SEs and SE-like (SEl) toxins have been reported. Several epidemiological investigations have shown that the SEs and SEl genes, particularly, SEK, SEL, SEM, SEN and SEO genes, are frequently detected in strains isolated from patients with food poisoning. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the emetic activity of recently identified SEs using a small emetic animal model, the house musk shrew. The emetic activity of these SEs in house musk shrews was evaluated by intraperitoneal administration and emetic responses, including the number of shrews that vomited, emetic frequency and latency of vomiting were documented. It was found that SEs induce emetic responses in these animals. This is the first time to demonstrate that SEK, SEL, SEM, SEN and SEO possess emetic activity in the house musk shrew. © 2017 The Societies and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  15. Influence of glass particle size of resin cements on bonding to glass ceramic: SEM and bond strength evaluation. (United States)

    Valentini, Fernanda; Moraes, Rafael R; Pereira-Cenci, Tatiana; Boscato, Noéli


    This study investigated the effect of the filler particle size (micron or submicron) of experimental resin cements on the microtensile bond strength to a glass-ceramic pretreated with hydrofluoric acid (HFA) etching or alumina airborne-particle abrasion (AA). Cements were obtained from a Bis-GMA/TEGDMA mixture filled with 60 mass% micron-sized (1 ± 0.2 µm) or submicron-sized (180 ± 30 µm) Ba-Si-Al glass particles. Ceramic blocks (PM9; VITA) were treated with 10% HFA for 60 s or AA for 15 s. Silane and adhesive were applied. Ceramic blocks were bonded to resin composite blocks (Z250; 3M ESPE) using one of the cements. Bonded specimens were sectioned into beams (n = 20/group) and subjected to microtensile bond strength tests. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls' tests (5%). Failure modes were classified under magnification. Morphologies of the treated ceramic surfaces and bonded interfaces were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. The HFA-submicron group had lower bond strengths than the other groups. All AA-submicron specimens debonded prematurely. Mixed failures were predominant for HFA groups, whereas interfacial failures predominated for AA groups. SEM revealed a honeycomb-like aspect in the HFA-treated ceramic, whereas the AA-treated groups showed an irregular retentive pattern. Continuity of cement infiltration along the bonded interface was more uniform for HFA-treated compared to AA-treated specimens. Cracks toward the bulk of the ceramic were observed in AA-treated specimens. Particle size significantly influenced the ceramic bond strength, whereas surface treatment had a minor effect. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Shear bond strength and SEM morphology evaluation of different dental adhesives to enamel prepared with ER:YAG laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia T Pires


    Full Text Available Context: Early observations of enamel surfaces prepared by erbium lasers motivated clinicians to use laser as an alternative to chemical etching. Aims: Evaluate shear bond strength (SBS values of different dental adhesives on Erbium:Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (Er:YAG laser prepared enamel and to evaluate possible etching patterns correlations between dental adhesives and SBS values. Subjects and Methods: One hundred bovine incisors were randomly assigned to SBS tests on enamel (n = 15 and to enamel morphology analysis ( n = 5 after Er:YAG laser preparation as follows: Group I - 37% phosphoric acid (PA+ ExciTE® ; Group II - ExciTE® ; Group III - AdheSE® self-etching; Group IV - FuturaBond® no-rinse. NR; Group V - Xeno® V. Teeth were treated with the adhesive systems and subjected to thermal cycling. SBS were performed in a universal testing machine at 5 mm/min. Statistical Analysis Used: One-way ANOVA and post-hoc tests (p < 0.05. For the morphology evaluation, specimens were immersed in Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA and the etching pattern analyzed under Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM. Results: Mean bond strengths were Group I - 47.17 ± 1.61 MPa (type I etching pattern; Group II - 32.56 ± 1.64 MPa, Group III - 29.10 ± 1.34 MPa, Group IV - 23.32 ± 1.53 MPa (type III etching pattern; Group V - 24.43 MPa ± 1.55 (type II etching pattern. Conclusions: Different adhesive systems yielded significantly different SBSs. Acid etching significantly increased the adhesion in laser treated enamel. No differences in SBS values were obtained between AdheSE® and ExciTE® without condition with PA. FuturaBond® NR and Xeno® V showed similar SBS, which was lower in comparison to the others adhesives. No correlation between enamel surface morphology and SBS values was observed, except when PA was used.

  17. SEM - Morphological evaluation of the root apex in human primary teeth with different degrees of pulpal and periapical pathology


    Patrícia Motta Fernandes


    O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a morfologia da superfície externa de ápices radiculares de dentes decíduos de humanos com necrose pulpar, com e sem lesão periapical visível radiograficamente, e de dentes com vitalidade pulpar, por meio da microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV). Dezenove dentes foram extraídos sendo cinco dentes com vitalidade pulpar (Grupo I), seis com necrose pulpar sem lesão periapical (Grupo II) e oito com necrose pulpar e lesão periapical (Grupo III). Os dentes (i...

  18. Sample Size Requirements for Structural Equation Models: An Evaluation of Power, Bias, and Solution Propriety


    Wolf, Erika J.; Harrington, Kelly M.; Shaunna L Clark; Miller, Mark W.


    Determining sample size requirements for structural equation modeling (SEM) is a challenge often faced by investigators, peer reviewers, and grant writers. Recent years have seen a large increase in SEMs in the behavioral science literature, but consideration of sample size requirements for applied SEMs often relies on outdated rules-of-thumb. This study used Monte Carlo data simulation techniques to evaluate sample size requirements for common applied SEMs. Across a series of simulations, we...

  19. Nutrition, Balance and Fear of Falling as Predictors of Risk for Falls among Filipino Elderly in Nursing Homes: A Structural Equation Model (SEM) (United States)

    de Guzman, Allan B.; Ines, Joanna Louise C.; Inofinada, Nina Josefa A.; Ituralde, Nielson Louie J.; Janolo, John Robert E.; Jerezo, Jnyv L.; Jhun, Hyae Suk J.


    While a number of empirical studies have been conducted regarding risk for falls among the elderly, there is still a paucity of similar studies in a developing country like the Philippines. This study purports to test through Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) a model that shows the interaction between and among nutrition, balance, fear of…

  20. SEM evaluation of the morphological changes in hard dental tissues prepared by Er: YAG laser and rotary instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomov Georgi


    Full Text Available Effective ablation of dental hard tissues by means of the erbium:yttrium-aluminum garnet (Er: YAG laser has been reported recently, and its application to caries removal and cavity preparation has been expected. However, few studies have investigated the morphological changes in hard dental tissues after Er: YAG laser caries treatment. In the present study the morphological changes in hard dental tissues after Er: YAG laser caries ablation in vitro was compared with that of conventional mechanical treatment. Thirty extracted human teeth with caries were used. Ten tooth was treated with the Er: YAG laser, and the other was treated with a conventional steel and diamond burs. Laser treatment was performed by means of a non-contact irradiation modes with cooling water spray, with a new Er: YAG laser (LiteTouch. Conventional bur treatment was conducted by means of a low-speed micromotor and air turbine with water cooling. Scanning electron microscope (SEM observations were performed for each treatment. The Er: YAG laser ablated carious dentin effectively with minimal thermal damage to the surrounding intact dentin, and removed infected and softened carious dentin to the same degree as the burtreatment. In addition, a lower degree of vibration was noted with the Er: YAG laser treatment. The SEM examination revealed characteristic micro-irregularities of the lased dentin and enamel surfaces with potential benefits for adhesive restorations. Our results show that the Er: YAG laser is promising as a new technical modality for caries treatment

  1. The IIR evaluation model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borlund, Pia


    of IIR systems as realistically as possible with reference to actual information searching and retrieval processes, though still in a relatively controlled evaluation environment; and 2) to calculate the IIR system performance taking into account the non-binary nature of the assigned relevance......An alternative approach to evaluation of interactive information retrieval (IIR) systems, referred to as the IIR evaluation model, is proposed. The model provides a framework for the collection and analysis of IR interaction data. The aim of the model is two-fold: 1) to facilitate the evaluation...... assessments. The IIR evaluation model is presented as an alternative to the system-driven Cranfield model (Cleverdon, Mills & Keen, 1966; Cleverdon & Keen, 1966) which still is the dominant approach to the evaluation of IR and IIR systems. Key elements of the IIR evaluation model are the use of realistic...

  2. CD-bias reduction in CD-SEM line-width measurement for the 32-nm node and beyond using the model-based library method (United States)

    Shishido, Chie; Tanaka, Maki; Osaki, Mayuka


    The measurement accuracy of critical-dimension scanning electron microscopy (CD-SEM) at feature sizes of 10 nm and below is investigated and methods for improving accuracy and reducing CD bias (the difference between true and measured CD values) are proposed. Simulations indicate that CD bias varies with feature size (CD) when the electron scatter range exceeds the CD. As the change in the CD-SEM waveform with decreasing CD is non-uniform, the CD bias in the results is strongly dependent on the algorithm employed to process the CD-SEM data. Use of the threshold method with a threshold level equal to 50% (Th = 50%) is shown to be effective for suppressing the dependence of CD bias on CD. Through comparison of experimental CD-SEM measurements of silicon line patterns (7-40 nm) with atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements, it is confirmed that the threshold method (Th = 50%) is a effective as predicted, affording a largely invariant CD bias. The model-based library (MBL) method, which is theoretically capable of eliminating CD bias, is demonstrated to reduce the CD bias to near-zero levels. These experiments demonstrate the feasibility of next-generation CD-SEM for the measurement of feature sizes of the order of 10 nm and smaller.

  3. Quantitative x-ray microanalysis of model biological samples in the SEM using remote standards and the XPP analytical model. (United States)

    Marshall, Alan T


    It is shown that accurate x-ray microanalysis of frozen-hydrated and dry organic compounds, such as model biological samples, is possible with a silicon drift detector in combination with XPP (exponential model of Pouchou and Pichoir matrix correction) software using 'remote standards'. This type of analysis is also referred to as 'standardless analysis'. Analyses from selected areas or elemental images (maps) were identical. Improvements in x-ray microanalytical hardware and software, together with developments in cryotechniques, have made the quantitative analysis of cryoplaned frozen-hydrated biological samples in the scanning electron microscope a much simpler procedure. The increased effectiveness of pulse pile-up rejection renders the analysis of Na, with ultrathin window detectors, in the presence of very high concentrations of O, from ice, more accurate. The accurate analysis of Ca (2 mmol kg-1 ) in the presence of high concentrations of K is possible. Careful sublimation of surface frost from frozen-hydrated samples resulted in a small increase in analysed elemental concentrations. A more prolonged sublimation from the same resurfaced sample and other similar samples resulted in higher element concentrations. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  4. Cloning, expression and characterization of SeM protein of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi and evaluation of its use as antigen in an indirect ELISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Moraes


    Full Text Available Strangles is an economically important horse disease caused by Streptococcus equi subsp. equi. The diagnosis can be confirmed either directly by bacterial isolation and PCR or by ELISA, which is an indirect method based on the detection of serum antibodies. The aim of this study was to clone, express and characterize the SeM protein of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi, evaluate its use as antigen in indirect ELISA and determine its performance to distinguish sera of negative, vaccinated and positive animals. This was initially performed by cloning the gene encoding the SeM protein and its expression in Escherichia coli. Subsequently, the protein produced was characterized and used as antigen in ELISA. Serum samples for evaluation were taken from 40 negative foals, 46 horses vaccinated with a commercial vaccine against strangles and 46 horses diagnosed with the disease. The test showed high specificity and sensitivity, allowing discrimination between negative and positive, positive and vaccinated animals, and vaccinated animals and negative sera. Thus, it was concluded that the protein produced rSeM, which can be used as antigen for disease diagnosis, and the described ELISA might be helpful to evaluate the immune status of the herd.

  5. Avaliação do espectro semântico de instrumentos para organização da informaçãoEvaluation of the semantic spectrum for information organization instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Rocha Souza


    Full Text Available O termo "semântica" tem sido amplamente utilizado nos últimos anos em diversas áreas de pesquisa e, em particular, em áreas relacionadas à tecnologia da informação. Um dos motivadores de tal apropriação é a visão da Web Semântica, originada na expansão da web e nas limitações dos instrumentos de busca baseados em sintaxe. Cabe questionar, entretanto, qual é esta "semântica" de que trata a Web Semântica, uma vez que o estudo do assunto é complexo e controverso. O presente artigo se insere nesse contexto, analisando o que é semântica, discutindo-a no âmbito da tecnologia da informação e propondo alternativas interpretativas. Avalia-se criticamente um espectro, o qual propõe a ordenação de instrumentos (modelos, linguagens, estruturas taxonômicas, etc. de acordo com uma escala semântica. Espera-se tornar claro o uso do termo em contextos diversos, bem como propor um novo espectro a partir das considerações do presente artigo.The term “semantics” has been used over the past years in several areas of research and, more specifically, in those related to information technology. One reason for that appropriation is the Semantic Web vision, which originated from the expansion of the web and the inherent limitations of the syntax-based search engines. However, it is reasonable to demand an explanation about which is the semantics addressed in the Semantic Web since the study of the subject is complex and controversial. The present article aims to make a contribution towards this sense, analyzing what semantic is, discussing it within the scope of information technology and proposing explanatory alternatives. We intend to critically evaluate a spectrum that suggests a classification of instruments (models, languages, taxonomic structures, etc in a semantic-based scale of graduated rates. We hope to provide a better understanding about the use of the term in different contexts, as well as offer a new spectrum from the

  6. Introducing Program Evaluation Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca GÂRBOAN


    Full Text Available Programs and project evaluation models can be extremely useful in project planning and management. The aim is to set the right questions as soon as possible in order to see in time and deal with the unwanted program effects, as well as to encourage the positive elements of the project impact. In short, different evaluation models are used in order to minimize losses and maximize the benefits of the interventions upon small or large social groups. This article introduces some of the most recently used evaluation models.

  7. AxiSEM3D: a new fast method for global wave propagation in 3-D Earth models with undulating discontinuities (United States)

    Leng, K.; Nissen-Meyer, T.; van Driel, M.; Al-Attar, D.


    We present a new, computationally efficient numerical method to simulate global seismic wave propagation in realistic 3-D Earth models with laterally heterogeneous media and finite boundary perturbations. Our method is a hybrid of pseudo-spectral and spectral element methods (SEM). We characterize the azimuthal dependence of 3-D wavefields in terms of Fourier series, such that the 3-D equations of motion reduce to an algebraic system of coupled 2-D meridional equations, which can be solved by a 2-D spectral element method (based on Computational efficiency of our method stems from lateral smoothness of global Earth models (with respect to wavelength) as well as axial singularity of seismic point sources, which jointly confine the Fourier modes of wavefields to a few lower orders. All boundary perturbations that violate geometric spherical symmetry, including Earth's ellipticity, topography and bathymetry, undulations of internal discontinuities such as Moho and CMB, are uniformly considered by means of a Particle Relabeling Transformation.The MPI-based high performance C++ code AxiSEM3D, is now available for forward simulations upon 3-D Earth models with fluid outer core, ellipticity, and both mantle and crustal structures. We show novel benchmarks for global wave solutions in 3-D mantle structures between our method and an independent, fully discretized 3-D SEM with remarkable agreement. Performance comparisons are carried out on three state-of-the-art tomography models, with seismic period going down to 5s. It is shown that our method runs up to two orders of magnitude faster than the 3-D SEM for such settings, and such computational advantage scales favourably with seismic frequency. By examining wavefields passing through hypothetical Gaussian plumes of varying sharpness, we identify in model-wavelength space the limits where our method may lose its advantage.

  8. Brand Equity Evaluation Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Migle Eleonora cernikovaite


    ...) benefits to the consumer. This article aims to assess how the international dimension is reflected in the various models of brand equity, analyze Lithuanian actualities in managing and evaluating brands, also to reveal...

  9. Effect of Different Powers of Er,Cr:YSGG Laser Treatment on Surface Morphology of Microhybride Composite Resin: Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) Evaluation. (United States)

    Mirzaei, Mansore; Yasini, Esmaeil; Tavakoli, Atefeh; Chiniforush, Nasim


    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare microhybride composite treated by bur and different power of Erbium, Chromium doped Yttrium Scandium Gallium Garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). 21 microhybride composite blocks (DiaFil TM, DiaDent, Korea) with 2 × 4 × 4 mm dimensions were made. The bonding surface of these blocks were polished, The samples were put into 6 groups for laser irradiation as follows: Group 1 (power: 1W, Energy: 50 mJ); Group 2(power: 2 W, Energy: 100mJ); Group 3 (power: 3W, Energy: 150mJ); Group 4 (power: 4W, Energy: 200mJ); Group 5 (power: 5W, Energy: 250mJ) and Group 6(power:6 W, Energy:300mJ). One group prepared by bur- treated. All samples were prepared by repetition rate of 20 Hz. Then, the samples were prepared for SEM examination. Some irregularities were seen in Er,Cr:YSGG laser samples in comparison to Bur group that produced favorable surface for adhesion of repair composite. Among different lasers, Er;Cr:YSGG laser can be chosen as a suitable technique for surface treatment of unsatisfactory composites.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Supriyati


    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Pemasaran melalui internet merupakan strategi baru dalam era teknologi informasi saat ini. Teknologi informasi diarahkan untuk mendukung proses bisnis utama dan pendukung yang ada di Usaha Mikro Dan Usaha Kecil Menengah (UMKM. Penelitian ini dilakukan pada UMKM di Kab Kudus yang bergerak di bidang konveksi dan kerajinan bordir. Analisa terhadap Tata Kelola TI diperoleh Domain COBIT yang sesuai yaitu PO5 (Mengukur Investasi TI. Indikator yang dianalisa adalah indikator penggunaan internet marketing. Dari identifikasi ini, kuisioner disebar ke UMKM. Pendekatan Struktural Equation Modeling (SEM digunakan untuk menganalisa secara empiris tentang faktor-faktor yang terkait dengan penggunaan internet marketing dalam memasarkan produk UMKM. Dari hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa korelasi Internet Marketing dengan PO5 cukup kuat (-0,358 akan tetapi arahnya negatif sehingga semakin kecil pengaturan investasi TI semakin kecil juga penggunaan Internet Marketing. Kata Kunci : UMKM, Internet marketing, COBIT, PO5, SEM

  11. Push-out bond strength and SEM evaluation of a new bonding approach into the root canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Carvalho


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the performance of different adhesive systems in fiber post placement aiming to clarify the influence of different hydrophobic experimental blend adhesives, and of one commercially available adhesive on the frictional retention during a luting procedure. MATERIAL AND METHODS: One luting agent (70 Wt% BisGMA, 28.5% TEGDMA; 1.5% p-tolyldiethanolamine to cement fiber posts into root canals was applied with 4 different adhesive combinations: Group 1: The etched roots were rinsed with water for 30 s to remove the phosphoric acid, then rinsed with 99.6% ethanol for 30 s, and blotdried. A trial adhesive (base to catalyst on a 1:1 ratio was used with an experimental luting agent (35% Bis-GMA, 14.37% TeGDMA, 0.5% eDMAB, 0.13% CQ; Group 2: A trial adhesive (base to catalyst on a 1:2 ratio was luted as in Group 1; Group 3: One-Step Plus (OSP, Bisco Inc. following the ethanol bonding technique in combination with the luting agent as in Group 1; Group 4: OSP strictly following the manufacturer's instructions using the luting agent as in Group 1. The groups were challenged with push-out tests. Posted root slices were loaded until post segment extrusion in the apical-coronal direction. Failure modes were analyzed under scanning electron microscopy. RESULTS: Push-out strength was not significantly influenced by the luting agent (p>0.05. No statistically significant differences among the tested groups were found as Group 1 (exp 1 - ethanol-wet bonding technique=Group 2 (exp 2 - ethanol-wet bonding technique=Group 3 (OSP - ethanol-wet bonding technique=Group 4 (control, OSP - water-wet bonding technique (p>0.05. The dominating failure modes in all the groups were cohesive/adhesive failures, which were predominantly observed on the post/luting agent interface. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study support the hypothesis that the proposal to replace water with ethanol to bond fiber posts to the root canal using highly hydrophobic

  12. Integrated Assessment Model Evaluation (United States)

    Smith, S. J.; Clarke, L.; Edmonds, J. A.; Weyant, J. P.


    Integrated assessment models of climate change (IAMs) are widely used to provide insights into the dynamics of the coupled human and socio-economic system, including emission mitigation analysis and the generation of future emission scenarios. Similar to the climate modeling community, the integrated assessment community has a two decade history of model inter-comparison, which has served as one of the primary venues for model evaluation and confirmation. While analysis of historical trends in the socio-economic system has long played a key role in diagnostics of future scenarios from IAMs, formal hindcast experiments are just now being contemplated as evaluation exercises. Some initial thoughts on setting up such IAM evaluation experiments are discussed. Socio-economic systems do not follow strict physical laws, which means that evaluation needs to take place in a context, unlike that of physical system models, in which there are few fixed, unchanging relationships. Of course strict validation of even earth system models is not possible (Oreskes etal 2004), a fact borne out by the inability of models to constrain the climate sensitivity. Energy-system models have also been grappling with some of the same questions over the last quarter century. For example, one of "the many questions in the energy field that are waiting for answers in the next 20 years" identified by Hans Landsberg in 1985 was "Will the price of oil resume its upward movement?" Of course we are still asking this question today. While, arguably, even fewer constraints apply to socio-economic systems, numerous historical trends and patterns have been identified, although often only in broad terms, that are used to guide the development of model components, parameter ranges, and scenario assumptions. IAM evaluation exercises are expected to provide useful information for interpreting model results and improving model behavior. A key step is the recognition of model boundaries, that is, what is inside

  13. Evaluation of the interaction between sodium hypochlorite and several formulations containing chlorhexidine and its effect on the radicular dentin--SEM and push-out bond strength analysis. (United States)

    Graziele Magro, Miriam; Kuga, Milton Carlos; Regina Victorino, Keli; Vázquez-Garcia, Fernando Antonio; Aranda-Garcia, Arturo Javier; Faria-Junior, Norberto Batista; Faria, Gisele; Luis Shinohara, André


    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the presence of debris and smear layer after endodontic irrigation with different formulations of 2% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) and its effects on the push-out bond strength of an epoxy-based sealer on the radicular dentin. One hundred extracted human canines were prepared to F5 instrument and irrigated with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite and 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. Fifty teeth were divided into five groups (n = 10), according to the final irrigation protocol with different 2% CHX formulations: G1 (control, no final rinse irrigation), G2 (CHX solution), G3 (CHX gel), G4 (Concepsis), and G5 (CHX Plus). In sequence, the specimens were submitted to scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis, in the cervical-medium and medium-apical segments, to evaluate the presence of debris and smear layer. The other 50 teeth were treated equally to a SEM study, but with the root canals filled with an epoxy-based endodontic sealer and submitted to a push-out bond strength test, in the cervical, middle, and apical thirds. G2, G3, G4, and G5 provided higher precipitation of the debris and smear layer than G1 (P  0.05), in both segments. The values obtained in the push out test did not differ between groups, independent of the radicular third (P > 0.05). The CHXs formulations caused precipitation of the debris and smear layer on the radicular dentin, but these residues did not interfere in the push-out bond strength of the epoxy-based sealer. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. CMAQ Model Evaluation Framework (United States)

    CMAQ is tested to establish the modeling system’s credibility in predicting pollutants such as ozone and particulate matter. Evaluation of CMAQ has been designed to assess the model’s performance for specific time periods and for specific uses.

  15. Evaluation of black crust formation and soiling process on historical buildings from the Bilbao metropolitan area (north of Spain) using SEM-EDS and Raman microscopy. (United States)

    Calparsoro, Estefanía; Maguregui, Maite; Giakoumaki, Anastasia; Morillas, Héctor; Madariaga, Juan Manuel


    In the present work, several building materials suffering from black crusts and soiled surfaces were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The goal was to examine the elemental and molecular composition, the distribution on the samples, and the morphology of endogenous and exogenous compounds on those black crusts and soiled surfaces. The black crusts were deposited over different building materials such as limestone, sandstone, and brick that constitute a small construction called "malacate" as well as over a limestone substrate of a cemetery gate. Both constructions are dated back to the beginning of the twentieth century. The samples of soiling were taken from the façade of a building constructed in the 1980s. The analytical evaluation allowed in a first stage the determination of the composition and the observation of the morphology of soiling and black crusts. In addition, the evaluation of the compositions of the soiling and black crusts of different grade and formation allowed the assessment of the main weathering phenomena that the buildings have suffered, which were found to be sulfate impact, marine aerosol impact, depositions of metallic particles, crustal particulate matter depositions, carbonaceous particles, biodeterioration, and vandalism.

  16. Comparative Morphologic Evaluation and Occluding Effectiveness of Nd: YAG, CO2 and Diode Lasers on Exposed Human Dentinal Tubules: An Invitro SEM Study (United States)

    Grover, Harpreet Singh; Choudhary, Pankaj


    Introduction Dentinal hypersensitivity is one of the most common problem, encountered in dental practice but has least predictable treatment outcome. The advent of lasers in dentistry has provided an additional therapeutic option for treating dentinal hypersensitivity. Although various lasers have been tried over a period of time to treat dentinal hypersensitivity, but still the doubt persist as to which laser leads to maximum dentinal tubular occlusion and is most suitable with minimal hazardous effects. Aim To compare the effects of Nd: YAG, CO2 and 810-nm diode lasers on width of exposed dentinal tubule orifices and to evaluate the morphologic changes on dentinal surface of human tooth after laser irradiation by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Materials and Methods Forty root specimens were obtained from ten freshly extracted human premolars, which were randomly divided into four groups of ten each. Group I: control group treated with only saline, Group II: Nd:YAG laser, Group III: CO2 laser and Group IV: 810-nm diode laser. The specimens were examined using SEM. After calculating mean tubular diameter for each group, the values were compared statistically using parametric one-way ANOVA test and Turkey’s post hoc multiple comparison test. Results All the three lased groups showed a highly statistical significant result with p-value of laser was found to be most effective, followed by the CO2 laser and 810-nm diode laser was found to be least effective. The morphologic changes like craters, cracks and charring effect of the dentine were seen maximum by the use of CO2 laser. PMID:27630957

  17. Energirenovering af Sems Have

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Østergaard; Rose, Jørgen; Mørck, Ove

    energirenovering af boligblokke. Vejledningen omfatter optimering af økonomi, energibesparelser og CO2-reduktion ved renovering af boligblokke til lavenerginiveau. Fokus er på elementbyggeri fra 60-70erne samt murstensbyggeri. Der tages udgangspunkt i to konkrete renoverings-cases: Traneparken og Sems Have, hvor...... renoveringen er udført på to principielt forskellige måder: Traneparken med udvendig efterisolering til næsten lavenergiklasse 2015 niveau (nuværende BR2015 krav), Sems Have med helt ny klimaskærm og nye installationer til bygningsklasse 2020 niveau. Begge bebyggelser har fået nyt ventilationsanlæg samt PV......-anlæg. Nærværende rapport beskriver renoveringen af Sems Have....

  18. Um modelo semântico de publicações eletrônicas | A semantic model for electronic publishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Marcondes


    Full Text Available Resumo Publicações eletrônicas, apesar dos avanços das Tecnologias da Informação, são ainda calcados no modelo impresso. O formato textual impede que programas possam ser usados para o processamento “semântico” desses conteúdos. È porposto um modelo “semântico” de publicações cientificas eletrônicas, no qual as conclusões contidas no texto do artigo fornecidas por autores e representadas em formato “inteligível” por programas, permitindo recuperação semântica, identificação de indícios de novas descobertas científicas e de incoerências sobre este conhecimento. O modelo se baseia nos conceitos de estrutura profunda, ou semântica, da linguagem (CHOMSKY, 1975, de microestrutura, macroestrutura e superestrutura, (KINTSH, VAN DIJK, 1972, na estrutura retórica de artigos científicos (HUTCHINS, 1977, (GROSS, 1990 e nos elementos de metodologia cientifica, como problema, questão, objetivo, hipótese, experimento e conclusão. Resulta da análise de 89 artigos biomédicos. Foi desenvolvido um protótipo de sistema que implementa parcialmente o modelo. Questionários foram usados com autores para embasar o desenvolvimento do protótipo. O protótipo foi testando com pesquisadores-autores. Foram identificados quatro padrões de raciocínio e encadeamento dos elementos semânticos em artigos científicos. O modelo de conteúdo foi implementado como uma ontologia computacional. Foi desenvolvido e avaliado um protótipo de uma interface web de submissão artigos pelos autores a um sistema eletrônico de publicação de periódicos que implementa o modelo. Palavras-chave publicações eletrônicas; metodológica científica; comunicação científica; representação do conhecimento; ontologias; processamento semântico de conteúdos; e-Ciência Abstract Electronic publishing, although Information Technologies advancements, are still based in the print text model. The textual format prevents programs to semantic process

  19. Composite Load Model Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Ning; Qiao, Hong (Amy)


    The WECC load modeling task force has dedicated its effort in the past few years to develop a composite load model that can represent behaviors of different end-user components. The modeling structure of the composite load model is recommended by the WECC load modeling task force. GE Energy has implemented this composite load model with a new function CMPLDW in its power system simulation software package, PSLF. For the last several years, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has taken the lead and collaborated with GE Energy to develop the new composite load model. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and BPA joint force and conducted the evaluation of the CMPLDW and test its parameter settings to make sure that: • the model initializes properly, • all the parameter settings are functioning, and • the simulation results are as expected. The PNNL effort focused on testing the CMPLDW in a 4-bus system. An exhaustive testing on each parameter setting has been performed to guarantee each setting works. This report is a summary of the PNNL testing results and conclusions.

  20. The effect of load cycling on microleakage of low shrinkage methacrylate base composite compared with silorane base composite and SEM evaluation of marginal integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Kermanshah


    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Marginal seal in class V cavity and determination of the best restorative material in reducing microleakage is of great concern in operative dentistry. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of load cycling on the microleakage of low shrinkage composites compared with methacrylate-based composites with low shirinkage rate in class V cavity preparation. Marginal integrity of these materials was assessed using scanning electron microscope (SEM. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, class V cavity preparations were made on the buccal and lingual surfaces of 48 human premolars and molars (96 cavities. The specimens were divided into four groups each containing 12 teeth (24 cavities: group 1 (Kalore-GC+ G-Bond , group 2 (Futurabond NR+Grandio, group 3(All Bond SE+ Aelite LS Posterior, group 4 (LS System Adhesive Primer & Bond+Filtek P90. All the specimens were thermocycled for 2000 cycles (5-50oC. In each group, half of the specimens (n=12 were subjected to 200,000 cycles of loading at 80 N. Epoxy resin replicas of 32 specimens (4 restorations in each subgroup were evaluated using SEM and the interfacial gaps were measured. Finally, the teeth were immersed in 0.5% basic fuchsin dye for 24 hours at 370C, then sectioned and observed under stereomicroscope. The data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests and the comparison between occlusal and gingival microleakage was made with Wilcoxon test. Results: Within unloaded or loaded specimens, there were no significant differences in microleakage among four groups on the occlusal margins (P>0.05. But there were statistically significant differences in microleakage between silorane and Aelite on the gingival margins (P0.05. Conclusion: Silorane did not perform better than the conventional low shrinkage methacrylate-based composite in terms of sealing ability (except Aelite. Cyclic loading did not increase the extent of leakage in any groups.

  1. SEM-EDX

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Mar 11, 2015 ... African Journal of Biotechnology. Full Length Research Paper. Scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDX) detection of arsenic and cadmium in himematsutake mushroom. Chun-Yen Liu1, Chao-Jen Wang1, Wen-Chuan Chung2, ...

  2. SEM microcharacterization of semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Holt, D B


    Applications of SEM techniques of microcharacterization have proliferated to cover every type of material and virtually every branch of science and technology. This book emphasizes the fundamental physical principles. The first section deals with the foundation of microcharacterization in electron beam instruments and the second deals with the interpretation of the information obtained in the main operating modes of a scanning electron microscope.

  3. Cheap non-toxic non-corrosive method of glass cleaning evaluated by contact angle, AFM, and SEM-EDX measurements. (United States)

    Dey, Tania; Naughton, Daragh


    Glass surface cleaning is the very first step in advanced coating deposition and it also finds use in conserving museum objects. However, most of the wet chemical methods of glass cleaning use toxic and corrosive chemicals like concentrated sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ), piranha (a mixture of concentrated sulfuric acid and 30% hydrogen peroxide), and hydrogen fluoride (HF). On the other hand, most of the dry cleaning techniques like UV-ozone, plasma, and laser treatment require costly instruments. In this report, five eco-friendly wet chemical methods of glass cleaning were evaluated in terms of contact angle (measured by optical tensiometer), nano-scale surface roughness (measured by atomic force microscopy or AFM), and elemental composition (measured by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy or SEM-EDX). These glass cleaning methods are devoid of harsh chemicals and costly equipment, hence can be applied in situ in close proximity with plantation such as greenhouse or upon subtle objects such as museum artifacts. Out of these five methods, three methods are based on the chemical principle of chelation. It was found that the citric acid cleaning method gave the greatest change in contact angle within the hydrophilic regime (14.25° for new glass) indicating effective cleansing and the least surface roughness (0.178 nm for new glass) indicating no corrosive effect. One of the glass sample showed unique features which were traced backed to the history of the glass usage.

  4. Chapter 24: Strategic Energy Management (SEM) Evaluation Protocol. The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, James [The Cadmus Group, Portland, OR (United States)


    Strategic energy management (SEM) focuses on achieving energy-efficiency improvements through systematic and planned changes in facility operations, maintenance, and behaviors (OM&B) and capital equipment upgrades in large energy-using facilities, including industrial buildings, commercial buildings, and multi-facility organizations such as campuses or communities. Facilities can institute a spectrum of SEM actions, ranging from a simple process for regularly identifying energy-savings actions, to establishing a formal, third-party recognized or certified SEM framework for continuous improvement of energy performance. In general, SEM programs that would be considered part of a utility program will contain a set of energy-reducing goals, principles, and practices emphasizing continuous improvements in energy performance or savings through energy management and an energy management system (EnMS).

  5. Structural equation modeling: building and evaluating causal models: Chapter 8 (United States)

    Grace, James B.; Scheiner, Samuel M.; Schoolmaster, Donald R.


    Scientists frequently wish to study hypotheses about causal relationships, rather than just statistical associations. This chapter addresses the question of how scientists might approach this ambitious task. Here we describe structural equation modeling (SEM), a general modeling framework for the study of causal hypotheses. Our goals are to (a) concisely describe the methodology, (b) illustrate its utility for investigating ecological systems, and (c) provide guidance for its application. Throughout our presentation, we rely on a study of the effects of human activities on wetland ecosystems to make our description of methodology more tangible. We begin by presenting the fundamental principles of SEM, including both its distinguishing characteristics and the requirements for modeling hypotheses about causal networks. We then illustrate SEM procedures and offer guidelines for conducting SEM analyses. Our focus in this presentation is on basic modeling objectives and core techniques. Pointers to additional modeling options are also given.

  6. Piecewise Structural Equation Model (SEM Disentangles the Environmental Conditions Favoring Diatom Diazotroph Associations (DDAs in the Western Tropical North Atlantic (WTNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Stenegren


    Full Text Available Diatom diazotroph associations (DDAs are important components in the world’s oceans, especially in the western tropical north Atlantic (WTNA, where blooms have a significant impact on carbon and nitrogen cycling. However, drivers of their abundances and distribution patterns remain unknown. Here, we examined abundance and distribution patterns for two DDA populations in relation to the Amazon River (AR plume in the WTNA. Quantitative PCR assays, targeting two DDAs (het-1 and het-2 by their symbiont’s nifH gene, served as input in a piecewise structural equation model (SEM. Collections were made during high (spring 2010 and low (fall 2011 flow discharges of the AR. The distributions of dissolved nutrients, chlorophyll-a, and DDAs showed coherent patterns indicative of areas influenced by the AR. A symbiotic Hemiaulus hauckii-Richelia (het-2 bloom (>106 cells L-1 occurred during higher discharge of the AR and was coincident with mesohaline to oceanic (30–35 sea surface salinities (SSS, and regions devoid of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN, low concentrations of both DIP (>0.1 μmol L-1 and Si (>1.0 μmol L-1. The Richelia (het-1 associated with Rhizosolenia was only present in 2010 and at lower densities (10-1.76 × 105nifH copies L-1 than het-2 and limited to regions of oceanic SSS (>36. The het-2 symbiont detected in 2011 was associated with H. membranaceus (>103nifH copies L-1 and were restricted to regions with mesohaline SSS (31.8–34.3, immeasurable DIN, moderate DIP (0.1–0.60 μmol L-1 and higher Si (4.19–22.1 μmol L-1. The piecewise SEM identified a profound direct negative effect of turbidity on the het-2 abundance in spring 2010, while DIP and water turbidity had a more positive influence in fall 2011, corroborating our observations of DDAs at subsurface maximas. We also found a striking difference in the influence of salinity on DDA symbionts suggesting a niche differentiation and preferences in oceanic and mesohaline

  7. Evaluating the Effects of Metals on Microorganisms in Flooded Paddy Soils Using the SEM/AVS-Based Approach and Measurements of Exchangeable Metal Concentrations. (United States)

    Kunito, Takashi; Toya, Hitomi; Sumi, Hirotaka; Ishikawa, Yuichi; Toda, Hideshige; Nagaoka, Kazunari; Saeki, Kazutoshi; Aikawa, Yoshio; Matsumoto, Satoshi


    We examined possible adverse effects of heavy metals on microbial activity, biomass, and community composition using the simultaneously extracted metals (SEM)/acid-volatile sulfide (AVS)-based approach and measurements of exchangeable metal concentrations in three paddy soils (wastewater-contaminated soil, mine-contaminated soil, and noncontaminated soil) incubated for 60 days under flooded conditions. Incubation under flooding increased pH and decreased Eh in all samples. AVS increased when Eh decreased to approximately -200 mV for the mine-contaminated and noncontaminated soils, while the wastewater-contaminated soil originally had a high concentration of AVS despite its air-dried condition. Addition of rice straw or alkaline material containing calcium carbonate and gypsum increased AVS levels under flooded conditions. We observed no apparent relationship between soil enzyme activity (β-D-glucosidase and acid phosphatase) and concentrations of SEM, [∑SEM - AVS], and exchangeable metals. Bacterial and fungal community composition, assessed using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis targeting rRNA genes, was largely influenced by site of collection and incubation time, but metal contamination did not influence community composition. We observed significant negative correlations between biomass C and [∑SEM - AVS] and between biomass C and ∑SEM, suggesting that [∑SEM - AVS] and ∑SEM might reflect the bioavailability of organic matter to microorganisms in these soils.

  8. Evaluating topic models with stability

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Waal, A


    Full Text Available Topic models are unsupervised techniques that extract likely topics from text corpora, by creating probabilistic word-topic and topic-document associations. Evaluation of topic models is a challenge because (a) topic models are often employed...

  9. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM Evaluation of the Interface between a Nanostructured Calcium-Incorporated Dental Implant Surface and the Human Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Mangano


    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this scanning electron microscope (SEM study was to investigate the interface between the bone and a novel nanostructured calcium-incorporated dental implant surface in humans. Methods. A dental implant (Anyridge®, Megagen Implant Co., Gyeongbuk, South Korea with a nanostructured calcium-incorporated surface (Xpeed®, Megagen Implant Co., Gyeongbuk, South Korea, which had been placed a month earlier in a fully healed site of the posterior maxilla (#14 of a 48-year-old female patient, and which had been subjected to immediate functional loading, was removed after a traumatic injury. Despite the violent trauma that caused mobilization of the fixture, its surface appeared to be covered by a firmly attached, intact tissue; therefore, it was subjected to SEM examination. The implant surface of an unused nanostructured calcium-incorporated implant was also observed under SEM, as control. Results. The surface of the unused implant showed a highly-structured texture, carved by irregular, multi-scale hollows reminiscent of a fractal structure. It appeared perfectly clean and devoid of any contamination. The human specimen showed trabecular bone firmly anchored to the implant surface, bridging the screw threads and filling the spaces among them. Conclusions. Within the limits of this human histological report, the sample analyzed showed that the nanostructured calcium-incorporated surface was covered by new bone, one month after placement in the posterior maxilla, under an immediate functional loading protocol.

  10. Tools for Model Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, H. R.


    Proceedings of the Twenty-Second NATO/CCMS International Technical Meeting on Air Pollution Modeling and Its Application, held June 6-10, 1997, in Clermont-Ferrand, France.......Proceedings of the Twenty-Second NATO/CCMS International Technical Meeting on Air Pollution Modeling and Its Application, held June 6-10, 1997, in Clermont-Ferrand, France....

  11. Extracting porosity and modelling permeability from μCT and FIB-SEM data of fractured dolomites from a hydrocarbon reservoir (United States)

    Voorn, M. H.; Rath, A.; Exner, U.


    Currently oil and gas in the Vienna Basin are produced partly from the Upper Triassic Hauptdolomit formation. Various drill-cores were retrieved from densely fractured dolomites from depths between 3000 and 5300 m. Porosity and permeability assessment in specimen from such fractured rocks proves to be difficult by common laboratory methods, and also 2D sample analysis alone is insufficient to this end. In our study, X-ray micro-Computed Tomography (µCT) is used to visualise the inside of core samples of fractured Hauptdolomit. The biggest advantage of µCT is that it provides a 3D view of the fractures and other porosity, without destroying the sample. Core sample descriptions, 2D thin section analysis and standard laboratory measurements are used for extended analysis and cross-calibration of the results. In addition, 3D porosity visualisations at the micro- to nano-scale are obtained from Focussed Ion Beam - Scanning Electron Microscopy (FIB-SEM) on thin sections. The narrow fractures encountered in the Hauptdolomit samples require sufficient resolution µCT scans (i.e. better than ca. 25 µm). Full 10 cm diameter cores of sample prove to be too thick and dense, so that the fracture network cannot be recorded properly. 3 cm sized plugs on the other hand do provide workable results. After obtaining good datasets, the fractures need to be segmented (separated) from the full dataset for further analysis. A large amount of different segmentation routines is available from literature, but very little are applicable for segmenting narrow fractures, especially not in geological literature. Our current best results stem from applying the so-called "Frangi filter" used in segmentation routines in the medical sciences for segmenting blood vessels. After this segmentation, the fracture patterns can be extracted, and quantitative analysis of the bulk porosity and porosity distribution, fracture aperture and length can be performed. The data obtained by FIB-SEM is treated in

  12. Febre sem sinais localizatórios: avaliação de um protocolo de atendimento Fever without source: evaluation of a guideline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Marcondes Machado


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a aplicabilidade de um protocolo de atendimento padronizado para crianças de até 36 meses de idade com febre sem sinais localizatórios (FSSL. MÉTODOS: Estudo de coorte prospectivo em crianças com FSSL atendidas no Pronto-Socorro do Hospital Universitário da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo (SP, de junho de 2006 a maio de 2007. O protocolo estratifica o risco de infecção bacteriana grave (IBG de acordo com a presença ou não de toxemia, idade e valor da temperatura. Conforme avaliação de risco, indicava-se triagem laboratorial: hemograma, hemocultura, sedimento urinário, urocultura e, se necessário, radiografia torácica, liquor e coprocultura. RESULTADOS: Foram estudadas 251 crianças das quais 215 foram acompanhadas até o diagnóstico final. Vinte crianças apresentavam toxemia, e 195 estavam em bom estado geral (30 com idade de até 3 meses, e 165, de 3 a 36 meses. Nas crianças de 3 a 36 meses não toxêmicas, 95 tinham temperatura axilar > 39 ºC. Em 107 crianças (49,8%, houve melhora espontânea do quadro febril; em 88 (40,9%, foi identificada doença benigna autolimitada; e em 20 (9,3%, IBG. Dentre as IBG, identificamos 16 infecções urinárias, três pneumonias e uma bacteremia oculta. Das 215, 129 (60% não receberam qualquer antibioticoterapia, e 86 receberam antibiótico em algum momento (45, empiricamente. O antibiótico empírico foi mantido por, em média, 72 horas. CONCLUSÃO: O protocolo aplicado mostrou-se adequado para o seguimento destas crianças que fizeram coleta de exames simples e passíveis de serem realizados na maioria dos serviços. A infecção urinária foi a IBG mais frequente nas crianças com FSSL.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the applicability of a standardized guideline for children up to 36 months of age with fever without source (FWS. METHODS: Prospective cohort study involving children with FWS treated at the emergency department of Hospital Universitário, Universidade de S


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinello, Francesco; Carmignato, Simone; Savio, Enrico


    This paper addresses the metrological performance of three-dimensional measurements performed with Scanning Electron Microscopes (SEMs) using reconstruction of surface topography through stereo-photogrammetry. Reconstruction is based on the model function introduced by Piazzesi adapted for eucent......This paper addresses the metrological performance of three-dimensional measurements performed with Scanning Electron Microscopes (SEMs) using reconstruction of surface topography through stereo-photogrammetry. Reconstruction is based on the model function introduced by Piazzesi adapted...... and the instrument set-up; the second concerns the quality of scanned images and represents the major criticality in the application of SEMs for 3D characterizations. In particular the critical role played by the tilting angle and its relative uncertainty, the magnification and the deviations from the eucentricity...

  14. Advanced metrology by offline SEM data processing (United States)

    Lakcher, Amine; Schneider, Loïc.; Le-Gratiet, Bertrand; Ducoté, Julien; Farys, Vincent; Besacier, Maxime


    Today's technology nodes contain more and more complex designs bringing increasing challenges to chip manufacturing process steps. It is necessary to have an efficient metrology to assess process variability of these complex patterns and thus extract relevant data to generate process aware design rules and to improve OPC models. Today process variability is mostly addressed through the analysis of in-line monitoring features which are often designed to support robust measurements and as a consequence are not always very representative of critical design rules. CD-SEM is the main CD metrology technique used in chip manufacturing process but it is challenged when it comes to measure metrics like tip to tip, tip to line, areas or necking in high quantity and with robustness. CD-SEM images contain a lot of information that is not always used in metrology. Suppliers have provided tools that allow engineers to extract the SEM contours of their features and to convert them into a GDS. Contours can be seen as the signature of the shape as it contains all the dimensional data. Thus the methodology is to use the CD-SEM to take high quality images then generate SEM contours and create a data base out of them. Contours are used to feed an offline metrology tool that will process them to extract different metrics. It was shown in two previous papers that it is possible to perform complex measurements on hotspots at different process steps (lithography, etch, copper CMP) by using SEM contours with an in-house offline metrology tool. In the current paper, the methodology presented previously will be expanded to improve its robustness and combined with the use of phylogeny to classify the SEM images according to their geometrical proximities.

  15. Characterizing the hydraulic properties of a paper coating layer using FIB-SEM tomography and 3D pore-scale modeling


    Aslannejad, H.; Hassanizadeh, S.M.; Raoof, A.; de Winter, D.A.M.; Tomozeu, N.; van Genuchten, M.T.


    Paper used in the printing industry generally contains a relatively thin porous coating covering a thicker fibrous base layer. The three-dimensional pore structure of coatings has a major effect on fluid flow patterns inside the paper medium. Understanding and quantifying the flow properties of thin coating layers is hence crucial. Pore spaces within the coating have an average size of about 180 nm. We used scanning electron microscopy combined with focused ion beam (FIB-SEM) to visualize the...

  16. Immunolabeling for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and field emission SEM. (United States)

    Goldberg, Martin W


    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is a high resolution surface imaging technique. Many biological process and structures occur at surfaces and if antibodies are available, their components can be located within the surface structure. This is usually done in a similar way to immuno-fluorescence, using an unconjugated primary antibody followed by a tagged secondary antibody against the primary. In this case the tag is usually a colloidal gold particle instead of a fluorophore. Therefore it is quite straightforward to adapt an immuno-fluorescence procedure for SEM, as long as certain precautions are followed, as discussed here. Progressing from immuno-fluorescence, which essentially only indicates the position of a protein within the volume of a cell, to immuno-SEM, puts the labeling into the context of cellular structures. The principles and practices of sample preparation, labeling and imaging are described here.

  17. Secondary emission monitor (SEM) grids.

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez


    A great variety of Secondary Emission Monitors (SEM) are used all over the PS Complex. At other accelerators they are also called wire-grids, harps, etc. They are used to measure beam density profiles (from which beam size and emittance can be derived) in single-pass locations (not on circulating beams). Top left: two individual wire-planes. Top right: a combination of a horizontal and a vertical wire plane. Bottom left: a ribbon grid in its frame, with connecting wires. Bottom right: a SEM-grid with its insertion/retraction mechanism.

  18. Sequentially Executed Model Evaluation Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Provides a message passing framework between generic input, model and output drivers, and specifies an API for developing such drivers. Also provides batch and real-time controllers which step the model and I/O through the time domain (or other discrete domain), and sample I/O drivers. This is a library framework, and does not, itself, solve any problems or execute any modeling. The SeMe framework aids in development of models which operate on sequential information, such as time-series, where evaluation is based on prior results combined with new data for this iteration. Has applications in quality monitoring, and was developed as part of the CANARY-EDS software, where real-time water quality data is being analyzed for anomalies.

  19. Setting up the Brazilian Evaluation Network: a challenging work with no boundaries Estabelecendo a Rede Brasileira de Avaliação: um trabalho desafiador sem limites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Cristina Dannemann


    Full Text Available Evaluation may be a relevant tool for the practice of democracy. In order for it to occur, quality and proper utilization of its results must be assured (PATTON, 1997. Therefore, the consolidation of democratic principles in a society and the promotion of effective social interactions (FETTERMAN; WANDERSMAN, 2005 will benefit enormously from a greater and better use of evaluation in all possible formats. The Brazilian Evaluation Network was created approximately three years ago in a country with a recent history of democratic practice. Within a theoretical framework networks do not have boundaries or limits for debate. However, cultural and historical aspects create limits for the discussions and boundaries among its participants. This paper intends to shed light into some of these limits and boundaries, reflecting over how they are being overcome.Uma avaliação pode ser um importante instrumento para o exercício da democracia. Para que isso ocorra é preciso assegurar a qualidade da avaliação, bem como a utilização apropriada dos seus resultados (PATTON,1997. Desta forma, a construção de uma sociedade democrática, que busca a melhoria permanente dos seus processos sociais (FETTERMAN; WANDERSMAN, 2005, depende do aprimoramento contínuo da sua prática de avaliação, em suas variadas manifestações. No Brasil, há aproximadamente 3 anos, foi criada a Rede Brasileira de Avaliação. Uma rede que, em sua concepção teórica, não possui limites ou fronteiras de discussão. Contudo, existem aspectos culturais e históricos (envolvendo valores, que criam limites para as referidas discussões e estabelecem fronteiras entre as diferentes instâncias. Este trabalho apresenta alguns destes limites e fronteiras, refletindo sobre a forma como aqueles que encomendam e que conduzem avaliações vêm contornando os limites e ultrapassando fronteiras.

  20. SEM: A Cultural Change Agent (United States)

    Barnes, Bradley; Bourke, Brian


    The authors advance the concept that institutional culture is a purposeful framework by which to view SEM's utility, particularly as a cultural change agent. Through the connection of seemingly independent functions of performance and behavior, implications emerge that deepen the understanding of the influence of culture on performance outcomes…

  1. Infrasound Sensor Models and Evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Sandia National Laboratories has continued to evaluate the performance of infrasound sensors that are candidates for use by the International Monitoring System (IMS) for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization. The performance criteria against which these sensors are assessed are specified in ``Operational Manual for Infra-sound Monitoring and the International Exchange of Infrasound Data''. This presentation includes the results of efforts concerning two of these sensors: (1) Chaparral Physics Model 5; and (2) CEA MB2000. Sandia is working with Chaparral Physics in order to improve the capability of the Model 5 (a prototype sensor) to be calibrated and evaluated. With the assistance of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Sandia is also conducting tests to evaluate the performance of the CEA MB2000. Sensor models based on theoretical transfer functions and manufacturer specifications for these two devices have been developed. This presentation will feature the results of coherence-based data analysis of signals from a huddle test, utilizing several sensors of both types, in order to verify the sensor performance.

  2. Performability Modelling Tools, Evaluation Techniques and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.


    This thesis deals with three aspects of quantitative evaluation of fault-tolerant and distributed computer and communication systems: performability evaluation techniques, performability modelling tools, and performability modelling applications. Performability modelling is a relatively new

  3. Performing probe experiments in the SEM. (United States)

    Peng, L-M; Chen, Q; Liang, X L; Gao, S; Wang, J Y; Kleindiek, S; Tai, S W


    A four nanoprobe system has been installed inside a FEI XL30 F scanning electron microscope (SEM), and shown to be fully compatible with the normal functions of the SEM and also a Gatan cold stage (model C1003, -185-400 degrees C). With some selected examples of applications, we have shown that this nanoprobe system may be used effectively for gripping, moving and manipulating nanoobjects, e.g. carbon nanotubes, setting up electric contacts for electronic measurements, tailoring the structure of the nanoobject by cutting, etc. and even for making unexpected nanostructures, e.g. a nanohook. Applications in other areas have also been speculated, limitations or disadvantages of the current design of the probe system were discussed, and methods for possible improvement were suggested.

  4. Evaluation of clinical information modeling tools. (United States)

    Moreno-Conde, Alberto; Austin, Tony; Moreno-Conde, Jesús; Parra-Calderón, Carlos L; Kalra, Dipak


    Clinical information models are formal specifications for representing the structure and semantics of the clinical content within electronic health record systems. This research aims to define, test, and validate evaluation metrics for software tools designed to support the processes associated with the definition, management, and implementation of these models. The proposed framework builds on previous research that focused on obtaining agreement on the essential requirements in this area. A set of 50 conformance criteria were defined based on the 20 functional requirements agreed by that consensus and applied to evaluate the currently available tools. Of the 11 initiative developing tools for clinical information modeling identified, 9 were evaluated according to their performance on the evaluation metrics. Results show that functionalities related to management of data types, specifications, metadata, and terminology or ontology bindings have a good level of adoption. Improvements can be made in other areas focused on information modeling and associated processes. Other criteria related to displaying semantic relationships between concepts and communication with terminology servers had low levels of adoption. The proposed evaluation metrics were successfully tested and validated against a representative sample of existing tools. The results identify the need to improve tool support for information modeling and software development processes, especially in those areas related to governance, clinician involvement, and optimizing the technical validation of testing processes. This research confirmed the potential of these evaluation metrics to support decision makers in identifying the most appropriate tool for their organization. Los Modelos de Información Clínica son especificaciones para representar la estructura y características semánticas del contenido clínico en los sistemas de Historia Clínica Electrónica. Esta investigación define, prueba y valida

  5. SEM Analysis of Tooth Enamel


    Azinović, Zoran; Keros, Jadranka; Buković, Dino; Azinović, Ana


    SEM analysis contains researches of tooth enamel surfaces of two populations. First group of samples is tooth enamel of prehistorically ancestor from Vu~edol and the second group of samples is enamel of modern Croatian citizen. Even on small number of human teeth samples from cooperage site of Vu~edol (3,000 BC) and today’s Croatian people, we can conclude about chewing biometry of prehistorically ancestors and today’s modern Croatian people, comparing interspecifically the mor...

  6. Evaluation Model for Sentient Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Florencia Fergnani Brion


    Full Text Available In this article we made a research about the Sentient Cities and produced an assessment model to analyse if a city is or could be potentially considered one. It can be used to evaluate the current situation of a city before introducing urban policies based on citizen participation in hybrid environments (physical and digital. To that effect, we've developed evaluation grids with the main elements that form a Sentient City and their measurement values. The Sentient City is a variation of the Smart City, also based on technology progress and innovation, but where the citizens are the principal agent. In this model, governments aim to have a participatory and sustainable system for achieving the Knowledge Society and Collective Intelligence development, as well as the city’s efficiency. Also, they increase communication channels between the Administration and citizens. In this new context, citizens are empowered because they have the opportunity to create a Local Identity and transform their surroundings through open and horizontal initiatives.

  7. The Model Size Effect in SEM: Inflated Goodness-of-Fit Statistics Are due to the Size of the Covariance Matrix (United States)

    Moshagen, Morten


    The size of a model has been shown to critically affect the goodness of approximation of the model fit statistic "T" to the asymptotic chi-square distribution in finite samples. It is not clear, however, whether this "model size effect" is a function of the number of manifest variables, the number of free parameters, or both. It is demonstrated by…

  8. Social Context, Self-Perceptions and Student Engagement: A SEM Investigation of the Self-System Model of Motivational Development (SSMMD) (United States)

    Dupont, Serge; Galand, Benoit; Nils, Frédéric; Hospel, Virginie


    Introduction: The present study aimed to test a theoretically-based model (the self-system model of motivational development) including at the same time the extent to which the social context provides structure, warmth and autonomy support, the students' perceived autonomy, relatedness and competence, and behavioral, cognitive and emotional…

  9. Model Performance Evaluation and Scenario Analysis (MPESA) (United States)

    Model Performance Evaluation and Scenario Analysis (MPESA) assesses the performance with which models predict time series data. The tool was developed Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF) and the Stormwater Management Model (SWMM)

  10. Exploring the Association between Transformational Leadership and Teacher's Self-Efficacy in Greek Education System: A Multilevel SEM Model (United States)

    Gkolia, Aikaterini; Koustelios, Athanasios; Belias, Dimitrios


    The main aim of this study is to examine the effect of principals' transformational leadership on teachers' self-efficacy across 77 different Greek elementary and secondary schools based on a centralized education system. For the investigation of the above effect multilevel Structural Equation Modelling analysis was conducted, recognizing the…

  11. A Structural Equation Model (SEM) of the Impact of Transformational, Visionary, Charismatic and Ethical Leadership Styles on the Development of Wise Leadership among Filipino Private Secondary School Principals (United States)

    Parco-Tropicales, Marishirl; de Guzman, Allan B.


    In recent years, wisdom is seen as a key resource for school leaders in dealing with the dynamics of the changing school environments. This study purports to expand the growing interest on wisdom by testing a model that describes the impact of transformational, visionary, charismatic and ethical leadership styles on wise leadership development…

  12. Sexual Arousal and Sexually Explicit Media (SEM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Gert Martin; Stulhofer, Aleksandar; Lange, Theis


    -mainstream and mainstream SEM groups, and (iii) to explore the validity and predictive accuracy of the Non-Mainstream Pornography Arousal Scale (NPAS). METHODS: Online cross-sectional survey of 2,035 regular SEM users in Croatia. MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES: Patterns of sexual arousal to 27 different SEM themes, sexual...

  13. Plasma growth hormones, P300 event-related potential and test of variables of attention (TOVA) are important neuroendocrinological predictors of early cognitive decline in a clinical setting: evidence supported by structural equation modeling (SEM) parameter estimates. (United States)

    Braverman, Eric R; Chen, Thomas J H; Prihoda, Thomas J; Sonntag, William; Meshkin, Brian; Downs, B William; Mengucci, Julie F; Blum, Seth H; Notaro, Alison; Arcuri, Vanessa; Varshavskiy, Michael; Blum, Kenneth


    A review of the literature in both animals and humans reveals that changes in sex hormone have often been associated with changes in behavioral and mental abilities. Previously published research from our laboratory, and others, provides strong evidence that P300 (latency) event-related potential (ERP), a marker of neuronal processing speed, is an accurate predictor of early memory impairment in both males and females across a wide age range. It is our hypothesis, given the vast literature on the subject, that coupling growth hormones (insulin-like growth factor-I, (IGF-I) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGF-BP3)), P300 event-related potential and test of variables of attention (TOVA) are important neuroendocrinological predictors of early cognitive decline in a clinical setting. To support this hypothesis, we utilized structural equation modeling (SEM) parameter estimates to determine the relationship between aging and memory, as mediated by growth hormone (GH) levels (indirectly measured through the insulin-like growth factor system), P300 latency and TOVA, putative neurocognitive predictors tested in this study. An SEM was developed hypothesizing a causal directive path, leading from age to memory, mediated by IGF-1 and IGF-BP3, P300 latency (speed), and TOVA decrements. An increase in age was accompanied by a decrease in IGF-1 and IGF-BP3, an increase in P300 latency, a prolongation in TOVA response time, and a decrease in memory functioning. Moreover, independent of age, decreases in IGF-1 and IGF-BP3, were accompanied by increases in P300 latency, and were accompanied by increases in TOVA response time. Finally, increases in P300 latency were accompanied by decreased memory function, both directly and indirectly through mediation of TOVA response time. In summary, this is the first report utilizing SEM to reveal the finding that aging affects memory function negatively through mediation of decreased IGF-1 and IGF-BP3, and increased P300

  14. A suggested method for dispersion model evaluation. (United States)

    Irwin, John S


    Too often operational atmospheric dispersion models are evaluated in their ability to replicate short-term concentration maxima, when in fact a valid model evaluation procedure would evaluate a model's ability to replicate ensemble-average patterns in hourly concentration values. A valid model evaluation includes two basic tasks: In Step 1 we should analyze the observations to provide average patterns for comparison with modeled patterns, and in Step 2 we should account for the uncertainties inherent in Step 1 so we can tell whether differences seen in a comparison of performance of several models are statistically significant. Using comparisons of model simulation results from AERMOD and ISCST3 with tracer concentration values collected during the EPRI Kincaid experiment, a candidate model evaluation procedure is demonstrated that assesses whether a model has the correct total mass at the receptor level (crosswind integrated concentration values) and whether a model is correctly spreading the mass laterally (lateral dispersion), and assesses the uncertainty in characterizing the transport. The use of the BOOT software (preferably using the ASTMD 6589 resampling procedure) is suggested to provide an objective assessment of whether differences in model performance between models are significant. Regulatory agencies can choose to treat modeling results as "pseudo-monitors," but air quality models actually only predict what they are constructed to predict, which certainly does not include the stochastic variations that result in observed short-term maxima (e.g., arc-maxima). Models predict the average concentration pattern of a collection of hours having very similar dispersive conditions. An easy-to-implement evaluation procedure is presented that challenges a model to properly estimate ensemble average concentration values, reveals where to look in a model to remove bias, and provides statistical tests to assess the significance of skill differences seen between

  15. Avaliação quantitativa ultra-sonográfica do calcâneo permite diferenciar mulheres com e sem fraturas ósseas recentes Quantitative calcaneal ultrasound evaluation allows distinguishing women with and without fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Aguirre Zambrano Velho


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudos internacionais apontam o ultra-som de calcâneo (QUS como um excelente método para avaliar a qualidade óssea e o risco de fraturas. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar o QUS de um grupo de mulheres brasileiras fraturadas com outro de não- fraturadas e verificar se as medidas do pé direito e esquerdo e duas medidas seqüenciais em cada pé eram estatisticamente equivalentes. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliadas 52 mulheres. Vinte e seis eram fraturadas e 26 sem fraturas, pareadas por idade (± 2, anos de pós-menopausa (± 2, e índice de massa corpórea (kg/m² (± 2. RESULTADOS: Os resultados foram comparados pelo teste t de Student para amostras pareadas. Os valores (média ± DP para o índice de elasticidade (SI foram 54,9 (± 16,6 e 80,4 (± 17,3 e o T Score foi -2,9 (± 0,94 e -1,3 (± 0,95 para o grupo com e sem fraturas, respectivamente. A primeira e segunda medidas do SI para cada pé, bem como as medidas dos pés direito e esquerdo foram similares. Houve significância estatística (pOBJECTIVE: International studies have pointed out quantitative ultrasound as an important method to assess bone fragility and risk of fracture. This study was performed to compare quantitative ultrasound (QUS in two groups of Brazilian women, those with a fracture and those with no previous history of fracture. The aim was to assess whether there was any difference between the right and the left foot s and whether two sequential measurements in each foot were statistically equivalent... METHODS: A total of 52 women, 26 with and 26 with no fractures, matched by age (± 2 years, years since menopause (± 2 years, and body mass index (kg/m² (± 2 were evaluated. RESULTS: Results were compared by the Student's t test for matched samples. Values (mean ± SD for the stiffness index (SI were 54.9 (± 16.6 and 80.4 (± 17.3, and for the T Score were -2.9 (± 0.94 and -1.3 (± 0.95 for the groups with and with no fractures, respectively. The first and

  16. A Critique of Kirkpatrick's Evaluation Model (United States)

    Reio, Thomas G., Jr.; Rocco, Tonette S.; Smith, Douglas H.; Chang, Elegance


    Donald Kirkpatrick published a series of articles originating from his doctoral dissertation in the late 1950s describing a four-level training evaluation model. From its beginning, it was easily understood and became one of the most influential evaluation models impacting the field of HRD. While well received and popular, the Kirkpatrick model…

  17. Análise sensorial de músculo de mapará com e sem tratamento osmótico Sensorial evaluation of mapará muscle with and without osmotic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suezilde da Conceição Amaral Ribeiro


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar sensorialmente o mapará in natura e com pré-tratamento osmótico antes da secagem. Para o teste de aceitabilidade do bolinho de músculo de mapará, foram utilizados peixes in natura e desidratados osmoticamente, nas melhores condições de processo, em soluções de NaCl, NaCl + sacarose e em solução de NaCl + xarope de milho e secos. Foram utilizados 25 provadores não treinados, de ambos os sexos, com idade variando de 20 a 60 anos. Os atributos sensoriais avaliados foram aparência, aroma, sabor, textura e impressão global. O aroma e a textura das amostras com e sem pré-tratamento osmótico foram os atributos que obtiveram maior aceitação por parte dos consumidores. Pôde-se concluir que as amostras tratadas com soluções osmóticas, com exceção das tratadas com solução de NaCl + xarope de milho, proporcionaram produtos com textura, sabor e aroma mais agradáveis.The objective of this work was the sensorial evaluation of mapará meat, in natura and without osmotic pre-treatment before drying. For the acceptability test of the mapará fish muscle bisquit, the in natura fish samples were used and dried under optimum osmotic dehydration conditions, in solutions of NaCl, NaCl + sucrose and in solution of NaCl + corn syrup solution before drying. 25 not trained testers were used, of both sex, ages ranging from 20 to 60 years. The evaluated sensorial attributes of the samples were appearance, aroma, flavor, texture and overall impression. The aroma and texture of the samples with and without osmotic pre-treatment were the ones most widely accepted by the consumers. It is concluded that the samples treated with osmotic solutions, with the exception of those processed with NaCl + corn syrup solution, provided products with better texture, flavor and a more pleasant aroma.

  18. Evaluating spatial patterns in hydrological modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Julian

    with respect to their capability to mimic human evaluations. This PhD thesis aims at expanding the standard toolbox of spatial model evaluation with innovative metrics that adequately compare spatial patterns. Driven by the rise of more complex model structures and the increase of suitable remote sensing......The objective of this PhD study is to investigate possible ways towards a better integration of spatial observations into the modelling process via spatial pattern evaluation. It is widely recognized by the modelling community that the grand potential of readily available spatial observations...... is not fully exploited by current modelling frameworks due to the lack of suitable spatial performance metrics. Furthermore, the traditional model evaluation using discharge is found unsuitable to lay confidence on the predicted catchment inherent spatial variability of hydrological processes in a fully...

  19. Evaluation of the use of probiotics in diets with or without growth promoters for broiler chicks Avaliação do uso de probiótico em dietas para frangos de corte com ou sem promotores de crescimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Régis Fernando Pastorelo Meurer


    Full Text Available This work was carried out to evaluate the use of Bacillus subtilis probiotic C-3102 (10(10cfu/g in diets with or without growth promoters on the performance of broilers in the period from 1 to 42 days of age. It was used 1,200 Cobb line broilers, distributed in a complete randomized block with five diets: negative controller (without promoters; Bacillus subtilis (30 g/t ration; Bacillus subtilis (50 g/t ration; Bacillus subtilis (30 g/t ration + colistin (10 ppm; avilamycin (10 ppm + colistin (10 ppm. Each diet was evaluated in 10 repetitions with 24 birds. From 21 to 42 days of age, feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion were evaluated, and at 42 days of age, productive efficiency index was evaluated. At the end of the experimental period, it was observed an increase in the consumption of diet with the lowest dose of Bacillus subtilis (30 g in relation to that one with Bacillus subtillis (30 g + colistin (10 ppm. The values of weight gain obtained with the diet with the lowest dose of Bacillus subtillis (30 g and with avilamycin (10 ppm + colistine (10 ppm were higher than those of the birds fed control diet (without promoters. For feed conversion, the best results were obtained by supplying diets containing 50 g of Bacillus subtillis, diet with 30 g of Bacillus subtillis + 10 ppm of colistin; and diet with 10 ppm of avilamycin + 10 ppm colistin. For the analysis of productive efficiency index, the best results were obtained with diets containing additives (probiotics and/or antibiotics in comparison to the control diet. Bacillus subtillis C-3102 probiotic, at concentration 10(10 cfu/g, is an efficient substitute of antibiotics.Este trabalho foi realizado para avaliar o uso do probiótico Bacillus subtilis C-3102 (10(10 ufc/g em dietas contendo ou não promotores de crescimento sobre o desempenho de frangos de corte no período de 1 a 42 dias de idade. Foram utilizados 1.200 frangos de corte da linhagem Cobb, distribuídos em delineamento

  20. Evaluating survival model performance: a graphical approach. (United States)

    Mandel, M; Galai, N; Simchen, E


    In the last decade, many statistics have been suggested to evaluate the performance of survival models. These statistics evaluate the overall performance of a model ignoring possible variability in performance over time. Using an extension of measures used in binary regression, we propose a graphical method to depict the performance of a survival model over time. The method provides estimates of performance at specific time points and can be used as an informal test for detecting time varying effects of covariates in the Cox model framework. The method is illustrated on real and simulated data using Cox proportional hazard model and rank statistics. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. An evaluation of the Tripartite Influence Model of body dissatisfaction and eating disturbance with adolescent girls. (United States)

    Keery, Helene; van den Berg, Patricia; Thompson, J Kevin


    The Tripartite Influence Model of body image and eating disturbance proposes that three formative influences (peer, parents, and media) affect body image and eating problems through two mediational mechanisms: internalization of the thin-ideal and appearance comparison processes. The current study evaluated this model in a sample of 325 sixth through eighth grade girls. Simple path analyses indicated that internalization and comparison fully mediated the relationship between parental influence and body dissatisfaction and partially mediated the relationship between peer influence and body dissatisfaction. Additionally, internalization and comparison partially mediated the relationship between media influence and body dissatisfaction. Six a priori SEM models based on the full Tripartite Influence Model were also evaluated. A resulting model was found to be an adequate fit to the data, supporting the viability of the Tripartite Model as a useful framework for understanding processes that may predispose young women to develop body image disturbances and eating dysfunction.

  2. A New Methodology to Analyze Instabilities in SEM Imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mansilla, Catalina; Ocelik, Vaclav; De Hosson, Jeff T. M.


    This paper presents a statistical method to analyze instabilities that can be introduced during imaging in scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The method is based on the correlation of digital images and it can be used at different length scales. It consists of the evaluation of three different

  3. Evaluation of green house gas emissions models. (United States)


    The objective of the project is to evaluate the GHG emissions models used by transportation agencies and industry leaders. Factors in the vehicle : operating environment that may affect modal emissions, such as, external conditions, : vehicle fleet c...

  4. Statistical measure for the sharpness of SEM images (United States)

    Zhang, Nien-Fan; Postek, Michael T., Jr.; Larrabee, Robert D.; Vladar, Andras E.; Keery, William J.; Jones, Samuel N.


    Fully automated or semi-automated scanning electron microscopes (SEM) are now commonly used in semiconductor production and other forms of manufacturing. Testing and proving that the instrument is performing at a satisfactory level of sharpness is an important aspect of quality control. The application of Fourier analysis techniques to the analysis of SEM images is useful methodology for sharpness measurement. In this paper, a statistical measure known as the multivariate kurtosis, is proposed as a useful measure of the sharpness of SEM images. Kurtosis is designed to be a measure of the degree of departure of a probability distribution from the Gaussian distribution. It is a function of both the fourth and the second moments of a probability distribution. For selected SEM images, the two- dimensional spatial Fourier transforms were computed. Then the bivariate kurtosis of this Fourier transform was calculated as though it were a probability distribution, and that kurtosis evaluated as a characterization tool. Kurtosis has the distinct advantage that it is a parametric measure and is sensitive to the presence of the high spatial frequencies necessary for acceptable levels of sharpness. The applications of this method to SEM metrology will be discussed.

  5. Histopathologic and SEM analysis of primary teeth with pulpectomy failure. (United States)

    Tannure, Patricia Nivoloni; Barcelos, Roberta; Portela, Maristela Barbosa; Gleiser, Rogerio; Primo, Laura Guimarães


    The objective of this study was to identify the probable factors associated with pulpectomy failure of primary teeth through qualitative analysis by histopathology (HIST) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A longitudinal clinical investigation of the efficacy of pulpectomy in primary teeth with irreversible pulp changes was carried out with 133 teeth (66 children) evaluated up to 48 months. The overall success was 86.1% during follow-up. Of the 18 teeth extracted as a result of treatment failure, 8 presented sufficiently undamaged roots to be randomly selected for HIST (n = 4) and SEM (n = 4) analysis. Necrotic tissue and chronic inflammatory cells were observed in all specimens submitted to HIST as external radicular resorption associated with Howship's lacunae. SEM analysis showed apical and furcation areas heavily infected with microorganisms and Howship's lacunae. These findings suggest that the main factors responsible for pulpectomy failure were technique limitations associated with the morphological irregularities created by external/inflammatory resorption.

  6. Challenges of SEM-based critical dimension metrology of interconnect (United States)

    Ukraintsev, Vladimir A.; Jessen, Scott; Mikeska, Brian; Sallee, Chris; Khvatkov, Vitali


    Semiconductor technology is advancing below 50 nm critical dimensions bringing unprecedented challenges to process engineering, control and metrology. Traditionally, interconnect metrology is put behind high-priority gate metrology; however, considering metrology, process and yield control challenges this decision is not always justified. Optical scatterometry is working its way to interconnect manufacturing process control, but scanning electron microscopy (SEM) remains the number one critical dimension (CD) metrology for interconnect process engineering and optical proximity correction (OPC) modeling. Recently, several publications have described secondary electron (SE) trapping within narrow high-aspect ratio interconnect structures. In these papers, pre-dosing of the sample helped to extract SE from the bottom of the hole and measure its diameter. Based on current understanding of the phenomenon, one should expect that high-aspect ratio interconnect structures (holes and trenches) with critical dimensions below 100 nm may show signs of SE trapping of various degree. As a result, there may be an uncontrolled effect on SE waveform and, therefore, bias of CDSEM measurement. CD atomic force microscopy (AFM) was employed in this work as a reference metrology for evaluation of uncertainty of trench and hole measurements by CDSEM. As the data indicates, CDSEM bias shows a strong dependence on pitch of periodic interconnect structure starting from drawn CD of 50 nm. CDSEM bias variation for the evaluated set of samples is about 19 nm. A typical OPC sample consists of both photoresist and etched interlayer materials. As the AFM data for photoresist material indicates, the hole diameter changes quite significantly with depth and the hole profile varies from one OPC structure to another. Abe et al. [1] have used a clever way to correlate physical bottom diameter of holes with CDSEM measurements and demonstrated that for their process and dimensions the SEM "top" diameter

  7. Analysis and evaluation of collaborative modeling processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ssebuggwawo, D.


    Analysis and evaluation of collaborative modeling processes is confronted with many challenges. On the one hand, many systems design and re-engineering projects require collaborative modeling approaches that can enhance their productivity. But, such collaborative efforts, which often consist of the

  8. A combined SEM, CV and EIS study of multi-layered porous ceramic reactors for flue gas purification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Zeming; Andersen, Kjeld Bøhm; Nygaard, Frederik Berg


    The effect of sintering temperature of 12-layered porous ceramic reactors (comprising 5 cells) was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The difference in microstructures of the reactors was evaluated by SEM...

  9. Bayesian statistical approaches to evaluating cognitive models. (United States)

    Annis, Jeffrey; Palmeri, Thomas J


    Cognitive models aim to explain complex human behavior in terms of hypothesized mechanisms of the mind. These mechanisms can be formalized in terms of mathematical structures containing parameters that are theoretically meaningful. For example, in the case of perceptual decision making, model parameters might correspond to theoretical constructs like response bias, evidence quality, response caution, and the like. Formal cognitive models go beyond verbal models in that cognitive mechanisms are instantiated in terms of mathematics and they go beyond statistical models in that cognitive model parameters are psychologically interpretable. We explore three key elements used to formally evaluate cognitive models: parameter estimation, model prediction, and model selection. We compare and contrast traditional approaches with Bayesian statistical approaches to performing each of these three elements. Traditional approaches rely on an array of seemingly ad hoc techniques, whereas Bayesian statistical approaches rely on a single, principled, internally consistent system. We illustrate the Bayesian statistical approach to evaluating cognitive models using a running example of the Linear Ballistic Accumulator model of decision making (Brown SD, Heathcote A. The simplest complete model of choice response time: linear ballistic accumulation. Cogn Psychol 2008, 57:153-178). This article is categorized under: Neuroscience > Computation Psychology > Reasoning and Decision Making Psychology > Theory and Methods. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Evaluation of constitutive models for crushed salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Hurtado, L.D.; Hansen, F.D.


    Three constitutive models are recommended as candidates for describing the deformation of crushed salt. These models are generalized to three-dimensional states of stress to include the effects of mean and deviatoric stress and modified to include effects of temperature, grain size, and moisture content. A database including hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and southeastern New Mexico salt is used to determine material parameters for the models. To evaluate the capability of the models, parameter values obtained from fitting the complete database are used to predict the individual tests. Finite element calculations of a WIPP shaft with emplaced crushed salt demonstrate the model predictions.

  11. Speech evaluation with and without palatal obturator in patients submitted to maxillectomy Avaliação de fala com e sem obturador de palato em pacientes submetidos à maxilectomia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane de Carvalho-Teles


    Full Text Available Most patients who have undergone resection of the maxillae due to benign or malignant tumors in the palatomaxillary region present with speech and swallowing disorders. Coupling of the oral and nasal cavities increases nasal resonance, resulting in hypernasality and unintelligible speech. Prosthodontic rehabilitation of maxillary resections with effective separation of the oral and nasal cavities can improve speech and esthetics, and assist the psychosocial adjustment of the patient as well.The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the palatal obturator prosthesis on speech intelligibility and resonance of 23 patients with age ranging from 18 to 83 years (Mean = 49.5 years, who had undergone inframedial-structural maxillectomy. The patients were requested to count from 1 to 20, to repeat 21 words and to spontaneously speak for 15 seconds, once with and again without the prosthesis, for tape recording purposes. The resonance and speech intelligibility were judged by 5 speech language pathologists from the tape recordings samples. The results have shown that the majority of patients (82.6% significantly improved their speech intelligibility, and 16 patients (69.9% exhibited a significant hypernasality reduction with the obturator in place. The results of this study indicated that maxillary obturator prosthesis was efficient to improve the speech intelligibility and resonance in patients who had undergone maxillectomy.A maioria dos pacientes submetidos a ressecções de maxila apresenta alterações nas funções de fala e de deglutição. O acoplamento das cavidades oral e nasal resulta em hipernasalidade de graus variados e no comprometimento da inteligibilidade de fala. A reabilitação protética tem como objetivo separar as cavidades oral e nasal podendo reduzir as alterações de ordem estética, funcional e ainda melhorar o ajustamento social deste paciente. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a eficácia da pr

  12. The influence of vinegars on exposure of dentinal tubules: a SEM evaluation Influência de vinagres na exposição dos túbulos dentinários: avaliação em MEV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Leal Zandim


    Full Text Available Dentin hypersensitivity is a common painful condition observed in clinics. Dietary habits have been much associated with its development and persistence during and following periodontal treatment. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of vinegars on the removal of smear layer and exposure of dentinal tubules. Extracted human teeth were submitted to manual scaling with Gracey curettes in order to remove the cementum as well as to form a smear layer. Dentin samples with 3 mm² were obtained and distributed into six experimental groups: one control and five types of vinegars (alcohol, apple, rice, white wine and balsamic. Each group included two methods of vinegar application: topical and friction. After routine preparation for SEM analysis, photomicrographs were assessed by a calibrated and blind examiner using an appropriate index system. Kruskal-Wallis test indicated a significant influence of vinegars on smear layer removal. There was a statistically significant difference between groups treated with apple, white and rice vinegars and the control group (p A hipersensibilidade dentinária cervical é uma condição dolorosa muito comum nos consultórios. A dieta tem sido bastante associada ao seu aparecimento, assim como a sua persistência após o tratamento periodontal. o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar in vitro a influência dos vinagres na remoção de "smear layer" e exposição dos túbulos dentinários. Dentes de humanos foram instrumentados com curetas Gracey para a remoção do cemento e formação de "smear layer". Foram obtidas amostras de dentina com 3 mm², divididas entre o grupo controle (água destilada e cinco grupos de vinagre: branco, maçã, arroz, vinho branco e balsâmico. Cada grupo incluiu duas formas de aplicação da substância, tópica ou por fricção. Após o preparo para observação em MEV (microscopia eletrônica de varredura, as fotomicrografias foram avaliadas por um examinador

  13. Critical factors in SEM 3D stereo microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinello, F.; Bariano, P.; Savio, E.


    This work addresses dimensional measurements performed with the scanning electron microscope (SEM) using 3D reconstruction of surface topography through stereo-photogrammetry. The paper presents both theoretical and experimental investigations, on the effects of instrumental variables and measure......This work addresses dimensional measurements performed with the scanning electron microscope (SEM) using 3D reconstruction of surface topography through stereo-photogrammetry. The paper presents both theoretical and experimental investigations, on the effects of instrumental variables...... and measurement parameters on reconstruction accuracy. Investigations were performed on a novel sample, specifically developed and implemented for the tests. The description is based on the model function introduced by Piazzesi and adapted for eucentrically tilted stereopairs. Two main classes of influencing...... factors are recognized: the first one is related to the measurement operation and the instrument set-up; the second concerns the quality of scanned images and represents the major criticality in the application of SEMs for 3D characterizations....

  14. Modeling for Green Supply Chain Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Falatoonitoosi


    Full Text Available Green supply chain management (GSCM has become a practical approach to develop environmental performance. Under strict regulations and stakeholder pressures, enterprises need to enhance and improve GSCM practices, which are influenced by both traditional and green factors. This study developed a causal evaluation model to guide selection of qualified suppliers by prioritizing various criteria and mapping causal relationships to find effective criteria to improve green supply chain. The aim of the case study was to model and examine the influential and important main GSCM practices, namely, green logistics, organizational performance, green organizational activities, environmental protection, and green supplier evaluation. In the case study, decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory technique is applied to test the developed model. The result of the case study shows only “green supplier evaluation” and “green organizational activities” criteria of the model are in the cause group and the other criteria are in the effect group.

  15. Conceptual modelling of human resource evaluation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negoiţă Doina Olivia


    Full Text Available Taking into account the highly diverse tasks which employees have to fulfil due to complex requirements of nowadays consumers, the human resource within an enterprise has become a strategic element for developing and exploiting products which meet the market expectations. Therefore, organizations encounter difficulties when approaching the human resource evaluation process. Hence, the aim of the current paper is to design a conceptual model of the aforementioned process, which allows the enterprises to develop a specific methodology. In order to design the conceptual model, Business Process Modelling instruments were employed - Adonis Community Edition Business Process Management Toolkit using the ADONIS BPMS Notation. The conceptual model was developed based on an in-depth secondary research regarding the human resource evaluation process. The proposed conceptual model represents a generic workflow (sequential and/ or simultaneously activities, which can be extended considering the enterprise’s needs regarding their requirements when conducting a human resource evaluation process. Enterprises can benefit from using software instruments for business process modelling as they enable process analysis and evaluation (predefined / specific queries and also model optimization (simulations.

  16. Evaluating Extensions to Coherent Mortality Forecasting Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syazreen Shair


    Full Text Available Coherent models were developed recently to forecast the mortality of two or more sub-populations simultaneously and to ensure long-term non-divergent mortality forecasts of sub-populations. This paper evaluates the forecast accuracy of two recently-published coherent mortality models, the Poisson common factor and the product-ratio functional models. These models are compared to each other and the corresponding independent models, as well as the original Lee–Carter model. All models are applied to age-gender-specific mortality data for Australia and Malaysia and age-gender-ethnicity-specific data for Malaysia. The out-of-sample forecast error of log death rates, male-to-female death rate ratios and life expectancy at birth from each model are compared and examined across groups. The results show that, in terms of overall accuracy, the forecasts of both coherent models are consistently more accurate than those of the independent models for Australia and for Malaysia, but the relative performance differs by forecast horizon. Although the product-ratio functional model outperforms the Poisson common factor model for Australia, the Poisson common factor is more accurate for Malaysia. For the ethnic groups application, ethnic-coherence gives better results than gender-coherence. The results provide evidence that coherent models are preferable to independent models for forecasting sub-populations’ mortality.

  17. Expanding the Conversation about SEM: Advancing SEM Efforts to Improve Student Learning and Persistence--Part II (United States)

    Yale, Amanda


    The first article in this two-part series focused on the need for enrollment management conceptual and organizational models to focus more intentionally and purposefully on efforts related to improving student learning, success, and persistence. Time and again, SEM is viewed from a conventional lens comprising marketing, recruitment and …


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altair Borgert


    Full Text Available This study’s purpose was to build a cost evaluation model with views to providing managers and decision makers with information to support the resolution process. From a strategic positioning standpoint, the pondering of variables involved in a cost system is key to corporate success. To this extent, overall consideration was given to contemporary cost approaches – the Theory of Constraints, Balanced Scorecard and Strategic Cost Management – and cost evaluation was analysed. It is understood that this is a relevant factor and that it ought to be taken into account when taking corporate decisions. Furthermore, considering that the MCDA methodology is recommended for the construction of cost evaluation models, some of it’s aspects were emphasised. Finally, the construction of the model itself complements this study. At this stage, cost variables for the three approaches were compiled. Thus, a repository of several variables was created and its use and combination is subject to the interests and needs of those responsible for it’s structuring within corporations. In so proceeding, the number of variables to ponder follows the complexity of the issue and of the required solution. Once meetings held with the study groups, the model was built, revised and reconstructed until consensus was reached. Thereafter, the conclusion was that a cost evaluation model, when built according to the characteristics and needs of each organization, might become the groundwork ensuring accounting becomes increasingly useful at  companies. Key-words: Cost evaluation. Cost measurement. Strategy.

  19. Saphire models and software for ASP evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sattison, M.B. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) over the three years has created 75 plant-specific Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) models using the SAPHIRE suite of PRA codes. Along with the new models, the INEL has also developed a new module for SAPHIRE which is tailored specifically to the unique needs of ASP evaluations. These models and software will be the next generation of risk tools for the evaluation of accident precursors by both the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC`s) Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation (NRR) and the Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD). This paper presents an overview of the models and software. Key characteristics include: (1) classification of the plant models according to plant response with a unique set of event trees for each plant class, (2) plant-specific fault trees using supercomponents, (3) generation and retention of all system and sequence cutsets, (4) full flexibility in modifying logic, regenerating cutsets, and requantifying results, and (5) user interface for streamlined evaluation of ASP events. Future plans for the ASP models is also presented.

  20. Modeling energy and development: an evaluation of models and concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ruijven, B.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304834521; Urban, F.; Benders, R.J.M.; Moll, H.C.; van der Sluijs, J.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073427489; de Vries, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068361599; van Vuuren, D.P.


    Most global energy models are developed by institutes from developed countries, focusing primarily on issues that are important in industrialized countries. Evaluation of the results for Asia of the IPCC/SRES models shows that broad concepts of energy and development, the energy ladder and the

  1. Demência semântica: avaliação clínica e de neuroimagem. Relato de caso Semantic dementia: clinical and neuroimaging evaluation. Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Caixeta


    Full Text Available A demência semântica é uma síndrome clínica que faz parte do grupo das degenerações lobares frontotemporais. Relatamos o caso de um homem de 63 anos que aos 57 anos inicia comprometimento da memória semântica tanto para material visual quanto principalmente verbal. Alterações leves de comportamento estavam presentes e relacionadas com reações exageradas a estímulos dolorosos e comportamentos repetitivos. Os exames de neuroimagem estrutural e funcional evidenciaram comprometimento bitemporal assimétrico, predominando à esquerda. Diagnóstico diferencial deve ser feito com a doença de Alzheimer, outros representantes do grupo das degenerações lobares frontotemporais e qualquer síndrome que se apresente com uma afasia fluente progressiva.Semantic dementia is a clinical syndrome in the spectrum of frontotemporal lobar degeneration group. We report on a 63 years old man who presented with memory disorder of semantic nature for visual and mainly verbal material when he was 57 years old. Mild behavior impairment was present and related to exaggerated responses to algic stimuli and repetitive behavior. Structural and functional neuroimaging methods disclosed asymmetric bitemporal damage, mainly on the left. Differential diagnosis should be considered with Alzheimer's disease, another subtypes of the frontotemporal lobar degeneration group and any other syndrome that presents with a fluent aphasic progressive disorder.

  2. [Evaluation of the Dresden Tympanoplasty Model (DTM)]. (United States)

    Beleites, T; Neudert, M; Lasurashvili, N; Kemper, M; Offergeld, C; Hofmann, G; Zahnert, T


    The training of microsurgical motor skills is essentiell for surgical education if the interests of the patient are to be safeguarded. In otosurgery the complex anatomy of the temporal bone and variations necessitate a special training before performing surgery on a patient. We therefore developed and evaluated a simplified middle ear model for acquiring first microsurgical skills in tympanoplasty.The simplified tympanoplasty model consists of the outer ear canal and a tympanic cavity. A stapes model is placed in projection of the upper posterior tympanic membrane quadrant at the medial wall of the simulated tympanic cavity. To imitate the annular ligament flexibility the stapes is fixed on a soft plastic pad. 41 subjects evaluated the model´s anatomical analogy, the comparability to the real surgical situation and the general model properties the using a special questionnaire.The tympanoplasty model was very well evaluated by all participants. It is a reasonably priced model and a useful tool in microsurgical skills training. Thereby, it closes the gap between theoretical training and real operation conditions. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Bernal Agudo


    Full Text Available The evaluation model that the LOMCE projects sinks its roots into the neoliberal beliefs, reflecting a specific way of understanding the world. What matters is not the process but the results, being the evaluation the center of the education-learning processes. It presents an evil planning, since the theory that justifies the model doesn’t specify upon coherent proposals, where there is an excessive worry for excellence and diversity is left out. A comprehensive way of understanding education should be recovered.

  4. Critical Evaluation of the EJB Transaction Model


    Silaghi, Raul; Strohmeier, Alfred


    Enterprise JavaBeans is a widely-used technology that aims at supporting distributed component-based applications written in Java. One of the key features of the Enterprise JavaBeans architecture is the support of declarative distributed transactions, without requiring explicit coding. In this paper, after a brief introduction of the concepts and mechanisms related to the EJB Transaction Model, we provide guidelines for their consistent use. We then evaluate the EJB Transaction Model on an Au...

  5. Syngine: On-Demand Synthetic Seismograms from the IRIS DMC based on AxiSEM & Instaseis (United States)

    van Driel, Martin; Hutko, Alex; Krischer, Lion; Trabant, Chad; Stähler, Simon; Nissen-Meyer, Tarje


    complete, new database, and this overall idea can thus be extended and applied quite easily to any choice of 1D model. AxiSEM is currently being extended to include local, regional and continental scale wave propagation such that regional databases (e.g. Europe or North America) are easily feasible at even higher frequencies. The enhancements resulting from the evolution of AxiSEM will be evaluated for use in Syngine and offered by IRIS as resources allow.

  6. Does Sexually Explicit Media (SEM) Affect Me?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Gert Martin; Træen, Bente; Noor, Syed W


    Using a self-selected online sample of 448 Norwegian men who have sex with men(MSM) and a cross-sectional design, the present study investigated first-person effectsof sexually explicit media (SEM) consumption on sexual knowledge, enjoyment of andinterest in sex, attitudes towards sex and underst......Using a self-selected online sample of 448 Norwegian men who have sex with men(MSM) and a cross-sectional design, the present study investigated first-person effectsof sexually explicit media (SEM) consumption on sexual knowledge, enjoyment of andinterest in sex, attitudes towards sex...... Scale (PCES). The study found that 93% of MSM reported smallto-largepositive effects from their SEM consumption on their sexual knowledge,enjoyment of and interest in sex, attitudes towards sex and understanding of theirsexual orientation. Only 7% reported any negative effects from their SEM...... consumptionon these outcomes. Furthermore, the psychometric properties of the revisedversion of the PCES were found to be very satisfactory. The results of the studyindicate that SEM consumption among MSM may play a positive role in MSM’ssexuality by enhancing their sex life, being a major source of sexual...

  7. Model evaluation methodology applicable to environmental assessment models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaeffer, D.L.


    A model evaluation methodology is presented to provide a systematic framework within which the adequacy of environmental assessment models might be examined. The necessity for such a tool is motivated by the widespread use of models for predicting the environmental consequences of various human activities and by the reliance on these model predictions for deciding whether a particular activity requires the deployment of costly control measures. Consequently, the uncertainty associated with prediction must be established for the use of such models. The methodology presented here consists of six major tasks: model examination, algorithm examination, data evaluation, sensitivity analyses, validation studies, and code comparison. This methodology is presented in the form of a flowchart to show the logical interrelatedness of the various tasks. Emphasis has been placed on identifying those parameters which are most important in determining the predictive outputs of a model. Importance has been attached to the process of collecting quality data. A method has been developed for analyzing multiplicative chain models when the input parameters are statistically independent and lognormally distributed. Latin hypercube sampling has been offered as a promising candidate for doing sensitivity analyses. Several different ways of viewing the validity of a model have been presented. Criteria are presented for selecting models for environmental assessment purposes.

  8. Performance Evaluation Model for Application Layer Firewalls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shichang Xuan

    Full Text Available Application layer firewalls protect the trusted area network against information security risks. However, firewall performance may affect user experience. Therefore, performance analysis plays a significant role in the evaluation of application layer firewalls. This paper presents an analytic model of the application layer firewall, based on a system analysis to evaluate the capability of the firewall. In order to enable users to improve the performance of the application layer firewall with limited resources, resource allocation was evaluated to obtain the optimal resource allocation scheme in terms of throughput, delay, and packet loss rate. The proposed model employs the Erlangian queuing model to analyze the performance parameters of the system with regard to the three layers (network, transport, and application layers. Then, the analysis results of all the layers are combined to obtain the overall system performance indicators. A discrete event simulation method was used to evaluate the proposed model. Finally, limited service desk resources were allocated to obtain the values of the performance indicators under different resource allocation scenarios in order to determine the optimal allocation scheme. Under limited resource allocation, this scheme enables users to maximize the performance of the application layer firewall.

  9. Evaluating model assumptions in item response theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijmstra, J.


    This dissertation deals with the evaluation of model assumptions in the context of item response theory. Item response theory, also known as modern test theory, provides a statistical framework for the measurement of psychological constructs that cannot by observed directly, such as intelligence or

  10. Evaluation of Usability Utilizing Markov Models (United States)

    Penedo, Janaina Rodrigues; Diniz, Morganna; Ferreira, Simone Bacellar Leal; Silveira, Denis S.; Capra, Eliane


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze the usability of a remote learning system in its initial development phase, using a quantitative usability evaluation method through Markov models. Design/methodology/approach: The paper opted for an exploratory study. The data of interest of the research correspond to the possible accesses of users…

  11. Performance Evaluation Model for Application Layer Firewalls. (United States)

    Xuan, Shichang; Yang, Wu; Dong, Hui; Zhang, Jiangchuan


    Application layer firewalls protect the trusted area network against information security risks. However, firewall performance may affect user experience. Therefore, performance analysis plays a significant role in the evaluation of application layer firewalls. This paper presents an analytic model of the application layer firewall, based on a system analysis to evaluate the capability of the firewall. In order to enable users to improve the performance of the application layer firewall with limited resources, resource allocation was evaluated to obtain the optimal resource allocation scheme in terms of throughput, delay, and packet loss rate. The proposed model employs the Erlangian queuing model to analyze the performance parameters of the system with regard to the three layers (network, transport, and application layers). Then, the analysis results of all the layers are combined to obtain the overall system performance indicators. A discrete event simulation method was used to evaluate the proposed model. Finally, limited service desk resources were allocated to obtain the values of the performance indicators under different resource allocation scenarios in order to determine the optimal allocation scheme. Under limited resource allocation, this scheme enables users to maximize the performance of the application layer firewall.

  12. Evaluating Performances of Traffic Noise Models | Oyedepo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traffic noise in decibel dB(A) were measured at six locations using 407780A Integrating Sound Level Meter, while spot speed and traffic volume were collected with cine-camera. The predicted sound exposure level (SEL) was evaluated using Burgess, British and FWHA model. The average noise level obtained are 77.64 ...

  13. Evaluation of help model replacement codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whiteside, Tad [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hang, Thong [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Flach, Gregory [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    This work evaluates the computer codes that are proposed to be used to predict percolation of water through the closure-cap and into the waste containment zone at the Department of Energy closure sites. This work compares the currently used water-balance code (HELP) with newly developed computer codes that use unsaturated flow (Richards’ equation). It provides a literature review of the HELP model and the proposed codes, which result in two recommended codes for further evaluation: HYDRUS-2D3D and VADOSE/W. This further evaluation involved performing actual simulations on a simple model and comparing the results of those simulations to those obtained with the HELP code and the field data. From the results of this work, we conclude that the new codes perform nearly the same, although moving forward, we recommend HYDRUS-2D3D.

  14. Evaluating the TD model of classical conditioning. (United States)

    Ludvig, Elliot A; Sutton, Richard S; Kehoe, E James


    The temporal-difference (TD) algorithm from reinforcement learning provides a simple method for incrementally learning predictions of upcoming events. Applied to classical conditioning, TD models suppose that animals learn a real-time prediction of the unconditioned stimulus (US) on the basis of all available conditioned stimuli (CSs). In the TD model, similar to other error-correction models, learning is driven by prediction errors--the difference between the change in US prediction and the actual US. With the TD model, however, learning occurs continuously from moment to moment and is not artificially constrained to occur in trials. Accordingly, a key feature of any TD model is the assumption about the representation of a CS on a moment-to-moment basis. Here, we evaluate the performance of the TD model with a heretofore unexplored range of classical conditioning tasks. To do so, we consider three stimulus representations that vary in their degree of temporal generalization and evaluate how the representation influences the performance of the TD model on these conditioning tasks.

  15. Bayesian model evidence as a model evaluation metric (United States)

    Guthke, Anneli; Höge, Marvin; Nowak, Wolfgang


    When building environmental systems models, we are typically confronted with the questions of how to choose an appropriate model (i.e., which processes to include or neglect) and how to measure its quality. Various metrics have been proposed that shall guide the modeller towards a most robust and realistic representation of the system under study. Criteria for evaluation often address aspects of accuracy (absence of bias) or of precision (absence of unnecessary variance) and need to be combined in a meaningful way in order to address the inherent bias-variance dilemma. We suggest using Bayesian model evidence (BME) as a model evaluation metric that implicitly performs a tradeoff between bias and variance. BME is typically associated with model weights in the context of Bayesian model averaging (BMA). However, it can also be seen as a model evaluation metric in a single-model context or in model comparison. It combines a measure for goodness of fit with a penalty for unjustifiable complexity. Unjustifiable refers to the fact that the appropriate level of model complexity is limited by the amount of information available for calibration. Derived in a Bayesian context, BME naturally accounts for measurement errors in the calibration data as well as for input and parameter uncertainty. BME is therefore perfectly suitable to assess model quality under uncertainty. We will explain in detail and with schematic illustrations what BME measures, i.e. how complexity is defined in the Bayesian setting and how this complexity is balanced with goodness of fit. We will further discuss how BME compares to other model evaluation metrics that address accuracy and precision such as the predictive logscore or other model selection criteria such as the AIC, BIC or KIC. Although computationally more expensive than other metrics or criteria, BME represents an appealing alternative because it provides a global measure of model quality. Even if not applicable to each and every case, we aim

  16. Evaluating software architecture using fuzzy formal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payman Behbahaninejad


    Full Text Available Unified Modeling Language (UML has been recognized as one of the most popular techniques to describe static and dynamic aspects of software systems. One of the primary issues in designing software packages is the existence of uncertainty associated with such models. Fuzzy-UML to describe software architecture has both static and dynamic perspective, simultaneously. The evaluation of software architecture design phase initiates always help us find some additional requirements, which helps reduce cost of design. In this paper, we use a fuzzy data model to describe the static aspects of software architecture and the fuzzy sequence diagram to illustrate the dynamic aspects of software architecture. We also transform these diagrams into Petri Nets and evaluate reliability of the architecture. The web-based hotel reservation system for further explanation has been studied.

  17. FIB-SEM imaging of carbon nanotubes in mouse lung tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Købler, Carsten; Saber, Anne Thoustrup; Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun


    volume imaging not easily obtained with TEM, but it is time-consuming to locate CNTs in the tissue. We demonstrate that protruding CNTs after ultramicrotomy can be used to locate the region of interest, and we present FIB-SEM images of CNTs in lung tissue. FIB-SEM imaging was applied to lung tissue from...... excluding them from TEM analysis. To provide an alternative to ultramicrotomy and subsequent TEMimaging, we studied focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) of CNTs in the lungs of mice, and we evaluated the applicability of the method compared to TEM. FIB-SEM can provide serial section...

  18. Performance Evaluation and Modelling of Container Terminals (United States)

    Venkatasubbaiah, K.; Rao, K. Narayana; Rao, M. Malleswara; Challa, Suresh


    The present paper evaluates and analyzes the performance of 28 container terminals of south East Asia through data envelopment analysis (DEA), principal component analysis (PCA) and hybrid method of DEA-PCA. DEA technique is utilized to identify efficient decision making unit (DMU)s and to rank DMUs in a peer appraisal mode. PCA is a multivariate statistical method to evaluate the performance of container terminals. In hybrid method, DEA is integrated with PCA to arrive the ranking of container terminals. Based on the composite ranking, performance modelling and optimization of container terminals is carried out through response surface methodology (RSM).

  19. Probabilistic evaluation of competing climate models (United States)

    Braverman, Amy; Chatterjee, Snigdhansu; Heyman, Megan; Cressie, Noel


    Climate models produce output over decades or longer at high spatial and temporal resolution. Starting values, boundary conditions, greenhouse gas emissions, and so forth make the climate model an uncertain representation of the climate system. A standard paradigm for assessing the quality of climate model simulations is to compare what these models produce for past and present time periods, to observations of the past and present. Many of these comparisons are based on simple summary statistics called metrics. In this article, we propose an alternative: evaluation of competing climate models through probabilities derived from tests of the hypothesis that climate-model-simulated and observed time sequences share common climate-scale signals. The probabilities are based on the behavior of summary statistics of climate model output and observational data over ensembles of pseudo-realizations. These are obtained by partitioning the original time sequences into signal and noise components, and using a parametric bootstrap to create pseudo-realizations of the noise sequences. The statistics we choose come from working in the space of decorrelated and dimension-reduced wavelet coefficients. Here, we compare monthly sequences of CMIP5 model output of average global near-surface temperature anomalies to similar sequences obtained from the well-known HadCRUT4 data set as an illustration.

  20. Evaluation of parameters in hydrodynamic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Tae-Hoon [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Jong-Wook [Korea Institute of Construction Technology, Koyang (Korea); Jegal, Sun-Dong [Kumho Engineering Company, Anyang (Korea)


    Generally speaking, a hydrodynamic model needs a friction coefficient (Manning coefficient or Chezy coefficient) and eddy viscosity. For numerical solution the coefficients are usually determined by recursive calculations. The eddy viscosity in numerical model plays physical diffusion in flow and also acts as numerical viscosity. Hence its value has influence on the stability of numerical solution and for these reasons a consistent evaluation procedure is needed. By using records of stage and discharge in the downstream reach of the Han river, 1-D models (HEC-2 and NETWORK) and 2-D model (SMS), estimated values of Manning coefficient and an empirical equation for eddy viscosity are presented. The computed results are verified through the recorded flow elevation data. (author). 26 refs., 7 tabs., 14 figs.

  1. Search Engine Marketing (SEM: Financial & Competitive Advantages of an Effective Hotel SEM Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leora Halpern Lanz


    Full Text Available Search Engine Marketing and Optimization (SEO, SEM are keystones of a hotels marketing strategy, in fact research shows that 90% of travelers start their vacation planning with a Google search. Learn five strategies that can enhance a hotels SEO and SEM strategies to boost bookings.

  2. Search Engine Marketing (SEM): Financial & Competitive Advantages of an Effective Hotel SEM Strategy


    Leora Halpern Lanz


    Search Engine Marketing and Optimization (SEO, SEM) are keystones of a hotels marketing strategy, in fact research shows that 90% of travelers start their vacation planning with a Google search. Learn five strategies that can enhance a hotels SEO and SEM strategies to boost bookings.

  3. CTBT integrated verification system evaluation model supplement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a computer based model called IVSEM (Integrated Verification System Evaluation Model) to estimate the performance of a nuclear detonation monitoring system. The IVSEM project was initiated in June 1994, by Sandia's Monitoring Systems and Technology Center and has been funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Nonproliferation and National Security (DOE/NN). IVSEM is a simple, ''top-level,'' modeling tool which estimates the performance of a Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) monitoring system and can help explore the impact of various sensor system concepts and technology advancements on CTBT monitoring. One of IVSEM's unique features is that it integrates results from the various CTBT sensor technologies (seismic, in sound, radionuclide, and hydroacoustic) and allows the user to investigate synergy among the technologies. Specifically, IVSEM estimates the detection effectiveness (probability of detection), location accuracy, and identification capability of the integrated system and of each technology subsystem individually. The model attempts to accurately estimate the monitoring system's performance at medium interfaces (air-land, air-water) and for some evasive testing methods such as seismic decoupling. The original IVSEM report, CTBT Integrated Verification System Evaluation Model, SAND97-25 18, described version 1.2 of IVSEM. This report describes the changes made to IVSEM version 1.2 and the addition of identification capability estimates that have been incorporated into IVSEM version 2.0.

  4. Evaluating spatial patterns in hydrological modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Julian

    is not fully exploited by current modelling frameworks due to the lack of suitable spatial performance metrics. Furthermore, the traditional model evaluation using discharge is found unsuitable to lay confidence on the predicted catchment inherent spatial variability of hydrological processes in a fully...... the contiguous United Sates (10^6 km2). To this end, the thesis at hand applies a set of spatial performance metrics on various hydrological variables, namely land-surface-temperature (LST), evapotranspiration (ET) and soil moisture. The inspiration for the applied metrics is found in related fields...

  5. Partial Least Squares Strukturgleichungsmodellierung (PLS-SEM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hair, Joseph F.; Hult, G. Tomas M.; Ringle, Christian M.

    einer einheitlichen Fallstudie. Viele Grafiken, Tabellen und Illustrationen erleichtern das Verständnis der PLS-SEM. Zudem werden dem Leser herunterladbare Datensätze, Aufgaben und weitere Fachartikel zur Vertiefung angeboten. Damit eignet sich das Buch hervorragend für Studierende, Forscher und...

  6. Advances in SEM beam micro-irradiation (United States)

    Thomson, I.; Mackay, G.; Haythornthwaite, R.


    An instrument designed to measure the dose deposited by the beam under routine irradiation conditions using Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) dosimeter cells is described. The dosimeter response is calibrated against various types of radiation sources to enable intercomparisons with Co-60, electrons and protons. The technique enables Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) users to carry out micro-irradiations of operating devices.

  7. Three-dimensional ultra-structures of myelin and the axons in the spinal cord: application of SEM with the osmium maceration method to the central nervous system in two mouse models. (United States)

    Nomura, Taichi; Bando, Yoshio; Bochimoto, Hiroki; Koga, Daisuke; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Yoshida, Shigetaka


    Axonal injury and demyelination are observed in demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis. However, pathological changes that underlie these morphologies are not fully understood. We examined in vivo morphological changes using a new histological technique, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with osmium maceration method to observe three-dimensional structures such as myelin and axons in the spinal cord. Myelin basic protein-deficient shiverer mice and mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) were used to visualize how morphological changes in myelin and axons are induced by dysmyelination and demyelination. SEM revealed following morphological changes during dysmyelination of shiverer mice. First, enriched mitochondria and well-developed sER in axons were observed in shiverer, but not in wild-type mice. Second, the processes from some perinodal glial cells ran parallel to internodes of axons in addition to the process that covered the nodal region of the axon in shiverer mice. Last, this technique left myelin and axonal structures undisturbed. Moreover, SEM images showed clear variations in the ultrastructural abnormalities of myelin and axons in the white matter of the EAE spinal cord. This technique will be a powerful tool for identifying the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis in demyelination. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of CNN as anthropomorphic model observer (United States)

    Massanes, Francesc; Brankov, Jovan G.


    Model observers (MO) are widely used in medical imaging to act as surrogates of human observers in task-based image quality evaluation, frequently towards optimization of reconstruction algorithms. In this paper, we explore the use of convolutional neural networks (CNN) to be used as MO. We will compare CNN MO to alternative MO currently being proposed and used such as the relevance vector machine based MO and channelized Hotelling observer (CHO). As the success of the CNN, and other deep learning approaches, is rooted in large data sets availability, which is rarely the case in medical imaging systems task-performance evaluation, we will evaluate CNN performance on both large and small training data sets.

  9. Implicit moral evaluations: A multinomial modeling approach. (United States)

    Cameron, C Daryl; Payne, B Keith; Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter; Scheffer, Julian A; Inzlicht, Michael


    Implicit moral evaluations-i.e., immediate, unintentional assessments of the wrongness of actions or persons-play a central role in supporting moral behavior in everyday life. Yet little research has employed methods that rigorously measure individual differences in implicit moral evaluations. In five experiments, we develop a new sequential priming measure-the Moral Categorization Task-and a multinomial model that decomposes judgment on this task into multiple component processes. These include implicit moral evaluations of moral transgression primes (Unintentional Judgment), accurate moral judgments about target actions (Intentional Judgment), and a directional tendency to judge actions as morally wrong (Response Bias). Speeded response deadlines reduced Intentional Judgment but not Unintentional Judgment (Experiment 1). Unintentional Judgment was stronger toward moral transgression primes than non-moral negative primes (Experiments 2-4). Intentional Judgment was associated with increased error-related negativity, a neurophysiological indicator of behavioral control (Experiment 4). Finally, people who voted for an anti-gay marriage amendment had stronger Unintentional Judgment toward gay marriage primes (Experiment 5). Across Experiments 1-4, implicit moral evaluations converged with moral personality: Unintentional Judgment about wrong primes, but not negative primes, was negatively associated with psychopathic tendencies and positively associated with moral identity and guilt proneness. Theoretical and practical applications of formal modeling for moral psychology are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. On the emancipation of PLS-SEM : A commentary on Rigdon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarstedt, Marko; Ringle, Christian M.; Henseler, Jörg; Hair, Joseph F.


    Rigdon's (2012) thoughtful article argues that PLS-SEM should free itself from CB-SEM. It should renounce all mechanisms, frameworks, and jargon associated with factor models entirely. In this comment, we shed further light on two subject areas on which Rigdon (2012) touches in his discussion of

  11. RTMOD: Real-Time MODel evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graziani, G.; Galmarini, S.; Mikkelsen, Torben


    The 1998 - 1999 RTMOD project is a system based on an automated statistical evaluation for the inter-comparison of real-time forecasts produced by long-range atmospheric dispersion models for national nuclear emergency predictions of cross-boundaryconsequences. The background of RTMOD was the 1994...... ETEX project that involved about 50 models run in several Institutes around the world to simulate two real tracer releases involving a large part of the European territory. In the preliminary phase ofETEX, three dry runs (i.e. simulations in real-time of fictitious releases) were carried out...... would be recalculated to include the influence by all available predictions. The new web-based RTMOD concept has proven useful as a practical decision-making tool for real-time communicationbetween dispersion modellers around the World and for fast and standardised information exchange on the most...

  12. Evaluation of a Micro-Optical Coherence Tomography for the Corneal Endothelium in an Animal Model. (United States)

    Ang, Marcus; Konstantopoulos, Aris; Goh, Gwendoline; Htoon, Hla M; Seah, Xinyi; Lwin, Nyein Chan; Liu, Xinyu; Chen, Si; Liu, Linbo; Mehta, Jodhbir S


    Recent developments in optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems for the cornea have limited resolution or acquisition speed. In this study we aim to evaluate the use of a 'micro-OCT' (μOCT ~1 μm axial resolution) compared to existing imaging modalities using animal models of corneal endothelial disease. We used established cryoinjury and bullous keratopathy models in Sprague Dawley rats comparing ex vivo μOCT imaging in normal and diseased eyes to (1) histology; (2) in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM); and (3) scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Qualitative and quantitative comparisons amongst imaging modalities were performed using mean endothelial cell circularity [(4π × Area)/Perimeter(2)] with coefficient of variation (COV). We found that μOCT imaging was able to delineate endothelial cells (with nuclei), detect inflammatory cells, and corneal layers with histology-like resolution, comparable to existing imaging modalities. The mean endothelial cell circularity score was 0.88 ± 0.03, 0.87 ± 0.04 and 0.88 ± 0.05 (P = 0.216) for the SEM, IVCM and μOCT respectively, with SEM producing homogenous endothelial cell images (COV = 0.028) compared to the IVCM (0.051) and μOCT (0.062). In summary, our preliminary study suggests that the μOCT may be useful for achieving non-contact, histology-like images of the cornea for endothelial cell evaluation, which requires further development for in vivo imaging.

  13. Diagnosis code assignment: models and evaluation metrics. (United States)

    Perotte, Adler; Pivovarov, Rimma; Natarajan, Karthik; Weiskopf, Nicole; Wood, Frank; Elhadad, Noémie


    The volume of healthcare data is growing rapidly with the adoption of health information technology. We focus on automated ICD9 code assignment from discharge summary content and methods for evaluating such assignments. We study ICD9 diagnosis codes and discharge summaries from the publicly available Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care II (MIMIC II) repository. We experiment with two coding approaches: one that treats each ICD9 code independently of each other (flat classifier), and one that leverages the hierarchical nature of ICD9 codes into its modeling (hierarchy-based classifier). We propose novel evaluation metrics, which reflect the distances among gold-standard and predicted codes and their locations in the ICD9 tree. Experimental setup, code for modeling, and evaluation scripts are made available to the research community. The hierarchy-based classifier outperforms the flat classifier with F-measures of 39.5% and 27.6%, respectively, when trained on 20,533 documents and tested on 2282 documents. While recall is improved at the expense of precision, our novel evaluation metrics show a more refined assessment: for instance, the hierarchy-based classifier identifies the correct sub-tree of gold-standard codes more often than the flat classifier. Error analysis reveals that gold-standard codes are not perfect, and as such the recall and precision are likely underestimated. Hierarchy-based classification yields better ICD9 coding than flat classification for MIMIC patients. Automated ICD9 coding is an example of a task for which data and tools can be shared and for which the research community can work together to build on shared models and advance the state of the art.

  14. Bases de Datos Semánticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irving Caro Fierros


    Full Text Available En 1992, cuando Tim Berners-Lee dio a conocer la primera  versión  de  la  Web,  su  visión  a  futuro  era  incorporar metadatos  con  información  semántica  en  las  páginas  Web.  Es precisamente   a   principios   de   este   siglo   que   inicia   el   auge repentino  de  la  Web  semántica  en  el  ambiente  académico  e Internet. El modelo de datos semántico se define como un modelo conceptual que permite definir el significado de los datos a través de  sus  relaciones  con  otros.  En  este  sentido,  el  formato  de representación  de  los  datos  es  fundamental  para  proporcionar información de carácter semántico. La tecnología enfocada en las bases de datos semánticas se encuentra actualmente en un punto de  inflexión,  al  pasar  del  ámbito  académico  y  de  investigación  a ser una opción comercial completa. En este artículo se realiza un análisis  del  concepto  de  base  de  datos  semántica.  También  se presenta  un  caso  de  estudio  donde  se  ejemplifican  operaciones básicas  que  involucran  la  gestión  de  la  información  almacenada en este tipo de base de datos.

  15. Evaluation of CASP8 model quality predictions

    KAUST Repository

    Cozzetto, Domenico


    The model quality assessment problem consists in the a priori estimation of the overall and per-residue accuracy of protein structure predictions. Over the past years, a number of methods have been developed to address this issue and CASP established a prediction category to evaluate their performance in 2006. In 2008 the experiment was repeated and its results are reported here. Participants were invited to infer the correctness of the protein models submitted by the registered automatic servers. Estimates could apply to both whole models and individual amino acids. Groups involved in the tertiary structure prediction categories were also asked to assign local error estimates to each predicted residue in their own models and their results are also discussed here. The correlation between the predicted and observed correctness measures was the basis of the assessment of the results. We observe that consensus-based methods still perform significantly better than those accepting single models, similarly to what was concluded in the previous edition of the experiment. © 2009 WILEY-LISS, INC.

  16. SEM investigation of heart tissue samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, R; Amoroso, M [Physics Department, University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies (Trinidad and Tobago)


    We used the scanning electron microscope to examine the cardiac tissue of a cow (Bos taurus), a pig (Sus scrofa), and a human (Homo sapiens). 1mm{sup 3} blocks of left ventricular tissue were prepared for SEM scanning by fixing in 96% ethanol followed by critical point drying (cryofixation), then sputter-coating with gold. The typical ridged structure of the myofibrils was observed for all the species. In addition crystal like structures were found in one of the samples of the heart tissue of the pig. These structures were investigated further using an EDVAC x-ray analysis attachment to the SEM. Elemental x-ray analysis showed highest peaks occurred for gold, followed by carbon, oxygen, magnesium and potassium. As the samples were coated with gold for conductivity, this highest peak is expected. Much lower peaks at carbon, oxygen, magnesium and potassium suggest that a cystallized salt such as a carbonate was present in the tissue before sacrifice.

  17. SEM investigation of heart tissue samples (United States)

    Saunders, R.; Amoroso, M.


    We used the scanning electron microscope to examine the cardiac tissue of a cow (Bos taurus), a pig (Sus scrofa), and a human (Homo sapiens). 1mm3 blocks of left ventricular tissue were prepared for SEM scanning by fixing in 96% ethanol followed by critical point drying (cryofixation), then sputter-coating with gold. The typical ridged structure of the myofibrils was observed for all the species. In addition crystal like structures were found in one of the samples of the heart tissue of the pig. These structures were investigated further using an EDVAC x-ray analysis attachment to the SEM. Elemental x-ray analysis showed highest peaks occurred for gold, followed by carbon, oxygen, magnesium and potassium. As the samples were coated with gold for conductivity, this highest peak is expected. Much lower peaks at carbon, oxygen, magnesium and potassium suggest that a cystallized salt such as a carbonate was present in the tissue before sacrifice.

  18. Evaluating Translational Research: A Process Marker Model (United States)

    Trochim, William; Kane, Cathleen; Graham, Mark J.; Pincus, Harold A.


    Abstract Objective: We examine the concept of translational research from the perspective of evaluators charged with assessing translational efforts. One of the major tasks for evaluators involved in translational research is to help assess efforts that aim to reduce the time it takes to move research to practice and health impacts. Another is to assess efforts that are intended to increase the rate and volume of translation. Methods: We offer an alternative to the dominant contemporary tendency to define translational research in terms of a series of discrete “phases.”Results: We contend that this phased approach has been confusing and that it is insufficient as a basis for evaluation. Instead, we argue for the identification of key operational and measurable markers along a generalized process pathway from research to practice. Conclusions: This model provides a foundation for the evaluation of interventions designed to improve translational research and the integration of these findings into a field of translational studies. Clin Trans Sci 2011; Volume 4: 153–162 PMID:21707944

  19. [Systemic-psychodynamic model for family evaluation]. (United States)

    Salinas, J L; Pérez, M P; Viniegra, L; Armando Barriguete, J; Casillas, J; Valencia, A


    In this paper a family evaluation instrument called systemic-psychodynamic family evaluation model is described. Also, the second stage of the validation study of this instrument is presented (which deals with the inter-observers variation). Twenty families were studied. They were assessed always by the same interviewers designated as experts. They are all family therapy specialists and their assessment was used as the evaluation reference standard or "gold standard". The observers were psychiatrists without previous training in family therapy. For the purpose of the interview, both experts and observers were blind to the medical diagnosis of the patients. During the first stage of the validation study the observers did not have a reference guide which resulted in a low concordance rating. For the second stage, a 177 item guide was used and a considerable increase in the concordance rating was observed. Validation studies like the one used here are of considerable value to increase the reliability and further utilisation of evaluation instruments of this type.

  20. European Cohesion Policy: A Proposed Evaluation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Bouroşu (Costăchescu


    Full Text Available The current approach of European Cohesion Policy (ECP is intended to be a bridge between different fields of study, emphasizing the intersection between "the public policy cycle, theories of new institutionalism and the new public management”. ECP can be viewed as a focal point between putting into practice the principles of the new governance theory, theories of economic convergence and divergence and the governance of common goods. After a short introduction of defining the concepts used, the author discussed on the created image of ECP by applying three different theories, focusing on the structural funds implementation system (SFIS, directing the discussion on the evaluation part of this policy, by proposing a model of performance evaluation of the system, in order to outline key principles for creating effective management mechanisms of ECP.

  1. Uso del espejo en el periodo expulsivo del parto: evaluación mediante diferencial semántico Use of the mirror in the second stage of labor: evaluation by means of semantic differential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio José Becerra-Maya


    Full Text Available Objetivo: examinar la actitud de la mujer y su pareja, sobre el uso del espejo en el periodo expulsivo del parto. Método: estudio descriptivo transversal, realizado en el Hospital Universitario Fundación Alcorcón. A partir de un estudio piloto realizado sobre una muestra de 92 sujetos, se elaboró una escala de 14 ítems basada en la técnica del diferencial semántico. Una muestra de 159 sujetos completó la escala así como el cuestionario estado-rasgo (STAI. Resultados: el porcentaje de aceptación fue del 90%. Las puntuaciones medias superan el valor neutro en todos los ítems. El 88,5% (IC 95%:78,8 a 98,1 de la mujeres que experimentaron la vivencia consideraron que el uso del espejo estimula pujar frente al 73,6% (IC 95%:62,7 a 84,4 que lo manifestaron como expectativa. Conclusiones: El uso del espejo durante el periodo expulsivo es valorado favorablemente por la mayoría de las mujeres y sus parejas.Aims: To know the attitude of the woman and her partner the use of the mirror in the second stage of labor. Methods: This descriptive cross - sectional study was carried at Hospital Universitario Fundación Alcorcón (Madrid, Spain. The data were collected using an 14 Items scale based on the semantic differential technique developed from a pilot study with 92 subjects. A sample de 159 subjects they completed the scale, as well as the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI. Results: The percentage of acceptance was of 90%. The mean score in the scale overcame the neutral value in all items. The 88,5% (CI 95%:78,8 a 98,1 of women who experienced the experience thought that the use of the mirror stimulates to push versus 73,6% (CI 95%:62,7 a 84,4 before the delivery. Conclusions: The use of the mirror during the second stage of labor is valued favorably by the majority of the women and her pairs.

  2. Bases de Datos Semánticas


    Irving Caro Fierros; Víctor Hugo Menéndez Domínguez; María Enriqueta Castellanos Bolaños


    En 1992, cuando Tim Berners-Lee dio a conocer la primera  versión  de  la  Web,  su  visión  a  futuro  era  incorporar metadatos  con  información  semántica  en  las  páginas  Web.  Es precisamente   a   principios   de   este   siglo   que   inicia   el   auge repentino  de  la  Web  semántica  en  el  ambiente  académico  e Internet. El modelo de datos semántico se define como un modelo conceptual que permite definir el significado de los datos a través de  sus  relaciones  con  otros.  E...

  3. Curvelet based offline analysis of SEM images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Hamad Shirazi

    Full Text Available Manual offline analysis, of a scanning electron microscopy (SEM image, is a time consuming process and requires continuous human intervention and efforts. This paper presents an image processing based method for automated offline analyses of SEM images. To this end, our strategy relies on a two-stage process, viz. texture analysis and quantification. The method involves a preprocessing step, aimed at the noise removal, in order to avoid false edges. For texture analysis, the proposed method employs a state of the art Curvelet transform followed by segmentation through a combination of entropy filtering, thresholding and mathematical morphology (MM. The quantification is carried out by the application of a box-counting algorithm, for fractal dimension (FD calculations, with the ultimate goal of measuring the parameters, like surface area and perimeter. The perimeter is estimated indirectly by counting the boundary boxes of the filled shapes. The proposed method, when applied to a representative set of SEM images, not only showed better results in image segmentation but also exhibited a good accuracy in the calculation of surface area and perimeter. The proposed method outperforms the well-known Watershed segmentation algorithm.

  4. CTBT Integrated Verification System Evaluation Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edenburn, M.W.; Bunting, M.L.; Payne, A.C. Jr.


    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a computer based model called IVSEM (Integrated Verification System Evaluation Model) to estimate the performance of a nuclear detonation monitoring system. The IVSEM project was initiated in June 1994, by Sandia`s Monitoring Systems and Technology Center and has been funded by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Nonproliferation and National Security (DOE/NN). IVSEM is a simple, top-level, modeling tool which estimates the performance of a Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) monitoring system and can help explore the impact of various sensor system concepts and technology advancements on CTBT monitoring. One of IVSEM`s unique features is that it integrates results from the various CTBT sensor technologies (seismic, infrasound, radionuclide, and hydroacoustic) and allows the user to investigate synergy among the technologies. Specifically, IVSEM estimates the detection effectiveness (probability of detection) and location accuracy of the integrated system and of each technology subsystem individually. The model attempts to accurately estimate the monitoring system`s performance at medium interfaces (air-land, air-water) and for some evasive testing methods such as seismic decoupling. This report describes version 1.2 of IVSEM.

  5. An evaluation framework for participatory modelling (United States)

    Krueger, T.; Inman, A.; Chilvers, J.


    Strong arguments for participatory modelling in hydrology can be made on substantive, instrumental and normative grounds. These arguments have led to increasingly diverse groups of stakeholders (here anyone affecting or affected by an issue) getting involved in hydrological research and the management of water resources. In fact, participation has become a requirement of many research grants, programs, plans and policies. However, evidence of beneficial outcomes of participation as suggested by the arguments is difficult to generate and therefore rare. This is because outcomes are diverse, distributed, often tacit, and take time to emerge. In this paper we develop an evaluation framework for participatory modelling focussed on learning outcomes. Learning encompasses many of the potential benefits of participation, such as better models through diversity of knowledge and scrutiny, stakeholder empowerment, greater trust in models and ownership of subsequent decisions, individual moral development, reflexivity, relationships, social capital, institutional change, resilience and sustainability. Based on the theories of experiential, transformative and social learning, complemented by practitioner experience our framework examines if, when and how learning has occurred. Special emphasis is placed on the role of models as learning catalysts. We map the distribution of learning between stakeholders, scientists (as a subgroup of stakeholders) and models. And we analyse what type of learning has occurred: instrumental learning (broadly cognitive enhancement) and/or communicative learning (change in interpreting meanings, intentions and values associated with actions and activities; group dynamics). We demonstrate how our framework can be translated into a questionnaire-based survey conducted with stakeholders and scientists at key stages of the participatory process, and show preliminary insights from applying the framework within a rural pollution management situation in

  6. Designing and evaluating representations to model pedagogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Masterman


    Full Text Available This article presents the case for a theory-informed approach to designing and evaluating representations for implementation in digital tools to support Learning Design, using the framework of epistemic efficacy as an example. This framework, which is rooted in the literature of cognitive psychology, is operationalised through dimensions of fit that attend to: (1 the underlying ontology of the domain, (2 the purpose of the task that the representation is intended to facilitate, (3 how best to support the cognitive processes of the users of the representations, (4 users’ differing needs and preferences, and (5 the tool and environment in which the representations are constructed and manipulated.Through showing how epistemic efficacy can be applied to the design and evaluation of representations, the article presents the Learning Designer, a constructionist microworld in which teachers can both assemble their learning designs and model their pedagogy in terms of students’ potential learning experience. Although the activity of modelling may add to the cognitive task of design, the article suggests that the insights thereby gained can additionally help a lecturer who wishes to reuse a particular learning design to make informed decisions about its value to their practice.

  7. Avaliação dos glicosaminoglicanos do tecido periuretral de pacientes com e sem prolapso genital Evaluation of glycosaminoglycans of periurethral tissue in patients with and without pelvic organ prolapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cezar Feldner Jr


    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Caracterizar e quantificar os subtipos de glicosaminoglicanos sulfatados (GAGs existentes no tecido peri-uretral de pacientes com e sem prolapso genital. METODOS: Foram incluídas 35 pacientes que se submeteram a cirurgia vaginal para correção de distopias genitais e/ou incontinência urinária de esforço ou por outra condição benigna. As pacientes foram avaliadas por anamnese padronizada, exame físico e urodinâmico e agrupadas segundo a existência do prolapso genital. Durante o procedimento cirúrgico, amostras de aproximadamente 1,0 x 1,0 cm do tecido periuretral foram retiradas para avaliação. Os GAGs foram extraídos do tecido por proteólise e precipitação por ácido tricloroacético e caracterizados por eletroforese em gel de agarose. A quantificação foi feita por meio de densitometria a 525 nm do gel corado com azul de toluidina. Compararam-se os dados pela análise de variância (ANOVA. RESULTADOS: Nos grupos estudados, houve maior predomínio de dermatam sulfato (DS, em torno de 85% do total de GAGs, seguido do condroitim sulfato (CS e do heparam sulfato (HS. Observou-se aumento significativo dos GAGs totais, do DS e do HS em mulheres com prolapso genital. Não se observou diferença significante com relação ao CS. CONCLUSÃO: Este estudo demonstrou diferenças na matriz extracelular do tecido periuretral com aumento de GAGs totais, DS e HS nas mulheres com prolapso genital.OBJECTIVE: To characterize and quantify periurethral tissue sulphated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs in women with and without pelvic organ prolapse. STUDY DESIGN: Periurethral tissue was obtained from 35 women who underwent surgery for pelvic organ prolapse, for stress urinary incontinence, or for other gynecological benign conditions. Patients were submitted to a clinical history, physical and urodynamic examination and were divided in two groups according to genital prolapse. The standard biopsy with 1.0 x 1.0 cm was taken from periurethral

  8. Nursing competence: psychometric evaluation using Rasch modelling. (United States)

    Müller, Marianne


    To test the psychometric properties and evaluate the German version of the Nurse Competence Scale. Nursing competence is an important factor for high-quality healthcare. However, there are only few instruments available, which try to assess nurse competence and there is limited knowledge about the psychometric quality of any of these instruments. A cross-sectional survey of 679 nurses was used. Analysis of the psychometric properties of the 73-item Nurse Competence Scale was undertaken using confirmatory factor analyses and Rasch modelling with data generated in a study in 2007. The 7-factor model of the Nurse Competence Scale could not be confirmed. However, six scales consisting of 54 items demonstrated adequate fit to the Rasch model. The six subscales could also be combined into an overall competence scale. There are concerns about the psychometric properties of the Nurse Competence Scale. The reduced set of items removes redundancy among items, is free from item bias and constitutes six unidimensional scales. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Modified UMS, Modified SemRep and SemMedDB-UTH | Informatics Technology for Cancer Research (ITCR) (United States)

    Modified UMLS, modified SemRep and SemMedDB-UTH – these are resources (UMLS, SemMedDB-UT) and tools (SemRep) created and maintained by National Library of Medicine that we have modified for personalized cancer therapy and returned to the NLM.

  10. [The effects of individual differences on self-evaluation maintenance model]. (United States)

    Sakurai, S


    This study was conducted to examine the effects of individual differences in affiliation motivation, achievement motivation, and self-esteem on the self-evaluation maintenance (SEM) model proposed by Tesser et al. (1984). One hundred and seventy college students answered a questionnaire for measuring affiliation motivation, achievement motivation, and self-esteem, and also assessed their own as well as their friends' academic achievements in their senior high school subjects with both high and low degrees of relevancy. For those who were high in affiliative motivation, a significantly greater difference between the own and the friends' achievements was found in the academic subjects with low rather than high relevancy. However, the same difference was also greater in the academic subjects with low rather than high relevancy for those who were low in their achievement motivation or self-esteem. These results suggest that individual differences in some variables such as affiliation motivation, achievement motivation, and self-esteem would play an important role in the SEM model.

  11. O ciberativismo sem bússola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rüdiger


    Full Text Available Questiona-se no texto se uma abordagem que, no essencial, relata a trajetória do chamado ciberativismo de acordo com seus próprios termos se justifica academicamente ou, em vez disso, se mantém prisioneira de uma mitologia que o fenômeno, em si mesmo, já construiu e, por isso, autoriza seus sujeitos a dispensarem sem prejuízo eventual contribuição de origem universitária.

  12. Evaluation of the focal spot and MTF of mammographic equipment without alignment with the central beam; Avaliacao do ponto focal e da funcao de transferencia de modulacao de equipamentos mamograficos sem necessidade de alinhamento com o feixe central

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira Junior, Paulo D.; Vieira, Marcelo A.C.; Schiabel, Homero [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica], e-mail:


    The image quality of a mammographic system is directly affected by the size of the focal spot and its measurement is very important for quality assurance evaluations. Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) is widely recognized as the best descriptor for spatial resolution evaluation of radiological equipment. However, focal spot size and MTF measurements have several complex technical procedures, such as the requirement of precise alignment and direct-exposure film, which have been making such measurements more difficult and time-consuming and besides sometimes less accurate. The purpose of this work is to present a new methodology to perform MTF and focal spot measurements from two focal spot projections at any position over the field acquired by using a pinhole camera and a CCD intraoral X-ray imaging device. Thus, it can allow those measurements in quality control procedures to be easier and faster, with no need of previous alignment. (author)

  13. RTMOD: Real-Time MODel evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graziani, G; Galmarini, S. [Joint Research centre, Ispra (Italy); Mikkelsen, T. [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics Dept. (Denmark)


    The 1998 - 1999 RTMOD project is a system based on an automated statistical evaluation for the inter-comparison of real-time forecasts produced by long-range atmospheric dispersion models for national nuclear emergency predictions of cross-boundary consequences. The background of RTMOD was the 1994 ETEX project that involved about 50 models run in several Institutes around the world to simulate two real tracer releases involving a large part of the European territory. In the preliminary phase of ETEX, three dry runs (i.e. simulations in real-time of fictitious releases) were carried out. At that time, the World Wide Web was not available to all the exercise participants, and plume predictions were therefore submitted to JRC-Ispra by fax and regular mail for subsequent processing. The rapid development of the World Wide Web in the second half of the nineties, together with the experience gained during the ETEX exercises suggested the development of this project. RTMOD featured a web-based user-friendly interface for data submission and an interactive program module for displaying, intercomparison and analysis of the forecasts. RTMOD has focussed on model intercomparison of concentration predictions at the nodes of a regular grid with 0.5 degrees of resolution both in latitude and in longitude, the domain grid extending from 5W to 40E and 40N to 65N. Hypothetical releases were notified around the world to the 28 model forecasters via the web on a one-day warning in advance. They then accessed the RTMOD web page for detailed information on the actual release, and as soon as possible they then uploaded their predictions to the RTMOD server and could soon after start their inter-comparison analysis with other modelers. When additional forecast data arrived, already existing statistical results would be recalculated to include the influence by all available predictions. The new web-based RTMOD concept has proven useful as a practical decision-making tool for realtime

  14. Evaluation of synthetic vascular grafts in a mouse carotid grafting model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex H P Chan

    Full Text Available Current animal models for the evaluation of synthetic grafts are lacking many of the molecular tools and transgenic studies available to other branches of biology. A mouse model of vascular grafting would allow for the study of molecular mechanisms of graft failure, including in the context of clinically relevant disease states. In this study, we comprehensively characterise a sutureless grafting model which facilitates the evaluation of synthetic grafts in the mouse carotid artery. Using conduits electrospun from polycaprolactone (PCL we show the gradual development of a significant neointima within 28 days, found to be greatest at the anastomoses. Histological analysis showed temporal increases in smooth muscle cell and collagen content within the neointima, demonstrating its maturation. Endothelialisation of the PCL grafts, assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM analysis and CD31 staining, was near complete within 28 days, together replicating two critical aspects of graft performance. To further demonstrate the potential of this mouse model, we used longitudinal non-invasive tracking of bone-marrow mononuclear cells from a transgenic mouse strain with a dual reporter construct encoding both luciferase and green fluorescent protein (GFP. This enabled characterisation of mononuclear cell homing and engraftment to PCL using bioluminescence imaging and histological staining over time (7, 14 and 28 days. We observed peak luminescence at 7 days post-graft implantation that persisted until sacrifice at 28 days. Collectively, we have established and characterised a high-throughput model of grafting that allows for the evaluation of key clinical drivers of graft performance.

  15. Application of Multiple Evaluation Models in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Victal Saliba


    Full Text Available Based on two different samples, this article tests the performance of a number of Value Drivers commonly used for evaluating companies by finance practitioners, through simple regression models of cross-section type which estimate the parameters associated to each Value Driver, denominated Market Multiples. We are able to diagnose the behavior of several multiples in the period 1994-2004, with an outlook also on the particularities of the economic activities performed by the sample companies (and their impacts on the performance through a subsequent analysis with segregation of companies in the sample by sectors. Extrapolating simple multiples evaluation standards from analysts of the main financial institutions in Brazil, we find that adjusting the ratio formulation to allow for an intercept does not provide satisfactory results in terms of pricing errors reduction. Results found, in spite of evidencing certain relative and absolute superiority among the multiples, may not be generically representative, given samples limitation.

  16. Biological Modeling As A Method for Data Evaluation and ... (United States)

    Biological Models, evaluating consistency of data and integrating diverse data, examples of pharmacokinetics and response and pharmacodynamics Biological Models, evaluating consistency of data and integrating diverse data, examples of pharmacokinetics and response and pharmacodynamics

  17. SEM analysis of weathered grains: Pretreatment effects (United States)

    Cremeens, D. L.; Darmody, R. G.; Jansen, I. J.


    Fresh microcline, albite, and almandine, along with soil grains, were treated with various traditional pretreatments prior to observation with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The grains were observed with SEM and given ratings for each of several surface properties to determine which pretreatments produced clean surfaces on soil grains without laboratory-induced damage on the fresh mineral grains. Gentle overnight shaking in 2% sodium bicarbonate at pH 9.5 produced the most effective cleaning of soil grains with the least amount of induced damage to fresh mineral samples. This pretreatment was equivalent to that given the control samples (shaken overnight in distilled water) for observations of etch pits on fresh mineral samples within a 25% equivalence (or negligible difference) interval. Ultrasonification, hydrogen peroxide, and boiling hydrochloric acid caused the most damage to mineral samples, mainly in the form of 0.5-μm etch pits. Boiling hydrochloric acid, boiling nitric acid, and stannous chloride resulted in increased coated surfaces on soil grains.

  18. Treatment modalities and evaluation models for periodontitis (United States)

    Tariq, Mohammad; Iqbal, Zeenat; Ali, Javed; Baboota, Sanjula; Talegaonkar, Sushama; Ahmad, Zulfiqar; Sahni, Jasjeet K


    Periodontitis is the most common localized dental inflammatory disease related with several pathological conditions like inflammation of gums (gingivitis), degeneration of periodontal ligament, dental cementum and alveolar bone loss. In this perspective, the various preventive and treatment modalities, including oral hygiene, gingival irrigations, mechanical instrumentation, full mouth disinfection, host modulation and antimicrobial therapy, which are used either as adjunctive treatments or as stand-alone therapies in the non-surgical management of periodontal infections, have been discussed. Intra-pocket, sustained release systems have emerged as a novel paradigm for the future research. In this article, special consideration is given to different locally delivered anti-microbial and anti inflammatory medications which are either commercially available or are currently under consideration for Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval. The various in vitro dissolution models and microbiological strain investigated to impersonate the infected and inflamed periodontal cavity and to predict the in vivo performance of treatment modalities have also been thrashed out. Animal models that have been employed to explore the pathology at the different stages of periodontitis and to evaluate its treatment modalities are enlightened in this proposed review. PMID:23373002

  19. Rainwater harvesting: model-based design evaluation. (United States)

    Ward, S; Memon, F A; Butler, D


    The rate of uptake of rainwater harvesting (RWH) in the UK has been slow to date, but is expected to gain momentum in the near future. The designs of two different new-build rainwater harvesting systems, based on simple methods, are evaluated using three different design methods, including a continuous simulation modelling approach. The RWH systems are shown to fulfill 36% and 46% of WC demand. Financial analyses reveal that RWH systems within large commercial buildings maybe more financially viable than smaller domestic systems. It is identified that design methods based on simple approaches generate tank sizes substantially larger than the continuous simulation. Comparison of the actual tank sizes and those calculated using continuous simulation established that the tanks installed are oversized for their associated demand level and catchment size. Oversizing tanks can lead to excessive system capital costs, which currently hinders the uptake of systems. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the catchment area size is often overlooked when designing UK-based RWH systems. With respect to these findings, a recommendation for a transition from the use of simple tools to continuous simulation models is made.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenko Lončarić


    Full Text Available Evaluation of manures, composts and growing media quality should include enough properties to enable an optimal use from productivity and environmental points of view. The aim of this paper is to describe basic structure of organic fertilizer (and growing media evaluation model to present the model example by comparison of different manures as well as example of using plant growth experiment for calculating impact of pH and EC of growing media on lettuce plant growth. The basic structure of the model includes selection of quality indicators, interpretations of indicators value, and integration of interpreted values into new indexes. The first step includes data input and selection of available data as a basic or additional indicators depending on possible use as fertilizer or growing media. The second part of the model uses inputs for calculation of derived quality indicators. The third step integrates values into three new indexes: fertilizer, growing media, and environmental index. All three indexes are calculated on the basis of three different groups of indicators: basic value indicators, additional value indicators and limiting factors. The possible range of indexes values is 0-10, where range 0-3 means low, 3-7 medium and 7-10 high quality. Comparing fresh and composted manures, higher fertilizer and environmental indexes were determined for composted manures, and the highest fertilizer index was determined for composted pig manure (9.6 whereas the lowest for fresh cattle manure (3.2. Composted manures had high environmental index (6.0-10 for conventional agriculture, but some had no value (environmental index = 0 for organic agriculture because of too high zinc, copper or cadmium concentrations. Growing media indexes were determined according to their impact on lettuce growth. Growing media with different pH and EC resulted in very significant impacts on height, dry matter mass and leaf area of lettuce seedlings. The highest lettuce

  1. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) Procedure for HE Powders on a Zeiss Sigma HD VP SEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaka, F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    This method describes the characterization of inert and HE materials by the Zeiss Sigma HD VP field emission Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The SEM uses an accelerated electron beam to generate high-magnification images of explosives and other materials. It is fitted with five detectors (SE, Inlens, STEM, VPSE, HDBSD) to enable imaging of the sample via different secondary electron signatures, angles, and energies. In addition to imaging through electron detection, the microscope is also fitted with two Oxford Instrument Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) 80 mm detectors to generate elemental constituent spectra and two-dimensional maps of the material being scanned.

  2. A Granule Model for Evaluating Adhesion of Pharmaceutical Binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Orafai


    Full Text Available Granule capability is defined in terms of the strength of individual granule and friability of granulation batch to withstand breaking, abrasion and compactibility. Binder(s are added to perform the above properties .The common methods to asses their capability are to test crushing strength of the granules directly and to make statistical analysis and /or testing the friability of bulk granulation. In this work four substrate models including polymethylmetacrylate beads(PMMA,glass powder, acetaminophen, and para-aminobebzoic acid were chosen. The binder models were corn starch, gelatin, methylcellulose (MC and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC. After massing the substrates with the binder solutions, discs were produced by the mean of the mold technique. The discs were dried and conditioned and then tested for tensile strength while the failed areas were scanned by SEM. Various granulations were made and the results of friability and crush strength were compared with the discs strength .The bond areas in the SEM showed the trend with the binder concentration .A comparison of the standard deviation shows that discs have much lower level of the strength than granules. The resulting discs showed a higher performance which is related to the stems for the discs shape .In conclusion, this method is a simple and is applicable to differentiate efficacy of binder under studies.

  3. Afasia global sem hemiparesia: relato de caso




    Afasia global geralmente é acompanhada por hemiparesia direita devido à extensão da lesão subjacente. Recentemente têm sido registrados na literatura casos em que tal síndrome ou não se acompanha do déficit motor ou este é apenas transitório, sendo esta condição conhecida como afasia global sem hemiparesia (AGSH). Relatamos caso de AGSH devido a infarto cerebral embólico cardiogênico, corroborando a tese de que esta condição pode ter valor preditivo para o diagnóstico de infartos embólicos.Sy...

  4. In-situ SEM electrochemistry and radiolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Nilsen, Rolf Erling Robberstad; Norby, Poul

    (EIS) measurements between two electrodes when irradiating at an average intensity of 6 MGy/s indicate that the conductivity may be at least 200 μS/cm, two orders of magnitude higher than what would be expected from H+ alone. Finally, the radiolytic yield of copper is measured by gradually increasing...... the radiation intensity until copper precipitated. Based on the amount of backscattered electrons it has been possible to quantify the amount of reduced copper, resulting in an average radiolytic yield per 100 eV of deposited energy (g-value) of 0.05, lower than the value of 4.4 seen in pulse radiolysis...... experiments. During the course of these studies it has also been possible to improve on the EC-SEM system. This has resulted in pyrolysed carbon electrodes, which offer the benefit of stability at 0.75 V higher potentials than traditional gold thin-film electrodes. With the quantitative insight...

  5. Dietetic Internship: Evaluation of an Integrated Model. (United States)

    Lordly, Daphne J.; Travers, Kim D.


    The purpose of this study was to utilize graduate and employer perceptions of outcomes of the Mount Saint Vincent University (MSVU) Co-operative Education (Co-op) Dietetics program to determine if an integrated model was an acceptable alternate method of dietetic education. Acceptable alternate was defined as: "facilitating achievement of entry level competence for dietetic practice". A self-administered, validated and piloted questionnaire was utilized to collect qualitative and quantitative information concerning employability, professional preparedness and program outcomes. Surveys were mailed to all program graduates (1989-1993) (n=24) and their first employers (n=19). Response rates were 96% and 89% respectively. Close-ended questions were analyzed quantitatively by determining frequency distributions. Data were also subjected to Chi-square to identify dependent factors. Qualitative responses to open-ended questions were analyzed by thematic content analysis. Results revealed all graduates were employed by six months after graduation. Competency development, a component of professional preparedness, was rated as average or above average by the majority of graduates and employers. Analysis of open-ended responses indicated that the introduction of experience while students were establishing theoretical foundations was perceived as beneficial. An integration of qualitative findings led to the development of a model depicting how professional competency development, readiness for practice, a realistic approach to dietetic practice and a high standard of practice were developed within an evolving personal and contextual framework. Socialization and mentoring opportunities, evaluation processes and the integration of theory and practice influenced professional development. In conclusion, both employer and graduate responses indicated overall program satisfaction suggesting that the Co-op program is an acceptable alternate method of dietetic education.

  6. Sem analysis zirconia-ceramic adhesion interface (United States)



    SUMMARY Objectives Modern dentistry increasingly tends to use materials aesthetically acceptable and biomimetic. Among these are zirconia and ceramics for several years, a combination that now has becoming synonym of aesthetic; however, what could be the real link between these two materials and especially its nature, remains a controversial topic debated in the literature. The aim of our study was to “underline” the type of bonding that could exist between these materials. Materials and methods To investigate the nature of this bond we used a SEM microscopy (Zeiss SUPRA 25). Different bilaminar specimens: “white” zirconia Zircodent® and ceramic “Noritake®”, after being tested with loading test in bending (three-point-bending) and FEM analysis, were analyzed by SEM. Fragments’ analysis in closeness of the fracture’s point has allowed us to be able to “see” if at large magnifications between these two materials, and without the use of linear, could exist a lasting bond and the possible type of failure that could incur. Results From our analysis of the specimens’ fragments analyzed after test Equipment, it is difficult to highlight a clear margin and no-adhesion zones between the two materials, although the analysis involving fragments adjacent to the fracture that has taken place at the time of Mechanical test Equipment. Conclusions According to our analysis and with all the clarification of the case, we can assume that you can obtain a long and lasting bond between the zirconia and ceramics. Agree to the data present in the literature, we can say that the type of bond varies according to the type of specimens and of course also the type of failure. In samples where the superstructure envelops the ceramic framework Zirconium we are in the presence of a cohesive failure, otherwise in a presence of adhesive failure. PMID:27555905

  7. Autoavaliação da postura por idosos com e sem hipercifose torácica Self-evaluation of posture by elderly people with or without thoracic khyposis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Pimenta Renó Gasparotto


    Full Text Available No presente artigo enumeram-se certas diferenças categoriais da percepção de si de idosos, cuja análise é importante para possíveis intervenções. Objetivo: analisar a relação entre a postura apresentada e a autopercepção desta por idosos. Metodologia: participaram 18 idosos do projeto Epidoso II-Unifesp submetidos à avaliação postural. As posturas foram fotografadas e as imagens entregues aos idosos, cujas opiniões foram analisadas por metodologia qualitativa. As falas foram transcritas e categorizadas pela técnica de codificação teórica axial e seletiva, na perspectiva do interacionismo simbólico. Resultados: Identificou-se uma atitude passiva do idoso em relação às alterações posturais. Há uma distorção da imagem corporal por aqueles que apresentam desvio de postura. Participantes que possuíam o alinhamento vertebral adequado mostraram-se mais conscientes sobre seu posicionamento corporal e a importância deste assimilada em fases anteriores à do envelhecimento. Conclusão: a aderência ao autocuidado postural parece ocorrer em fases anteriores à do envelhecimento, devendo ser realizado nestas épocas o trabalho efetivamente preventivo. A despreocupação com a questão postural relaciona-se com a concepção do idoso sobre a noção de envelhecimento que é, em si, o acúmulo de disfunções inevitavelmente simultâneas ou sucessivas.This article lists the differences between self-perception of body posture among the elderly suffering from postural alterations or not, in order to ascertain whether self-evaluation of posture can lead to preventive measures. Eighteen cases from the elderly population participated in the EPIDOSO project at UNIFESP and were subjected to postural evaluation. Postures were photographed and copies given to the participants and their subsequent comments were analyzed by the qualitative method. The narratives were taped and cataloguedusingthe technique of theoretical axial and selective

  8. Model Performance Evaluation and Scenario Analysis (MPESA) Tutorial (United States)

    The model performance evaluation consists of metrics and model diagnostics. These metrics provides modelers with statistical goodness-of-fit measures that capture magnitude only, sequence only, and combined magnitude and sequence errors.

  9. Evaluation of Some Mathematical Models for Estimating Evaluation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The critical results of the application of these models showed that under a variety of atmospheric conditions Penman-Brutsaert model gave the best description of the measured fluxes. Priestley – Taylor with α = 1.26 performed best under unstable atmospheric conditions especially where radiation is the primary mechanism ...

  10. Effect of CPP-ACP paste on tooth mineralization: an FE-SEM study. (United States)

    Oshiro, Maki; Yamaguchi, Kanako; Takamizawa, Toshiki; Inage, Hirohiko; Watanabe, Takayuki; Irokawa, Atsushi; Ando, Susumu; Miyazaki, Masashi


    Milk and milk products, such as cheese, have been shown to exhibit anticariogenic properties in human and animal models. CPP-ACP shows an anti-caries effect by suppressing demineralization, enhancing remineralization, or possibly a combination of both. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of CPP-ACP paste on demineralization by observing the treated tooth surface using an FE-SEM. The specimens were prepared by cutting enamel and dentin of bovine teeth into blocks. A few specimens were stored in 0.1 M lactic acid buffer solution for 10 min and then in artificial saliva (negative control). The remaining specimens were stored in a 10 times-diluted solution of CPP-ACP paste or a placebo paste containing no CPP-ACP for 10 min, followed by 10 min immersion in a demineralizing solution (pH = 4.75, Ca) twice a day before storage in artificial saliva. After treatment of the specimens for 3, 7, 21 and 28 days, they were fixed in 2.5% glutaraldehyde in cacodylate buffer solution, dehydrated in ascending grades of tert-butyl alcohol, and then transferred to a critical-point dryer. The surfaces were coated with a thin film of Au in a vacuum evaporator, and were observed under field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The SEM observations revealed different morphological features brought about by the various storage conditions. Demineralization of the enamel and dentin surfaces was more pronounced with the longer test period in the control and negative control specimens. On the other hand, enamel and dentin specimens treated with CPP-ACP paste revealed slight changes in their morphological features. From the morphological observations of the enamel and dentin surfaces, it could be considered that the CPP-ACP paste might prevent demineralization of the tooth structure.

  11. Model-based Type B uncertainty evaluations of measurement towards more objective evaluation strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boumans, M.


    This article proposes a more objective Type B evaluation. This can be achieved when Type B uncertainty evaluations are model-based. This implies, however, grey-box modelling and validation instead of white-box modelling and validation which are appropriate for Type A evaluation.

  12. The luminal surface of thyroid cysts in SEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zelander, T; Kirkeby, S


    Four of the five kinds of cells constituting the walls of thyroid cysts can be identified in the SEM. These are cuboidal cells, mucous cells, cells with large granules and ciliated cells. A correlation between SEM and TEM observations is attempted.......Four of the five kinds of cells constituting the walls of thyroid cysts can be identified in the SEM. These are cuboidal cells, mucous cells, cells with large granules and ciliated cells. A correlation between SEM and TEM observations is attempted....

  13. Classification and printability of EUV mask defects from SEM images (United States)

    Cho, Wonil; Price, Daniel; Morgan, Paul A.; Rost, Daniel; Satake, Masaki; Tolani, Vikram L.


    -to-Aerial printability) analysis of every defect. First, a defect-free or reference mask SEM is rendered from the post-OPC design, and the defective signature is detected from the defect-reference difference image. These signatures help assess the true nature of the defect as evident in e-beam imaging; for example, excess or missing absorber, line-edge roughness, contamination, etc. Next, defect and reference contours are extracted from the grayscale SEM images and fed into the simulation engine with an EUV scanner model to generate corresponding EUV defect and reference aerial images. These are then analyzed for printability and dispositioned using an Aerial Image Analyzer (AIA) application to automatically measure and determine the amount of CD errors. Thus by integrating EUV ADC and S2A applications together, every defect detection is characterized for its type and printability which is essential for not only determining which defects to repair, but also in monitoring the performance of EUV mask process tools. The accuracy of the S2A print modeling has been verified with other commercially-available simulators, and will also be verified with actual wafer print results. With EUV lithography progressing towards volume manufacturing at 5nm technology, and the likelihood of EBMI inspectors approaching the horizon, the EUV ADC-S2A system will continue serving an essential role of dispositioning defects off e-beam imaging.

  14. Capacidade funcional e qualidade de vida em pacientes idosos com ou sem disfagia após acidente vascular encefálico isquêmico Evaluation of functional capacity and quality of life of the elderly after ischemic stroke with and without dysphagia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dênis Marinho da Silva Brandão


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a capacidade funcional e a qualidade de vida em indivíduos idosos após AVE Isquêmico, comparando sujeitos com e sem disfagia. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal em 60 sujeitos idosos após AVE, sendo 30 com disfagia e 30 sem disfagia. Para avaliar o estado cognitivo dos pacientes foi utilizado o Mini-Mental. As escalas utilizados foram: de KATZ, de Lawton, de Barthel e o SF-36. RESULTADOS: A capacidade funcional foi similar nos dois grupos estudados. No SF-36, o grupo sem disfagia apresentou mais dor e melhor estado geral de saúde. Na capacidade funcional, limitação por aspectos físicos, estado geral de saúde, vitalidade, aspectos sociais, limitações por aspectos emocionais e saúde mental os grupos foram similares. Entre os homens, em todos os instrumentos, encontrou-se capacidade funcional similar. Entre as mulheres, a capacidade funcional foi similar enquanto que, na qualidade de vida, o domínio vitalidade do grupo sem disfagia foi maior. Não houve diferença quanto à renda econômica baixa, tanto na capacidade funcional quanto na qualidade de vida. Também não houve diferença entre os dois grupos quanto a ter ou não cuidador. CONCLUSÕES: 1 A capacidade funcional foi similar nos dois grupos estudados. 2 O grupo sem disfagia apresentou melhor estado geral de saúde.OBJECTIVE: The objective was to analyze the functional capacity and quality of life of elderly individuals with ischemic stroke comparing these with and without dysphagia. METHOD: Cross sectional study was realized in 60 elderly individuals after ischemic stroke, 30 with dysphagia and 30 without. Their cognitive state was evaluated with the Mini-Mental test. The scales used were: KATZ, Lawton, Barthel and SF-36. RESULTS: The functional capacity was similar in both groups studied. In the SF-36, the group without dysphagia presented more pain and a better general health. Functional capacity, physical limitations those due to emotional aspects, general

  15. Global daily reference evapotranspiration modeling and evaluation (United States)

    Senay, G.B.; Verdin, J.P.; Lietzow, R.; Melesse, Assefa M.


    Accurate and reliable evapotranspiration (ET) datasets are crucial in regional water and energy balance studies. Due to the complex instrumentation requirements, actual ET values are generally estimated from reference ET values by adjustment factors using coefficients for water stress and vegetation conditions, commonly referred to as crop coefficients. Until recently, the modeling of reference ET has been solely based on important weather variables collected from weather stations that are generally located in selected agro-climatic locations. Since 2001, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) has been producing six-hourly climate parameter datasets that are used to calculate daily reference ET for the whole globe at 1-degree spatial resolution. The U.S. Geological Survey Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science has been producing daily reference ET (ETo) since 2001, and it has been used on a variety of operational hydrological models for drought and streamflow monitoring all over the world. With the increasing availability of local station-based reference ET estimates, we evaluated the GDAS-based reference ET estimates using data from the California Irrigation Management Information System (CIMIS). Daily CIMIS reference ET estimates from 85 stations were compared with GDAS-based reference ET at different spatial and temporal scales using five-year daily data from 2002 through 2006. Despite the large difference in spatial scale (point vs. ∼100 km grid cell) between the two datasets, the correlations between station-based ET and GDAS-ET were very high, exceeding 0.97 on a daily basis to more than 0.99 on time scales of more than 10 days. Both the temporal and spatial correspondences in trend/pattern and magnitudes between the two datasets were satisfactory, suggesting the reliability of using GDAS parameter-based reference ET for regional water and energy balance studies in many parts of the world

  16. Focused ion beam (FIB)/scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in tissue structural research. (United States)

    Leser, Vladka; Milani, Marziale; Tatti, Francesco; Tkalec, Ziva Pipan; Strus, Jasna; Drobne, Damjana


    The focused ion beam (FIB) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) are commonly used in material sciences for imaging and analysis of materials. Over the last decade, the combined FIB/SEM system has proven to be also applicable in the life sciences. We have examined the potential of the focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope system for the investigation of biological tissues of the model organism Porcellio scaber (Crustacea: Isopoda). Tissue from digestive glands was prepared as for conventional SEM or as for transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The samples were transferred into FIB/SEM for FIB milling and an imaging operation. FIB-milled regions were secondary electron imaged, back-scattered electron imaged, or energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analyzed. Our results demonstrated that FIB/SEM enables simultaneous investigation of sample gross morphology, cell surface characteristics, and subsurface structures. The same FIB-exposed regions were analyzed by EDX to provide basic compositional data. When samples were prepared as for TEM, the information obtained with FIB/SEM is comparable, though at limited magnification, to that obtained from TEM. A combination of imaging, micro-manipulation, and compositional analysis appears of particular interest in the investigation of epithelial tissues, which are subjected to various endogenous and exogenous conditions affecting their structure and function. The FIB/SEM is a promising tool for an overall examination of epithelial tissue under normal, stressed, or pathological conditions.

  17. Presenting an Evaluation Model for the Cancer Registry Software. (United States)

    Moghaddasi, Hamid; Asadi, Farkhondeh; Rabiei, Reza; Rahimi, Farough; Shahbodaghi, Reihaneh


    As cancer is increasingly growing, cancer registry is of great importance as the main core of cancer control programs, and many different software has been designed for this purpose. Therefore, establishing a comprehensive evaluation model is essential to evaluate and compare a wide range of such software. In this study, the criteria of the cancer registry software have been determined by studying the documents and two functional software of this field. The evaluation tool was a checklist and in order to validate the model, this checklist was presented to experts in the form of a questionnaire. To analyze the results of validation, an agreed coefficient of %75 was determined in order to apply changes. Finally, when the model was approved, the final version of the evaluation model for the cancer registry software was presented. The evaluation model of this study contains tool and method of evaluation. The evaluation tool is a checklist including the general and specific criteria of the cancer registry software along with their sub-criteria. The evaluation method of this study was chosen as a criteria-based evaluation method based on the findings. The model of this study encompasses various dimensions of cancer registry software and a proper method for evaluating it. The strong point of this evaluation model is the separation between general criteria and the specific ones, while trying to fulfill the comprehensiveness of the criteria. Since this model has been validated, it can be used as a standard to evaluate the cancer registry software.

  18. An Evaluation Model of Digital Educational Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abderrahim El Mhouti


    Full Text Available Abstract—Today, the use of digital educational resources in teaching and learning is considerably expanding. Such expansion calls educators and computer scientists to reflect more on the design of such products. However, this reflection exposes a number of criteria and recommendations that can guide and direct any teaching tool design be it campus-based or online (e-learning. Our work is at the heart of this issue. We suggest, through this article, examining academic, pedagogical, didactic and technical criteria to conduct this study which aims to evaluate the quality of digital educational resources. Our approach consists in addressing the specific and relevant factors of each evaluation criterion. We will then explain the detailed structure of the evaluation instrument used : “evaluation grid”. Finally, we show the evaluation outcomes based on the conceived grid and then we establish an analytical evaluation of the state of the art of digital educational resources.

  19. Program evaluation models and related theories: AMEE guide no. 67. (United States)

    Frye, Ann W; Hemmer, Paul A


    This Guide reviews theories of science that have influenced the development of common educational evaluation models. Educators can be more confident when choosing an appropriate evaluation model if they first consider the model's theoretical basis against their program's complexity and their own evaluation needs. Reductionism, system theory, and (most recently) complexity theory have inspired the development of models commonly applied in evaluation studies today. This Guide describes experimental and quasi-experimental models, Kirkpatrick's four-level model, the Logic Model, and the CIPP (Context/Input/Process/Product) model in the context of the theories that influenced their development and that limit or support their ability to do what educators need. The goal of this Guide is for educators to become more competent and confident in being able to design educational program evaluations that support intentional program improvement while adequately documenting or describing the changes and outcomes-intended and unintended-associated with their programs.

  20. Evaluation of black carbon estimations in global aerosol models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, D.; Schulz, M.; McNaughton, C.; Spackman, J.R.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S.; Krol, M.C.


    We evaluate black carbon (BC) model predictions from the AeroCom model intercomparison project by considering the diversity among year 2000 model simulations and comparing model predictions with available measurements. These model-measurement intercomparisons include BC surface and aircraft

  1. Statistical models of shape optimisation and evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, Rhodri; Taylor, Chris


    Deformable shape models have wide application in computer vision and biomedical image analysis. This book addresses a key issue in shape modelling: establishment of a meaningful correspondence between a set of shapes. Full implementation details are provided.

  2. The Relevance of the CIPP Evaluation Model for Educational Accountability. (United States)

    Stufflebeam, Daniel L.

    The CIPP Evaluation Model was originally developed to provide timely information in a systematic way for decision making, which is a proactive application of evaluation. This article examines whether the CIPP model also serves the retroactive purpose of providing information for accountability. Specifically, can the CIPP Model adequately assist…

  3. Rhode Island Model Evaluation & Support System: Teacher. Edition III (United States)

    Rhode Island Department of Education, 2015


    Rhode Island educators believe that implementing a fair, accurate, and meaningful educator evaluation and support system will help improve teaching and learning. The primary purpose of the Rhode Island Model Teacher Evaluation and Support System (Rhode Island Model) is to help all teachers improve. Through the Model, the goal is to help create a…

  4. Semantic Vector Space Model: Implementation and Evaluation. (United States)

    Liu, Geoffrey Z.


    Presents the Semantic Vector Space Model, a text representation and searching technique based on the combination of Vector Space Model with heuristic syntax parsing and distributed representation of semantic case structures. In this model, both documents and queries are represented as semantic matrices, and retrieval is achieved by computing…

  5. Issues in Value-at-Risk Modeling and Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Daníelsson (Jón); C.G. de Vries (Casper); B.N. Jorgensen (Bjørn); P.F. Christoffersen (Peter); F.X. Diebold (Francis); T. Schuermann (Til); J.A. Lopez (Jose); B. Hirtle (Beverly)


    textabstractDiscusses the issues in value-at-risk modeling and evaluation. Value of value at risk; Horizon problems and extreme events in financial risk management; Methods of evaluating value-at-risk estimates.

  6. Evaluation of multivariate calibration models transferred between spectroscopic instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Carl Emil Aae; Hansen, Per W.; Skov, Thomas


    for the same samples using the transferred model. However, sometimes the success of a model transfer is evaluated by comparing the transferred model predictions with the reference values. This is not optimal, as uncertainties in the reference method will impact the evaluation. This paper proposes a new method...... for calibration model transfer evaluation. The new method is based on comparing predictions from different instruments, rather than comparing predictions and reference values. A total of 75 flour samples were available for the study. All samples were measured on ten near infrared (NIR) instruments from two......, this paper highlights the problems of including reference values in the evaluation of a model transfer, as uncertainties in the reference method impact the evaluation. At the same time, this paper highlights the power of the proposed model transfer evaluation, which is based on comparing predictions obtained...

  7. Model evaluation using grouped or individual data. (United States)

    Cohen, Andrew L; Sanborn, Adam N; Shiffrin, Richard M


    Analyzing the data of individuals has several advantages over analyzing the data combined across the individuals (the latter we term group analysis): Grouping can distort the form of data, and different individuals might perform the task using different processes and parameters. These factors notwithstanding, we demonstrate conditions in which group analysis outperforms individual analysis. Such conditions include those in which there are relatively few trials per subject per condition, a situation that sometimes introduces distortions and biases when models are fit and parameters are estimated. We employed a simulation technique in which data were generated from each of two known models, each with parameter variation across simulated individuals. We examined how well the generating model and its competitor each fared in fitting (both sets of) the data, using both individual and group analysis. We examined the accuracy of model selection (the probability that the correct model would be selected by the analysis method). Trials per condition and individuals per experiment were varied systematically. Three pairs of cognitive models were compared: exponential versus power models of forgetting, generalized context versus prototype models of categorization, and the fuzzy logical model of perception versus the linear integration model of information integration. We show that there are situations in which small numbers of trials per condition cause group analysis to outperform individual analysis. Additional tables and figures may be downloaded from the Psychonomic Society Archive of Norms, Stimuli, and Data,

  8. A Regional Climate Model Evaluation System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop a packaged data management infrastructure for the comparison of generated climate model output to existing observational datasets that includes capabilities...

  9. Evaluation of stochastic reservoir operation optimization models (United States)

    Celeste, Alcigeimes B.; Billib, Max


    This paper investigates the performance of seven stochastic models used to define optimal reservoir operating policies. The models are based on implicit (ISO) and explicit stochastic optimization (ESO) as well as on the parameterization-simulation-optimization (PSO) approach. The ISO models include multiple regression, two-dimensional surface modeling and a neuro-fuzzy strategy. The ESO model is the well-known and widely used stochastic dynamic programming (SDP) technique. The PSO models comprise a variant of the standard operating policy (SOP), reservoir zoning, and a two-dimensional hedging rule. The models are applied to the operation of a single reservoir damming an intermittent river in northeastern Brazil. The standard operating policy is also included in the comparison and operational results provided by deterministic optimization based on perfect forecasts are used as a benchmark. In general, the ISO and PSO models performed better than SDP and the SOP. In addition, the proposed ISO-based surface modeling procedure and the PSO-based two-dimensional hedging rule showed superior overall performance as compared with the neuro-fuzzy approach.

  10. Decision-analytical modelling in health-care economic evaluations. (United States)

    Sun, Xin; Faunce, Thomas


    Decision-analytical modelling is widely used in health-care economic evaluations, especially in situations where evaluators lack clinical trial data, and in circumstances where such evaluations factor into reimbursement pricing decisions. This paper aims to improve the understanding and use of modelling techniques in this context, with particular emphasis on Markov modelling. We provide an overview, in this paper, of the principles and methodological details of decision-analytical modelling. We propose a common route for practicing modelling that accommodates any type of decision-analytical modelling techniques. We use the treatment of chronic hepatitis B as an example to indicate the process of development, presentation and analysis of the Markov model, and discuss the strengths, weaknesses and pitfalls of different approaches. Good practice of modelling requires careful planning, conduct and analysis of the model, and needs input from modellers and users.

  11. Using an Ecosystem Model to Evaluate Fisheries Management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Town, Marine Research Institute, Rondebosch 7701, South Africa. Keywords: Fisheries management, ecosystem modelling, artisanal fisheries, climate change impacts, trophodynamics, coral reefs. Abstract—A coral reef ecosystem simulation model, CAFFEE, developed to evaluate the effects of fisheries management ...

  12. Modeling, Simulation and Performance Evaluation of Parabolic Trough

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    MODELING, SIMULATION AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF. PARABOLIC TROUGH. SOLAR COLLECTOR POWER GENERATION SYSTEM. Mekuannint Mesfin and Abebayehu Assefa. Department of Mechanical Engineering. Addis Ababa University. ABSTRACT. Model of a parabolic trough power plant, taking.

  13. iFlorida model deployment final evaluation report. (United States)


    This document is the final report for the evaluation of the USDOT-sponsored Surface Transportation Security and Reliability Information System Model Deployment, or iFlorida Model Deployment. This report discusses findings in the following areas: ITS ...

  14. Evaluating Econometric Models and Expert Intuition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Legerstee (Rianne)


    textabstractThis thesis is about forecasting situations which involve econometric models and expert intuition. The first three chapters are about what it is that experts do when they adjust statistical model forecasts and what might improve that adjustment behavior. It is investigated how expert

  15. Modeling, simulation and performance evaluation of parabolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Model of a parabolic trough power plant, taking into consideration the different losses associated with collection of the solar irradiance and thermal losses is presented. MATLAB software is employed to model the power plant at reference state points. The code is then used to find the different reference values which are ...

  16. Educational game models: conceptualization and evaluation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Higher Education ... The relationship between educational theories, game design and game development are used to develop models for the creation of complex learning environments. ... These models were developed to better understand the relationships between story, play and learning.

  17. Evaluation of EOR Processes Using Network Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jens Kjell; Krogsbøll, Anette


    The report consists of the following parts: 1) Studies of wetting properties of model fluids and fluid mixtures aimed at an optimal selection of candidates for micromodel experiments. 2) Experimental studies of multiphase transport properties using physical models of porous networks (micromodels...

  18. Design and Evaluation of Scour for Bridges Using HEC-18 : technical brief. (United States)


    This project developed a new approach for evaluating erosive scour at New Jersey bridges over non-tidal waterways. The main deliverable was the Scour Evaluation Model (SEM), which offers new analysis procedures, while still retaining the applicable p...

  19. Evaluating Energy Efficiency Policies with Energy-Economy Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mundaca, Luis; Neij, Lena; Worrell, Ernst; McNeil, Michael A.


    The growing complexities of energy systems, environmental problems and technology markets are driving and testing most energy-economy models to their limits. To further advance bottom-up models from a multidisciplinary energy efficiency policy evaluation perspective, we review and critically analyse bottom-up energy-economy models and corresponding evaluation studies on energy efficiency policies to induce technological change. We use the household sector as a case study. Our analysis focuses on decision frameworks for technology choice, type of evaluation being carried out, treatment of market and behavioural failures, evaluated policy instruments, and key determinants used to mimic policy instruments. Although the review confirms criticism related to energy-economy models (e.g. unrealistic representation of decision-making by consumers when choosing technologies), they provide valuable guidance for policy evaluation related to energy efficiency. Different areas to further advance models remain open, particularly related to modelling issues, techno-economic and environmental aspects, behavioural determinants, and policy considerations.

  20. Evaluation of Digital Model Accuracy and Time‑dependent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Time‑dependent deformation of the alginate impressions and the accuracy of the conventional plaster models and digital models were evaluated separately. Results: Plaster models, negative and positive digital models showed significant differences in nearly all measurements at T (0), T (1), and T (2) times (P < 0.01, ...

  1. Metrics for evaluating performance and uncertainty of Bayesian network models (United States)

    Bruce G. Marcot


    This paper presents a selected set of existing and new metrics for gauging Bayesian network model performance and uncertainty. Selected existing and new metrics are discussed for conducting model sensitivity analysis (variance reduction, entropy reduction, case file simulation); evaluating scenarios (influence analysis); depicting model complexity (numbers of model...


    AERMOD is an advanced plume model that incorporates updated treatments of the boundary layer theory, understanding of turbulence and dispersion, and includes handling of terrain interactions. This paper presents an overview of AERMOD's features relative to ISCST3. AERM...

  3. Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) Model (United States)

    The program models rainfall, runoff, infiltration, and other water pathways to estimate how much water builds up above each landfill liner. It can incorporate data on vegetation, soil types, geosynthetic materials, initial moisture conditions, slopes, etc.

  4. Model Energy Efficiency Program Impact Evaluation Guide (United States)

    This document provides guidance on model approaches for calculating energy, demand, and emissions savings resulting from energy efficiency programs. It describes several standard approaches that can be used in order to make these programs more efficient.

  5. An Evaluation of Software Cost Estimating Models. (United States)


    and Model Outputs - Wolverton 5-15 Table 7 4s a summary comparison of the model outputs with the needs described in Sectin 3. A liberal interpretation...Computer Program Development Costs, Tecolote Research, Inc., TM-7, Dec. 1974. A-82 LUJO = 4j 1o -(AI V; L/- c- - I Iun 00. Ln uI 0e V.0 / I) 0o I- t

  6. [Decision modeling for economic evaluation of health technologies]. (United States)

    de Soárez, Patrícia Coelho; Soares, Marta Oliveira; Novaes, Hillegonda Maria Dutilh


    Most economic evaluations that participate in decision-making processes for incorporation and financing of technologies of health systems use decision models to assess the costs and benefits of the compared strategies. Despite the large number of economic evaluations conducted in Brazil, there is a pressing need to conduct an in-depth methodological study of the types of decision models and their applicability in our setting. The objective of this literature review is to contribute to the knowledge and use of decision models in the national context of economic evaluations of health technologies. This article presents general definitions about models and concerns with their use; it describes the main models: decision trees, Markov chains, micro-simulation, simulation of discrete and dynamic events; it discusses the elements involved in the choice of model; and exemplifies the models addressed in national economic evaluation studies of diagnostic and therapeutic preventive technologies and health programs.

  7. Evaluation model development for sprinkler irrigation uniformity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new evaluation method with accompanying software was developed to precisely calculate uniformity from catch-can test data, assuming sprinkler distribution data to be a continuous variable. Two interpolation steps are required to compute unknown water application depths at grid distribution points from radial ...

  8. Model evaluation and optimisation of nutrient removal potential for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance of sequencing batch reactors for simultaneous nitrogen and phosphorus removal is evaluated by means of model simulation, using the activated sludge model, ASM2d, involving anoxic phosphorus uptake, recently proposed by the IAWQ Task group. The evaluation includes all major process configurations ...

  9. Evaluating The Impact Of Building Information Modeling (BIM) On Construction (United States)


    1 EVALUATING THE IMPACT OF BUILDING INFORMATION MODELING (BIM) ON CONSTRUCTION By PATRICK C. SUERMANN...Evaluating The Impact Of Building Information Modeling (BIM) On Construction 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...Building Owners and Managers Association ASC Associated Schools of Construction AtoN Aids to Navigation (USCG) BEP Business Enterprise Priority

  10. Rhode Island Model Evaluation & Support System: Building Administrator. Edition III (United States)

    Rhode Island Department of Education, 2015


    Rhode Island educators believe that implementing a fair, accurate, and meaningful educator evaluation and support system will help improve teaching, learning, and school leadership. The primary purpose of the Rhode Island Model Building Administrator Evaluation and Support System (Rhode Island Model) is to help all building administrators improve.…

  11. Rhode Island Model Evaluation & Support System: Support Professional. Edition II (United States)

    Rhode Island Department of Education, 2015


    Rhode Island educators believe that implementing a fair, accurate, and meaningful evaluation and support system for support professionals will help improve student outcomes. The primary purpose of the Rhode Island Model Support Professional Evaluation and Support System (Rhode Island Model) is to help all support professionals do their best work…

  12. Spectral evaluation of Earth geopotential models and an experiment ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    gravity field related datasets have been compiled over local/regional scale (see ICGEM 2010), evalu- ating these models to clarify the differences among them and hence to monitor the improvements. Keywords. Earth geopotential model; spectral evaluation; terrestrial data; CHAMP and GRACE; EGM08; Remove. Compute ...

  13. Pilot evaluation in TENCompetence: a theory-driven model1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonenboom, J.; Sligte, H.; Moghnieh, A.; Specht, M.; Glahn, C.; Stefanov, K.; Navarrete, T.; Blat, J.


    This paper describes a theory-driven evaluation model that is used in evaluating four pilots in which an infrastructure for lifelong competence development, which is currently being developed, is validated. The model makes visible the separate implementation steps that connect the envisaged

  14. Systematic evaluation of atmospheric chemistry-transport model CHIMERE (United States)

    Khvorostyanov, Dmitry; Menut, Laurent; Mailler, Sylvain; Siour, Guillaume; Couvidat, Florian; Bessagnet, Bertrand; Turquety, Solene


    Regional-scale atmospheric chemistry-transport models (CTM) are used to develop air quality regulatory measures, to support environmentally sensitive decisions in the industry, and to address variety of scientific questions involving the atmospheric composition. Model performance evaluation with measurement data is critical to understand their limits and the degree of confidence in model results. CHIMERE CTM ( is a French national tool for operational forecast and decision support and is widely used in the international research community in various areas of atmospheric chemistry and physics, climate, and environment ( This work presents the model evaluation framework applied systematically to the new CHIMERE CTM versions in the course of the continuous model development. The framework uses three of the four CTM evaluation types identified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the American Meteorological Society (AMS): operational, diagnostic, and dynamic. It allows to compare the overall model performance in subsequent model versions (operational evaluation), identify specific processes and/or model inputs that could be improved (diagnostic evaluation), and test the model sensitivity to the changes in air quality, such as emission reductions and meteorological events (dynamic evaluation). The observation datasets currently used for the evaluation are: EMEP (surface concentrations), AERONET (optical depths), and WOUDC (ozone sounding profiles). The framework is implemented as an automated processing chain and allows interactive exploration of the results via a web interface.

  15. Recommendations concerning energy information model documentation, public access, and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, D.O.; Mason, M.J.


    A review is presented of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) response to Congressional and management concerns, relating specifically to energy information system documentation, public access to EIA systems, and scientific/peer evaluation. The relevant organizational and policy responses of EIA are discussed. An analysis of the model development process and approaches to, and organization of, model evaluation is presented. Included is a survey of model evaluation studies. A more detailed analysis of the origins of the legislated documentation and public access requirements is presented in Appendix A, and the results of an informal survey of other agency approaches to public access and evaluation is presented in Appendix B. Appendix C provides a survey of non-EIA activities relating to model documentation and evaluation. Twelve recommendations to improve EIA's procedures for energy information system documentation, evaluation activities, and public access are determined. These are discussed in detail. (MCW)

  16. Evaluation of a monthly hydrological model for Integrated Assessment Models (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Hejazi, M. I.; Li, H. Y.; Zhang, X.; Leng, G.


    The Integrated Assessment modeling (IAM) community, which generated the four representative concentration pathways (RCPs), is actively moving toward including endogenous representations of water supply and demand in their economic modeling frameworks. Toward integrating the water supply module, we build an efficient object-oriented and open-source hydrologic model (HM) to be embedded in IAMs - Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM). The main objective for this new HM is to strike a balance between model complexity and computational efficiency; i.e., possessing sufficient fidelity to capture both the annual and the seasonal signals of water fluxes and pools and being highly computationally efficient so that it can be used for large number of simulations or uncertainty quantification analyses. To this end, we build a monthly gridded hydrological model based on the ABCD model with some additional features such as a snow scheme and the effects of land use and land cover change (LULCC) on the hydrological cycle. In this framework, we mainly simulate the pools of soil moisture, snowpack and groundwater storage, and the fluxes of evapotranspiration, recharge to groundwater, direct runoff and groundwater discharge. We assess the performance of the model by comparing the model results against runoff simulation from the model of Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) as well as historical streamflow observations at various gauge stations. We will present results on the model performance, the gains of adding different model components (e.g., snow scheme, effects of LULCC), and the variations of hydrological cycle globally over the historical period of 1901-2010.

  17. Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT) Chemical Release Modeling Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stirrup, Timothy Scott [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    This evaluation documents the methodology and results of chemical release modeling for operations at Building 518, Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT) Core Facility. This evaluation is intended to supplement an update to the CINT [Standalone] Hazards Analysis (SHA). This evaluation also updates the original [Design] Hazards Analysis (DHA) completed in 2003 during the design and construction of the facility; since the original DHA, additional toxic materials have been evaluated and modeled to confirm the continued low hazard classification of the CINT facility and operations. This evaluation addresses the potential catastrophic release of the current inventory of toxic chemicals at Building 518 based on a standard query in the Chemical Information System (CIS).

  18. Statistical modeling for visualization evaluation through data fusion. (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoyu; Jin, Ran


    There is a high demand of data visualization providing insights to users in various applications. However, a consistent, online visualization evaluation method to quantify mental workload or user preference is lacking, which leads to an inefficient visualization and user interface design process. Recently, the advancement of interactive and sensing technologies makes the electroencephalogram (EEG) signals, eye movements as well as visualization logs available in user-centered evaluation. This paper proposes a data fusion model and the application procedure for quantitative and online visualization evaluation. 15 participants joined the study based on three different visualization designs. The results provide a regularized regression model which can accurately predict the user's evaluation of task complexity, and indicate the significance of all three types of sensing data sets for visualization evaluation. This model can be widely applied to data visualization evaluation, and other user-centered designs evaluation and data analysis in human factors and ergonomics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of the Solitaire system in a canine arterial thromboembolic occlusion model: is it safe for the endothelium? (United States)

    Park, Soonchan; Hwang, Seon Moon; Song, Joon Seon; Suh, Dae Chul; Lee, Deok Hee


    The Solitaire system has recently been increasingly used for acute stroke treatment in which the endothelial safety immediately after its use has not been evaluated. This study was performed to evaluate the endothelial status when using a Solitaire system in a canine arterial occlusion model. Thromboembolic occlusion of both internal maxillary arteries was achieved in five mongrel dogs. In each animal, the Solitaire system (ev3, Irvine, CA, USA) was used for primary thrombectomy on the right side and for temporary stenting on the left side. Efficacy was assessed by comparing the recanalization rates, and safety was assessed using angiographic and microscopic assessments. Endothelial injuries were evaluated with light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Successful revascularizations were observed following primary thrombectomy in all five animals (100%) and after temporary stenting in two (40%). There was no incidence of vasospasm or vessel perforation in either group. Distal migration of the clot occurred in two animals that underwent primary thrombectomy. Endothelial injury was seen after primary thrombectomy in two animals (40%) and after temporary stenting in one (20%). The lesions presented as defects of the internal elastic lamina on LM and denudation of the wavy endothelial surface on SEM. During mechanical thrombectomy, the Solitaire system can cause endothelial injury both in primary thrombectomy and temporary stenting. Primary thrombectomy is likely to have a higher recanalization rate with increased endothelial injury.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. X. Xu


    Full Text Available The semantic similarities are important in concept definition, recognition, categorization, interpretation, and integration. Many semantic similarity models have been established to evaluate semantic similarities of objects or/and concepts. To find out the suitability and performance of different models in evaluating concept similarities, we make a comparison of four main types of models in this paper: the geometric model, the feature model, the network model, and the transformational model. Fundamental principles and main characteristics of these models are introduced and compared firstly. Land use and land cover concepts of NLCD92 are employed as examples in the case study. The results demonstrate that correlations between these models are very high for a possible reason that all these models are designed to simulate the similarity judgement of human mind.

  1. Discussion on accuracy degree evaluation of accident velocity reconstruction model (United States)

    Zou, Tiefang; Dai, Yingbiao; Cai, Ming; Liu, Jike

    In order to investigate the applicability of accident velocity reconstruction model in different cases, a method used to evaluate accuracy degree of accident velocity reconstruction model is given. Based on pre-crash velocity in theory and calculation, an accuracy degree evaluation formula is obtained. With a numerical simulation case, Accuracy degrees and applicability of two accident velocity reconstruction models are analyzed; results show that this method is feasible in practice.

  2. Evaluation of Shelter Ventilation by Model Tests (United States)


    ventilation is created by mechanical devices such as pedal venti- lators and Kearny pumps. If natural ventilation in a shelter. can be predicted with...past have centered around the design, performance analysis and deployment of mechanical ventilating units (Ref. 11-14). Other studies include one on...calculated as the sum of the air volume flow rates through all the windward openings. The variation of model ventilation througnput versus wind speed

  3. Automated expert modeling for automated student evaluation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, Robert G.


    The 8th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems provides a leading international forum for the dissemination of original results in the design, implementation, and evaluation of intelligent tutoring systems and related areas. The conference draws researchers from a broad spectrum of disciplines ranging from artificial intelligence and cognitive science to pedagogy and educational psychology. The conference explores intelligent tutoring systems increasing real world impact on an increasingly global scale. Improved authoring tools and learning object standards enable fielding systems and curricula in real world settings on an unprecedented scale. Researchers deploy ITS's in ever larger studies and increasingly use data from real students, tasks, and settings to guide new research. With high volumes of student interaction data, data mining, and machine learning, tutoring systems can learn from experience and improve their teaching performance. The increasing number of realistic evaluation studies also broaden researchers knowledge about the educational contexts for which ITS's are best suited. At the same time, researchers explore how to expand and improve ITS/student communications, for example, how to achieve more flexible and responsive discourse with students, help students integrate Web resources into learning, use mobile technologies and games to enhance student motivation and learning, and address multicultural perspectives.

  4. SemEval-2016 task 10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Nathan; Hovy, Dirk; Johannsen, Anders Trærup


    This task combines the labeling of multiword expressions and supersenses (coarse-grained classes) in an explicit, yet broad-coverage paradigm for lexical semantics. Nine systems participated; the best scored 57.7% F1 in a multi-domain evaluation setting, indicating that the task remains largely u...

  5. Teachers' Development Model to Authentic Assessment by Empowerment Evaluation Approach (United States)

    Charoenchai, Charin; Phuseeorn, Songsak; Phengsawat, Waro


    The purposes of this study were 1) Study teachers authentic assessment, teachers comprehension of authentic assessment and teachers needs for authentic assessment development. 2) To create teachers development model. 3) Experiment of teachers development model. 4) Evaluate effectiveness of teachers development model. The research is divided into 4…

  6. Evaluating the Security Risks of System Using Hidden Markov Models

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluating the Security Risks of System Using Hidden Markov Models. ... tool to an existing multifactor authentication model. The results of the analysis and the empirical study provide insights into the authentication model design problem and establish a foundation for future research in system authentication application.

  7. Evaluation of habitat suitability index models for assessing biotic resources (United States)

    John C. Rennie; Joseph D. Clark; James M. Sweeney


    Existing habitat suitability index (HSI) models are evaluated for assessing the biotic resources on Champion International Corporation (CIC) lands with data from a standard and an expanded timber inventory. Forty HSI models for 34 species that occur in the Southern Appalachians have been identified from the literature. All of the variables for 14 models are provided (...

  8. Evaluation protocol for the WIND system atmospheric models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fast, J.D.


    Atmospheric transport and diffusion models have been developed for real-time calculations of the location and concentration of toxic or radioactive materials during a accidental release at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These models are have been incorporated into an automated menu-driven computer based system called the WIND (Weather INformation and Display) system. In an effort to establish more formal quality assurance procedures for the WIND system atmospheric codes, a software evaluation protocol is being developed. An evaluation protocol is necessary to determine how well they may perform in emergency response (real-time) situations. The evaluation of high-impact software must be conducted in accordance with WSRC QA Manual, 1Q, QAP 20-1. This report will describe the method that will be used to evaluate the atmospheric models. The evaluation will determine the effectiveness of the atmospheric models in emergency response situations, which is not necessarily the same procedure used for research purposes. The format of the evaluation plan will provide guidance for the evaluation of atmospheric models that may be added to the WIND system in the future. The evaluation plan is designed to provide the user with information about the WIND system atmospheric models that is necessary for emergency response situations.

  9. Evaluation protocol for the WIND system atmospheric models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fast, J.D.


    Atmospheric transport and diffusion models have been developed for real-time calculations of the location and concentration of toxic or radioactive materials during a accidental release at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These models are have been incorporated into an automated menu-driven computer based system called the WIND (Weather INformation and Display) system. In an effort to establish more formal quality assurance procedures for the WIND system atmospheric codes, a software evaluation protocol is being developed. An evaluation protocol is necessary to determine how well they may perform in emergency response (real-time) situations. The evaluation of high-impact software must be conducted in accordance with WSRC QA Manual, 1Q, QAP 20-1. This report will describe the method that will be used to evaluate the atmospheric models. The evaluation will determine the effectiveness of the atmospheric models in emergency response situations, which is not necessarily the same procedure used for research purposes. The format of the evaluation plan will provide guidance for the evaluation of atmospheric models that may be added to the WIND system in the future. The evaluation plan is designed to provide the user with information about the WIND system atmospheric models that is necessary for emergency response situations.

  10. Evaluation of Enterprise Performance Based on FLI-GA Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouyi Zhang


    Full Text Available Purpose: There are many kinds of methods to evaluate the performance of enterprise, but they still have some distinct shortcomings. In order to achieve a better evaluation result, we put forward a new model named FLI-GA (Fuzzy logic inference & Genetic algorithm. Approach: This model, mainly based on the fuzzy logic inference method, uses fuzzy rule-based system (FRBS to avoid the drawbacks of FRBS. Genetic algorithm is applied in this model. Findings: FLI-GA model can be used to evaluate certain enterprise performance, and its evaluation results are more accurate than fuzzy logic inference method. Originality: This model combines the genetic algorithm with the unclear reasoning methods so as to make the appraisal results more reasonable and more satisfying.

  11. Web semántica y servicios web semanticos


    Marquez Solis, Santiago


    Des d'aquest TFC volem estudiar l'evolució de la Web actual cap a la Web Semàntica. Desde este TFC queremos estudiar la evolución de la Web actual hacia la Web Semántica. From this Final Degree Project we want to study the evolution of the current Web to the Semantic Web.

  12. External Evaluation of Two Fluconazole Infant Population Pharmacokinetic Models. (United States)

    Hwang, Michael F; Beechinor, Ryan J; Wade, Kelly C; Benjamin, Daniel K; Smith, P Brian; Hornik, Christoph P; Capparelli, Edmund V; Duara, Shahnaz; Kennedy, Kathleen A; Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael; Gonzalez, Daniel


    Fluconazole is an antifungal agent used for the treatment of invasive candidiasis, a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in premature infants. Population pharmacokinetic (PK) models of fluconazole in infants have been previously published by Wade et al. (Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52:4043-4049, 2008, and Momper et al. (Antimicrob Agents Chemother 60:5539-5545, 2016, Here we report the results of the first external evaluation of the predictive performance of both models. We used patient-level data from both studies to externally evaluate both PK models. The predictive performance of each model was evaluated using the model prediction error (PE), mean prediction error (MPE), mean absolute prediction error (MAPE), prediction-corrected visual predictive check (pcVPC), and normalized prediction distribution errors (NPDE). The values of the parameters of each model were reestimated using both the external and merged data sets. When evaluated with the external data set, the model proposed by Wade et al. showed lower median PE, MPE, and MAPE (0.429 μg/ml, 41.9%, and 57.6%, respectively) than the model proposed by Momper et al. (2.45 μg/ml, 188%, and 195%, respectively). The values of the majority of reestimated parameters were within 20% of their respective original parameter values for all model evaluations. Our analysis determined that though both models are robust, the model proposed by Wade et al. had greater accuracy and precision than the model proposed by Momper et al., likely because it was derived from a patient population with a wider age range. This study highlights the importance of the external evaluation of infant population PK models. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  13. A random walk model to evaluate autism (United States)

    Moura, T. R. S.; Fulco, U. L.; Albuquerque, E. L.


    A common test administered during neurological examination in children is the analysis of their social communication and interaction across multiple contexts, including repetitive patterns of behavior. Poor performance may be associated with neurological conditions characterized by impairments in executive function, such as the so-called pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs), a particular condition of the autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Inspired in these diagnosis tools, mainly those related to repetitive movements and behaviors, we studied here how the diffusion regimes of two discrete-time random walkers, mimicking the lack of social interaction and restricted interests developed for children with PDDs, are affected. Our model, which is based on the so-called elephant random walk (ERW) approach, consider that one of the random walker can learn and imitate the microscopic behavior of the other with probability f (1 - f otherwise). The diffusion regimes, measured by the Hurst exponent (H), is then obtained, whose changes may indicate a different degree of autism.

  14. Evaluations of an Experiential Gaming Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Kiili


    Full Text Available This paper examines the experiences of players of a problem-solving game. The main purpose of the paper is to validate the flow antecedents included in an experiential gaming model and to study their influence on the flow experience. Additionally, the study aims to operationalize the flow construct in a game context and to start a scale development process for assessing the experience of flow in game settings. Results indicated that the flow antecedents studied—challenges matched to a player’s skill level, clear goals, unambiguous feedback, a sense of control, and playability—should be considered in game design because they contribute to the flow experience. Furthermore, the indicators of the actual flow experience were distinguished.

  15. SEM metrology on bit patterned media nanoimprint template: issues and improvements (United States)

    Hwu, Justin J.; Babin, Sergey; Yushmanov, Peter


    Critical dimension measurement is the most essential metrology needed in nanofabrication processes and the practice is most commonly executed using SEMs for its flexibility in sampling, imaging, and data processing. In bit patterned media process development, nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is used for template replication and media fabrication. SEM imaging on templates provide not only individual dot size, but also information for dot size distribution, the location of dots, pitch and array alignment quality, etc. It is very important to know the SEM measurement limit since the feature nominal size is less than 20 nm and the dot feature size and other metrics will relate to the final media performance. In our work an analytical SEM was used. We performed and compared two imaging analysis approaches for metrology information. The SEM beam was characterized using BEAMETR test sample and software for proper beam condition setup. A series of images obtained on a 27 nm nominal pitch dot array patterns were analyzed by conventional brightness intensity threshold method and physical model based analysis using myCD software. Through comparison we identified the issues with threshold method and the strength of using model based analysis for its improvement in feature size and pitch measurement uncertainty and accuracy. TEM cross sections were performed as accuracy reference for better understanding the source of measurement accuracy deviation.

  16. Computational Models of Classical Conditioning: A Qualitative Evaluation and Comparison


    Alonso, E.; Sahota, P; Mondragon, E.


    Classical conditioning is a fundamental paradigm in the study of learning and thus in understanding cognitive processes and behaviour, for which we need comprehensive and accurate models. This paper aims at evaluating and comparing a collection of influential computational models of classical conditioning by analysing the models themselves and against one another qualitatively. The results will clarify the state of the art in the area and help develop a standard model of classical conditioning.

  17. Análise de repetibilidade de caracteres forrageiros de genótipos de Panicum maximum, avaliados com e sem restrição solar Repeatability analysis of forage traits of Panicum maximum genotypes evaluated under natural and attenuated solar radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Cargnelutti Filho


    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi determinar o número de medições necessárias à predição do desempenho de cinco genótipos de Panicum maximum Jacq. Os genótipos (Gatton, Vencedor, Mombaça, Tanzânia e Tobiatã foram avaliados sob os sistemas de cultivo com e sem restrição solar, na Fundação Estadual de Pesquisa Agropecuária, situada em Tupanciretã - Rio Grande do Sul. No sistema de cultivo com restrição solar, os genótipos foram avaliados sob um bosque de eucalipto. Em cada uma das oito medições (cortes, foram avaliadas a matéria seca total, matéria seca de folhas, matéria seca de colmo, matéria seca folha + colmo, altura de planta e relação matéria seca folha/colmo. As estimativas dos coeficientes de repetibilidade foram obtidas por três métodos - análise da variância, componentes principais e análise estrutural. Concluiu-se que os oito cortes possibilitaram selecionar genótipos superiores em relação a todas as características, com 80% de exatidão no prognóstico de seu valor real.The objective of this study was to determine how many evaluations were necessary to predict the performance of Panicum maximum Jacq. genotypes. The genotypes Gatton, Vencedor, Mombaça, Tanzânia, and Tobiatã were evaluated under natural and attenuated solar radiation at the Fundação Estadual de Pesquisa Agropecuária, Tupanciretã, RS. Attenuated solar radiation was obtained when plants were grown in Eucalyptus woods. Genotypes in both crop systems were evaluated eight times. Total dry matter production, leaf, stem, and leaf plus stem dry matter, plant height and index of leaf and stem dry matter were recorded each evaluation time. Repeatability estimations were obtained through variance, structural, and principal component analysis. In conclusion, eight evaluations permit to select superior Panicum maximum genotypes, considering all characteristics, with 80% accuracy of the real value.

  18. Sealing Capability and SEM Observation of the Implant-Abutment Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio C. Lorenzoni


    water were collected at previously determinate times. The absorbance was measured with a spectrophotometer, and the data were analyzed by Two-way ANOVA (<.05 and Tukey's test. Marginal fit was determined using SEM. Leakage was observed for both groups at all times and was significantly higher at 144 hrs. SEM analysis depicted gaps in the implant-abutment interface of both groups. Gaps in the implant-abutment interface were observed along with leakage increased at the 144 hrs evaluation period.

  19. Evaluation of technological data in the DFI and PIES models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhagat, N.; Beller, M.; Hermelee, A.; Wagner, J.; Lamontagne, J.


    This report evaluates the data used in two of the models available to the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Specifically, the study involves updating, reviewing, and documenting the technological data on primary energy conversion, transportation, distribution and end-use conversion. The major focus is upon data used in the Decision Focus, Inc. (DFI), LEAP model. This is an abbreviated version of the Gulf-Stanford Research, Inc., energy model developed to assess the potential future impacts of synthetic fuels in the US energy system. A parallel effort assesses the data used in the model commonly known as the Project Independence Evaluation System (PIES).

  20. Regime-based evaluation of cloudiness in CMIP5 models (United States)

    Jin, Daeho; Oreopoulos, Lazaros; Lee, Dongmin


    The concept of cloud regimes (CRs) is used to develop a framework for evaluating the cloudiness of 12 fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) models. Reference CRs come from existing global International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) weather states. The evaluation is made possible by the implementation in several CMIP5 models of the ISCCP simulator generating in each grid cell daily joint histograms of cloud optical thickness and cloud top pressure. Model performance is assessed with several metrics such as CR global cloud fraction (CF), CR relative frequency of occurrence (RFO), their product [long-term average total cloud amount (TCA)], cross-correlations of CR RFO maps, and a metric of resemblance between model and ISCCP CRs. In terms of CR global RFO, arguably the most fundamental metric, the models perform unsatisfactorily overall, except for CRs representing thick storm clouds. Because model CR CF is internally constrained by our method, RFO discrepancies yield also substantial TCA errors. Our results support previous findings that CMIP5 models underestimate cloudiness. The multi-model mean performs well in matching observed RFO maps for many CRs, but is still not the best for this or other metrics. When overall performance across all CRs is assessed, some models, despite shortcomings, apparently outperform Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer cloud observations evaluated against ISCCP like another model output. Lastly, contrasting cloud simulation performance against each model's equilibrium climate sensitivity in order to gain insight on whether good cloud simulation pairs with particular values of this parameter, yields no clear conclusions.

  1. Decision modeling for economic evaluation of health technologies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    de Soárez, Patrícia Coelho; Soares, Marta Oliveira; Novaes, Hillegonda Maria Dutilh


    Most economic evaluations that participate in decision-making processes for incorporation and financing of technologies of health systems use decision models to assess the costs and benefits of the compared strategies...

  2. Arcade - A Formal, Extensible, Model-based Dependability Evaluation Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boudali, H.; Crouzen, Pepijn; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.; Kuntz, G.W.M.; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette

    This paper discusses the requirements that a suitable formalism for dependability modeling/evaluation should possess. We also discuss the outline of Arcade, an architectural dependability formalism that we are developing.

  3. Industrial Waste Management Evaluation Model Version 3.1 (United States)

    IWEM is a screening level ground water model designed to simulate contaminant fate and transport. IWEM v3.1 is the latest version of the IWEM software, which includes additional tools to evaluate the beneficial use of industrial materials

  4. The use of SEM/EDS method in mineralogical analysis of ordinary chondritic meteorite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breda Mirtič


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersiveX-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS for determination of mineral phases according to their stoichiometry and assessment of mineral composition of ordinary chondritic meteorite. For the purposes of this study, H3 type ordinary chondritic meteorite Abbott was selected. SEM/EDS allows identification and characterisation of mineralphases, whose size is below the resolution of an optical microscope. Mineral phases in chondrules and interstitial matrix were located in backscattered electron (BSE mode and were assessed from atomic proportions of constituent elements, obtained by the EDS analysis. SEM/EDS analyses of mineral phases showed that Abbott meteorite is characterised by Fe-rich (Fe, Ni-alloy kamacite, Fe-sulphide troilite or pyrrhotite, chromite, Mg-rich olivine, orthopyroxene bronzite or hypersthene, clinopyroxene Al-diopside, acid plagioclase oligoclase, accessory mineral chlorapatite and secondary minerals Fe-hydroxides (goethite or lepidocrocite. Results of semi-quantitative analyses confirmed that most of analysed mineralphases conform well to stoichiometric minerals with minor deviations of oxygen from stoichiometric proportions. Comparison between mineral phases in chondrules and interstitial matrix was also performed, however it showed no significant differences in elemental composition.Differences in chemical composition between minerals in interstitial matrix and chondrules are sometimes too small to be discernedby the SEM/EDS, therefore knowledge of SEM/EDS capabilities is important for correct interpretation of chondrite formation.

  5. Model of service-oriented catering supply chain performance evaluation


    Juanqiong Gou; Guguan Shen; Rui Chai


    Purpose: The aim of this paper is constructing a performance evaluation model for service-oriented catering supply chain. Design/methodology/approach: With the research on the current situation of catering industry, this paper summarized the characters of the catering supply chain, and then presents the service-oriented catering supply chain model based on the platform of logistics and information. At last, the fuzzy AHP method is used to evaluate the performance of service-oriented catering ...

  6. A New Software Quality Model for Evaluating COTS Components


    Adnan Rawashdeh; Bassem Matalkah


    Studies show that COTS-based (Commercial off the shelf) systems that are being built recently are exceeding 40% of the total developed software systems. Therefore, a model that ensures quality characteristics of such systems becomes a necessity. Among the most critical processes in COTS-based systems are the evaluation and selection of the COTS components. There are several existing quality models used to evaluate software systems in general; however, none of them is dedicated to COTS-based s...

  7. Permeability of Dental Adhesives - A SEM Assessment. (United States)

    Malacarne-Zanon, Juliana; de Andrade E Silva, Safira M; Wang, Linda; de Goes, Mario F; Martins, Adriano Luis; Narvaes-Romani, Eliene O; Anido-Anido, Andrea; Carrilho, Marcela R O


    To morphologically evaluate the permeability of different commercial dental adhesives using scanning electron microscopy. SEVEN ADHESIVE SYSTEMS WERE EVALUATED: one three-step system (Scotchbond Multi-Purpose - MP); one two-step self-etching primer system (Clearfil SE Bond - SE); three two-step etch-and-rinse systems (Single Bond 2 - SB; Excite - EX; One-Step - OS); and two single-step self-etching adhesives (Adper Prompt - AP; One-Up Bond F - OU). The mixture of primer and bond agents of the Clearfil SE Bond system (SE-PB) was also tested. The adhesives were poured into a brass mold (5.8 mm x 0.8 mm) and light-cured for 80 s at 650 mW/cm2. After a 24 h desiccation process, the specimens were immersed in a 50% ammoniac silver nitrate solution for tracer permeation. Afterwards, they were sectioned in ultra-fine slices, carbon-coated, and analyzed under backscattered electrons in a scanning electron microscopy. MP and SE showed slight and superficial tracer permeation. In EX, SB, and OS, permeation extended beyond the inner superficies of the specimens. SE-PB did not mix well, and most of the tracer was precipitated into the primer agent. In AP and OU, "water-trees" were observed all over the specimens. Different materials showed distinct permeability in aqueous solution. The extent of tracer permeation varied according to the composition of each material and it was more evident in the more hydrophilic and solvated ones.

  8. An Evaluation of Unsaturated Flow Models in an Arid Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Jason [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of two unsaturated flow models in arid regions. The area selected for the study was the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site in Nye County, Nevada. The two models selected for this evaluation were HYDRUS-1D [Simunek et al., 1998] and the SHAW model [Flerchinger and Saxton, 1989]. Approximately 5 years of soil-water and atmospheric data collected from an instrumented weighing lysimeter site near the RWMS were used for building the models with actual initial and boundary conditions representative of the site. Physical processes affecting the site and model performance were explored. Model performance was based on a detailed sensitivity analysis and ultimately on storage comparisons. During the process of developing descriptive model input, procedures for converting hydraulic parameters for each model were explored. In addition, the compilation of atmospheric data collected at the site became a useful tool for developing predictive functions for future studies. The final model results were used to evaluate the capacities of the HYDRUS and SHAW models for predicting soil-moisture movement and variable surface phenomena for bare soil conditions in the arid vadose zone. The development of calibrated models along with the atmospheric and soil data collected at the site provide useful information for predicting future site performance at the RWMS.

  9. A Novel Environmental Performance Evaluation of Thailand’s Food Industry Using Structural Equation Modeling and Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirut Pipatprapa


    Full Text Available Currently, the environment and sustainability are important topics for every industry. The food industry is particularly complicated in this regard because of the dynamic and complex character of food products and their production. This study uses structural equation modeling (SEM and a fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP to investigate which factors are suitable for evaluating the environmental performance of Thailand’s food industry. A first-stage questionnaire survey was conducted with 178 managers in the food industry that obtained a certificate from the Department of Industrial Work of Thailand to synthesize the performance measurement model and the significance of the relationship between the indicators. A second-stage questionnaire measured 18 experts’ priorities regarding the criteria and sub-factors involved in the different aspects and assessment items regarding environmental performance. SEM showed that quality management, market orientation, and innovation capability have a significantly positive effect on environmental performance. The FAHP showed that the experts were most concerned about quality management, followed by market orientation and innovation capability; the assessment items for quality policy, quality assurance, and customer orientation were of the most concern. The findings of this study can be referenced and support managerial decision making when monitoring environmental performance.

  10. Use of Theoretical Controls in Underwater Acoustic Model Evaluation. (United States)


    shallow water. 50. White, D., Normal Mode Evaluation of FASOR Shallow Water Areas, unpublished. 126 5.2.2 Assessment of Ray Theory Use of Normal Mode...Normal Mode Evaluation of FASOR Shallow Water Areas, unpublished. 51. Mitchell, S. K.. and J. J. Lemmon. A Ray Theory Model of Acoustic Interaction

  11. A Universal Model for the Normative Evaluation of Internet Information.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spence, E.H.


    Beginning with the initial premise that as the Internet has a global character, the paper will argue that the normative evaluation of digital information on the Internet necessitates an evaluative model that is itself universal and global in character (I agree, therefore, with Gorniak- Kocikowska’s

  12. Automated CD-SEM metrology for efficient TD and HVM (United States)

    Starikov, Alexander; Mulapudi, Satya P.


    CD-SEM is the metrology tool of choice for patterning process development and production process control. We can make these applications more efficient by extracting more information from each CD-SEM image. This enables direct monitors of key process parameters, such as lithography dose and focus, or predicting the outcome of processing, such as etched dimensions or electrical parameters. Automating CD-SEM recipes at the early stages of process development can accelerate technology characterization, segmentation of variance and process improvements. This leverages the engineering effort, reduces development costs and helps to manage the risks inherent in new technology. Automating CD-SEM for manufacturing enables efficient operations. Novel SEM Alarm Time Indicator (SATI) makes this task manageable. SATI pulls together data mining, trend charting of the key recipe and Operations (OPS) indicators, Pareto of OPS losses and inputs for root cause analysis. This approach proved natural to our FAB personnel. After minimal initial training, we applied new methods in 65nm FLASH manufacture. This resulted in significant lasting improvements of CD-SEM recipe robustness, portability and automation, increased CD-SEM capacity and MT productivity.

  13. Evaluation of properties and FEM Model of the Friction welded mild Steel-Al6061-Alumina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazman Seli


    Full Text Available Evaluation of mechanical and interfacial properties of friction welded alumina-mild steel rods with the use of Al6061 sheet are presented in this work. SEM, EDX analysis, hardness and bending strength tests were conducted. The bonds were attained through interfacial interlocking and intermetalllic phase formation with average bending strengths in the range of 40 to 200 MPa and insignificant hardness change in the parent alumina and mild steel. A preliminary simulation was made to predict the deformation, stress, strain and temperature distribution during the joining operation using a fully coupled thermo-mechanical FE model. The aluminum alloy metal being rubbed was simulated using a phenomenological Johnson-Cook viscoplasticity material model, which suited for materials subjected to large strains, high strain rates and high temperatures. The highest stress, strain and deformation are found to be within the heat affected zone of the weld close to the periphery rubbing surface region and correspond to the highest temperature profiles observed.

  14. Evaluation of properties and FEM Model of the Friction welded mild Steel-Al6061-Alumina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazman Seli


    Full Text Available Evaluation of mechanical and interfacial properties of friction welded alumina-mild steel rods with the use of Al6061 sheet are presented in this work. SEM, EDX analysis, hardness and bending strength tests were conducted. The bonds were attained through interfacial interlocking and intermetalllic phase formation with average bending strengths in the range of 40 to 200 MPa and insignificant hardness change in the parent alumina and mild steel. A preliminary simulation was made to predict the deformation, stress, strain and temperature distribution during the joining operation using a fully coupled thermo-mechanical FE model. The aluminum alloy metal being rubbed was simulated using a phenomenological Johnson-Cook viscoplasticity material model, which suited for materials subjected to large strains, high strain rates and high temperatures. The highest stress, strain and deformation are found to be within the heat affected zone of the weld close to the periphery rubbing surface region and correspond to the highest temperature profiles observed.

  15. Evaluating a novel resident role-modelling programme. (United States)

    Sternszus, Robert; Steinert, Yvonne; Bhanji, Farhan; Andonian, Sero; Snell, Linda S


    Role modelling is a fundamental method by which students learn from residents. To our knowledge, however, resident-as-teacher curricula have not explicitly addressed resident role modelling. The purpose of this project was to design, implement and evaluate an innovative programme to teach residents about role modelling. The authors designed a resident role-modelling programme and incorporated it into the 2015 and 2016 McGill University resident-as-teacher curriculum. Influenced by experiential and social learning theories, the programme incorporated flipped-classroom and simulation approaches to teach residents to be aware and deliberate role models. Outcomes were assessed through a pre- and immediate post-programme questionnaire evaluating reaction and learning, a delayed post-programme questionnaire evaluating learning, and a retrospective pre-post questionnaire (1 month following the programme) evaluating self-reported behaviour changes. Thirty-three of 38 (87%) residents who participated in the programme completed the evaluation, with 25 residents (66%) completing all questionnaires. Participants rated the programme highly on a five-point Likert scale (where 1 = not helpful and 5 = very helpful; mean score, M = 4.57; standard deviation, SD = 0.50), and showed significant improvement in their perceptions of their importance as role models and their knowledge of deliberate role modelling. Residents also reported an increased use of deliberate role-modelling strategies 1 month after completing the programme. Resident-as-teacher curricula have not explicitly addressed resident role modelling DISCUSSION: The incorporation of resident role modelling into our resident-as-teacher curriculum positively influenced the participants' perceptions of their role-modelling abilities. This programme responds to a gap in resident training and has the potential to guide further programme development in this important and often overlooked area. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons

  16. In Situ Characterization of Boehmite Particles in Water Using Liquid SEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Juan; Arey, Bruce W.; Yang, Li; Zhang, Fei; Komorek, Rachel E.; Chun, Jaehun; Yu, Xiao-Ying


    In situ imaging and elemental analysis of boehmite (AlOOH) particles in water is realized using the System for Analysis at the Liquid Vacuum Interface (SALVI) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). This paper describes the method and key steps in integrating the vacuum compatible SAVLI to SEM and obtaining secondary electron (SE) images of particles in liquid in high vacuum. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) is used to obtain elemental analysis of particles in liquid. A synthesized AlOOH particle is used as a model in the liquid SEM illustration. Our results demonstrate that particles can be imaged in the SE mode with good resolution. The AlOOH EDX spectrum shows significant signal from the Al compared with deionized water and the empty channel control. In situ liquid SEM is a powerful technique to study particles in liquid with many exciting applications. This procedure aims to provide technical details in how to conduct liquid SEM imaging and EDX analysis using SALVI and reduce potential pitfalls using this approach for other researchers.

  17. In Situ Characterization of Boehmite Particles in Water Using Liquid SEM. (United States)

    Yao, Juan; Arey, Bruce W; Yang, Li; Zhang, Fei; Komorek, Rachel; Chun, Jaehun; Yu, Xiao-Ying


    In situ imaging and elemental analysis of boehmite (AlOOH) particles in water is realized using the System for Analysis at the Liquid Vacuum Interface (SALVI) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). This paper describes the method and key steps in integrating the vacuum compatible SAVLI to SEM and obtaining secondary electron (SE) images of particles in liquid in high vacuum. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) is used to obtain elemental analysis of particles in liquid and control samples including deionized (DI) water only and an empty channel as well. Synthesized boehmite (AlOOH) particles suspended in liquid are used as a model in the liquid SEM illustration. The results demonstrate that the particles can be imaged in the SE mode with good resolution (i.e., 400 nm). The AlOOH EDX spectrum shows significant signal from the aluminum (Al) when compared with the DI water and the empty channel control. In situ liquid SEM is a powerful technique to study particles in liquid with many exciting applications. This procedure aims to provide technical know-how in order to conduct liquid SEM imaging and EDX analysis using SALVI and to reduce potential pitfalls when using this approach.

  18. Evaluation of preformance of Predictive Models for Deoxynivalenol in Wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels, van der H.J.


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of two predictive models for deoxynivalenol contamination of wheat at harvest in the Netherlands, including the use of weather forecast data and external model validation. Data were collected in a different year and from different wheat fields

  19. Faculty Performance Evaluation: The CIPP-SAPS Model. (United States)

    Mitcham, Maralynne


    The issues of faculty performance evaluation for allied health professionals are addressed. Daniel Stufflebeam's CIPP (content-imput-process-product) model is introduced and its development into a CIPP-SAPS (self-administrative-peer- student) model is pursued. (Author/CT)

  20. Evaluation of models generated via hybrid evolutionary algorithms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Apr 2, 2016 ... Evaluation of models generated via hybrid evolutionary algorithms for the prediction of Microcystis concentrations ... evolutionary algorithms (HEA) proved to be highly applica- ble to the hypertrophic reservoirs of .... Principal component analysis (PCA) was carried out on the input dataset used for the model ...

  1. Evaluating choices in multi-process landscape evolution models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temme, A.J.A.M.; Claessens, L.; Veldkamp, A.; Schoorl, J.M.


    The interest in landscape evolution models (LEMs) that simulate multiple landscape processes is growing. However, modelling multiple processes constitutes a new starting point for which some aspects of the set up of LEMs must be re-evaluated. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the

  2. Multi-criteria comparative evaluation of spallation reaction models (United States)

    Andrianov, Andrey; Andrianova, Olga; Konobeev, Alexandr; Korovin, Yury; Kuptsov, Ilya


    This paper presents an approach to a comparative evaluation of the predictive ability of spallation reaction models based on widely used, well-proven multiple-criteria decision analysis methods (MAVT/MAUT, AHP, TOPSIS, PROMETHEE) and the results of such a comparison for 17 spallation reaction models in the presence of the interaction of high-energy protons with natPb.

  3. Evaluation of forest snow processes models (SnowMKIP2) (United States)

    Nick Rutter; Richard Essery; John Pomeroy; Nuria Altimir; Kostas Andreadis; Ian Baker; Alan Barr; Paul Bartlett; Aaron Boone; Huiping Deng; Herve Douville; Emanuel Dutra; Kelly Elder; others


    Thirty-three snowpack models of varying complexity and purpose were evaluated across a wide range of hydrometeorological and forest canopy conditions at five Northern Hemisphere locations, for up to two winter snow seasons. Modeled estimates of snow water equivalent (SWE) or depth were compared to observations at forest and open sites at each location. Precipitation...

  4. Evaluation of models for assessing Medicago sativa L. hay

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UFS Campus

    ² Agricultural Modeling and Training Systems 418 Davis Rd Cortland, NY 13045, USA. Abstract. A study was conducted to evaluate current proposed models for assessing Medicago sativa L. hay quality, using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) analyses and Cornell Nett Carbohydrate and. Protein System ...

  5. Evaluating Emulation-based Models of Distributed Computing Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Stephen T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Cyber Initiatives; Gabert, Kasimir G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Cyber Initiatives; Tarman, Thomas D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Emulytics Initiatives


    Emulation-based models of distributed computing systems are collections of virtual ma- chines, virtual networks, and other emulation components configured to stand in for oper- ational systems when performing experimental science, training, analysis of design alterna- tives, test and evaluation, or idea generation. As with any tool, we should carefully evaluate whether our uses of emulation-based models are appropriate and justified. Otherwise, we run the risk of using a model incorrectly and creating meaningless results. The variety of uses of emulation-based models each have their own goals and deserve thoughtful evaluation. In this paper, we enumerate some of these uses and describe approaches that one can take to build an evidence-based case that a use of an emulation-based model is credible. Predictive uses of emulation-based models, where we expect a model to tell us something true about the real world, set the bar especially high and the principal evaluation method, called validation , is comensurately rigorous. We spend the majority of our time describing and demonstrating the validation of a simple predictive model using a well-established methodology inherited from decades of development in the compuational science and engineering community.

  6. The fence experiment - a first evaluation of shelter models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peña, Alfredo; Bechmann, Andreas; Conti, Davide


    We present a preliminary evaluation of shelter models of different degrees of complexity using full-scale lidar measurements of the shelter on a vertical plane behind and orthogonal to a fence. Model results accounting for the distribution of the relative wind direction within the observed...

  7. Boussinesq Modeling of Wave Propagation and Runup over Fringing Coral Reefs, Model Evaluation Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Demirbilek, Zeki; Nwogu, Okey G


    ..., for waves propagating over fringing reefs. The model evaluation had two goals: (a) investigate differences between laboratory and field characteristics of wave transformation processes over reefs, and (b...

  8. Modelo de web semántica para universidades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Abad


    Full Text Available A raíz del estudio de estado actual de micrositios y repositorios en la Universidad Estatal Península de Santa Elena se encontró que su información carecía de semántica óptima y adecuada. Bajo estas circunstancias, se plantea entonces la necesidad de crear un modelo de estructura de web semántica para Universidades, el cual posteriormente fue aplicado a micrositios y repositorio digital de la UPSE, como caso de prueba. Parte de este proyecto incluye la instalación de módulos de software con sus respectivas configuraciones y la utilización de estándares de metadatos como DUBLIN CORE, para la mejora del SEO (optimización en motores de búsqueda; con ello se ha logrado la generación de metadatos estandarizados y la creación de políticas para la subida de información. El uso de metadatos transforma datos simples en estructuras bien organizadas que aportan información y conocimiento para generar resultados en buscadores web. Al culminar la implementación del modelo de web semántica es posible decir que la universidad ha mejorado su presencia y visibilidad en la web a través del indexamiento de información en diferentes motores de búsqueda y posicionamiento en la categorización de universidades y de repositorios de Webometrics (ranking que proporciona clasificación de universidades de todo el mundo.   Abstract After examining the current microsites and repositories situation in University, Peninsula of Santa Elena´s, it was found that information lacked optimal and appropriate semantic. Under these circumstances, there is a need to create a semantic web structure model for Universities, which was subsequently applied to UPSE´s microsites and digital repositories, as a test study case. Part of this project includes the installation of software modules with their respective configurations and the use of metadata standards such as DUBLIN CORE, to improve the SEO (Search Engine Optimization; with these applications, it was

  9. Water Quality Development in the Semíč Stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Oppeltová


    Full Text Available The aims of the work were to analyse selected quality indicators of a small water stream called Semíč and evaluate the results based on the valid legislation. Eight sampling profiles (SP were selected and water was sampled four times a year in the period May 2013–April 2014. PH, conductivity, oxygen content and temperature were measured directly in the field. Subsequently, ferrum, nitric nitrogen, ammoniacal nitrogen, sulphates, chlorides, chemical oxygen demand tested using dichromate, total phosphorus, total nitrogen and manganese were analysed in the laboratory. Analyses of selected heavy metals – zinc, copper and aluminum – were carried out in spring 2014. The results were classified in compliance with Government Decree (GD No. 61/2003 Coll., as amended, and Czech standard ČSN 75 7221. The results of the period 2013–2014 were compared with the results from 2002–2003 and 1992. The resulting concentrations of substances manifest considerable instability during the year, which can most likely be attributed to large changes in flow rates in different seasons. When comparing the values to older results, it can be concluded that the concentrations of a number of substances have decreased; by contrast, others have increased. An extreme increase in copper was detected, where the concentration exceeded the environmental quality standard several times.

  10. Ergonomic evaluation model of operational room based on team performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Zhiyi


    Full Text Available A theoretical calculation model based on the ergonomic evaluation of team performance was proposed in order to carry out the ergonomic evaluation of the layout design schemes of the action station in a multitasking operational room. This model was constructed in order to calculate and compare the theoretical value of team performance in multiple layout schemes by considering such substantial influential factors as frequency of communication, distance, angle, importance, human cognitive characteristics and so on. An experiment was finally conducted to verify the proposed model under the criteria of completion time and accuracy rating. As illustrated by the experiment results,the proposed approach is conductive to the prediction and ergonomic evaluation of the layout design schemes of the action station during early design stages,and provides a new theoretical method for the ergonomic evaluation,selection and optimization design of layout design schemes.

  11. The Dynamic Integrated Evaluation Model (DIEM): Achieving Sustainability in Organizational Intervention through a Participatory Evaluation Approach. (United States)

    von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica; Lundmark, Robert; Hasson, Henna


    Recently, there have been calls to develop ways of using a participatory approach when conducting interventions, including evaluating the process and context to improve and adapt the intervention as it evolves over time. The need to integrate interventions into daily organizational practices, thereby increasing the likelihood of successful implementation and sustainable changes, has also been highlighted. We propose an evaluation model-the Dynamic Integrated Evaluation Model (DIEM)-that takes this into consideration. In the model, evaluation is fitted into a co-created iterative intervention process, in which the intervention activities can be continuously adapted based on collected data. By explicitly integrating process and context factors, DIEM also considers the dynamic sustainability of the intervention over time. It emphasizes the practical value of these evaluations for organizations, as well as the importance of their rigorousness for research purposes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Comprehensive evaluation of Shahid Motahari Educational Festival during 2008-2013 based on CIPP Evaluation Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    SN Hosseini; A Mohseni Band Pey; B Karami Matin; SA Hosseini; M Mirzaei Alavijeh; F Jalilian


    ...) based on CIPP evaluation model. Method : This cross-sectional study was conducted among the 473 faculty members include deputies and administrators educational, administrators and faculty members of medical education development centers...

  13. Application of Learning Curves for Didactic Model Evaluation: Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Mödritscher


    Full Text Available The success of (online courses depends, among other factors, on the underlying didactical models which have always been evaluated with qualitative and quantitative research methods. Several new evaluation techniques have been developed and established in the last years. One of them is ‘learning curves’, which aim at measuring error rates of users when they interact with adaptive educational systems, thereby enabling the underlying models to be evaluated and improved. In this paper, we report how we have applied this new method to two case studies to show that learning curves are useful to evaluate didactical models and their implementation in educational platforms. Results show that the error rates follow a power law distribution with each additional attempt if the didactical model of an instructional unit is valid. Furthermore, the initial error rate, the slope of the curve and the goodness of fit of the curve are valid indicators for the difficulty level of a course and the quality of its didactical model. As a conclusion, the idea of applying learning curves for evaluating didactical model on the basis of usage data is considered to be valuable for supporting teachers and learning content providers in improving their online courses.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcides Montoya


    retardo durante a mudança do tempo de amostragem para toda a rede. A solução mais eficiente, que foi provada e avaliada em uma rede sem fio formada por 40 nós que detectam fugas de amoníaco em tempo real, determinou que o ponto-chave consiste em diminuir o consumo de energia, produto das confirmações e retransmissões desnecessárias de dados e procedimentos, desde os nós sensores até a estação base. Este fato representa, além da diminuição no consumo energético, uma poupança significativa no tempo de convergência da rede.The reconfiguration, reprogramming, and deployment of new computational tasks in wireless sensor networks are complex and represent a problem satisfactorily unresolved at present. The aim of this paper is to propose the performance evaluation of the use of mobile intelligent agents as autonomous rescheduling mechanism in such networks. The method used for performance evaluation is done by measuring the energy consumption in the migration of mobile intelligent agents among the sensor nodes of the system and calculating the convergence time of the network, defined as the time it takes for the network to move from one state to another; in experiments it refers to the delay in changing the sampling time for the entire network. The most efficient solution, which was tested and evaluated in a network is composed of 40 nodes that detect in real time ammonia leaks, determined that the key issue is to reduce the expenditure of unnecessary energy in transmission from the wireless sensors to the base station, while avoiding unnecessary confirmations and transmissions of data and procedures among sensor nodes. This fact represents besides the reduction in the network energy consumption, a very significant saving for convergence time of the network.

  15. Animal models for evaluation of oral delivery of biopharmaceuticals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harloff-Helleberg, Stine; Nielsen, Line Hagner; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck


    of systems for oral delivery of biopharmaceuticals may result in new treatment modalities to increase the patient compliance and reduce product cost. In the preclinical development phase, use of experimental animal models is essential for evaluation of new formulation designs. In general, the limited oral...... bioavailability of biopharmaceuticals, of just a few percent, is expected, and therefore, the animal models and the experimental settings must be chosen with utmost care. More knowledge and focus on this topic is highly needed, despite experience from the numerous studies evaluating animal models for oral drug...... delivery of small molecule drugs. This review highlights and discusses pros and cons of the most currently used animal models and settings. Additionally, it also looks into the influence of anesthetics and sampling methods for evaluation of drug delivery systems for oral delivery of biopharmaceuticals...

  16. Using Cross Correlation for Evaluating Shape Models of Asteroids (United States)

    Palmer, Eric; Weirich, John; Barnouin, Olivier; Campbell, Tanner; Lambert, Diane


    The Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, and Security-Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) sample return mission to Bennu will be using optical navigation during its proximity operations. Optical navigation is heavily dependent upon having an accurate shape model to calculate the spacecraft's position and pointing. In support of this, we have conducted extensive testing of the accuracy and precision of shape models. OSIRIS-REx will be using the shape models generated by stereophotoclinometry (Gaskell, 2008). The most typical technique to evaluate models is to subtract two shape models and produce the differences in the height of each node between the two models. During flight, absolute accuracy cannot be determined; however, our testing allowed us to characterize both systematic and non-systematic errors. We have demonstrated that SPC provides an accurate and reproducible shape model (Weirich, et al., 2017), but also that shape model subtraction only tells part of the story. Our advanced shape model evaluation uses normalized cross-correlation to show a different aspect of quality of the shape model. In this method, we generate synthetic images using the shape model and calculate their cross-correlation with images of the truth asteroid. This technique tests both the shape model's representation of the topographic features (size, shape, depth and relative position), but also estimates of the surface's albedo. This albedo can be used to determine both Bond and geometric albedo of the surface (Palmer, et al., 2014). A high correlation score between the model's synthetic images and the truth images shows that the local topography and albedo has been well represented over the length scale of the image. A global evaluation, such as global shape and size, is best shown by shape model subtraction.

  17. Logistics Enterprise Evaluation Model Based On Fuzzy Clustering Analysis (United States)

    Fu, Pei-hua; Yin, Hong-bo

    In this thesis, we introduced an evaluation model based on fuzzy cluster algorithm of logistics enterprises. First of all,we present the evaluation index system which contains basic information, management level, technical strength, transport capacity,informatization level, market competition and customer service. We decided the index weight according to the grades, and evaluated integrate ability of the logistics enterprises using fuzzy cluster analysis method. In this thesis, we introduced the system evaluation module and cluster analysis module in detail and described how we achieved these two modules. At last, we gave the result of the system.

  18. Signal-to-noise ratio estimation on SEM images using cubic spline interpolation with Savitzky-Golay smoothing. (United States)

    Sim, K S; Kiani, M A; Nia, M E; Tso, C P


    A new technique based on cubic spline interpolation with Savitzky-Golay noise reduction filtering is designed to estimate signal-to-noise ratio of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. This approach is found to present better result when compared with two existing techniques: nearest neighbourhood and first-order interpolation. When applied to evaluate the quality of SEM images, noise can be eliminated efficiently with optimal choice of scan rate from real-time SEM images, without generating corruption or increasing scanning time. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2013 Royal Microscopical Society.

  19. Evaluation of two ozone air quality modelling systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ortega


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to compare two different modelling systems and to evaluate their ability to simulate high values of ozone concentration in typical summer episodes which take place in the north of Spain near the metropolitan area of Barcelona. As the focus of the paper is the comparison of the two systems, we do not attempt to improve the agreement by adjusting the emission inventory or model parameters. The first model, or forecasting system, is made up of three modules. The first module is a mesoscale model (MASS. This provides the initial condition for the second module, which is a nonlocal boundary layer model based on the transilient turbulence scheme. The third module is a photochemical box model (OZIPR, which is applied in Eulerian and Lagrangian modes and receives suitable information from the two previous modules. The model forecast is evaluated against ground base stations during summer 2001. The second model is the MM5/UAM-V. This is a grid model designed to predict the hourly three-dimensional ozone concentration fields. The model is applied during an ozone episode that occurred between 21 and 23 June 2001. Our results reflect the good performance of the two modelling systems when they are used in a specific episode.

  20. Evaluation of six ionospheric models as predictors of TEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L.D.; Daniell, R.E.; Fox, M.W.; Klobuchar, J.A.; Doherty, P.H.


    The authors have gathered TEC data from a wide range of latitudes and longitudes for a complete range of solar activity. This data was used to evaluate the performance of six ionospheric models as predictors of Total Electron Content (TFC). The TEC parameter is important in correcting modern DOD space systems, which propagate radio signals from the earth to satellites, for the time delay effects of the ionosphere. The TEC data were obtained from polarimeter receivers located in North America, the Pacific, and the East Coast of Asia. The ionospheric models evaluated are: (1) the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI); (2) the Bent model; (3) the Ionospheric Conductivity and Electron Density (ICED) model; (4) the Penn State model; (5) the Fully Analytic Ionospheric Model (FAIM, a modification of the Chiu model); and (6) the Damen-Hartranft model. They will present extensive comparisons between monthly mean TEC at all local times and model TEC obtained by integrating electron density profiles produced by the six models. These comparisons demonstrate that even thought most of the models do very well at representing f0F2, none of them do very well with TEC, probably because of inaccurate representation of the topside scale height. They suggest that one approach to obtaining better representations of TEC is the use of f0E2 from coefficients coupled with a new slab thickness developed at Boston University.

  1. [Development and verification of Chinese dietary exposure evaluation model software]. (United States)

    Liu, Pei; Li, Jing-xin; Sun, Jin-fang; Xue, Jianping; Chen, Bing-wei; Zhang, Hong; Yu, Xiao-jin; Wang, Can-nan; Yuan, Bao-jun; Ma, Yong-jian; Tian, Zi-hua


    To develop the dietary exposure evaluation model software accredited of Chinese intellectual property rights and to verify the rationality and accuracy of the results from the probabilistic model in Chinese dietary exposure evaluation model software according to international standards. The software of SAS was used to build various evaluation model based on the data from Chinese dietary survey and the chemical compound in food surveillance and to design an operation interface. The results from probabilistic dietary exposure model for children 2 - 7 years old were compared with that from duplicate portion study of 2-7 years children dietary exposure in Jinhu, Jiangsu province in order to analyze the rationality of model. The results from probabilistic model of dietary exposure were compared with the results from @Risk software to verify the correction of the probabilistic model by using the same data of randomly selected 10 000 study subjects from national dietary survey. While, the mean drift was used as an internal index to illustrate the accuracy of the computation. Chinese dietary exposure evaluation software was developed successfully. On the rationality, the results from probabilistic model were lower than that from the point estimation (e.g., cucumber: the result of point estimation of acephate was 4.78 microg x kg(-1) x d(-1), while the results of probabilistic model which was 0.39 microg x kg(-1) x d(-1)). Meanwhile the results from probabilistic model were higher than the results of duplicate portion study (on the P95, the result of probabilistic model of Pb exposure in children was 11.08 microg x kg(-1) x d(-1), while the results of duplicate portion study was 5.75 microg x kg(-1) x d(-1)). On accuracy, the results from @Risk and the probabilistic model were highly consistent (on the P95, the result of probabilistic assessment of acephate diet exposure was 4.27 microg x kg(-1) x d(-1), while the results of duplicate portion study was 4.24 microg x kg(-1

  2. Evaluation of potential crushed-salt constitutive models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C.; Sambeek, L.L. Van; Chen, R.; Pfeifle, T.W.; Nieland, J.D. [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Hansen, F.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Repository Isolation Systems Dept.


    Constitutive models describing the deformation of crushed salt are presented in this report. Ten constitutive models with potential to describe the phenomenological and micromechanical processes for crushed salt were selected from a literature search. Three of these ten constitutive models, termed Sjaardema-Krieg, Zeuch, and Spiers models, were adopted as candidate constitutive models. The candidate constitutive models were generalized in a consistent manner to three-dimensional states of stress and modified to include the effects of temperature, grain size, and moisture content. A database including hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and southeastern New Mexico salt was used to determine material parameters for the candidate constitutive models. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from the hydrostatic consolidation tests, the shear consolidation tests, and a combination of the shear and hydrostatic tests produces three sets of material parameter values for the candidate models. The change in material parameter values from test group to test group indicates the empirical nature of the models. To evaluate the predictive capability of the candidate models, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on the fitting statistics and the ability of the models to predict the test data, the Spiers model appeared to perform slightly better than the other two candidate models. The work reported here is a first-of-its kind evaluation of constitutive models for reconsolidation of crushed salt. Questions remain to be answered. Deficiencies in models and databases are identified and recommendations for future work are made. 85 refs.

  3. Global Gridded Crop Model Evaluation: Benchmarking, Skills, Deficiencies and Implications. (United States)

    Muller, Christoph; Elliott, Joshua; Chryssanthacopoulos, James; Arneth, Almut; Balkovic, Juraj; Ciais, Philippe; Deryng, Delphine; Folberth, Christian; Glotter, Michael; Hoek, Steven; hide


    Crop models are increasingly used to simulate crop yields at the global scale, but so far there is no general framework on how to assess model performance. Here we evaluate the simulation results of 14 global gridded crop modeling groups that have contributed historic crop yield simulations for maize, wheat, rice and soybean to the Global Gridded Crop Model Intercomparison (GGCMI) of the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP). Simulation results are compared to reference data at global, national and grid cell scales and we evaluate model performance with respect to time series correlation, spatial correlation and mean bias. We find that global gridded crop models (GGCMs) show mixed skill in reproducing time series correlations or spatial patterns at the different spatial scales. Generally, maize, wheat and soybean simulations of many GGCMs are capable of reproducing larger parts of observed temporal variability (time series correlation coefficients (r) of up to 0.888 for maize, 0.673 for wheat and 0.643 for soybean at the global scale) but rice yield variability cannot be well reproduced by most models. Yield variability can be well reproduced for most major producing countries by many GGCMs and for all countries by at least some. A comparison with gridded yield data and a statistical analysis of the effects of weather variability on yield variability shows that the ensemble of GGCMs can explain more of the yield variability than an ensemble of regression models for maize and soybean, but not for wheat and rice. We identify future research needs in global gridded crop modeling and for all individual crop modeling groups. In the absence of a purely observation-based benchmark for model evaluation, we propose that the best performing crop model per crop and region establishes the benchmark for all others, and modelers are encouraged to investigate how crop model performance can be increased. We make our evaluation system accessible to all

  4. Evaluation of the DTM-2009 thermosphere model for benchmarking purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guijarro Nuria


    Full Text Available Aims: The Drag Temperature Model (DTM is a semi-empirical model describing the temperature, density, and composition of the Earth’s thermosphere. DTM2009 and DTM2000, and the COSPAR reference models NRLMSISE-00 and JB2008, are evaluated in order to establish benchmark values for new DTM models that will be developed in the framework of the Advanced Thermosphere Modelling and Orbit Prediction (ATMOP project. Methods: The total density data used in this study, including the high-resolution CHAMP and GRACE data, cover the 200–1000 km altitude range and all solar activities. DTM2009, using an improved DTM2000 algorithm, was constructed with most data assimilated in DTM2000, but also with CHAMP and GRACE data. The bias and precision of the four models is evaluated by comparing to the observations according to a metric, which consists of computing mean, RMS, and correlation. Secondly, the residuals are binned, which procedure aids in revealing specific model errors. Results: This evaluation shows that DTM2009 is the most precise model for the data that were assimilated. Comparison to independent density data shows that it is also the most accurate model overall and a significant improvement over DTM2000 under all conditions. JB2008 is the most accurate model below 300 km, JB2008 and DTM2009 perform best in the 300–500 km altitude range, whereas above 500 km NRLMSISE-00 and DTM2009 are most accurate. The precision of JB2008 decreases with altitude, which is due to its modeling of variations in local solar time and seasons in particular of the exospheric temperature rather than modeling these variations for the individual constituents. Specific errors in DTM2009, for example related to the employed solar activity proxy, will be fixed in the next model release, DTM2012. A specific analysis under geomagnetic storm conditions is outside the scope of the present paper.

  5. Evaluation of the DTM-2009 thermosphere model for benchmarking purposes (United States)

    Bruinsma, Sean L.; Sánchez-Ortiz, Noelia; Olmedo, Estrella; Guijarro, Nuria


    Aims: The Drag Temperature Model (DTM) is a semi-empirical model describing the temperature, density, and composition of the Earth's thermosphere. DTM2009 and DTM2000, and the COSPAR reference models NRLMSISE-00 and JB2008, are evaluated in order to establish benchmark values for new DTM models that will be developed in the framework of the Advanced Thermosphere Modelling and Orbit Prediction (ATMOP) project. Methods: The total density data used in this study, including the high-resolution CHAMP and GRACE data, cover the 200-1000 km altitude range and all solar activities. DTM2009, using an improved DTM2000 algorithm, was constructed with most data assimilated in DTM2000, but also with CHAMP and GRACE data. The bias and precision of the four models is evaluated by comparing to the observations according to a metric, which consists of computing mean, RMS, and correlation. Secondly, the residuals are binned, which procedure aids in revealing specific model errors. Results: This evaluation shows that DTM2009 is the most precise model for the data that were assimilated. Comparison to independent density data shows that it is also the most accurate model overall and a significant improvement over DTM2000 under all conditions. JB2008 is the most accurate model below 300 km, JB2008 and DTM2009 perform best in the 300-500 km altitude range, whereas above 500 km NRLMSISE-00 and DTM2009 are most accurate. The precision of JB2008 decreases with altitude, which is due to its modeling of variations in local solar time and seasons in particular of the exospheric temperature rather than modeling these variations for the individual constituents. Specific errors in DTM2009, for example related to the employed solar activity proxy, will be fixed in the next model release, DTM2012. A specific analysis under geomagnetic storm conditions is outside the scope of the present paper.

  6. 3D reconstruction of SEM images by use of optical photogrammetry software. (United States)

    Eulitz, Mona; Reiss, Gebhard


    Reconstruction of the three-dimensional (3D) surface of an object to be examined is widely used for structure analysis in science and many biological questions require information about their true 3D structure. For Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) there has been no efficient non-destructive solution for reconstruction of the surface morphology to date. The well-known method of recording stereo pair images generates a 3D stereoscope reconstruction of a section, but not of the complete sample surface. We present a simple and non-destructive method of 3D surface reconstruction from SEM samples based on the principles of optical close range photogrammetry. In optical close range photogrammetry a series of overlapping photos is used to generate a 3D model of the surface of an object. We adapted this method to the special SEM requirements. Instead of moving a detector around the object, the object itself was rotated. A series of overlapping photos was stitched and converted into a 3D model using the software commonly used for optical photogrammetry. A rabbit kidney glomerulus was used to demonstrate the workflow of this adaption. The reconstruction produced a realistic and high-resolution 3D mesh model of the glomerular surface. The study showed that SEM micrographs are suitable for 3D reconstruction by optical photogrammetry. This new approach is a simple and useful method of 3D surface reconstruction and suitable for various applications in research and teaching. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. An Efficient Dynamic Trust Evaluation Model for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengwang Ye


    Full Text Available Trust evaluation is an effective method to detect malicious nodes and ensure security in wireless sensor networks (WSNs. In this paper, an efficient dynamic trust evaluation model (DTEM for WSNs is proposed, which implements accurate, efficient, and dynamic trust evaluation by dynamically adjusting the weights of direct trust and indirect trust and the parameters of the update mechanism. To achieve accurate trust evaluation, the direct trust is calculated considering multitrust including communication trust, data trust, and energy trust with the punishment factor and regulating function. The indirect trust is evaluated conditionally by the trusted recommendations from a third party. Moreover, the integrated trust is measured by assigning dynamic weights for direct trust and indirect trust and combining them. Finally, we propose an update mechanism by a sliding window based on induced ordered weighted averaging operator to enhance flexibility. We can dynamically adapt the parameters and the interactive history windows number according to the actual needs of the network to realize dynamic update of direct trust value. Simulation results indicate that the proposed dynamic trust model is an efficient dynamic and attack-resistant trust evaluation model. Compared with existing approaches, the proposed dynamic trust model performs better in defending multiple malicious attacks.

  8. A model to evaluate quality and effectiveness of disease management. (United States)

    Lemmens, K M M; Nieboer, A P; van Schayck, C P; Asin, J D; Huijsman, R


    Disease management has emerged as a new strategy to enhance quality of care for patients suffering from chronic conditions, and to control healthcare costs. So far, however, the effects of this strategy remain unclear. Although current models define the concept of disease management, they do not provide a systematic development or an explanatory theory of how disease management affects the outcomes of care. The objective of this paper is to present a framework for valid evaluation of disease-management initiatives. The evaluation model is built on two pillars of disease management: patient-related and professional-directed interventions. The effectiveness of these interventions is thought to be affected by the organisational design of the healthcare system. Disease management requires a multifaceted approach; hence disease-management programme evaluations should focus on the effects of multiple interventions, namely patient-related, professional-directed and organisational interventions. The framework has been built upon the conceptualisation of these disease-management interventions. Analysis of the underlying mechanisms of these interventions revealed that learning and behavioural theories support the core assumptions of disease management. The evaluation model can be used to identify the components of disease-management programmes and the mechanisms behind them, making valid comparison feasible. In addition, this model links the programme interventions to indicators that can be used to evaluate the disease-management programme. Consistent use of this framework will enable comparisons among disease-management programmes and outcomes in evaluation research.

  9. A standard telemental health evaluation model: the time is now. (United States)

    Kramer, Greg M; Shore, Jay H; Mishkind, Matt C; Friedl, Karl E; Poropatich, Ronald K; Gahm, Gregory A


    The telehealth field has advanced historic promises to improve access, cost, and quality of care. However, the extent to which it is delivering on its promises is unclear as the scientific evidence needed to justify success is still emerging. Many have identified the need to advance the scientific knowledge base to better quantify success. One method for advancing that knowledge base is a standard telemental health evaluation model. Telemental health is defined here as the provision of mental health services using live, interactive video-teleconferencing technology. Evaluation in the telemental health field largely consists of descriptive and small pilot studies, is often defined by the individual goals of the specific programs, and is typically focused on only one outcome. The field should adopt new evaluation methods that consider the co-adaptive interaction between users (patients and providers), healthcare costs and savings, and the rapid evolution in communication technologies. Acceptance of a standard evaluation model will improve perceptions of telemental health as an established field, promote development of a sounder empirical base, promote interagency collaboration, and provide a framework for more multidisciplinary research that integrates measuring the impact of the technology and the overall healthcare aspect. We suggest that consideration of a standard model is timely given where telemental health is at in terms of its stage of scientific progress. We will broadly recommend some elements of what such a standard evaluation model might include for telemental health and suggest a way forward for adopting such a model.

  10. Avaliação comparativa da altura patelar pós-artroplastias totais do joelho com e sem preservação do ligamento cruzado posterior Comparative evaluation of patellar height after total knee arthroplasty with and without preservation of the posterior cruciate ligament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Marques Villardi


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar possíveis alterações na altura da patela, pós-artroplastias totais do joelho com e sem preservação do ligamento cruzado posterior (LCP. MÉTODO: Foram analisadas radiografias pré e pós-operatórias, de 120 pacientes submetidos a artroplastias totais do joelho, realizadas no Instituto Nacional de Traumatologia e Ortopedia, no período compreendido entre janeiro de 2003 e janeiro de 2005, com implantes do tipo Johnson de plataforma rotatória. A amostra foi dividida em dois grupos, correspondendo o grupo I a exames radiográficos pré e pós-artroplastias totais do joelho com preservação do LCP (n = 60 e o grupo II, a exames radiográficos pré e pós-artroplastias sem preservação do LCP (n = 60. Para a mensuração dos valores pré e pós-operatórios foi utilizado o método de Blackburne-Peel, cujo valor normal é igual a 0,8 (± 0,2, variando, portanto, entre 0,6 e 1. RESULTADOS: O índice patelar médio pré-operatório do grupo I foi igual a 0,874 e, no grupo II, a média foi igual a 0,857. O índice médio de altura patelar pós-operatório do grupo I foi igual a 0,849, variando entre 0,54 e 1,03. No grupo II, o menor índice foi igual a 0,48, o maior igual a 0,94, sendo o índice médio igual a 0,79. A comparação dos valores pós-operatórios nos dois grupos apresentou diferença estatisticamente significativa (p OBJECTIVE: To evaluate possible changes in patellar height after total knee arthroplasties with and without preservation of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL. METHOD: Analysis was made of pre- and post-operative X-rays of 120 patients submitted to total knee arthroplasties at the National Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics between January 2003 and January 2005, with Johnson-type rotary platform implants. The sample was divided into two groups, group I corresponding to radiographic exams before and after total knee arthroplasty with preservation of the PCL (n = 60, and group II corresponding

  11. Evaluating Vocational Educators' Training Programs: A Kirkpatrick-Inspired Evaluation Model (United States)

    Ravicchio, Fabrizio; Trentin, Guglielmo


    The aim of the article is to describe the assessment model adopted by the SCINTILLA Project, a project in Italy aimed at the online vocational training of young, seriously-disabled subjects and their subsequent work inclusion in smart-work mode. It will thus describe the model worked out for evaluation of the training program conceived for the…

  12. Avaliação radiográfica do comportamento dos terceiros molares inferiores em pacientes tratados ortodonticamente com e sem extrações de primeiros pré-molares Radiographic evaluation of the behavior of lower third molars in patients that were orthodontically treated with and without first premolars extractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Roberto Hauy


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: o presente trabalho objetivou avaliar as alterações ocorridas nas posições dos terceiros molares inferiores em pacientes tratados ortodonticamente com extrações dos primeiros pré-molares. METODOLOGIA: utilizou-se 80 ortopantomografias, obtidas no pré e pós-tratamento ortodôntico corretivo de 40 pacientes, divididos em dois grupos. O grupo 1 constou de 20 pacientes (13 femininos e 7 masculinos que se submeteram a tratamento ortodôntico com extrações de primeiros pré-molares. O grupo 2 foi constituído por 20 pacientes (13 femininos e 7 masculinos tratados ortodonticamente sem extrações. Foram estabelecidas medidas angulares, com o objetivo de avaliar as inclinações e medidas lineares, para analisar as modificações no sentido vertical dos terceiros molares. Todos os dados foram mensurados duas vezes, cujos valores médios foram submetidos dos testes t emparelhado e teste t independente. RESULTADOS: os resultados mostraram diferenças estatisticamente significantes (pAIM: The aim of this study is to evaluate the positional changes occurred with lower third molars in patients treated orthodontically with extractions of first premolars. METHODS: A total of 80 panoramic radiographs obtained at pre and post-treatment periods from 40 patients, were divided into 2 groups: group 1 were composed by 20 patients (13 female and 7 male that were submitted to orthodontic treatment with extraction of first premolars; group 2 were composed by 20 patients (13 female and 7 male that were submitted to orthodontic treatment without extractions. Angular measurements were established to evaluate the tipping and linear measurements were established to analyze the vertical changes of the lower third molars. All data were measured twice and averaged, then submitted to paired and unpaired test. RESULTS: Significant differences were found between the initial and final angular measurements of group 1 (p<0.01. CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded that

  13. Replication and extension of a hierarchical model of social anxiety and depression: fear of positive evaluation as a key unique factor in social anxiety. (United States)

    Weeks, Justin W


    Wang, Hsu, Chiu, and Liang (2012, Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 26, 215-224) recently proposed a hierarchical model of social interaction anxiety and depression to account for both the commonalities and distinctions between these conditions. In the present paper, this model was extended to more broadly encompass the symptoms of social anxiety disorder, and replicated in a large unselected, undergraduate sample (n = 585). Structural equation modeling (SEM) and hierarchical regression analyses were employed. Negative affect and positive affect were conceptualized as general factors shared by social anxiety and depression; fear of negative evaluation (FNE) and disqualification of positive social outcomes were operationalized as specific factors, and fear of positive evaluation (FPE) was operationalized as a factor unique to social anxiety. This extended hierarchical model explicates structural relationships among these factors, in which the higher-level, general factors (i.e., high negative affect and low positive affect) represent vulnerability markers of both social anxiety and depression, and the lower-level factors (i.e., FNE, disqualification of positive social outcomes, and FPE) are the dimensions of specific cognitive features. Results from SEM and hierarchical regression analyses converged in support of the extended model. FPE is further supported as a key symptom that differentiates social anxiety from depression.

  14. A Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation Model for Sustainability Risk Evaluation of PPP Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libiao Bai


    Full Text Available Evaluating the sustainability risk level of public–private partnership (PPP projects can reduce project risk incidents and achieve the sustainable development of the organization. However, the existing studies about PPP projects risk management mainly focus on exploring the impact of financial and revenue risks but ignore the sustainability risks, causing the concept of “sustainability” to be missing while evaluating the risk level of PPP projects. To evaluate the sustainability risk level and achieve the most important objective of providing a reference for the public and private sectors when making decisions on PPP project management, this paper constructs a factor system of sustainability risk of PPP projects based on an extensive literature review and develops a mathematical model based on the methods of fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model (FCEM and failure mode, effects and criticality analysis (FMECA for evaluating the sustainability risk level of PPP projects. In addition, this paper conducts computational experiment based on a questionnaire survey to verify the effectiveness and feasibility of this proposed model. The results suggest that this model is reasonable for evaluating the sustainability risk level of PPP projects. To our knowledge, this paper is the first study to evaluate the sustainability risk of PPP projects, which would not only enrich the theories of project risk management, but also serve as a reference for the public and private sectors for the sustainable planning and development. Keywords: sustainability risk eva

  15. Steel Containment Vessel Model Test: Results and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costello, J.F.; Hashimote, T.; Hessheimer, M.F.; Luk, V.K.


    A high pressure test of the steel containment vessel (SCV) model was conducted on December 11-12, 1996 at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, USA. The test model is a mixed-scaled model (1:10 in geometry and 1:4 in shell thickness) of an improved Mark II boiling water reactor (BWR) containment. A concentric steel contact structure (CS), installed over the SCV model and separated at a nominally uniform distance from it, provided a simplified representation of a reactor shield building in the actual plant. The SCV model and contact structure were instrumented with strain gages and displacement transducers to record the deformation behavior of the SCV model during the high pressure test. This paper summarizes the conduct and the results of the high pressure test and discusses the posttest metallurgical evaluation results on specimens removed from the SCV model.

  16. Evaluation of candidate geomagnetic field models for IGRF-12

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thébault, Erwan; Finlay, Chris; Alken, Patrick


    using well-defined statistical criteria in the spectral domain and maps in the physical space. These analyses were made to pinpoint both troublesome coefficients and the geographical regions where the candidate models most significantly differ. Some models showed clear deviation from other candidate...... by the British Geological Survey (UK), DTU Space (Denmark), ISTerre (France), IZMIRAN (Russia), NOAA/NGDC (USA), GFZ Potsdam (Germany), NASA/GSFC (USA), IPGP (France), LPG Nantes (France), and ETH Zurich (Switzerland). Each candidate model was carefully evaluated and compared to all other models and a mean model...... models. However, a majority of the task force members appointed by IAGA thought that the differences were not sufficient to exclude models that were well documented and based on different techniques. Conclusions: The task force thus voted for and applied an iterative robust estimation scheme in space...

  17. Development and evaluation of thermal model reduction algorithms for spacecraft (United States)

    Deiml, Michael; Suderland, Martin; Reiss, Philipp; Czupalla, Markus


    This paper is concerned with the topic of the reduction of thermal models of spacecraft. The work presented here has been conducted in cooperation with the company OHB AG, formerly Kayser-Threde GmbH, and the Institute of Astronautics at Technische Universität München with the goal to shorten and automatize the time-consuming and manual process of thermal model reduction. The reduction of thermal models can be divided into the simplification of the geometry model for calculation of external heat flows and radiative couplings and into the reduction of the underlying mathematical model. For simplification a method has been developed which approximates the reduced geometry model with the help of an optimization algorithm. Different linear and nonlinear model reduction techniques have been evaluated for their applicability in reduction of the mathematical model. Thereby the compatibility with the thermal analysis tool ESATAN-TMS is of major concern, which restricts the useful application of these methods. Additional model reduction methods have been developed, which account to these constraints. The Matrix Reduction method allows the approximation of the differential equation to reference values exactly expect for numerical errors. The summation method enables a useful, applicable reduction of thermal models that can be used in industry. In this work a framework for model reduction of thermal models has been created, which can be used together with a newly developed graphical user interface for the reduction of thermal models in industry.

  18. Assessment of engineered surfaces roughness by high-resolution 3D SEM photogrammetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gontard, L.C., E-mail: [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingeniería Metalúrgica y Química Inorgánica, Universidad de Cádiz, Puerto Real 11510 (Spain); López-Castro, J.D.; González-Rovira, L. [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingeniería Metalúrgica y Química Inorgánica, Escuela Superior de Ingeniería, Laboratorio de Corrosión, Universidad de Cádiz, Puerto Real 11519 (Spain); Vázquez-Martínez, J.M. [Departamento de Ingeniería Mecánica y Diseño Industrial, Escuela Superior de Ingeniería, Universidad de Cádiz, Puerto Real 11519 (Spain); Varela-Feria, F.M. [Servicio de Microscopía Centro de Investigación, Tecnología e Innovación (CITIUS), Universidad de Sevilla, Av. Reina Mercedes 4b, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Marcos, M. [Departamento de Ingeniería Mecánica y Diseño Industrial, Escuela Superior de Ingeniería, Universidad de Cádiz, Puerto Real 11519 (Spain); and others


    Highlights: • We describe a method to acquire a high-angle tilt series of SEM images that is symmetrical respect to the zero tilt of the sample stage. The method can be applied in any SEM microscope. • Using the method, high-resolution 3D SEM photogrammetry can be applied on planar surfaces. • 3D models of three surfaces patterned with grooves are reconstructed with high resolution using multi-view freeware photogrammetry software as described in LC Gontard et al. Ultramicroscopy, 2016. • From the 3D models roughness parameters are measured • 3D SEM high-resolution photogrammetry is compared with two conventional methods used for roughness characetrization: stereophotogrammetry and contact profilometry. • It provides three-dimensional information with high-resolution that is out of reach for any other metrological technique. - Abstract: We describe a methodology to obtain three-dimensional models of engineered surfaces using scanning electron microscopy and multi-view photogrammetry (3DSEM). For the reconstruction of the 3D models of the surfaces we used freeware available in the cloud. The method was applied to study the surface roughness of metallic samples patterned with parallel grooves by means of laser. The results are compared with measurements obtained using stylus profilometry (PR) and SEM stereo-photogrammetry (SP). The application of 3DSEM is more time demanding than PR or SP, but it provides a more accurate representation of the surfaces. The results obtained with the three techniques are compared by investigating the influence of sampling step on roughness parameters.

  19. Evaluation of the suicide prevention program in Kaohsiung City, Taiwan, using the CIPP evaluation model. (United States)

    Ho, Wen-Wei; Chen, Wei-Jen; Ho, Chi-Kung; Lee, Ming-Been; Chen, Cheng-Chung; Chou, Frank Huang-Chih


    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the Kaohsiung Suicide Prevention Center (KSPC) of Kaohsiung City, Taiwan, during the period from June 2005 to June 2008. We used a modified CIPP evaluation model to evaluate the suicide prevention program in Kaohsiung. Four evaluation models were applied to evaluate the KSPC: a context evaluation of the background and origin of the center, an input evaluation of the resources of the center, a process evaluation of the activities of the suicide prevention project, and a product evaluation of the ascertainment of project objectives. The context evaluation revealed that the task of the KSPC is to lower mortality. The input evaluation assessed the efficiency of manpower and the grants supported by Taiwan's Department of Health and Kaohsiung City government's Bureau of Health. In the process evaluation, we inspected the suicide prevention strategies of the KSPC, which are a modified version of the National Suicide Prevention Strategy of Australia. In the product evaluation, four major objectives were evaluated: (1) the suicide rate in Kaohsiung, (2) the reported suicidal cases, (3) crisis line calls, and (4) telephone counseling. From 2005 to 2008, the number of telephone counseling sessions (1,432, 2,010, 7,051, 12,517) and crisis line calls (0, 4,320, 10,339, 14,502) increased. Because of the increase in reported suicidal cases (1,328, 2,625, 2,795, and 2,989, respectively), cases which were underreported in the past, we have increasingly been able to contact the people who need help. During this same time period, the half-year suicide re-attempt rate decreased significantly for those who received services, and the committed suicide rate (21.4, 20.1, 18.2, and 17.8 per 100,000 populations, respectively) also decreased. The suicide prevention program in Kaohsiung is worth implementing on a continual basis if financial constraints are addressed.

  20. Evaluation-Function-based Model-free Adaptive Fuzzy Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Naba


    Full Text Available Designs of adaptive fuzzy controllers (AFC are commonly based on the Lyapunov approach, which requires a known model of the controlled plant. They need to consider a Lyapunov function candidate as an evaluation function to be minimized. In this study these drawbacks were handled by designing a model-free adaptive fuzzy controller (MFAFC using an approximate evaluation function defined in terms of the current state, the next state, and the control action. MFAFC considers the approximate evaluation function as an evaluative control performance measure similar to the state-action value function in reinforcement learning. The simulation results of applying MFAFC to the inverted pendulum benchmark verified the proposed scheme’s efficacy.

  1. The model of evaluation of innovative potential of enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ганна Ігорівна Заднєпровська


    Full Text Available The basic components of the enterprise’s innovative potential evaluation process are investigated. It is offered the conceptual model of evaluation of the innovative potential that includes: subjects, objects, purpose, provision of information, principles, methods, criteria, indicators. It is noted that the innovative capacity characterizes the transition from the current to the strategic level of innovation potential and, thus, characterizes the composition of objects from position of user

  2. Capital Cost Optimization for Prefabrication: A Factor Analysis Evaluation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Xue


    Full Text Available High capital cost is a significant hindrance to the promotion of prefabrication. In order to optimize cost management and reduce capital cost, this study aims to explore the latent factors and factor analysis evaluation model. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to explore potential variables and then questionnaire survey was employed to collect professionals’ views on their effects. After data collection, exploratory factor analysis was adopted to explore the latent factors. Seven latent factors were identified, including “Management Index”, “Construction Dissipation Index”, “Productivity Index”, “Design Efficiency Index”, “Transport Dissipation Index”, “Material increment Index” and “Depreciation amortization Index”. With these latent factors, a factor analysis evaluation model (FAEM, divided into factor analysis model (FAM and comprehensive evaluation model (CEM, was established. The FAM was used to explore the effect of observed variables on the high capital cost of prefabrication, while the CEM was used to evaluate comprehensive cost management level on prefabrication projects. Case studies were conducted to verify the models. The results revealed that collaborative management had a positive effect on capital cost of prefabrication. Material increment costs and labor costs had significant impacts on production cost. This study demonstrated the potential of on-site management and standardization design to reduce capital cost. Hence, collaborative management is necessary for cost management of prefabrication. Innovation and detailed design were needed to improve cost performance. The new form of precast component factories can be explored to reduce transportation cost. Meanwhile, targeted strategies can be adopted for different prefabrication projects. The findings optimized the capital cost and improved the cost performance through providing an evaluation and optimization model, which helps managers to

  3. Progressive evaluation of incorporating information into a model building process (United States)

    Gharari, Shervan; Hrachowitz, Markus; Fenicia, Fabrizio; Gao, Hongkai; Gupta, Hoshin; Savenije, Huub


    Catchments are open systems meaning that it is impossible to find out the exact boundary conditions of the real system spatially and temporarily. Therefore models are essential tools in capturing system behaviour spatially and extrapolating it temporarily for prediction. In recent years conceptual models have been in the center of attention rather than so called physically based models which are often over-parameterized and encounter difficulties for up-scaling of small scale processes. Conceptual models however are heavily dependent on calibration as one or more of their parameter values can typically not be physically measured at the catchment scale. The general understanding is based on the fact that increasing the complexity of conceptual model for better representation of hydrological process heterogeneity typically makes parameter identification more difficult however the evaluation of the amount of information given by each of the model elements, control volumes (so called buckets), interconnecting fluxes, parameterization (constitutive functions) and finally parameter values are rather unknown. Each of the mentioned components of a model contains information on the transformation of forcing (precipitation) into runoff, however the effect of each of them solely and together is not well understood. In this study we follow hierarchal steps for model building, firstly the model structure is built by its building blocks (control volumes) as well as interconnecting fluxes. The effect of adding every control volumes and the architecture of the model (formation of control volumes and fluxes) can be evaluated in this level. In the second layer the parameterization of model is evaluated. As an example the effect of a specific type of stage-discharge relation for a control volume can be explored. Finally in the last step of the model building the information gained by parameter values are quantified. In each development level the value of information which are added

  4. Popularity Evaluation Model for Microbloggers Online Social Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Zhang


    Full Text Available Recently, microblogging is widely studied by the researchers in the domain of the online social network (OSN. How to evaluate the popularities of microblogging users is an important research field, which can be applied to commercial advertising, user behavior analysis and information dissemination, and so forth. Previous studies on the evaluation methods cannot effectively solve and accurately evaluate the popularities of the microbloggers. In this paper, we proposed an electromagnetic field theory based model to analyze the popularities of microbloggers. The concept of the source in microblogging field is first put forward, which is based on the concept of source in the electromagnetic field; then, one’s microblogging flux is calculated according to his/her behaviors (send or receive feedbacks on the microblogging platform; finally, we used three methods to calculate one’s microblogging flux density, which can represent one’s popularity on the microblogging platform. In the experimental work, we evaluated our model using real microblogging data and selected the best one from the three popularity measure methods. We also compared our model with the classic PageRank algorithm; and the results show that our model is more effective and accurate to evaluate the popularities of the microbloggers.

  5. A Novel Model for Security Evaluation for Compliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Sara Ligaard; Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Prasad, Neeli R.


    With the increasing focus on security in information systems, it is becoming necessary to be able to describe and compare security attributes for different technologies. Existing are well-described and comprehensive, but expensive and resource demanding to apply. The Security Evaluation...... for Compliance (SEC) model offers a lightweight alternative for use by decision makers to get a quick overview of the security attributes of different technologies for easy comparison and requirement compliance evaluation. The scientific contribution is this new approach to security modelling as well...

  6. Assessing the Evaluative Content of Personality Questionnaires Using Bifactor Models. (United States)

    Biderman, Michael D; McAbee, Samuel T; Job Chen, Zhuo; Hendy, Nhung T


    Exploratory bifactor models with keying factors were applied to item response data for the NEO-FFI-3 and HEXACO-PI-R questionnaires. Loadings on a general factor and positive and negative keying factors correlated with independent estimates of item valence, suggesting that item valence influences responses to these questionnaires. Correlations between personality domain scores and measures of self-esteem, depression, and positive and negative affect were all reduced significantly when the influence of evaluative content represented by the general and keying factors was removed. Findings support the need to model personality inventories in ways that capture reactions to evaluative item content.

  7. Model of service-oriented catering supply chain performance evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanqiong Gou


    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this paper is constructing a performance evaluation model for service-oriented catering supply chain. Design/methodology/approach: With the research on the current situation of catering industry, this paper summarized the characters of the catering supply chain, and then presents the service-oriented catering supply chain model based on the platform of logistics and information. At last, the fuzzy AHP method is used to evaluate the performance of service-oriented catering supply chain. Findings: With the analysis of the characteristics of catering supply chain, we construct the performance evaluation model in order to guarantee the food safety, logistics efficiency, price stability and so on. Practical implications: In order to evolve an efficient and effective service supply chain, it can not only used to own enterprise improvement, but also can be used for selecting different customers, to choose a different model of development. Originality/value: This paper has a new definition of service-oriented catering supply chain. And it offers a model to evaluate the performance of this catering supply chain.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bosch


    Full Text Available Publicly available benchmark data and metric evaluation approaches have been instrumental in enabling research to advance state of the art methods for remote sensing applications in urban 3D modeling. Most publicly available benchmark datasets have consisted of high resolution airborne imagery and lidar suitable for 3D modeling on a relatively modest scale. To enable research in larger scale 3D mapping, we have recently released a public benchmark dataset with multi-view commercial satellite imagery and metrics to compare 3D point clouds with lidar ground truth. We now define a more complete metric evaluation pipeline developed as publicly available open source software to assess semantically labeled 3D models of complex urban scenes derived from multi-view commercial satellite imagery. Evaluation metrics in our pipeline include horizontal and vertical accuracy and completeness, volumetric completeness and correctness, perceptual quality, and model simplicity. Sources of ground truth include airborne lidar and overhead imagery, and we demonstrate a semi-automated process for producing accurate ground truth shape files to characterize building footprints. We validate our current metric evaluation pipeline using 3D models produced using open source multi-view stereo methods. Data and software is made publicly available to enable further research and planned benchmarking activities.

  9. Metric Evaluation Pipeline for 3d Modeling of Urban Scenes (United States)

    Bosch, M.; Leichtman, A.; Chilcott, D.; Goldberg, H.; Brown, M.


    Publicly available benchmark data and metric evaluation approaches have been instrumental in enabling research to advance state of the art methods for remote sensing applications in urban 3D modeling. Most publicly available benchmark datasets have consisted of high resolution airborne imagery and lidar suitable for 3D modeling on a relatively modest scale. To enable research in larger scale 3D mapping, we have recently released a public benchmark dataset with multi-view commercial satellite imagery and metrics to compare 3D point clouds with lidar ground truth. We now define a more complete metric evaluation pipeline developed as publicly available open source software to assess semantically labeled 3D models of complex urban scenes derived from multi-view commercial satellite imagery. Evaluation metrics in our pipeline include horizontal and vertical accuracy and completeness, volumetric completeness and correctness, perceptual quality, and model simplicity. Sources of ground truth include airborne lidar and overhead imagery, and we demonstrate a semi-automated process for producing accurate ground truth shape files to characterize building footprints. We validate our current metric evaluation pipeline using 3D models produced using open source multi-view stereo methods. Data and software is made publicly available to enable further research and planned benchmarking activities.

  10. Software Platform Evaluation - Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation (VISION) Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. J. Jacobson; D. E. Shropshire; W. B. West


    The purpose of this Software Platform Evaluation (SPE) is to document the top-level evaluation of potential software platforms on which to construct a simulation model that satisfies the requirements for a Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation Model (VISION) of the Advanced Fuel Cycle (AFC). See the Software Requirements Specification for Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation (VISION) Model (INEEL/EXT-05-02643, Rev. 0) for a discussion of the objective and scope of the VISION model. VISION is intended to serve as a broad systems analysis and study tool applicable to work conducted as part of the AFCI (including costs estimates) and Generation IV reactor development studies. This document will serve as a guide for selecting the most appropriate software platform for VISION. This is a “living document” that will be modified over the course of the execution of this work.

  11. Multivariable integrated evaluation of model performance with the vector field evaluation diagram (United States)

    Xu, Zhongfeng; Han, Ying; Fu, Congbin


    This paper develops a multivariable integrated evaluation (MVIE) method to measure the overall performance of climate model in simulating multiple fields. The general idea of MVIE is to group various scalar fields into a vector field and compare the constructed vector field against the observed one using the vector field evaluation (VFE) diagram. The VFE diagram was devised based on the cosine relationship between three statistical quantities: root mean square length (RMSL) of a vector field, vector field similarity coefficient, and root mean square vector deviation (RMSVD). The three statistical quantities can reasonably represent the corresponding statistics between two multidimensional vector fields. Therefore, one can summarize the three statistics of multiple scalar fields using the VFE diagram and facilitate the intercomparison of model performance. The VFE diagram can illustrate how much the overall root mean square deviation of various fields is attributable to the differences in the root mean square value and how much is due to the poor pattern similarity. The MVIE method can be flexibly applied to full fields (including both the mean and anomaly) or anomaly fields depending on the application. We also propose a multivariable integrated evaluation index (MIEI) which takes the amplitude and pattern similarity of multiple scalar fields into account. The MIEI is expected to provide a more accurate evaluation of model performance in simulating multiple fields. The MIEI, VFE diagram, and commonly used statistical metrics for individual variables constitute a hierarchical evaluation methodology, which can provide a more comprehensive evaluation of model performance.

  12. A Multi-factor Customer Classification Evaluation Model


    Qiaohong Zu; Ting Wu; Hui Wang


    Pervasive application of data mining technology is very important in analytical CRM software development when the distributed data warehouse is constructed. We propose a multi-factor customer classification evaluation model CLV/CL/CC which comprehensively considers customer lifetime value, customer loyalty and customer credit. It classifies clients with synthetic data mining algorithms. In this paper, we present an extended Bayes model which substitutes the primary attribute group with a new ...

  13. Evaluation process radiological in ternopil region method of box models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І.В. Матвєєва


    Full Text Available  Results of radionuclides Sr-90 flows analyses in the ecosystem of Kotsubinchiky village of Ternopolskaya oblast were analyzed. The block-scheme of ecosystem and its mathematical model using the box models method were made. It allowed us to evaluate the ways of dose’s loadings formation of internal irradiation for miscellaneous population groups – working people, retirees, children, and also to prognose the dynamic of these loadings during the years after the Chernobyl accident.

  14. Evaluation of Workflow Management Systems - A Meta Model Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Rosemann


    Full Text Available The automated enactment of processes through the use of workflow management systems enables the outsourcing of the control flow from application systems. By now a large number of systems, that follow different workflow paradigms, are available. This leads to the problem of selecting the appropriate workflow management system for a given situation. In this paper we outline the benefits of a meta model approach for the evaluation and comparison of different workflow management systems. After a general introduction on the topic of meta modeling the meta models of the workflow management systems WorkParty (Siemens Nixdorf and FlowMark (IBM are compared as an example. These product specific meta models can be generalized to meta reference models, which helps to specify a workflow methodology. Exemplary, an organisational reference meta model is presented, which helps users in specifying their requirements for a workflow management system.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cilek


    Full Text Available The development and the application of rainfall-runoff models have been a corner-stone of hydrological research for many decades. The amount of rainfall and its intensity and variability control the generation of runoff and the erosional processes operating at different scales. These interactions can be greatly variable in Mediterranean catchments with marked hydrological fluctuations. The aim of the study was to evaluate the performance of rainfall-runoff model, for rainfall-runoff simulation in a Mediterranean subcatchment. The Pan-European Soil Erosion Risk Assessment (PESERA, a simplified hydrological process-based approach, was used in this study to combine hydrological surface runoff factors. In total 128 input layers derived from data set includes; climate, topography, land use, crop type, planting date, and soil characteristics, are required to run the model. Initial ground cover was estimated from the Landsat ETM data provided by ESA. This hydrological model was evaluated in terms of their performance in Goksu River Watershed, Turkey. It is located at the Central Eastern Mediterranean Basin of Turkey. The area is approximately 2000 km2. The landscape is dominated by bare ground, agricultural and forests. The average annual rainfall is 636.4mm. This study has a significant importance to evaluate different model performances in a complex Mediterranean basin. The results provided comprehensive insight including advantages and limitations of modelling approaches in the Mediterranean environment.

  16. Comparative analysis of used car price evaluation models (United States)

    Chen, Chuancan; Hao, Lulu; Xu, Cong


    An accurate used car price evaluation is a catalyst for the healthy development of used car market. Data mining has been applied to predict used car price in several articles. However, little is studied on the comparison of using different algorithms in used car price estimation. This paper collects more than 100,000 used car dealing records throughout China to do empirical analysis on a thorough comparison of two algorithms: linear regression and random forest. These two algorithms are used to predict used car price in three different models: model for a certain car make, model for a certain car series and universal model. Results show that random forest has a stable but not ideal effect in price evaluation model for a certain car make, but it shows great advantage in the universal model compared with linear regression. This indicates that random forest is an optimal algorithm when handling complex models with a large number of variables and samples, yet it shows no obvious advantage when coping with simple models with less variables.

  17. Performance evaluation of volumetric water content and relative permittivity models. (United States)

    Mukhlisin, Muhammad; Saputra, Almushfi


    In recent years many models have been proposed for measuring soil water content (θ) based on the permittivity (ε) value. Permittivity is one of the properties used to determine θ in measurements using the electromagnetic method. This method is widely used due to quite substantial differences in values of ε for air, soil, and water, as it allows the θ value to be measured accurately. The performance of six proposed models with one parameter (i.e., permittivity) and five proposed models with two or more parameters (i.e., permittivity, porosity, and dry bulk density of soil) is discussed and evaluated. Secondary data obtained from previous studies are used for comparison to calibrate and evaluate the models. The results show that the models with one parameter proposed by Roth et al. (1992) and Topp et al. (1980) have the greatest R² data errors, while for the model with two parameters, the model proposed by Malicki et al. (1996) agrees very well with the data compared with other models.

  18. Evaluation of articulation simulation system using artificial maxillectomy models. (United States)

    Elbashti, M E; Hattori, M; Sumita, Y I; Taniguchi, H


    Acoustic evaluation is valuable for guiding the treatment of maxillofacial defects and determining the effectiveness of rehabilitation with an obturator prosthesis. Model simulations are important in terms of pre-surgical planning and pre- and post-operative speech function. This study aimed to evaluate the acoustic characteristics of voice generated by an articulation simulation system using a vocal tract model with or without artificial maxillectomy defects. More specifically, we aimed to establish a speech simulation system for maxillectomy defect models that both surgeons and maxillofacial prosthodontists can use in guiding treatment planning. Artificially simulated maxillectomy defects were prepared according to Aramany's classification (Classes I-VI) in a three-dimensional vocal tract plaster model of a subject uttering the vowel /a/. Formant and nasalance acoustic data were analysed using Computerized Speech Lab and the Nasometer, respectively. Formants and nasalance of simulated /a/ sounds were successfully detected and analysed. Values of Formants 1 and 2 for the non-defect model were 675.43 and 976.64 Hz, respectively. Median values of Formants 1 and 2 for the defect models were 634.36 and 1026.84 Hz, respectively. Nasalance was 11% in the non-defect model, whereas median nasalance was 28% in the defect models. The results suggest that an articulation simulation system can be used to help surgeons and maxillofacial prosthodontists to plan post-surgical defects that will be facilitate maxillofacial rehabilitation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Practical evaluation of comparative modelling and threading methods. (United States)

    Schoonman, M J; Knegtel, R M; Grootenhuis, P D


    Six protein pairs, all with known 3D-structures, were used to evaluate different protein structure prediction tools. Firstly, alignments between a target sequence and a template sequence or structure were obtained by sequence alignment with QUANTA or by threading with THREADER, 123D and PHD Topits. Secondly, protein structure models were generated using MODELLER. The two protein structure assessment tools used were the root mean square deviation (RMSD) compared with the experimental target structure and the total 3D profile score. Also the accuracy of the active sites of models built in the absence and presence of ligands was investigated. Our study confirms that threading methods are able to yield more accurate models than comparative modelling in cases of low sequence identity (model and the models obtained by threading methods. For high sequence identities (> 30%) comparative modelling using MODELLER resulted in accurate models. Furthermore, the total 3D profile score was not always able to distinguish correct from incorrect folds when different alignment methods were used. Finally, we found it to be important to include possible ligands in the model-building process in order to prevent unrealistic filling of active site areas.

  20. Integralidade da atenção e integração de serviços de saúde: desafios para avaliar a implantação de um "sistema sem muros" Comprehensive health care and integrated health services: challenges for evaluating the implementation of a "system without walls"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulmira M. de Araújo Hartz


    Full Text Available Neste texto, partimos do pressuposto de que a integralidade da atenção é um eixo prioritário da investigação e avaliação dos serviços e sistemas de saúde, estruturados como redes assistenciais interorganizacionais que articulam dimensões clínicas, funcionais, normativas e sistêmicas em sua operacionalização, reconhecendo que nenhuma organização reúne a totalidade dos recursos e competências necessárias para a solução dos problemas de saúde de uma população, em seus diversos ciclos de vida. Em virtude da complexidade desse "sistema sem muros", que elimina as barreiras de acesso entre os diversos níveis de atenção, em resposta às necessidades de saúde nos âmbitos local e regional, julgamos oportuno compartilhar algumas "lições preliminares" aprendidas em experiências pessoais e na literatura sobre a integração de serviços, que nos parecem de interesse comum aos pesquisadores e gestores comprometidos com a sua implantação.The premise of this paper is that comprehensive health care is a major component in the investigation and evaluation of health services and systems, structured as inter-organizational health care networks articulating clinical, functional, normative, and systemic dimensions in their operationalization and based on the understanding that no organization combines all the necessary resources and capabilities to solve the health problems of a population with its various life cycles. Given the complex nature of this "system without walls", eliminating barriers to access in the various health care levels in response to local and regional health, we take this opportunity to share a few "preliminary lessons" from our experience and from the literature on integrated health services which may interest researchers and managers concerned with the implementation of such services.

  1. New optical metrology for masks: range and accuracy rivals SEM (United States)

    Cottle, Rand; Fiekowsky, Peter; Hung, C. C.; Lin, Sheng-che


    Metrology is essential to success in all manufacturing processes. In microlithography metrology techniques have begun to shift from optical to SEM. In this paper we compare the capabilities of the new Flux-Area optical technique and of SEM techniques. SEM measurement has been increasing in mask shops because of the higher resolution it provides, despite disadvantages including damage to masks, charging effects, and inability to operate with pellicles. Optical measurements of photomasks are preferred because they are performed with light, in transmission. The success of virtual stepper software, which uses optical images in simulating stepper output, has demonstrated that optical images contain sufficient information to predict the results of even subwavelength lithography. Flux-Area measurement allows optical instruments to accurately measure features as small as (lambda) /6, or 0.08 (mu) using visible light (Fiekowsky and Selassie, 1999). It also allows the measurement of Optical Dimensions. This is the width of a line defined by the flux of light it transmits to the objective lens. In this study Flux-Area measurements of linewidths and contact are compared to SEM measurements and DUV AIMS microscope images. Results show that Flux-Area measurements are linear down to the smallest lines and holes tested, 0.23 (mu) and 0.4(mu) respectively. Thus the Flux-Area technique provides a practical alternative to SEM for metrology on current and future generation photomasks.

  2. Evaluation of black carbon estimations in global aerosol models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhao


    Full Text Available We evaluate black carbon (BC model predictions from the AeroCom model intercomparison project by considering the diversity among year 2000 model simulations and comparing model predictions with available measurements. These model-measurement intercomparisons include BC surface and aircraft concentrations, aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD retrievals from AERONET and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI and BC column estimations based on AERONET. In regions other than Asia, most models are biased high compared to surface concentration measurements. However compared with (column AAOD or BC burden retreivals, the models are generally biased low. The average ratio of model to retrieved AAOD is less than 0.7 in South American and 0.6 in African biomass burning regions; both of these regions lack surface concentration measurements. In Asia the average model to observed ratio is 0.7 for AAOD and 0.5 for BC surface concentrations. Compared with aircraft measurements over the Americas at latitudes between 0 and 50N, the average model is a factor of 8 larger than observed, and most models exceed the measured BC standard deviation in the mid to upper troposphere. At higher latitudes the average model to aircraft BC ratio is 0.4 and models underestimate the observed BC loading in the lower and middle troposphere associated with springtime Arctic haze. Low model bias for AAOD but overestimation of surface and upper atmospheric BC concentrations at lower latitudes suggests that most models are underestimating BC absorption and should improve estimates for refractive index, particle size, and optical effects of BC coating. Retrieval uncertainties and/or differences with model diagnostic treatment may also contribute to the model-measurement disparity. Largest AeroCom model diversity occurred in northern Eurasia and the remote Arctic, regions influenced by anthropogenic sources. Changing emissions, aging, removal, or optical properties within a single model

  3. Information technology model for evaluating emergency medicine teaching (United States)

    Vorbach, James; Ryan, James


    This paper describes work in progress to develop an Information Technology (IT) model and supporting information system for the evaluation of clinical teaching in the Emergency Medicine (EM) Department of North Shore University Hospital. In the academic hospital setting student physicians, i.e. residents, and faculty function daily in their dual roles as teachers and students respectively, and as health care providers. Databases exist that are used to evaluate both groups in either academic or clinical performance, but rarely has this information been integrated to analyze the relationship between academic performance and the ability to care for patients. The goal of the IT model is to improve the quality of teaching of EM physicians by enabling the development of integrable metrics for faculty and resident evaluation. The IT model will include (1) methods for tracking residents in order to develop experimental databases; (2) methods to integrate lecture evaluation, clinical performance, resident evaluation, and quality assurance databases; and (3) a patient flow system to monitor patient rooms and the waiting area in the Emergency Medicine Department, to record and display status of medical orders, and to collect data for analyses.

  4. EcoMark: Evaluating Models of Vehicular Environmental Impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Chenjuan; Ma, Mike; Yang, Bin


    the vehicle travels in. We develop an evaluation framework, called EcoMark, for such environmental impact models. In addition, we survey all eleven state-of-the-art impact models known to us. To gain insight into the capabilities of the models and to understand the effectiveness of the EcoMark, we apply......The reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from transporta- tion is essential for achieving politically agreed upon emissions re- duction targets that aim to combat global climate change. So-called eco-routing and eco-driving are able to substantially reduce GHG emissions caused by vehicular...

  5. Further Evaluation of a Brief, Intensive Teacher-Training Model (United States)

    Lerman, Dorothea C.; Tetreault, Allison; Hovanetz, Alyson; Strobel, Margaret; Garro, Joanie


    The purpose of this study was to further evaluate the outcomes of a model program that was designed to train current teachers of children with autism. Nine certified special education teachers participating in an intensive 5-day summer training program were taught a relatively large number of specific skills in two areas (preference assessment and…

  6. Evaluation of a stratiform cloud parameterization for general circulation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghan, S.J.; Leung, L.R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); McCaa, J. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)


    To evaluate the relative importance of horizontal advection of cloud versus cloud formation within the grid cell of a single column model (SCM), we have performed a series of simulations with our SCM driven by a fixed vertical velocity and various rates of horizontal advection.

  7. Illustrating bayesian evaluation of informative hypotheses for regression models.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluytmans, A.; Schoot, R. van de; Mulder, J.; Hoijtink, H.


    In the present article we illustrate a Bayesian method of evaluating informative hypotheses for regression models. Our main aim is to make this method accessible to psychological researchers without a mathematical or Bayesian background. The use of informative hypotheses is illustrated using two

  8. Frontier models for evaluating environmental efficiency: an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Wall, A.


    Our aim in this paper is to provide a succinct overview of frontier-based models used to evaluate environmental efficiency, with a special emphasis on agricultural activity. We begin by providing a brief, up-to-date review of the main approaches used to measure environmental efficiency, with

  9. The Global Classroom Video Conferencing Model and First Evaluations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weitze, Charlotte Lærke; Ørngreen, Rikke; Levinsen, Karin


    their exams. Evaluations show that the students are happy with the flexibility this model provides in their everyday life. However, our findings also show several obstacles. Firstly technical issues are at play, but also the learning design of the lessons, as well as general organizational and cultural issues...

  10. Using an ecosystem model to evaluate fisheries management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using spearguns or gill nets after bleaching helped coral recovery and promoted greater fisheries yields whereas handlines promoted sea urchins by reducing their predators and reduced coral recovery. Ecosystem models combined with empirical surveys can assist managers in evaluating the effects offisheries ...

  11. Evaluating the Predictive Value of Growth Prediction Models (United States)

    Murphy, Daniel L.; Gaertner, Matthew N.


    This study evaluates four growth prediction models--projection, student growth percentile, trajectory, and transition table--commonly used to forecast (and give schools credit for) middle school students' future proficiency. Analyses focused on vertically scaled summative mathematics assessments, and two performance standards conditions (high…

  12. Evaluation of models for assessing Medicago sativa L. hay

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UFS Campus

    Abstract. A study was conducted to evaluate current proposed models for assessing Medicago sativa L. hay quality, using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) analyses and Cornell Nett Carbohydrate and. Protein System (CNCPS) milk production prediction as a criterion of accuracy. Application of the.

  13. An IPA-Embedded Model for Evaluating Creativity Curricula (United States)

    Chang, Chi-Cheng


    How to diagnose the effectiveness of creativity-related curricula is a crucial concern in the pursuit of educational excellence. This paper introduces an importance-performance analysis (IPA)-embedded model for curriculum evaluation, using the example of an IT project implementation course to assess the creativity performance deduced from student…

  14. A model of evaluating the pseudogap temperature for high ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have presented a model of evaluating the pseudogap temperature for high temperature superconductors using paraconductivity approach. The theoretical analysis is based on the crossing point technique of the conductivity expressions. The pseudogap temperature T ∗ is found to depend on dimension and is ...

  15. A model of evaluating the pseudogap temperature for high ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    DOI: 10.1007/s12043-015-1088-3; ePublication: 30 September 2015. Abstract. We have presented a model of evaluating the pseudogap temperature for high- temperature superconductors using paraconductivity approach. The theoretical analysis is based on the crossing point technique of the conductivity expressions.

  16. Evaluation Du Devenir Materno-Foetal Dans Le Nouveau Modele ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation Du Devenir Materno-Foetal Dans Le Nouveau Modele De Soins Prenatals: Une expérience de l\\'Hôpital Gynéco-Obstétrique et Pédiatrique de ... of low risk pregnancies in women followed up by two different frequency regimes at the prenatal clinic of the Yaounde Gynaeco-Obstetric and Pediatric Hospital.

  17. Evaluation of models for assessing groundwater vulnerability to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines, based on a review and synthesis of available material, the presently most applied models for groundwater vulnerability assessment mapping. The appraoches and the pros and cons of each method are evaluated in terms of both the conditions of their implementation and the result obtained. The paper ...

  18. Pilot evaluation in TENCompetence: a theory-driven model


    Schoonenboom, Judith; Sligte, Henk; Moghnieh, Ayman; Specht, Marcus; Glahn, Christian; Stefanov, Krassen


    Schoonenboom, J., Sligte, H., Moghnieh, A., Specht, M., Glahn, C., & Stefanov, K. (2007). Pilot evaluation in TENCompetence: a theory-driven model. In T. Navarette, J. Blat & R. Koper (Eds.). Proceedings of the 3rd TENCompetence Open Workshop 'Current Research on IMS Learning Design and Lifelong Competence Development Infrastructures' (pp. 43-50). June, 21-22, 2007, Barcelona, Spain.

  19. Pilot evaluation in TENCompetence: a theory-driven model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonenboom, Judith; Sligte, Henk; Moghnieh, Ayman; Specht, Marcus; Glahn, Christian; Stefanov, Krassen


    Schoonenboom, J., Sligte, H., Moghnieh, A., Specht, M., Glahn, C., & Stefanov, K. (2007). Pilot evaluation in TENCompetence: a theory-driven model. In T. Navarette, J. Blat & R. Koper (Eds.). Proceedings of the 3rd TENCompetence Open Workshop 'Current Research on IMS Learning Design and Lifelong

  20. Evaluating Voellmy resistance parameters for debris-flow simulation models (United States)

    Schraml, Klaus; McArdell, Brian; Graf, Christoph; Thomschitz, Barbara; Kaitna, Roland


    Gravitationally-driven processes such as debris flows constitute a major risk in alpine regions. In order to avoid damages on infrastructure and settlements, the delineation of hazardous areas is required. For this, numerical simulation tools are often applied for use in engineering hazard assessment. For model calibration, information on past events provides a basis to estimate or constrain the essential input parameters. In this study we used two numerical simulation models for evaluating model friction parameters to best-fit runout lengths and deposition patterns of observed past debris-flow events on two alpine fans in Austria with flow deposit volumes of 10,000 m³ and 25,000 m³, respectively. The RAMMS-DF (RApid Mass MovementS - Debris Flow) runout model is based on a Voellmy-type relation to describe the flow friction, and the software DAN3D (Dynamic Analysis of Landslides) allows selecting different rheologies, including a Voellmy-type friction relation. All calculations were based on the same digital elevation model with a 1 m resolution and the same initial conditions. Our results show that both models are able to satisfactorily replicate observed deposition patterns. The best-fit parameter sets of the Voellmy-Coulomb friction coefficient and turbulent coefficient for both study sites and both simulation models were in the range of 0.07-0.11 and 200-400, respectively. In case the deposition area is forested, the Coulomb friction parameter was considerably increased by a factor of around 3 to account for additional surface roughness. A sensitivity analysis shows a slightly higher sensitivity of model parameters for the DAN3D model than for the RAMMS-DF model. This study contributes to the evaluation of realistic model parameters for the simulation of small alpine debris flows on forested and non-forested fans.

  1. Port performance evaluation tool based on microsimulation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsavalista Burhani Jzolanda


    Full Text Available As port performance is becoming correlative to national competitiveness, the issue of port performance evaluation has significantly raised. Port performances can simply be indicated by port service levels to the ship (e.g., throughput, waiting for berthing etc., as well as the utilization level of equipment and facilities within a certain period. The performances evaluation then can be used as a tool to develop related policies for improving the port’s performance to be more effective and efficient. However, the evaluation is frequently conducted based on deterministic approach, which hardly captures the nature variations of port parameters. Therefore, this paper presents a stochastic microsimulation model for investigating the impacts of port parameter variations to the port performances. The variations are derived from actual data in order to provide more realistic results. The model is further developed using MATLAB and Simulink based on the queuing theory.

  2. Economic evaluations with agent-based modelling: an introduction. (United States)

    Chhatwal, Jagpreet; He, Tianhua


    Agent-based modelling (ABM) is a relatively new technique, which overcomes some of the limitations of other methods commonly used for economic evaluations. These limitations include linearity, homogeneity and stationarity. Agents in ABMs are autonomous entities, who interact with each other and with the environment. ABMs provide an inductive or 'bottom-up' approach, i.e. individual-level behaviours define system-level components. ABMs have a unique property to capture emergence phenomena that otherwise cannot be predicted by the combination of individual-level interactions. In this tutorial, we discuss the basic concepts and important features of ABMs. We present a case study of an application of a simple ABM to evaluate the cost effectiveness of screening of an infectious disease. We also provide our model, which was developed using an open-source software program, NetLogo. We discuss software, resources, challenges and future research opportunities of ABMs for economic evaluations.

  3. An evaluation of selected in silico models for the assessment ... (United States)

    Skin sensitization remains an important endpoint for consumers, manufacturers and regulators. Although the development of alternative approaches to assess skin sensitization potential has been extremely active over many years, the implication of regulations such as REACH and the Cosmetics Directive in EU has provided a much stronger impetus to actualize this research into practical tools for decision making. Thus there has been considerable focus on the development, evaluation, and integration of alternative approaches for skin sensitization hazard and risk assessment. This includes in silico approaches such as (Q)SARs and expert systems. This study aimed to evaluate the predictive performance of a selection of in silico models and then to explore whether combining those models led to an improvement in accuracy. A dataset of 473 substances that had been tested in the local lymph node assay (LLNA) was compiled. This comprised 295 sensitizers and 178 non-sensitizers. Four freely available models were identified - 2 statistical models VEGA and MultiCASE model A33 for skin sensitization (MCASE A33) from the Danish National Food Institute and two mechanistic models Toxtree’s Skin sensitization Reaction domains (Toxtree SS Rxn domains) and the OASIS v1.3 protein binding alerts for skin sensitization from the OECD Toolbox (OASIS). VEGA and MCASE A33 aim to predict sensitization as a binary score whereas the mechanistic models identified reaction domains or structura

  4. Annual International DIC Society Conference and SEM Fall Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Reu, Phillip


    This collection represents a single volume of technical papers presented at the Annual International DIC Society Conference and SEM Fall Conference organized by the Society for Experimental Mechanics and Sandia National Laboratories and held in Philadelphia, PA, November 7-10, 2016. The volume presents early findings from experimental, standards development and various other investigations concerning digital image correlation - an important area within Experimental Mechanics. The area of Digital Image Correlation has been an integral track within the SEM Annual Conference spearheaded by Professor Michael Sutton from the University of South Carolina. In 2016, the SEM and Sandia joined their collaborative strengths to launch a standing fall meeting focusing specifically on developments in the area of Digital Image Correlation. The contributed papers within this volume span numerous technical aspects of DIC including standards development for the industry. .

  5. Development of the size calibration SOP for SEM measurement (United States)

    Kwon, Hyuksang; Noh, Si Yeon; Song, Nam Woong


    The size and size distribution of nanomaterials are important factors for understanding their characteristics. A scanning electron microscopy (SEM) provides an easily accessible method to characterize nanostructures. We have developed a standard operating protocol (SOP) for the calibration of SEM by using CRMs (certified reference materials) of 1 dimensional (1D) gratings with 80 and 180 nm spacing, respectively, which have been certified by using a metrological AFM. To get consistent analysis results using a fast Fourier transform (FFT) method, the numbers of lateral and longitudinal pixels in the SEM images were determined for line profiling. We could also observed that the pitch values of 1D grating CRM could be obtained as the reference ones within the uncertainty under the following imaging conditions; the exposure time of the sample to the electron beam for an image scanning should be shorter than 120 s and the working distance from 5 to 8.9 mm can be used.

  6. Motion Reliability Modeling and Evaluation for Manipulator Path Planning Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Li


    Full Text Available Motion reliability as a criterion can reflect the accuracy of manipulator in completing operations. Since path planning task takes a significant role in operations of manipulator, the motion reliability evaluation of path planning task is discussed in the paper. First, a modeling method for motion reliability is proposed by taking factors related to position accuracy of manipulator into account. In the model, multidimensional integral for PDF is carried out to calculate motion reliability. Considering the complex of multidimensional integral, the approach of equivalent extreme value is introduced, with which multidimensional integral is converted into one dimensional integral for convenient calculation. Then a method based on the maximum entropy principle is proposed for model calculation. With the method, the PDF can be obtained efficiently at the state of maximum entropy. As a result, the evaluation of motion reliability can be achieved by one dimensional integral for PDF. Simulations on a particular path planning task are carried out, with which the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed methods are verified. In addition, the modeling method which takes the factors related to position accuracy into account can represent the contributions of these factors to motion reliability. And the model calculation method can achieve motion reliability evaluation with high precision and efficiency.

  7. Evaluation of Generation Alternation Models in Evolutionary Robotics (United States)

    Oiso, Masashi; Matsumura, Yoshiyuki; Yasuda, Toshiyuki; Ohkura, Kazuhiro

    For efficient implementation of Evolutionary Algorithms (EA) to a desktop grid computing environment, we propose a new generation alternation model called Grid-Oriented-Deletion (GOD) based on comparison with the conventional techniques. In previous research, generation alternation models are generally evaluated by using test functions. However, their exploration performance on the real problems such as Evolutionary Robotics (ER) has not been made very clear yet. Therefore we investigate the relationship between the exploration performance of EA on an ER problem and its generation alternation model. We applied four generation alternation models to the Evolutionary Multi-Robotics (EMR), which is the package-pushing problem to investigate their exploration performance. The results show that GOD is more effective than the other conventional models.

  8. Mesoscale to microscale wind farm flow modeling and evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanz Rodrigo, Javier; Chávez Arroyo, Roberto Aurelio; Moriarty, Patrick


    structure with unique physics. This poses significant challenges to traditional wind engineering models that rely on surface-layer theories and engineering wind farm models to simulate the flow in and around wind farms. However, adopting an ABL approach offers the opportunity to better integrate wind farm......The increasing size of wind turbines, with rotors already spanning more than 150m diameter and hub heights above 100m, requires proper modeling of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) from the surface to the free atmosphere. Furthermore, large wind farm arrays create their own boundary layer...... of meteorological and wind engineering flow models and the definition of a formal model evaluation methodology, is a strong area of research for the next generation of wind conditions assessment and wind farm and wind turbine design tools. Some fundamental challenges are identified in order to guide future research...

  9. Evaluation model and experimental validation of tritium in agricultural plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hee Suk; Keum, Dong Kwon; Lee, Han Soo; Jun, In; Choi, Yong Ho; Lee, Chang Woo [KAERI, Daejon (Korea, Republic of)


    This paper describes a compartment dynamic model for evaluating the contamination level of tritium in agricultural plants exposed by accidentally released tritium. The present model uses a time dependent growth equation of plant so that it can predict the effect of growth stage of plant during the exposure time. The model including atmosphere, soil and plant compartments is described by a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations, and is able to predict time-dependent concentrations of tritium in the compartments. To validate the model, a series of exposure experiments of HTO vapor on Chinese cabbage and radish was carried out at the different growth stage of each plant. At the end of exposure, the tissue free water(TFWT) and the organically bound tritium (OBT) were measured. The measured concentrations were agreed well with model predictions.

  10. Distributed multi-criteria model evaluation and spatial association analysis (United States)

    Scherer, Laura; Pfister, Stephan


    Model performance, if evaluated, is often communicated by a single indicator and at an aggregated level; however, it does not embrace the trade-offs between different indicators and the inherent spatial heterogeneity of model efficiency. In this study, we simulated the water balance of the Mississippi watershed using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The model was calibrated against monthly river discharge at 131 measurement stations. Its time series were bisected to allow for subsequent validation at the same gauges. Furthermore, the model was validated against evapotranspiration which was available as a continuous raster based on remote sensing. The model performance was evaluated for each of the 451 sub-watersheds using four different criteria: 1) Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), 2) percent bias (PBIAS), 3) root mean square error (RMSE) normalized to standard deviation (RSR), as well as 4) a combined indicator of the squared correlation coefficient and the linear regression slope (bR2). Conditions that might lead to a poor model performance include aridity, a very flat and steep relief, snowfall and dams, as indicated by previous research. In an attempt to explain spatial differences in model efficiency, the goodness of the model was spatially compared to these four phenomena by means of a bivariate spatial association measure which combines Pearson's correlation coefficient and Moran's index for spatial autocorrelation. In order to assess the model performance of the Mississippi watershed as a whole, three different averages of the sub-watershed results were computed by 1) applying equal weights, 2) weighting by the mean observed river discharge, 3) weighting by the upstream catchment area and the square root of the time series length. Ratings of model performance differed significantly in space and according to efficiency criterion. The model performed much better in the humid Eastern region than in the arid Western region which was confirmed by the

  11. Evaluating climate models: Should we use weather or climate observations?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oglesby, Robert J [ORNL; Erickson III, David J [ORNL


    Calling the numerical models that we use for simulations of climate change 'climate models' is a bit of a misnomer. These 'general circulation models' (GCMs, AKA global climate models) and their cousins the 'regional climate models' (RCMs) are actually physically-based weather simulators. That is, these models simulate, either globally or locally, daily weather patterns in response to some change in forcing or boundary condition. These simulated weather patterns are then aggregated into climate statistics, very much as we aggregate observations into 'real climate statistics'. Traditionally, the output of GCMs has been evaluated using climate statistics, as opposed to their ability to simulate realistic daily weather observations. At the coarse global scale this may be a reasonable approach, however, as RCM's downscale to increasingly higher resolutions, the conjunction between weather and climate becomes more problematic. We present results from a series of present-day climate simulations using the WRF ARW for domains that cover North America, much of Latin America, and South Asia. The basic domains are at a 12 km resolution, but several inner domains at 4 km have also been simulated. These include regions of complex topography in Mexico, Colombia, Peru, and Sri Lanka, as well as a region of low topography and fairly homogeneous land surface type (the U.S. Great Plains). Model evaluations are performed using standard climate analyses (e.g., reanalyses; NCDC data) but also using time series of daily station observations. Preliminary results suggest little difference in the assessment of long-term mean quantities, but the variability on seasonal and interannual timescales is better described. Furthermore, the value-added by using daily weather observations as an evaluation tool increases with the model resolution.

  12. Lifetime-Aware Cloud Data Centers: Models and Performance Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Chiaraviglio


    Full Text Available We present a model to evaluate the server lifetime in cloud data centers (DCs. In particular, when the server power level is decreased, the failure rate tends to be reduced as a consequence of the limited number of components powered on. However, the variation between the different power states triggers a failure rate increase. We therefore consider these two effects in a server lifetime model, subject to an energy-aware management policy. We then evaluate our model in a realistic case study. Our results show that the impact on the server lifetime is far from negligible. As a consequence, we argue that a lifetime-aware approach should be pursued to decide how and when to apply a power state change to a server.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Stević


    Full Text Available In today’s modern supply chains, the adequate suppliers’ choice has strategic meaning for entire companies’ business. The aim of this paper is to evaluate different suppliers using the integrated model that recognizes a combination of fuzzy AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process and the TOPSIS method. Based on six criteria, the expert team was formed to compare them, so determination of their significance is being done with fuzzy AHP method. Expert team also compares suppliers according to each criteria and on the base of triangular fuzzy numbers. Based on their inputs, TOPSIS method is used to estimate potential solutions. Suggested model accomplishes certain advantages in comparison with previously used traditional models which were used to make decisions about evaluation and choice of supplier.

  14. TwiSE at SemEval-2016 Task 4: Twitter Sentiment Classification


    Balikas, Georgios; Amini, Massih-Reza


    This paper describes the participation of the team "TwiSE" in the SemEval 2016 challenge. Specifically, we participated in Task 4, namely "Sentiment Analysis in Twitter" for which we implemented sentiment classification systems for subtasks A, B, C and D. Our approach consists of two steps. In the first step, we generate and validate diverse feature sets for twitter sentiment evaluation, inspired by the work of participants of previous editions of such challenges. In the second step, we focus...

  15. A Data-Driven Approach to SEM Development at a Two-Year College (United States)

    Pirius, Landon K.


    This article explores implementation of strategic enrollment management (SEM) at a two-year college and why SEM is critical to the long-term viability of an institution. This article also outlines the five initial steps needed to implement SEM, including identifying SEM leadership, building a SEM committee, developing a common understanding of…

  16. Creating High-Resolution Multiscale Maps of Human Tissue Using Multi-beam SEM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André F Pereira


    Full Text Available Multi-beam scanning electron microscopy (mSEM enables high-throughput, nano-resolution imaging of macroscopic tissue samples, providing an unprecedented means for structure-function characterization of biological tissues and their cellular inhabitants, seamlessly across multiple length scales. Here we describe computational methods to reconstruct and navigate a multitude of high-resolution mSEM images of the human hip. We calculated cross-correlation shift vectors between overlapping images and used a mass-spring-damper model for optimal global registration. We utilized the Google Maps API to create an interactive map and provide open access to our reconstructed mSEM datasets to both the public and scientific communities via our website The nano- to macro-scale map reveals the tissue's biological and material constituents. Living inhabitants of the hip bone (e.g. osteocytes are visible in their local extracellular matrix milieu (comprising collagen and mineral and embedded in bone's structural tissue architecture, i.e. the osteonal structures in which layers of mineralized tissue are organized in lamellae around a central blood vessel. Multi-beam SEM and our presented methodology enable an unprecedented, comprehensive understanding of health and disease from the molecular to organ length scale.

  17. About the mechanisms of charging in EPMA, SEM, and ESEM with their time evolution. (United States)

    Cazaux, Jacques


    The physical mechanisms involved in electron irradiation of insulating specimens are investigated by combining some simple considerations of solid-state physics (trapping mechanisms of electrons and secondary electron emission) with basic equations of electrostatics. To facilitate the understanding of the involved mechanisms only widely irradiated samples having a uniform distribution of trapping sites are considered. This starting hypothesis allows development of simple models for the trapped charge distributions in ground-coated specimens as investigated in electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) as well as for the bare specimens investigated in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and environmental SEM (ESEM). Governed by self-regulation processes, the evolution of the electric parameters during the irradiation are also considered for the first time and practical consequences in EPMA, SEM, and ESEM are deduced. In particular, the widespread idea that the noncharging condition of SEM is obtained at a critical energy E2 (where delta + eta = 1 with delta and eta yields obtained in noncharging experiments) is critically discussed.

  18. Transmissão de energia sem fios


    Bonifácio, Nuno Miguel Coluna


    Há perspectivas de que a transmissão de energia sem fios tenha uma grande utilização no futuro, tal como acontece actualmente com a comunicação sem fios. É previsível que esta tecnologia seja uma solução promissora para as primeiras empresas inovadoras a chegar ao mercado. Daí o interesse que despertou na realização desta dissertação, sendo parte do desafio, saber o rendimento que se poderia obter, uma vez que a energia é tema dominante à escala global. Esta dissertação, propõe inicialm...

  19. Nexos sem?nticos em certificados de garantia


    Estrela, K?nio Angelo Dantas Freitas


    O estudo das rela??es de significado entre senten?as ? um campo bastante discutido e pesquisado nos estudos lingu?sticos. A observa??o de como se comportam os termos na constru??o de significados em textos de diversos g?neros e seus efeitos de interpreta??o tamb?m s?o temas muito difundidos entre as pesquisas das sem?nticas. Nesta produ??o discutiremos sobre as rela??es de significado e seus efeitos de sentido em um g?nero espec?fico. As rela??es que investigaremos s?o os nexos sem?nticos ou ...

  20. Automated SEM-EDS GSR Analysis for Turkish Ammunitions (United States)

    Cakir, Ismail; Uner, H. Bulent


    In this work, Automated Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (SEM-EDS) was used to characterize 7.65 and 9mm cartridges Turkish ammunition. All samples were analyzed in a SEM Jeol JSM-5600LV equipped BSE detector and a Link ISIS 300 (EDS). A working distance of 20mm, an accelerating voltage of 20 keV and gunshot residue software was used in all analysis. Automated search resulted in a high number of particles analyzed containing gunshot residues (GSR) unique elements (PbBaSb). The obtained data about the definition of characteristic GSR particles was concordant with other studies on this topic.

  1. Estudio semántico en pacientes con afasia


    Rubio Díaz, Roberto


    En muchas ocasiones las afasias expresivas se caracterizan entre otras cosas, por el déficit léxico-semántico apreciable en su discurso. Aparecen manifestaciones que pueden distorsionar el significado de lo que quieren comunicar. En estos sujetos se potencia la utilización de gestos y la entonación, para intentar compensar el déficit y transmitir el mensaje oral de manera correcta. En este trabajo se clasifican, evalúan y justifican las manifestaciones léxico-semánticas en tres pacientes con ...

  2. Evaluation of model quality predictions in CASP9

    KAUST Repository

    Kryshtafovych, Andriy


    CASP has been assessing the state of the art in the a priori estimation of accuracy of protein structure prediction since 2006. The inclusion of model quality assessment category in CASP contributed to a rapid development of methods in this area. In the last experiment, 46 quality assessment groups tested their approaches to estimate the accuracy of protein models as a whole and/or on a per-residue basis. We assessed the performance of these methods predominantly on the basis of the correlation between the predicted and observed quality of the models on both global and local scales. The ability of the methods to identify the models closest to the best one, to differentiate between good and bad models, and to identify well modeled regions was also analyzed. Our evaluations demonstrate that even though global quality assessment methods seem to approach perfection point (weighted average per-target Pearson\\'s correlation coefficients are as high as 0.97 for the best groups), there is still room for improvement. First, all top-performing methods use consensus approaches to generate quality estimates, and this strategy has its own limitations. Second, the methods that are based on the analysis of individual models lag far behind clustering techniques and need a boost in performance. The methods for estimating per-residue accuracy of models are less accurate than global quality assessment methods, with an average weighted per-model correlation coefficient in the range of 0.63-0.72 for the best 10 groups.

  3. A Spectral Evaluation of Models Performances in Mediterranean Oak Woodlands (United States)

    Vargas, R.; Baldocchi, D. D.; Abramowitz, G.; Carrara, A.; Correia, A.; Kobayashi, H.; Papale, D.; Pearson, D.; Pereira, J.; Piao, S.; Rambal, S.; Sonnentag, O.


    Ecosystem processes are influenced by climatic trends at multiple temporal scales including diel patterns and other mid-term climatic modes, such as interannual and seasonal variability. Because interactions between biophysical components of ecosystem processes are complex, it is important to test how models perform in frequency (e.g. hours, days, weeks, months, years) and time (i.e. day of the year) domains in addition to traditional tests of annual or monthly sums. Here we present a spectral evaluation using wavelet time series analysis of model performance in seven Mediterranean Oak Woodlands that encompass three deciduous and four evergreen sites. We tested the performance of five models (CABLE, ORCHIDEE, BEPS, Biome-BGC, and JULES) on measured variables of gross primary production (GPP) and evapotranspiration (ET). In general, model performance fails at intermediate periods (e.g. weeks to months) likely because these models do not represent the water pulse dynamics that influence GPP and ET at these Mediterranean systems. To improve the performance of a model it is critical to identify first where and when the model fails. Only by identifying where a model fails we can improve the model performance and use them as prognostic tools and to generate further hypotheses that can be tested by new experiments and measurements.

  4. Knowledge management: Postgraduate Alternative Evaluation Model (MAPA in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deisy Cristina Corrêa Igarashi


    Full Text Available The Brazilian stricto sensu postgraduate programs that include master and / or doctorate courses are evaluated by Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES - Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior. The evaluation method used by CAPES is recognized in national and international context. However, several elements of the evaluation method can be improved. For example: to consider programs diversity, heterogeneity and specificities; to reduce subjectivity and to explain how indicators are grouped into different dimensions to generate a final result, which is scoring level reached by a program. This study aims to analyze the evaluation process by CAPES, presenting questions, difficulties and objections raised by researchers. From the analysis, the study proposes an alternative evaluation model for postgraduate (MAPA - Modelo de Avaliação para Pós graduação Alternativo which incorporates fuzzy logic in result analysis to minimize limitations identified. The MAPA was applied in three postgraduate programs, allowing: (1 better understanding of procedures used for the evaluation, (2 identifying elements that need regulation, (3 characterization of indicators that generate local evaluation, (4 support in medium and long term planning.

  5. Evaluation of COMPASS ionospheric model in GNSS positioning (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoli; Hu, Xiaogong; Wang, Gang; Zhong, Huijuan; Tang, Chengpan


    As important products of GNSS navigation message, ionospheric delay model parameters are broadcasted for single-frequency users to improve their positioning accuracy. GPS provides daily Klobuchar ionospheric model parameters based on geomagnetic reference frame, while the regional satellite navigation system of China's COMPASS broadcasts an eight-parameter ionospheric model, COMPASS Ionospheric Model(CIM), which was generated by processing data from continuous monitoring stations, with updating the parameters every 2 h. To evaluate its performance, CIM predictions are compared to ionospheric delay measurements, along with GPS positioning accuracy comparisons. Real observed data analysis indicates that CIM provides higher correction precision in middle-latitude regions, but relatively lower correction precision for low-latitude regions where the ionosphere has much higher variability. CIM errors for some users show a common bias for in-coming COMPASS signals from different satellites, and hence ionospheric model errors are somehow translated into the receivers' clock error estimation. In addition, the CIM from the China regional monitoring network are further evaluated for global ionospheric corrections. Results show that in the Northern Hemisphere areas including Asia, Europe and North America, the three-dimensional positioning accuracy using the CIM for ionospheric delay corrections is improved by 7.8%-35.3% when compared to GPS single-frequency positioning ionospheric delay corrections using the Klobuchar model. However, the positioning accuracy in the Southern Hemisphere is degraded due apparently to the lack of monitoring stations there.

  6. A Category Based Threat Evaluation Model Using Platform Kinematics Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Çöçelli


    Full Text Available Command and control (C2 systems direct operators to make accurate decisions in the stressful atmosphere of the battlefield at the earliest. There are powerful tools that fuse various instant piece of information and brings summary of those in front of operators. Threat evaluation is one of the important fusion method that provides these assistance to military people. However, C2 systems could be deprived of valuable data source due to the absence of capable equipment. This situation has a bad unfavorable influence on the quality of tactical picture in front of C2 operators. In this paper, we study on the threat evaluation model that take into account these deficiencies. Our method extracts threat level of various targets mostly from their kinematics in two dimensional space. In the meantime, classification of entities around battlefield is unavailable. Only, category of targets are determined as a result of sensors process, which is the information of whether entities belong to air or surface environment. Hereby, threat evaluation model is consist of three fundamental steps that runs on entities belongs to different environment separately: the extraction of threat assessment cues, threat selection based on Bayesian Inference and the calculation of threat assessment rating. We have evaluated performance of proposed model by simulating a set of synthetic scenarios.

  7. A model for curriculum development and student evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šefer Jasmina P.


    Full Text Available The paper outlines theoretical foundations for investigations to be conducted in our education, based on USA (DISCOVERY and Yugoslav (CREATIVITY previous projects that dealt with developing, investigating and evaluating (a abilities of creative problem solving within seven types of intelligence after the Gardner model and (b curriculum that provides and encourages the development of those abilities. Divergent thinking and creativity in all spheres of intellectual behavior in teaching are encouraged by introducing open-type questions, play, exploring activities and multimedia integrative-interdisciplinary thematic approach to problem solving. Multiple intelligence and a dimensional model of problem solving present theoretical foundations for curriculum development and a new qualitative approach to process evaluation of student's various abilities. Investigations should make provisions for comparing the results obtained in various cultures and for integrating best solutions into a common whole. Comparing the results of cultures and testing theoretical models and instruments for the evaluation of students are the outcomes essential to the science of pedagogy. Curriculum development oriented to problem and divergent thinking in different areas, intellectual functioning, and enrichment of the choice of instruments for multiple process evaluation of students can also significantly contribute to the current reform of Yugoslav school, development of student abilities and teacher education and in-service training.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.O. Anyaeche


    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Many productivity models evaluate either the input or the output performances using standalone techniques. This sometimes gives divergent views of the same system’s results. The work reported in this article, which simultaneously evaluated productivity from both orientations, was applied on real life data. The results showed losses in productivity (–2% and price recovery (–8% for the outputs; the inputs showed productivity gain (145% but price recovery loss (–63%. These imply losses in product performances but a productivity gain in inputs. The loss in the price recovery of inputs indicates a problem in the pricing policy. This model is applicable in product diversification.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die meeste produktiwiteitsmodelle evalueer of die inset- of die uitsetverrigting deur gebruik te maak van geïsoleerde tegnieke. Dit lei soms tot uiteenlopende perspektiewe van dieselfde sisteem se verrigting. Hierdie artikel evalueer verrigting uit beide perspektiewe en gebruik ware data. Die resultate toon ‘n afname in produktiwiteit (-2% en prysherwinning (-8% vir die uitsette. Die insette toon ‘n toename in produktiwiteit (145%, maar ‘n afname in prysherwinning (-63%. Dit impliseer ‘n afname in produkverrigting, maar ‘n produktiwiteitstoename in insette. Die afname in die prysherwinning van insette dui op ‘n problem in die prysvasstellingbeleid. Hierdie model is geskik vir produkdiversifikasie.

  9. Application of a theoretical model to evaluate COPD disease management. (United States)

    Lemmens, Karin M M; Nieboer, Anna P; Rutten-Van Mölken, Maureen P M H; van Schayck, Constant P; Asin, Javier D; Dirven, Jos A M; Huijsman, Robbert


    Disease management programmes are heterogeneous in nature and often lack a theoretical basis. An evaluation model has been developed in which theoretically driven inquiries link disease management interventions to outcomes. The aim of this study is to methodically evaluate the impact of a disease management programme for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on process, intermediate and final outcomes of care in a general practice setting. A quasi-experimental research was performed with 12-months follow-up of 189 COPD patients in primary care in the Netherlands. The programme included patient education, protocolised assessment and treatment of COPD, structural follow-up and coordination by practice nurses at 3, 6 and 12 months. Data on intermediate outcomes (knowledge, psychosocial mediators, self-efficacy and behaviour) and final outcomes (dyspnoea, quality of life, measured by the CRQ and CCQ, and patient experiences) were obtained from questionnaires and electronic registries. Implementation of the programme was associated with significant improvements in dyspnoea (p model showed associations between significantly improved intermediate outcomes and improvements in quality of life and dyspnoea. The application of a theory-driven model enhances the design and evaluation of disease management programmes aimed at improving health outcomes. This study supports the notion that a theoretical approach strengthens the evaluation designs of complex interventions. Moreover, it provides prudent evidence that the implementation of COPD disease management programmes can positively influence outcomes of care.

  10. Evaluation of reliability modeling tools for advanced fault tolerant systems (United States)

    Baker, Robert; Scheper, Charlotte


    The Computer Aided Reliability Estimation (CARE III) and Automated Reliability Interactice Estimation System (ARIES 82) reliability tools for application to advanced fault tolerance aerospace systems were evaluated. To determine reliability modeling requirements, the evaluation focused on the Draper Laboratories' Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) architecture as an example architecture for fault tolerance aerospace systems. Advantages and limitations were identified for each reliability evaluation tool. The CARE III program was designed primarily for analyzing ultrareliable flight control systems. The ARIES 82 program's primary use was to support university research and teaching. Both CARE III and ARIES 82 were not suited for determining the reliability of complex nodal networks of the type used to interconnect processing sites in the AIPS architecture. It was concluded that ARIES was not suitable for modeling advanced fault tolerant systems. It was further concluded that subject to some limitations (the difficulty in modeling systems with unpowered spare modules, systems where equipment maintenance must be considered, systems where failure depends on the sequence in which faults occurred, and systems where multiple faults greater than a double near coincident faults must be considered), CARE III is best suited for evaluating the reliability of advanced tolerant systems for air transport.

  11. Modified Neutral Models as Benchmarks to Evaluate the Dynamics of Land System (DLS Model Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingchang Xiu


    Full Text Available Assessing model performance is a continuous challenge for modelers of land use change. Comparing land use models with two neutral models, including the random constraint match model (RCM and growing cluster model (GrC that consider the initial land use patterns using a variety of evaluation metrics, provides a new way to evaluate the accuracy of land use models. However, using only two neutral models is not robust enough for reference maps. A modified neutral model that combines a density-based point pattern analysis and a null neutral model algorithm is introduced. In this case, the modified neutral model generates twenty different spatial pattern results using a random algorithm and mid-point displacement algorithm, respectively. The random algorithm-based modified neutral model (Random_MNM results decrease regularly with the fragmentation degree from 0 to 1, while the mid-point displacement algorithm-based modified neutral model (MPD_MNM results decrease in a fluctuating manner with the fragmentation degree. Using the modified neutral model results as benchmarks, a new proposed land use model, the Dynamics of Land System (DLS model, for Jilin Province of China from 2003 to 2013 is assessed using the Kappa statistic and Kappain-out statistic for simulation accuracy. The results show that the DLS model output presents higher Kappa and Kappain-out values than all the twenty neutral model results. The map comparison results indicate that the DLS model could simulate land use change more accurately compared to the Random_MNM and MPD_MNM. However, the amount and spatial allocation of land transitions for the DLS model are lower than the actual land use change. Improving the accuracy of the land use transition allocations in the DLS model requires further investigation.

  12. Modeling Tools for Drilling, Reservoir Navigation, and Formation Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushant Dutta


    Full Text Available The oil and gas industry routinely uses borehole tools for measuring or logging rock and fluid properties of geologic formations to locate hydrocarbons and maximize their production. Pore fluids in formations of interest are usually hydrocarbons or water. Resistivity logging is based on the fact that oil and gas have a substantially higher resistivity than water. The first resistivity log was acquired in 1927, and resistivity logging is still the foremost measurement used for drilling and evaluation. However, the acquisition and interpretation of resistivity logging data has grown in complexity over the years. Resistivity logging tools operate in a wide range of frequencies (from DC to GHz and encounter extremely high (several orders of magnitude conductivity contrast between the metal mandrel of the tool and the geologic formation. Typical challenges include arbitrary angles of tool inclination, full tensor electric and magnetic field measurements, and interpretation of complicated anisotropic formation properties. These challenges combine to form some of the most intractable computational electromagnetic problems in the world. Reliable, fast, and convenient numerical modeling of logging tool responses is critical for tool design, sensor optimization, virtual prototyping, and log data inversion. This spectrum of applications necessitates both depth and breadth of modeling software—from blazing fast one-dimensional (1-D modeling codes to advanced threedimensional (3-D modeling software, and from in-house developed codes to commercial modeling packages. In this paper, with the help of several examples, we demonstrate our approach for using different modeling software to address different drilling and evaluation applications. In one example, fast 1-D modeling provides proactive geosteering information from a deep-reading azimuthal propagation resistivity measurement. In the second example, a 3-D model with multiple vertical resistive fractures

  13. Evaluation of Model Recognition for Grammar-Based Automatic 3d Building Model Reconstruction (United States)

    Yu, Qian; Helmholz, Petra; Belton, David


    In recent years, 3D city models are in high demand by many public and private organisations, and the steadily growing capacity in both quality and quantity are increasing demand. The quality evaluation of these 3D models is a relevant issue both from the scientific and practical points of view. In this paper, we present a method for the quality evaluation of 3D building models which are reconstructed automatically from terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) data based on an attributed building grammar. The entire evaluation process has been performed in all the three dimensions in terms of completeness and correctness of the reconstruction. Six quality measures are introduced to apply on four datasets of reconstructed building models in order to describe the quality of the automatic reconstruction, and also are assessed on their validity from the evaluation point of view.

  14. Boussinesq Modeling of Wave Propagation and Runup over Fringing Coral Reefs, Model Evaluation Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Demirbilek, Zeki; Nwogu, Okey G


    This report describes evaluation of a two-dimensional Boussinesq-type wave model, BOUSS-2D, with data obtained from two laboratory experiments and two field studies at the islands of Guam and Hawaii...

  15. Ozone deposition modelling within the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII) (United States)

    This presentation provides an overview of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII). It contains a synopsis of the three phases of AQMEII, including objectives, logistics, and timelines. It also provides a number of examples of analyses conducted through ...

  16. Evaluation of medical education virtual program: P3 model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Introduction: In e-learning, people get involved in a process and create the content (product and make it available for virtual learners. The present study was carried out in order to evaluate the first virtual master program in medical education at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences according to P3 Model. Methods: This is an evaluation research study with post single group design used to determine how effective this program was. All students 60 who participated more than one year in this virtual program and 21 experts including teachers and directors participated in this evaluation project. Based on the P3 e-learning model, an evaluation tool with 5-point Likert rating scale was designed and applied to collect the descriptive data. Results: Students reported storyboard and course design as the most desirable element of learning environment (2.30±0.76, but they declared technical support as the less desirable part (1.17±1.23. Conclusion: Presence of such framework in this regard and using it within the format of appropriate tools for evaluation of e-learning in universities and higher education institutes, which present e-learning curricula in the country, may contribute to implementation of the present and future e-learning curricula efficiently and guarantee its implementation in an appropriate way.

  17. Evaluation of Medical Education virtual Program: P3 model. (United States)

    Rezaee, Rita; Shokrpour, Nasrin; Boroumand, Maryam


    In e-learning, people get involved in a process and create the content (product) and make it available for virtual learners. The present study was carried out in order to evaluate the first virtual master program in medical education at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences according to P3 Model. This is an evaluation research study with post single group design used to determine how effective this program was. All students 60 who participated more than one year in this virtual program and 21 experts including teachers and directors participated in this evaluation project. Based on the P3 e-learning model, an evaluation tool with 5-point Likert rating scale was designed and applied to collect the descriptive data. Students reported storyboard and course design as the most desirable element of learning environment (2.30±0.76), but they declared technical support as the less desirable part (1.17±1.23). Presence of such framework in this regard and using it within the format of appropriate tools for evaluation of e-learning in universities and higher education institutes, which present e-learning curricula in the country, may contribute to implementation of the present and future e-learning curricula efficiently and guarantee its implementation in an appropriate way.

  18. Animal models for evaluation of oral delivery of biopharmaceuticals. (United States)

    Harloff-Helleberg, Stine; Nielsen, Line Hagner; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck


    Biopharmaceuticals are increasingly important for patients and the pharmaceutical industry due to their ability to treat and, in some cases, even cure chronic and potentially life-threatening diseases. Most biopharmaceuticals are administered by injection, but intensive focus on development of systems for oral delivery of biopharmaceuticals may result in new treatment modalities to increase the patient compliance and reduce product cost. In the preclinical development phase, use of experimental animal models is essential for evaluation of new formulation designs. In general, the limited oral bioavailability of biopharmaceuticals, of just a few percent, is expected, and therefore, the animal models and the experimental settings must be chosen with utmost care. More knowledge and focus on this topic is highly needed, despite experience from the numerous studies evaluating animal models for oral drug delivery of small molecule drugs. This review highlights and discusses pros and cons of the most currently used animal models and settings. Additionally, it also looks into the influence of anesthetics and sampling methods for evaluation of drug delivery systems for oral delivery of biopharmaceuticals primarily with examples on insulin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Modeling and evaluating user behavior in exploratory visual analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reda, Khairi; Johnson, Andrew E.; Papka, Michael E.; Leigh, Jason


    Empirical evaluation methods for visualizations have traditionally focused on assessing the outcome of the visual analytic process as opposed to characterizing how that process unfolds. There are only a handful of methods that can be used to systematically study how people use visualizations, making it difficult for researchers to capture and characterize the subtlety of cognitive and interaction behaviors users exhibit during visual analysis. To validate and improve visualization design, however, it is important for researchers to be able to assess and understand how users interact with visualization systems under realistic scenarios. This paper presents a methodology for modeling and evaluating the behavior of users in exploratory visual analysis. We model visual exploration using a Markov chain process comprising transitions between mental, interaction, and computational states. These states and the transitions between them can be deduced from a variety of sources, including verbal transcripts, videos and audio recordings, and log files. This model enables the evaluator to characterize the cognitive and computational processes that are essential to insight acquisition in exploratory visual analysis, and reconstruct the dynamics of interaction between the user and the visualization system. We illustrate this model with two exemplar user studies, and demonstrate the qualitative and quantitative analytical tools it affords.

  20. Evaluation of Improved Spacecraft Models for GLONASS Orbit Determination (United States)

    Weiss, J. P.; Sibthorpe, A.; Harvey, N.; Bar-Sever, Y.; Kuang, D.


    High-fidelity spacecraft models become more important as orbit determination strategies achieve greater levels of precision and accuracy. In this presentation, we assess the impacts of new solar radiation pressure and attitude models on precise orbit determination (POD) for GLONASS spacecraft within JPLs GIPSY-OASIS software. A new solar radiation pressure model is developed by empirically fitting a Fourier expansion to solar pressure forces acting on the spacecraft X, Y, Z components using one year of recent orbit data. Compared to a basic “box-wing” solar pressure model, the median 24-hour orbit prediction accuracy for one month of independent test data improves by 43%. We additionally implement an updated yaw attitude model during eclipse periods. We evaluate the impacts of both models on post-processed POD solutions spanning 6-months. We consider a number of metrics such as internal orbit and clock overlaps as well as comparisons to independent solutions. Improved yaw attitude modeling reduces the dependence of these metrics on the “solar elevation” angle. The updated solar pressure model improves orbit overlap statistics by several mm in the median sense and centimeters in the max sense (1D). Orbit differences relative to the IGS combined solution are at or below the 5 cm level (1D RMS).

  1. An Evaluation of the Decision-Making Capacity Assessment Model. (United States)

    Brémault-Phillips, Suzette C; Parmar, Jasneet; Friesen, Steven; Rogers, Laura G; Pike, Ashley; Sluggett, Bryan


    The Decision-Making Capacity Assessment (DMCA) Model includes a best-practice process and tools to assess DMCA, and implementation strategies at the organizational and assessor levels to support provision of DMCAs across the care continuum. A Developmental Evaluation of the DMCA Model was conducted. A mixed methods approach was used. Survey (N = 126) and focus group (N = 49) data were collected from practitioners utilizing the Model. Strengths of the Model include its best-practice and implementation approach, applicability to independent practitioners and inter-professional teams, focus on training/mentoring to enhance knowledge/skills, and provision of tools/processes. Post-training, participants agreed that they followed the Model's guiding principles (90%), used problem-solving (92%), understood discipline-specific roles (87%), were confident in their knowledge of DMCAs (75%) and pertinent legislation (72%), accessed consultative services (88%), and received management support (64%). Model implementation is impeded when role clarity, physician engagement, inter-professional buy-in, accountability, dedicated resources, information sharing systems, and remuneration are lacking. Dedicated resources, job descriptions inclusive of DMCAs, ongoing education/mentoring supports, access to consultative services, and appropriate remuneration would support implementation. The DMCA Model offers practitioners, inter-professional teams, and organizations a best-practice and implementation approach to DMCAs. Addressing barriers and further contextualizing the Model would be warranted.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatsugu Tsuji


    Full Text Available This paper focuses on natural-resource-based firms in four ASEAN economies, such as Vietnam, Indonesia, The Philippines, and Thailand. These countries have relative advantage in natural-resource-based industries, since they have affluent endowed resources and been making use them for their export and growth strategies. In this study, the innovation process in natural-resource-based industries in these countries are examined in comparison with other assembling and processing industry by focusing factors enhance product as well as process innovation. Those are summarized as (i Technology, (ii Organization learning including QM, cross functional team, (iii ICT use, and (iv external linkages such as MNCs, local and public organizations, universities. This study employs SEM (Structural equation model in order to analyze the causal relationships not only among above four latent variables but also between these and innovations. Keywords: internal capability, external linkage, organization learning, capital goods, ICT use, SEM (Structural equation model

  3. Applications of CryoSEM in medical research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stokroos, [No Value; Kalicharan, D; Jongebloed, WL; Robins, A

    The field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) allows imaging resolution clown to 0.5-1.5 nm, With this improved resolution, the cryo-preparation technique (Cryo-FE-SEWI) can now compete with freeze-fracture replication techniques for the transmission electron microscope (TEM) and with

  4. Estudo comparativo entre histerectomia abdominal e vaginal sem prolapso uterino


    Lisboa, Vânio Cardoso


    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciências da Saúde. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Médicas. Objetivo: Comparar a histerectomia abdominal e vaginal sem prolapso uterino.

  5. DynSem : A DSL for Dynamic Semantics Specification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergu, V.; Neron, P.; Visser, E.


    The formal definition the semantics of a programming language and its implementation are typically separately defined, with the risk of divergence such that properties of the formal semantics are not properties of the implementation. In this paper, we present DynSem, a domain-specific language for

  6. SEM Analysis of Surface Impact on Biofilm Antibiotic Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Calheiros Gomes


    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to use scanning electron microscopy (SEM to investigate the effect of ampicillin treatment on Escherichia coli biofilms formed on two surface materials with different properties, silicone (SIL and glass (GLA. Epifluorescence microscopy (EM was initially used to assess biofilm formation and killing efficiency on both surfaces. This technique showed that higher bacterial colonization was obtained in the hydrophobic SIL than in the hydrophilic GLA. It has also shown that higher biofilm inactivation was attained for GLA after the antibiotic treatment (7-log reduction versus 1-log reduction for SIL. Due to its high resolution and magnification, SEM enabled a more detailed analysis of the antibiotic effect on biofilm cells, complementing the killing efficiency information obtained by EM. SEM micrographs revealed that ampicillin-treated cells have an elongated form when compared to untreated cells. Additionally, it has shown that different materials induced different levels of elongation on cells exposed to antibiotic. Biofilms formed on GLA showed a 37% higher elongation than those formed on SIL. Importantly, cell elongation was related to viability since ampicillin had a higher bactericidal effect on GLA-formed biofilms. These findings raise the possibility of using SEM for understanding the efficacy of antimicrobial treatments by observation of biofilm morphology.

  7. The Spores of Pyrrosia Mirbel (Polypodiaceae), a sem study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uffelen, van G.A.; Hennipman, E.


    The spores of all 51 currently recognized species in the homosporous fern genus Pyrrosia have been studied with the aid of the scanning electron microscope (SEM). In all species a perispore has been found. The wide diversity in sporoderm sculpture as encountered in this genus has been described and

  8. Infrared spectra, Raman laser, XRD, DSC/TGA and SEM ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 34; Issue 4. Infrared spectra, Raman laser, XRD, DSC/TGA and SEM investigations on the preparations of selenium metal, (Sb2O3, Ga2O3, SnO and HgO) oxides and lead carbonate with pure grade using acetamide precursors. Moamen S Refat Khaled M Elsabawy.

  9. Evaluating Remotely Sensed Phenological Metrics in a Dynamic Ecosystem Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Xu


    Full Text Available Vegetation phenology plays an important role in regulating processes of terrestrial ecosystems. Dynamic ecosystem models (DEMs require representation of phenology to simulate the exchange of matter and energy between the land and atmosphere. Location-specific parameterization with phenological observations can potentially improve the performance of phenological models embedded in DEMs. As ground-based phenological observations are limited, phenology derived from remote sensing can be used as an alternative to parameterize phenological models. It is important to evaluate to what extent remotely sensed phenological metrics are capturing the phenology observed on the ground. We evaluated six methods based on two vegetation indices (VIs (i.e., Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and Enhanced Vegetation Index for retrieving the phenology of temperate forest in the Agro-IBIS model. First, we compared the remotely sensed phenological metrics with observations at Harvard Forest and found that most of the methods have large biases regardless of the VI used. Only two methods for the leaf onset and one method for the leaf offset showed a moderate performance. When remotely sensed phenological metrics were used to parameterize phenological models, the bias is maintained, and errors propagate to predictions of gross primary productivity and net ecosystem production. Our results show that Agro-IBIS has different sensitivities to leaf onset and offset in terms of carbon assimilation, suggesting it might be better to examine the respective impact of leaf onset and offset rather than the overall impact of the growing season length.

  10. Evaluation of an anthropometric shape model of the human scalp. (United States)

    Lacko, Daniël; Huysmans, Toon; Parizel, Paul M; De Bruyne, Guido; Verwulgen, Stijn; Van Hulle, Marc M; Sijbers, Jan


    This paper presents the evaluation a 3D shape model of the human head. A statistical shape model of the head is created from a set of 100 MRI scans. The ability of the shape model to predict new head shapes is evaluated by considering the prediction error distributions. The effect of using intuitive anthropometric measurements as parameters is examined and the sensitivity to measurement errors is determined. Using all anthropometric measurements, the average prediction error is 1.60 ± 0.36 mm, which shows the feasibility of the new parameters. The most sensitive measurement is the ear height, the least sensitive is the arc length. Finally, two applications of the anthropometric shape model are considered: the study of the male and female population and the design of a brain-computer interface headset. The results show that an anthropometric shape model can be a valuable tool for both research and design. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Using radiotracer techniques for coastal hydrodynamic model evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, C.E. E-mail:; Airey, P.L.; Duran, E.B.; Miller, B.M.; Sombrito, E


    A three-dimensional (3D) water circulation and contaminant transport model of Manila Bay has been developed with the aim of better understanding the formation and movement of harmful algal blooms. Radiotracer techniques were used to evaluate the model by recording the dispersion of a tracer at depths of 2 and 15 m near the injection point. The selected tracer was {sup 99m}Tc eluted from a molybdenum/technetium medical generator. The rationale for the choice of the tracer and the location of the injection is discussed. At 2 m the transport was dominated by the prevailing winds, and at 15 m by tidally induced currents. The development of the hydrodynamic model and its experimental evaluation were iterative processes. The experimental study confirmed the need for full 3D modelling of Manila Bay; quantified the impact of the prevailing wind field on contaminant dispersion near the injection point; and allowed the calculation of transverse dispersivity to guide the selection of parameter values used in the overall model.

  12. Evaluation of different feed intake models for dairy cows. (United States)

    Krizsan, S J; Sairanen, A; Höjer, A; Huhtanen, P


    The objective of the current study was to evaluate feed intake prediction models of varying complexity using individual observations of lactating cows subjected to experimental dietary treatments in periodic sequences (i.e., change-over trials). Observed or previous period animal data were combined with the current period feed data in the evaluations of the different feed intake prediction models. This would illustrate the situation and amount of available data when formulating rations for dairy cows in practice and test the robustness of the models when milk yield is used in feed intake predictions. The models to be evaluated in the current study were chosen based on the input data required in the models and the applicability to Nordic conditions. A data set comprising 2,161 total individual observations was constructed from 24 trials conducted at research barns in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. Prediction models were evaluated by residual analysis using mixed and simple model regression. Great variation in animal and feed factors was observed in the data set, with ranges in total dry matter intake (DMI) from 10.4 to 30.8kg/d, forage DMI from 4.1 to 23.0kg/d, and milk yield from 8.4 to 51.1kg/d. The mean biases of DMI predictions for the National Research Council, the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System, the British, Finnish, and Scandinavian models were -1.71, 0.67, 2.80, 0.83, -0.60kg/d with prediction errors of 2.33, 1.71, 3.19, 1.62, and 2.03kg/d, respectively, when observed milk yield was used in the predictions. The performance of the models were ranked the same, using either mixed or simple model regression analysis, but generally the random contribution to the prediction error increased with simple rather than mixed model regression analysis. The prediction error of all models was generally greater when using previous period data compared with the observed milk yield. When the average milk yield over all periods was used in the predictions

  13. Sem porta-voz na rua, sem dono em casa : as lutas do Movimento de Mulheres Camponesas (MMC Brasil) pelo direito a uma vida sem violência


    Pereira, Diana Melo


    Ao contrário do que vem sendo comumente trabalhado a respeito da temática da violência contra a mulher, o Movimento de Mulheres Camponesas (MMC Brasil), tem trabalhado uma visão mais ampla sobre a percepção da questão: tem defendido a necessidade do relacionamento entre opressões de sexo e classe social, no que diz respeito ao enfrentamento à violência. Compreendendo as ligações entre capitalismo e patriarcado, desenham sua atuação na luta pelo direito a uma vida sem violência para as mulhere...

  14. The psychological synthesis evaluated by the interactive model


    Giavoni,Adriana; Tamayo,Álvaro


    The purpose of this article was to elaborate a model to evaluate the synthesis process resulting from the interaction which is established between opposing constructs, like gender schemas. In social psychology, the existence of opposites is possible to be detecting in contemporary theories, such as individualism versus collectivism and masculinity versus femininity. In all these themes, opposites assume both an oppositional and complementary attitude, but little relevance has been given to th...

  15. Model-driven performance evaluation for service engineering


    Pahl, Claus; Boskovic, Marko; Hasselbring, Wilhelm


    Service engineering and service-oriented architecture as an integration and platform technology is a recent approach to software systems integration. Software quality aspects such as performance are of central importance for the integration of heterogeneous, distributed service-based systems. Empirical performance evaluation is a process of measuring and calculating performance metrics of the implemented software. We present an approach for the empirical, model-based performance evaluat...

  16. Doctoral Dissertation Supervision: Identification and Evaluation of Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngozi Agu


    Full Text Available Doctoral research supervision is one of the major avenues for sustaining students’ satisfaction with the programme, preparing students to be independent researchers and effectively initiating students into the academic community. This work reports doctoral students’ evaluation of their various supervision models, their satisfaction with these supervision models, and development of research-related skills. The study used a descriptive research design and was guided by three research questions and two hypotheses. A sample of 310 Ph.D. candidates drawn from a federal university in Eastern part of Nigeria was used for this study. The data generated through the questionnaire was analyzed using descriptive statistics and t-tests. Results show that face-to-face interactive model was not only the most frequently used, but also the most widely adopted in doctoral thesis supervision while ICT-based models were rarely used. Students supervised under face-to-face interactive model reported being more satisfied with dissertation supervision than those operating under face-to-face noninteractive model. However, students supervised under these two models did not differ significantly in their perceived development in research-related skills.

  17. Evaluation of an artificial neural network rainfall disaggregation model. (United States)

    Burian, S J; Durran, S R


    Previous research produced an artificial neural network (ANN) temporal rainfall disaggregation model. After proper training the model can disaggregate hourly rainfall records into sub-hourly time increments. In this paper we present results from continued evaluations of the performance of the ANN model specifically examining how the errors in the disaggregated rainfall hyetograph translate to errors in the prediction of the runoff hydrograph. Using a rainfall-runoff model of a hypothetical watershed we compare the runoff hydrographs produced by the ANN-predicted 15-minute increment rainfall pattern to runoff hydrographs produced by (1) the observed 15-minute increment rainfall pattern, (2) the observed hourly-increment rainfall pattern, and (3) the 15-minute increment rainfall pattern produced by a disaggregation model based on geometric similarity. For 98 test storms the peak discharges produced by the ANN model rainfall pattern had a median under-prediction of 16.6%. This relative error was less than the median under-prediction in peak discharge when using the observed 15-minute rainfall patterns aggregated to hourly increments (40.8%), and when using rainfall patterns produced by the geometric similarity rainfall disaggregation model (21.9%).

  18. The establishment of the evaluation model for pupil's lunch suppliers (United States)

    Lo, Chih-Yao; Hou, Cheng-I.; Ma, Rosa


    The aim of this study is the establishment of the evaluation model for the government-controlled private suppliers for school lunches in the public middle and primary schools in Miao-Li County. After finishing the literature search and the integration of the opinions from anonymous experts by Modified Delphi Method, the grade forms from relevant schools in and outside the Miao-Li County will firstly be collected and the delaminated structures for evaluation be constructed. Then, the data analysis will be performed on those retrieved questionnaires designed in accordance with the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). Finally, the evaluation form for the government-controlled private suppliers can be constructed and presented in the hope of benefiting the personnel in charge of school meal purchasing.

  19. How Useful Are Our Models? Pre-Service and Practicing Teacher Evaluations of Technology Integration Models (United States)

    Kimmons, Royce; Hall, Cassidy


    We report on a survey of K-12 teachers and teacher candidates wherein participants evaluated known models (e.g., TPACK, SAMR, RAT, TIP) and provided insight on what makes a model valuable for them in the classroom. Results indicated that: (1) technology integration should be coupled with good theory to be effective, (2) classroom experience did…

  20. Fuzzy Control and Connected Region Marking Algorithm-Based SEM Nanomanipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongjie Li


    Full Text Available The interactive nanomanipulation platform is established based on fuzzy control and connected region marking (CRM algorithm in SEM. The 3D virtual nanomanipulation model is developed to make up the insufficiency of the 2D SEM image information, which provides the operator with depth and real-time visual feedback information to guide the manipulation. The haptic device Omega3 is used as the master to control the 3D motion of the nanopositioner in master-slave mode and offer the force sensing to the operator controlled with fuzzy control algorithm. Aiming at sensing of force feedback during the nanomanipulation, the collision detection method of the virtual nanomanipulation model and the force rending model are studied to realize the force feedback of nanomanipulation. The CRM algorithm is introduced to process the SEM image which provides effective position data of the objects for updating the virtual environment (VE, and relevant issues such as calibration and update rate of VE are also discussed. Finally, the performance of the platform is validated by the ZnO nanowire manipulation experiments.

  1. Evaluating alternate discrete outcome frameworks for modeling crash injury severity. (United States)

    Yasmin, Shamsunnahar; Eluru, Naveen


    This paper focuses on the relevance of alternate discrete outcome frameworks for modeling driver injury severity. The study empirically compares the ordered response and unordered response models in the context of driver injury severity in traffic crashes. The alternative modeling approaches considered for the comparison exercise include: for the ordered response framework-ordered logit (OL), generalized ordered logit (GOL), mixed generalized ordered logit (MGOL) and for the unordered response framework-multinomial logit (MNL), nested logit (NL), ordered generalized extreme value logit (OGEV) and mixed multinomial logit (MMNL) model. A host of comparison metrics are computed to evaluate the performance of these alternative models. The study provides a comprehensive comparison exercise of the performance of ordered and unordered response models for examining the impact of exogenous factors on driver injury severity. The research also explores the effect of potential underreporting on alternative frameworks by artificially creating an underreported data sample from the driver injury severity sample. The empirical analysis is based on the 2010 General Estimates System (GES) data base-a nationally representative sample of road crashes collected and compiled from about 60 jurisdictions across the United States. The performance of the alternative frameworks are examined in the context of model estimation and validation (at the aggregate and disaggregate level). Further, the performance of the model frameworks in the presence of underreporting is explored, with and without corrections to the estimates. The results from these extensive analyses point toward the emergence of the GOL framework (MGOL) as a strong competitor to the MMNL model in modeling driver injury severity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of a distributed catchment scale water balance model (United States)

    Troch, Peter A.; Mancini, Marco; Paniconi, Claudio; Wood, Eric F.


    The validity of some of the simplifying assumptions in a conceptual water balance model is investigated by comparing simulation results from the conceptual model with simulation results from a three-dimensional physically based numerical model and with field observations. We examine, in particular, assumptions and simplifications related to water table dynamics, vertical soil moisture and pressure head distributions, and subsurface flow contributions to stream discharge. The conceptual model relies on a topographic index to predict saturation excess runoff and on Philip's infiltration equation to predict infiltration excess runoff. The numerical model solves the three-dimensional Richards equation describing flow in variably saturated porous media, and handles seepage face boundaries, infiltration excess and saturation excess runoff production, and soil driven and atmosphere driven surface fluxes. The study catchments (a 7.2 sq km catchment and a 0.64 sq km subcatchment) are located in the North Appalachian ridge and valley region of eastern Pennsylvania. Hydrologic data collected during the MACHYDRO 90 field experiment are used to calibrate the models and to evaluate simulation results. It is found that water table dynamics as predicted by the conceptual model are close to the observations in a shallow water well and therefore, that a linear relationship between a topographic index and the local water table depth is found to be a reasonable assumption for catchment scale modeling. However, the hydraulic equilibrium assumption is not valid for the upper 100 cm layer of the unsaturated zone and a conceptual model that incorporates a root zone is suggested. Furthermore, theoretical subsurface flow characteristics from the conceptual model are found to be different from field observations, numerical simulation results, and theoretical baseflow recession characteristics based on Boussinesq's groundwater equation.

  3. Application of a theoretical model to evaluate COPD disease management (United States)


    Background Disease management programmes are heterogeneous in nature and often lack a theoretical basis. An evaluation model has been developed in which theoretically driven inquiries link disease management interventions to outcomes. The aim of this study is to methodically evaluate the impact of a disease management programme for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on process, intermediate and final outcomes of care in a general practice setting. Methods A quasi-experimental research was performed with 12-months follow-up of 189 COPD patients in primary care in the Netherlands. The programme included patient education, protocolised assessment and treatment of COPD, structural follow-up and coordination by practice nurses at 3, 6 and 12 months. Data on intermediate outcomes (knowledge, psychosocial mediators, self-efficacy and behaviour) and final outcomes (dyspnoea, quality of life, measured by the CRQ and CCQ, and patient experiences) were obtained from questionnaires and electronic registries. Results Implementation of the programme was associated with significant improvements in dyspnoea (p theory-driven model enhances the design and evaluation of disease management programmes aimed at improving health outcomes. This study supports the notion that a theoretical approach strengthens the evaluation designs of complex interventions. Moreover, it provides prudent evidence that the implementation of COPD disease management programmes can positively influence outcomes of care. PMID:20346135

  4. ICT evaluation models and performance of medium and small enterprises

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    Bayaga Anass


    Full Text Available Building on prior research related to (1 impact of information communication technology (ICT and (2 operational risk management (ORM in the context of medium and small enterprises (MSEs, the focus of this study was to investigate the relationship between (1 ICT operational risk management (ORM and (2 performances of MSEs. To achieve the focus, the research investigated evaluating models for understanding the value of ICT ORM in MSEs. Multiple regression, Repeated-Measures Analysis of Variance (RM-ANOVA and Repeated-Measures Multivariate Analysis of Variance (RM-MANOVA were performed. The findings of the distribution revealed that only one variable made a significant percentage contribution to the level of ICT operation in MSEs, the Payback method (β = 0.410, p < .000. It may thus be inferred that the Payback method is the prominent variable, explaining the variation in level of evaluation models affecting ICT adoption within MSEs. Conclusively, in answering the two questions (1 degree of variability explained and (2 predictors, the results revealed that the variable contributed approximately 88.4% of the variations in evaluation models affecting ICT adoption within MSEs. The analysis of variance also revealed that the regression coefficients were real and did not occur by chance

  5. Evaluating Learner Autonomy: A Dynamic Model with Descriptors

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    Maria Giovanna Tassinari


    Full Text Available Every autonomous learning process should entail an evaluation of the learner’s competencies for autonomy. The dynamic model of learner autonomy described in this paper is a tool designed in order to support the self-assessment and evaluation of learning competencies and to help both learners and advisors to focus on relevant aspects of the learning process. The dynamic model accounts for cognitive, metacognitive, action-oriented and affective components of learner autonomy and provides descriptors of learners’ attitudes, competencies and behaviors. It is dynamic in order to allow learners to focus on their own needs and goals.The model ( has been validated in several workshops with experts at the Université Nancy 2, France and at the Freie Universität Berlin, Germany and tested by students, advisors and teachers. It is currently used at the Centre for Independent Language Learning at the Freie Universität Berlin for language advising. Learners can freely choose the components they would like to assess themselves in. Their assessment is then discussed in an advising session, where the learner and the advisor can compare their perspectives, focus on single aspects of the leaning process and set goals for further learning. The students’ feedback gathered in my PhD investigation shows that they are able to benefit from this evaluation; their awareness, self-reflection and decision-making in the autonomous learning process improved.

  6. Model for Quantitative Evaluation of Enzyme Replacement Treatment

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    Radeva B.


    Full Text Available Gaucher disease is the most frequent lysosomal disorder. Its enzyme replacement treatment was the new progress of modern biotechnology, successfully used in the last years. The evaluation of optimal dose of each patient is important due to health and economical reasons. The enzyme replacement is the most expensive treatment. It must be held continuously and without interruption. Since 2001, the enzyme replacement therapy with Cerezyme*Genzyme was formally introduced in Bulgaria, but after some time it was interrupted for 1-2 months. The dose of the patients was not optimal. The aim of our work is to find a mathematical model for quantitative evaluation of ERT of Gaucher disease. The model applies a kind of software called "Statistika 6" via the input of the individual data of 5-year-old children having the Gaucher disease treated with Cerezyme. The output results of the model gave possibilities for quantitative evaluation of the individual trends in the development of the disease of each child and its correlation. On the basis of this results, we might recommend suitable changes in ERT.

  7. Probability distribution analysis of observational extreme events and model evaluation (United States)

    Yu, Q.; Lau, A. K. H.; Fung, J. C. H.; Tsang, K. T.


    Earth's surface temperatures were the warmest in 2015 since modern record-keeping began in 1880, according to the latest study. In contrast, a cold weather occurred in many regions of China in January 2016, and brought the first snowfall to Guangzhou, the capital city of Guangdong province in 67 years. To understand the changes of extreme weather events as well as project its future scenarios, this study use statistical models to analyze on multiple climate data. We first use Granger-causality test to identify the attribution of global mean temperature rise and extreme temperature events with CO2 concentration. The four statistical moments (mean, variance, skewness, kurtosis) of daily maximum temperature distribution is investigated on global climate observational, reanalysis (1961-2010) and model data (1961-2100). Furthermore, we introduce a new tail index based on the four moments, which is a more robust index to measure extreme temperatures. Our results show that the CO2 concentration can provide information to the time series of mean and extreme temperature, but not vice versa. Based on our new tail index, we find that other than mean and variance, skewness is an important indicator should be considered to estimate extreme temperature changes and model evaluation. Among the 12 climate model data we investigate, the fourth version of Community Climate System Model (CCSM4) from National Center for Atmospheric Research performs well on the new index we introduce, which indicate the model have a substantial capability to project the future changes of extreme temperature in the 21st century. The method also shows its ability to measure extreme precipitation/ drought events. In the future we will introduce a new diagram to systematically evaluate the performance of the four statistical moments in climate model output, moreover, the human and economic impacts of extreme weather events will also be conducted.

  8. Rinoplastia do nariz negróide por via intra-oral sem ressecções externas: avaliação da eficácia da técnica Negroid nose's rinoplasty through intra-oral approach without external excisions: evaluation of the efficiency of the technique

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    Helton Traber de Castilho


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a eficácia da técnica de redução da largura da base nasal do nariz negróide, modificando a inclinação dos eixos das narinas pela mobilização de tecidos internos, por abordagem intra-oral, evitando cicatrizes externas. MÉTODOS: Foram operadas 11 pacientes adulta do sexo feminino, com idade variando entre 19 a 45 anos, distribuindo-se em 2 da raça caucasóide e 9 da raça negróide, sendo desta 5 de cor parda e 4 de cor negra. O método de fotografia foi padronizado, e as imagens em papel foram digitalizadas. Por meio de software foram mensurados nas fotografias pré-operatórias e com 3 meses após a rinoplastia, 8 índices relativos à base nasal baseados em pontos antropométricos. Os valores obtidos foram submetidos à análise estatística descritiva e inferencial. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante em 7 índices relativos a redução da largura da base nasal e à inclinação dos eixos das narinas. Apenas houve alteração significante no aumento do Ângulo Nasolabial (p=0,001. CONCLUSÃO: A técnica de rinoplastia de nariz negróide por via intra-oral sem ressecções externas, apenas com mobilização dos tecidos internos, não é eficaz para a reduzir a largura da base nasal.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate effectiveness of the technique of reduction of the width of the nasal base of negroid nose, modifying the inclination of the axes of the nostrils for the mobilization of internal tissues, through intra-oral approach, avoiding external scars. METHODS: Eleven adult female patients were operated with age varying between 19 to 45 years old, being distributed in 2 of the Caucasoid race and 9 of negroid race, being of this 5 brown color and 4 of black color. The picture method was standardized, and images in paper were digitized. Through software they were measured in the pre-operative pictures and with 3 months after the rhinoplasty. 8 relative indexes to the nasal base based on

  9. Avaliação dos potenciais evocados relacionados a eventos (ERP-P300 em pacientes com cirrose hepática sem encefalopatia Evaluation of the event-related potential (ERP-P300 in patients with hepatic cirrhosis without encephalopathy

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    Vinicius Teodoro


    Full Text Available RACIONAL: Na cirrose hepática ocorrem alterações na estrutura do fígado, levando à perda das funções do órgão, com conseqüências neuropsiquiátricas, como disfunções cognitivas. Um dos meios mais efetivos para avaliar objetivamente as funções cognitivas é medir a atividade eletrofisiológica do sistema nervoso central através do potencial evocado relacionado a eventos (ERP-P300. OBJETIVO: Estudar a utilidade do potencial evocado relacionado a eventos (ERP, para avaliar distúrbios cognitivos em pacientes com cirrose hepática e como auxiliar no diagnóstico da encefalopatia hepática mínima. MÉTODO: Foram selecionados 50 pacientes, diagnosticados com cirrose hepática sem sinais clínicos de encefalopatia hepática e 35 voluntários saudáveis de idades e sexo semelhantes. Em todos os pacientes foram realizados exames clínico-neurológico e laboratoriais. Para identificação do prejuízo cognitivo foi utilizado o ERP-P300 e obtida a média da latência da onda P300. RESULTADOS: Houve diferença significativa entre as médias da latência do ERP-P300 do grupo cirrótico e controle. CONCLUSÃO: A realização do ERP-P300 é simples, depende de fatores controláveis de variação e tem fácil reprodutibilidade, podendo ser útil para o rastreio de distúrbios cognitivos em pacientes com cirrose e auxiliar no diagnóstico de encefalopatia hepática mínima.BACKGROUND: In hepatic cirrhosis structural liver alterations occur leading to the loss of the organ functions with neuro-psychiatric consequence, as cognitive dysfunctions. One of the most effective ways of objectively evaluating cognition is to measure electrophysiological activity in the central nervous system trough event-related potentials (ERP-P300. AIM: To assess the value of the event-related potential (ERP in order to determine cognitive disturbances in patients with liver cirrhosis and to assist in the diagnosis of minimal hepatic encephalopathy. METHODS: Fifty

  10. Toward global waveform tomography of the whole mantle using SEM: Efficient simulation of the global wavefield using a homogenized crust (United States)

    French, S. W.; Lekic, V.; Romanowicz, B. A.


    As global waveform-modeling schemes rooted in perturbation theory are supplanted by fully numerical alternatives, such as the Spectral Element Method (e.g. SEM: Komatitsch and Tromp, 2002), the improved wavefield accuracy for complex 3D structures also carries increased computational cost. Lekic and Romanowicz (2010) inverted waveforms of fundamental and higher mode surface waves for a radially anisotropic upper-mantle Vs model using SEM (SEMum). The SEM computations were made feasible by an appropriate choice of cutoff period (T≥ 60 s.), as well as the implementation of a homogenized anisotropic crustal layer based on fitting of short period group velocity dispersion curves. These choices allowed for an efficient SEM mesh undeformed by true Moho topography. Further, instead of homogenization of a possibly biased a priori crustal model, Lekic and Romanowicz jointly inverted for the crustal layer, constrained by surface wave group velocity dispersion maps for T≥ 25 s. We are currently developing a radially anisotropic Vs model of the whole mantle using SEM, following an approach broadly similar to that employed in SEMum. Extension of this methodology to imaging of lower-mantle structure requires the inclusion of a body wave dataset, and thus shorter-period modeling of the global wavefield (T≥ 32 s.). While this period range dictates finer sampling of our SEM mesh, reduced computational cost is still possible through the crustal homogenization scheme. Here, we first discuss the development of an analogous homogenized crustal model and its validity for both the fundamental and higher mode surface wave and the body wave datasets. We focus on maintaining a simplified Moho topography, thus obviating expensive deformation of the SEM mesh, while accurately treating valuable surface-reflected body wave phases (ex: multiple ScS). Second, we discuss implications of treating the crust in this manner for the overall inversion methodology. In particular, we intend to

  11. Electronic structure and optical properties of (BeTen/(ZnSem superlattices

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    Caid M.


    Full Text Available The structural, electronic and optical properties of (BeTen/(ZnSem superlattices have been computationally evaluated for different configurations with m = n and m≠n using the full-potential linear muffin-tin method. The exchange and correlation potentials are treated by the local density approximation (LDA. The ground state properties of (BeTen/(ZnSem binary compounds are determined and compared with the available data. It is found that the superlattice band gaps vary depending on the layers used. The optical constants, including the dielectric function ε(ω, the refractive index n(ω and the refractivity R(ω, are calculated for radiation energies up to 35 eV.

  12. Application of single particle analysis performed by SEM-EDX to air quality studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deboudt, K; Choel, M; Flament, P [Universite du Littoral Cote d' Opale, FRE CNRS 2816 ELICO, Wimereux (France)], E-mail:


    Single-particle analysis of short-term aerosol samplings can provide information on the rapid evolution of size distribution and chemical composition of pollution aerosols, notably in source areas where reactive compounds are present. The aim of this work is to evaluate the capability of automated particle analysis performed by SEM-EDX to describe such rapid evolutions. Two sampling campaigns were performed at a highly urbanised and industrialised coastal site. The first one corresponded to low atmospheric particle loads and low temporal variation of particle mass concentrations. In these conditions, the lower analysed particle number to yield representative results was 1 000 particles per impaction stage. During the second one, a pollution event with a significant increase in particle mass concentrations was recorded. The ability of automated SEM-EDX to describe short temporal variation in particle chemical composition was demonstrated here.

  13. Expanding the Conversation about SEM: Advancing SEM Efforts to Improve Student Learning and Persistence--Part I (United States)

    Yale, Amanda


    It's now nearly ten years since the author started participating in and presenting at national conferences related to strategic enrollment management (SEM). Having entered this profession with nearly 20 years of experience in transitional initiatives related to the first-year experience and academic advisement services, she has perceived an…

  14. Development and Evaluation of Amino Acid Molecular Models

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    Aparecido R. Silva


    Full Text Available The comprehension of structure and function of proteins has a tight relationshipwith the development of structural biology. However, biochemistry students usuallyfind difficulty to visualize the structures when they use only schematic drawings ofdidactic books. The representation of three-dimensional structures of somebiomolecules with ludic models, built with representative units, have supplied tothe students and teachers a successfully experience to better visualize andcorrelate the structures to the real molecules. The present work shows thedeveloped models and the process to produce the representative units of the mainamino acids in industrial scale. The design and applicability of the representativeunits were discussed with many teachers and some suggestions wereimplemented to the models. The preliminary evaluation and perspective ofutilization by researchers show that the work is in the right direction. At the actualstage, the models are defined, prototypes were made and will be presented in thismeeting. The moulds for the units are at the final stage of construction and trial inspecialized tool facilities. The last term will consist of an effective evaluation of thedidactic tool for the teaching/learning process in Structural Molecular Biology. Theevaluation protocol is being elaborated containing simple and objective questions,similar to those used in research on science teaching.

  15. Effects of question formats on causal judgments and model evaluation. (United States)

    Shou, Yiyun; Smithson, Michael


    Evaluation of causal reasoning models depends on how well the subjects' causal beliefs are assessed. Elicitation of causal beliefs is determined by the experimental questions put to subjects. We examined the impact of question formats commonly used in causal reasoning research on participant's responses. The results of our experiment (Study 1) demonstrate that both the mean and homogeneity of the responses can be substantially influenced by the type of question (structure induction versus strength estimation versus prediction). Study 2A demonstrates that subjects' responses to a question requiring them to predict the effect of a candidate cause can be significantly lower and more heterogeneous than their responses to a question asking them to diagnose a cause when given an effect. Study 2B suggests that diagnostic reasoning can strongly benefit from cues relating to temporal precedence of the cause in the question. Finally, we evaluated 16 variations of recent computational models and found the model fitting was substantially influenced by the type of questions. Our results show that future research in causal reasoning should place a high priority on disentangling the effects of question formats from the effects of experimental manipulations, because that will enable comparisons between models of causal reasoning uncontaminated by method artifact.

  16. Evaluation of cat brain infarction model using microPET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. J.; Lee, D. S.; Kim, J. H.; Hwang, D. W.; Jung, J. G.; Lee, M. C [College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, S. M [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    PET has some disadvantage in the imaging of small animal due to poor resolution. With the advance of microPET scanner, it is possible to image small animals. However, the image quality was not so much satisfactory as human image. As cats have relatively large sized brain, cat brain imaging was superior to mice or rat. In this study, we established the cat brain infarction model and evaluate it and its temporal change using microPET scanner. Two adult male cats were used. Anesthesia was done with xylazine and ketamine HCl. A burr hole was made at 1cm right lateral to the bregma. Collagenase type IV 10 ul was injected using 30G needle for 5 minutes to establish the infarction model. F-18 FDG microPET (Concorde Microsystems Inc., Knoxville. TN) scans were performed 1. 11 and 32 days after the infarction. In addition. 18F-FDG PET scans were performed using Gemini PET scanner (Philips medical systems. CA, USA) 13 and 47 days after the infarction. Two cat brain infarction models were established. The glucose metabolism of an infraction lesion improved with time. An infarction lesion was also distinguishable in the Gemini PET scan. We successfully established the cat brain infarction model and evaluated the infarcted lesion and its temporal change using F-18 FDG microPET scanner.

  17. Evaluation of cat brain infarction model using microPET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Jin; Lee, Dong Soo; Kim, Yun Hui; Hwang, Do Won; Kim, Jin Su; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Sang Moo [Korea Institite of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    PET has some disadvantage in the imaging of small animal due to poor resolution. With the advent of microPET scanner, it is possible to image small animals. However, the image quality was not good enough as human image. Due to larger brain, cat brain imaging was superior to mouse or rat. In this study, we established the cat brain infarction model and evaluate it and its temporal change using microPET scanner. Two adult male cats were used. Anesthesia was done with xylazine and ketamine HCI. A burr hole was made at 1 cm right lateral to the bregma. Collagenase type IV 10 {mu}l was injected using 30 G needle for 5 minutes to establish the infarction model. {sup 18}F-FDG microPET (Concorde Microsystems Inc., Knoxville, TN) scans were performed 1, 11 and 32 days after the infarction. In addition, {sup 18}F-FDG PET scans were performed using human PET scanner (Gemini, Philips medical systems, CA, USA) 13 and 47 days after the infarction. Two cat brain infarction models were established. The glucose metabolism of an infarction lesion improved with time. An infarction lesion was also distinguishable in the human PET scan. We successfully established the cat brain infarction model and evaluated the infarcted lesion and its temporal change using {sup 18}F-FDG microPET scanner.

  18. Genetic evaluation of European quails by random regression models

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    Flaviana Miranda Gonçalves


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare different random regression models, defined from different classes of heterogeneity of variance combined with different Legendre polynomial orders for the estimate of (covariance of quails. The data came from 28,076 observations of 4,507 female meat quails of the LF1 lineage. Quail body weights were determined at birth and 1, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 days of age. Six different classes of residual variance were fitted to Legendre polynomial functions (orders ranging from 2 to 6 to determine which model had the best fit to describe the (covariance structures as a function of time. According to the evaluated criteria (AIC, BIC and LRT, the model with six classes of residual variances and of sixth-order Legendre polynomial was the best fit. The estimated additive genetic variance increased from birth to 28 days of age, and dropped slightly from 35 to 42 days. The heritability estimates decreased along the growth curve and changed from 0.51 (1 day to 0.16 (42 days. Animal genetic and permanent environmental correlation estimates between weights and age classes were always high and positive, except for birth weight. The sixth order Legendre polynomial, along with the residual variance divided into six classes was the best fit for the growth rate curve of meat quails; therefore, they should be considered for breeding evaluation processes by random regression models.

  19. Novel automatic endotracheal position confirmation system: mannequin model algorithm evaluation. (United States)

    Lederman, Dror; Shamir, Micha Y


    A novel endotracheal intubation accurate positioning confirmation system based on image classification algorithm is introduced and evaluated using a mannequin model. The system comprises a miniature complementary metal oxide silicon sensor (CMOS) attached to the tip of a semi rigid stylet and connected to a digital signal processor (DSP) with an integrated video acquisition component. Video signals acquired and processed by an algorithm implemented on the processor. During mannequin intubations, video signals were continuously recorded. A total of 10 videos were recorded. From each video, 7 images of esophageal intubation and 8 images of endotracheal intubation (in which the carina could be clearly seen) were extracted, yielding a total of 150 images taken from arbitrary positions and angles which were processed by the confirmation algorithm. The performance of the confirmation algorithm was evaluated using a leave-one-out method: in each iteration, 149 images were used to train the system and estimate the models, and the remaining image was used to test the system. This process was repeated 150 times such that each image participated once in testing. The system correctly identified 80 out of 80 endotracheal intubations and 70 out of 70 esophageal intubations. This fully automatic image recognition system was used successfully to discriminate airway carina and non-carina endotracheal tube positioning. The system had a 100% success rate using a mannequin model and therefore further investigation including live tissue model and human research should follow.

  20. Hierarchical Bayesian model averaging for hydrostratigraphic modeling: Uncertainty segregation and comparative evaluation (United States)

    Tsai, Frank T.-C.; Elshall, Ahmed S.


    Analysts are often faced with competing propositions for each uncertain model component. How can we judge that we select a correct proposition(s) for an uncertain model component out of numerous possible propositions? We introduce the hierarchical Bayesian model averaging (HBMA) method as a multimodel framework for uncertainty analysis. The HBMA allows for segregating, prioritizing, and evaluating different sources of uncertainty and their corresponding competing propositions through a hierarchy of BMA models that forms a BMA tree. We apply the HBMA to conduct uncertainty analysis on the reconstructed hydrostratigraphic architectures of the Baton Rouge aquifer-fault system, Louisiana. Due to uncertainty in model data, structure, and parameters, multiple possible hydrostratigraphic models are produced and calibrated as base models. The study considers four sources of uncertainty. With respect to data uncertainty, the study considers two calibration data sets. With respect to model structure, the study considers three different variogram models, two geological stationarity assumptions and two fault conceptualizations. The base models are produced following a combinatorial design to allow for uncertainty segregation. Thus, these four uncertain model components with their corresponding competing model propositions result in 24 base models. The results show that the systematic dissection of the uncertain model components along with their corresponding competing propositions allows for detecting the robust model propositions and the major sources of uncertainty.

  1. Risk Evaluation of Railway Coal Transportation Network Based on Multi Level Grey Evaluation Model (United States)

    Niu, Wei; Wang, Xifu


    The railway transport mode is currently the most important way of coal transportation, and now China’s railway coal transportation network has become increasingly perfect, but there is still insufficient capacity, some lines close to saturation and other issues. In this paper, the theory and method of risk assessment, analytic hierarchy process and multi-level gray evaluation model are applied to the risk evaluation of coal railway transportation network in China. Based on the example analysis of Shanxi railway coal transportation network, to improve the internal structure and the competitiveness of the market.

  2. Evaluation of wave runup predictions from numerical and parametric models (United States)

    Stockdon, Hilary F.; Thompson, David M.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Long, Joseph W.


    Wave runup during storms is a primary driver of coastal evolution, including shoreline and dune erosion and barrier island overwash. Runup and its components, setup and swash, can be predicted from a parameterized model that was developed by comparing runup observations to offshore wave height, wave period, and local beach slope. Because observations during extreme storms are often unavailable, a numerical model is used to simulate the storm-driven runup to compare to the parameterized model and then develop an approach to improve the accuracy of the parameterization. Numerically simulated and parameterized runup were compared to observations to evaluate model accuracies. The analysis demonstrated that setup was accurately predicted by both the parameterized model and numerical simulations. Infragravity swash heights were most accurately predicted by the parameterized model. The numerical model suffered from bias and gain errors that depended on whether a one-dimensional or two-dimensional spatial domain was used. Nonetheless, all of the predictions were significantly correlated to the observations, implying that the systematic errors can be corrected. The numerical simulations did not resolve the incident-band swash motions, as expected, and the parameterized model performed best at predicting incident-band swash heights. An assimilated prediction using a weighted average of the parameterized model and the numerical simulations resulted in a reduction in prediction error variance. Finally, the numerical simulations were extended to include storm conditions that have not been previously observed. These results indicated that the parameterized predictions of setup may need modification for extreme conditions; numerical simulations can be used to extend the validity of the parameterized predictions of infragravity swash; and numerical simulations systematically underpredict incident swash, which is relatively unimportant under extreme conditions.

  3. Evaluating the performance and utility of regional climate models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jens H.; Carter, Timothy R.; Rummukainen, Markku


    This special issue of Climatic Change contains a series of research articles documenting co-ordinated work carried out within a 3-year European Union project 'Prediction of Regional scenarios and Uncertainties for Defining European Climate change risks and Effects' (PRUDENCE). The main objective...... of the PRUDENCE project was to provide high resolution climate change scenarios for Europe at the end of the twenty-first century by means of dynamical downscaling (regional climate modelling) of global climate simulations. The first part of the issue comprises seven overarching PRUDENCE papers on: (1) the design...... of the model simulations and analyses of climate model performance, (2 and 3) evaluation and intercomparison of simulated climate changes, (4 and 5) specialised analyses of impacts on water resources and on other sectors including agriculture, ecosystems, energy, and transport, (6) investigation of extreme...

  4. Modeling and evaluation of information systems using coloured petri network

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    Ehsan Zamirpour


    Full Text Available Nowadays with the growth of organizations and their affiliates, the importance of information systems has increased. Functional and non-functional requirements of information systems in an organization are supported. There are literally several techniques to support the functional requirements in terms of software methodologies, but support for the second set of requirements has received little attention. Software Performance Engineering (SPE forum tries to address this issue by presenting software methodologies to support both types of requirements. In this paper, we present a formal model for the evaluation of system performance based on a pragmatic model. Because of supporting the concurrency concepts, petri net has a higher priority than queuing system. For mapping UML to colored Petri net diagram, we use an intermediate graph. The preliminary results indicate that the proposed model may save significant amount of computations.

  5. Evaluation of the St. Lucia geothermal resource: macroeconomic models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burris, A.E.; Trocki, L.K.; Yeamans, M.K.; Kolstad, C.D.


    A macroeconometric model describing the St. Lucian economy was developed using 1970 to 1982 economic data. Results of macroeconometric forecasts for the period 1983 through 1985 show an increase in gross domestic product (GDP) for 1983 and 1984 with a decline in 1985. The rate of population growth is expected to exceed GDP growth so that a small decline in per capita GDP will occur. We forecast that garment exports will increase, providing needed employment and foreign exchange. To obtain a longer-term but more general outlook on St. Lucia's economy, and to evaluate the benefit of geothermal energy development, we applied a nonlinear programming model. The model maximizes discounted cumulative consumption.

  6. Evaluation of the integrated community based home care model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LR Uys


    Full Text Available In 1999-2000 the Integrated Community-Based Home Care model for the care of people with AIDS in communities were implemented in seven sites across the country. The post-implementation evaluation showed that most respondents felt that the model could be replicated if a functioning and informed network including all partners, and a strong management team were in place. The effects of the project were mainly positive for all stakeholders (hospice, clinic, hospital, PWA and their carers, professionals and other community members. Hospitals and community- based services became more aware of and involved in the needs of PWA and felt that the model enabled them to address these needs. PWA and their carers felt supported and respected.

  7. [Evaluation of a face model for surgical education]. (United States)

    Schneider, G; Voigt, S; Rettinger, G


    The complex anatomy of the human face requires a high degree of experience and skills in surgical dressing of facial soft tissue defects. The previous education contains literature studies and supervision during surgery, according to surgical spectrum of the educating hospital. A structured education including a training of different surgical methods on a model and slow increase of complexity could improve considerably the following education related to the patient.During a cooperative project, the 3 di GmbH and the Department of Otolaryngology at the Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena developed a face model for surgical education that allows the training of surgical interventions in the face. The model was used during the 6th and 8th Jena Workshop for Functional and Aesthetic Surgery as well as a workshop for surgical suturation, and tested and evaluated by the attendees.The attendees mostly rated the work-ability of the models and the possibility to practice on a realistic face model with artificial skin very well and beneficial. This model allows a repeatable and structured education of surgical standards, and is very helpful in preparation for operating facial defects of a patient. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Global TEC maps based on GNNS data: 2. Model evaluation (United States)

    Mukhtarov, P.; Pancheva, D.; Andonov, B.; Pashova, L.


    present paper presents a detailed statistical evaluation of the global empirical background TEC model built by using the CODE TEC data for full 13 years, 1999-2011, and described in Part 1. It has been found that the empirical probability density distribution resembles more the Laplace than the Gaussian distribution. A further insight into the nature and sources of the model's error variable led up to building of a new error model. It has been constructed by using a similar approach to that of the background TEC model. The spatial-temporal variability of the RMSE (root mean squares error) is presented as a multiplication of three separable functions which describe solar cycle, seasonal and LT dependences. The error model contains 486 constants that have been determined by least squares fitting techniques. The overall standard deviation of the predicted RMSE with respect to the empirical one is 0.7 TECU. The error model could offer a prediction approach on the basis of which the RMSE depending on the solar activity, season and LT is predicted.

  9. Modeling and evaluation of greenhouse for floriculture in subtropics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, K.S.; Jha, Madan K.; Tiwari, K.N.; Singh, Amanpreet [Agricultural and Food Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India)


    Greenhouse technology provides favorable microclimate for year round cultivation of crops. Floricultural production in the greenhouse is an attractive venture for subtropical India due to its economic and aesthetic value. However, production and quality of flowers suffer due to high summer temperatures. Hence, development of a reliable model to predict the microclimate of greenhouse is necessary to manage the crop production and to optimize the design. Experiments were conducted in two different shape and size of greenhouses to evaluate the microclimate and crop performance. A simple dynamic model was developed to predict air temperature, vapor pressure and canopy temperatures. Submodels of natural ventilation and crop transpiration constituted the sensible and latent heat transfers in the greenhouse. The model was validated for Gerbera crop cultivation during winter and summer seasons. Good agreement was found between the predicted and observed values of temperature with RMSE values of 0.73 C and 0.87 C during winter and summer seasons, respectively. Sensitivity analysis of the model showed that width of side opening and angle of roof vent influenced the model performance considerably. It was concluded that the model can be used as a design tool for prediction of microclimate in the greenhouse for floricultural production. (author)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rueß


    Full Text Available In the last decades the consumer and industrial market for non-projective cameras has been growing notably. This has led to the development of camera description models other than the pinhole model and their employment in mostly homogeneous camera systems. Heterogeneous camera systems (for instance, combine Fisheye and Catadioptric cameras can also be easily thought of for real applications. However, it has not been quite clear, how accurate stereo vision with these cameras and models can be. In this paper, different accuracy aspects are addressed by analytical inspection, numerical simulation as well as real image data evaluation. This analysis is generic, for any camera projection model, although only polynomial and rational projection models are used for distortion free, Catadioptric and Fisheye lenses. Note that this is different to polynomial and rational radial distortion models which have been addressed extensively in literature. For single camera analysis it turns out that point features towards the image sensor borders are significantly more accurate than in center regions of the sensor. For heterogeneous two camera systems it turns out, that reconstruction accuracy decreases significantly towards image borders as different projective distortions occur.

  11. SEM AutoAnalysis: enhancing photomask and NIL defect disposition and review (United States)

    Schulz, Kristian; Egodage, Kokila; Tabbone, Gilles; Ehrlich, Christian; Garetto, Anthony


    For defect disposition and repair verification regarding printability, AIMS™ is the state of the art measurement tool in industry. With its unique capability of capturing aerial images of photomasks it is the one method that comes closest to emulating the printing behaviour of a scanner. However for nanoimprint lithography (NIL) templates aerial images cannot be applied to evaluate the success of a repair process. Hence, for NIL defect dispositioning scanning, electron microscopy (SEM) imaging is the method of choice. In addition, it has been a standard imaging method for further root cause analysis of defects and defect review on optical photomasks which enables 2D or even 3D mask profiling at high resolutions. In recent years a trend observed in mask shops has been the automation of processes that traditionally were driven by operators. This of course has brought many advantages one of which is freeing cost intensive labour from conducting repetitive and tedious work. Furthermore, it reduces variability in processes due to different operator skill and experience levels which at the end contributes to eliminating the human factor. Taking these factors into consideration, one of the software based solutions available under the FAVOR® brand to support customer needs is the aerial image evaluation software, AIMS™ AutoAnalysis (AAA). It provides fully automated analysis of AIMS™ images and runs in parallel to measurements. This is enabled by its direct connection and communication with the AIMS™tools. As one of many positive outcomes, generating automated result reports is facilitated, standardizing the mask manufacturing workflow. Today, AAA has been successfully introduced into production at multiple customers and is supporting the workflow as described above. These trends indeed have triggered the demand for similar automation with respect to SEM measurements leading to the development of SEM AutoAnalysis (SAA). It aims towards a fully automated SEM image

  12. Metal Mixture Modeling Evaluation project: 2. Comparison of four modeling approaches (United States)

    Farley, Kevin J.; Meyer, Joe; Balistrieri, Laurie S.; DeSchamphelaere, Karl; Iwasaki, Yuichi; Janssen, Colin; Kamo, Masashi; Lofts, Steve; Mebane, Christopher A.; Naito, Wataru; Ryan, Adam C.; Santore, Robert C.; Tipping, Edward


    As part of the Metal Mixture Modeling Evaluation (MMME) project, models were developed by the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (Japan), the U.S. Geological Survey (USA), HDR⎪HydroQual, Inc. (USA), and the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (UK) to address the effects of metal mixtures on biological responses of aquatic organisms. A comparison of the 4 models, as they were presented at the MMME Workshop in Brussels, Belgium (May 2012), is provided herein. Overall, the models were found to be similar in structure (free ion activities computed by WHAM; specific or non-specific binding of metals/cations in or on the organism; specification of metal potency factors and/or toxicity response functions to relate metal accumulation to biological response). Major differences in modeling approaches are attributed to various modeling assumptions (e.g., single versus multiple types of binding site on the organism) and specific calibration strategies that affected the selection of model parameters. The models provided a reasonable description of additive (or nearly additive) toxicity for a number of individual toxicity test results. Less-than-additive toxicity was more difficult to describe with the available models. Because of limitations in the available datasets and the strong inter-relationships among the model parameters (log KM values, potency factors, toxicity response parameters), further evaluation of specific model assumptions and calibration strategies is needed.

  13. Statistical procedures for evaluating daily and monthly hydrologic model predictions (United States)

    Coffey, M.E.; Workman, S.R.; Taraba, J.L.; Fogle, A.W.


    The overall study objective was to evaluate the applicability of different qualitative and quantitative methods for comparing daily and monthly SWAT computer model hydrologic streamflow predictions to observed data, and to recommend statistical methods for use in future model evaluations. Statistical methods were tested using daily streamflows and monthly equivalent runoff depths. The statistical techniques included linear regression, Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency, nonparametric tests, t-test, objective functions, autocorrelation, and cross-correlation. None of the methods specifically applied to the non-normal distribution and dependence between data points for the daily predicted and observed data. Of the tested methods, median objective functions, sign test, autocorrelation, and cross-correlation were most applicable for the daily data. The robust coefficient of determination (CD*) and robust modeling efficiency (EF*) objective functions were the preferred methods for daily model results due to the ease of comparing these values with a fixed ideal reference value of one. Predicted and observed monthly totals were more normally distributed, and there was less dependence between individual monthly totals than was observed for the corresponding predicted and observed daily values. More statistical methods were available for comparing SWAT model-predicted and observed monthly totals. The 1995 monthly SWAT model predictions and observed data had a regression Rr2 of 0.70, a Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency of 0.41, and the t-test failed to reject the equal data means hypothesis. The Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient and the R r2 coefficient were the preferred methods for monthly results due to the ability to compare these coefficients to a set ideal value of one.

  14. The Role of Sexually Explicit Material (SEM) in the Sexual Development of Black Young Same-Sex-Attracted Men (United States)

    Morgan, Anthony; Ogunbajo, Adedotun; Trent, Maria; Harper, Gary W.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis


    Sexually explicit material (SEM) (including Internet, video, and print) may play a key role in the lives of Black same-sex sexually active youth by providing the only information to learn about sexual development. There is limited school-and/or family-based sex education to serve as models for sexual behaviors for Black youth. We describe the role SEM plays in the sexual development of a sample of Black same-sex attracted (SSA) young adolescent men ages 15–19. Adolescents recruited from clinics, social networking sites, and through snowball sampling were invited to participate in a 90-min, semi-structured qualitative interview. Most participants described using SEM prior to their first same-sex sexual experience. Participants described using SEM primarily for sexual development, including learning about sexual organs and function, the mechanics of same-gender sex, and to negotiate one’s sexual identity. Secondary functions were to determine readiness for sex; to learn about sexual performance, including understanding sexual roles and responsibilities (e.g., “top” or “bottom”); to introduce sexual performance scripts; and to develop models for how sex should feel (e.g., pleasure and pain). Youth also described engaging in sexual behaviors (including condom non-use and/or swallowing ejaculate) that were modeled on SEM. Comprehensive sexuality education programs should be designed to address the unmet needs of young, Black SSA young men, with explicit focus on sexual roles and behaviors that may be inaccurately portrayed and/or involve sexual risk-taking (such as unprotected anal intercourse and swallowing ejaculate) in SEM. This work also calls for development of Internet-based HIV/STI prevention strategies targeting young Black SSA men who maybe accessing SEM. PMID:25677334

  15. Evaluating the uncertainty of input quantities in measurement models (United States)

    Possolo, Antonio; Elster, Clemens


    The Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) gives guidance about how values and uncertainties should be assigned to the input quantities that appear in measurement models. This contribution offers a concrete proposal for how that guidance may be updated in light of the advances in the evaluation and expression of measurement uncertainty that were made in the course of the twenty years that have elapsed since the publication of the GUM, and also considering situations that the GUM does not yet contemplate. Our motivation is the ongoing conversation about a new edition of the GUM. While generally we favour a Bayesian approach to uncertainty evaluation, we also recognize the value that other approaches may bring to the problems considered here, and focus on methods for uncertainty evaluation and propagation that are widely applicable, including to cases that the GUM has not yet addressed. In addition to Bayesian methods, we discuss maximum-likelihood estimation, robust statistical methods, and measurement models where values of nominal properties play the same role that input quantities play in traditional models. We illustrate these general-purpose techniques in concrete examples, employing data sets that are realistic but that also are of conveniently small sizes. The supplementary material available online lists the R computer code that we have used to produce these examples ( Although we strive to stay close to clause 4 of the GUM, which addresses the evaluation of uncertainty for input quantities, we depart from it as we review the classes of measurement models that we believe are generally useful in contemporary measurement science. We also considerably expand and update the treatment that the GUM gives to Type B evaluations of uncertainty: reviewing the state-of-the-art, disciplined approach to the elicitation of expert knowledge, and its encapsulation in probability distributions that are usable in

  16. Structural Equation Model Trees (United States)

    Brandmaier, Andreas M.; von Oertzen, Timo; McArdle, John J.; Lindenberger, Ulman


    In the behavioral and social sciences, structural equation models (SEMs) have become widely accepted as a modeling tool for the relation between latent and observed variables. SEMs can be seen as a unification of several multivariate analysis techniques. SEM Trees combine the strengths of SEMs and the decision tree paradigm by building tree…

  17. Comprehensive evaluation of Shahid Motahari Educational Festival during 2008-2013 based on CIPP Evaluation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SN Hosseini


    Full Text Available Introduction: Education quality improvement is one of the main goals of higher education. In this regard, has been provided various solutions such as holding educational Shahid Motahari annual festivals, in order to appreciate of educational process, development and innovation educational processes and procedures, preparation of calibration standards and processes of accrediting educational. The aim of this study was to comprehensive evaluating of educational Shahid Motahari festival during six periods (2008-2013 based on CIPP evaluation model. Method : This cross-sectional study was conducted among the 473 faculty members include deputies and administrators educational, administrators and faculty members of medical education development centers, members of the scientific committee and faculty member’s participants in Shahid Motahari festival from 42 universities medical sciences of Iran. Data collection based on self-report writing questionnaires. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 20 at α=0.05 significant level. Results: The subjects reported 75.13%, 65.33%, 64.5%, and 59.21 % of receivable scores of process, context, input and product, respectively. In addition, there was a direct and significant correlation between all domains . Conclusion : According to the study findings, in the evaluation and correlation of domains models, we can explicitly how to holding festivals was appropriate and the main reason for the poor evaluation in product domain is related to the problems in input and product domains.

  18. Evaluation of the performance of DIAS ionospheric forecasting models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsagouri Ioanna


    Full Text Available Nowcasting and forecasting ionospheric products and services for the European region are regularly provided since August 2006 through the European Digital upper Atmosphere Server (DIAS, Currently, DIAS ionospheric forecasts are based on the online implementation of two models: (i the solar wind driven autoregression model for ionospheric short-term forecast (SWIF, which combines historical and real-time ionospheric observations with solar-wind parameters obtained in real time at the L1 point from NASA ACE spacecraft, and (ii the geomagnetically correlated autoregression model (GCAM, which is a time series forecasting method driven by a synthetic geomagnetic index. In this paper we investigate the operational ability and the accuracy of both DIAS models carrying out a metrics-based evaluation of their performance under all possible conditions. The analysis was established on the systematic comparison between models’ predictions with actual observations obtained over almost one solar cycle (1998–2007 at four European ionospheric locations (Athens, Chilton, Juliusruh and Rome and on the comparison of the models’ performance against two simple prediction strategies, the median- and the persistence-based predictions during storm conditions. The results verify operational validity for both models and quantify their prediction accuracy under all possible conditions in support of operational applications but also of comparative studies in assessing or expanding the current ionospheric forecasting capabilities.

  19. Communicating Sustainability: An Operational Model for Evaluating Corporate Websites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Siano


    Full Text Available The interest in corporate sustainability has increased rapidly in recent years and has encouraged organizations to adopt appropriate digital communication strategies, in which the corporate website plays a key role. Despite this growing attention in both the academic and business communities, models for the analysis and evaluation of online sustainability communication have not been developed to date. This paper aims to develop an operational model to identify and assess the requirements of sustainability communication in corporate websites. It has been developed from a literature review on corporate sustainability and digital communication and the analysis of the websites of the organizations included in the “Global CSR RepTrak 2015” by the Reputation Institute. The model identifies the core dimensions of online sustainability communication (orientation, structure, ergonomics, content—OSEC, sub-dimensions, such as stakeholder engagement and governance tools, communication principles, and measurable items (e.g., presence of the materiality matrix, interactive graphs. A pilot study on the websites of the energy and utilities companies included in the Dow Jones Sustainability World Index 2015 confirms the applicability of the OSEC framework. Thus, the model can provide managers and digital communication consultants with an operational tool that is useful for developing an industry ranking and assessing the best practices. The model can also help practitioners to identify corrective actions in the critical areas of digital sustainability communication and avoid greenwashing.

  20. Introducing A Hybrid Data Mining Model to Evaluate Customer Loyalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Alizadeh


    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was introducing a comprehensive model of bank customers᾽ loyalty evaluation based on the assessment and comparison of different clustering methods᾽ performance. This study also pursues the following specific objectives: a using different clustering methods and comparing them for customer classification, b finding the effective variables in determining the customer loyalty, and c using different collective classification methods to increase the modeling accuracy and comparing the results with the basic methods. Since loyal customers generate more profit, this study aims at introducing a two-step model for classification of customers and their loyalty. For this purpose, various methods of clustering such as K-medoids, X-means and K-means were used, the last of which outperformed the other two through comparing with Davis-Bouldin index. Customers were clustered by using K-means and members of these four clusters were analyzed and labeled. Then, a predictive model was run based on demographic variables of customers using various classification methods such as DT (Decision Tree, ANN (Artificial Neural Networks, NB (Naive Bayes, KNN (K-Nearest Neighbors and SVM (Support Vector Machine, as well as their bagging and boosting to predict the class of loyal customers. The results showed that the bagging-ANN was the most accurate method in predicting loyal customers. This two-stage model can be used in banks and financial institutions with similar data to identify the type of future customers.

  1. Scenario Evaluator for Electrical Resistivity survey pre-modeling tool (United States)

    Terry, Neil; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Robinson, Judith L.; Slater, Lee D.; Halford, Keith J.; Binley, Andrew; Lane, John W.; Werkema, Dale


    Geophysical tools have much to offer users in environmental, water resource, and geotechnical fields; however, techniques such as electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) are often oversold and/or overinterpreted due to a lack of understanding of the limitations of the techniques, such as the appropriate depth intervals or resolution of the methods. The relationship between ERI data and resistivity is nonlinear; therefore, these limitations depend on site conditions and survey design and are best assessed through forward and inverse modeling exercises prior to field investigations. In this approach, proposed field surveys are first numerically simulated given the expected electrical properties of the site, and the resulting hypothetical data are then analyzed using inverse models. Performing ERI forward/inverse modeling, however, requires substantial expertise and can take many hours to implement. We present a new spreadsheet-based tool, the Scenario Evaluator for Electrical Resistivity (SEER), which features a graphical user interface that allows users to manipulate a resistivity model and instantly view how that model would likely be interpreted by an ERI survey. The SEER tool is intended for use by those who wish to determine the value of including ERI to achieve project goals, and is designed to have broad utility in industry, teaching, and research.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Jovanović


    Full Text Available The research is oriented on improvement of environmental management system (EMS using BSC (Balanced Scorecard model that presents strategic model of measurem ents and improvement of organisational performance. The research will present approach of objectives and environmental management me trics involvement (proposed by literature review in conventional BSC in "Ad Barska plovi dba" organisation. Further we will test creation of ECO-BSC model based on business activities of non-profit organisations in order to improve envir onmental management system in parallel with other systems of management. Using this approach we may obtain 4 models of BSC that includ es elements of environmen tal management system for AD "Barska plovidba". Taking into acc ount that implementation and evaluation need long period of time in AD "Barska plovidba", the final choice will be based on 14598 (Information technology - Software product evaluation and ISO 9126 (Software engineering - Product quality using AHP method. Those standards are usually used for evaluation of quality software product and computer programs that serve in organisation as support and factors for development. So, AHP model will be bas ed on evolution criteria based on suggestion of ISO 9126 standards and types of evaluation from two evaluation teams. Members of team & will be experts in BSC and environmental management system that are not em ployed in AD "Barska Plovidba" organisation. The members of team 2 will be managers of AD "Barska Plovidba" organisation (including manage rs from environmental department. Merging results based on previously cr eated two AHP models, one can obtain the most appropriate BSC that includes elements of environmental management system. The chosen model will present at the same time suggestion for approach choice including ecological metrics in conventional BSC model for firm that has at least one ECO strategic orientation.

  3. Sensitivity of storm wave modeling to wind stress evaluation methods (United States)

    Chen, Yingjian; Yu, Xiping


    The application of the wave boundary layer model (WBLM) for wind stress evaluation to storm wave modeling is studied using Hurricane Katrina (2005) as an example, which is chosen due to its great intensity and good availability of field data. The WBLM is based on the momentum and energy conservation equations and takes into account the physical details of air-sea interaction processes as well as energy dissipation due to the presence of sea spray. Four widely-used bulk-type formulas are also used for comparison. Simulated significant wave heights with WBLM are shown to agree well with the observed data over deep water. The WBLM yields a smaller wind stress coefficient on the left hand side of the hurricane track, which is reasonable considering the effect of the sea state on momentum transfer. Quantitative results show that large differences of the significant wave height are observed in the hurricane core among five wind stress evaluation methods and the differences are up to 12 m, which is in agreement with the general knowlege that the ocean dynamic processes under storm conditions are very sensitive to the amount of momentum exchange at the air-sea interface. However, it is the depth-induced energy dissipation, rather than the wind energy input, that dominates the wave height in the shallow water region. A larger value of depth-induced breaking parameter in the wave model results in better agreement with the measurements over shallow water.

  4. Turix, a dynamic mechanistic model for feed evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Manuel Vargas-Villamil


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to use the Turix model (a new mechanistic dynamic model that can be used for feed evaluation under tropical conditions, along with in situ and in vitro sugar cane experimental data from a previous study, to evaluate sugar cane kinetics through estimation of three parameters associated with ruminal bacterial growth: kM,SmL, the substrate uptake; kLM, the bacterial growth from intermediate metabolite; and Y VFAP,FS, the products related to volatile fatty acid yield. Values of these parameters for the whole sugar cane and its neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF fractions were: a kM, SmL, 16.20, 50.47 and 21.97 mL h-1 (mg M-1 ; b kLM, 96.00, 543.00 and 1,680.00 h-1 ; and, 1.02, 0.40 and 0.23 g g-1 , respectively. Results from the model adjustment showed a slow microbial substrate uptake c Y VFAP, FS and a low biomass yield for whole sugar cane. The highest substrate uptake was obtained for NDF, while the highest biomass yield was obtained for ADF. The interrelation between the parameters kM, SmL showed to be important for biological and Y VFAP, FS description of microorganism growth and VFAP and biomass production.

  5. Uncertainty evaluation in numerical modeling of complex devices (United States)

    Cheng, X.; Monebhurrun, V.


    Numerical simulation is an efficient tool for exploring and understanding the physics of complex devices, e.g. mobile phones. For meaningful results, it is important to evaluate the uncertainty of the numerical simulation. Uncertainty quantification in specific absorption rate (SAR) calculation using a full computer-aided design (CAD) mobile phone model is a challenging task. Since a typical SAR numerical simulation is computationally expensive, the traditional Monte Carlo (MC) simulation method proves inadequate. The unscented transformation (UT) is an alternative and numerically efficient method herein investigated to evaluate the uncertainty in the SAR calculation using the realistic models of two commercially available mobile phones. The electromagnetic simulation process is modeled as a nonlinear mapping with the uncertainty in the inputs e.g. the relative permittivity values of the mobile phone material properties, inducing an uncertainty in the output, e.g. the peak spatial-average SAR value.The numerical simulation results demonstrate that UT may be a potential candidate for the uncertainty quantification in SAR calculations since only a few simulations are necessary to obtain results similar to those obtained after hundreds or thousands of MC simulations.

  6. Evaluation of Algebraic Reynolds Stress Model Assumptions Using Experimental Data (United States)

    Jyoti, B.; Ewing, D.; Matovic, D.


    The accuracy of Rodi's ASM assumption is examined by evaluating the terms in Reynolds stress transport equation and their modelled counterparts. The basic model assumption: Dτ_ij/Dt + partial T_ijl/partial xl = (τ_ij/k )(Dk/Dt + partial Tl /partial xl ) (Rodi( Rodi W., ZAMM.), 56, pp. 219-221, 1976.), can also be broken into two stronger assumptions: Da_ij/Dt = 0 and (2) partial T_ijl/partial xl = (τ_ij/k )(partial Tl /partial xl ) (e.g. Taulbee( Taulbee D. B., Phys. of Fluids), 4(11), pp. 2555-2561, 1992.). Fu et al( Fu S., Huang P.G., Launder B.E. & Leschziner M.A., J. Fluid Eng.), 110(2), pp. 216-221., 1988 examined the accuracy of Rodi's assumption using the results of RSM calculation of axisymmetric jets. Since the RSM results did not accurately predict the experimental results either, it may be useful to examine the basic ASM model assumptions using experimental data. The database of Hussein, Capp and George( Hussein H., Capp S. & George W., J.F.M.), 258, pp.31-75., 1994. is sufficiently detailed to evaluate the terms of Reynolds stress transport equations individually, thus allowing both Rodi's and the stronger assumptions to be tested. For this flow assumption (1) is well satisfied for all the components (including \\overlineuv); however, assumption (2) does not seem as well satisfied.

  7. Modeling of drying kiwi slices and its sensory evaluation. (United States)

    Mahjoorian, Abbas; Mokhtarian, Mohsen; Fayyaz, Nasrin; Rahmati, Fatemeh; Sayyadi, Shabnam; Ariaii, Peiman


    In this study, monolayer drying of kiwi slices was simulated by a laboratory-scale hot-air dryer. The drying process was carried out at three different temperatures of 50, 60, and 70°C. After the end of drying process, initially, the experimental drying data were fitted to the 11 well-known drying models. The results indicated that Two-term model gave better performance compared with other models to monitor the moisture ratio (with average R(2) value equal .998). Also, this study used artificial neural network (ANN) in order to feasibly predict dried kiwi slices moisture ratio (y), based on the time and temperature drying inputs (x1, x2). In order to do this research, two main activation functions called logsig and tanh, widely used in engineering calculations, were applied. The results revealed that, logsig activation function base on 13 neurons in first and second hidden layers were selected as the best configuration to predict the moisture ratio. This network was able to predict moisture ratio with R(2) value .997. Furthermore, kiwi slice favorite is evaluated by sensory evaluation. In this test, sense qualities as color, aroma, flavor, appearance, and chew ability (tissue brittleness) are considered.

  8. A Multiscale Model Evaluates Screening for Neoplasia in Barrett's Esophagus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kit Curtius


    Full Text Available Barrett's esophagus (BE patients are routinely screened for high grade dysplasia (HGD and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC through endoscopic screening, during which multiple esophageal tissue samples are removed for histological analysis. We propose a computational method called the multistage clonal expansion for EAC (MSCE-EAC screening model that is used for screening BE patients in silico to evaluate the effects of biopsy sampling, diagnostic sensitivity, and treatment on disease burden. Our framework seamlessly integrates relevant cell-level processes during EAC development with a spatial screening process to provide a clinically relevant model for detecting dysplastic and malignant clones within the crypt-structured BE tissue. With this computational approach, we retain spatio-temporal information about small, unobserved tissue lesions in BE that may remain undetected during biopsy-based screening but could be detected with high-resolution imaging. This allows evaluation of the efficacy and sensitivity of current screening protocols to detect neoplasia (dysplasia and early preclinical EAC in the esophageal lining. We demonstrate the clinical utility of this model by predicting three important clinical outcomes: (1 the probability that small cancers are missed during biopsy-based screening, (2 the potential gains in neoplasia detection probabilities if screening occurred via high-resolution tomographic imaging, and (3 the efficacy of ablative treatments that result in the curative depletion of metaplastic and neoplastic cell populations in BE in terms of the long-term impact on reducing EAC incidence.

  9. Evaluating two model reduction approaches for large scale hedonic models sensitive to omitted variables and multicollinearity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panduro, Toke Emil; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark


    Hedonic models in environmental valuation studies have grown in terms of number of transactions and number of explanatory variables. We focus on the practical challenge of model reduction, when aiming for reliable parsimonious models, sensitive to omitted variable bias and multicollinearity. We...... evaluate two common model reduction approaches in an empirical case. The first relies on a principal component analysis (PCA) used to construct new orthogonal variables, which are applied in the hedonic model. The second relies on a stepwise model reduction based on the variance inflation index and Akaike......’s information criteria. Our empirical application focuses on estimating the implicit price of forest proximity in a Danish case area, with a dataset containing 86 relevant variables. We demonstrate that the estimated implicit price for forest proximity, while positive in all models, is clearly sensitive...

  10. [Mathematical models for economic evaluation: dynamic models based on differential equations]. (United States)

    Pradas Velasco, Roberto; Villar, Fernando Antoñanzas; Mar, Javier


    The joint utilization of both decision trees and epidemiological models based on differential equations is an appropriate method for the economic evaluation of preventative interventions applied to infectious diseases. These models can combine the dynamic pattern of the disease together with health resource consumption. To illustrate this type of model, we adjusted a dynamic system of differential equations to the epidemic behavior of influenza in Spain, with a view to projecting the epidemiologic impact of influenza vaccination. The results of the epidemic model are implemented in a diagram with the structure of a decision tree so that health resource consumption and the economic implications can be calculated.

  11. Evaluation and Comparison of Ecological Models Simulating Nitrogen Processes in Treatment Wetlands,Implemented in Modelica


    Edelfeldt, Stina


    Two ecological models of nitrogen processes in treatment wetlands have been evaluated and compared. These models have been implemented, simulated, and visualized in the Modelica language. The differences and similarities between the Modelica modeling environment used in this thesis and other environments or tools for ecological modeling have been evaluated. The modeling tools evaluated are PowerSim, Simile, Stella, the MathModelica Model Editor, and WEST. The evaluation and the analysis have...

  12. Characterization of some biological specimens using TEM and SEM (United States)

    Ghosh, Nabarun; Smith, Don W.


    The advent of novel techniques using the Transmission and Scanning Electron Microscopes improved observation on various biological specimens to characterize them. We studied some biological specimens using Transmission and Scanning Electron Microscopes. We followed negative staining technique with Phosphotungstic acid using bacterial culture of Bacillus subtilis. Negative staining is very convenient technique to view the structural morphology of different samples including bacteria, phage viruses and filaments in a cell. We could observe the bacterial cell wall and flagellum very well when trapped the negative stained biofilm from bacterial culture on a TEM grid. We cut ultra thin sections from the fixed root tips of Pisum sativum (Garden pea). Root tips were pre fixed with osmium tetroxide and post fixed with uranium acetate and placed in the BEEM capsule for block making. The ultrathin sections on the grid under TEM showed the granular chromatin in the nucleus. The protein bodies and large vacuoles with the storage materials were conspicuous. We followed fixation, critical point drying and sputter coating with gold to view the tissues with SEM after placing on stubs. SEM view of the leaf surface of a dangerous weed Tragia hispida showed the surface trichomes. These trichomes when break on touching releases poisonous content causing skin irritation. The cultured tissue from in vitro culture of Albizia lebbeck, a tree revealed the regenerative structures including leaf buds and stomata on the tissue surface. SEM and TEM allow investigating the minute details characteristic morphological features that can be used for classroom teaching.

  13. Surface characteristics of isopod digestive gland epithelium studied by SEM. (United States)

    Millaku, Agron; Leser, Vladka; Drobne, Damjana; Godec, Matjaz; Torkar, Matjaz; Jenko, Monika; Milani, Marziale; Tatti, Francesco


    The structure of the digestive gland epithelium of a terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber has been investigated by conventional scanning electron microscopy (SEM), focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM), and light microscopy in order to provide evidence on morphology of the gland epithelial surface in animals from a stock culture. We investigated the shape of cells, extrusion of lipid droplets, shape and distribution of microvilli, and the presence of bacteria on the cell surface. A total of 22 animals were investigated and we found some variability in the appearance of the gland epithelial surface. Seventeen of the animals had dome-shaped digestive gland "normal" epithelial cells, which were densely and homogeneously covered by microvilli and varying proportions of which extruded lipid droplets. On the surface of microvilli we routinely observed sparsely distributed bacteria of different shapes. Five of the 22 animals had "abnormal" epithelial cells with a significantly altered shape. In three of these animals, the cells were much smaller, partly or completely flat or sometimes pyramid-like. A thick layer of bacteria was detected on the microvillous border, and in places, the shape and size of microvilli were altered. In two animals, hypertrophic cells containing large vacuoles were observed indicating a characteristic intracellular infection. The potential of SEM in morphological investigations of epithelial surfaces is discussed.

  14. Looking for a balance between internal and external evaluation of school quality: evaluation of the SVI model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, H.; Sleegers, P.; Karsten, S.


    This article describes the results of a study into the utility of the SVI model, a model in which internal and external evaluation are balanced. The model consists of three phases: school self-evaluation, visitation and inspection. Under the guidance of school consultants, 27 Dutch primary schools


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renée Laufer Amorim


    Full Text Available

    Little has been explored about testicular and epidi-dymal changes in dogs in different Brazilian regions and their influence on canine fertility, mainly in mongrel dogs. This study was performed to verify the prevalence of testicular and epididymal histopathological changes in mongrel adult dogs from São João da Boa Vista (SP region, as well as the frequency according to animal size and occurrence of simultaneous testicular and epididymal lesions. The use of mongrel dogs was based on the fact that it is the most common breed in the Brazilian canine popula-tion. Testicles and epipidymis were obtained from 60 adult dogs, between 3 and 6 years old, in castration campaign and sorted to in small breed (28 animals, medium breed (28 animals and large breed (14 animals. Histopathological evaluation of the 120 testicles showed 107 cases of degeneration, 89 of tubular atrophy, 16 of hipoplasia, 6 of orchitis, 3 leydig cell tumor, 2 normal tissue, one sertolli cell tumor and one case of edema. In the epididymal evaluation, 55 were considered normal, 36 inflammatory, 22 papillary hyperplasia, 14 degenerations, 12 cribriform hyperplasia, 3 cases of fibrosis, one edema, one adeno-miosis and one spermatic granuloma. Testicular and epididymal lesions were more frequents in medium and large breeds. Cribriform epididymal hyperplasia was observed and papillary epididymal hyperplasia for papillary epithe-lial projections with normal morphology in the lumen was proposed.

    Key-words: Dog, epididym, testicle. histopathological alterations.

    A ocorrência de alterações testiculares e epididi-márias em cães nas diferentes regiões do país, assim como a influência delas sobre a fertilidade da espécie são ainda pouco exploradas, especialmente de cães sem raça definida (SRD. Neste estudo buscou-se determinar a prevalência das alterações histopatológicas testiculares e epididimárias nos

  16. Avaliação da função autonômica em portadores de cardiomiopatia hipertrófica com e sem síncope Evaluation of the autonomic function in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with and without syncope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Frota Macatrão-Costa


    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Diversos mecanismos podem estar envolvidos no desencadeamento da síncope em pacientes com cardiomiopatia hipertrófica (CMH, incluindo colapsos hemodinâmicos que podem estar relacionados a um desequilíbrio autonômico. OBJETIVO: Avaliar e comparar a função autonômica de pacientes que apresentam CMH com síncope inexplicada (SI com os que não apresentam síncope. MÉTODOS: Trinta e sete pacientes foram incluídos, sendo 16 com SI e 21 sem síncope. Sua função autonômica foi avaliada por sensibilidade barorreflexa (SB espontânea e induzida por fenilefrina, pela variabilidade da frequência cardíaca (VFC no domínio do tempo durante o Holter de 24 horas e no domínio da frequência (análise espectral, ambos em decúbito dorsal e no teste de inclinação (TI a 70º. RESULTADOS: A SB espontânea mostrou-se semelhante em ambos os grupos (16,46 ± 12,99 vs. 18,31 ± 9,88 ms/mmHg, p = 0,464, assim como a SB induzida por fenilefrina (18,33 ± 9,31 vs. 15,83 ± 15,48 ms/mmHg, p = 0,521. Não foram observadas diferenças no SDNN (137,69 ± 36,62 vs . 145,95 ± 38,07 ms, p = 0,389. O grupo com síncope apresentou um RMSSD significativamente menor (24,88 ± 10,03 vs. 35,58 ± 16,43 ms, p = 0,042 e tendência a menor pNN50 (4,51 ± 3,78 vs . 8,83 ± 7,98%, p =0,085 e a menores valores do componente de alta frequência da análise espectral da VFC em repouso (637,59 ± 1.295,53 vs. 782,65 ± 1.264,14 ms2 , p = 0,075. Nenhuma diferença significativa foi observada em resposta ao TI (p = 0,053. A sensibilidade, especificidade e acurácia do TI na identificação da etiologia da SI em pacientes com CMH foram 6%, 66% e 40%, respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: Observou-se tônus parassimpático mais baixo em pacientes com CMH e SI, mas a relevância clínica deste achado ainda não está clara. O TI não é uma ferramenta vantajosa para avaliar a origem da síncope em tais doentes, principalmente por causa da sua baixa especificidade

  17. Mesoscale to microscale wind farm flow modeling and evaluation: Mesoscale to Microscale Wind Farm Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz Rodrigo, Javier [National Renewable Energy Centre (CENER), Sarriguren Spain; Chávez Arroyo, Roberto Aurelio [National Renewable Energy Centre (CENER), Sarriguren Spain; Moriarty, Patrick [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden CO USA; Churchfield, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden CO USA; Kosović, Branko [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Boulder CO USA; Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan [Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Roskilde Denmark; Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose [Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Lyngby Denmark; Hahmann, Andrea [Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Roskilde Denmark; Mirocha, Jeffrey D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore CA USA; Rife, Daran [DNV GL, San Diego CA USA


    The increasing size of wind turbines, with rotors already spanning more than 150 m diameter and hub heights above 100 m, requires proper modeling of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) from the surface to the free atmosphere. Furthermore, large wind farm arrays create their own boundary layer structure with unique physics. This poses significant challenges to traditional wind engineering models that rely on surface-layer theories and engineering wind farm models to simulate the flow in and around wind farms. However, adopting an ABL approach offers the opportunity to better integrate wind farm design tools and meteorological models. The challenge is how to build the bridge between atmospheric and wind engineering model communities and how to establish a comprehensive evaluation process that identifies relevant physical phenomena for wind energy applications with modeling and experimental requirements. A framework for model verification, validation, and uncertainty quantification is established to guide this process by a systematic evaluation of the modeling system at increasing levels of complexity. In terms of atmospheric physics, 'building the bridge' means developing models for the so-called 'terra incognita,' a term used to designate the turbulent scales that transition from mesoscale to microscale. This range of scales within atmospheric research deals with the transition from parameterized to resolved turbulence and the improvement of surface boundary-layer parameterizations. The coupling of meteorological and wind engineering flow models and the definition of a formal model evaluation methodology, is a strong area of research for the next generation of wind conditions assessment and wind farm and wind turbine design tools. Some fundamental challenges are identified in order to guide future research in this area.

  18. visCOS: An R-package to evaluate model performance of hydrological models (United States)

    Klotz, Daniel; Herrnegger, Mathew; Wesemann, Johannes; Schulz, Karsten


    The evaluation of model performance is a central part of (hydrological) modelling. Much attention has been given to the development of evaluation criteria and diagnostic frameworks. (Klemeš, 1986; Gupta et al., 2008; among many others). Nevertheless, many applications exist for which objective functions do not yet provide satisfying summaries. Thus, the necessity to visualize results arises in order to explore a wider range of model capacities, be it strengths or deficiencies. Visualizations are usually devised for specific projects and these efforts are often not distributed to a broader community (e.g. via open source software packages). Hence, the opportunity to explicitly discuss a state-of-the-art presentation technique is often missed. We therefore present a comprehensive R-package for evaluating model performance by visualizing and exploring different aspects of hydrological time-series. The presented package comprises a set of useful plots and visualization methods, which complement existing packages, such as hydroGOF (Zambrano-Bigiarini et al., 2012). It is derived from practical applications of the hydrological models COSERO and COSEROreg (Kling et al., 2014). visCOS, providing an interface in R, represents an easy-to-use software package for visualizing and assessing model performance and can be implemented in the process of model calibration or model development. The package provides functions to load hydrological data into R, clean the data, process, visualize, explore and finally save the results in a consistent way. Together with an interactive zoom function of the time series, an online calculation of the objective functions for variable time-windows is included. Common hydrological objective functions, such as the Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency and the Kling-Gupta Efficiency, can also be evaluated and visualized in different ways for defined sub-periods like hydrological years or seasonal sections. Many hydrologists use long-term water-balances as a

  19. Model-based efficiency evaluation of combine harvester traction drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Häberle


    Full Text Available As part of the research the drive train of the combine harvesters is investigated in detail. The focus on load and power distribution, energy consumption and usage distribution are explicitly explored on two test machines. Based on the lessons learned during field operations, model-based studies of energy saving potential in the traction train of combine harvesters can now be quantified. Beyond that the virtual machine trial provides an opportunity to compare innovative drivetrain architectures and control solutions under reproducible conditions. As a result, an evaluation method is presented and generically used to draw comparisons under local representative operating conditions.

  20. Simplified Human-Robot Interaction: Modeling and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balazs Daniel


    Full Text Available In this paper a novel concept of human-robot interaction (HRI modeling is proposed. Including factors like trust in automation, situational awareness, expertise and expectations a new user experience framework is formed for industrial robots. Service Oriented Robot Operation, proposed in a previous paper, creates an abstract level in HRI and it is also included in the framework. This concept is evaluated with exhaustive tests. Results prove that significant improvement in task execution may be achieved and the new system is more usable for operators with less experience with robotics; personnel specific for small and medium enterprises (SMEs.