WorldWideScience

Sample records for evaluating water quality

  1. Evaluating Water Quality in a Suburban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, S. M.; Garza, N.

    2008-12-01

    A water quality analysis and modeling study is currently being conducted on the Martinez Creek, a small catchment within Cibolo watershed, a sub-basin of the San Antonio River, Texas. Several other major creeks, such as Salatrillo, Escondido, and Woman Hollering merge with Martinez Creek. Land use and land cover analysis shows that the major portion of the watershed is dominated by residential development with average impervious cover percentage of approximately 40% along with a some of agricultural areas and brushlands. This catchment is characterized by the presence of three small wastewater treatment plants. Previous site visits and sampling of water quality indicate the presence of algae and fecal coliform bacteria at levels well above state standards at several locations in the catchment throughout the year. Due to the presence of livestock, residential development and wastewater treatment plants, a comprehensive understanding of water quality is important to evaluate the sources and find means to control pollution. As part of the study, a spatial and temporal water quality analyses of conventional parameters as well as emerging contaminants, such as veterinary pharmaceuticals and microbial pathogens is being conducted to identify critical locations and sources. Additionally, the Hydrologic Simulation Program FORTRAN (HSPF) will be used to identify best management practices that can be incorporated given the projected growth and development and feasibility.

  2. Water quality assessment of Australian ports using water quality evaluation indices

    OpenAIRE

    Jahan, Sayka; Strezov, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Australian ports serve diverse and extensive activities, such as shipping, tourism and fisheries, which may all impact the quality of port water. In this work water quality monitoring at different ports using a range of water quality evaluation indices was applied to assess the port water quality. Seawater samples at 30 stations in the year 2016-2017 from six ports in NSW, Australia, namely Port Jackson, Botany, Kembla, Newcastle, Yamba and Eden, were investigated to determine the physicochem...

  3. Water Quality Evaluation of Spring Waters in Nsukka, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water qualities of springs in their natural state are supposed to be clean and potable. Although, water quality is not a static condition it depends on the local geology and ecosystem, as well as human activities such as sewage dispersion, industrial pollution, use of water bodies as a heat sink, and overuse. The activities on ...

  4. Spatio-temporal evaluation of Yamchi Dam basin water quality using Canadian water quality index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzadkia, Mahdi; Djahed, Babak; Shahsavani, Esmaeel; Poureshg, Yousef

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, the growth of population and increase of the industries around the tributaries of Yamchi Dam basin have led to deterioration of dam water quality. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of the Yamchi Dam basin water, which is used for drinking and irrigation consumptions using Canadian Water Quality Index (CWQI) model, and to determine the main water pollution sources of this basin. Initially, nine sampling stations were selected in the sensitive locations of the mentioned basin's tributaries, and 12 physico-chemical parameters and 2 biological parameters were measured. The CWQI for drinking consumptions was under 40 at all the stations indicating a poor water quality for drinking consumptions. On the other hand, the CWQI was 62-100 for irrigation at different stations; thus, the water had an excellent to fair quality for irrigation consumptions. Almost in all the stations, the quality of irrigation and drinking water in cold season was better. Besides, for drinking use, total coliform and fecal coliform had the highest frequency of failure, and total coliform had the maximum deviation from the specified objective. For irrigation use, total suspended solids had the highest frequency of failure and deviation from the objective in most of the stations. The pisciculture center, aquaculture center, and the Nir City wastewater discharge were determined as the main pollution sources of the Yamchi Dam basin. Therefore, to improve the water quality in this important surface water resource, urban and industrial wastewater treatment prior to disposal and more stringent environmental legislations are recommended.

  5. Evaluating benefits and costs of changes in water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessica Koteen; Susan J. Alexander; John B. Loomis

    2002-01-01

    Water quality affects a variety of uses, such as municipal water consumption and recreation. Changes in water quality can influence the benefits water users receive. The problem is how to define water quality for specific uses. It is not possible to come up with one formal definition of water quality that fits all water uses. There are many parameters that influence...

  6. water quality evaluation of spring waters in nsukka, nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe

    2013-07-02

    Jul 2, 2013 ... accordingly. The physical, chemical and bacteriological tests were carried out on the water samples with appropriate equipment. ... same physical properties and composition as the natural spring water [1]. Water abstraction ... be determined by the weathering of bedrock minerals, atmospheric processes of.

  7. Topographical characteristics and evaluating water quality in watershed management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina Tarlé Pissarra

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Topographical characteristics and water quality were evaluated at Hacienda Gloria, in Jaboticabal, São Paulo State, Brazil. Un-derstanding the relief’s morphometric characteristics and the course of the streams in a small watershed supported the hypothesis that land-use affects water quality and helps predict how changes in water-flow and the surrounding landscape occur; areas protected by native forest and those dedicated to agriculture were considered. Water quality was sampled at six sites and physical and chemical changes were analysed. Monthly water samples were collected from the streams on the same day of each month during the course of a year; Horiba equipment was used for recording data. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA was used for determining differences between the sites being investigated. Analysing the data revealed significant differences in pH, electric conductivity, turbidity, dissolved oxygen and temperature. Topographical characteristics have been influenced by agricultural activity, thereby having an environmental impact. Surface runoff was predominant on steep slopes, mainly in areas near the top of the watershed. Land-use has had a significant impact on many physical parameters, including stream turbidity and tem-perature which increased with deforestation. The results indicated the agricultural watershed’s fragility to pollutant exposure and/ or toxicity, mainly due to turbidity in the streams caused by soil erosion, waste discharge and runoff.

  8. Evaluation on the Quality of Bangkok Tap Water with Other Drinking Purpose Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kordach A.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The concern of drinking purposed water quality in Bangkok, Nonthaburi, and Samutprakarn provinces has been a problem for over fifteen years. Metropolitan Water Works Authority (MWA of Thailand is fully responsible for providing water supply to the mentioned areas. The objective of Drinkable Tap Water Project is to make people realize in quality of tap water. Communities, school, government agencies, hotels, hospitals, department stores, and other organizations are participating in this project. MWA have collected at least 3 samples of water from the corresponding places and the samples have to meet the World Health Organization (WHO guidelines level. This study is to evaluate water quality of tap water, storage water, filtered water, and filtered water dispenser. The water samples from 2,354 attending places are collected and analyzed. From October 2011 to September 2016, MWA analyzed 32,711 samples. The analyzed water parameters are free residual chlorine, appearance color, turbidity, pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS, and pathogenic bacteria; E.coli. The results indicated that a number of tap water samples had the highest number compliance with WHO guidelines levels at 98.40%. The filtered water, filtered water dispenser, and storage water were received 96.71%, 95.63%, and 90.88%, respectively. However, the several samples fail to pass WHO guideline level because they were contaminated by E.coli. The result is that tap water has the highest score among other sources probably because tap water has chlorine for disinfection and always is monitored by professional team round-the-clock services compared to the other water sources with less maintenance or cleaning. Also, water quality reports are continuously sent to customers by mail addresses. Tap water quality data are shown on MWA websites and Facebook. All these steps of work should enhance the confidence of tap water quality.

  9. Evaluation of water quality using water quality index (WQI) method and GIS in Aksu River (SW-Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şener, Şehnaz; Şener, Erhan; Davraz, Ayşen

    2017-04-15

    The aim of this study is evaluate water quality of the Aksu River, the main river recharging the Karacaören-1 Dam Lake and flowing approximately 145km from Isparta province to Mediterranean. Due to plan for obtaining drinking water from the Karacaören-1 Dam Lake for Antalya Province, this study has great importance. In this study, physical and chemical analyses of water samples taken from 21 locations (in October 2011 and May 2012, two periods) through flow path of the river were investigated. The analysis results were compared with maximum permissible limit values recommended by World Health Organization and Turkish drinking water standards. The water quality for drinking purpose was evaluated using the water quality index (WQI) method. The computed WQI values are between 35.6133 and 337.5198 in the study. The prepared WQI map shows that Karacaören-1 Dam Lake generally has good water quality. However, water quality is poor and very poor in the north and south of the river basin. The effects of punctual and diffuse pollutants dominate the water quality in these regions. Furthermore, the most effective water quality parameters are COD and Mg on the determination of WQI for the present study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of the Water Quality of River Kaduna, Nigeria Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twelve (12) water quality parameters (turbidity, TDS, pH, Cl- , EC, DO, BOD5, COD, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, Fe and Mn) were analyzed in River Kaduna, Nigeria on a monthly basis for a period of one year in 15 sampling locations using standard methods. The data obtained were used to develop Water Quality Index ...

  11. Quality evaluation of sachet water sold in port Harcourt, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five different brands of sachet water were analyzed for physicochemical and bacteriological quality to determine the portability and quality characteristics of sachet water sold in Port-Harcourt, Nigeria. Unicom UV Spectrophotometer model SP. 8-100 and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (PU 9100 UNICAN) were used.

  12. Evaluation Of Water Quality At River Bian In Merauke Papua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djaja Irba

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available River Bian in Merauke Regency has been utilized by local people in Papua (the Marind who live along the river for fulfilling their daily needs, such as shower, cloth and dish washing, and even defecation, waste disposal, including domestic waste, as well as for ceremonial activities related to the locally traditional culture. Change in land use for other necessities and domestic activities of the local people have mounted pressures on the status of the River Bian, thus decreasing the quality of the river. This study had objectives to find out and to analyze river water quality and water quality status of the River Bian, and its compliance with water quality standards for ideal use. The study determined sample point by a purposive sampling method, taking the water samples with a grab method. The analysis of the water quality was performed by standard and pollution index methods. The study revealed that the water quality of River Bian, concerning BOD, at the station 3 had exceeded quality threshold. COD parameter for all stations had exceeded the quality threshold for class III. At three stations, there was a decreasing value due to increasing PI, as found at the stations 1, 2, and 3. In other words, River Bian had been lightly contaminated.

  13. An Evaluation of the Bacteriological Quality of Water Consumed by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LGAs) in Lagos state and a total of 308 households' water samples were evaluated using the most probable number method. Water purification methods practiced by the inhabitants were documented. The disease patterns of children under 5 ...

  14. Evaluation of water quality projects in the Lake Tahoe basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, S; Grismer, M E

    2004-01-01

    Lake Tahoe is a large sub alpine lake located in the Sierra Nevada Range in the states of California and Nevada. The Lake Tahoe watershed is relatively small (800 km(20) and is made up of soils with a very low nutrient content and when combined with the Lake's enormous volume (156 km(3)) produces water of unparalleled clarity. However, urbanization around the Lake during the past 50 yr has greatly increased nutrient flux into the Lake resulting in increased algae production and rapidly declining water clarity. Lake transition from nitrogen limiting to phosphorous limiting during the last 30 yr suggests the onset of cultural eutrophication of Lake Tahoe. Protecting Lake Tahoe's water quality has become a major public concern and much time, effort, and money has been, and will be, spent on this undertaking. The effectiveness of remedial actions is the subject of some debate. Local regulatory agencies have mandated implementation of best management practices (BMPs) to mitigate the effects of development, sometimes at great additional expense for developers and homeowners who question their effectiveness. Conclusive studies on the BMP effectiveness are also expensive and can be difficult to accomplish such that very few such studies have been completed. However, several project evaluations have been completed and more are underway. Such study usually demonstrates support of the project's effectiveness in decreasing nutrient flux to Lake Tahoe. Here, we review the existing state of knowledge of nutrient loading to the Lake and to highlight the need for further evaluative investigations of BMPs in order to improve their performance in present and future regulatory actions.

  15. Performance Evaluation of Produced Water Quality from a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Its negative impacts on the receiving water bodies have become a worrisome environmental issue. The effluent quality of a crude Oil processing and exporting installation located in the coastal area of the Niger Delta was studied for six months to ascertain the efficiency of the company's produced water treatment processes.

  16. Evaluation of the Water Quality of River Kaduna, Nigeria Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: Twelve (12) water quality parameters (turbidity, TDS, pH, Cl- , EC, DO, BOD5, COD, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, Fe and Mn) were analyzed in River Kaduna, Nigeria on a monthly basis for a period of one year in 15 sampling locations using standard methods. The data obtained were used to develop Water ...

  17. Multisensor Data Fusion for Water Quality Evaluation Using Dempster-Shafer Evidence Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Jian Zhou; Linfeng Liu; Jian Guo; Lijuan Sun

    2013-01-01

    A multisensor data fusion approach for water quality evaluation using Dempster-Shafer evidence theory is presented. To evaluate water quality, each sensor measurement is considered as a piece of evidence. Based on the water quality parameters measured by sensor node, the mass function of water quality class is calculated. Evidence from each sensor is given a reliability discounting and then combined with the others by D-S rule. According to the decision rule which uses the fusion mass functio...

  18. evaluation of quality of drinking water from baghdad, iraq

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    ABSTRACT. This is a joint work between the Italian Red Cross and the Environmental. Laboratories, Baghdad. The drinking water (DW) samples from 16 residential districts in Baghdad were chemically evaluated with reference to the raw water samples and water directly taken from the purification plants. In addition to the ...

  19. Evaluation of water quality index for River Sabarmati, Gujarat, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Kosha A.; Joshi, Geeta S.

    2017-06-01

    An attempt has been made to develop water quality index (WQI), using six water quality parameters pH, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, electrical conductivity, nitrate nitrogen and total coliform measured at three different stations along the Sabarmati river basin from the year 2005 to 2008. Rating scale is developed based on the tolerance limits of inland waters and health point of view. Weighted arithmetic water quality index method was used to find WQI along the stretch of the river basin. It was observed from this study that the impact of human activity and sewage disposal in the river was severe on most of the parameters. The station located in highly urban area showed the worst water quality followed by the station located in moderately urban area and lastly station located in a moderately rural area. It was observed that the main cause of deterioration in water quality was due to the high anthropogenic activities, illegal discharge of sewage and industrial effluent, lack of proper sanitation, unprotected river sites and urban runoff.

  20. Water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquatic animals are healthiest and grow best when environmental conditions are within certain ranges that define, for a particular species, “good” water quality. From the outset, successful aquaculture requires a high-quality water supply. Water quality in aquaculture systems also deteriorates as an...

  1. Hydrologic and water quality models: Performance measures and evaluation criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Performance measures and corresponding criteria constitute an important aspect of calibration and validation of any hydrological and water quality (H/WQ) model. As new and improved methods and information are developed, it is essential that performance measures and criteria be updated. Therefore, th...

  2. A Microbiological Water Quality Evaluation of Ganges River Deltaic Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerby, C. J.; Gragg, S. E.; Page, J.; Leavens, J.; Bhattacharya, P.; Harrington, J.; Datta, S.

    2014-12-01

    Substantial natural contamination from trace elements (like arsenic) and pathogens make Ganges Deltaic aquifers an area of utmost concern. Following millions of cases of chronic arsenic poisoning from the groundwaters of the region, numerous residents are still knowingly ingesting water from shallow to intermediate accessible depth drinking water wells. Added to the calamity of arsenic is the prevalence of pathogenic bacteria in these waters. The increasing frequency of gastroenteritis signifies the need to quantify the magnitude and extensiveness of health degrading agents--bacterial pathogens (i.e. Salmonella) and non-pathogens (i.e. Enterobacteriaceae) --within the water supply in accessible Gangetic aquifers. To assess the dissolved microbiological quality in the region, present study sampling locations are along defined piezometer nests in an area in SE Asia (Bangladesh). Every nest contains samples from wells at varying depths covering shallow to deep aquifers. To date, 17 of the 76 water samples were analyzed for Salmonella, generic Escherichia coli (E. coli) and coliforms. Briefly, samples were plated in duplicate onto E. coli/Coliform petrifilm and incubated at 370C for 48 hours. Next, each sample was enriched in buffered peptone water and incubated at 370C for 18 hours. Bacterial DNA was extracted and amplified using a qPCR machine. Amplification plots were analyzed to determine presence/absence of microorganisms. All water samples (n=~76) are analyzed for Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria spp. and Shigella. Pathogen populations of PCR-positive water samples are enumerated using the agar direct plate method. Non-pathogenic bacterial indicator organisms (i.e. Enterobacteriaceae) will also be enumerated. Over the course of the experiment, we hypothesize that shallower wells will 1)have a higher pathogen prevalence and 2)harbor pathogens and nonpathogens at higher concentrations. While the 17 samples analyzed to date were negative for Salmonella

  3. Water quality comparison of secondary effluent and reclaimed water to ambient river water of southern Okinawa Island via biological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Hiroyuki; Takeda, Fumihiko; Kitamura, Tomokazu; Okamoto, Seiichiro; Suzuki, Yutaka; Park, Chang-Beom; Yasui, Nobuhito; Kobayashi, Kentarou; Tanaka, Yuji; Yamashita, Naoyuki; Minamiyama, Mizuhiko

    2017-08-08

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the biological effect of the secondary effluent (SE) of a wastewater treatment plant and reclaimed water treated via ultrafiltration (UF) followed by either reverse osmosis (RO) membrane filtration or nanofiltration (NF) to be used for environmental use by comparing the results of algal growth inhibition tests of concentrated samples of the SE and permeates of RO and NF with those of six rivers in southern Okinawa Island. Although the SE water had no adverse effects on the growth of the algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, it could lead to water quality degradation of rivers in terms of its toxic unit value, whereas the use of RO and NF permeates would not lead to such degradation. The recharge of rivers, into which domestic wastewater and livestock effluents might be discharged in southern Okinawa Island, with reclaimed water subjected to advanced treatment could dilute the concentrations of chemicals that cause biological effects and improve the water quality of the rivers, based on the results of the bioassay using P. subcapitata. Comparing the results of bioassays of reclaimed water with those of the ambient water at a site might be effective in assessing the water quality of reclaimed water for environmental use at the site.

  4. Quality Evaluation of Unripe Plantain and Water Yam Composite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rheological and sensory properties of unripe plantain and water yam selected cooked paste blends were investigated. Flour samples (unripe plantain and water yam flours) and the selected blends 90:10 (C), 80:20 (D) and 50:50 (E); water yam flour-WYF: (unripe plantain flour-UPF) were produced from oven dried unripe ...

  5. Evaluating Water Supply and Water Quality Management Options for Las Vegas Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, S.

    2007-05-01

    The ever increasing population in Las Vegas is generating huge demand for water supply on one hand and need for infrastructure to collect and treat the wastewater on the other hand. Current plans to address water demand include importing water from Muddy and Virgin Rivers and northern counties, desalination of seawater with trade- payoff in California, water banking in Arizona and California, and more intense water conservation efforts in the Las Vegas Valley (LVV). Water and wastewater in the LVV are intrinsically related because treated wastewater effluent is returned back to Lake Mead, the drinking water source for the Valley, to get a return credit thereby augmenting Nevada's water allocation from the Colorado River. The return of treated wastewater however, is a major contributor of nutrients and other yet unregulated pollutants to Lake Mead. Parameters that influence the quantity of water include growth of permanent and transient population (i.e., tourists), indoor and outdoor water use, wastewater generation, wastewater reuse, water conservation, and return flow credits. The water quality of Lake Mead and the Colorado River is affected by the level of treatment of wastewater, urban runoff, groundwater seepage, and a few industrial inputs. We developed an integrated simulation model, using system dynamics modeling approach, to account for both water quantity and quality in the LVV. The model captures the interrelationships among many variables that influence both, water quantity and water quality. The model provides a valuable tool for understanding past, present and future pathways of water and its constituents in the LVV. The model is calibrated and validated using the available data on water quantity (flows at water and wastewater treatment facilities and return water credit flow rates) and water quality parameters (TDS and phosphorus concentrations). We used the model to explore important questions: a)What would be the effect of the water transported from

  6. ground water quality evaluation in beed city, maharashtra, india

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Khatib Afsar

    2013-12-18

    Dec 18, 2013 ... This problem has two dimensions: 1. The first is with respect to the quantity of water available. With increasing population, the demand for water, both for human consumption and agriculture, has been steadily increasing. Also, the melting of glaciers, deforestation and general environmental degradation, in.

  7. Performance Evaluation of Produced Water Quality from a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    1Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria,. +2348027178342, darloshea@yahoo.com. 2Department of Chemical Engineering, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, ... @JASEM. Keywords: Produced water, Oil and Gas, Coastal environment, Pollution, Treatment.

  8. Evaluation of quality of drinking water from Baghdad, Iraq | Barbooti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reference was done to the EU specification of drinking water regarding total hardness, chloride contents, sulphate, iron and THM's. As for the iron content, the original pH of the river water (7.5 and 8.0) ensures that Iron should not be present in soluble form at a detectable level. Corrosion of the pipes could be one of the ...

  9. Evaluation the Quality of The Wells Water in Hilla City by Water Quality Index and Applying in Visual Basic Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesrin J.Al-Mansori

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, ground water samples were gathered from differentregions located inHillacity during period from October 2014 to September ,2015. Water samples were taken from ten wells (monthly two samples from each well in different regions for analyzing laboratory for thirteen parameters, they are: Temperature, pH , Electrical conductivity (EC, Total hardness (TH, Calcium (Ca+2, Magnesium (Mg+2, Chloride (Cl-1, Sulphate (SO4-2, Nitrate (NO3-, Sodium (Na+, Potassium (K+ and Total Dissolved Solid (TDS . The evaluation of water suitability of the present study for drinking and other irrigated purposes was achieved by means of arithmetic method of WQI depending on guideline values of (WHO,2004 and Iraqi Standard No.417 for (2004 . Values of WQI ranged from (97.230 - 79.100at Hilla city which is not suitable for human consumption according to the classification of Iraqi Standard No.417 for (2004 and WHO ,2004. These values belong to high water electrical conductivity and chloride of the studied wells comparable with other parameters. Also, correlation coefficient supports this interpretation where there are strong positively correlation between WQI values and both electrical conductivity and chloride values (0.997, 0.919 respectively.While in the assessment of ground water quality for irrigation, electrical conductivity, pH, sodium absorption ratio (SAR, chloride,slphate, sodium, calisum and magisumwere used to calculateWQI values which range from (98.074- 83.187. These values are associated with both EC and Cl- in a strong negatively correlation (-0.968, -0.969 respectively. Application of Visual Basicsoftware is a good tool to explain the WQI index for all types of rivers and streams in Iraq, that will be useful to give fast indication about WQI index

  10. Water-Quality Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Water Quality? [1.7MB PDF] Past featured science... Water Quality Data Today's Water Conditions Get continuous real- ... list of USGS water-quality data resources . USGS Water Science Areas Water Resources Groundwater Surface Water Water ...

  11. evaluation of surface water quality charac- teristics in ogun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DEPT OF AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

    ABSTRACT. Utilization of water resources across watersheds in Nigeria has been without commensurate at- tention to protection from degradation at the basin level. One of the strategies in river basin management is effective monitoring and assessment of pollution levels, patterns and identifica- tion of major variables ...

  12. Evaluation of surface water quality characteristics in Ogun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utilization of water resources across watersheds in Nigeria has been without commensurate at-tention to protection from degradation at the basin level. One of the strategies in river basin management is effective monitoring and assessment of pollution levels, patterns and identifica-tion of major variables driving such ...

  13. Evaluation, prediction, and protection of water quality in Danjiangkou Reservoir, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-kang Xin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The water quality in the Danjiangkou Reservoir has attracted considerable attention from the Chinese public and government since the announcement of the Middle Route of the South to North Water Diversion Project (SNWDP, which commenced transferring water in 2014. Integrated research on the evaluation, prediction, and protection of water quality in the Danjiangkou Reservoir was carried out in this study in order to improve environmental management. Based on 120 water samples, wherein 17 water quality indices were measured at 20 monitoring sites, a single factor evaluation method was used to evaluate the current status of water quality. The results show that the main indices influencing the water quality in the Danjiangkou Reservoir are total phosphorus (TP, permanganate index (CODMn, dissolved oxygen (DO, and five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5, and the concentrations of TP, BOD5, ammonia nitrogen (NH3–N, CODMn, DO, and anionic surfactant (Surfa do not reach the specified standard levels in the tributaries. Seasonal Mann–Kendall tests indicated that the CODMn concentration shows a highly significant increasing trend, and the TP concentration shows a significant increasing trend in the Danjiangkou Reservoir. The distribution of the main water quality indices in the Danjiangkou Reservoir was predicted using a two-dimensional water quality numerical model, and showed that the sphere of influence from the tributaries can spread across half of the Han Reservoir if the pollutants are not controlled. Cluster analysis (CA results suggest that the Shending River is heavily polluted, that the Jianghe, Sihe, and Jianhe rivers are moderately polluted, and that they should be the focus of environmental remediation.

  14. Characterization of groundwater quality using water evaluation indices, multivariate statistics and geostatistics in central Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Bodrud-Doza

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the groundwater quality in the Faridpur district of central Bangladesh based on preselected 60 sample points. Water evaluation indices and a number of statistical approaches such as multivariate statistics and geostatistics are applied to characterize water quality, which is a major factor for controlling the groundwater quality in term of drinking purposes. The study reveal that EC, TDS, Ca2+, total As and Fe values of groundwater samples exceeded Bangladesh and international standards. Ground water quality index (GWQI exhibited that about 47% of the samples were belonging to good quality water for drinking purposes. The heavy metal pollution index (HPI, degree of contamination (Cd, heavy metal evaluation index (HEI reveal that most of the samples belong to low level of pollution. However, Cd provide better alternative than other indices. Principle component analysis (PCA suggests that groundwater quality is mainly related to geogenic (rock–water interaction and anthropogenic source (agrogenic and domestic sewage in the study area. Subsequently, the findings of cluster analysis (CA and correlation matrix (CM are also consistent with the PCA results. The spatial distributions of groundwater quality parameters are determined by geostatistical modeling. The exponential semivariagram model is validated as the best fitted models for most of the indices values. It is expected that outcomes of the study will provide insights for decision makers taking proper measures for groundwater quality management in central Bangladesh.

  15. Relevance of water quality index for groundwater quality evaluation: Thoothukudi District, Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singaraja, C.

    2017-09-01

    The present hydrogeochemical study was confined to the Thoothukudi District in Tamilnadu, India. A total of 100 representative water samples were collected during pre-monsoon and post-monsoon and analyzed for the major cations (sodium, calcium, magnesium and potassium) and anions (chloride, sulfate, bicarbonate, fluoride and nitrate) along with various physical and chemical parameters (pH, total dissolved salts and electrical conductivity). Water quality index rating was calculated to quantify the overall water quality for human consumption. The PRM samples exhibit poor quality in greater percentage when compared with POM due to dilution of ions and agricultural impact. The overlay of WQI with chloride and EC corresponds to the same locations indicating the poor quality of groundwater in the study area. Sodium (Na %), sodium absorption ratio (SAR), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), residual sodium bicarbonate, permeability index (PI), magnesium hazards (MH), Kelly's ratio (KR), potential salinity (PS) and Puri's salt index (PSI) and domestic quality parameters such as total hardness (TH), temporary, permanent hardness and corrosivity ratio (CR) were calculated. The majority of the samples were not suitable for drinking, irrigation and domestic purposes in the study area. In this study, the analysis of salinization/freshening processes was carried out through binary diagrams such as of mole ratios of {SO}_{ 4}^{ 2- } /Cl- and Cl-/EC that clearly classify the sources of seawater intrusion and saltpan contamination. Spatial diagram BEX was used to find whether the aquifer was in the salinization region or in the freshening encroachment region.

  16. Quantitative evaluation of lake eutrophication responses under alternative water diversion scenarios: a water quality modeling based statistical analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Wang, Yilin; Sheng, Hu; Dong, Feifei; Zou, Rui; Zhao, Lei; Guo, Huaicheng; Zhu, Xiang; He, Bin

    2014-01-15

    China is confronting the challenge of accelerated lake eutrophication, where Lake Dianchi is considered as the most serious one. Eutrophication control for Lake Dianchi began in the mid-1980s. However, decision makers have been puzzled by the lack of visible water quality response to past efforts given the tremendous investment. Therefore, decision makers desperately need a scientifically sound way to quantitatively evaluate the response of lake water quality to proposed management measures and engineering works. We used a water quality modeling based scenario analysis approach to quantitatively evaluate the eutrophication responses of Lake Dianchi to an under-construction water diversion project. The primary analytic framework was built on a three-dimensional hydrodynamic, nutrient fate and transport, as well as algae dynamics model, which has previously been calibrated and validated using historical data. We designed 16 scenarios to analyze the water quality effects of three driving forces, including watershed nutrient loading, variations in diverted inflow water, and lake water level. A two-step statistical analysis consisting of an orthogonal test analysis and linear regression was then conducted to distinguish the contributions of various driving forces to lake water quality. The analysis results show that (a) the different ways of managing the diversion projects would result in different water quality response in Lake Dianchi, though the differences do not appear to be significant; (b) the maximum reduction in annual average and peak Chl-a concentration from the various ways of diversion project operation are respectively 11% and 5%; (c) a combined 66% watershed load reduction and water diversion can eliminate the lake hypoxia volume percentage from the existing 6.82% to 3.00%; and (d) the water diversion will decrease the occurrence of algal blooms, and the effect of algae reduction can be enhanced if diverted water are seasonally allocated such that wet

  17. Microbiological evaluation of water quality from urban watersheds for domestic water supply improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibekwe, A Mark; Murinda, Shelton E; Graves, Alexandria K

    2011-12-01

    Agricultural and urban runoffs may be major sources of pollution of water bodies and major sources of bacteria affecting the quality of drinking water. Of the different pathways by which bacterial pathogens can enter drinking water, this one has received little attention to date; that is, because soils are often considered to be near perfect filters for the transport of bacterial pathogens through the subsoil to groundwater. The goals of this study were to determine the distribution, diversity, and antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic Escherichia coli isolates from low flowing river water and sediment with inputs from different sources before water is discharged into ground water and to compare microbial contamination in water and sediment at different sampling sites. Water and sediment samples were collected from 19 locations throughout the watershed for the isolation of pathogenic E. coli. Heterotrophic plate counts and E. coli were also determined after running tertiary treated water through two tanks containing aquifer sand material. Presumptive pathogenic E. coli isolates were obtained and characterized for virulent factors and antimicrobial resistance. None of the isolates was confirmed as Shiga toxin E. coli (STEC), but as others, such as enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC). Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to show the diversity E. coli populations from different sources throughout the watershed. Seventy six percent of the isolates from urban sources exhibited resistance to more than one antimicrobial agent. A subsequent filtration experiment after water has gone through filtration tanks containing aquifer sand material showed that there was a 1 to 2 log reduction in E. coli in aquifer sand tank. Our data showed multiple strains of E. coli without virulence attributes, but with high distribution of resistant phenotypes. Therefore, the occurrence of E. coli with multiple resistances in the environment is a matter of great concern due to possible

  18. Microbiological Evaluation of Water Quality from Urban Watersheds for Domestic Water Supply Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandria K. Graves

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural and urban runoffs may be major sources of pollution of water bodies and major sources of bacteria affecting the quality of drinking water. Of the different pathways by which bacterial pathogens can enter drinking water, this one has received little attention to date; that is, because soils are often considered to be near perfect filters for the transport of bacterial pathogens through the subsoil to groundwater. The goals of this study were to determine the distribution, diversity, and antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic Escherichia coli isolates from low flowing river water and sediment with inputs from different sources before water is discharged into ground water and to compare microbial contamination in water and sediment at different sampling sites. Water and sediment samples were collected from 19 locations throughout the watershed for the isolation of pathogenic E. coli. Heterotrophic plate counts and E. coli were also determined after running tertiary treated water through two tanks containing aquifer sand material. Presumptive pathogenic E. coli isolates were obtained and characterized for virulent factors and antimicrobial resistance. None of the isolates was confirmed as Shiga toxin E. coli (STEC, but as others, such as enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE was used to show the diversity E. coli populations from different sources throughout the watershed. Seventy six percent of the isolates from urban sources exhibited resistance to more than one antimicrobial agent. A subsequent filtration experiment after water has gone through filtration tanks containing aquifer sand material showed that there was a 1 to 2 log reduction in E. coli in aquifer sand tank. Our data showed multiple strains of E. coli without virulence attributes, but with high distribution of resistant phenotypes. Therefore, the occurrence of E. coli with multiple resistances in the environment is a matter of great concern

  19. Use of index analysis to evaluate the water quality of a stream ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, the water quality of a stream that receives industrial effluents is evaluated through the analysis of two indices. Data (dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, pH, turbidity, colour, temperature and thermotolerant coliforms) were collected from five stations in the Mussuré Stream, located in João Pessoa ...

  20. Evaluation of water-quality data and monitoring program for Lake Travis, near Austin, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rast, Walter; Slade, Raymond M.

    1998-01-01

    Statistical analyses were made of selected water-quality properties and constituents for Lake Travis, northwest of Austin in central Texas. Objectives for the evaluation were: (1) to provide information on levels of selected water-quality properties or constituents to use as reference values for assessing the future effectiveness of the Lake Travis Nonpoint-Source Control ordinance of the Lower Colorado River Authority; and (2) to determine whether water-quality constituents at any of the sampling sites are statistically redundant with other sites and, thus, can be discontinued without loss of information. The data were grouped into two periods—the thermally stratified period (May through November) and the mixed period (December through April).

  1. EVALUATION OF THE QUALITY OF DRINKING WATER PRODUCED BY THE TREATMENT PLANT: CASE OF MAURITANIA

    OpenAIRE

    MOHAMEDEN TFEILA; KHADIJA ZAHIDI; MOHAMED OULD SID’AHMED OULD KANKOU; SALAH SOUABI; MOULAY ABDELAZIZ ABOULHASSAN

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the performance of treatment plants after three years of operation of the city of Nouakchott. It essentially aims to study the evolution of various raw water qualities during the different processing steps (T °, pH, EC, MES, Cl-, NO3-, NO2-, sulfate...). The water treatment in Béni Nadji pretreatment station has led to a significant removal of turbidity, organic matter, and a 99-100 % elimination of SS (Suspended Solids). For drinking water, the total hardness vari...

  2. Evaluation of drinking water quality indices (case study: Bushehr province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nematollah Jafarzadeh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Internal corrosion and the formation of scale in water distribution pipes are the most important problems for an urban water distribution system. Physical, chemical, or biological factors can lead to these two processes. Internal corrosion and scale formation can impact health, economy, and aesthetics. This study assessed the physicochemical quality parameters and evaluated the potential for corrosion and scale formation in drinking water at the distribution systems of 5 selected cities in Bushehr province (Kangan, Dashtestan, Dashti, Bushehr, and Ganaveh from 2009-2012. Methods: This study was carried out based on laboratory data collected from monthly samplings of tap water in the Water and Wastewater Company of Bushehr province during the years 2009-2012. Internal corrosion and scale formation rates were calculated using the Ryznar, Langelier, Aggressive, and Puckorius indices. Results: The results of the Ryznar, Puckorius, Aggressive and Langelier indices indicated that the drinking water in the 5 selected cities of Bushehr province was corrosive. Moreover, the majority of parameters used to determine water quality exceeded Iran’s national standards. Conclusion: It is concluded that there is problem of water corrosion and scaling in drinking water of distribution systems in selected cities.

  3. Evaluation of water quality based on a machine learning algorithm and water quality index for the Ebinur Lake Watershed, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoping; Zhang, Fei; Ding, Jianli

    2017-10-09

    The water quality index (WQI) has been used to identify threats to water quality and to support better water resource management. This study combines a machine learning algorithm, WQI, and remote sensing spectral indices (difference index, DI; ratio index, RI; and normalized difference index, NDI) through fractional derivatives methods and in turn establishes a model for estimating and assessing the WQI. The results show that the calculated WQI values range between 56.61 and 2,886.51. We also explore the relationship between reflectance data and the WQI. The number of bands with correlation coefficients passing a significance test at 0.01 first increases and then decreases with a peak appearing after 1.6 orders. WQI and DI as well as RI and NDI correlation coefficients between optimal band combinations of the peak also appear after 1.6 orders with R 2 values of 0.92, 0.58 and 0.92. Finally, 22 WQI estimation models were established by POS-SVR to compare the predictive effects of these models. The models based on a spectral index of 1.6 were found to perform much better than the others, with an R 2 of 0.92, an RMSE of 58.4, and an RPD of 2.81 and a slope of curve fitting of 0.97.

  4. Evaluation of two hydrograph separation methods of potential use in regional water quality assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huff, D.D.; Begovich, C.L.

    1976-03-01

    Streamflow data are more useful for evaluating hydrologic model results and studying water quality once baseflow and storm runoff have been separated. However, it is important to select an appropriate hydrograph separation method. We examined two methods and evaluated their conceptual basis, ease of application, cost of data processing, and acceptability of results. We chose the quick flow hydrograph separation method, which is in use at the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory, because it gives acceptable results and is easy and inexpensive to use. For regional assessment, we anticipate that the Coweeta program will be useful as an aid in developing general quantitative relationships between changes in land use and the associated changes in surface runoff yield and water quality degradation.

  5. An Evaluation of Two Hydrograph Separation Methods of Potential Use in Regional Water Quality Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huff, D.D.

    1999-01-01

    Streamflow data are more useful for evaluating hydrologic model results and studying water quality once baseflow and storm runoff have been separated. However, it is important to select an appropriate hydrograph separation method. They examined tow methods and evaluated their conceptual basis, ease of application, cost of data processing, and acceptability of results. they chose the quick flow hydrograph separation method, which is in use at the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory, because it gives acceptable results and is easy and inexpensive to use. For regional assessment, they anticipate that the Coweeta program will be useful as an aid in developing general quantitative relationships between changes in land use and the associated changes in surface runoff yield and water quality degradation.

  6. Automated Water Quality Survey and Evaluation Using an IoT Platform with Mobile Sensor Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available An Internet of Things (IoT platform with capabilities of sensing, data processing, and wireless communication has been deployed to support remote aquatic environmental monitoring. In this paper, the design and development of an IoT platform with multiple Mobile Sensor Nodes (MSN for the spatiotemporal quality evaluation of surface water is presented. A survey planner is proposed to distribute the Sampling Locations of Interest (SLoIs over the study area and generate paths for MSNs to visit the SLoIs, given the limited energy and time budgets. The SLoIs are chosen based on a cellular decomposition that is composed of uniform hexagonal cells. They are visited by the MSNs along a path ring generated by a planning approach that uses a spanning tree. For quality evaluation, an Online Water Quality Index (OLWQI is developed to interpret the large quantities of online measurements. The index formulations are modified by a state-of-the-art index, the CCME WQI, which has been developed by the Canadian Council of Ministers of Environment (CCME for off-line indexing. The proposed index has demonstrated effective and reliable performance in online indexing a large volume of measurements of water quality parameters. The IoT platform is deployed in the field, and its performance is demonstrated and discussed in this paper.

  7. Automated Water Quality Survey and Evaluation Using an IoT Platform with Mobile Sensor Nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Teng; Xia, Min; Chen, Jiahong; Zhao, Yuanjie; de Silva, Clarence

    2017-07-28

    An Internet of Things (IoT) platform with capabilities of sensing, data processing, and wireless communication has been deployed to support remote aquatic environmental monitoring. In this paper, the design and development of an IoT platform with multiple Mobile Sensor Nodes (MSN) for the spatiotemporal quality evaluation of surface water is presented. A survey planner is proposed to distribute the Sampling Locations of Interest (SLoIs) over the study area and generate paths for MSNs to visit the SLoIs, given the limited energy and time budgets. The SLoIs are chosen based on a cellular decomposition that is composed of uniform hexagonal cells. They are visited by the MSNs along a path ring generated by a planning approach that uses a spanning tree. For quality evaluation, an Online Water Quality Index (OLWQI) is developed to interpret the large quantities of online measurements. The index formulations are modified by a state-of-the-art index, the CCME WQI, which has been developed by the Canadian Council of Ministers of Environment (CCME) for off-line indexing. The proposed index has demonstrated effective and reliable performance in online indexing a large volume of measurements of water quality parameters. The IoT platform is deployed in the field, and its performance is demonstrated and discussed in this paper.

  8. Ground water quality evaluation in the lean period of a mining township

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Bably; Maiti, Deblina; Kumar, Adarsh

    2017-11-01

    Groundwater of mining towns is very much affected due to mining activity. During mining of mineral from underground, huge quantity of ground water is pumped out to make mining possible. Groundwater samples have been collected from the 20 sampling sites of Dhanbad, a mining Township, in the lean period (summer) of the years 2011 and 2014. Four samples have been obtained from open well and 16 from hand pumps. Water quality parameters such as pH, total hardness, Ca hardness, Mg Hardness, chloride, sulphate, total dissolved solids, and heavy metals have been evaluated. The values of pH, total hardness, Ca hardness, Mg hardness, chloride, sulphate, and total dissolved solids have increased in 2014 as compared to 2011 which may be due to increase in mineral content in the lean period and decrease in the rate of recharge of aquifers in 2014. The concentration of heavy metals has decreased in 2014 as compared to 2011 which may be due to less leaching of heavy metals from the ground strata. From the overall study, it has been concluded that most of the water quality parameters of all the 20 groundwater samples in the year 2014 are not exceeding the acceptable concentration level, as mentioned in Indian drinking water specifications. Groundwater in the year 2014 has not shown any significant change in its quality as compared to the year 2011. In the incoming years, quality of groundwater will not show any drastic change unless and until any anthropogenic activity other than mining will affect it.

  9. Physicochemical quality evaluation of groundwater and development of drinking water quality index for Araniar River Basin, Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasmin, I; Mallikarjuna, P

    2014-02-01

    Groundwater is the most important natural resource which cannot be optimally used and sustained unless its quality is properly assessed. In the present study, the spatial and temporal variations in physicochemical quality parameters of groundwater of Araniar River Basin, India were analyzed to determine its suitability for drinking purpose through development of drinking water quality index (DWQI) maps of the post- and pre-monsoon periods. The suitability for drinking purpose was evaluated by comparing the physicochemical parameters of groundwater in the study area with drinking water standards prescribed by the World Health Organization (WHO) and Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). Interpretation of physicochemical data revealed that groundwater in the basin was slightly alkaline. The cations such as sodium (Na(+)) and potassium (K(+)) and anions such as bicarbonate (HCO3 (-)) and chloride (Cl(-)) exceeded the permissible limits of drinking water standards (WHO and BIS) in certain pockets in the northeastern part of the basin during the pre-monsoon period. The higher total dissolved solids (TDS) concentration was observed in the northeastern part of the basin, and the parameters such as calcium (Ca(2+)), magnesium (Mg(2+)), sulfate (SO4 (2-)), nitrate (NO3 (-)), and fluoride (F(-)) were within the limits in both the seasons. The hydrogeochemical evaluation of groundwater of the basin demonstrated with the Piper trilinear diagram indicated that the groundwater samples of the area were of Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-Cl(-)-SO4 (2-), Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-HCO3 (-) and Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-)-SO4 (2-) types during the post-monsoon period and Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-Cl(-)-SO4 (2-), Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-)-SO4 (2-) and Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-HCO3 (-) types during the pre-monsoon period. The DWQI maps for the basin revealed that 90.24 and 73.46% of the basin area possess good quality drinking water during the post- and pre-monsoon seasons, respectively.

  10. Water Quality Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Our water quality sampling program is to determine the quality of Moosehorn's lakes and a limited number of streams. Water quality is a measure of the body of water,...

  11. Hydrogeology and water quality of at the management systems evaluation area near Piketon, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagucki, M.L.; Finton, C.D.; Springer, A.E.; Bair, E.S.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, The Ohio State University, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture to describe the hydrology, water quality, and geochemical factors controlling water quality at the Ohio Management Systems Evaluation Area (MSEA). The Ohio MSEA is located on a 650-acre farm in the Scioto River Valley in Pike County, south-central Ohio. The farm is underlain by an incised bedrock valley filled with about 70 feet of sand and gravel outwash deposits that are covered by a veneer of silty clay alluvium and silty loam and sandy loam soils. Outwash sediment are composed predominantly of dolomite, quartz, and calcite, and have a median organic carbon concentration of 0.39 weight percent. Horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the sediment based on results of multiple-well aquifer tests ranges from 400 to 560 feet per day. Ground-water flow is from east to west-southwest at an average velocity of 1.5 to 2.5 feet per day. Ground water and surface water at the site are highly interconnected. Big Beaver Creek recharges the outwash aquifer along the eastern edge of the study area, and ground water discharges to the Scioto River at the western edge of the study area. High-stage events on the Scioto River cause frequent flow reversals in the aquifer that allow streamwater to travel a maximum observed distance of 190 feet inland. A zone of oxidizing waters (characterized by high dissolved oxygen concentration and Eh) is found in shallow ground water for several hundred feet adjacent to Big Beaver Creek and the Scioto River. This zone of oxidizing ground water is caused by the periodic inflow of surface waters to the aquifer. A ground-water budget for the study area indicates that the aquifer received 17.7 inches of recharge during water year 1992; of this amount, 72 percent originated as infiltrating precipitation, 28 percent as infiltration of surface water from Big Beaver Creek, and 0.2 percent as leakage from bedrock. Areal

  12. Integrated water quality, emergy and economic evaluation of three bioremediation treatment systems for eutrophic water

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was targeted at finding one or more environmentally efficient, economically feasible and ecologically sustainable bioremediation treatment modes for eutrophic water. Three biological species, i.e. water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica), loach (Misgurus anguillicaudatus) and ...

  13. Application of Multivariate Statistical Analysis in Evaluation of Surface River Water Quality of a Tropical River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teck-Yee Ling

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the spatial variations of surface water quality in a tropical river using multivariate statistical techniques, including cluster analysis (CA and principal component analysis (PCA. Twenty physicochemical parameters were measured at 30 stations along the Batang Baram and its tributaries. The water quality of the Batang Baram was categorized as “slightly polluted” where the chemical oxygen demand and total suspended solids were the most deteriorated parameters. The CA grouped the 30 stations into four clusters which shared similar characteristics within the same cluster, representing the upstream, middle, and downstream regions of the main river and the tributaries from the middle to downstream regions of the river. The PCA has determined a reduced number of six principal components that explained 83.6% of the data set variance. The first PC indicated that the total suspended solids, turbidity, and hydrogen sulphide were the dominant polluting factors which is attributed to the logging activities, followed by the five-day biochemical oxygen demand, total phosphorus, organic nitrogen, and nitrate-nitrogen in the second PC which are related to the discharges from domestic wastewater. The components also imply that logging activities are the major anthropogenic activities responsible for water quality variations in the Batang Baram when compared to the domestic wastewater discharge.

  14. Evaluation of Water Quality Renovation by Advanced Soil-Based Wastewater Treatment Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J.; Loomis, G.; Kalen, D.; Boving, T.; Morales, I.; DeLuca, J.; Amador, J.

    2013-12-01

    25% of US households utilize onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) for wastewater management. Advanced technologies were designed to overcome the inadequate wastewater treatment by conventional OWTS in critical shallow water table areas, such as coastal zones, in order to protect ground water quality. In addition to the septic tank and soil drainfield that comprise a conventional OWTS, advanced systems claim improved water renovation with the addition of sand filtration, timed dosing controls, and shallow placement of the infiltrative zone. We determined water quality renovation functions under current water table and temperature conditions, in anticipation of an experiment to measure OWTS response to a climate change scenario of 30-cm increase in water table elevation and 4C temperature increase. Replicate (n=3) intact soil mesocosms were used to evaluate the effectiveness of drainfields with a conventional wastewater delivery (pipe-and-stone) compared to two types of pressurized, shallow narrow drainfield. Results under steady state conditions indicate complete removal of fecal coliform bacteria, phosphorus and BOD by all soil-based systems. By contrast, removal of total nitrogen inputs was 16% in conventional and 11% for both advanced drainfields. Effluent waters maintained a steady state pH between 3.2 - 3.7 for all technologies. Average DO readings were 2.9mg/L for conventional drainfield effluent and 4.6mg/L for advanced, showing the expected oxygen uptake with shallow placement of the infiltrative zone. The conventional OWTS is outperforming the advanced with respect to nitrogen removal, but renovating wastewater equivalently for all other contaminants of concern. The results of this study are expected to facilitate development of future OWTS regulation and planning guidelines, particularly in coastal zones and in the face of a changing climate.

  15. Genetic Algorithm-Based Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation of Water Quality in Dongzhaigang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiasheng Wen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN; NO2−–N, NH3–N, and NO3−–N, PO43−–P, dissolved oxygen (DO, chemical oxygen demand (COD, five-day biological oxygen demand (BOD5, oil, Si, and seven heavy metals (Hg, Cr, Cu, As, Zn, Pb, and Cd in seawater from the Dongzhaigang National Mangrove Nature Reserve of China in 2013 were determined. Except for the concentrations of the COD, BOD5, Cr, Hg, Cu, As, and Cd, each index in seawater were found to be over the limits of I-Class seawater standards. The index of organic pollution showed that the pollution level in this study area reached level 6; eutrophication levels indicated that the nutritional level reached level 4. According to the water quality index model, the sea area was slightly polluted by heavy metals. In a genetic algorithm-based fuzzy comprehensive evaluation, the results for organic pollutants, nutrients, and heavy metal pollution can be combined to evaluate the water quality as a whole. Results showed that the sea area in Dongzhaigang did not have a healthy water environment, but was seriously polluted by organic pollutants and nutrients.

  16. EVALUATION OF THE QUALITY OF DRINKING WATER PRODUCED BY THE TREATMENT PLANT: CASE OF MAURITANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMEDEN TFEILA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the performance of treatment plants after three years of operation of the city of Nouakchott. It essentially aims to study the evolution of various raw water qualities during the different processing steps (T °, pH, EC, MES, Cl-, NO3-, NO2-, sulfate.... The water treatment in Béni Nadji pretreatment station has led to a significant removal of turbidity, organic matter, and a 99-100 % elimination of SS (Suspended Solids. For drinking water, the total hardness varies between 3.8 and 5.6 °fH. The value of turbidity in drinking water was between 0.2 and 0.3 NTU with turbidity varying between 21 and 330 NTU in the surface water. Aluminum surface concentration surface was between 0.1 and 0.7 mg·L-1. The nitrate concentration varies between 0.5 and 2 mg·L-1, which is lower than that suggested by The World Health Organization (50 mg·L-1. As a result of this study, we concluded that water clarification phases of Nouakchott must be improved.

  17. Water Quality Evaluation of PET Bottled Water by Mineral Balance in the Northeast Asian Region: A Case Study of South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houri, Daisuke; Koo, Chung Mo

    2015-09-01

    The past few years have seen a demand for drinking water in contemporary society with a focus on safety and taste. Mineral water is now marketed as a popular commercial product and, partly due to health concerns, the production. For the study, a comparison was carried out of water samples from 9 types of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottled water sold in South Korea as well as from tap water in the cities of Seoul and Chuncheon. These were compared with samples of Japanese PET bottled water in order to determine shared commonalities and identify individual characteristics. To evaluate water quality objectively, we quantified the elements contained in the water samples. Samples were assessed not with the usual sensory evaluation but with the evaluation approach advocated by Hashimoto et al. which employs the Water Index of Taste and the Water Index of Health. The levels of water quality obtained were compared with the "Prerequisites for Tasty Water" and the "Standards for Tasty Water" devised for city water. The PET Bottled water varieties analyzed in this study-Seoksu, Icis, Bong Pyong, Soon Soo 100, Dong Won Saem Mul, GI JANG SOO and DIAMOND-showed the Water Index of Taste ≥ 2.0 and the Water Index of Health ≥ 5.2, which we classified as tasty/healthy water. SamDaSoo and NamiNeral can be classified as tasty water due to their values of the Water Index of Taste ≥ 2.0 and the Water Index of Health water studied here fulfills the "Water Index of Taste," "Water Index of Health," "Standard for Tasty Water" and "Prerequisites for Tasty Water" that Japanese people value for city water. We can conclude that bottled water which meets water quality requirements will be considered good-tasting by a majority of people.

  18. Evaluation of significant sources influencing the variation of water quality of Kandla creek, Gulf of Katchchh, using PCA

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dalal, S.G.; Shirodkar, P.V.; Jagtap, T.G.; Naik, B.G.; Rao, G.S.

    To evaluate the significant sources contributing to water quality parameters, we used principal component analysis (PCA) for the interpretation of a large complex data matrix obtained from the Kandla creek environmental monitoring program. The data...

  19. Evaluation of quantitative PCR combined with PMA treatment for molecular assessment of microbial water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gensberger, Eva Theres; Polt, Marlies; Konrad-Köszler, Marianne; Kinner, Paul; Sessitsch, Angela; Kostić, Tanja

    2014-12-15

    Microbial water quality assessment currently relies on cultivation-based methods. Nucleic acid-based techniques such as quantitative PCR (qPCR) enable more rapid and specific detection of target organisms and propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment facilitates the exclusion of false positive results caused by DNA from dead cells. Established molecular assays (qPCR and PMA-qPCR) for legally defined microbial quality parameters (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and indicator organism group of coliforms (implemented on the molecular detection of Enterobacteriaceae) were comparatively evaluated to conventional microbiological methods. The evaluation of an extended set of drinking and process water samples showed that PMA-qPCR for E. coli, Enterococcus spp. and P. aeruginosa resulted in higher specificity because substantial or complete reduction of false positive signals in comparison to qPCR were obtained. Complete compliance to reference method was achieved for E. coli PMA-qPCR and 100% specificity for Enterococcus spp. and P. aeruginosa in the evaluation of process water samples. A major challenge remained in sensitivity of the assays, exhibited through false negative results (7-23%), which is presumably due to insufficient sample preparation (i.e. concentration of bacteria and DNA extraction), rather than the qPCR limit of detection. For the detection of the indicator group of coliforms, the evaluation study revealed that the utilization of alternative molecular assays based on the taxonomic group of Enterobacteriaceae was not adequate. Given the careful optimization of the sensitivity, the highly specific PMA-qPCR could be a valuable tool for rapid detection of hygienic parameters such as E. coli, Enterococcus spp. and P. aeruginosa. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of Empirical and Machine Learning Algorithms for Estimation of Coastal Water Quality Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Nazeer

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Coastal waters are one of the most vulnerable resources that require effective monitoring programs. One of the key factors for effective coastal monitoring is the use of remote sensing technologies that significantly capture the spatiotemporal variability of coastal waters. Optical properties of coastal waters are strongly linked to components, such as colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM, chlorophyll-a (Chl-a, and suspended solids (SS concentrations, which are essential for the survival of a coastal ecosystem and usually independent of each other. Thus, developing effective remote sensing models to estimate these important water components based on optical properties of coastal waters is mandatory for a successful coastal monitoring program. This study attempted to evaluate the performance of empirical predictive models (EPM and neural networks (NN-based algorithms to estimate Chl-a and SS concentrations, in the coastal area of Hong Kong. Remotely-sensed data over a 13-year period was used to develop regional and local models to estimate Chl-a and SS over the entire Hong Kong waters and for each water class within the study area, respectively. The accuracy of regional models derived from EPM and NN in estimating Chl-a and SS was 83%, 93%, 78%, and 97%, respectively, whereas the accuracy of local models in estimating Chl-a and SS ranged from 60–94% and 81–94%, respectively. Both the regional and local NN models exhibited a higher performance than those models derived from empirical analysis. Thus, this study suggests using machine learning methods (i.e., NN for the more accurate and efficient routine monitoring of coastal water quality parameters (i.e., Chl-a and SS concentrations over the complex coastal area of Hong Kong and other similar coastal environments.

  1. Evaluation of global water quality - the potential of a data- and model-driven analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bärlund, Ilona; Flörke, Martina; Alcamo, Joseph; Völker, Jeanette; Malsy, Marcus; Kaus, Andrew; Reder, Klara; Büttner, Olaf; Katterfeld, Christiane; Dietrich, Désirée; Borchardt, Dietrich

    2016-04-01

    The ongoing socio-economic development presents a new challenge for water quality worldwide, especially in developing and emerging countries. It is estimated that due to population growth and the extension of water supply networks, the amount of waste water will rise sharply. This can lead to an increased risk of surface water quality degradation, if the wastewater is not sufficiently treated. This development has impacts on ecosystems and human health, as well as food security. The United Nations Member States have adopted targets for sustainable development. They include, inter alia, sustainable protection of water quality and sustainable use of water resources. To achieve these goals, appropriate monitoring strategies and the development of indicators for water quality are required. Within the pre-study for a 'World Water Quality Assessment' (WWQA) led by United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), a methodology for assessing water quality, taking into account the above-mentioned objectives has been developed. The novelty of this methodology is the linked model- and data-driven approach. The focus is on parameters reflecting the key water quality issues, such as increased waste water pollution, salinization or eutrophication. The results from the pre-study show, for example, that already about one seventh of all watercourses in Latin America, Africa and Asia show high organic pollution. This is of central importance for inland fisheries and associated food security. In addition, it could be demonstrated that global water quality databases have large gaps. These must be closed in the future in order to obtain an overall picture of global water quality and to target measures more efficiently. The aim of this presentation is to introduce the methodology developed within the WWQA pre-study and to show selected examples of application in Latin America, Africa and Asia.

  2. An evaluation of water quality in private drinking water wells near natural gas extraction sites in the Barnett Shale formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenot, Brian E; Hunt, Laura R; Hildenbrand, Zacariah L; Carlton, Doug D; Oka, Hyppolite; Walton, Jayme L; Hopkins, Dan; Osorio, Alexandra; Bjorndal, Bryan; Hu, Qinhong H; Schug, Kevin A

    2013-09-03

    Natural gas has become a leading source of alternative energy with the advent of techniques to economically extract gas reserves from deep shale formations. Here, we present an assessment of private well water quality in aquifers overlying the Barnett Shale formation of North Texas. We evaluated samples from 100 private drinking water wells using analytical chemistry techniques. Analyses revealed that arsenic, selenium, strontium and total dissolved solids (TDS) exceeded the Environmental Protection Agency's Drinking Water Maximum Contaminant Limit (MCL) in some samples from private water wells located within 3 km of active natural gas wells. Lower levels of arsenic, selenium, strontium, and barium were detected at reference sites outside the Barnett Shale region as well as sites within the Barnett Shale region located more than 3 km from active natural gas wells. Methanol and ethanol were also detected in 29% of samples. Samples exceeding MCL levels were randomly distributed within areas of active natural gas extraction, and the spatial patterns in our data suggest that elevated constituent levels could be due to a variety of factors including mobilization of natural constituents, hydrogeochemical changes from lowering of the water table, or industrial accidents such as faulty gas well casings.

  3. Application of Water Quality Model of Jordan River to Evaluate Climate Change Effects on Eutrophication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Grouw, B.

    2016-12-01

    The Jordan River is a 51 mile long freshwater stream in Utah that provides drinking water to more than 50% of Utah's population. The various point and nonpoint sources introduce an excess of nutrients into the river. This excess induces eutrophication that results in an inhabitable environment for aquatic life is expected to be exacerbated due to climate change. Adaptive measures must be evaluated based on predictions of climate variation impacts on eutrophication and ecosystem processes in the Jordan River. A Water Quality Assessment Simulation Program (WASP) model was created to analyze the data results acquired from a Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) study conducted on the Jordan River. Eutrophication is modeled based on levels of phosphates and nitrates from point and nonpoint sources, temperature, and solar radiation. It will simulate the growth of phytoplankton and periphyton in the river. This model will be applied to assess how water quality in the Jordan River is affected by variations in timing and intensity of spring snowmelt and runoff during drought in the valley and the resulting effects on eutrophication in the river.

  4. Health gains from solar water disinfection (SODIS): evaluation of a water quality intervention in Yaoundé, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Jürg; Zebaze Togouet, Serge; Kemka, Norbert; Niyitegeka, Domitille; Meierhofer, Regula; Gangoue Pieboji, Joseph

    2010-12-01

    In developing countries, the burden of diarrhoea is still enormous. One way to reduce transmission of pathogens is by water quality interventions. Solar water disinfection (SODIS) is a low-cost and simple method to improve drinking water quality on household level. This paper evaluates the implementation of SODIS in slum areas of Yaoundé, Cameroon. Promoters trained 2,911 households in the use of SODIS. Two surveys with randomly selected households were conducted before (N=2,193) and after (N=783) the intervention. Using a questionnaire, interviewers collected information on the health status of children under five, on liquid consumption, hygiene and other issues. Prior to the intervention, diarrhoea prevalence amounted to 34.3% among children. After the intervention, it remained stable in the control group (31.8%) but dropped to 22.8% in the intervention group. Households fully complying with the intervention exhibited even less diarrhoea prevalence (18.3%) and diarrhoea risk could be reduced by 42.5%. Multivariate analyses revealed that the intervention effects are also observed when other diarrhoea risk factors, such as hygiene and cleanliness of household surroundings, are considered. According to the data, adoption of the method was associated with marital status. Findings suggest health benefits from SODIS use. Further promotional activities in low-income settings are recommended.

  5. Evaluation of the Hydrolab HL4 water-quality sonde and sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snazelle, Teri T.

    2017-12-18

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Hydrologic Instrumentation Facility evaluated three Hydrolab HL4 multiparameter water-quality sondes by OTT Hydromet. The sondes were equipped with temperature, conductivity, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), and turbidity sensors. The sensors were evaluated for compliance with the USGS National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data (NFM) criteria for continuous water-quality monitors and to verify the validity of the manufacturer’s technical specifications. The conductivity sensors were evaluated for the accuracy of the specific conductance (SC) values (conductance at 25 degrees Celsius [oC]), that were calculated by using the vendor default method, Hydrolab Fresh. The HL4’s communication protocols and operating temperature range along with accuracy of the water-quality sensors were tested in a controlled laboratory setting May 1–19, 2016. To evaluate the sonde’s performance in a surface-water field application, an HL4 equipped with temperature, conductivity, pH, DO, and turbidity sensors was deployed June 20–July 22, 2016, at USGS water-monitoring site 02492620, Pearl River at National Space Technology Laboratories (NSTL) Station, Mississippi, located near Bay Saint Louis, Mississippi, and compared to the adjacent well-maintained EXO2 site sonde.The three HL4 sondes met the USGS temperature testing criteria and the manufacturer’s technical specifications for temperature based upon the median room temperature difference between the measured and standard temperatures, but two of the three sondes exceeded the allowable difference criteria at the temperature extremes of approximately 5 and 40 ºC. Two sondes met the USGS criteria for SC. One of the sondes failed the criteria for SC when evaluated in a 100,000-microsiemens-per-centimeter (μS/cm) standard at room temperature, and also failed in a 10,000-μS/cm standard at 5, 15, and 40 ºC. All three sondes met the USGS criteria for pH and DO at room temperature

  6. Evaluation of stream water quality in Atlanta, Georgia, and the surrounding region (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, N.E.; Kandell, S.J.

    1999-01-01

    A water-quality index (WQI) was developed from historical data (1986-1995) for streams in the Atlanta Region and augmented with 'new' and generally more comprehensive biweekly data on four small urban streams, representing an industrial area, a developed medium-density residential area and developing and developed low-density residential areas. Parameter WQIs were derived from percentile ranks of individual water-quality parameter values for each site by normalizing the constituent ranks for values from all sites in the area for a base period, i.e. 1990-1995. WQIs were developed primarily for nutrient-related parameters due to data availability. Site WQIs, which were computed by averaging the parameter WQIs, range from 0.2 (good quality) to 0.8 (poor quality), and increased downstream of known nutrient sources. Also, annual site WQI decreases from 1986 to 1995 at most long-term monitoring sites. Annual site WQI for individual parameters correlated with annual hydrological characteristics, particularly runoff, precipitation quantity, and water yield, reflecting the effect of dilution on parameter values. The WQIs of the four small urban streams were evaluated for the core-nutrient-related parameters, parameters for specific dissolved trace metal concentrations and sediment characteristics, and a species diversity index for the macro-invertebrate taxa. The site WQI for the core-nutrient-related parameters used in the retrospective analysis was, as expected, the worst for the industrial area and the best for the low-density residential areas. However, macro-invertebrate data indicate that although the species at the medium-density residential site were diverse, the taxa at the site were for species tolerant of degraded water quality. Furthermore, although a species-diversity index indicates no substantial difference between the two low-density residential areas, the number for macro-invertebrates for the developing area was much less than that for the developed area

  7. Evaluation of the Eureka Manta2 Water-Quality Multiprobe Sonde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Evan F.

    2017-11-08

    Two Eureka Manta2 3.5 water-quality multiprobe sondes by Eureka Water Probes were tested at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Hydrologic Instrumentation Facility (HIF) against known standards over the sonde operating temperatures to verify the manufacturer’s stated accuracy specifications for pH, specific conductance (SC) at 25 degrees Celsius (°C), dissolved oxygen (DO), and turbidity. The Manta2 sondes were evaluated for compliance with the USGS National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data (NFM) criteria for continuous water-quality monitors, and for compliance with the manufacturer’s technical specifications. The Manta2 was also evaluated for its compliance to Serial Digital Interface at 1200 baud (SDI-12) version 1.3.The Manta2 met the NFM recommendations and manufacturer’s accuracy specifications for DO and turbidity at all values tested. The Manta2 pH sensors met the NFM recommendations and manufacturer’s accuracy specification for nominal pH values of 10 and lower. One of the two sensors was out of compliance by 1.2 units for pH 11.16 at 15 °C and by 0.25 unit for pH 10.78 at 40 °C. The Manta2 sensors were within the NFM recommendations for SC, except at 100 microsiemens (μS/cm) at 40 °C, where the SC sensor exceeded the test standard value by as much as 25 percent. One of two sensors was within manufacturer’s accuracy specifications at 25 °C for all the tested SC values, while the other SC sensor was outside the manufacturer’s accuracy specifications at 100 μS/cm, exceeding the test standard value by 9 percent. One of two sensors was outside the manufacturer’s accuracy specifications at 10,000 μS/cm at 15°C, exceeding the test standard value by 3 percent. One Manta2 passed SDI-12 compliance testing with a NR Systems SDI-12 Verifier. One Manta2 was field tested for 6 weeks at USGS station 02492620, National Space Technology Laboratories (NSTL) Station, Mississippi, on the Pearl River and showed overall good agreement

  8. Evaluation of water quality in the Rimac River Basin of Peru: Huaycoloro urban subbasin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldeón Quispe, W.; Vela Cardich, R.; Huamán Paredes, F.

    2013-05-01

    In Peru, the increasing water scarcity and quality deterioration caused public health problems and deterioration of ecosystems that are exacerbated during periods of drought. The most populated basin is the Rimac River which rises in the Andes, between 4000 and 6000 meters and flow into the Pacific Ocean. This basin has pollution problems and a clear example is the Huaycoloro urban subbasin that originated in 2005, the creation of multi-sectoral technical committee for the recovery of health and environmental quality of the Huaycoloro subbasin (DIGESA, 2006a). The objective of this work is the need to generate and evaluate information on water quality in the Huaycoloro subbasin, quantifying physicochemical and microbiological parameters in four monitoring stations for a period from October 1, 2006 to April 24, 2010. The monitoring was conducted in the dry season because the Huaycoloro subbasin is a dry riverbed and therefore this is the critical period for evaluation. Initially samples were taken every two weeks during the months of October and November 2006. In 2007 were sampled monthly in April, June and September. In the years 2008, 2009 and 2010 surveys were conducted once a year, in the months of October, May and April respectively. Wide variations in the results of the various parameters analyzed in each of the stations mainly be explained by differences in the frequency of discharge of domestic and industrial effluent without prior treatment, effluent turn change in quantity and quality according to the various processes associated with each activity. Domestic effluents from populations that do not have sewer, industrial effluents from tannery correspond to activities, laundry, dairy, brewing and other. During field trips, we could be determined, in some instances, significant changes in water quality in a short period of time (one hour or less), manifested by changes in color fluctuations of water and the solids content in suspension. We obtained total

  9. Evaluating the relationship between temporal changes in land use and resulting water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesiri, Buddhi; Deilami, Kaveh; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2017-12-02

    Changes in land use have a direct impact on receiving water quality. Effective mitigation strategies require the accurate prediction of water quality in order to enhance community well-being and ecosystem health. The research study employed Bayesian Network modelling to investigate the validity of using cross-sectional and longitudinal data on water quality and land use for predicting water quality in a mixed use catchment and the role it plays in the generation of blue-green algae in the receiving marine environment. Bayesian Network modelling showed that cross-sectional and longitudinal data analyses generate contrasting information about the influence of different land uses on surface water pollution. The modelling outcomes highlighted the lack of reliability in cross-sectional data analysis, based on the indication of spurious relationships between water quality and land use. On the other hand, the longitudinal data analysis, which accounted for changes in water quality and land use over a ten-year period, informed how catchment water quality varies in response to temporal changes in land use. The longitudinal data analysis further revealed that the types of anthropogenic activities have a more significant influence on pollutant generation than the change in the area extent of different land uses over time. Therefore, the careful interpretation of the findings derived solely from cross-sectional data analysis is important in the design of long-term strategies for pollution mitigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Diurnal variation and evaluation of water quality of Panxi River in spring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian-Qian; Wang, Xiao-Ke; Hao, Li-Ling; Lu, Fei; Ouyang, Zhi-Yun; Hou, Pei-Qiang

    2012-04-01

    Based on the investigation of water quality of Panxi River in spring, 2010, we assessed the diurnal variation of water quality in spring and the characteristics of water quality changes within a day by using non-parametric test, analysis of variance and grey relationship analysis. The results showed that the differences were not significant for t, DO, COD, Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu (P > 0.05) in upstream, midstream and downstream, but significant difference existed among the pH, EC, TP, TSS, BOD5, NO3(-) -N, TN and NH4(+) -N contents. The diurnal variation of different water quality parameters presented distinct patterns: TN, TP and EC increased wavelike with time in upstream, fluctuated less in middle and showed the "single-peak single-valley" pattern in downstream, with the peak at 12:00. The diurnal variation of COD showed that "single-peak" pattern and with the peak at 10:00 in upstream and midstream and peak at 12:00 in downstream. The concentrations of Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu were low and peak at 12:00 in midstream; The grey relationship analysis indicated that the water quality in upstream was inferior to the V class of surface water at 18:00 and 20:00 and were in the II class of surface water for the rest hours, and the water quality in midstream was inferior to the V class of surface water at 12:00 and were in the II class of surface water for the rest hours; and the water quality in downstream was inferior to the V class of surface water all time during investigation.

  11. Evaluation of multivariate linear regression and artificial neural networks in prediction of water quality parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare Abyaneh, Hamid

    2014-01-23

    This paper examined the efficiency of multivariate linear regression (MLR) and artificial neural network (ANN) models in prediction of two major water quality parameters in a wastewater treatment plant. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) as well as indirect indicators of organic matters are representative parameters for sewer water quality. Performance of the ANN models was evaluated using coefficient of correlation (r), root mean square error (RMSE) and bias values. The computed values of BOD and COD by model, ANN method and regression analysis were in close agreement with their respective measured values. Results showed that the ANN performance model was better than the MLR model. Comparative indices of the optimized ANN with input values of temperature (T), pH, total suspended solid (TSS) and total suspended (TS) for prediction of BOD was RMSE = 25.1 mg/L, r = 0.83 and for prediction of COD was RMSE = 49.4 mg/L, r = 0.81. It was found that the ANN model could be employed successfully in estimating the BOD and COD in the inlet of wastewater biochemical treatment plants. Moreover, sensitive examination results showed that pH parameter have more effect on BOD and COD predicting to another parameters. Also, both implemented models have predicted BOD better than COD.

  12. Water Quality Analysis Simulation

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Water Quality analysis simulation Program, an enhancement of the original WASP. This model helps users interpret and predict water quality responses to natural...

  13. Water Quality Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA develops water quality criteria based on the latest scientific knowledge to protect human health and aquatic life. This information serves as guidance to states and tribes in adopting water quality standards.

  14. Water Quality Analysis Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Quality analysis simulation Program, an enhancement of the original WASP. This model helps users interpret and predict water quality responses to natural phenomena and man-made pollution for variious pollution management decisions.

  15. Water Quality Monitoring Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Water Quality Monitoring Site identifies locations across the state of Vermont where water quality data has been collected, including habitat, chemistry, fish and/or...

  16. Evaluation of surface water quality and pollution in Lepenica river basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Ana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Lepenica river basin is axis of economic and urban development of Šumadija region. However, because of disorderly water regime of Lepenica river and its tributaries, it appears several hydrologic problems on this territory, as example insufficiency of drinking and irrigating water by one cite, and floods and torrents (especially in Kragujevac valley by other cite. Particular problem is water quality and pollution in river basin. In this paper will be analyzed water quality of Lepenica river and artificial lakes, built in its river basin, according to the data of Republic Hydrometeorologic Institute of Serbia. Also, it will be present polluter cadastre in river basin.

  17. Development and evaluation of sediment quality guidelines for Florida coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Donald D.; Carr, R. Scott; Calder, Fred D.; Long, Edward R.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.

    1996-01-01

    The weight-of-evidence approach to the development of sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) was modified to support the derivation of biological effects-based SQGs for Florida coastal waters. Numerical SQGs were derived for 34 substances, including nine trace metals, 13 individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), three groups of PAHs, total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), seven pesticides and one phthalate ester. For each substance, a threshold effects level (TEL) and a probable effects level (PEL) was calculated. These two values defined three ranges of chemical concentrations, including those that were (1) rarely, (2) occasionally or (3) frequently associated with adverse effects. The SQGs were then evaluated to determine their degree of agreement with other guidelines (an indicator of comparability) and the percent incidence of adverse effects within each concentration range (an indicator of reliability). The guidelines also were used to classify (using a dichotomous system: toxic, with one or more exceedances of the PELs or non-toxic, with no exceedances of the TELs) sediment samples collected from various locations in Florida and the Gulf of Mexico. The accuracy of these predictions was then evaluated using the results of the biological tests that were performed on the same sediment samples. The resultant SQGs were demonstrated to provide practical, reliable and predictive tools for assessing sediment quality in Florida and elsewhere in the southeastern portion of the United States.

  18. Comparative evaluation of runoff and water quality using HSPF and SWMM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sae-Bom; Yoon, Chun-Gyeong; Jung, Kwang Wook; Hwang, Ha Sun

    2010-01-01

    Stormwater pollution is the untreated contaminated water that drains into natural waterways from land uses within an urban catchment. Several studies have demonstrated the deterioration of water quality in receiving bodies of water caused by stormwater runoff. The data have reported that urban runoff play primary roles in degrading water quality in adjacent aquatic systems. The accurate estimation of non-pollutant loads from urban runoff and the prediction of water quality in receiving waters are important. The objective of this paper is to assess the applicability of the watershed scale hydrologic and water quality simulation models SWMM and HSPF to simulate the hydrology of a small watershed in the Han River Basin. Monitoring was performed in small scale watersheds, which is homogeneous land use. The applicability of SWMM and HSPF model was examined for small watersheds using hourly monitoring data. The results of SWMM were reasonably reflected with observed data in small scale urban area. HSPF model was effective at specifying parameters related to runoff and water quality when using hourly monitoring data. The watershed models used in this study adequately simulated watershed characteristics and are recommended to support watershed management.

  19. Evaluation of water quality functions of conventional and advanced soil-based onsite wastewater treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Jennifer A; Loomis, George W; Kalen, David V; Amador, Jose A

    2015-05-01

    Shallow narrow drainfields are assumed to provide better wastewater renovation than conventional drainfields and are used for protection of surface and ground water. To test this assumption, we evaluated the water quality functions of two advanced onsite wastewater treatment system (OWTS) drainfields-shallow narrow (SND) and Geomat (GEO)-and a conventional pipe and stone (P&S) drainfield over 12 mo using replicated ( = 3) intact soil mesocosms. The SND and GEO mesocosms received effluent from a single-pass sand filter, whereas the P&S received septic tank effluent. Between 97.1 and 100% of 5-d biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), fecal coliform bacteria, and total phosphorus (P) were removed in all drainfield types. Total nitrogen (N) removal averaged 12.0% for P&S, 4.8% for SND, and 5.4% for GEO. A mass balance analysis accounted for 95.1% (SND), 94.1% (GEO), and 87.6% (P&S) of N inputs. When the whole treatment train (excluding the septic tank) is considered, advanced systems, including sand filter pretreatment and SND or GEO soil-based treatment, removed 99.8 to 99.9% of BOD, 100% of fecal coliform bacteria and P, and 26.0 to 27.0% of N. In contrast, the conventional system removed 99.4% of BOD and 100% of fecal coliform bacteria and P but only 12.0% of N. All drainfield types performed similarly for most water quality functions despite differences in placement within the soil profile. However, inclusion of the pretreatment step in advanced system treatment trains results in better N removal than in conventional treatment systems despite higher drainfield N removal rates in the latter. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  20. Water quality evaluation of Himalayan Rivers of Kumaun region, Uttarakhand, India

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seth, Richa; Mohan, Manindra; Singh, Prashant; Singh, Rakesh; Dobhal, Rajendra; Singh, Krishna Pal; Gupta, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Water quality of Himalayan rivers has been steadily deteriorating over several decades due to anthropogenic activities, dumping of treated or untreated effluents, poor structured sewerage and drainage system, etc...

  1. Multivariate statistical techniques for the evaluation of surface water quality of the Himalayan foothills streams, Pakistan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Malik, Riffat Naseem; Hashmi, Muhammad Zaffar

    2017-01-01

    ...; thus, the water quality is closely related to public health. Multivariate techniques were applied to check spatial and seasonal trends, and metals contamination sources of the Himalayan foothills streams, Pakistan...

  2. A Corresponding Study of Water Quality Evaluation of the Pasquotank Watershed in Northeastern North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, J.; Walthall, S.; McKenzie, R.; Dixon, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Pasquotank River Watershed covers 450 sq miles in the Coastal Plain of NE North Carolina. It flows from the Great Dismal Swamp at the VA/NC border into the Albemarle Sound. The watershed provides a transition between spawning grounds and waters of the Albemarle Sound. Forested swamp wetlands border much of the waterways. Increased agricultural and urban development has greatly affected water quality during recent years. Test were completed along the tributaries and the river itself, adding to the previously data from 2011, 2013, and 2014. Streams tested were the Newbegun Creek, Knobbs Creek, Areneuse Creek, Mill Dam Creek, and Sawyers Creek. These streams cover a large area of the watershed and provide a wide variety of shore development from swampland and farmland to industrial development. Samples were tested for pH, salinity, total dissolved solids, and conductivity. Air/water temperature, dissolved oxygen, wind speed/direction, and turbidity/clarity measurements were taken in the field. The results were placed into an online database and correlated to the location of the sample using Google Maps®. Analysis tools were developed to compare the data from all years. Excel spreadsheets were developed to look more closely at individual points and tests for each point. This database was connected to a data visualization page utilizing Google Maps®. The results show variations for the individual water quality scores, but the overall water quality score for all the tested water sources remained at a comparable level from previous years. Mill Dam Creek rose above the previous three scores of 48 (2011), 47 (2013), and 49 (2014) and achieved a medium water quality score of 57. Areneuse Creek improved in water quality with a medium water quality score of 60. Sawyers Creek became the lowest scoring waterway tested at 35. Knobbs Creek decreased from previous years with a water quality score of 42. For a fourth consecutive testing year, Newbegun Creek fell within the

  3. Application of water quality index to evaluate groundwater quality (temporal and spatial variation) of an intensively exploited aquifer (Puebla valley, Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo-Sánchez, Edith R; Garrido Hoyos, Sofía E; Esteller Alberich, Ma Vicenta; Martínez Morales, Manuel

    2016-10-01

    The spatial and temporal variation of water quality in the urban area of the Puebla Valley aquifer was evaluated using historical and present data obtained during this investigation. The current study assessed water quality based on the Water Quality Index developed by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME-WQI), which provides a mathematical framework to evaluate the quality of water in combination with a set of conditions representing quality criteria, or limits. This index is flexible regarding the type and number of variables used by the evaluation given that the variables of interest are selected according to the characteristics and objectives of development, conservation and compliance with regulations. The CCME-WQI was calculated using several variables that assess the main use of the wells in the urban area that is public supply, according to criteria for human use and consumption established by Mexican law and international standards proposed by the World Health Organization. The assessment of the index shows a gradual deterioration in the quality of the aquifer over time, as the amount of wells with excellent quality have decreased and those with lower index values (poor quality) have increased throughout the urban area of the Puebla Valley aquifer. The parameters affecting groundwater quality are: total dissolved solids, sulfate, calcium, magnesium and total hardness.

  4. Hydrogeochemical analysis and evaluation of surface water quality of Pratapgarh district, Uttar Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Ashwani Kumar; Singh, Abhay Kumar; Singh, Amit Kumar; Singh, M. P.

    2017-07-01

    The hydrogeochemical study of surface water in Pratapgarh district has been carried out to assess the major ion chemistry and water quality for drinking and domestic purposes. For this purpose, twenty-five surface water samples were collected from river, ponds and canals and analysed for pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), turbidity, hardness, major cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and K+), major anions (HCO3 -, F-, Cl-, NO3 -, SO4 2-) and dissolved silica concentration. The analytical results show mildly acidic to alkaline nature of surface water resources of Pratapgarh district. HCO3 - and Cl- are the dominant anions, while cation chemistry is dominated by Na+ and Ca2+. The statistical analysis and data plotted on the Piper diagram reveals that the surface water chemistry is mainly controlled by rock weathering with secondary contributions from agriculture and anthropogenic sources. Ca2+-Mg2+-HCO3 -, Ca2+-Mg2+-Cl- and Na+-HCO3 --Cl- are the dominant hydrogeochemical facies in the surface water of the area. For quality assessment, values of analysed parameters were compared with Indian and WHO water quality standards, which shows that the concentrations of TDS, F-, NO3 -, Na+, Mg2+ and total hardness are exceeding the desirable limits in some water samples. Water Quality Index (WQI) is one of the most effective tools to communicate information on the quality of any water body. The computed WQI values of Pratapgarh district surface water range from 28 to 198 with an average value of 82, and more than half of the study area is under excellent to good category.

  5. Tsunamis: Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Transmission in Pet Shelters Protect Your Pets Tsunamis: Water Quality Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... about testing should be directed to local authorities. Water for Drinking, Cooking, and Personal Hygiene Safe water ...

  6. Evaluation of ground water quality of Mubi town in Adamawa State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ground water quality of Mubi Town in Mubi North Local Government Area of Adamawa State was studied to examine the suitability or otherwise of their use of the groundwater for drinking and domestic purposes. Ten ground water samples from boreholes and dug wells were randomly collected each during raining ...

  7. Evaluation of storage and filtration protocols for alpine/subalpine lake water quality samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    John L. Korfmacher; Robert C. Musselman

    2007-01-01

    Many government agencies and other organizations sample natural alpine and subalpine surface waters using varying protocols for sample storage and filtration. Simplification of protocols would be beneficial if it could be shown that sample quality is unaffected. In this study, samples collected from low ionic strength waters in alpine and subalpine lake inlets...

  8. Evaluation of the impact of hot water treatment on the sensory quality of fresh tomatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minimizing the effects of chilling injury during shelf-life is important for maintaining the sensory quality of fresh tomato fruit. Postharvest hot water treatments within certain limits of exposure time and water temperature have been shown to increase the resistance of tomatoes to chilling injury....

  9. Quantitative evaluation of water quality in the coastal zone by remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, W. P.

    1971-01-01

    Remote sensing as a tool in a waste management program is discussed. By monitoring both the pollution sources and the environmental quality, the interaction between the components of the exturaine system was observed. The need for in situ sampling is reduced with the development of improved calibrated, multichannel sensors. Remote sensing is used for: (1) pollution source determination, (2) mapping the influence zone of the waste source on water quality parameters, and (3) estimating the magnitude of the water quality parameters. Diffusion coefficients and circulation patterns can also be determined by remote sensing, along with subtle changes in vegetative patterns and density.

  10. An empirical model of water quality for use in rapid management strategy evaluation in Southeast Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Mare, William; Ellis, Nick; Pascual, Ricardo; Tickell, Sharon

    2012-04-01

    Simulation models have been widely adopted in fisheries for management strategy evaluation (MSE). However, in catchment management of water quality, MSE is hampered by the complexity of both decision space and the hydrological process models. Empirical models based on monitoring data provide a feasible alternative to process models; they run much faster and, by conditioning on data, they can simulate realistic responses to management actions. Using 10 years of water quality indicators from Queensland, Australia, we built an empirical model suitable for rapid MSE that reproduces the water quality variables' mean and covariance structure, adjusts the expected indicators through local management effects, and propagates effects downstream by capturing inter-site regression relationships. Empirical models enable managers to search the space of possible strategies using rapid assessment. They provide not only realistic responses in water quality indicators but also variability in those indicators, allowing managers to assess strategies in an uncertain world. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dredged Material Evaluations: Review of Zooplankton Toxicity Test Methods for Marine Water Quality Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    for elutriate toxicity tests are fish, invertebrates ( crustaceans ), and zooplankton. Freshwater evaluations (following CWA regulations) use standard...one species each representative of phytoplankton or zooplankton, crustacean or mollusk, and fish species chosen from ERDC TN-DOER-R24 September...Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and ASTM. Much of this work has focused on full life-cycle testing of the epibenthic

  12. Evaluation of water quality and hydrogeochemistry of surface and groundwater, Tiruvallur District, Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna Kumar, S.; Hari Babu, S.; Eswar Rao, P.; Selvakumar, S.; Thivya, C.; Muralidharan, S.; Jeyabal, G.

    2017-09-01

    Water quality of Tiruvallur Taluk of Tiruvallur district, Tamil Nadu, India has been analysed to assess its suitability in relation to domestic and agricultural uses. Thirty water samples, including 8 surface water (S), 22 groundwater samples [15 shallow ground waters (SW) and 7 deep ground waters (DW)], were collected to assess the various physico-chemical parameters such as Temperature, pH, Electrical conductivity (EC), Total dissolved solids (TDS), cations (Ca, Mg, Na, K), anions (CO3, HCO3, Cl, SO4, NO3, PO4) and trace elements (Fe, Mn, Zn). Various irrigation water quality diagrams and parameters such as United states salinity laboratory (USSL), Wilcox, sodium absorption ratio (SAR), sodium percentage (Na %), Residual sodium carbonate (RSC), Residual Sodium Bicarbonate (RSBC) and Kelley's ratio revealed that most of the water samples are suitable for irrigation. Langelier Saturation Index (LSI) values suggest that the water is slightly corrosive and non-scale forming in nature. Gibbs plot suggests that the study area is dominated by evaporation and rock-water dominance process. Piper plot indicates the chemical composition of water, chiefly controlled by dissolution and mixing of irrigation return flow.

  13. Performance Evaluation of the Operational Air Quality Monitor for Water Testing Aboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, William T.; Limero, Thomas F.; Gazda, Daniel B.; Minton, John M.; Macatangay, Ariel V.; Dwivedi, Prabha; Fernandez, Facundo M.

    2014-01-01

    Real-time environmental monitoring on ISS is necessary to provide data in a timely fashion and to help ensure astronaut health. Current real-time water TOC monitoring provides high-quality trending information, but compound-specific data is needed. The combination of ETV with the AQM showed that compounds of interest could be liberated from water and analyzed in the same manner as air sampling. Calibration of the AQM using water samples allowed for the quantitative analysis of ISS archival samples. Some calibration issues remain, but the excellent accuracy of DMSD indicates that ETV holds promise for as a sample introduction method for water analysis in spaceflight.

  14. Development and evaluation of a helicopter-borne water-quality monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, J. W.; Jordan, R. A.; Flynn, J.; Thomas, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    A small, helicopter-borne water-quality monitoring package is being developed by the NASA/EPA using a combination of basic in situ water quality sensors and physical sample collector technology. The package is a lightweight system which can be carried and operated by one person as a passenger in a small helicopter typically available by rental at commercial airports. Real-time measurements are made by suspending the water quality monitoring package with a cable from the hovering helicopter. Designed primarily for use in rapidly assessing hazardous material spills in inland and coastal zone water bodies, the system can survey as many as 20 data stations up to 1.5 kilometers apart in 1 hour. The system provides several channels of sensor data and allows for the addition of future sensors. The system will also collect samples from selected sites with sample collection on command. An EPA Spill Response Team member can easily transport, deploy, and operate the water quality monitoring package to determine the distribution, movement, and concentration of the spilled material in the water body.

  15. Effects of 1992 farming systems on ground-water quality at the management systems evaluation area near Princeton, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delin, G.N.; Landon, M.K.; Lamb, J.A.; Dowdy, R.H.

    1995-01-01

    The Management Systems Evaluation Area (MSEA) program was a multiscale, interagency initiative to evaluate the effects of agricultural systems on water quality in the midwest corn belt. The primary objective of the Minnesota MSEA was to evaluate the effects of ridge-tillage practices in a corn and soybean farming system on ground-water quality. The 65-hectare Minnesota MSEA was located in the Anoka Sand Plain near the town of Princeton, Minnesota. Three fanning systems were evaluated: corn-soybean rotation with ridge-tillage (areas B and D), sweet corn-potato rotation (areas A and C), and field corn in consecutive years (continuous corn; area E). Water samples were collected four different times per year from a network of 22 multiport wells and 29 observation wells installed in the saturated zone beneath and adjacent to the cropped areas.

  16. Water Quality Protection Charges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — The Water Quality Protection Charge (WQPC) is a line item on your property tax bill. WQPC funds many of the County's clean water initiatives including: • Restoration...

  17. Biological Water Quality Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page contains links to Technical Documents pertaining to Biological Water Quality Criteria, including, technical assistance documents for states, tribes and territories, program overviews, and case studies.

  18. Contribution of the Danube tributaries in pollution of its water. Case Study: Evaluation of the Eselnita water river quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA VLAD

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Contribution of the Danube tributaries in pollution of its water. Case Study: Evaluation of the Eșelnița water river quality. Developed on the south-eastern side of Almãjului Mountains, Eşelniţa drainage basin neighbours upon the following basins: upon S – SV with Mala, upon SV - V with Mraconia, upon V - NV with Berzasca, upon NV - NNE with Nera and on the NNE – SE direction with Cerna. The basin has a surface of 77 km2 and present a 5th degree hydrographic network according to Horton - Strahler ranking system, tributary to Danube by means of Eşelniţa main collector. Developed in a mountain landscape, the basin presents different levels held between minimum altitude of 64 m at the confluence with the Danube and maximum altitude of 1107 m, thus presenting a difference of 1043 m. Geological formations within the basin belong largely the Danubian Domain, so in central and upper courses, these are represented by a crystalline foundation and by magmatic rocks of intrusive nature. But in the lower course, there are both crystalline and the sedimentary formations, last being integrated to Orşova depression and whose presence is related to the evolution of the Danube. The morphometrical indices of Eşelniţa basin allow to distinguish two different sectors: a higher sector, mountainous high energy relief, under the terms of a early fragmentation and a depresional sector with a low energy relief but with a more intense fragmentation on the basis of sedimentary rocks existence.

  19. Evaluation of water quality in surface water and shallow groundwater: a case study of a rare earth mining area in southern Jiangxi Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xiuzhen; Wang, Dengjun; Wang, Peiran; Wang, Yuxia; Zhou, Dongmei

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the quality of surface water and shallow groundwater near a rare earth mining area in southern Jiangxi Province, China. Water samples from paddy fields, ponds, streams, wells, and springs were collected and analyzed. The results showed that water bodies were characterized by low pH and high concentrations of total nitrogen (total N), ammonium nitrogen (NH4 (+)-N), manganese (Mn), and rare earth elements (REEs), which was likely due to residual chemicals in the soil after mining activity. A comparison with the surface water standard (State Environmental Protection Administration & General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of China GB3838, 2002) and drinking water sanitary standard (Ministry of Health & National Standardization Management Committee of China GB5749, 2006) of China revealed that 88 % of pond and stream water samples investigated were unsuitable for agricultural use and aquaculture water supply, and 50 % of well and spring water samples were unsuitable for drinking water. Moreover, significant cerium (Ce) negative and heavy REEs enrichment was observed after the data were normalized to the Post-Archean Australian Shales (PAAS). Principal component analysis indicated that the mining activity had a more significant impact on local water quality than terrace field farming and poultry breeding activities. Moreover, greater risk of water pollution and adverse effects on local residents' health was observed with closer proximity to mining sites. Overall, these findings indicate that effective measures to prevent contamination of surrounding water bodies from the effects of mining activity are needed.

  20. Evaluation of surface irrigation water quality in Muktagacha Upazila of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Sultana

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the quality of water for irrigation from the surface water of water bodies inMuktagacha Upazila under Mymensingh District. Water samples from 19 different water bodies (river, pond, khal, canal, beel etc. located all over the upazila were collected and analyzed for chemical composition and properties to classify them according to their suitability for irrigation. All water samples were found excellent to good and normal for irrigation in respect of salinity or Electrical Conductivity (EC and Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR respectively, and practically neutral to slightly alkaline in respect of pH. Considering boron concentration most of the samples was found to be excellent for all types of crops of the study area. Conventional Classification of water by Piper diagram have been done to show clustering of data points to indicate samples that have similar composition. Geographical Information System (GIS have been used in mapping, which greatly aided in the understanding of and decision making in water resources management. Any initiativefor surface water development for planned irrigation practices is highly encouraged.

  1. Evaluating, interpreting, and communicating performance of hydrologic/water quality models considering intended use: A review and recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous publications have outlined recommended practices for hydrologic and water quality (H/WQ) modeling, but none have formulated comprehensive guidelines for the final stage of modeling applications, namely evaluation, interpretation, and communication of model results and the consideration of t...

  2. Water-quality data-collection activities in Colorado and Ohio; Phase II, Evaluation of 1984 field and laboratory quality-assurance practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress, Carolyn J. Oblinger; Chaney, Thomas H.; Myers, Donna; Norris, J. Michael; Hren, Janet

    1987-01-01

    Serious questions have been raised by Congress about the usefulness of water-quality data for addressing issues of regional and national scope and, especially, for characterizing the current quality of the Nation's streams and ground water. In response, the U.S. Geological Survey has undertaken a pilot study in Colorado and Ohio to (1) determine the characteristics of current (1984) water-quality data-collection activities of Federal, regional, State, and local agencies, and academic institutions; and (2) determine how well the data from these activities, collected for various purposes and using different procedures, can be used to improve our ability to answer major broad-scope questions, such as:A. What are (or were) natural or near-natural water-quality conditions?B. What are existing water-quality conditions?C. How has water quality changed, and how do the changes relate to human activities?Colorado and Ohio were chosen for the pilot study largely because they represent regions with different types of waterquality concerns and programs. The study has been divided into three phases, the objectives of which are: Phase I--Inventory water-quality data-collection programs, including costs, and identify those programs that met a set of broad criteria for producing data that are potentially appropriate for water-quality assessments of regional and national scope. Phase II--Evaluate the quality assurance of field and laboratory procedures used in producing the data from programs that met the broad criteria of Phase I. Phase III--Compile the qualifying data and evaluate the adequacy of this data base for addressing selected water-quality questions of regional and national scope.Water-quality data are collected by a large number of organizations for diverse purposes ranging from meeting statutory requirements to research on water chemistry. Combining these individual data bases is an appealing and potentially cost-effective way to attempt to develop a data base adequate

  3. Evaluation of Quality Parameters in Water Resource Planning. (A State-of-the-Art Survey of the Economics of Water Quality)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-12-01

    Vertebrates comprise fish, reptiles , and other aquatic animals. 3. Chemical Constituents (Dissolved Solids and Gases) Many minerals and gases are water-solub...Fish, Reptiles , Amphibians Waterfowl Other aquatic animal life Wildlife seeking sanctuary, drinking water and food 5. Waste-Assimilative Capability...model was used to predict water quality changes in the Willamette River Basin between Salem and Portland, Oregon, and in the Detroit Reservoir located

  4. Physicochemical and ecotoxicological evaluation of estuarine water quality during a dredging operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urban, Sandro R.; Correa, Albertina X.R.; Schettini, Carlos A.F.; Schwingel, Paulo R.; Sperb, Rafael M.; Radetski, Claudemir M. [Centro de Ciencias Tecnologicas da Terra e do Mar, Univ. do Vale do Itajai, Itajai, SC (Brazil)

    2010-01-15

    Purpose: Most of the information concerning the effects of contaminated sediments on estuarine organisms deals with the impacts of bed forming sediments. The ecotoxicological potential at the time of a dredging operation is more difficult to assess, and few studies have dealt specifically with resuspended contaminated sediments. The aim of this study was to determine whether release of contaminants through sediment resuspension during a dredging operation in the Itajai-acu estuary (Brazil) changed the water quality classification and had an ecotoxicological impact on the near-field water column during the critical moment of this operation. Materials and methods: Waters from two sites (control and dredged sites) were analyzed for physicochemical parameters before, during, and after a dredging operation. In parallel, a short-term, sensitive battery of biotests (bacteria, algae, and daphnids) was performed with water samples before and during this operation according to the ISO bioassay protocols. Results and discussion: No short-term toxicity was observed with waters collected before or during the dredging operation. The results showed that desorption of contaminants from suspended particles of sediments with a low level of contamination during a dredging operation lowered the water quality in the near-field water column but that this did not promote significant acute toxicity effects on the organisms tested. Conclusions: More detailed studies are needed (e.g., the question of the reliability of biotests under turbulent, particle-rich conditions) to fully understand this complex issue regarding water column ecotoxicity during the whole dredging operation and to support decisions on the management of dredging activities. (orig.)

  5. A three-dimensional water quality model to evaluate the environmental capacity of nitrogen and phosphorus in Jiaozhou Bay, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Keqiang; Zhang, Li; Li, Yan; Zhang, Longjun; Wang, Xiulin

    2015-02-15

    Jiaozhou Bay has recently suffered from serious problems with pollution and eutrophication. Thus, land-based pollutant load must be reduced through a national control program. In this study, we developed a 3D water quality model to determine the environmental capacity of nitrogen and phosphorus in Jiaozhou Bay. A 3D hydrodynamic model (the estuarine, coastal, and ocean modeling system with sediments) was coupled with a water quality model, which was adapted from the dynamic model of nitrogen and phosphorus for a mesocosm near Jiaozhou Bay. The water quality model is divided into seven components: dissolved inorganic nitrogen, phosphate, phytoplankton, zooplankton, detritus, dissolved organic nitrogen, and dissolved organic phosphorus. Furthermore, it was calibrated based on data collected from Jiaozhou Bay in 2003. The proposed model effectively reproduced the spatiotemporal variability in nutrient concentration, thus suggesting that a reasonable numerical representation of the prototype system must be developed for further evaluation of environmental capacity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Multivariate statistical techniques for the evaluation of surface water quality of the Himalayan foothills streams, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Riffat Naseem; Hashmi, Muhammad Zaffar

    2017-10-01

    Himalayan foothills streams, Pakistan play an important role in living water supply and irrigation of farmlands; thus, the water quality is closely related to public health. Multivariate techniques were applied to check spatial and seasonal trends, and metals contamination sources of the Himalayan foothills streams, Pakistan. Grab surface water samples were collected from different sites (5-15 cm water depth) in pre-washed polyethylene containers. Fast Sequential Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (Varian FSAA-240) was used to measure the metals concentration. Concentrations of Ni, Cu, and Mn were high in pre-monsoon season than the post-monsoon season. Cluster analysis identified impaired, moderately impaired and least impaired clusters based on water parameters. Discriminant function analysis indicated spatial variability in water was due to temperature, electrical conductivity, nitrates, iron and lead whereas seasonal variations were correlated with 16 physicochemical parameters. Factor analysis identified municipal and poultry waste, automobile activities, surface runoff, and soil weathering as major sources of contamination. Levels of Mn, Cr, Fe, Pb, Cd, Zn and alkalinity were above the WHO and USEPA standards for surface water. The results of present study will help to higher authorities for the management of the Himalayan foothills streams.

  7. Water Quality Assessment and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overview of Clean Water Act (CWA) restoration framework including; water quality standards, monitoring/assessment, reporting water quality status, TMDL development, TMDL implementation (point & nonpoint source control)

  8. Evaluation of Jacuba stream water and industrial effluents quality by SR-TXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Silvana; Oliveira, Renato W.M. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: silvana@fec.unicamp.br; Vives, Ana Elisa S. de [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br; Zucchi, Orgheda L.A.D. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas]. E-mail: olzucchi@fcfrp.usp.br; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: virgilio@cena.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    The pollution of the environment became everywhere of public interest of the world. The developed countries not just come being affected for the environmental problems; the developing nations also begin to suffer the serious impacts of the pollution, what elapses of the fast economic growth associated to the exploration of natural resources. This work has as objective to use the TXRF technique on the study the water quality of the Jacuba stream in Hortolandia city. (author)

  9. Evaluating a microbial water quality prediction model for beach management under the revised EU Bathing Water Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedri, Zeinab; Corkery, Aisling; O'Sullivan, John J; Deering, Louise A; Demeter, Katalin; Meijer, Wim G; O'Hare, Gregory; Masterson, Bartholomew

    2016-02-01

    The revised Bathing Water Directive (2006/7/EC) requires EU member states to minimise the risk to public health from faecal pollution at bathing waters through improved monitoring and management approaches. While increasingly sophisticated measurement methods (such as microbial source tracking) assist in the management of bathing water resources, the use of deterministic predictive models for this purpose, while having the potential to provide decision making support, remains less common. This study explores an integrated, deterministic catchment-coastal hydro-environmental model as a decision-making tool for beach management which, based on advance predictions of bathing water quality, can inform beach managers on appropriate management actions (to prohibit bathing or advise the public not to bathe) in the event of a poor water quality forecast. The model provides a 'moving window' five-day forecast of Escherichia coli levels at a bathing water compliance point off the Irish coast and the accuracy of bathing water management decisions were investigated for model predictions under two scenarios over the period from the 11th August to the 5th September, 2012. Decisions for Scenario 1 were based on model predictions where rainfall forecasts from a meteorological source (www.yr.no) were used to drive the rainfall-runoff processes in the catchment component of the model, and for Scenario 2, were based on predictions that were improved by incorporating real-time rainfall data from a sensor network within the catchment into the forecasted meteorological input data. The accuracy of the model in the decision-making process was assessed using the contingency table and its metrics. The predictive model gave reasonable outputs to support appropriate decision making for public health protection. Scenario 1 provided real-time predictions that, on 77% of instances during the study period where both predicted and E. coli concentrations were available, would correctly inform a

  10. Irrigation water quality assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing demands on fresh water supplies by municipal and industrial users means decreased fresh water availability for irrigated agriculture in semi arid and arid regions. There is potential for agricultural use of treated wastewaters and low quality waters for irrigation but this will require co...

  11. Quality of Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    The quality of drinking water has been gaining a great deal of attention lately, especially as water delivery infrastructure continues to age. Particles of various metals such as lead and copper, and other substances like radon and arsenic could be entering drinking water supplies. Spilled-on-the-ground hydrocarbon-based substances are also…

  12. HAWQS (Hydrologic and Water Quality System)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A water quantity and quality modeling system to evaluate the impacts of management alternatives, pollution control scenarios, and climate change scenarios on the quantity and quality of water at a national scale.

  13. Evaluating water quality -- is it important, how can it be determined and how can it be used?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, P. P.

    2015-12-01

    Freshwater is critical to sustaining all life on Earth yet most humans take this resource for granted and often consider it a free good. However, in water-poor areas, the availability of clean drinking water limits economic development, negatively impacts human health and causes significant social instability. This was a driver for the Millennium Development Goals to include providing clean water to the developing world. Unlike other resources, another commodity cannot be substituted for water. In mineral resources, substitution is common depending on the use, for example, aluminum for steel in automotive bodies. In energy, humans can, in some instances, use natural gas instead of coal for electricity generation. Given the critical nature of freshwater for human existence, it is important that the resource be evaluated in economic terms. Although efforts to assess the value of the availability of freshwater have been developed, they are not commonly used. Water quality is also a major economic factor in availability of water resources. Quality can be prohibitively expensive to bring to acceptable standards and can easily be contaminated by human activities. Determining an economic and social value on both the availability and quality of water resources is a challenge that the hydrologic community must address at local, regional and national and even global scales to support informed policy and decision-making.

  14. Evaluation of seasonal patterns of water quality in the Zambezi River Basin, using Zambezi River Authority (ZRA) data of 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Nachiyunde, Kabunga; Namakando, Chrispin

    2013-01-01

    The study reports the seasonal variation of the water quality, along Lake Kariba, Zambezi River and its tributaries in 2011. To evaluate the water pollution quality, the following ten parameters were analysed: water temperature, pH, Electroconductivity (EC), Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Total Suspended Solids (TSS), alkalinity as CaCO3, turbidity, Total Phosphorus (TP), and ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N). The study found that water quality along the Zambezi River and its tri...

  15. An evaluation of the possibility of water chemical quality restoration at the user by filtration through an activated silica bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rucka Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The usefulness of activated silica-filled CACF filters from EURO FILTR’EAUX for restoring chemical quality of water delivered to the end user, and therefore limiting scale formation on the surface of devices, and consequently their damage was studied. The study was performed for three different water types, which were characterized by differing hardness and carbo-acidic aggressiveness levels, which allowed an evaluation of the usefulness of the given filtration bed for treating different water types. The study encompassed changes in water chemical stability levels as well as determining the bed useful life. The effect of water-activated silica bed contact on water chemical stability was studied. It was found that filtrates were characterized by greater chemical stability levels than the supplied water, which decreased the risk of scale formation of water installations and decreased water aggressiveness. A decrease in free chloride and dissolved oxygen concentrations was observed, which resulted in a decrease in aggressive water action on water installations.

  16. Monitoring and Evaluation Quality of Drinking Water Industry (PDAM at Aceh Besar in April and July

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Zamaruddin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Air merupakan salah satu elemen penting yang menunjang kehidupan manusia. Air bersih digunakan untuk minum, mandi dan mencuci. Air bersih yang baik adalah yang memenuhi persyaratan yang dikeluarkan Pemerintah sesuai dengan PPRI nomor 82 tahun 2001 dan Menteri Kesehatan RI No. 492/Menkes/Per/IV/2010 tanggal 20 April, 2010 untuk syarat air minum yaitu meliputi parameter fisika (rasa, bau, suhu, TDS dan kekeruhan dan parameter kimia (kesadahan, pH, klorida, Fe, Cu dan Pb. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan mengambil beberapa titik sampling (4 titik di kawasan Aceh Besar untuk dimonitor kualitas air bersihnya. Hasil rata-rata yang diperoleh adalah 28,5oC untuk Temperatur, tidak berbau, tidak berasa, TDS 305,7 mg/L, Kekeruhan 1,71 NTU, Kesadahan total 168,17 mg/L, pH 8,28, Klorida 97,65 mg/L, Fe < 0,0009 mg/L, Cu < 0,002 mg/L, Pb < 0,001 mg/L. Dari analisa disimpulkan bahwa air bersih tersebut memenuhi standar baku mutu dan layak dikonsumsi.   Water is one of the important elements that support human life. Clean water is used for drinking, bathing and washing. Good clean water shall fulfill the requirements issued by the Government in accordance with PPRI number 82 of 2001 and the Minister of Health of the Republic of Indonesia number 492/Menkes/Per/IV/2010 dated April 20, 2010 for drinking water requirements including physical parameters (taste, smell, TDS and turbidity and chemical parameters (hardness, pH, chloride, Fe, Cu and Pb. This study was conducted by taking some sampling point (4 points in Aceh Besar area to monitor the quality of clean water. The average results obtained are 28.5oC for Temperature, odorless, tasteless, TDS 305.7 mg/L, Turbidity 1.71 NTU, Total hardness 168.17 mg/L, pH 8.28, Chloride 97,65 mg/ L, Fe < 0.0009 mg/L, Cu < 0.002 mg/L, Pb < 0.001 m/L. From the analysis it is concluded that the water fill up the standard of quality and feasible to consumed. Keywords: kesadahan, pH, klorida, Fe, Cu, Pb Referensi Mulyani, Marwan

  17. Quality evaluation of commercially sold table water samples in Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria and surrounding environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.O. Okorie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria (MOUAU and surrounding environments, table water of different brands is commercially hawked by vendors. To the best of our knowledge, there is no scientific documentation on the quality of these water samples. Hence this study which evaluated the quality of different brands of water samples commercially sold in MOUAU and surrounding environments. The physicochemical properties (pH, total dissolved solids (TDS, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, total hardness, dissolved oxygen, Cl, NO3, ammonium nitrogen (NH3N, turbidity, total suspended solids (TSS, Ca, Mg, Na and K of the water samples as indices of their quality were carried out using standard techniques. Results obtained from this study indicated that most of the chemical constituents of these table water samples commercially sold in Umudike environment conformed to the standards given by the Nigerian Industrial Standard (NIS, World Health Organization (WHO and American Public Health Association (APHA, respectively, while values obtained for ammonium nitrogen in these water samples calls for serious checks on methods of their production and delivery to the end users.

  18. Water Quality Data (WQX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The STORET (short for STOrage and RETrieval) Data Warehouse is a repository for water quality, biological, and physical data and is used by state environmental agencies, EPA and other federal agencies, universities, private citizens, and many others.

  19. Monitoring water quality in reservoirs for human supply through multi-biomarker evaluation in tropical fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade Brito, Izabella; Arruda Freire, Carolina; Yamamoto, Flávia Yoshie; Silva de Assis, Helena Cristina; Rodrigues Souza-Bastos, Luciana; Cestari, Marta Margarete; de Castilhos Ghisi, Nédia; Prodocimo, Viviane; Filipak Neto, Francisco; de Oliveira Ribeiro, Ciro Alberto

    2012-02-01

    Paraíba do Sul River is located at a very densely inhabited region of Brazil crossing the three most industrialized states of the country (São Paulo, Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro states). As a result, industrial and farming residues as well as urban sewage are frequently disposed without appropriate treatment. The current study aimed at investigating the water quality in three reservoirs along the Paraíba do Sul River (Ilha dos Pombos, Santa Cecília and Santa Branca), through physiological, morphological, biochemical, and genetic biomarkers. The bioindicator chosen was the catfish Pimelodus maculatus, sampled during the dry (June 2008) and rainy (February 2009) seasons. Also, some water physicochemical parameters were analyzed from the sampling sites, but displayed no alterations according to the Brazilian Agency for Water Quality Legislation. Branchial carbonic anhydrase activity was inhibited in the dry season, while renal carbonic anhydrase activity was inhibited in the rainy season in the Santa Branca reservoir, indicating disturbance of osmoregulatory and acid-base regulation processes. Histopathological alterations were observed in the gills (neoplasic and tissue hyperplasia processes) and liver (necrosis), indicating serious damage to the functional integrity of these organs. A high incidence of melanomacrophage centers was observed in the liver, suggesting an intense immune response in all reservoirs. Acetylcholinesterase and catalase activity showed also differences corroborating some morphological results. Likewise, the induction of the micronucleus and DNA damage indicate genotoxicity, but mainly in the Santa Branca reservoir. Thus, the health status of P. maculatus warrants caution in the use of the water from the 3 reservoirs for direct human consumption, particularly after the accidental spill of endosulfan in November 2008, three months before the rainy season sampling.

  20. Colorimetric-Solid Phase Extraction Technology for Water Quality Monitoring: Evaluation of C-SPE and Debubbling Methods in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazen-Bosveld, April; Lipert, Robert J.; Nordling, John; Shih, Chien-Ju; Siperko, Lorraine; Porter, Marc D.; Gazda, Daniel B.; Rutz, Jeff A.; Straub, John E.; Schultz, John R.; hide

    2007-01-01

    Colorimetric-solid phase extraction (C-SPE) is being developed as a method for in-flight monitoring of spacecraft water quality. C-SPE is based on measuring the change in the diffuse reflectance spectrum of indicator disks following exposure to a water sample. Previous microgravity testing has shown that air bubbles suspended in water samples can cause uncertainty in the volume of liquid passed through the disks, leading to errors in the determination of water quality parameter concentrations. We report here the results of a recent series of C-9 microgravity experiments designed to evaluate manual manipulation as a means to collect bubble-free water samples of specified volumes from water sample bags containing up to 47% air. The effectiveness of manual manipulation was verified by comparing the results from C-SPE analyses of silver(I) and iodine performed in-flight using samples collected and debubbled in microgravity to those performed on-ground using bubble-free samples. The ground and flight results showed excellent agreement, demonstrating that manual manipulation is an effective means for collecting bubble-free water samples in microgravity.

  1. Grid-based water quality simulation at catchment scale: Nitrogen model development and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoqiang; Jomaa, Seifeddine; Rode, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Stream water quality has been changed significantly during last few decades due to changes in human impacts. Accurate and flexible water quality models, which can properly reflect the heterogeneity and long term temporal dynamic of catchment functioning, are still needed. To this end, a new grid-based catchment water quality model was developed based on the mesoscale Hydrological Model (mHM) and the HYdrological Prediction of Environment (HYPE) model. The model structure and parameterization scheme were flexibly designed depending on the spatial heterogeneity of study sites and their specific requirements. Based on that, more detailed spatial information can be provided. Moreover, three main improvements on Nitrate sub-model were implemented: i) nitrate transport processes were conducted in physically connected river networks, allowing time-series point-source inputs added in the exact location of sewage treatment plants; ii) additional retention storage of deep groundwater was included for long term nitrate-N simulation; iii) special design for better taking into account crop rotation was implemented. Those new features can extend the model capability and facilitate the understanding of catchment mechanisms and analysis of future scenarios and measures. The newly developed model was fully verified in the Selke catchment (456 km2), central Germany. Long term discharge and water quality data have been collected at three nested gauging stations (1997-2015). The station Meisdorf, above where 72% of area is occupied by forest, represents the discharge and nutrient exports from forest area. Agricultural land dominates the lower part of the catchment (almost 96% of in-between area of the Meisdorf and the outlet station Hausneindorf) with considerable urban areas. Due to the relatively large number of model parameters, sensitivity analysis was firstly conducted. Subsequently, sensitive parameters were calibrated using stepwise and multi-variable approaches, respectively

  2. Water-quality sampling plan for evaluating the distribution of bigheaded carps in the Illinois Waterway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncker, James J.; Terrio, Paul J.

    2017-02-27

    The two nonnative invasive bigheaded carp species (bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp H. molitrix) that were accidentally released in the 1970s have spread widely into the rivers and waterways of the Mississippi River Basin. First detected in the lower reaches of the Illinois Waterway (IWW, the combined Illinois River-Des Plaines River-Chicago Area Waterway System) in the 1990s, bighead and silver carps moved quickly upstream, approaching the Chicago Area Waterway System. The potential of substantial negative ecological and economic impact to the Great Lakes from the presence of these species is a concern. However, since 2006, the population front of bigheaded carps has remained in the vicinity of Joliet, Illinois, near river mile 278. This reach of the IWW is characterized by stark changes in habitat, water quality, and food resources as the waterway transitions from a primarily agricultural landscape to a metropolitan and industrial canal system. This report describes a 2015 plan for sampling the IWW to establish water-quality conditions that might be contributing to the apparent stalling of the population front of bigheaded carps in this reach. A detailed description of the study plan, Lagrangian-style sampling approach, selected analytes, sampling methods and protocols are provided. Hydrographs from streamflow-gaging stations show IWW conditions during the 2015 sampling runs.

  3. Spatial-temporal water quality parameters evaluation of the Santa Rita river (BA with respect to the release of manipueira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Delano Porto Júnior

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The watershed of the river Santa Rita includes the towns of Simão and Campinhos, where exists about 150 flour houses. Campinhos is among the largest cassava processing facilities in the region, generating many direct and indirect jobs. Manipueira is a liquid residue originating from the cassava pressing and presents high pollutant potential due to its high amount of glucose and fructose, this potential is 25 times greater than the one from domestic sewer. This work had as objective the evaluation of possible impacts of manipueira release in the water quality of Santa Rita river. For this, the land use map was elaborated and the physiographic characterization developed, besides being performed six campaigns for water samples collection in four sampling points along the river. The obtained results indicated that the watershed is elongated, with low drainage efficiency and it is not prone to flooding. Estimated water quality parameters indicated that organic effluents from Campinhos and Simão impact the values of dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity, salinity, ammonia, nitrite, nitrate and zinc, suggesting that the water quality of the river Santa Rita is affected by manipueira release. The concentrations of total phosphorus, iron and cooper were superior downstream of the Sewer Treatment Station. The river water was saline in the three sampling points most affected by the release of manipueira.

  4. Purified water quality study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinka, H.; Jackowski, P.

    2000-04-03

    Argonne National Laboratory (HEP) is examining the use of purified water for the detection medium in cosmic ray sensors. These sensors are to be deployed in a remote location in Argentina. The purpose of this study is to provide information and preliminary analysis of available water treatment options and associated costs. This information, along with the technical requirements of the sensors, will allow the project team to determine the required water quality to meet the overall project goals.

  5. Drinking water quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, J; Gautam, B; Sapkota, N

    2012-09-01

    Drinking water quality is the great public health concern because it is a major risk factor for high incidence of diarrheal diseases in Nepal. In the recent years, the prevalence rate of diarrhoea has been found the highest in Myagdi district. This study was carried out to assess the quality of drinking water from different natural sources, reservoirs and collection taps at Arthunge VDC of Myagdi district. A cross-sectional study was carried out using random sampling method in Arthunge VDC of Myagdi district from January to June,2010. 84 water samples representing natural sources, reservoirs and collection taps from the study area were collected. The physico-chemical and microbiological analysis was performed following standards technique set by APHA 1998 and statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS 11.5. The result was also compared with national and WHO guidelines. Out of 84 water samples (from natural source, reservoirs and tap water) analyzed, drinking water quality parameters (except arsenic and total coliform) of all water samples was found to be within the WHO standards and national standards.15.48% of water samples showed pH (13) higher than the WHO permissible guideline values. Similarly, 85.71% of water samples showed higher Arsenic value (72) than WHO value. Further, the statistical analysis showed no significant difference (Pwater for collection taps water samples of winter (January, 2010) and summer (June, 2010). The microbiological examination of water samples revealed the presence of total coliform in 86.90% of water samples. The results obtained from physico-chemical analysis of water samples were within national standard and WHO standards except arsenic. The study also found the coliform contamination to be the key problem with drinking water.

  6. Evaluation of CDOM sources and their links with water quality in the lakes of Northeast China using fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ying; Song, Kaishan; Wen, Zhidan; Fang, Chong; Shang, Yingxin; Lv, Lili

    2017-07-01

    C3 spatially varied with land cover among the 19 lakes. Our results indicated that the spatial distributions of Fmax for CDOM fluorescent components and their correlations with water quality can be evaluated by EEM-PARAFAC and multivariate analysis among the 19 lakes across semiarid regions of Northeast China, which has potential implication for lakes with similar genesis.

  7. Evaluation of spatial and temporal water quality in the Akkaya dam watershed (Niğde, Turkey) and management implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaşar Korkanç, Selma; Kayıkçı, Sedef; Korkanç, Mustafa

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the water pollution in the Akkaya Dam watershed spatially and temporally and put forward management suggestions in a watershed scale. For this purpose, monthly water sampling was performed from 11 sampling stations on streams that fed the dam. According to land surveys they have a potential to inflict pollution to the dam. Thus the physical and chemical parameters (i.e. pH, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity, temperature, chemical oxygen demand, turbidity and suspended solids) were monitored monthly for 1-year period. Chloride, sulfate, total nitrogen, ammonium, nitrite, nitrate were monitored for a 6-month period, and the results were evaluated in accordance with the Turkish Regulation of Surface Water Quality Management. Results of the study show that the most important reasons for the pollution in the dam are caused by domestic and industrial wastewaters, which were released to the system without being treated, or without being sufficiently treated, and also of agricultural activities. It was determined that electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, chemical oxygen demand, suspended solids, nitrite, nitrate, total nitrogen, sulfate, and chloride parameters which were high at the sampling stations where domestic and industrial wastewaters discharge were present. pH and temperature demonstrate a difference at a significant level by seasons. As a result of the study, it was determined that the water was of IVth quality in terms of nitrate, chemical oxygen demand, and total nitrogen, and it was of IIIrd quality water with respect to ammonium, electrical conductivity, and dissolved oxygen. It was observed that the dam outflow water was of IVth quality with respect to nitrate, chemical oxygen demand, and total nitrogen, and of IIIrd quality with respect to dissolved oxygen and electrical conductivity. It is considered that the pollution problem in the Akkaya Dam can only be resolved with prevention studies on

  8. A Framework to Evaluate the Impact of Armourstones on the Chemical Quality of Surface Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duester, Lars; Wahrendorf, Dierk-Steffen; Brinkmann, Corinna; Fabricius, Anne-Lena; Meermann, Björn; Pelzer, Juergen; Ecker, Dennis; Renner, Monika; Schmid, Harald; Ternes, Thomas A; Heininger, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Today, basic requirements for construction works include the protection of human health and of the environment. In the tension area between economic demands, circular flow economy and environmental safety, a link between the results from standardized leaching tests and the respective environmental quality standards must be created. To derive maximum release limits of metals and metalloids for armourstones in hydraulic engineering, this link is accomplished via a simple model approach. By treating natural materials and industrial by-products the same way, the article delivers an overview on the recent regulative situation in Europe as well as describes and discusses an innovative approach to derive maximum release limits for monolithic construction products in hydraulic engineering on a conceptual level. On a practical level, a list of test parameters is derived by connecting an extensive dataset (seven armourstone materials with five repetitions and 31 elements tested with the worldwide applied dynamic surface leaching test) with surface water quality standards and predicted no effect concentrations. Finally, the leaching tests results are compared with the envisaged maximum release limits, offering a direct comparison between natural materials and industrial by-products.

  9. A Framework to Evaluate the Impact of Armourstones on the Chemical Quality of Surface Water.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Duester

    Full Text Available Today, basic requirements for construction works include the protection of human health and of the environment. In the tension area between economic demands, circular flow economy and environmental safety, a link between the results from standardized leaching tests and the respective environmental quality standards must be created. To derive maximum release limits of metals and metalloids for armourstones in hydraulic engineering, this link is accomplished via a simple model approach. By treating natural materials and industrial by-products the same way, the article delivers an overview on the recent regulative situation in Europe as well as describes and discusses an innovative approach to derive maximum release limits for monolithic construction products in hydraulic engineering on a conceptual level. On a practical level, a list of test parameters is derived by connecting an extensive dataset (seven armourstone materials with five repetitions and 31 elements tested with the worldwide applied dynamic surface leaching test with surface water quality standards and predicted no effect concentrations. Finally, the leaching tests results are compared with the envisaged maximum release limits, offering a direct comparison between natural materials and industrial by-products.

  10. A Paired watershed Evaluation of Agroforestry effects on Water Quality on a Corn/Soybean Rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udawatta, Ranjith; Jose, Shibu; Garrett, Harold

    2015-04-01

    Rigorous long-term scientific studies confirming environmental benefits from the use of agroforestry practices are limited and thus limit the adoption of agroforestry practices throughout the world. The objective of the study was to examine non point source pollution (NPSP) reduction by agroforestry buffers in row-crop watersheds. The study consists of three watersheds in a paired watershed design in Knox County, Missouri, USA. Watersheds were established in 1991 and treatments of agroforestry (trees+grass) and grass buffers were established on two watersheds in 1997 after a 7-year calibration period. Runoff water samples were analyzed for sediment, total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) for the 2009 to 2010 period. Results indicated that agroforestry and grass buffers on row crop watersheds significantly reduce runoff, sediment, TN, and TP losses to streams. Buffers in association with row crop management reduced runoff by 26% during the study period as compared to the control treatments. Average sediment loss for row crop management and buffer watersheds was 14.8 and 9.7 kg ha-1 yr-1 respectively. On average, grass and agroforestry buffers reduced sediment, TN, and TP losses by 32, 42, and 46% compared to the control treatments. These differences could in part be attributed to the differences in management, soils, and landscape features. Results from this study strongly indicate that agroforestry and grass buffers can be implemented to reduce NPSP to water bodies while improving land value and environmental quality.

  11. Evaluation of Water Quality in Shallow Lakes, Case Study of Lake Uluabat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadet İLERİ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Lake Uluabat, located 20 km south of the Marmara Sea, between 42° 12' North latitude, 28° 40'East longitude and is located in the province of Bursa. The Lake is one of the richest lakes in terms of aquatic plants besides fish and bird populations in Turkey. In this study, water quality of the Lake was monitored from June 2008 to May 2009 during the 12 month period with the samples taken from 8 points in the lake and spatial and temporal variations of the parameters were examined. pH, temperature (T, electrical conductivity (EC, dissolved oxygen (DO, suspended solids (SS, secchi depth (SD, water level (WL, nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N, total nitrogen (TN, phosphate-phosphorus (PO4-P, total phosphorus (TP, alkalinity, chemical oxygen demand (COD and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a were the monitoring parameters. As a result, concentrations of the parameters were found at high levels especially the 1st, 4th, 5th, and 8th stations and temporally were found at high levels often in the summer. According to the results of analysis of variance, regional and temporal variations of all parameters were found important except SS and NO3-N

  12. [Algorithm for complex control and radiation-hygienic evaluation of the quality of underground drinking water in the Moscow region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klochkova, N V; Korenkov, I P; Lashchenova, T N

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of assessing the quality of underground drinking water in the Moscow region, selected and justified in the process of radiation-ecological monitoring of water quality control criteria of the underground water sources in the region are encouraged to develop an algorithm for complete monitoring and assessing the quality of underground drinking water in the Moscow region on indicators of radiation and chemical safety, presented in a scheme.

  13. Chemometry use in the evaluation of the sanya bay water quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-De Dong

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, chemometric method is employed to identify anthropogenic effects on the water quality in Sanya Bay, South China Sea, and its marine and natural characteristics. Principal component analysis has extracted the four latent factors, thus explaining 85.52% of the total variance. Cluster analysis and principal component analysis have identified three different patterns of water quality based on anthropogenic effects and marine characteristics: Cluster I located in the outer and middle parts of the bay, Cluster II close to downtown Sanya, Cluster III located in the Sanya River estuary. In terms of the temporal pattern, principal component analysis and cluster analysis have distinguished the dry season from November to the following April, and the rainy season from May to October. The temporal pattern is related to climate and natural characteristics. The similarity index between variables and scores of samples can further distinguish the contribution of the variables to the samples. Both the polluting sources external to the Sanya River and the water from the South China Sea exercise an important influence on the water quality in Sanya Bay. These results may be valuable for socioeconomic development and human health in the Sanya Bay area.No presente estudo foi realizada a identificação dos efeitos antropogênicos e das características naturais marinhas das águas da Baía de Sanya, situada ao sul do Mar da China, através de método quimiométrico. A análise de componentes principais (PCA aplicada aos dados extraiu quatro eixos que explicaram 85,52% da variância total dos dados. Através das análises de Agrupamento e PCA foram identificados três padrões diferentes de qualidade das águas, baseados nos efeitos antropogênicos e nas características marinhas: Grupo I, localizado nas partes externa e mediana da baía; Grupo II, próximo do centro urbano de Sanya; Grupo III, localizado no estuário do Rio Sanya. Quanto ao padr

  14. Evaluation of surface water quality indices and ecological risk assessment for heavy metals in scrap yard neighbourhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojekunle, Olusheyi Z; Ojekunle, Olurotimi V; Adeyemi, Azeem A; Taiwo, Abayomi G; Sangowusi, Opeyemi R; Taiwo, Adewale M; Adekitan, Adetoun A

    2016-01-01

    Pollution of surface water with heavy metals from industrial activities especially those from scrap yard has caused a major threat to human life exposing man to series of hazard, diseases, disability and consequently death. This study focuses on water quality indices of Owode-Onirin and Lafenwa scrap yard with respect to its physicochemical parameters and heavy metal concentrations by evaluating Heavy Metal Pollution Index (HPI), Metal Index (MI) and Potential Ecological Risk Index (PERI). Fifteen water samples were selected randomly from two locations by purposive sampling methods. Five heavy metals which includes Nickel (Ni), Zinc (Zn), Copper (Cu), Cadmium (Cd), Lead (Pb) were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and standard analytical procedure were follow to ensure accuracy. One way analysis of variance was carried out to analyse the data. The concentrations of the heavy metals were significantly different between sampling locations. However, the mean concentrations of Cd (0.0121 mg/L) were found to be above the highest permissible value of Standard Organization of Nigeria standards for drinking water (SON 2007) and WHO (Guidelines for drinking water quality: incorporating 1st and 2nd Addlenda. World Health Organization, Geneva, 2004) for drinking water. Although Pb was present in two out of the fifteen water samples with a mean value of (0.0324 mg/L) which was also above the highest permissible value. The mean concentrations of Zn (0.2149 mg/L) and Cu (0.0341 mg/L) are found to be below the highest permissible value of the mentioned guideline while no trace of Ni was found in the water samples across the two sampling locations. The mean HPI 518.55 is far above the critical value of 100, indicates that selected water samples are critically polluted with heavy metals. MI revealed low quality water with mean value 4.83, suggests that the selected water is seriously affected with the present of heavy metal. The Hakanson PERI indicated that of the

  15. Water Quality and Evaluation of Pesticides in Lakes in the Ridge Citrus Region of Central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choquette, Anne F.; Kroening, Sharon E.

    2009-01-01

    Water chemistry, including major inorganic constituents, nutrients, and pesticide compounds, was compared between seven lakes surrounded by citrus agriculture and an undeveloped lake on the Lake Wales Ridge (herein referred to as the Ridge) in central Florida. The region has been recognized for its vulnerability to the leaching of agricultural chemicals into the subsurface due to factors including soils, climate, and land use. About 40 percent of Florida's citrus cultivation occurs in 'ridge citrus' areas characterized by sandy well drained soils, with the remainder in 'flatwoods citrus' characterized by high water tables and poorly drained soils. The lakes on the Ridge are typically flow-through lakes that exchange water with adjacent and underlying aquifer systems. This study is the first to evaluate the occurrence of pesticides in lakes on the Ridge, and also represents one of the first monitoring efforts nationally to focus on regional-scale assessment of current-use pesticides in small- to moderate-sized lakes (5 to 393 acres). The samples were collected between December 2003 and September 2005. The lakes in citrus areas contained elevated concentrations of major inorganic constituents (including alkalinity, total dissolved solids, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, and sulfate), total nitrogen, pH, and pesticides compared to the undeveloped lake. Nitrate (as N) and total nitrogen concentrations were typically elevated in the citrus lakes, with maximum values of 4.70 and 5.19 mg/L (milligrams per liter), respectively. Elevated concentrations of potassium, nitrate, and other inorganic constituents in the citrus lakes likely reflect inputs from the surficial ground-water system that originated predominantly from agricultural fertilizers, soil amendments, and inorganic pesticides. A total of 20 pesticide compounds were detected in the lakes, of which 12 compounds exceeded the standardized reporting level of 0.06 ug/L (microgram per liter). Those

  16. Evaluation of the Water Quality Pollution Indices for Groundwater Resources of Ghahavand Plain, Hamadan Province, Western Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Sobhanardakani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to the increasing pollution of water resources, this study was carried out for evaluation of water quality pollution indices for monitoring of heavy metals (As, Zn, Pb and Cu contamination in Ghahavand Plain, Hamadan Province, Western Iran during spring and summer 2012. Methods: Totally, 20 ground water wells were chosen randomly. The samples were filtered (0.45 μm and maintained cool in polyethylene bottles. Samples were taken for the analysis of metals, the former was acidified with HNO3 to pH lower than 2. Metal concentrations were determined using ICP-OES. Results: The mean values of Contamination index (Cd, Heavy metal pollution index (HPI and Heavy metal evaluation index (HEI in samples for spring season were -2.27, 9.01 and 1.73 respectively and in samples for summer season were -1.95, 8.69 and 2.04 respectively. It indicates low contamination levels. Comparing the mean concentrations of the evaluated metals with WHO permissible limits showed a significant difference (P<0.05. Conclusion: The mean concentrations of the metals were significantly lower than the permissible limits. Although the heavy metal pollution of the ground water in Ghahavand Plain is lower than WHO permissible limits, but severe precautions consideration such as manage the use of agricultural inputs, prevention of use of wastewater and sewage sludge in agriculture, control of overuse of organic fertilizers and establishment of pollutant industries are recommended in this area.

  17. Stream Water Quality Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — QUAL2K (or Q2K) is a river and stream water quality model that is intended to represent a modernized version of the QUAL2E (or Q2E) model (Brown and Barnwell 1987).

  18. Evaluation of β-d-glucuronidase and particle-size distribution for microbiological water quality monitoring in Northern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ender, Anna; Goeppert, Nadine; Grimmeisen, Felix; Goldscheider, Nico

    2017-02-15

    In many karst regions in developing countries, the populations often suffer from poor microbial water quality and are frequently exposed to bacterial pathogens. The high variability of water quality requires rapid assays, but the conventional cultivation-based analysis of fecal indicator bacteria, such as Escherichia coli (E. coli), is very time-consuming. In this respect, the measurement of the enzymatic activity of E. coli could prove to be a valuable tool for water quality monitoring. A mobile automated prototype device was used for the investigation of β-d-glucuronidase (GLUC) activity at a remote karst spring, connected to a sinking surface stream, in Northern Vietnam. To assess the relationship between GLUC activity, discharge dynamics and contamination patterns, multiple hydrological, hydrochemical, physicochemical and microbiological parameters, including discharge, turbidity, particle-size distributions, and E. coli, were measured with high temporal resolution during ten days of on-site monitoring. A complex contamination pattern due to anthropogenic and agricultural activities led to high E. coli concentrations (270 to >24,200 MPN/100ml) and a GLUC activity between 3.1 and 102.2 mMFU/100ml. A strong daily fluctuation pattern of GLUC activity and particle concentrations within small size classes (particles. On an event scale, correlations were found to be higher (rs=0.69 and 0.87, respectively). GLUC activity and E. coli displayed a general contamination pattern, but with significant differences in detail, which may be explained by interferences of e. g. viable but non-culturable cells. Although further evaluations are recommended, GLUC activity is a promising, complementary parameter for on-site and near real-time water quality monitoring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluating a 1D and 2D water quality modeling framework: A case study of the lower Bode River, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Sumit; Rode, Michael; Borchardt, Dietrich

    2014-05-01

    The Bode River catchment in the Harz Mountain area of central Germany is heavily influenced by anthropogenic factors. 70% of the catchment is dominated by agriculture, 23 % by forest and the rest 7% is urban in nature. The area of the catchment is approximately 3300 km2 and is characterized by sharp gradients in temperature, precipitation and land use. In order to acquire better understanding of the hydrological nature of the catchment and biogeochemical characteristics of the Bode River various monitoring stations have been deployed as a part of the larger earth observation network initiative named Terrestrial Environmental Observatories. One of the major issues with the catchment is the problem of eutrophication due to solute inputs from agriculture. The research presented here evaluated the application and development of 1D and 2D hydrodynamic and water quality models in the downstream area of the Bode River. A stretch of 30 kms between Hadmersleeben and Stassfurt in the downstream area of the Bode River was modeled using 1D model HEC-RAS, the focus of the water quality modeling was transport and uptake of nitrate in the aforementioned modeled stretch. Flood events of varying peak magnitude at different times of the year were modeled. As regards to 2D modeling, TELEMAC-2D model was applied for the same reach. The hydrodynamic simulation results were validated with the help of free surface elevation at Athensleben, 8 kms upstream from the downstream end at Stassfurt. Water quality modeling, focusing on the Nitrate removal for the aforementioned stretch, is applied and developed for both 1D and 2D modeling framework. Results from hydrodynamic and water quality modeling were validated with RMSE (Root Mean Square Error) value of 0.074 and 0.36 for the modeled state variables across various events simulated. For the nutrient-rich reach modeled in this research it was found that the nutrient removal capacity of the stream is directly proportional to the incoming

  20. Design and evaluation of a two-phase turbine for low quality steam--water mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comfort, W.J. III

    1977-05-16

    A new two-phase turbine was designed and built for testing in the laboratory, using a low quality steam-water mixture as a working fluid. The measured performance compares well with performance predictions of a numerical model of the expander. Details of the selection of the type of expander are given. The design of an experimental expander for use in a clean two-phase flow laboratory experiment and the development of a numerical model for performance analysis and extrapolations are described. Experiments including static cascade performance with two-phase fluid, disk friction and windage measurements, and two-phase performance measurements of the experimental expander are reported. Comparisons of the numerical model and experimental results, and the prediction of the performance of an advanced design, indicating how performance improvements can be achieved, are also included. An engine efficiency of 23 percent for a single-nozzle test was measured. Full admission performance, based upon the numerical model and achievable nozzle thrust coefficients indicate that an engine efficiency of between 38 and 48 percent can be realized with present technology. If maximum liquid removal loss is assumed, this performance range is predicted to be 38 to 41 percent. Droplet size reduction and the development and implementation of enhanced two-phase flow analysis techniques should make it possible to achieve the research goal of 70 percent engine efficiency.

  1. Detection of resistance genes and evaluation of water quality at zoo lakes in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Silva de Faria

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The investigation of the presence of antibiotic-resistance genes in aquatic environments is important to identify possible reservoirs of resistant microorganisms that could be a threat to human and animal health. The aims of this study were to analyze the presence of genes conferring resistance to antimicrobials in the aquatic environment and to assess the quality of water in zoo lakes. Results showed a pattern of genes conferring resistance to multiple antibiotics and turbidity, which was expected to be due to the presence of contaminants. The most frequent genes were sul I and sul II (sulfonamides, which were present in all the lakes, followed by genes encoding β-lactamases such as blaPSE I (77.8% and ampC (66.7%. However, tet(K, tet(M, and ermC genes were not detected. There was a positive correlation between the number of Enterobacteriaceae and resistance genes. In conclusion, the source of contamination of all lakes was probably the neighboring urban sewage or wastewater that increased the frequency of the total coliforms and resistance genes, which in turn posed a threat to the conservation of the animal life inhabiting the zoo.

  2. BACTERIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF TAP WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Zamorska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The most sensitive method of detecting contamination in water supply networks is microbiological testing. Microbiological water safety is evaluated mainly based on the results of traditional tests that rely on bacteria culturing on the so called bacterial growth mediums. Flow cytometry is a modern technology that has been used in microbiology only recently. The diagnostic method based on flow cytometry is much faster and more versatile. Microbiological quality testing was conducted in rzeszowski district, in the area of water network supplied by surface waters, and in the area of water network supplied by underground waters. The scope of the analysis of the microbiological quality of tap water was based on the determination of selected indicators of the sanitary condition of water ie; the total number of psychrophilic and mesophilic bacteria on nutrient agar (reference called Agar A and additionally called agar supplemented with R, the number of coliforms and faecal streptococci. Determination of the total number of microorganisms by flow cytometry was performed using two dyes SYBR Green and iodide pyridine. Water from underground water intakes, not under the permanent control of microbial had worse microbiological parameters. Used new methods of microbiological assays showed greater amounts of microbiological contamination.

  3. Evaluating an ecosystem management approach for improving water quality in two contrasting study catchments in south-west England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glendell, Miriam; Brazier, Richard

    2014-05-01

    detection of catchment-scale effects of mitigation measures typically requires high resolution, resource-intensive, long term data sets, we found that simple approaches can be effective in bridging the gap between fine-scale ecosystem functioning and catchment-scale processes. Here, the new macro-invertebrate bio-monitoring index PSI (Proportion of Sediment-sensitive Invertebrates) has been shown to be more closely related to a physical measure of sedimentation (% fine bed sediment cover) (P = 0.002) than existing non-pressure specific macro-invertebrate metrics such as the Lotic Index for Flow Evaluation (LIFE) and % Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera & Trichoptera abundance (% EPT abundance) (P = 0.014)(Glendell et al., 2014a). Thus PSI and % fine bed sediment cover have the potential to become a sensitive tool for the setting and monitoring of twin sedimentation targets to inform the delivery of WFD objectives. Finally, whilst upland ditch management has not had any discernible effect on water quality in the semi-natural upland catchment one year after restoration, future monitoring will evaluate the effectiveness of the recent and soon to be implemented land management changes on delivering water quality improvements in the lowland agricultural catchment. GLENDELL, M. & BRAZIER, R. E. (in review) Accelerated export of sediment and carbon from a landscape under intensive agriculture. Science of the Total Environment. GLENDELL, M., EXTENCE, C. A., CHADD, R. P. & BRAZIER, R. E. (2014a) Testing the pressure-specific invertebrate index (PSI) as a tool for determining ecologically relevant targets for reducing sedimentation in streams. Freshwater Biology, 59, 353-367. GLENDELL, M., GRANGER, S., BOL, R. & BRAZIER, R. E. (2014b) Quantifying the spatial variability of soil physical and chemical properties in relation to mitigation of diffuse water pollution. Geoderma, 214-215, 25-41.

  4. Quality matters for water scarcity

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, Michelle T. H.; Flörke, Martina; Wada, Yoshihide

    2017-11-01

    Quality requirements for water differ by intended use. Sustainable management of water resources for different uses will not only need to account for demand in water quantity, but also for water temperature and salinity, nutrient levels and other pollutants.

  5. Evaluating the effect of river restoration techniques on reducing the impacts of outfall on water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mant, Jenny; Janes, Victoria; Terrell, Robert; Allen, Deonie; Arthur, Scott; Yeakley, Alan; Morse, Jennifer; Holman, Ian

    2015-04-01

    Outfalls represent points of discharge to a river and often contain pollutants from urban runoff, such as heavy metals. Additionally, erosion around the outfall site results in increased sediment generation and the release of associated pollutants. Water quality impacts from heavy metals pose risks to the river ecosystem (e.g. toxicity to aquatic habitats). Restoration techniques including establishment of swales, and the re-vegetation and reinforcement of channel banks aim to decrease outfall flow velocities resulting in deposition of pollutants and removal through plant uptake. Within this study the benefits of river restoration techniques for the removal of contaminants associated with outfalls have been quantified within Johnson Creek, Portland, USA as part of the EPSRC funded Blue-Green Cities project. The project aims to develop new strategies for protecting hydrological and ecological values of urban landscapes. A range of outfalls have been selected which span restored and un-restored channel reaches, a variety of upstream land-uses, and both direct and set-back outfalls. River Habitat Surveys were conducted at each of the sites to assess the level of channel modification within the reach. Sediment samples were taken at the outfall location, upstream, and downstream of outfalls for analysis of metals including Nickel, Lead, Zinc, Copper, Iron and Magnesium. These were used to assess the impact of the level of modification at individual sites, and to compare the influence of direct and set-back outfalls. Concentrations of all metals in the sediments found at outfalls generally increased with the level of modification at the site. Sediment in restored sites had lower metal concentrations both at the outfall and downstream compared to unrestored sites, indicating the benefit of these techniques to facilitate the effective removal of pollutants by trapping of sediment and uptake of contaminants by vegetation. However, the impact of restoration measures varied

  6. Water quality indexing for predicting variation of water quality over time

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PPoonoosamy

    evaluate the quality of a given water body in such a way that it is easily understood by managers. ... the problem of 'eclipsing' which arises during aggregation process. ... to improve the Water Quality index, mainly to stress on the importance of the ... Thus, since the water quality indexing method yields a single value, it is.

  7. Ready-to-eat vegetables production with low-level water chlorination: an evaluation of water quality and of its impact on end products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca D'Acunzo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: We evaluated the microbiological impact of low-level chlorination (1 ppm free chlorine on the production of ready-to-eat (RTE vegetables by monitoring the microbiological quality of irrigation and processing water in two production plants over a 4-season period, as well as the microbiological quality of unprocessed vegetables and RTE product. Water samples were also characterized in terms of some chemical and physico-chemical parameters of relevance in chlorination management. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Both producers use water with maximum 1 ppm free chlorine for vegetables rinsing, while the two processes differ by the number of washing cycles. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Salmonella spp and Campylobacter spp were detected once in two different irrigation water samples out of nine from one producer. No pathogens were found in the vegetable samples. As expected, the procedure encompassing more washing cycles performed slightly better in terms of total mesophilic count (TCM when comparing unprocessed and RTE vegetables of the same batch. However, data suggest that low-level chlorination may be insufficient in preventing microbial build-up in the washing equipment and/or batch-to batch cross-contamination.

  8. Possibilities of information infrastructure in evaluation of environmental pollution and water quality by implementing the solutions of sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramutė Naujikienė

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose – of the article is attached to the examination of information infrastructure for the assessment of water resource planning and water treatment activities, to provide data warehouse (DW analysis measuring environmental and water pollution and indicators for the evaluation based on the requirements of sustainable development.Methodology – the analysis is performed by revealing the factors affecting sustainable development decisions. The insights of scientists are demonstrated by assessing the situation of environmental pollution, the appropriate search parameters, which allow revealing environmental and water contamination by waste water. Secondary data analysis was performed in order to reveal surface water contamination assessment districts in Lithuania and the Baltic Sea region and to summarise the results.It is very important for business activities to implement methods and tools based on a sense of responsibility for environmental pollution through the use of methods for increasing corporate responsibility, supporting measures to promote stimulation resulting in emission reduction, and efficiency of techniques. The paper presents the results of surface water pollution obtained according to the monitoring data and benchmarking analysis in the districts of Lithuania and the Baltic Sea. It can be concluded that the economic factors of enterprise functioning on the occasion of pollution also impacts the pollution of the Baltic Sea.More and more attention in the sustainable development of the implementation process should be given to decreasing population and increasing responsibility of economic operators for measures of environmental management levels: strategic and tactical planning, operational control, evaluation of economic, social and ecological balance. The regulatory importance in determining the impact on the environment should also be kept in mind.The results – were based on the obtained wastewater monitoring and

  9. Water quality and contaminant evaluation at Union Slough National Wildlife Refuge, 1990 and 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 1990 sediment and water samples were collected at five outlets in Union Slough National Wildlife Refuge. Forty eight hour sediment bioassay results revealed...

  10. Evaluation of exposure to trihalomethanes in tap water and semen quality: a prospective study in Wuhan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qiang; Chen, Yong-Zhe; Xu, Liang; Chen, Hai-Xia; Luo, Yan; Li, Min; Yue, Jing; Liu, Ai-Lin; Li, Yu-Feng; Lu, Wen-Qing

    2014-07-01

    Trihalomethanes (THMs) have been demonstrated to adversely affect male reproductive health in animals, but the evidence in humans is limited. The study aimed to examine the association between THM exposure and semen quality in a Chinese population. We recruited 324 men from the same water supply district in Wuhan, China between April 2011 and May 2012. Exposure to THMs was evaluated based on their concentrations in tap water measured within 90 days preceding semen collection, the uptake factors of THMs and personal information on ingestion and showering/bathing. We found that TTHM [sum of chloroform (TCM) and brominated THMs (Br-THMs)], TCM and Br-THM uptakes via ingestion were associated with significant or suggestive decreasing trends in sperm concentration (P for trend=0.01, 0.03 and 0.05, respectively) and sperm count (P for trend=0.02, 0.05 and 0.09, respectively). Our results suggest that THM exposure via ingestion may adversely affect semen quality. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Performance Evaluation for a Contamination Detection Method Using Multiple Water Quality Sensors in an Early Warning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Che

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this approach, a method utilizing data series from multivariate parameters to detect contaminant events is discussed and evaluated. Eight water quality sensors (pH, turbidity, conductivity, temperature, oxidation reduction potential, UV-254, nitrate and phosphate are used in this study and the most commonly used herbicide, glyphosate, is selected as the test contaminant. Variations of all parameters are recorded in real time at different concentrations. The results from the experiment and analysis show that the proposed method with suitable optimization can detect a glyphosate contamination less than 5 min after the introduction of the contaminant using responses from online water quality sensors. The average true positive rate is 95.5%. The study also discusses the impact of the number of sensors on detection performance. The results show that if the number of sensors is reduced from 8 to 5, the true positive rate performance is still good. This indicates that the method is flexible and can be applied using a smaller number of sensors to reduce monitoring costs.

  12. Evaluation of well-purging effects on water-quality results for samples collected from the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer underlying the Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobel, LeRoy L.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents qualitative and quantitative comparisons of water-quality data from the Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, to determine if the change from purging three wellbore volumes to one wellbore volume has a discernible effect on the comparability of the data. Historical water-quality data for 30 wells were visually compared to water-quality data collected after purging only 1 wellbore volume from the same wells. Of the 322 qualitatively examined constituent plots, 97.5 percent met 1 or more of the criteria established for determining data comparability. A simple statistical equation to determine if water-quality data collected from 28 wells at the INL with long purge times (after pumping 1 and 3 wellbore volumes of water) were statistically the same at the 95-percent confidence level indicated that 97.9 percent of 379 constituent pairs were equivalent. Comparability of water-quality data determined from both the qualitative (97.5 percent comparable) and quantitative (97.9 percent comparable) evaluations after purging 1 and 3 wellbore volumes of water indicates that the change from purging 3 to 1 wellbore volumes had no discernible effect on comparability of water-quality data at the INL. However, the qualitative evaluation was limited because only October-November 2003 data were available for comparison to historical data. This report was prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy.

  13. Use of index analysis to evaluate the water quality of a stream ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES... for Researchers · for Journals · for Authors · for Policy Makers · about Open Access · Journal Quality.

  14. Protecting the source: Tools to evaluate fuel treatment cost vs. water quality protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Cooke; William Elliot; Mary Ellen Miller; Mark Finney; Matthew Thompson

    2016-01-01

    High-intensity wildfires are one of the leading causes of severe soil erosion in western U.S. watersheds. This erosion can lead to disruptive deposits of sediment in reservoirs and water supply systems. Fuel treatments such as controlled burns and forest thinning can reduce wildfire intensity and help preserve topsoil. But while these treatments are generally...

  15. Evaluation of ground water quality of Mubi town in Adamawa State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-03

    Jun 3, 2008 ... the prevalence of epidemics of water borne disease in the area under study. MATERIAL AND METHOD. The study area (Figure 1) lies between latitude 9o 30 and 110 North of the Equator and longitude 13o and 13o 45' East of the Greenwich. Meridian. Mubi region is bounded in the north by Borno State ...

  16. Evaluation of potential human health risk and investigation of drinking water quality in Isparta city center (Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varol, Simge; Davraz, Aysen

    2016-06-01

    Isparta city center is selected as a work area in this study because the public believes that the tap water is dirty and harmful. In this study, the city's drinking water in the distribution system and other spring waters which are used as drinking water in this region were investigated from the point of water quality and health risk assessment. Water samples were collected from major drinking water springs, tap waters, treatment plants and dam pond in the Isparta province center. Ca-Mg-HCO3, Mg-Ca-HCO3, Ca-Na-HCO3, Ca-HCO3, Ca-HCO3-SO4 and Ca-Mg-HCO3-SO4 are dominant water types. When compared to drinking water guidelines established by World Health Organization and Turkey, much greater attention should be paid to As, Br, Fe, F, NH4, PO4 through varied chemicals above the critical values. The increases of As, Fe, F, NH4 and PO4 are related to water-rock interaction. In tap waters, the increases of As and Fe are due to corrosion of pipes in drinking water distribution systems. The major toxic and carcinogenic chemicals within drinking water are As and Br for both tap water and spring water. Also, F is the non-carcinogenic chemical for only spring waters in the study area.

  17. Evaluation of Mariut Lake water quality using Hyperspectral Remote Sensing and laboratory works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neven G. Rostom

    2017-04-01

    The main objectives of this research are assessing water contamination by heavy metal in Mariut Lake using laboratory analysis and developing a predictive model for water pollution based on the spectral characteristics and lab data obtained. It is resulted that Pb, Ni and Cr concentrations exceed permissible limit of USEPA. Also, the spectral reflectance of (6–13, 16, 19 and 20 at wavelength 582–653 nm is related to the spectral behavior of the high chlorophyll concentration. Also there are 7 samples (1, 3, 6, 10, 11, 19 and 21 showed high and low values of turbidity. As the suspended sediment concentration increased, reflectance also increased at all wavelengths between 400 and 850 nm. It is concluded that most of models predicting heavy metals concentration using reflectance spectroscopy have high significant correlation ranged from 0.27 to 0.97.

  18. Quality evaluation of three water sources used in the North Bank ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There were significant (p<0.05) differences in all the chemical properties of the water samples, with samples A and C having the least and highest quantities respectively. While the pH ranged from 6.50 8.50, total hardness, calcium, sodium, lead and ammonia contents ranged from 0.00 0.50 mol/1000 dm, 9.80 21.00 mg/l, ...

  19. Efficiency evaluation of hydrogen sulfide-producing bacteria as an indicator in the assessment of microbial quality of water sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shahryari

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Our results showed that H 2 S test is not a suitable alternative approach for routine water quality monitoring. However, the H 2 S test could be used as an easy and economic test to assess the quality of drinking water in communities where manpower and sophisticated equipment are inadequate. More laboratory and field studies are required to assess the reliability of the method as an alternative method of traditional indicators.

  20. Integrated Urban Water Quality Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rauch, W.; Harremoës, Poul

    1995-01-01

    system provides useful information for water quality management. It is possible to identify the system parameters that contain engineering significance. Continuous simulation of the system performance indicates that the combined nitrogen loading is dominated by the wastewater treatment plant during dry......The basic features of integrated urban water quality management by means of deterministic modeling are outlined. Procedures for the assessment of the detrimental effects in the recipient are presented as well as the basic concepts of an integrated model. The analysis of a synthetic urban drainage...... weather, while the overflow from the combined sewer system plays a minor role. Oxygen depletion in urban rivers is caused by intermittent discharges from both sewer system and wastewater treatment plant. Neglecting one of them in the evaluation of the environmental impact gives a wrong impression of total...

  1. A regression technique for evaluation and quantification for water quality parameters from remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlock, C. H.; Kuo, C. Y.

    1979-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to define optical physics and/or environmental conditions under which the linear multiple-regression should be applicable. An investigation of the signal-response equations is conducted and the concept is tested by application to actual remote sensing data from a laboratory experiment performed under controlled conditions. Investigation of the signal-response equations shows that the exact solution for a number of optical physics conditions is of the same form as a linearized multiple-regression equation, even if nonlinear contributions from surface reflections, atmospheric constituents, or other water pollutants are included. Limitations on achieving this type of solution are defined.

  2. Water quality and potamoplankton evaluation of the Nile River in Upper Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mohamed El-Otify

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The composition, abundance, community structure of potamoplankton and major physical and chemical variables of the Nile water in Upper Egypt were investigated to assess its status in different seasons during 2007.MethodsWater samples were collected seasonally during 2007 from six investigated sites from variable depths at levels of 0, 2.5 and 5 m. The area of this investigation is defined as the southern 120 Km of the main stream of the Nile in Upper Egypt (24° 04’ – 25° 00’ latitudes and 32° 51’ – 32° 54’ longitudes, downstream of Aswan Old Dam.ResultsAltogether, 121 potamoplankton species, of which 85 related to phytoplankton and 36 appertaining to zooplankton were recorded. Most numerous phytoplankton were Chlorophyceae (42 species followed by Bacillariophyceae (30 species. Cyanobacteria and Dinophyceae were less numerous with only 11 and 2 species, respectively. Zooplankton species were mainly belonging to three systematic groups namely; Rotifera (24 species, Copepoda (3 species and Cladocera (9 species. Besides, other rare zooplankton including Platyhelminthes, Nemata and Ciliophora were sparsely encountered. The main hydrological conditions characterizing the investigated area include water level fluctuations (˂82 - ˃85 m above sea level, relatively high current velocity (0.8 - 1.3 m sec–1 and disposal of wastewater. Plankton populations were variably but rather weakly dependent on the major nutrients due to their excessive availability in accessible form for uptake by the producers. For phytoplankton, the community structure was categorized in relation to temperature, pH, SO42– and Mg2+. For zooplankton, the community structure was categorized in relation to conductivity as well as Mg2+. Sampling intervals were inadequate to demonstrate the existing successional pattern of the Nile potamoplankton community. Alterations in the phytoplankton community structure accompanied changes in water temperature represented

  3. Water Quality And Sediment Evaluation for Inner Harbor Navigation Canal Lock Replacement Project, New Orleans, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Leptocheirus plumulosus 10-day solid phase toxicity tests. .............................................. 127 Table 44. Corbicula fluminea 28-day freshwater...solid phase bioaccumulation tests. ................... 131 Table 45. Corbicula fluminea 28-day freshwater solid phase bioaccumulation tests...132 Table 46. Corbicula fluminea 28-day freshwater solid phase bioaccumulation potential evaluation

  4. Evaluation of detailed water quality and quantity monitoring system in a small agricultural catchment - discrete vs. continuous approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fučík, Petr; Kaplická, Markéta; Kvítek, Tomáå.¡

    2010-05-01

    the number of withdrawals in a month and 0.0864 is the coefficient of time and units conversion. The intensive (continuous) monitoring pattern consisted of water discharge measuring by ultrasonic probes with a 10 min. data record, from which were calculated daily average discharges. Water quality was evaluated on the basis of average daily composite samples (1l volume), comprised of ca. 0.150 ml water withdrawn every 4 hours. An automatic sampler (ISCO 6712) was used, with suction basket permanently placed in the lowermost part of the water column or at the bottom of a drainage outlet pipe. Moreover, single-shot samples (1l) were took out more frequently during the selected discharge waves. Sampling intervals were different with regard to individual monitored subcatchments - respecting the peculiar hydrograph shape, as well as to the cause of discharge rise - during spring thawing the sampling interval was in the order of hours, during summer storm events in tens of minutes. Comparing the results from discrete and intensive sampling programmes, it was found out, that for all the three investigated solutes, the individual values of concentrations and also basic statistical indicators, were almost similar from both of the employed approaches along the whole year. However, when focused on results from the continuous monitoring programme during the rainfall - runoff events, we realized that the concentration rates differed from those from the regular programme significantly, because this approach missed the continuous discharge data as well as the information of concentration dynamics during the elevated water levels (we noticed even double difference). Taking into account the discharge volume, there is a difference between used monitoring approaches up to 17% in the calculation of the total runoff volume and up to 23% in the calculation of the total load per the year 2009 (the results were over- or underestimated). These results were noted within the annual summary; in

  5. Application of a Water Quality Model to Mississippi Sound to Evaluate Impacts of Freshwater Diversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    prepared this report. Dortch served as the model study POC, and Dr. Barbara Kleiss of the Wetlands and Coastal Ecology Branch, Ecosystem Evaluation...dunes, seawalls, and levees onshore; development of surge mitigation measures; wetland and ecosystem restoration; barrier island and beach restoration...ortho- phosphate phosphorus ( PO4 ), and total suspended solids (TSS). ERDC/EL TR-07-20 10 All variables were not available for all sampling dates

  6. Evaluation and interpretation of regional and site-specific hydrochemical data bases for water quality assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Hutchins

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The spatial distribution of stream water composition, as determined by the Geochemical Baseline Survey of the Environment (G-BASE conducted by the British Geological Survey (BGS can be successfully related under baseflow conditions to bedrock geochemistry. Further consideration of results in conjunction with site-specific monitoring data enables factors controlling both spatial and temporal variability in major element composition to be highlighted and allows the value of the survey to be enhanced. Hence, chemical data (i from streams located on Lower Silurian (Llandovery bedrock at 1 km2 resolution collected as part of the G-BASE survey of Wales and the West Midlands and (ii from catchment monitoring studies located in upland mid-Wales (conducted by Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, have been considered together as an example. Classification of the spatial survey data set in terms of potentially controlling factors was carried out so as to illustrate the level of explanation they could give in terms of observed spatial chemical variability. It was therefore hypothesised that on a geological lithostratigraphic series of limited geochemical contrast, altitude and land-use factors provide better explanation of this variability than others such as lithology at sampling site and stream order. At an individual site, temporal variability was also found to be of considerable significance and, at a monthly time-step, is explicable in terms of factors such as antecedent conditions and seasonality. Data suggest that the degree of this variability may show some relationship with stream order and land-use. Monitoring data from the region also reveal that relationships between stream chemistry and land-use may prove to be strong not only at base flow but also in storm flow conditions. In a wider context, predictions of the sensitivity of stream water to acidification based on classifications of soil and geology are successful on a regional scale. However

  7. Evaluation of water quality and protection strategies of water resources in arid-semiarid climates: a case study in the Yuxi River Valley of Northern Shaanxi Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunfeng, Li; Guohui, Song; Yaoguo, Wu; Weifeng, Wan; Maosheng, Zhang; Yanjuan, Xu

    2009-06-01

    Water resource structure is one of the most important factors that constrain the economic development in arid-semiarid areas. Sustainable use of water requires a thorough understanding of the local geology and hydrology and developing of effective protection strategies. Discussed in this paper is a study on the phreatic water quality of the Yuxi River Valley of Shaanxi Province, China. The Yuxi River Valley passes through the Shaanbei energy base, which demands large quantities of high-quality water. A total of 129 water samples were collected in 4,938 km2 in a recent study to delineate the areas with water suitable for drinking, industrial, and agricultural usage and areas with poor quality. The study indicates that the poor quality of water contains high concentrations of NH4+ and NO{2/-1}, indicating possible contamination by waste disposal in the nearby cities and towns. A series of strategies are proposed to protect the water in the Yuxi River Valley, including proper treatment and recycling of the waste water in the cities and towns, strict control of the waste-water discharge from any new factories and mines, and prevention of groundwater contamination by wastes containing heavy metals.

  8. Evaluation of the water quality in the releases from thirty dams in the Tennessee River Valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butkus, S.R.

    1990-09-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) has routinely monitored dissolved oxygen (DO) and temperature from the tailwater releases of its dams since the 1950s. The original objective of this monitoring was to collect baseline information to support reaeration research and determine the relative impact of impoundments on the assimilative capacity of the river system. This monitoring has continued even though the original objective was satisfied. New purposes for this monitoring data have arisen in support of several programs, without new consideration of the monitoring strategy and sampling design. The primary purpose of this report is to compare the historical release data for 30 dams in the Tennessee Valley based on four different objectives: (1) comparison of seasonal patterns, (2) comparison of baseline conditions using descriptive statistics, (3) evaluation of monotonic trends, and (4) discussion of monitoring strategies that might be required to determine compliance with existing and proposed criteria. A secondary purpose of the report is to compile the existing database into tables and figures that would be useful for other investigators. 51 refs., 210 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Adaptation and evaluation of the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment Water Quality Index (CCME WQI) for use as an effective tool to characterize drinking source water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Tim; Sadiq, Rehan; Mazumder, Asit

    2012-07-01

    Protecting drinking source water quality is a critical step in ensuring a safe supply of drinking water. Increasingly, drinking source water protection programs rely on the active participation of various stakeholders with differing degrees of water science knowledge. A drinking source water quality index presents a potential communication and analysis tool to facilitate cooperation between diverse interest groups as well as represent composite water quality. We tested the effectiveness of the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment Water Quality Index (CCME WQI) in capturing expert assessments of drinking water quality. In cooperation with a panel of drinking water quality experts we identified a core set of parameters to reflect common source water concerns. Drinking source water target values were drafted for use in the index corresponding to two basic treatment levels. Index scores calculated using the core parameter set and associated source water target values were strongly correlated with expert assessments of water quality. We recommend a modified index calculation procedure to accommodate parameters measured at different frequencies within any particular study period. The resulting drinking source water CCME WQI provides a valuable means of monitoring, communicating, and understanding surface source water quality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of quality assurance/quality control data collected by the US Geological Survey for water-quality activities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho, 1989 through 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, L.M.

    1996-06-01

    Hundreds of water samples were collected by the US Geological Survey (USGS) from 177 monitoring sites for the water quality monitoring program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory from 1989 through 1993. Concurrently, replicate pairs of samples and various types of blank samples were collected as part of the quality assurance/quality control program. Analyses were performed to determine the concentrations of major ions, nutrients, trace elements, gross radioactivity and radionuclides, organic compounds, and total organic carbon in the samples. To evaluate the precision of field and laboratory methods, analytical results of the replicate pairs of samples were compared statistically for equivalence on the basis of the precision associated with each result. Ninety percent or more of the analytical results for each constituent were equivalent, except for ammonia plus organic nitrogen, orthophosphate, iron, manganese, radium-226, total organic carbon, and total phenols. Blank-sample analytical results indicated that the inorganic-free blank water from the USGS Quality of Water Service Unit and the deionized water from the USGS Idaho Falls Field Office were suitable source solutions for blanks. Waters from other sources were found to be unsatisfactory as blank source solutions. Results of the analyses of several equipment blanks were evaluated to determine if a bias had been introduced and the possible sources of the bias. All of the equipment blank analytical results indicated that ammonia concentrations were greater than the reporting level. None of the equipment blanks had measurable concentrations of radioactivity. Eight percent of the analyses for inorganic constituents showed measurable concentrations were present in the blanks, nine percent for radioactive constituents, and less than one percent for organic constituents.

  11. Evaluating the effectiveness of management practices on hydrology and water quality at watershed scale with a rainfall-runoff model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaoze; Bralts, Vincent F; Engel, Bernard A

    2015-04-01

    The adverse influence of urban development on hydrology and water quality can be reduced by applying best management practices (BMPs) and low impact development (LID) practices. This study applied green roof, rain barrel/cistern, bioretention system, porous pavement, permeable patio, grass strip, grassed swale, wetland channel, retention pond, detention basin, and wetland basin, on Crooked Creek watershed. The model was calibrated and validated for annual runoff volume. A framework for simulating BMPs and LID practices at watershed scales was created, and the impacts of BMPs and LID practices on water quantity and water quality were evaluated with the Long-Term Hydrologic Impact Assessment-Low Impact Development 2.1 (L-THIA-LID 2.1) model for 16 scenarios. The various levels and combinations of BMPs/LID practices reduced runoff volume by 0 to 26.47%, Total Nitrogen (TN) by 0.30 to 34.20%, Total Phosphorus (TP) by 0.27 to 47.41%, Total Suspended Solids (TSS) by 0.33 to 53.59%, Lead (Pb) by 0.30 to 60.98%, Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) by 0 to 26.70%, and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) by 0 to 27.52%. The implementation of grass strips in 25% of the watershed where this practice could be applied was the most cost-efficient scenario, with cost per unit reduction of $1m3/yr for runoff, while cost for reductions of two pollutants of concern was $445 kg/yr for Total Nitrogen (TN) and $4871 kg/yr for Total Phosphorous (TP). The scenario with very high levels of BMP and LID practice adoption (scenario 15) reduced runoff volume and pollutant loads from 26.47% to 60.98%, and provided the greatest reduction in runoff volume and pollutant loads among all scenarios. However, this scenario was not as cost-efficient as most other scenarios. The L-THIA-LID 2.1 model is a valid tool that can be applied to various locations to help identify cost effective BMP/LID practice plans at watershed scales. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Water Quality Assessment Tool 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Water Quality Assessment Tool project was developed to assess the potential for water-borne contaminants to adversely affect biota and habitats on Service lands.

  13. Evaluation of long-term trends in hydrologic and water-quality conditions, and estimation of water budgets through 2013, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloto, Ronald A.; Reif, Andrew G.

    2017-06-02

    An evaluation of trends in hydrologic and water quality conditions and estimation of water budgets through 2013 was done by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Chester County Water Resources Authority. Long-term hydrologic, meteorologic, and biologic data collected in Chester County, Pennsylvania, which included streamflow, groundwater levels, surface-water quality, biotic integrity, precipitation, and air temperature were analyzed to determine possible trends or changes in hydrologic conditions. Statistically significant trends were determined by applying the Kendall rank correlation test; the magnitudes of the trends were determined using the Sen slope estimator. Water budgets for eight selected watersheds were updated and a new water budget was developed for the Marsh Creek watershed. An average water budget for Chester County was developed using the eight selected watersheds and the new Marsh Creek water budget.Annual and monthly mean streamflow, base flow, and runoff were analyzed for trends at 10 streamgages. The periods of record at the 10 streamgages ranged from 1961‒2013 to 1988‒2013. The only statistically significant trend for annual mean streamflow was for West Branch Brandywine Creek near Honey Brook, Pa. (01480300) where annual mean streamflow increased 1.6 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) per decade. The greatest increase in monthly mean streamflow was for Brandywine Creek at Chadds Ford, Pa. (01481000) for December; the increase was 47 ft3/s per decade. No statistically significant trends in annual mean base flow or runoff were determined for the 10 streamgages. The greatest increase in monthly mean base flow was for Brandywine Creek at Chadds Ford, Pa. (01481000) for December; the increase was 26 ft3/s per decade.The magnitude of peaks greater than a base streamflow was analyzed for trends for 12 streamgages. The period of record at the 12 stream gages ranged from 1912‒2012 to 2004–11. Fifty percent of the streamgages showed a

  14. Microbiological quality of natural waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, J J; Figueras, M J

    1997-12-01

    Several aspects of the microbiological quality of natural waters, especially recreational waters, have been reviewed. The importance of the water as a vehicle and/or a reservoir of human pathogenic microorganisms is also discussed. In addition, the concepts, types and techniques of microbial indicator and index microorganisms are established. The most important differences between faecal streptococci and enterococci have been discussed, defining the concept and species included. In addition, we have revised the main alternative indicators used to measure the water quality.

  15. Valuing Water Quality As a Functionof Water Quality Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Egan, Kevin J.; Joseph A. Herriges; Catherine L. Kling; Downing, John A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper incorporates a rich set of physical water quality attributes, as well as site and household characteristics, into a model of recreational lake usage in Iowa. Our analysis shows individuals are responsive to physical water quality measures. Willingness-to-pay estimates are reported based on improvements in these measures.

  16. Evaluation of the water quality of tidal creeks of Pontal do Paraná, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Siqueira

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this wat was to evaluate the water quality in four tidal creeks of Paraná, Brazil, with different anthropic influences. Samples were collected every three months. Temperature, salinity, pH, alkalinity, total CO2, dissolved O2, nitrite, nitrate, N-ammoniacal, phosphate, silicate, particulate suspended matter, humic matter, total chlorophyll, total and fecal coliform bacteria of surface water were measured in each sample and compared. For all the stations water temperature was lower in winter, but ranged within typically subtropical values. Salinity (7 - 25 and pH (7.08 - 7.91 were higher in Perequê tidal creek indicating that only this tidal creek was strongly influenced by the nearby ocean waters. Lower dissolved O2, reaching anoxic levels along with higher phosphate and N-ammoniacal concentrations and higher total (Foi objetivo da presente pesquisa, avaliar a qualidade da água de quatro gamboas do Paraná, Brasil, que sofrem influências antrópicas distintas. Em cinco coletas trimestrais, foram obtidas, as seguintes variáveis em águas superficiais: temperatura, salinidade, pH, alcalinidade, dióxido de carbono, oxigênio dissolvido, nitrito, nitrato, N-amoniacal, fosfato, silicato, material particulado em suspensão, substâncias húmicas, clorofila total, coliformes totais e coliformes termotolerantes. Os resultados mostraram que a temperatura da água apresentou características tipicamente subtropicais com valores significativamente menores no inverno em todas as estações. A salinidade (7 - 25‰ e o pH (7,08 - 7,91 mais elevados, registrados na Gamboa Perequê, indicaram que somente este curso d´água é influenciado pelo mar adjacente. As quantidades baixas de oxigênio dissolvido, chegando a anoxia, altas de fosfato (8,11 - 208,11 µM, N-amoniacal (0,90 - 75,33 µM, coliformes totais (<200 - 160.000 NMP 100 mL-1 e coliformes termotolerantes (<200 - 50.000 NMP 100 mL-1 observadas na Gamboa Olho d´Água indicam que esta

  17. Risk evaluation of drift from 40 aerially-applied herbicides on fish production pond plankton and water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Row crop herbicides were tested for possible adverse effects on pond plankton and water quality in triplicate 500-L outdoor, pool mesocosms. Treatments were drift at low (1% of full field rates) and high levels (10% of the full rate) to production ponds of 5 ha and large, and no drift (control). H...

  18. Fertilizer Use and Water Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reneau, Fred; And Others

    This booklet presents informative materials on fertilizer use and water quality, specifically in regard to environmental pollution and protection in Illinois. The five chapters cover these topics: Fertilizer and Water Quality, Fertilizer Use, Fertilizers and the Environment, Safety Practices, and Fertilizer Management Practices. Key questions are…

  19. 5 Water Quality.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    the basins cause an acceleration of the. Water Quality Assessment of Densu, Birim and Ayensu. Rivers in the Okyeman Area. 1. 2. O. D. Ansa-Asare * and C. ... The aim of this paper is to develop an understanding of the spatial water quality throughout the basins and also identify the main sources of contaminants within the ...

  20. Evaluating the accotink creek restoration project for improving water quality, in-stream habitat, and bank stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struck, S.D.; Selvakumar, A.; Hyer, K.; O'Connor, T.

    2007-01-01

    Increased urbanization results in a larger percentage of connected impervious areas and can contribute large quantities of stormwater runoff and significant quantities of debris and pollutants (e.g., litter, oils, microorganisms, sediments, nutrients, organic matter, and heavy metals) to receiving waters. To improve water quality in urban and suburban areas, watershed managers often incorporate best management practices (BMPs) to reduce the quantity of runoff as well as to minimize pollutants and other stressors contained in stormwater runoff. It is well known that land-use practices directly impact urban streams. Stream flows in urbanized watersheds increase in magnitude as a function of impervious area and can result in degradation of the natural stream channel morphology affecting the physical, chemical, and biological integrity of the stream. Stream bank erosion, which also increases with increased stream flows, can lead to bank instability, property loss, infrastructure damage, and increased sediment loading to the stream. Increased sediment loads may lead to water quality degradation downstream and have negative impacts on fish, benthic invertebrates, and other aquatic life. Accotink Creek is in the greater Chesapeake Bay and Potomac watersheds, which have strict sediment criteria. The USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency) and USGS (United States Geological Survey) are investigating the effectiveness of stream restoration techniques as a BMP to decrease sediment load and improve bank stability, biological integrity, and in-stream water quality in an impaired urban watershed in Fairfax, Virginia. This multi-year project continuously monitors turbidity, specific conductance, pH, and water temperature, as well as biological and chemical water quality parameters. In addition, physical parameters (e.g., pebble counts, longitudinal and cross sectional stream surveys) were measured to assess geomorphic changes associated with the restoration. Data

  1. Evaluation of Military Field-Water Quality. Volume 7. Performance Evaluation of the 600-GPH Reverse Osmosis Water Purification Unit (ROWPU): reverse Osmosis (RO) Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    Biz detergent (manufactured by Procter and Gamble Chemical Company, Cincinnati, OH), containing sodium perborate , destroyed the membrane. 31 The...salt rejection and normalized product-water flow as a function of feed-water temperature for 3.2%- sodium -chloride feed solution at a pH - 7, 800-psig...as a function of feed-water pH for a 3.2%- sodium -chloride feed solution at 25°C, 800-psig applied pressure, and 1,75-gpm feed-water flow

  2. Space Station Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Charles E. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The manned Space Station will exist as an isolated system for periods of up to 90 days. During this period, safe drinking water and breathable air must be provided for an eight member crew. Because of the large mass involved, it is not practical to consider supplying the Space Station with water from Earth. Therefore, it is necessary to depend upon recycled water to meet both the human and nonhuman water needs on the station. Sources of water that will be recycled include hygiene water, urine, and cabin humidity condensate. A certain amount of fresh water can be produced by CO2 reduction process. Additional fresh water will be introduced into the total pool by way of food, because of the free water contained in food and the water liberated by metabolic oxidation of the food. A panel of scientists and engineers with extensive experience in the various aspects of wastewater reuse was assembled for a 2 day workshop at NASA-Johnson. The panel included individuals with expertise in toxicology, chemistry, microbiology, and sanitary engineering. A review of Space Station water reclamation systems was provided.

  3. What's in Your Water? An Educator's Guide to Water Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constabile, Kerry, Comp.; Craig, Heidi, Comp.; O'Laughlin, Laura, Comp.; Reiss, Anne Bei, Comp.; Spencer, Liz, Comp.

    This guide provides basic information on the Clean Water Act, watersheds, and testing for water quality, and presents four science lesson plans on water quality. Activities include: (1) "Introduction to Water Quality"; (2) "Chemical Water Quality Testing"; (3) "Biological Water Quality Testing"; and (4) "What Can We Do?" (YDS)

  4. Examining spatially varying relationships between land use and water quality using geographically weighted regression I: model design and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Jun; Xia, Zong-Guo

    2008-12-15

    Traditional regression techniques such as ordinary least squares (OLS) can hide important local variations in the model parameters, and are not able to deal with spatial autocorrelations existing in the variables. A recently developed technique, geographically weighted regression (GWR), is used to examine the relationships between land use and water quality in eastern Massachusetts, USA. GWR models make great improvements of model performance over OLS models, which is proved by F-test and comparisons of model R2 and corrected Akaike Information Criterion (AICc) from both GWR and OLS. GWR models also improve the reliabilities of the relationships by reducing spatial autocorrelations. The application of GWR models finds that the relationships between land use and water quality are not constant over space but show great spatial non-stationarity. GWR models are able to reveal the information previously ignored by OLS models on the local causes of water pollution, and so improve the model ability to explain local situation of water quality. The results of this study suggest that GWR technique has the potential to serve as a useful tool for environmental research and management at watershed, regional, national and even global scales.

  5. Evaluating changes in water quality with respect to nonpoint source nutrient management strategies in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keisman, J.; Sekellick, A.; Blomquist, J.; Devereux, O. H.; Hively, W. D.; Johnston, M.; Moyer, D.; Sweeney, J.

    2014-12-01

    Chesapeake Bay is a eutrophic ecosystem with periodic hypoxia and anoxia, algal blooms, diminished submerged aquatic vegetation, and degraded stocks of marine life. Knowledge of the effectiveness of actions taken across the watershed to reduce nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loads to the bay (i.e. "best management practices" or BMPs) is essential to its restoration. While nutrient inputs from point sources (e.g. wastewater treatment plants and other industrial and municipal operations) are tracked, inputs from nonpoint sources, including atmospheric deposition, farms, lawns, septic systems, and stormwater, are difficult to measure. Estimating reductions in nonpoint source inputs attributable to BMPs requires compilation and comparison of data on water quality, climate, land use, point source discharges, and BMP implementation. To explore the relation of changes in nonpoint source inputs and BMP implementation to changes in water quality, a subset of small watersheds (those containing at least 10 years of water quality monitoring data) within the Chesapeake Watershed were selected for study. For these watersheds, data were compiled on geomorphology, demographics, land use, point source discharges, atmospheric deposition, and agricultural practices such as livestock populations, crop acres, and manure and fertilizer application. In addition, data on BMP implementation for 1985-2012 were provided by the Environmental Protection Agency Chesapeake Bay Program Office (CBPO) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture. A spatially referenced nonlinear regression model (SPARROW) provided estimates attributing N and P loads associated with receiving waters to different nutrient sources. A recently developed multiple regression technique ("Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge and Season" or WRTDS) provided an enhanced understanding of long-term trends in N and P loads and concentrations. A suite of deterministic models developed by the CBPO was used to estimate expected

  6. Evaluation and trends of land cover, streamflow, and water quality in the North Canadian River Basin near Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, 1968–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esralew, Rachel A.; Andrews, William J.; Smith, S. Jerrod

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Oklahoma City, collected water-quality samples from the North Canadian River at the streamflow-gaging station near Harrah, Oklahoma (Harrah station), since 1968, and at an upstream streamflow-gaging station at Britton Road at Oklahoma City, Oklahoma (Britton Road station), since 1988. Statistical summaries and frequencies of detection of water-quality constituent data from water samples, and summaries of water-quality constituent data from continuous water-quality monitors are described from the start of monitoring at those stations through 2009. Differences in concentrations between stations and time trends for selected constituents were evaluated to determine the effects of: (1) wastewater effluent discharges, (2) changes in land-cover, (3) changes in streamflow, (4) increases in urban development, and (5) other anthropogenic sources of contamination on water quality in the North Canadian River downstream from Oklahoma City. Land-cover changes between 1992 and 2001 in the basin between the Harrah station and Lake Overholser upstream included an increase in developed/barren land-cover and a decrease in pasture/hay land cover. There were no significant trends in median and greater streamflows at either streamflow-gaging station, but there were significant downward trends in lesser streamflows, especially after 1999, which may have been associated with decreases in precipitation between 1999 and 2009 or construction of low-water dams on the river upstream from Oklahoma City in 1999. Concentrations of dissolved chloride, lead, cadmium, and chlordane most frequently exceeded the Criterion Continuous Concentration (a water-quality standard for protection of aquatic life) in water-quality samples collected at both streamflow-gaging stations. Visual trends in annual frequencies of detection were investigated for selected pesticides with frequencies of detection greater than 10 percent in all water samples

  7. Evaluation of water quality parameters for the Mamasin dam in Aksaray City in the central Anatolian part of Turkey by means of artificial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhatip, Hatim; Kömür, M. Aydin

    2008-01-01

    Sustaining the human ecological benefits of surface water requires carefully planned strategies for reducing the cumulative risks posed by diverse human activities. The municipality of Aksaray city plays a key role in developing solutions to surface water management and protection in the central Anatolian part of Turkey. The responsibility to provide drinking water and sewage works, regulate the use of private land and protect public health provides the mandate and authority to take action. The present approach discusses the main sources of contamination and the result of direct wastewater discharges into the Melendiz and Karasu rivers, which recharge the Mamasın dam sites by the use of artificial neural network (ANN) modeling techniques. The present study illustrates the ability to predict and/or approve the output values of previously measured water quality parameters of the recharge and discharge areas at the Mamasin dam site by means of ANN techniques. Using the ANN model is appreciated in such environmental research. Here, the ANN is used for estimating if the field parameters are agreeable to the results of this model or not. The present study simulates a situation in the past by means of ANN. But in case any field measurements of some relative parameters at the outlet point “discharge area” have been missed, it could be possible to predict the approximate output values from the detailed periodical water quality parameters. Because of the high variance and the inherent non-linear relationship of the water quality parameters in time series, it is difficult to produce a reliable model with conventional modeling approaches. In this paper, the ANN modeling technique is used to establish a model for evaluating the change in electrical conductivity (EC) and dissolved oxygen (DO) values in recharge (input) and discharge (output) areas of the dam water under pollution risks. A general ANN modeling scheme is also recommended for the water parameters. The modeling

  8. GKI water quality studies. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, D L

    1980-01-01

    GKI water quality data collected in 1978 and early 1979 was evaluated with the objective of developing preliminary characterizations of native groundwater and retort water at Kamp Kerogen, Uintah County, Utah. Restrictive analytical definitions were developed to describe native groundwater and GKI retort water in an effort to eliminate from the sample population both groundwater samples affected by retorting and retort water samples diluted by groundwater. Native groundwater and retort water sample analyses were subjected to statistical manipulation and testing to summarize the data to determine the statistical validity of characterizations based on the data available, and to identify probable differences between groundwater and retort water based on available data. An evaluation of GKI water quality data related to developing characterizations of native groundwater and retort water at Kamp Kerogen was conducted. GKI retort water and the local native groundwater both appeared to be of very poor quality. Statistical testing indicated that the data available is generally insufficient for conclusive characterizations of native groundwater and retort water. Statistical testing indicated some probable significant differences between native groundwater and retort water that could be determined with available data. Certain parameters should be added to and others deleted from future laboratory analyses suites of water samples.

  9. Primer on Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as roots and leaves, and react with algae, bacteria, and other microscopic organisms. Water may also carry plant debris and sand, silt, ... in a few locations. Pathogens can enter our water from leaking septic tanks, wastewater-treatment discharge, and animal wastes. How can I find ...

  10. Ground Water Quality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water is the next to air as a major support substance to life. Water therefore is important in that it is essential .... potassium (K ), zinc (Zn ), cadmium (Cd ), lead. 2+. 2+. 2+. (Pb ), iron (Fe ) and manganese (Mn ) and .... used storage batteries dumped indiscriminately into the environment as observed in parts of the study area.

  11. Evaluation of the water quality related to the acid mine drainage of an abandoned mercury mine (Alaşehir, Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemici, Unsal

    2008-12-01

    Mobility of metals in water, mine wastes, and stream sediments around the abandoned Alaşehir mercury mine was investigated to evaluate the environmental effects around the area. Mine waters are dominantly acidic with pH values of 2.55 in arid season and 2.70 in wet season and are sulfate rich. Acidity is caused mainly by the oxidation of sulfide minerals. Pyrite is the main acid-producing mineral in the Alaşehir area. Of the major ions, SO(4) shows a notable increase reaching 3981 mg/l, which exceeds the WHO (WHO guidelines for drinking water quality, vol. 2. Health criteria and other supporting information, 1993) and TS (Sular-Içme ve kullanma sulari. Ankara: Türk Standartlari Enstitüsü, 1997) drinking water standard of 250 mg/L. Mine waters have As, Fe, Mn, Ni, and Al with concentrations higher than drinking water standards. Hg concentrations of adit water samples and surface waters draining the mine area are between 0.25 and 0.274 microg/L and are below the WHO (WHO guidelines for drinking water quality, vol. 2. Health criteria and other supporting information, 1993) drinking water standard of 1.0 microg/L. However, the concentrations are above the 0.012 microg/L standard (EPA, Water quality standards. Establishment of numeric criteria for priority toxic pollutants, states' compliance, final rule. Fed. Reg., 40 CFR, Part 131, 57/246, 60847-60916, 1992) used to protect aquatic life. Stream sediment samples have abnormally high values of especially Hg, As, Ni, and Cr metals. Geoaccumulation (Igeo) and pollution index (PI) values are significantly high and denote heavy contamination in stream sediments. The stream sediments derived from the mining area with the surface waters are potentially hazardous to the environment adjacent to the abandoned Hg mine and are in need of remediation.

  12. [Drinking water quality and safety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Gutiérrez, Anna; Miralles, Maria Josepa; Corbella, Irene; García, Soledad; Navarro, Sonia; Llebaria, Xavier

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of drinking water legislation is to guarantee the quality and safety of water intended for human consumption. In the European Union, Directive 98/83/EC updated the essential and binding quality criteria and standards, incorporated into Spanish national legislation by Royal Decree 140/2003. This article reviews the main characteristics of the aforementioned drinking water legislation and its impact on the improvement of water quality against empirical data from Catalonia. Analytical data reported in the Spanish national information system (SINAC) indicate that water quality in Catalonia has improved in recent years (from 88% of analytical reports in 2004 finding drinking water to be suitable for human consumption, compared to 95% in 2014). The improvement is fundamentally attributed to parameters concerning the organoleptic characteristics of water and parameters related to the monitoring of the drinking water treatment process. Two management experiences concerning compliance with quality standards for trihalomethanes and lead in Barcelona's water supply are also discussed. Finally, this paper presents some challenges that, in the opinion of the authors, still need to be incorporated into drinking water legislation. It is necessary to update Annex I of Directive 98/83/EC to integrate current scientific knowledge, as well as to improve consumer access to water quality data. Furthermore, a need to define common criteria for some non-resolved topics, such as products and materials in contact with drinking water and domestic conditioning equipment, has also been identified. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Using Water Quality Models in Management - A Multiple Model Assessment, Analysis of Confidence, and Evaluation of Climate Change Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irby, Isaac David

    Human impacts on the Chesapeake Bay through increased nutrient run-off as a result of land-use change, urbanization, and industrialization, have resulted in a degradation of water quality over the last half-century. These direct impacts, compounded with human-induced climate changes such as warming, rising sea-level, and changes in precipitation, have elevated the conversation surrounding the future of water quality in the Bay. The overall goal of this dissertation project is to use a combination of models and data to better understand and quantify the impact of changes in nutrient loads and climate on water quality in the Chesapeake Bay. This research achieves that goal in three parts. First, a set of eight water quality models is used to establish a model mean and assess model skill. All models were found to exhibit similar skill in resolving dissolved oxygen concentrations as well as a number of dissolved oxygen-influencing variables (temperature, salinity, stratification, chlorophyll and nitrate) and the model mean exhibited the highest individual skill. The location of stratification within the water column was found to be a limiting factor in the models' ability to adequately simulate habitat compression resulting from low-oxygen conditions. Second, two of the previous models underwent the regulatory Chesapeake Bay pollution diet mandated by the Environmental Protection Agency. Both models exhibited a similar relative improvement in dissolved oxygen concentrations as a result of the reduction of nutrients stipulated in the pollution diet. A Confidence Index was developed to identify the locations of the Bay where the models are in agreement and disagreement regarding the impacts of the pollution diet. The models were least certain in the deep part of the upper main stem of the Bay and the uncertainty primarily stemmed from the post-processing methodology. Finally, by projecting the impacts of climate change in 2050 on the Bay, the potential success of the

  14. 43 CFR 414.5 - Water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water quality. 414.5 Section 414.5 Public... APPORTIONMENT IN THE LOWER DIVISION STATES Water Quality and Environmental Compliance § 414.5 Water quality. (a) Water Quality is not guaranteed. The Secretary does not warrant the quality of water released or...

  15. Recreational Water Quality Criteria Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    This set of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) provides an overview of NPDES permitting applicable to continuous dischargers (such as POTWs) based on water quality standards for pathogens and pathogen indicators associated with fecal contamination.

  16. Evaluating Spatially Resolved Influence of Soil and Tree Water Status on Quality of European Plum Grown in Semi-humid Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Käthner, Jana; Ben-Gal, Alon; Gebbers, Robin; Peeters, Aviva; Herppich, Werner B; Zude-Sasse, Manuela

    2017-01-01

    In orchards, the variations of fruit quality and its determinants are crucial for resource effective measures. In the present study, a drip-irrigated plum production (Prunus domestica L. "Tophit plus"/Wavit) located in a semi-humid climate was studied. Analysis of the apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) of soil showed spatial patterns of sand lenses in the orchard. Water status of sample trees was measured instantaneously by means of leaf water potential, Ψleaf [MPa], and for all trees by thermal imaging of canopies and calculation of the crop water stress index (CWSI). Methods for determining CWSI were evaluated. A CWSI approach calculating canopy and reference temperatures from the histogram of pixels from each image itself was found to suit the experimental conditions. Soil ECa showed no correlation with specific leaf area ratio and cumulative water use efficiency (WUEc) derived from the crop load. The fruit quality, however, was influenced by physiological drought stress in trees with high crop load and, resulting (too) high WUEc, when fruit driven water demand was not met. As indicated by analysis of variance, neither ECa nor the instantaneous CWSI could be used as predictors of fruit quality, while the interaction of CWSI and WUEc did succeed in indicating significant differences. Consequently, both WUEc and CWSI should be integrated in irrigation scheduling for positive impact on fruit quality.

  17. A Bayesian approach for evaluation of the effect of water quality model parameter uncertainty on TMDLs: A case study of Miyun Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Shidong, E-mail: emblembl@sina.com [School of Environment, Tsinghua University, 1 Qinghuayuan, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China); Jia, Haifeng, E-mail: jhf@tsinghua.edu.cn [School of Environment, Tsinghua University, 1 Qinghuayuan, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China); Xu, Changqing, E-mail: 2008changqing@163.com [School of Environment, Tsinghua University, 1 Qinghuayuan, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China); Xu, Te, E-mail: xt_lichking@qq.com [School of Environment, Tsinghua University, 1 Qinghuayuan, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China); Melching, Charles, E-mail: steve.melching17@gmail.com [Melching Water Solutions, 4030 W. Edgerton Avenue, Greenfield, WI 53221 (United States)

    2016-08-01

    ) determination. The sources of uncertainty are discussed and ways to reduce the uncertainties are proposed. - Highlights: • Effect of water quality model parameter uncertainty on TMDLs was evaluated. • A Bayesian approach was used for the model parameter uncertainty analysis. • DREAM algorithm, a multi-chain MCMC, was used as the Bayesian approach. • Miyun Reservoir, the most important drinking water source for Beijing, was studied. • Wide ranges of allowable loads were obtained through uncertainty propagation.

  18. Preimpoundment Water Quality Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    Passiflora incarnara No Camin N,-tn P. lutea Crossvixe Anisosticus capreolata Climbing hydrangea Decumaria barbara PJapanese Honeysuckle Lonicera japonica...Impatiens, Balsam Impatiens balsandina Curly Dock Rumex Plantain Plantago virginica Water Hemlock Cicuta maculata Violet Viola floridana Ironweied Sida acuta

  19. Water quality management in shrimp aquaculture ponds using remote water quality logging system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sreepada, R.A.; Kulkarni, S.; Suryavanshi, U.; Ingole, B.S.; Drensgstig, A.; Braaten, B.

    Currently an institutional co-operation project funded by NORAD is evaluating different environmental management strategies for sustainable aquaculture in India. A brief description of a remote water quality logging system installed in shrimp ponds...

  20. Water Quality Control, Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington City Board of Education, NC.

    Activities which study how water is used, contaminated, and treated or purified are presented in this curriculum guide, culminating in the investigation of a local water quality problem. Designed as a 12 week mini-course for students in grades eight and nine, the guide first presents a review of the content, objectives, major concepts, and sources…

  1. Optical sensors for water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerin, Brian A.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.

    2014-01-01

    Shifts in land use, population, and climate have altered hydrologic systems in the United States in ways that affect water quality and ecosystem function. Water diversions, detention in reservoirs, increased channelization, and changes in rainfall and snowmelt are major causes, but there are also more subtle causes such as changes in soil temperature, atmospheric deposition, and shifting vegetation patterns. The effects on water quality are complex and interconnected, and occur at timeframes of minutes (e.g., flash floods) to decades (e.g., evolving management practices).

  2. Diversity of Macroinvertebrados and Evaluation of the Quality of the Water of the Gulch the Bendición, Municipality of Quibdó (Chocó, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilber Pino Chalá

    2003-07-01

    of evaluating the diversity of organisms to determine water quality. Three stations were selected distributed on the high (E1, intermediate (E2 and low regions(E3, near the birth of the gulch; where individuals were collected based on the methodology described by Roldán (1996. A total of 150 individuals were found, distributed in 16 families and 7 orders. Standing out among the predominant families, were Psephenidae, Elmidae and Veliidae; while at order level Odonata, was the most representative, followed by Coleoptera and Hemiptera. Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera and Plecoptera orders were poorly represented. The ecological indexes evaluated for the area, presented wealth and high justness, while the dominancy levels were low. By means of the biological indexes it was determined that the gulch La Bendición has waters of good quality, not polluted or altered.

  3. Evaluation of Measurements Collected with Multi-Parameter Continuous Water-Quality Monitors in Selected Illinois Streams, 2001-03

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groschen, George E.; King, Robin B.

    2005-01-01

    Eight streams, representing a wide range of environmental and water-quality conditions across Illinois, were monitored from July 2001 to October 2003 for five water-quality parameters as part of a pilot study by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (IEPA). Continuous recording multi-parameter water-quality monitors were installed to collect data on water temperature, dissolved-oxygen concentrations, specific conductivity, pH, and turbidity. The monitors were near USGS streamflow-gaging stations where stage and streamflow are continuously recorded. During the study period, the data collected for these five parameters generally met the data-quality objectives established by the USGS and IEPA at all eight stations. A similar pilot study during this period for measurement of chlorophyll concentrations failed to achieve the data-quality objectives. Of all the sensors used, the temperature sensors provided the most accurate and reliable measurements (generally within ?5 percent of a calibrated thermometer reading). Signal adjustments and calibration of all other sensors are dependent upon an accurate and precise temperature measurement. The dissolved-oxygen sensors were the next most reliable during the study and were responsive to changing conditions and accurate at all eight stations. Specific conductivity was the third most accurate and reliable measurement collected from the multi-parameter monitors. Specific conductivity at the eight stations varied widely-from less than 40 microsiemens (?S) at Rayse Creek near Waltonville to greater than 3,500 ?S at Salt Creek at Western Springs. In individual streams, specific conductivity often changed quickly (greater than 25 percent in less than 3 hours) and the sensors generally provided good to excellent record of these variations at all stations. The widest range of specific-conductivity measurements was in Salt Creek at Western Springs in the Greater Chicago

  4. Forestry best management practices: evaluation of alternate streamside management zones on stream water quality in Pockwock Lake and Five Mile Lake watersheds in central Nova Scotia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, O C; Smith, T P; Fernand, H; McInnis Leek, Nancy R

    2008-02-01

    The effects of timber harvesting on stream water quality and efficiency of alternate streamside management zones were evaluated in Pockwock Lake and Five Mile Lake watersheds in central Nova Scotia, Canada. The streamside management zone (SMZ) included a 20 m no cut, 20 m select cut and a 30 m select cut buffer strips along the stream. Water quality of eight streams, six in harvested and two in not-harvested watersheds were monitored for two years before and two years after the harvesting of timber. Nonparametric statistical tests on stream water quality showed that there was significant change in the concentration of potassium in six streams, manganese in five streams, zinc in two streams and total nitrogen in one stream after timber harvesting. There was no significant change in the quality of water in two streams used as control sites in the neighboring watersheds of similar size and hydrological characteristics. The results show that forest management practices were most favorable in streams maintained with 30 m select cut followed by 20 m no cut and 20 m select cut SMZ. The streamside zone width and treatment of select cut or no cut in the zone played an important role in filtering or retaining the minerals in surface water runoff. In buffer zones of similar width, the buffer zone with no cut or forested buffer was relatively more effective at protecting stream water quality than select cut SMZ. The vegetation in the zone may have decreased the flow velocity and increased residence time and thus increased filtration and retention of minerals in the riparian soil.

  5. Evaluating stream water quality through land use analysis in two grassland catchments: impact of wetlands on stream nitrogen concentration.

    OpenAIRE

    Hayakawa, A; Shimizu, M.; Woli, K. P.; Kuramochi, K.; HATANO, R

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the impacts of natural wetlands and various land uses on stream nitrogen concentration in two grassland-dominated catchments in eastern Hokkaido, Japan. Analyzing land use types in drainage basins, measuring denitrification potential of its soil, and water sampling in all seasons of 2003 were performed. Results showed a highly significant positive correlation between the concentration of stream NO3–N and the proportion of upland area in drainage basins in both catchments. The reg...

  6. Drinking water quality monitoring using trend analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomperi, Jani; Juuso, Esko; Eteläniemi, Mira; Leiviskä, Kauko

    2014-06-01

    One of the common quality parameters for drinking water is residual aluminium. High doses of residual aluminium in drinking water or water used in the food industry have been proved to be at least a minor health risk or even to increase the risk of more serious health effects, and cause economic losses to the water treatment plant. In this study, the trend index is developed from scaled measurement data to detect a warning of changes in residual aluminium level in drinking water. The scaling is based on monotonously increasing, non-linear functions, which are generated with generalized norms and moments. Triangular episodes are classified with the trend index and its derivative. The severity of the situations is evaluated by deviation indices. The trend episodes and the deviation indices provide good tools for detecting changes in water quality and for process control.

  7. Evaluation of physico-chemical and microbial parameters on water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microsoft Windows

    Evaluation of physico-chemical and microbial parameters on water quality of Narmada River, India ... This evaluation will be immensely helpful to estimate the effect of impoundments on the quality of water, ..... Water Quality Index-crossing the psychological barrier (Ed Jenkis,. S.H). Proc. Intl. Conf on water Poll, Jerusalem.

  8. Students' Evaluation of Teaching Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vevere, Nina; Kozlinskis, Vulfs

    2011-01-01

    Students' evaluations of teaching quality are one of the crucial components of the teaching quality evaluation (along with external evaluation, opinions of colleagues, etc.). According to our research and professional experience, the teaching quality has to be examined in correlation with personality traits of a lecturer. Students' surveys (aiming…

  9. Water-quality monitoring for a pilot piling removal field evaluation, Coal Creek Slough, Washington, 2008-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Elena B.; Alvarez, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Significant Findings Water and sediment quality monitoring was conducted before and after the removal of a piling field located in Coal Creek Slough near Longview, Washington. Passive chemical samplers and continuous water-quality monitoring instruments were deployed at the piling removal site, Coal Creek Slough Site 1 (CCS1), and at a comparison site, Coal Creek Slough Site 2 (CCS2), before (2008) and after (2009) piling removal. Surface and subsurface (core) sediment samples were collected before and after piling removal and were analyzed for grain size, organic carbon content, and chemicals of concern. Significant findings from this study include: * Phenanthrene was the only compound detected in wood piling samples analyzed for a large suite of semivolatile organic compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Metals potentially associated with wood treatment were detected in the wood piling samples at low concentrations. * Organic carbon was slightly lower in core samples from CCS1 in pre-removal (2008) and post-removal (2009) samples than in surface samples from both sites in both years. * Grain-size class distributions were relatively uniform between sites and years. * Thirty-four out of 110 chemicals of concern were detected in sediments. Eight of those detected were anthropogenic waste indicator (AWI) compounds, 18 were PAHs, 4 were sterols, and 4 were metals potentially associated with wood treatment. * Nearly all reported concentrations of chemicals of concern in sediments are qualified as estimates, primarily due to interferences in extracts resulting from complex sample matrices. Indole, perylene, and fluoranthene are reported without qualification for some of the samples, and the metals are reported without qualification for all samples. * The highest frequency of detection of chemicals of concern was seen in the pre-removal surface samples at both sites. * AWI compounds were detected less frequently and at lower concentrations during the post

  10. Water quality issues and energy assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.J.; Chiu, S.

    1980-11-01

    This report identifies and evaluates the significant water quality issues related to regional and national energy development. In addition, it recommends improvements in the Office assessment capability. Handbook-style formating, which includes a system of cross-references and prioritization, is designed to help the reader use the material.

  11. 18 CFR 801.7 - Water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water quality. 801.7... POLICIES § 801.7 Water quality. (a) The signatory States have the primary responsibility in the basin for water quality management and control. However, protection of the water resources of the basin from...

  12. Monitoring water quality by remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A limited study was conducted to determine the applicability of remote sensing for evaluating water quality conditions in the San Francisco Bay and delta. Considerable supporting data were available for the study area from other than overflight sources, but short-term temporal and spatial variability precluded their use. The study results were not sufficient to shed much light on the subject, but it did appear that, with the present state of the art in image analysis and the large amount of ground truth needed, remote sensing has only limited application in monitoring water quality.

  13. 5 Water Quality.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    degraded forested area from the developing world where agricultural-derived revenue ... The water quality assessment conducted in the Densu, Birim and Ayensu Basins of Ghana in the Okyeman area between August 2005 and June 2006 .... Akwadun (Bridge-down) and. Kukurantumi. • Birim River Stations: Bunso Cocoa.

  14. Portable water quality monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizar, N. B.; Ong, N. R.; Aziz, M. H. A.; Alcain, J. B.; Haimi, W. M. W. N.; Sauli, Z.

    2017-09-01

    Portable water quality monitoring system was a developed system that tested varied samples of water by using different sensors and provided the specific readings to the user via short message service (SMS) based on the conditions of the water itself. In this water quality monitoring system, the processing part was based on a microcontroller instead of Lead and Copper Rule (LCR) machines to receive the results. By using four main sensors, this system obtained the readings based on the detection of the sensors, respectively. Therefore, users can receive the readings through SMS because there was a connection between Arduino Uno and GSM Module. This system was designed to be portable so that it would be convenient for users to carry it anywhere and everywhere they wanted to since the processor used is smaller in size compared to the LCR machines. It was also developed to ease the user to monitor and control the water quality. However, the ranges of the sensors' detection still a limitation in this study.

  15. Shallow Water Optical Water Quality Buoy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostater, Charles

    1998-01-01

    This NASA grant was funded as a result of an unsolicited proposal submission to Kennedy Space Center. The proposal proposed the development and testing of a shallow water optical water quality buoy. The buoy is meant to work in shallow aquatic systems (ponds, rivers, lagoons, and semi-enclosed water areas where strong wind wave action is not a major environmental During the project period of three years, a demonstration of the buoy was conducted. The last demonstration during the project period was held in November, 1996 when the buoy was demonstrated as being totally operational with no tethered communications line. During the last year of the project the buoy was made to be solar operated by large gel cell batteries. Fund limitations did not permit the batteries in metal enclosures as hoped for higher wind conditions, however the system used to date has worked continuously for in- situ operation of over 18 months continuous deployment. The system needs to have maintenance and somewhat continuous operational attention since various components have limited lifetime ages. For example, within the last six months the onboard computer has had to be repaired as it did approximately 6 months after deployment. The spectrograph had to be repaired and costs for repairs was covered by KB Science since no ftmds were available for this purpose after the grant expired. Most recently the computer web page server failed and it is currently being repaired by KB Science. In addition, the cell phone operation is currently being ftmded by Dr. Bostater in order to maintain the system's operation. The above points need to be made to allow NASA to understand that like any sophisticated measuring system in a lab or in the field, necessary funding and maintenance is needed to insure the system's operational state and to obtain quality factor. The proposal stated that the project was based upon the integration of a proprietary and confidential sensor and probe design that was developed by

  16. Predicting water quality at Santa Monica Beach: evaluation of five different models for public notification of unsafe swimming conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoe, W; Gold, M; Griesbach, A; Grimmer, M; Taggart, M L; Boehm, A B

    2014-12-15

    Bathing beaches are monitored for fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) to protect swimmers from unsafe conditions. However, FIB assays take ∼24 h and water quality conditions can change dramatically in that time, so unsafe conditions cannot presently be identified in a timely manner. Statistical, data-driven predictive models use information on environmental conditions (i.e., rainfall, turbidity) to provide nowcasts of FIB concentrations. Their ability to predict real time FIB concentrations can make them more accurate at identifying unsafe conditions than the current method of using day or older FIB measurements. Predictive models are used in the Great Lakes, Hong Kong, and Scotland for beach management, but they are presently not used in California - the location of some of the world's most popular beaches. California beaches are unique as point source pollution has generally been mitigated, the summer bathing season receives little to no rainfall, and in situ measurements of turbidity and salinity are not readily available. These characteristics may make modeling FIB difficult, as many current FIB models rely heavily on rainfall or salinity. The current study investigates the potential for FIB models to predict water quality at a quintessential California Beach: Santa Monica Beach. This study compares the performance of five predictive models, multiple linear regression model, binary logistic regression model, partial least square regression model, artificial neural network, and classification tree, to predict concentrations of summertime fecal coliform and enterococci concentrations. Past measurements of bacterial concentration, storm drain condition, and tide level are found to be critical factors in the predictive models. The models perform better than the current beach management method. The classification tree models perform the best; for example they correctly predict 42% of beach postings due to fecal coliform exceedances during model validation, as compared

  17. Evaluation of surface water quality using an ecotoxicological approach: a case study of the Piracicaba River (São Paulo, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, R G; Rossi, M L; Maranho, L A; Olinda, R A; Tornisielo, V L

    2013-07-01

    A long-term study was conducted to evaluate Piracicaba River water (São Paulo state, Brazil) using different methodologies and organisms. During 1 year (February 2011 to January 2012), water samples were collected monthly at six different locations and exposed under laboratory conditions to the microcrustaceans Ceriodaphnia dubia and Ceriodaphnia silvestrii for 7 days and to the fish Danio rerio for 4 days to evaluate effects on reproduction and on gill morphology, respectively. Physical-chemical parameters of the water were also measured. Physical-chemical characteristics demonstrated decreasing water quality from upstream to downstream of the river. Effects on the reproduction of C. dubia and C. silvestrii were observed in 3 months (February and March 2011 and January 2012) and occurred in samples collected close to industrialized cities like Americana and Piracicaba. Evaluation of the gills showed normal function of the organ during all months, except in February, September, and October for some locations.

  18. The Maladies of Water and War: Addressing Poor Water Quality in Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Water is essential in providing nutrients, but contaminated water contributes to poor population health. Water quality and availability can change in unstructured situations, such as war. To develop a practical strategy to address poor water quality resulting from intermittent wars in Iraq, I reviewed information from academic sources regarding waterborne diseases, conflict and war, water quality treatment, and malnutrition. The prevalence of disease was high in impoverished, malnourished populations exposed to contaminated water sources. The data aided in developing a strategy to improve water quality in Iraq, which encompasses remineralized water from desalination plants, health care reform, monitoring and evaluation systems, and educational public health interventions. PMID:23597360

  19. The maladies of water and war: addressing poor water quality in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolnikov, Tara Rava

    2013-06-01

    Water is essential in providing nutrients, but contaminated water contributes to poor population health. Water quality and availability can change in unstructured situations, such as war. To develop a practical strategy to address poor water quality resulting from intermittent wars in Iraq, I reviewed information from academic sources regarding waterborne diseases, conflict and war, water quality treatment, and malnutrition. The prevalence of disease was high in impoverished, malnourished populations exposed to contaminated water sources. The data aided in developing a strategy to improve water quality in Iraq, which encompasses remineralized water from desalination plants, health care reform, monitoring and evaluation systems, and educational public health interventions.

  20. Assessing river water quality using water quality index in Lake Taihu Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhaoshi; Wang, Xiaolong; Chen, Yuwei; Cai, Yongjiu; Deng, Jiancai

    2018-01-15

    Lake Taihu Basin, one of the most developed regions in China, has received considerable attention due to its severe pollution. Our study provides a clear understanding of the water quality in the rivers of Lake Taihu Basin based on basin-scale monitoring and a water quality index (WQI) method. From September 2014 to January 2016, four samplings across four seasons were conducted at 96 sites along main rivers. Fifteen parameters, including water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), conductivity, turbidity (tur), permanganate index (CODMn), total nitrogen, total phosphorus, ammonium (NH4-N), nitrite, nitrate (NO3-N), calcium, magnesium, chloride, and sulfate, were measured to calculate the WQI. The average WQI value during our study period was 59.33; consequently, the water quality was considered as generally "moderate". Significant differences in WQI values were detected among the 6 river systems, with better water quality in the Tiaoxi and Nanhe systems. The water quality presented distinct seasonal variation, with the highest WQI values in autumn, followed by spring and summer, and the lowest values in winter. The minimum WQI (WQImin), which was developed based on a stepwise linear regression analysis, consisted of five parameters: NH4-N, CODMn, NO3-N, DO, and tur. The model exhibited excellent performance in representing the water quality in Lake Taihu Basin, especially when weights were fully considered. Our results are beneficial for water quality management and could be used for rapid and low-cost water quality evaluation in Lake Taihu Basin. Additionally, we suggest that weights of environmental parameters should be fully considered in water quality assessments when using the WQImin method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluating Effects of Land-use Change on Stream Hydrology and Water Quality in the Reedy River Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santikari, V. P.; Murdoch, L. C.; Schlautman, M. A.

    2009-05-01

    Conversion of land cover from forested to urban is a major cause of nonpoint source pollution of the surface waters. During active land conversion/development, suspended sediment eroded from exposed soils often is the primary source of surface water degradation. Despite the use of Best Management Practices (BMPs), the overall protective goals of erosion prevention and sediment control regulations are not always achieved. The objective of this study is to understand and predict the impact of construction activities on stream hydrology and water quality and to assess the overall, collective effectiveness of BMPs that were implemented. Hydrologic, sediment, and nutrient data were collected from several streams that are tributaries of the Reedy River, South Carolina. These streams drain catchments (~1 km2) with varying degrees of active disturbance due to housing construction. Some were highly disturbed, others moderately disturbed, while others served as relatively undisturbed references. Stationary and handheld instruments that use Doppler technology were employed to measure the flowrate in these streams. Upon comparing measurements from these two types of instruments, it has been observed that the stationary instrument consistently over-estimated flowrates because it sampled only a small, faster moving portion of the stream. Therefore, one empirical and several physically based procedures (conveyance-slope method, and rectangular channel approximation method) were developed to correct the time series of flow made with the stationary instrument. Sediment and nutrient concentrations in the outflows from the disturbed catchments are compared with those of the undisturbed catchments to quantify the extent of disturbance. Peak flows from disturbed catchments were up to two orders of magnitude greater, and sediment yields were up to three orders of magnitude greater than those from the reference catchments. Several metal concentrations (e.g. Fe, Mn, Al, Mg, and K) follow

  2. [Environmental evaluation near a fuel vendor within Parque Nacional Morrocoy, Venezuela. II: Water quality, sediments and biota].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rada, M; Losada, F

    2000-12-01

    This paper is the second part of a base line study carried out in the coastal region near a marine service station located in Morrocoy National Park, Venezuela. Results from a physical and chemical characterization of the water and sediments of four sites located around the service station are presented. The physical and chemical factors measured in water included: temperature, salinity, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, saturation percentage of dissolved oxygen, pH, total suspended solids, transparency, oil and grease, total residual petroleum hydrocarbon, vanadium and lead, total coliform bacteria, and the presence of coliform bacteria. The factors measured in sediments include: granulometry, organic material, total carbonates, vanadium, lead, oil and grease, and total hydrocarbons. In addition, the amount of vanadium and lead in sample tissue from three species which are abundant and widely distributed in each site was measured in order to evaluate the potential of these species as bio-indicators. The water in the area where this study was conducted is shallow, warm, and thermally homogeneous, with high salinity and normal pH and dissolved oxygen, and supersaturated with oxygen in certain hours in sites adjacent to abundant underwater vegetation. The water is moderately turbid with a tendency towards less dissolved oxygen with increased depth. The estimated values of NMP/100 ml of the coliform fecal organisms is within legal limits even though the total number of water coliforms measured in Site 2 was ten times higher than in Site 1. This increase is associated with the proximity of Site 2 to an outflow of pre-treated sewage. The values of TRPH in the water collected from each site were low and very close to the detection limit (0.8/ml). Vanadium was not found, while lead was detected in 11 of the 12 samples. Compared to the values measured for Site 1, which was the local reference, only one sample had a concentration of three times the maximum baseline

  3. Saline waters and soil quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Dazzi

    Full Text Available The processes of secondary salinization due to anthropic actions are considered one of the most important environmental emergencies owing to their level of dangerousness. The soils of the dry areas of the Mediterranean basin are particularly prone to these processes. In such environments, it is imperative to resort to irrigation that allow for the reduction of risks due to soil moisture deficit and for the stabilization of yields. Frequently, saline waters are used that cause a lowering of the soil quality. If on one hand the presence of salts can benefit the soils mainly improving soil structure, on the other high levels of salts produce negative effects on soils and crops.When sodium prevails problems of soil quality can rise such as structure degradation, low hydraulic conductivity, soil sealing. The processes of secondary soil salinization due to the use of saline waters for irrigation are particularly evident in our Country among others. In Italy, saline soils are mainly distributed in long strips of the coastal belt of the Tyrrhenian sea and Adriatic sea, in the coastal belt of Apulia, Basilicata and Sardinia and in wide areas of Sicily. It is not possible to suggest general actions to combat soil salinization because we must take into consideration that in the relationship soil-water two different quality concept interact: one linked to the soils, the other to the waters.

  4. Saline waters and soil quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Dazzi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The processes of secondary salinization due to anthropic actions are considered one of the most important environmental emergencies owing to their level of dangerousness. The soils of the dry areas of the Mediterranean basin are particularly prone to these processes. In such environments, it is imperative to resort to irrigation that allow for the reduction of risks due to soil moisture deficit and for the stabilization of yields. Frequently, saline waters are used that cause a lowering of the soil quality. If on one hand the presence of salts can benefit the soils mainly improving soil structure, on the other high levels of salts produce negative effects on soils and crops.When sodium prevails problems of soil quality can rise such as structure degradation, low hydraulic conductivity, soil sealing. The processes of secondary soil salinization due to the use of saline waters for irrigation are particularly evident in our Country among others. In Italy, saline soils are mainly distributed in long strips of the coastal belt of the Tyrrhenian sea and Adriatic sea, in the coastal belt of Apulia, Basilicata and Sardinia and in wide areas of Sicily. It is not possible to suggest general actions to combat soil salinization because we must take into consideration that in the relationship soil-water two different quality concept interact: one linked to the soils, the other to the waters.

  5. Computeer-based decision support tools for evaluation of actions affecting flow and water quality in the San Joaquin Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, N.W.T.

    1993-01-01

    This document is a preliminary effort to draw together some of the important simulation models that are available to Reclamation or that have been developed by Reclamation since 1987. This document has also attempted to lay out a framework by which these models might be used both for the purposes for which they were originally intended and to support the analysis of other issues that relate to the hydrology and to salt and water quality management within the San Joaquin Valley. To be successful as components of a larger Decision Support System the models should to be linked together using custom designed interfaces that permit data sharing between models and that are easy to use. Several initiatives are currently underway within Reclamation to develop GIS - based and graphics - based decision support systems to improve the general level of understanding of the models currently in use, to standardize the methodology used in making planning and operations studies and to permit improved data analysis, interpretation and display. The decision support systems should allow greater participation in the planning process, allow the analysis of innovative actions that are currently difficult to study with present models and should lead to better integrated and more comprehensive plans and policy decisions in future years.

  6. Evaluation of surface water and sediment quality in Chicalim Bay, Nerul Creek, and Chapora Bay from Goa coast, India - a statistical approach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shenai-Tirodkar, P.S.; Gauns, M.U.; Ansari, Z.A.

        Author Version: Environ. Monit. Assess., vol.188; 2016; no.472 doi:10.1007/s10661-016-5445-6 Evaluation of surface water and sediment quality in Chicalim Bay, Nerul Creek and Chapora Bay from Goa Coast, India—a statistical approach P. S. Shenai... environmental 3    factors, it is difficult to draw a clear conclusion directly. However, statistical analysis can extract the underlying information and explain the structure of data in detail. In recent years, multivariate statistical techniques have been...

  7. River water quality modelling: II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shanahan, P.; Henze, Mogens; Koncsos, L.

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. EPA QUAL2E model is currently the standard for river water quality modelling. While QUAL2E is adequate for the regulatory situation for which it was developed (the U.S. wasteload allocation process), there is a need for a more comprehensive framework for research and teaching. Moreover......, and to achieve robust model calibration. Mass balance problems arise from failure to account for mass in the sediment as well as in the water column and due to the fundamental imprecision of BOD as a state variable. (C) 1998 IAWQ Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  8. 9 CFR 3.106 - Water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water quality. 3.106 Section 3.106... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.106 Water quality. (a) General. The primary enclosure... additives (e.g. chlorine and copper) that are added to the water to maintain water quality standards...

  9. Observations on a Montana water quality proposal.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.; Puder, M. G.

    2006-01-12

    In May 2005, a group of petitioners led by the Northern Plains Resource Council (NPRC) submitted a petition to revise water quality requirements to the Montana Board of Environmental Review (BER). Under Montana law, the BER had to consider the petition and either reject it or propose it as a new regulation. In September 2005, the BER announced proposed changes to the Montana water quality regulations. The proposal, which included almost the exact language found in the petition, was directed toward discharges of water from coal bed natural gas (CBNG) production. The key elements of the proposal included: (1) No discharges of CBNG water are allowed to Montana surface waters unless operators can demonstrate that injection to aquifers with the potential for later recovery of the water is not feasible. (2) When operators can demonstrate the injection is not feasible, the CBNG water to be discharged must meet very strict technology-based limits for multiple parameters. (3) The Montana water quality standards for the sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and electrical conductivity (EC) would be evaluated using the 7Q10 flow (lowest 7-consecutive-day flow in a 10-year period) rather than a monthly flow that is currently used. (4) SAR and EC would be reclassified as ''harmful parameters'', thereby greatly restricting the ability for CBNG discharges to be allowed under Montana's nondegradation regulations. The proposed regulations, if adopted in their current form, are likely to substantially reduce the amount of CBNG production in Montana. The impact also extends to Wyoming CBNG production through much greater restrictions on water quality that must be met at the interstate border.

  10. Mycoflora and Water Quality index Assessment of Water Sources in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mycoflora and Water quality index assessment studies of hand-dug wells and a river in Oproama Community, Niger Delta were studied. Water samples was taken from the ten sampling stations (7 wells and 3 river points) and water quality index using water quality index calculator given by National Sanitation Foundation ...

  11. Climate change influence on drinking water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Melinda Haydee; Ristoiu, Dumitru; Voica, Cezara; Moldovan, Zaharie

    2013-11-01

    Although it are quite well known the possible effects of climate changes on surface waters availability and their hydrological risks, their consequences on drinking water quality is not well defined yet. Disinfection agents (as Cl2, O3, etc.) or multiple combinations of them for water treatment and disinfection purposes are applied by water treatment plants at worldwide level. Unfortunately, besides the benefits of these processes were also highlighted some undesirable effects such as formation of several disinfection by-products (DBPs) after reaction of disinfection agent with natural organic matter (NOM) from water body. DBPs formation in drinking water, suspected to posses adverse health effects to humans are strongly regulated in our days. Thus, throughout this study kinetics experiments both the main physicochemical factors that influencing the quality of drinking waters were evaluated as well how they act through possible warming or the consequences of extreme events. Increasing water temperatures with 1 - 5 °C above its normal value has showed that NOMs are presented in higher amount which led to the need for greater amount of disinfectant agent (5 - 15 %). Increasing the amount of disinfecting agent resulted in the formation of DBPs in significantly higher concentrations (between 5 - 30 %).

  12. THE WATER QUALITY FROM SAINT ANA LAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.VIGH

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Inside the Ciomad Massive appears a unique lake in Romania, with an exclusive precipitations alimentation regime. The lake’s origin and the morphometric elements, together with the touristic activity, determine the water’s quality and characteristics. Water status evaluation was realized using random samples taken between the years 2005 and 2010. Qualitative parameters indicate the existence of a clear water lake, belonging to ultra-oligotrophic faze. This is because the crater is covered with forest and the surface erosion is very poor. Also the aquatic vegetation is rare. From all analyzed indicators, only ammonium and total mineral nitrogen have higher values during last years. In the future, the lake needs a higher protection against water quality degradation.

  13. EVALUATION OF MACHINE TOOL QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kuric

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Paper deals with aspects of quality and accuracy of machine tools. As the accuracy of machine tools has key factor for product quality, it is important to know the methods for evaluation of quality and accuracy of machine tools. Several aspects of diagnostics of machine tools are described, such as aspects of reliability.

  14. 78 FR 20252 - Water Quality Standards; Withdrawal of Certain Federal Water Quality Criteria Applicable to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 131 RIN 2040-AF33 Water Quality Standards; Withdrawal of Certain Federal Water Quality... certain human health and aquatic life water quality criteria applicable to waters of New Jersey, Puerto... establish numeric water quality criteria for 12 states and two Territories, including New Jersey, Puerto...

  15. R2 Water Quality Portal Monitoring Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Water Quality Data Portal (WQP) provides an easy way to access data stored in various large water quality databases. The WQP provides various input parameters on...

  16. Water Quality Trading Toolkit for Permit Writers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Quality Trading Toolkit for Permit Writers is EPA’s first “how-to” manual on designing and implementing water quality trading programs. It helps NPDES permitting authorities incorporate trading provisions into permits.

  17. National Water Quality Standards Database (NWQSD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Water Quality Standards Database (WQSDB) provides access to EPA and state water quality standards (WQS) information in text, tables, and maps. This data...

  18. Assessing water quality in Lake Naivasha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ndungu, J.N.

    2014-01-01

    Water quality in aquatic systems is important because it maintains the ecological processes that support biodiversity. However, declining water quality due to environmental perturbations threatens the stability of the biotic integrity and therefore hinders the ecosystem services and functions of

  19. R2 Water Quality Portal Monitoring Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Quality Data Portal (WQP) provides an easy way to access data stored in various large water quality databases. The WQP provides various input parameters on the form including location, site, sampling, and date parameters to filter and customize the returned results. The The Water Quality Portal (WQP) is a cooperative service sponsored by the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Water Quality Monitoring Council (NWQMC) that integrates publicly available water quality data from the USGS National Water Information System (NWIS) the EPA STOrage and RETrieval (STORET) Data Warehouse, and the USDA ARS Sustaining The Earth??s Watersheds - Agricultural Research Database System (STEWARDS).

  20. Water Quality Models with Different Functions of Exotech Radiometer Bands

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, K. R.; Krishnan, R.; Chakraborty, A. K.; Deekshatulu, B. L.

    1981-01-01

    Surveillance of water quality by remote sensing technique can be pursued with advantage. An attempt has been made in this paper to obtain regional models of water quality of inland tanks and lakes. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis between water quality parameters and several functions of Exotech radiometer band reflectance values, namely, bands alone, bands and their ratios, and, bands and their products are evaluated with respect to performance of the regression parameters. It is...

  1. Fish embryo tests with Danio rerio as a tool to evaluate surface water and sediment quality in rivers influenced by wastewater treatment plants using different treatment technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thellmann, Paul; Köhler, Heinz-R; Rößler, Annette; Scheurer, Marco; Schwarz, Simon; Vogel, Hans-Joachim; Triebskorn, Rita

    2015-11-01

    In order to evaluate surface water and the sediment quality of rivers connected to wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with different treatment technologies, fish embryo tests (FET) with Danio rerio were conducted using native water and sediment samples collected upstream and downstream of four WWTPs in Southern Germany. Two of these WWTPs are connected to the Schussen River, a tributary of Lake Constance, and use a sand filter with final water purification by flocculation. The two others are located on the rivers Schmiecha and Eyach in the area of the Swabian Alb and were equipped with a powdered activated carbon stage 20 years ago, which was originally aimed at reducing the release of stains from the textile industry. Several endpoints of embryo toxicity including mortality, malformations, reduced hatching rate, and heart rate were investigated at defined time points of embryonic development. Higher embryotoxic potentials were found in water and sediments collected downstream of the WWTPs equipped with sand filtration than in the sample obtained downstream of both WWTPs upgraded with a powdered activated carbon stage.

  2. Optimization of water treatment methods for the purification of peat extraction derived runoff: Evaluation of chemical treatment response to variations in incoming water quality using a 2k factorial test design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiderscheidt, Elisangela; Ronkanen, Anna-Kaisa; Klöve, Björn

    2013-04-01

    The sustainable use of peatland areas requires measures to minimize and when possible eradicate the identified environmental impacts. The drainage of peatlands and other peat extraction, agriculture and forestry activities are known to increase the leaching of pollutant substances resulting in the eutrophication and siltation of receiving water bodies, causing water quality deterioration. Due to the geochemistry characteristics of peat soils the quality of peatland derived runoff water is known to oscillate with location and also with variations in runoff and peak discharge occurrences. Affordable, simple and reliable purification methods that can purify waters rich in particulates, nutrients and dissolved organic carbon while capable of coping with incoming water quality variations are therefore required. Chemical treatment is considered one of the best available technologies for the purification of peat extraction runoff water in Finland; however, until recently little research had been applied on the development of this treatment method for the purification of non-point source pollution. Chemical purification, using metal salts as coagulant agents, is currently applied in several treatment facilities in Finnish peat extraction sites. Nevertheless, variations in runoff water quality and the lack of development of field process parameters has led to the application of high chemical dosages, significant and undesirable fluctuations in purification efficiency and high metal concentration in the discharging waters. This work aims to develop and optimize the chemical purification method by using high level scientific methods to evaluate the response of the purification process to variations in water quality which are typical of peatland derived runoff. The evaluation of how the purification process responds to these variations is a critical step which will enable the development of preventive measures and optimization of relevant process parameters and thus reduce the

  3. Microbiological quality of drinking water from dispensers in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasi Daniela; Amiranda Ciro; Arnese Antonio; Cavallotti Ivan; Liguori Giorgio; Angelillo Italo F

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Water coolers are popular in office buildings and commercial stores and the quality of this source of drinking water has the potential to cause waterborne outbreaks, especially in sensitive and immunocompromised subjects. The aim of this study was to determine the quality of water plumbed in coolers from commercial stores in comparison with tap water in Italy. Methods For each sample, microbial parameters and chemical indicators of contamination were evaluated and informat...

  4. Water quality assessment of bioenergy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocio Diaz-Chavez; Goran Berndes; Dan Neary; Andre Elia Neto; Mamadou Fall

    2011-01-01

    Water quality is a measurement of the biological, chemical, and physical characteristics of water against certain standards set to ensure ecological and/or human health. Biomass production and conversion to fuels and electricity can impact water quality in lakes, rivers, and aquifers with consequences for aquatic ecosystem health and also human water uses. Depending on...

  5. Impact of upstream industrial effluents on irrigation water quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge of irrigation water quality is critical to predicting, managing and reducing salt affect on soils. The study assessed the effect of industrial effluents on irrigation water quality, soils and plant tissues in Ibadan, Southwest Nigeria. The degree of pollution was evaluated using Sodium adsorption ratio, pH, cations – Cl ...

  6. Evaluate Effect of Water Stress and Different Amounts of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Seed Quality of Black Cumin (Nigella Sativa L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Heidari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of water stress and different levels of nitrogen fertilizer on grian yield and accumulation macronutrients included: nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium and micronutrient included: iron, zinc, manganese and copper, oil, protein and thymoquinone contents in seed of black cumin, a field experiment was conducted as split plot design with three replications at Agricultural Research Station, Zahak, Zabol during growing season of 2010-2011. Water stress treatments included: W1= control, W2= no irrigation at stem elongation stage to flowering, W3= irrigation at flowering stage until the beginning of grain filling and W4= no irrigation at flowering and grain filling as the main plots and four levels of nitrogen application fertilizer, including N1= control or without any fertilizer consumption, N2= 30 kg N/ha, N3= 60 kg N/ha and N4= 90 kg N/ha in sub plot. Results showed that water stress had significant effect on the grain yield and accumulation of macro and micronutrient in the seed of Black Cumin. Except for and iron, the highest amounts of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, manganese, copper and zinc and the lowest amount of grain yield were obtained at W4 treatment and manganese at W3 treatment. In this experiment the interaction effect between stress and nitrogen fertilizer except grain yield and potassium had significant impact on others elements. The results indicated that water stress at flowering and grain filling (W4 stages, the maximum amount of micro and macronutrients in seed was obtained at N1 and N2 nitrogen treatment. Also, water stress and nitrogen treatments increased the percentage of protein, oil and thymoquinone contents of seed, but during the onset of water stress and the use of nitrogen fertilizer, the highest percentage of protein in and thymoquinone were obtained in W4N4.

  7. Seasonal variations of ground water quality and its agglomerates by water quality index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Water is a unique natural resource among all sources available on earth. It plays an important role in economic development and the general well-being of the country. This study aimed at using the application of water quality index in evaluating the ground water quality innorth-east area of Jaipur in pre and post monsoon for public usage. Total eleven physico–chemical characteristics; total dissolved solids, total hardness,chloride, nitrate, electrical conductance, sodium, fluorideand potassium, pH, turbidity, temperature were analyzed and observed values were compared with standard values recommended by Indian standard and World Health Organization. Most of parameter show higher value than permissible limit in pre and post monsoon. Water quality index study showed that drinking water in Amer (221.58,277.70, Lalawas (362.74,396.67, Jaisinghpura area (286.00,273.78 were found to be highly contaminated due to high value of total dissolved solids, electrical conductance, total hardness, chloride, nitrate and sodium.Saipura (122.52, 131.00, Naila (120.25, 239.86, Galta (160.9, 204.1 were found to be moderately contaminated for both monsoons. People dependent on this water may prone to health hazard. Therefore some effective measures are urgently required to enhance the quality of water in these areas.

  8. Fuzzy Logic Water Quality Index and Importance of Water Quality Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman Bai. V

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of status of water quality of a river or any other water sources is highly indeterminate. It is necessary to have a competent model to predict the status of water quality and to advice for type of water treatment for meeting different demands. One such model (UNIQ2007 is developed as an application software in water quality engineering. The unit operates in a fuzzy logic mode including a fuzzification engine receiving a plurality of input variables on its input and being adapted to compute membership function parameters. A processor engine connected downstream of the fuzzification unit will produce fuzzy set, based on fuzzy variable viz. DO, BOD, COD, AN, SS and pH. It has a defuzzification unit operative to translate the inference results into a discrete crisp value of WQI. The UNIQ2007 contains a first memory device connected to the fuzzification unit and containing the set of membership functions, a secondary memory device connected to the defuzzification unit and containing the set of crisp value which appear in the THEN part of the fuzzy rules and an additional memory device connected to the defuzzification unit. More advantageously, UINQ2007 is constructed with control elements having dynamic fuzzy logic properties wherein target non-linearity can be input to result in a perfect evaluation of water quality. The development of the fuzzy model with one river system is explained in this paper. Further the model has been evaluated with the data from few rivers in Malaysia, India and Thailand. This water quality assessor probe can provide better quality index or identify the status of river with 90% perfection. Presently, WQI in most of the countries is referring to physic-chemical parameters only due to great efforts needed to quantify the biological parameters. This study ensures a better method to include pathogens into WQI due to superior capabilities of fuzzy logic in dealing with non-linear, complex and uncertain systems.

  9. Water quality (chapter 11). Book chapter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCutcheon, S.C.; Martin, J.L.; Barnwell, T.O.

    1993-01-01

    Water quality is important not only because of its linkage to the availability of water for various uses and its impact on public health, but also because water quality has an intrinsic value. The quality of life is often judged on the availability of pristine water. Contamination of water deprives present and future generations of a birthright. There is also the need to preserve the aquatic habitats of fish, birds, and mammals. To assist the practicing hydrologist in planning for and adapting to limitations on the use of water and to aid in the protection of valuable water resources, the chapter covers the basic concepts of water chemistry, the physical properties of water, and the constituents or impurities of water. To aid in the interpretation of measurements, water quality standards and criteria for various uses are presented.

  10. Phosphorus and Water Quality Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, H. K.

    2008-12-01

    Paradoxically, phosphorus (P) is one of the major nutrients for higher agricultural production, as well as it causes eutrophication/algal blooms in aquatic and semi-aquatic systems. Phosphorus loadings from agricultural/urban runoffs into lakes and rivers are becoming a global concern for the protection of water quality. Artificial wetlands are considered as a low cost alternative for treating wastewater including removal of P from sources such as agricultural and urban runoffs. However, the selection of the construction site may well determine the effectiveness of these wetlands. Studies show that P transformations in sediments/ soils are crucial for P sequestration in a wetland rather than the amounts of native P. Using 31Phosphorus Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (31P NMR), previously unreported an active organic P form, phosphoarginine, was identified, and the study indicates that abandonment of P impacted sites may not solve the P loading problem to the water bodies as the organic P compounds would not be as stable as they were thought, thus, can play a detrimental role in eutrophication of water bodies, after all.

  11. Characterization and evaluation of hydrological processes responsible for spatiotemporal variation of surface water quality at Narmada estuarine region in Gujarat, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Nirmal; Kumar, Pankaj; Basil, George; Kumar, Rita N.; Kharrazi, Ali; Avtar, Ram

    2015-09-01

    This study is an effort to trace the spatiotemporal variation in water at Narmada estuarine region through solute concentration. A total of 72 water samples were collected and analyzed from three sampling points along with in situ measurement of tidal height at monthly basis for 2 years. Result shows that spatiotemporal variation of water quality occurs because of the following main mechanisms, i.e., carbonate weathering, dilution and seawater-freshwater mixing. Firstly, points situated toward inland showing the simple dilution effect on receiving high amount of monsoonal precipitation. Secondly, tidal fluctuation pattern has a strong influence on the water quality taken from the point located in near proximity to the coast. Finally, it can be concluded that water quality shows a different response, in accordance with the different tidal phase and the distance from the sea.

  12. Methods for computing water-quality loads at sites in the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Casey J.; Murphy, Jennifer C.; Crawford, Charles G.; Deacon, Jeffrey R.

    2017-10-24

    The U.S. Geological Survey publishes information on concentrations and loads of water-quality constituents at 111 sites across the United States as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Network (NWQN). This report details historical and updated methods for computing water-quality loads at NWQN sites. The primary updates to historical load estimation methods include (1) an adaptation to methods for computing loads to the Gulf of Mexico; (2) the inclusion of loads computed using the Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge, and Season (WRTDS) method; and (3) the inclusion of loads computed using continuous water-quality data. Loads computed using WRTDS and continuous water-quality data are provided along with those computed using historical methods. Various aspects of method updates are evaluated in this report to help users of water-quality loading data determine which estimation methods best suit their particular application.

  13. Water Quality Index Assessment of Pogradec Water- Supply, in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    , P. Icka; , R. Damo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper is applied for the first time in Albania Water Quality Index (WQI) of the Canadian Council of Ministries of the Environment (CCME) for assessment of water quality of water supply network on Pogradec city. CCME WQI, a technique of rating water quality, is an effective tool to assess spatial and temporal changes on the quality of any water body. Calculations of the index are based on a combination of three factors: scope - the number of variables whose objectives are not met; freq...

  14. Water Quality of Emet Stream Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem TOKATLI

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Emet Stream Basin is one of Turkey's most important river systems and one of the two most important branches of Uluabat Lake (Ramsar Area. The system is under an intensive pressure of agricultural and industrial activities and domestic wastes. In this study, water samples were collected seasonally from eight stations (one of them is on the Kınık Stream, one of them is on the Dursunbey Stream and six of them on the Emet Stream on the Emet Stream Basin. Some lymnological parameters (nitrate nitrogen, nitrite nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen, sulfate, orthophosphate, and BOD5 were determined to evaluate the water quality. The data obtained were evaluated statistically and compared with the limit values reported by various national and international organizations. It was determined that, Emet Stream Basin is exposed to a significant organic pollution. 

  15. Potential impacts of changing supply-water quality on drinking water distribution: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Zhang, Ya; Knibbe, Willem-Jan; Feng, Cuijie; Liu, Wentso; Medema, Gertjan; van der Meer, Walter

    2017-06-01

    Driven by the development of water purification technologies and water quality regulations, the use of better source water and/or upgraded water treatment processes to improve drinking water quality have become common practices worldwide. However, even though these elements lead to improved water quality, the water quality may be impacted during its distribution through piped networks due to the processes such as pipe material release, biofilm formation and detachment, accumulation and resuspension of loose deposits. Irregular changes in supply-water quality may cause physiochemical and microbiological de-stabilization of pipe material, biofilms and loose deposits in the distribution system that have been established over decades and may harbor components that cause health or esthetical issues (brown water). Even though it is clearly relevant to customers' health (e.g., recent Flint water crisis), until now, switching of supply-water quality is done without any systematic evaluation. This article reviews the contaminants that develop in the water distribution system and their characteristics, as well as the possible transition effects during the switching of treated water quality by destabilization and the release of pipe material and contaminants into the water and the subsequent risks. At the end of this article, a framework is proposed for the evaluation of potential transition effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Using Scientific Inquiry to Teach Students about Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puche, Helena; Holt, Jame

    2012-01-01

    This semi-guided inquiry activity explores the macroinvertebrate fauna in water sources affected by different levels of pollution. Students develop their ability to identify macroinvertebrates, compare aquatic fauna from different sources of water samples, evaluate water quality using an index, document and analyze data, raise questions and…

  17. Hydrologic and Water Quality System (HAWQS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Hydrologic and Water Quality System (HAWQS) is a web-based interactive water quantity and quality modeling system that employs as its core modeling engine the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), an internationally-recognized public domain model. HAWQS provides users with i...

  18. Surface water quality assessment using factor analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-01-16

    Jan 16, 2006 ... surface water by rain and stormwater. On the other hand, run- off water increases pollutant concentrations, thereby decreases quality. To assess the water quality of the Buyuk Menderes. River under high-flow conditions, factor analysis was applied to data sets obtained from 21 monitoring stations between ...

  19. Assessment of groundwater quality and evaluation of scaling and corrosiveness potential of drinking water samples in villages of Chabahr city, Sistan and Baluchistan province in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasnia, Abbas; Alimohammadi, Mahmood; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Yousefi, Mahmood; Mohammadi, Ali Akbar; Pasalari, Hassan; Mirzabeigi, Majid

    2018-02-01

    The aims of this study were to assess and analysis of drinking water quality of Chabahar villages in Sistan and Baluchistan province by water quality index (WQI) and to investigate the water stability in subjected area. The results illustrated that the average values of LSI, RSI, PSI, LS, and AI was 0.5 (±0.34), 6.76 (±0.6), 6.50 (±0.99), 2.71 (±1.59), and 12.63 (±0.34), respectively. The calculation of WQI for groundwater samples indicated that 25% of the samples could be considered as excellent water, 50% of the samples were classified as good water category and 25% of the samples showed poor water category.

  20. Evaluation of the impact of the plastic BioSand filter on health and drinking water quality in rural Tamale, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauber, Christine E; Kominek, Byron; Liang, Kaida R; Osman, Mumuni K; Sobsey, Mark D

    2012-10-24

    A randomized controlled trial of the plastic BioSand filter (BSF) was performed in rural communities in Tamale (Ghana) to assess reductions in diarrheal disease and improvements in household drinking water quality. Few studies of household water filters have been performed in this region, where high drinking water turbidity can be a challenge for other household water treatment technologies. During the study, the longitudinal prevalence ratio for diarrhea comparing households that received the plastic BSF to households that did not receive it was 0.41 (95% confidence interval: 0.18, 0.92), suggesting an overall diarrheal disease reduction of 59% [corrected]. The plastic BSF achieved a geometric mean reduction of 97% and 67% for E. coli and turbidity, respectively. These results suggest the plastic BSF significantly improved drinking water quality and reduced diarrheal disease during the short trial in rural Tamale, Ghana. The results are similar to other trials of household drinking water treatment technologies.

  1. Identification and assessment of potential water quality impact factors for drinking-water reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qing; Deng, Jinsong; Wang, Ke; Lin, Yi; Li, Jun; Gan, Muye; Ma, Ligang; Hong, Yang

    2014-06-10

    Various reservoirs have been serving as the most important drinking water sources in Zhejiang Province, China, due to the uneven distribution of precipitation and severe river pollution. Unfortunately, rapid urbanization and industrialization have been continuously challenging the water quality of the drinking-water reservoirs. The identification and assessment of potential impacts is indispensable in water resource management and protection. This study investigates the drinking water reservoirs in Zhejiang Province to better understand the potential impact on water quality. Altogether seventy-three typical drinking reservoirs in Zhejiang Province encompassing various water storage levels were selected and evaluated. Using fifty-two reservoirs as training samples, the classification and regression tree (CART) method and sixteen comprehensive variables, including six sub-sets (land use, population, socio-economy, geographical features, inherent characteristics, and climate), were adopted to establish a decision-making model for identifying and assessing their potential impacts on drinking-water quality. The water quality class of the remaining twenty-one reservoirs was then predicted and tested based on the decision-making model, resulting in a water quality class attribution accuracy of 81.0%. Based on the decision rules and quantitative importance of the independent variables, industrial emissions was identified as the most important factor influencing the water quality of reservoirs; land use and human habitation also had a substantial impact on water quality. The results of this study provide insights into the factors impacting the water quality of reservoirs as well as basic information for protecting reservoir water resources.

  2. The water-quality monitoring program for the Baltimore reservoir system, 1981-2007—Description, review and evaluation, and framework integration for enhanced monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koterba, Michael T.; Waldron, Marcus C.; Kraus, Tamara E.C.

    2011-01-01

    The City of Baltimore, Maryland, and parts of five surrounding counties obtain their water from Loch Raven and Liberty Reservoirs. A third reservoir, Prettyboy, is used to resupply Loch Raven Reservoir. Management of the watershed conditions for each reservoir is a shared responsibility by agreement among City, County, and State jurisdictions. The most recent (2005) Baltimore Reservoir Watershed Management Agreement (RWMA) called for continued and improved water-quality monitoring in the reservoirs and selected watershed tributaries. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a retrospective review of the effectiveness of monitoring data obtained and analyzed by the RWMA jurisdictions from 1981 through 2007 to help identify possible improvements in the monitoring program to address RWMA water-quality concerns. Long-term water-quality concerns include eutrophication and sedimentation in the reservoirs, and elevated concentrations of (a) nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) being transported from the major tributaries to the reservoirs, (b) iron and manganese released from reservoir bed sediments during periods of deep-water anoxia, (c) mercury in higher trophic order game fish in the reservoirs, and (d) bacteria in selected reservoir watershed tributaries. Emerging concerns include elevated concentrations of sodium, chloride, and disinfection by-products (DBPs) in the drinking water from both supply reservoirs. Climate change and variability also could be emerging concerns, affecting seasonal patterns, annual trends, and drought occurrence, which historically have led to declines in reservoir water quality. Monitoring data increasingly have been used to support the development of water-quality models. The most recent (2006) modeling helped establish an annual sediment Total Maximum Daily Load to Loch Raven Reservoir, and instantaneous and 30-day moving average water-quality endpoints for chlorophyll-a (chl-a) and dissolved oxygen (DO) in Loch Raven and Prettyboy

  3. Michigan lakes: An assessment of water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnerick, R.J.

    2004-01-01

    Michigan has more than 11,000 inland lakes, that provide countless recreational opportunities and are an important resource that makes tourism and recreation a $15-billion-dollar per-year industry in the State (Stynes, 2002). Knowledge of the water-quality characteristics of inland lakes is essential for the current and future management of these resources.Historically the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ) jointly have monitored water quality in Michigan's lakes and rivers. During the 1990's, however, funding for surface-water-quality monitoring was reduced greatly. In 1998, the citizens of Michigan passed the Clean Michigan Initiative to clean up, protect, and enhance Michigan's environmental infrastructure. Because of expanding water-quality-data needs, the MDEQ and the USGS jointly redesigned and implemented the Lake Water-Quality Assessment (LWQA) Monitoring Program (Michigan Department of Environmental Quality, 1997).

  4. Water quality index for assessment of water quality of river ravi at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... as a tool in comparing the water quality of different sources. It gives the public a general idea of the possible problems with water in a particular region. The indices are among the most effective ways to communicate the information on water quality trends to the public or to the policy makers and water quality management.

  5. Ground Water Quality of Selected Wells

    OpenAIRE

    Mosher R. Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    In order to characterize ground water quality in Zaweta district / Dohuk governorate, eight wells are selected to represent their water quality. Monthly samples are collected from the wells for the period from October 2005 to April 2006. The samples are tested for conductivity, total dissolved solids, pH, total hardness, chloride, alkalinity and nitrate according to the standard methods. The results of statistical analysis showed significant difference among the wells water quality in the mea...

  6. Policy Instruments for Water Quality Protection

    OpenAIRE

    James Shortle; Horan, Richard D.

    2013-01-01

    We examine policy instruments for ambient water quality protection. One objective is to illustrate the unique and complex informational challenges that must be addressed in constructing instruments that are effective and efficient for point and nonpoint sources. A second objective is to describe developments in real-world policies. Crucial to solving contemporary water quality challenges and improving the efficiency of water quality protection are reducing nonpoint pollution and efficiently i...

  7. ORD Studies of Water Quality in Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presentation descibes results from two studies of water quality and pathogen occurrence in water and biofilm samples from two area hospitals. Includes data on the effectiveness of copper/silver ionization as a disinfectant.

  8. Polymer microcantilevers for water quality monitoring

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ojijo, Vincent O

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The microcantilever project aims to develop novel polymer based microcantilevers able to detect E.coli in water samples for use as a rapid diagnostic for on-site water quality monitoring....

  9. An Evaluation of Microbial and Chemical Contamination Sources Related to the Deterioration of Tap Water Quality in the Household Water Supply System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoonjin Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The predominant microorganisms in samples taken from shower heads in residences in the Korean city “N” were Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Sphingomonas paucimobilis, Acidovorax temperans, and Microbacterium lacticum. Legionella was not detected in this case. The volatile organic compounds (VOCs vinylacetate, NN-DMA, cis-1,2-dichloroethylene, epichlorohydrin, and styrene were measured in five types of plastic pipes: PVC, PB, PP, PE, and cPVC. The rate of multiplication of the heterotrophic plate count (HPC attached on the copper pipe in contact with hot tap water was higher than the rate for the copper pipe in contact with cold tap water. Biofilm accumulation on stainless steel pipes with added acetate (3 mg/L was 2.56 times higher than the non-supplemented condition. Therefore, the growth of HPC in the pipe system was affected by the type and availability of nutrients and depended on variables such as heating during the hot water supply.

  10. West Knox Pond water budget and water quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to analyze the water budget and water quality for West Knox Pond for the May through September period of 2002 and 2003. The...

  11. Water quality modelling of Jadro spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margeta, J; Fistanic, I

    2004-01-01

    Management of water quality in karst is a specific problem. Water generally moves very fast by infiltration processes but far more by concentrated flows through fissures and openings in karst. This enables the entire surface pollution to be transferred fast and without filtration into groundwater springs. A typical example is the Jadro spring. Changes in water quality at the spring are sudden, but short. Turbidity as a major water quality problem for the karst springs regularly exceeds allowable standards. Former practice in problem solving has been reduced to intensive water disinfection in periods of great turbidity without analyses of disinfection by-products risks for water users. The main prerequisite for water quality control and an optimization of water disinfection is the knowledge of raw water quality and nature of occurrence. The analysis of monitoring data and their functional relationship with hydrological parameters enables establishment of a stochastic model that will help obtain better information on turbidity in different periods of the year. Using the model a great number of average monthly and extreme daily values are generated. By statistical analyses of these data possibility of occurrence of high turbidity in certain months is obtained. This information can be used for designing expert system for water quality management of karst springs. Thus, the time series model becomes a valuable tool in management of drinking water quality of the Jadro spring.

  12. Infectious Disinfection: "Exploring Global Water Quality"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaya, Evans; Tippins, Deborah J.; Mueller, Michael P.; Thomson, Norman

    2009-01-01

    Learning about the water situation in other regions of the world and the devastating effects of floods on drinking water helps students study science while learning about global water quality. This article provides science activities focused on developing cultural awareness and understanding how local water resources are integrally linked to the…

  13. Water quality of the river Damanganga (Gujarat)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zingde, M.D.; Narvekar, P.V.; Sarma, R.V.; Desai, B.N.

    strong. Quality of water in the discharge zone deteriorated considerably after March (DO decreasing to about 1 mg/litre). High acid content of the effluent lowered pH of water. The discharge in the fresh water zone, presently did not affect the water...

  14. Mycoflora and Water Quality index Assessment of Water Sources in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    on this planet. We use water for various purposes and for each purpose we require water of appropriate quality. Consumption of water which has not met internationally acceptable standards could lead to an attack by water-borne such as cholera, typhoid fever and others (Udom et al., 2002). There is increasing awareness ...

  15. Hazardous water: an assessment of water quality and accessibility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Access to potable water supply remains a serious challenge to the local communities in the Likangala River catchment in southern Malawi. The quality of water resources is generally poor and the supply is inadequate. This paper discusses the results of laboratory analysis of water samples collected from selected water ...

  16. Combined multivariate statistical techniques, Water Pollution Index (WPI) and Daniel Trend Test methods to evaluate temporal and spatial variations and trends of water quality at Shanchong River in the Northwest Basin of Lake Fuxian, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quan; Wu, Xianhua; Zhao, Bin; Qin, Jie; Peng, Tingchun

    2015-01-01

    Understanding spatial and temporal variations in river water quality and quantitatively evaluating the trend of changes are important in order to study and efficiently manage water resources. In this study, an analysis of Water Pollution Index (WPI), Daniel Trend Test, Cluster Analysis and Discriminant Analysis are applied as an integrated approach to quantitatively explore the spatial and temporal variations and the latent sources of water pollution in the Shanchong River basin, Northwest Basin of Lake Fuxian, China. We group all field surveys into 2 clusters (dry season and rainy season). Moreover, 14 sampling sites have been grouped into 3 clusters for the rainy season (highly polluted, moderately polluted and less polluted sites) and 2 clusters for the dry season (highly polluted and less polluted sites) based on their similarities and the level of pollution during the two seasons. The results show that the main trend of pollution was aggravated during the transition from the dry to the rainy season. The Water Pollution Index of Total Nitrogen is the highest of all pollution parameters, whereas the Chemical Oxygen Demand (Chromium) is the lowest. Our results also show that the main sources of pollution are farming activities alongside the Shanchong River, soil erosion and fish culture at Shanchong River reservoir area and domestic sewage from scattered rural residential area. Our results suggest that strategies to prevent water pollutionat the Shanchong River basin need to focus on non-point pollution control by employing appropriate fertilizer formulas in farming, and take the measures of soil and water conservation at Shanchong reservoir area, and purifying sewage from scattered villages.

  17. Assess water scarcity integrating water quantity and quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Zeng, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Water scarcity has become widespread all over the world. Current methods for water scarcity assessment are mainly based on water quantity and seldom consider water quality. Here, we develop an approach for assessing water scarcity considering both water quantity and quality. In this approach, a new water scarcity index is used to describe the severity of water scarcity in the form of a water scarcity meter, which may help to communicate water scarcity to a wider audience. To illustrate the approach, we analyzed the historical trend of water scarcity for Beijing city in China during 1995-2009, as well as the assessment for different river basins in China. The results show that Beijing made a huge progress in mitigating water scarcity, and that from 1999 to 2009 the blue and grey water scarcity index decreased by 59% and 62%, respectively. Despite this progress, we demonstrate that Beijing is still characterized by serious water scarcity due to both water quantity and quality. The water scarcity index remained at a high value of 3.5 with a blue and grey water scarcity index of 1.2 and 2.3 in 2009 (exceeding the thresholds of 0.4 and 1, respectively). As a result of unsustainable water use and pollution, groundwater levels continue to decline, and water quality shows a continuously deteriorating trend. To curb this trend, future water policies should further decrease water withdrawal from local sources (in particular groundwater) within Beijing, and should limit the grey water footprint below the total amount of water resources.

  18. Parents' perceptions of water safety and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, Lori; Bicking, Cara; Sekhar, Deepa

    2012-02-01

    Every day parents make choices about the source of water their families consume. There are many contributing factors which could affect decisions about water consumption including taste, smell, color, safety, cost, and convenience. However, few studies have investigated what parents with young children think about water quality and safety in the US and how this affects the choices they are making. This study aimed to describe the perceptions of parents with regard to water quality and safety and to compare bottled water and tap water use, as well as to examine motivation for water choices. We conducted an online questionnaire to survey parents living in Pennsylvania about water quality and safety, and preference for bottled versus tap water. Parents were recruited through child care centers, and 143 surveys were returned. The survey results showed high overall scores for perception of tap water quality and safety, and a preference for tap water over bottled water. We found that parents were concerned for the environmental impact that buying bottled water may have but were also concerned about potential contamination of tap water by natural gas drilling processes and nuclear power plants. These findings regarding parental concerns are critical to inform pediatric health care providers, water sellers, and suppliers in order that they may provide parents with the necessary information to make educated choices for their families.

  19. Progress and lessons learned from water-quality monitoring networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Donna N.; Ludtke, Amy S.

    2017-01-01

    Stream-quality monitoring networks in the United States were initiated and expanded after passage of successive federal water-pollution control laws from 1948 to 1972. The first networks addressed information gaps on the extent and severity of stream pollution and served as early warning systems for spills. From 1965 to 1972, monitoring networks expanded to evaluate compliance with stream standards, track emerging issues, and assess water-quality status and trends. After 1972, concerns arose regarding the ability of monitoring networks to determine if water quality was getting better or worse and why. As a result, monitoring networks adopted a hydrologic systems approach targeted to key water-quality issues, accounted for human and natural factors affecting water quality, innovated new statistical methods, and introduced geographic information systems and models that predict water quality at unmeasured locations. Despite improvements, national-scale monitoring networks have declined over time. Only about 1%, or 217, of more than 36,000 US Geological Survey monitoring sites sampled from 1975 to 2014 have been operated throughout the four decades since passage of the 1972 Clean Water Act. Efforts to sustain monitoring networks are important because these networks have collected information crucial to the description of water-quality trends over time and are providing information against which to evaluate future trends.

  20. Groundwater Protection Program Calendar Year 1998 Evaluation of Groundwater and Surface Water Quality Data for the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-09-01

    This report presents an evaluation of the water quality monitoring data obtained by the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) in the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime) during calendar year (CY) 1998. The Bear Creek Regime contains many confirmed and potential sources of groundwater and surface water contamination associated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Applicable provisions of DOE Order 5400.1A - General Environmental Protection Program - require evaluation of groundwater and surface water quality near the Y-12 Plant to: (1) gauge groundwater quality in areas that are, or could be, affected by plant operations, (2) determine the quality of surface water and groundwater where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) property line, and (3) identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality. The following sections of this report contain relevant background information (Section 2.0); describe the results of the respective data evaluations required under DOE Order 5400.1A (Section 3.0); summarize significant findings of each evaluation (Section 4.0); and list the technical reports and regulatory documents cited for more detailed information (Section 5.0). All of the figures (maps and trend graphs) and data tables referenced in each section are presented in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively.

  1. Evaluation of Water Quality Conditions Near Proposed Fish Production Sites Associated with the Yakima Fisheries Project, 1991-1993 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauble, Dennis D.

    1994-05-01

    In 1991, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) began studying water quality at several sites in the Yakima River Basin for the Bonneville Power Administration. These sites were being proposed as locations for fish culture facilities as part of the Yakima Fisheries Project (YFP). Surface water quality parameters near the proposed fish culture facilities are currently suitable for fish production. Water quality conditions in the mainstream Yakima River and its tributaries are generally excellent in the upper part of the watershed (i.e., near Cle Elum), but they are only fair to poor for the river downstream of Union Gap (river mile 107). Water quality of the Naches River near Oak Flats is also suitable for fish production. Groundwater supplies near the proposed fish production facilities typically have elevated concentrations of metals and dissolved gases. These conditions can be mitigated using best engineering practices such as precipitation and degasification. Additionally, mixing with surface water may improve these conditions. Depending on the location and depth of the well, groundwater temperatures may be warmer than optimum for acclimating and holding juvenile and adult fish. Water quality parameters measured in the Yakima River and tributaries sometimes exceed the range of values described as acceptable for culture of salmonids and for the protection of other aquatic life. However, constituent concentrations are within ranges that exist in many northwest fish hatcheries. Additionally, site-specific tests conducted by PNL (i.e., live box exposures and egg incubation studies) indicate that fish can be successfully reared in surface and well water near the proposed facility sites. Thus, there appear to be no constraints to artificial production for the YFP.

  2. Impact of Yangtze river water transfer on the water quality of the Lixia river watershed, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoxue; Wang, Lachun; Wu, Hao; Li, Na; Ma, Lei; Zeng, Chunfen; Zhou, Yi; Yang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    To improve water quality and reduce the negative impacts of sudden inputs of water pollution in the Lixia River watershed, China, a series of experimental water transfers from the Yangtze River to the Lixia River were conducted from 2 December 2006 to 7 January 2007. Water samples were collected every six days at 55 monitoring sites during this period. Eight water parameters (water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), chemical oxygen demand (COD), potassium permanganate index (CODMn), ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N), electrical conductivity (EC), and water transparency (WT)) were analyzed to determine changes in nutrient concentrations during water transfers. The comprehensive pollution index (Pi) and single-factor (Si) evaluation methods were applied to evaluate spatio-temporal patterns of water quality during water transfers. Water quality parameters displayed different spatial and temporal distribution patterns within the watershed. Water quality was improved significantly by the water transfers, especially for sites closer to water intake points. The degree of improvement is positively related to rates of transfer inflow and drainage outflow. The effects differed for different water quality parameters at each site and at different water transfer times. There were notable decreases in NH4+-N, DO, COD, and CODMn across the entire watershed. However, positive effects on EC and pH were not observed. It is concluded that freshwater transfers from the Yangtze River can be used as an emergency measure to flush pollutants from the Lixia River watershed. Improved understanding of the effects of water transfers on water quality can help the development and implementation of effective strategies to improve water quality within this watershed.

  3. Use of multivariate statistical techniques for the evaluation of temporal and spatial variations in water quality of the Kaduna River, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogwueleka, Toochukwu Chibueze

    2015-03-01

    Multivariate statistical techniques, such as cluster analysis (CA) and principal component analysis/factor analysis (PCA/FA), were used to investigate the temporal and spatial variations and to interpret large and complex water quality data sets collected from the Kaduna River. Kaduna River is the main tributary of Niger River in Nigeria and represents the common situation of most natural rivers including spatial patterns of pollutants. The water samples were collected monthly for 5 years (2008-2012) from eight sampling stations located along the river. In all samples, 17 parameters of water quality were determined: total dissolved solids (TDS), pH, Thard, dissolved oxygen (DO), 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), NH4-N, Cl, SO4, Ca, Mg, total coliform (TColi), turbidity, electrical conductivity (EC), HCO3 (-), NO3 (-), and temperature (T). Hierarchical CA grouped 12 months into two seasons (dry and wet seasons) and classified eight sampling stations into two groups (low- and high-pollution regions) based on seasonal differences and different levels of pollution, respectively. PCA/FA for each group formed by CA helped to identify spatiotemporal dynamics of water quality in Kaduna River. CA illustrated that water quality progressively deteriorated from headwater to downstream areas. The results of PCA/FA determined that 78.7 % of the total variance in low pollution region was explained by five factor, that is, natural and organic, mineral, microbial, organic, and nutrient, and 87.6 % of total variance in high pollution region was explained by six factors, that is, microbial, organic, mineral, natural, nutrient, and organic. Varifactors obtained from FA indicated that the parameters responsible for water quality variations are resulted from agricultural runoff, natural pollution, domestic, municipal, and industrial wastewater. Mann-Whitney U test results revealed that TDS, pH, DO, T, EC, TColi, turbidity, total hardness (THard), Mg

  4. Surface water quality assessment using factor analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-01-16

    Jan 16, 2006 ... In this study, the factor analysis technique is applied to surface water quality data sets obtained from the Buyuk Menderes. River Basin, Turkey, during two different hydrological periods. Results show that the indices which changed the quality of water in two seasons and locations differed. During low-flow ...

  5. Professional Development for Water Quality Control Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Clinton Lewis

    This study investigated the availability of professional development opportunities for water quality control personnel in the midwest. The major objective of the study was to establish a listing of educational opportunities for the professional development of water quality control personnel and to compare these with the opportunities technicians…

  6. Principles and Practices of Water Quality Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.L. Michael

    2001-01-01

    There are many activities in forest management that may affect water quality, i.e., timber harvestine, road building,mechanical and chemical site preparation, release operations, fuel reduction,wildlife opening maintenance, etc. How severely they affect water quality depends on how well the person in charge of the operation understands the activity itself, the...

  7. 40 CFR 240.204 - Water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality. 240.204 Section 240.204 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.204 Water quality. ...

  8. Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (GLWQA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement between the U.S. and Canada addresses critical environmental health issues in the Great Lakes region. It's a model of binational cooperation to protect water quality. It was first signed in 1972 and amended in 2012.

  9. Water Quality Indicators Guide [and Teacher's Handbook]: Surface Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, Charles R.; Perfetti, Patricia Bytnar

    This guide aids in finding water quality solutions to problems from sediment, animal wastes, nutrients, pesticides, and salts. The guide allows users to learn the fundamental concepts of water quality assessment by extracting basic tenets from geology, hydrology, biology, ecology, and wastewater treatment. An introduction and eight chapters are…

  10. FACTORS AFFECTING WATER QUALITY BEFORE TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Jachimowski

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The article assesses the impact of natural and anthropogenic factors on the quality of surface water grasped by Krakow's water treatment plants. We analyzed the indicators chosen in the physicochemical marked in the raw water in the years 2007–2014. The study shows that the water prior to treatment differed in the number and share of separate factors. These components, in turn, explained 63% to 71% of analyzed chemical composition of water.

  11. FACTORS AFFECTING WATER QUALITY BEFORE TREATMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Artur Jachimowski

    2017-01-01

    The article assesses the impact of natural and anthropogenic factors on the quality of surface water grasped by Krakow's water treatment plants. We analyzed the indicators chosen in the physicochemical marked in the raw water in the years 2007–2014. The study shows that the water prior to treatment differed in the number and share of separate factors. These components, in turn, explained 63% to 71% of analyzed chemical composition of water.

  12. SURFACE WATER QUALITY IN THE RIVER PRUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAELA DUMITRAN

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Water is an increasingly important and why it is important to surfacewater quality, which is given by the analysis of physical - chemical, biological andobserving the investigation of water, biota, environments investigation. Analysis ofthe Prut river in terms of biological and physical elements - chemical. Evaluationof ecological and chemical status of water was done according to order of approvalof the standard classification nr.161/2006 surface water to determine the ecologicalstatus of water bodies

  13. Water quality indicators: bacteria, coliphages, enteric viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Johnson; Ganesh, Atheesha

    2013-12-01

    Water quality through the presence of pathogenic enteric microorganisms may affect human health. Coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli and coliphages are normally used as indicators of water quality. However, the presence of above-mentioned indicators do not always suggest the presence of human enteric viruses. It is important to study human enteric viruses in water. Human enteric viruses can tolerate fluctuating environmental conditions and survive in the environment for long periods of time becoming causal agents of diarrhoeal diseases. Therefore, the potential of human pathogenic viruses as significant indicators of water quality is emerging. Human Adenoviruses and other viruses have been proposed as suitable indices for the effective identification of such organisms of human origin contaminating water systems. This article reports on the recent developments in the management of water quality specifically focusing on human enteric viruses as indicators.

  14. [Study on the optimization of monitoring indicators of drinking water quality during health supervision].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Bixiong; E, Xueli; Zhang, Lan

    2015-01-01

    To optimize non-regular drinking water quality indices (except Giardia and Cryptosporidium) of urban drinking water. Several methods including drinking water quality exceed the standard, the risk of exceeding standard, the frequency of detecting concentrations below the detection limit, water quality comprehensive index evaluation method, and attribute reduction algorithm of rough set theory were applied, redundancy factor of water quality indicators were eliminated, control factors that play a leading role in drinking water safety were found. Optimization results showed in 62 unconventional water quality monitoring indicators of urban drinking water, 42 water quality indicators could be optimized reduction by comprehensively evaluation combined with attribute reduction of rough set. Optimization of the water quality monitoring indicators and reduction of monitoring indicators and monitoring frequency could ensure the safety of drinking water quality while lowering monitoring costs and reducing monitoring pressure of the sanitation supervision departments.

  15. Evaluation of the quality of water in the ecosystem composed by “El Dollar” mine and “San Francisco” lagoon (Castrovirreyna, Huancavelica, Perú)

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza, Marco; Quintana, Milagros; Osores, José

    2008-01-01

    As an advance towards the design of a strategy for bioremediation of the mine “El Dollar”, the study of the quality of water flushing out of the mine and their impact in the Lagoon San Francisco (Huancavelica, Perú) was carried out. Analytic results obtained from field sampling in 2006 indicated that the water of the lagoon has not undergone significant impact due to heavy metal concentration. The concentration of Mg, Na and Ca in water suffered very little transformation during their journey...

  16. National Water Quality Laboratory, 1994 services catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timme, P.J.

    1994-01-01

    This Services Catalog contains information about field supplies and analytical services available from the National Water Quality Laboratory in Denver, Colo., and field supplies available from the Quality Water Service Unit in Ocala, Fla., to members of the U.S. Geological Survey's Water Resources Division. To assist personnel in the selection of analytical services, this catalog lists sample volume, applicable concentration range, detection level, precision of analysis, and preservation requirements for samples. (USGS)

  17. National Water-Quality Assessment Program: Great Salt Lake basins study unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Kidd M.

    1999-01-01

    The Great Salt Lake Basins NAWQA study will increase the scientific understanding of the factors that influence surface- and ground-water quality. This information will benefit water-resources managers that need, but often lack, the data required to implement effective water-quality management actions and evaluate long-term changes in water quality.

  18. Groundwater quality data from the National Water Quality Assessment Project, May 2012 through December 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Terri L.; DeSimone, Leslie; Bexfield, Laura M.; Lindsey, Bruce; Barlow, Jeannie R.; Kulongoski, Justin; Musgrove, MaryLynn; Kingsbury, James A.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater-quality data were collected from 748 wells as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Project of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Program from May 2012 through December 2013. The data were collected from four types of well networks: principal aquifer study networks, which assess the quality of groundwater used for public water supply; land-use study networks, which assess land-use effects on shallow groundwater quality; major aquifer study networks, which assess the quality of groundwater used for domestic supply; and enhanced trends networks, which evaluate the time scales during which groundwater quality changes. Groundwater samples were analyzed for a large number of water-quality indicators and constituents, including major ions, nutrients, trace elements, volatile organic compounds, pesticides, and radionuclides. These groundwater quality data are tabulated in a U.S. Geological Survey Data Series Report DS-997 which is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/ds997 and in this data release. Quality-control samples also were collected; data from blank and replicate quality-control samples are included in the related report (DS-997) and this data release. This compressed file contains 28 files of groundwater-quality data in ASCII text tab-delimited format and 28 corresponding metadata in xml format for wells sampled for the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Project, May 2012 through December 2013.

  19. Water quality impacts of forest fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecle Aregai; Daniel Neary

    2015-01-01

    Forest fires have been serious menace, many times resulting in tremendous economic, cultural and ecological damage to many parts of the United States. One particular area that has been significantly affected is the water quality of streams and lakes in the water thirsty southwestern United States. This is because the surface water coming off burned areas has resulted...

  20. Alternative technologies for water quality management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandla A. Tshabalala

    2002-01-01

    Cranberry growers are concerned about the quality of water discharged from cranberry bogs into receiving surface waters. These water discharges may contain traces of pesticides arising from herbicide, insecticide or fungicide applications. They may also contain excess phosphorus from fertilizer application. Some cranberry farms have holding ponds to reduce the amount...

  1. A Bayesian approach for evaluation of the effect of water quality model parameter uncertainty on TMDLs: A case study of Miyun Reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shidong; Jia, Haifeng; Xu, Changqing; Xu, Te; Melching, Charles

    2016-08-01

    Facing increasingly serious water pollution, the Chinese government is changing the environmental management strategy from solely pollutant concentration control to a Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) program, and water quality models are increasingly being applied to determine the allowable pollutant load in the TMDL. Despite the frequent use of models, few studies have focused on how parameter uncertainty in water quality models affect the allowable pollutant loads in the TMDL program, particularly for complicated and high-dimension water quality models. Uncertainty analysis for such models is limited by time-consuming simulation and high-dimensionality and nonlinearity in parameter spaces. In this study, an allowable pollutant load calculation platform was established using the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC), which is a widely applied hydrodynamic-water quality model. A Bayesian approach, i.e. the DiffeRential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (DREAM) algorithm, which is a high-efficiency, multi-chain Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method, was applied to assess the effects of parameter uncertainty on the water quality model simulations and its influence on the allowable pollutant load calculation in the TMDL program. Miyun Reservoir, which is the most important surface drinking water source for Beijing, suffers from eutrophication and was selected as a case study. The relations between pollutant loads and water quality indicators are obtained through a graphical method in the simulation platform. Ranges of allowable pollutant loads were obtained according to the results of parameter uncertainty analysis, i.e. Total Organic Carbon (TOC): 581.5-1030.6t·yr(-1); Total Phosphorus (TP): 23.3-31.0t·yr(-1); and Total Nitrogen (TN): 480-1918.0t·yr(-1). The wide ranges of allowable pollutant loads reveal the importance of parameter uncertainty analysis in a TMDL program for allowable pollutant load calculation and margin of safety (MOS) determination. The sources

  2. Estimation of the fate of microbial water-quality contaminants in a South-African river

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hohls, D

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity of assumptions, regarding assimilative capacity for microbial contaminants, implicit in microbial water quality management in South Africa. A one dimensional steady state stream water quality model...

  3. Numerical and Qualitative Contrasts of Two Statistical Models for Water Quality Change in Tidal Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two statistical approaches, weighted regression on time, discharge, and season and generalized additive models, have recently been used to evaluate water quality trends in estuaries. Both models have been used in similar contexts despite differences in statistical foundations and...

  4. Drinking water quality assessment of Iyinna Spring, Umuariaga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water samples were collected from Iyinna Spring in Umuariaga, Ikwuano Local Government Area (LGA), Abia State, Nigeria from three stations between January and March 2015 to evaluate its portability. The samples were compared with Nigeria Drinking Water Quality Standard and World Health Organization (WHO) ...

  5. BIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF WATER QUALITY: A STUDY OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMIN

    ABSTRACT. This study was carried out to survey the biotic community of Challawa river water in Kano, Nigeria, using Biological Monitoring Working Party Score (BMWP) and Average Score Per Taxa (ASPT) assessment tools to evaluate the water quality in the field. Using standardized sampling technique insects, insects' ...

  6. Physico-Chemical Quality Of Drinking Water At Mushait, Aseer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physico-chemical quality study of different drinking water sources used in Khamis Mushait, southwestern, Saudi Arabia (SA) has been studied to evaluate their suitability for potable purposes. A total of 62 drinking water samples were collected randomly from bottled, desalinated and groundwater located around the ...

  7. Sand-Filtration System For Improving Water Quality For Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performance of a pilot sand filtration plant for a small town water supply was monitored over a seven month period to evaluate the physico-chemical and bacteriological quality of the filtered water from a system installed at Assin Praso in the Central Region of Ghana. The sand filter was effective in reducing turbidity by ...

  8. Habitat quality, water quality and otter distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Mason

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In recent decades the otter (Lutra lutra has declined over much of Europe. Good habitat has been shown to be essential to otters. Specific elements of cover have been identified in some studies but the minimum cover requirements to support otter populations are not known. These are likely to vary in relation to other factors, such as disturbance. Habitat destruction has been severe in many areas of Europe. Water quantity is important to otters, especially where low flows destroy the food base, namely fish. However the minimum food requirements to support populations are not known. The main cause of the decline in otter populations is almost certainly bioaccumulating pollutants, especially PCBs. These are likely to be inhibiting recolonization in many areas. In Britain, catchment distribution of otters within regions is negatively correlated to mean PCB levels in otter spraints, and these are indicative of tissue levels. PCBs have been found in all samples studied. Current EC statutory monitoring is inadequate to protect otter populations from bioaccumulating contaminants. Standards are presented here for otter protection. More fundamental research is required to refine our understanding of the requirements of the otter. Riassunto Qualità ambientale, qualità dell'acqua e distribuzione della lontra - Negli ultimi decenni la lontra (Lutra lutra è diminuita su buona parte del suo areale europeo, dove particolarmente pesante è stata la distruzione di ambienti favorevoli. Habitat qualitativamente idonei sono essenziali per la sopravvivenza della specie. In alcuni studi, specifici parametri di copertura vegetale dei corpi idrici sono stati ritenuti importanti per la specie, ma quale sia il valore minimo di copertura riparia in grado di supportare una popolazione resta sconosciuto. I parametri di copertura variano probabilmente in relazione ad altri fattori, quali, ad

  9. Multivariate statistical evaluation of dissolved trace elements and a water quality assessment in the middle reaches of Huaihe River, Anhui, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Liu, Guijian; Liu, Houqi; Lam, Paul K S

    2017-04-01

    A total of 211 water samples were collected from 53 key sampling points from 5-10th July 2013 at four different depths (0m, 2m, 4m, 8m) and at different sites in the Huaihe River, Anhui, China. These points monitored for 18 parameters (water temperature, pH, TN, TP, TOC, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Co, Cr, Cd, Mn, B, Fe, Al, Mg, and Ba). The spatial variability, contamination sources and health risk of trace elements as well as the river water quality were investigated. Our results were compared with national (CSEPA) and international (WHO, USEPA) drinking water guidelines, revealing that Zn, Cd and Pb were the dominant pollutants in the water body. Application of different multivariate statistical approaches, including correlation matrix and factor/principal component analysis (FA/PCA), to assess the origins of the elements in the Huaihe River, identified three source types that accounted for 79.31% of the total variance. Anthropogenic activities were considered to contribute much of the Zn, Cd, Pb, Ni, Co, and Mn via industrial waste, coal combustion, and vehicle exhaust; Ba, B, Cr and Cu were controlled by mixed anthropogenic and natural sources, and Mg, Fe and Al had natural origins from weathered rocks and crustal materials. Cluster analysis (CA) was used to classify the 53 sample points into three groups of water pollution, high pollution, moderate pollution, and low pollution, reflecting influences from tributaries, power plants and vehicle exhaust, and agricultural activities, respectively. The results of the water quality index (WQI) indicate that water in the Huaihe River is heavily polluted by trace elements, so approximately 96% of the water in the Huaihe River is unsuitable for drinking. A health risk assessment using the hazard quotient and index (HQ/HI) recommended by the USEPA suggests that Co, Cd and Pb in the river could cause non-carcinogenic harm to human health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Principles of Water Quality Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebbutt, T. H. Y.

    This book is designed as a text for undergraduate civil engineering courses and as preliminary reading for postgraduate courses in public health engineering and water resources technology. It is also intended to be of value to workers already in the field and to students preparing for the examinations of the Institute of Water Pollution Control…

  11. Water Availability--The Connection Between Water Use and Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Robert M.; Hamilton, Pixie A.; Miller, Timothy L.; Myers, Donna N.

    2008-01-01

    Water availability has become a high priority in the United States, in large part because competition for water is becoming more intense across the Nation. Population growth in many areas competes with demands for water to support irrigation and power production. Cities, farms, and power plants compete for water needed by aquatic ecosystems to support their minimum flow requirements. At the same time, naturally occurring and human-related contaminants from chemical use, land use, and wastewater and industrial discharge are introduced into our waters and diminish its quality. The fact that degraded quality limits the availability and suitability of water for critical uses is a well-known reality in many communities. What may be less understood, but equally true, is that our everyday use of water can significantly affect water quality, and thus its availability. Landscape features (such as geology, soils, and vegetation) along with water-use practices (such as ground-water withdrawals and irrigation) govern water availability because, together, they affect the movement of chemical compounds over the land and in the subsurface. Understanding the interactions of human activities with natural sources and the landscape is critical to effectively managing water and sustaining water availability in the future.

  12. Microelectrode array sensor for water quality monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobet, J; Rychen, Ph; Cardot, F; Santoli, E

    2003-01-01

    A versatile microelectrode array sensor for water quality monitoring has been developed. The array fabrication, based on batch microelectronic processes, results in a highly stable passivation of the silicon chip surface and provides the possibility to use a backside contact. Packaging was optimized for on-line water operation at high pressures. Examples of applications include chlorine monitoring in drinking water, ozone monitoring in deionized water, dissolved oxygen in activated sludge and preliminary measurements of trace arsenic.

  13. Use of surrogate indicators for the evaluation of potential health risks due to poor urban water quality: A Bayesian Network approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesiri, Buddhi; Deilami, Kaveh; McGree, James; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2018-02-01

    Urban water pollution poses risks of waterborne infectious diseases. Therefore, in order to improve urban liveability, effective pollution mitigation strategies are required underpinned by predictions generated using water quality models. However, the lack of reliability in current modelling practices detrimentally impacts planning and management decision making. This research study adopted a novel approach in the form of Bayesian Networks to model urban water quality to better investigate the factors that influence risks to human health. The application of Bayesian Networks was found to enhance the integration of quantitative and qualitative spatially distributed data for analysing the influence of environmental and anthropogenic factors using three surrogate indicators of human health risk, namely, turbidity, total nitrogen and fats/oils. Expert knowledge was found to be of critical importance in assessing the interdependent relationships between health risk indicators and influential factors. The spatial variability maps of health risk indicators developed enabled the initial identification of high risk areas in which flooding was found to be the most significant influential factor in relation to human health risk. Surprisingly, population density was found to be less significant in influencing health risk indicators. These high risk areas in turn can be subjected to more in-depth investigations instead of the entire region, saving time and resources. It was evident that decision making in relation to the design of pollution mitigation strategies needs to account for the impact of landscape characteristics on water quality, which can be related to risk to human health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluating lake stratification and temporal trends by using near-continuous water-quality data from automated profiling systems for water years 2005-09, Lake Mead, Arizona and Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veley, Ronald J.; Moran, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service and Southern Nevada Water Authority, collected near-continuous depth-dependent water-quality data at Lake Mead, Arizona and Nevada, as part of a multi-agency monitoring network maintained to provide resource managers with basic data and to gain a better understanding of the hydrodynamics of the lake. Water-quality data-collection stations on Lake Mead were located in shallow water (less than 20 meters) at Las Vegas Bay (Site 3) and Overton Arm, and in deep water (greater than 20 meters) near Sentinel Island and at Virgin and Temple Basins. At each station, near-continual depth-dependent water-quality data were collected from October 2004 through September 2009. The data were collected by using automatic profiling systems equipped with multiparameter water-quality sondes. The sondes had sensors for temperature, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, pH, turbidity, and depth. Data were collected every 6 hours at 2-meter depth intervals (for shallow-water stations) or 5-meter depth intervals (for deep-water stations) beginning at 1 meter below water surface. Data were analyzed to determine water-quality conditions related to stratification of the lake and temporal trends in water-quality parameters. Three water-quality parameters were the main focus of these analyses: temperature, specific conductance, and dissolved oxygen. Statistical temporal-trend analyses were performed for a single depth at shallow-water stations [Las Vegas Bay (Site 3) and Overton Arm] and for thermally-stratified lake layers at deep-water stations (Sentinel Island and Virgin Basin). The limited period of data collection at the Temple Basin station prevented the application of statistical trend analysis. During the summer months, thermal stratification was not observed at shallow-water stations, nor were major maxima or minima observed for specific-conductance or dissolved-oxygen profiles. A clearly-defined thermocline

  15. Surface Water Quality Monitoring Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The MN Department of Agriculture (MDA) is charged with periodically collecting and analyzing water samples from selected locations throughout the state to determine...

  16. 40 CFR 130.3 - Water quality standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality standards. 130.3 Section... QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.3 Water quality standards. A water quality standard (WQS) defines the water quality goals of a water body, or portion thereof, by designating the use or uses to be made...

  17. Ground Water Quality of Selected Wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosher R. Ahmed

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to characterize ground water quality in Zaweta district / Dohuk governorate, eight wells are selected to represent their water quality. Monthly samples are collected from the wells for the period from October 2005 to April 2006. The samples are tested for conductivity, total dissolved solids, pH, total hardness, chloride, alkalinity and nitrate according to the standard methods. The results of statistical analysis showed significant difference among the wells water quality in the measured parameters. Ground water quality of Zaweta district has high dissolved ions due to the nature of studied area rocks. Total dissolved solids of more than 1000 mg/l made the wells Gre-Qassroka, Kora and Swaratoka need to be treated to make taste palatable. Additionally high electrical conductivity and TDS made Zaweta ground water have a slight to moderate restriction to crop growth. The high alkalinity of Zaweta ground water indicated stabilized pH. The water quality of all the wells is found excessively hard. The nitrate concentration of Zaweta ground water ranged between 0.19-42.4 mg/l below the guidelines for WHO and the maximum nitrate concentration is recorded in Kora well .

  18. Collection of Condensate Water: Global Potential and Water Quality Impacts

    KAUST Repository

    Loveless, Kolin Joseph

    2012-12-28

    Water is a valuable resource throughout the world, especially in hot, dry climates and regions experiencing significant population growth. Supplies of fresh water are complicated by the economic and political conditions in many of these regions. Technologies that can supply fresh water at a reduced cost are therefore becoming increasingly important and the impact of such technologies can be substantial. This paper considers the collection of condensate water from large air conditioning units as a possible method to alleviate water scarcity issues. Using the results of a climate model that tested data collected from 2000 to 2010, we have identified areas in the world with the greatest collection potential. We gave special consideration to areas with known water scarcities, including the coastal regions of the Arabian Peninsula, Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. We found that the quality of the collected water is an important criterion in determining the potential uses for this water. Condensate water samples were collected from a few locations in Saudi Arabia and detailed characterizations were conducted to determine the quality of this water. We found that the quality of condensate water collected from various locations and types of air conditioners was very high with conductivities reaching as low as 18 μS/cm and turbidities of 0. 041 NTU. The quality of the collected condensate was close to that of distilled water and, with low-cost polishing treatments, such as ion exchange resins and electrochemical processes, the condensate quality could easily reach that of potable water. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  19. Microbial (Pathogen)/Recreational Water Quality Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Documents pertaining to Recreational Human Health Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Microbial Organisms (Pathogens). These documents include safe levels for cyanotoxins microcystin and cylindrospermopsin, and Coliphage to protect human health.

  20. Maui Citizen Science Coastal Water Quality Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A network of citizen science volunteers periodically monitors water quality at several beaches across the island of Maui in the State of Hawaii. This community-based...

  1. Mobile Water Quality Information Tool Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Water quality remote sensing has grown to allow for operational monitoring of trophic status, assessment of cyanobacteria blooms, and historical and trend analysis...

  2. STREAMFLOW AND WATER QUALITY REGRESSION MODELING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STREAMFLOW AND WATER QUALITY REGRESSION MODELING OF IMO RIVER SYSTEM: A CASE STUDY. ... Journal of Modeling, Design and Management of Engineering Systems ... Possible sources of contamination of Imo-river system within Nekede and Obigbo hydrological stations watershed were traced.

  3. Evaluation of Bayesian estimation of a hidden continuous-time Markov chain model with application to threshold violation in water-quality indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deviney, Frank A.; Rice, Karen; Brown, Donald E.

    2012-01-01

    Natural resource managers require information concerning  the frequency, duration, and long-term probability of occurrence of water-quality indicator (WQI) violations of defined thresholds. The timing of these threshold crossings often is hidden from the observer, who is restricted to relatively infrequent observations. Here, a model for the hidden process is linked with a model for the observations, and the parameters describing duration, return period, and long-term probability of occurrence are estimated using Bayesian methods. A simulation experiment is performed to evaluate the approach under scenarios based on the equivalent of a total monitoring period of 5-30 years and an observation frequency of 1-50 observations per year. Given constant threshold crossing rate, accuracy and precision of parameter estimates increased with longer total monitoring period and more-frequent observations. Given fixed monitoring period and observation frequency, accuracy and precision of parameter estimates increased with longer times between threshold crossings. For most cases where the long-term probability of being in violation is greater than 0.10, it was determined that at least 600 observations are needed to achieve precise estimates.  An application of the approach is presented using 22 years of quasi-weekly observations of acid-neutralizing capacity from Deep Run, a stream in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia. The time series also was sub-sampled to simulate monthly and semi-monthly sampling protocols. Estimates of the long-term probability of violation were unbiased despite sampling frequency; however, the expected duration and return period were over-estimated using the sub-sampled time series with respect to the full quasi-weekly time series.

  4. Evaluation of the health status of a coastal ecosystem in southeast Mexico: Assessment of water quality, phytoplankton and submerged aquatic vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Silveira, Jorge A; Morales-Ojeda, Sara M

    2009-01-01

    The coastal environment of the Yucatan Peninsula (SE, Mexico) includes a wide variety of ecosystems ranging from mangroves to coral reefs, resulting in a heterogeneous landscape. Specifically, the marine system is characterized by environmental differences which respond to regional and local forcing functions such as marine currents and groundwater discharges (GD). Such functional characteristics were used here to define four subregions across the Yucatan coast and diagnose the health status of this coastal marine ecosystem. To achieve this goal, we conducted an analysis and integration of water quality variables, an eutrophic assessment, evaluated changes in submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV), and analyzed the community structure and distribution of harmful phytoplankton. The first step was to determine the reference values for each subregion based on data previously collected from 2002 to 2006 along the coast of Yucatan, 200m offshore. The trophic index (TRIX) and Canadian index for aquatic life (CCMEWQI) were used to diagnose each subregion and then the ASSETS approach was conducted for Dzilam and Progreso, sampling localities on each end of the health status continuum (those with the best and worst conditions). Overall, results indicated that the marine coastal ecosystem of Yucatan is in good condition; however, differences were observed between subregions that can be attributed to local forcing functions and human impacts. Specifically, the central region (zone HZII, Progreso-Telchac) showed symptoms of initial eutrophication due to nutrient inputs from human activities. The eastern region (zone HZ III, Dzilam-Las Bocas) showed a meso-eutrophic condition linked to natural groundwater discharges, while the other two subregions western (zone HZI Celestun-Palmar) and caribbean (zone HZ IV Ria Lagartos-El Cuyo) exhibited symptoms of oligo-mesotrophic condition. These findings may be considered baseline information for coastal ecosystem monitoring programs in

  5. Water Quality Modeling System for Coastal Archipelagos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomi, L.; Miettunen, E.; Lukkari, K.; Puttonen, I.; Ropponen, J.; Tikka, K.; Piiparinen, J.; Lignell, R.

    2016-02-01

    Coastal seas are encountering pressures from eutrophication, fishing, ship emissions and coastal construction. Sustainable development and use of these areas require science-based guidance with high quality data and efficient tools. Our study area, the Archipelago Sea, is located in the northern part of the semi-enclosed and brackish water Baltic Sea. It is a shallow, topographically heterogeneous and eutrophic sub-basin, covered with thousands of small islands and islets. The catchment area is 8950 km2and has ca. 500 000 inhabitants. We are developing a modeling system that can be used by local authorities and in ministry level decision making to evaluate the environmental impacts that may result from decisions and changes made both in the watershed and in the coastal areas. The modeling system consists of 3D hydrodynamic model COHERENS and water quality model FICOS, both applied to the area with high spatial resolution. Models use river discharge and nutrient loading data supplied by watershed model VEMALA and include loading from multiple point sources located in the Archipelago Sea. An easy-to-use interface made specifically to answer the end-user needs, includes possibility to modify the nutrient loadings and perform model simulations to selected areas and time periods. To ensure the quality and performance of the modeling system, comprehensive measurement dataset including hydrographic, nutrient, chlorophyll-a and bottom sediment data, was gathered based on monitoring and research campaigns previously carried out in the Archipelago Sea. Verification showed that hydrodynamic model was able to simulate surface temperature and salinity fields and their seasonal variation with good accuracy in this complex area. However, the dynamics of the deeper layers need to be improved, especially in areas that have sharp bathymetric gradients. The preliminary analysis of the water quality model results showed that the model was able to reproduce the basic characteristics of

  6. National Water Quality Laboratory, 1995 services catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timme, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    This Services Catalog contains information about field supplies and analytical services available from the National Water Quality Laboratory in Denver, Colo., and field supplies available from the Quality Water Service Unit in Ocala, Fla., to members of the U.S. Geological Survey. To assist personnel in the selection of analytical services, this catalog lists sample volume, required containers, applicable concentration range, detection level, precision of analysis, and preservation requirements for samples.

  7. Determination of water quality in lakes by biological indices

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolaev, I.I.

    1980-01-01

    Some problems of evaluation of water quality by biological indices which can be applied in the practice of ecological monitoring on water bodies are considered in this report. Taking into account, that ecological monitoring is the most urgent for large lakes, situated in civilised (urbanised) and (or) agrarian landscapes the corresponding problems will be considered mainly in conformity with large deep lakes of temperate latitudes. The aim is a general evaluation of some of the methods from t...

  8. Water quality assessment of Kavvayi Lake of northern Kerala, India using CCME water quality index and biological water quality criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiji, M; Sabitha, A R; Prabhakar, Kavya; Harikumar, P S

    2016-11-01

    Assessment of water quality status of 7 sites of Kavvayi Wetland in northern Kerala (India) was carried out. The physico-chemical, bacteriological and biological parameters were monitored during pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) water quality index of the Kavvayi Lake samples ranged from 43.99-44.77; indicating that water quality was threatened or impaired. The poor water quality status might be due to dumping of wastes from municipal and domestic sources and agricultural runoff. Biological water quality criteria (BWQC) determined for wetland revealed that stations such as mixing point of Kariangode River into Kavvayi Lake and Kottikkadavu was moderately polluted in pre-monsoon and post- monsoon seasons. Mixing point of Nileswar River into Kavvayi Lake was moderately polluted in pre-monsoon season. Both calculated indices suggest that quality of lake was found to be influenced by anthropogenic activities such as unscientific tourism and infrastructure development, land encroachment, sand mining, pollution etc. The study was carried out as part of a programme, which aimed to conserve Kavvayi wetland because of its unique ecological and environmental characteristics.

  9. Coralville Reservoir Water Quality Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    calcium carbonate saturation and stability. Many limnological studies require water temperature as a function of depth to be reported. Discharges of...groundwater, which frequently come into contact with geological formations of limestone or dolomite leading to high concentrations of calcium and magnesium...Location Date Water Diss. pH Carbon Sky Previous Day Temp. Oxygen Dioxide Phenolth. Total Calcium Total Precipitation ○C mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L

  10. Evaluation of groundwater chemistry and its impact on drinking and irrigation water quality in the eastern part of the Central Arabian graben and trough system, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Faisal K.; Mogren, Saad; Mukhopadhyay, Manoj; Ibrahim, Elkhedr

    2016-08-01

    The present study deals with the assessment of groundwater with respect to the main hydrological processes controlling its chemistry and its subsequent impact on groundwater quality for drinking and irrigation purposes in the eastern part of the Central Arabian graben and trough system. Groundwater samples were collected from 73 bore wells tapping the Cretaceous Biyadh and Wasia sandstone aquifers. The main groundwater facies in the area belong to the mixed Casbnd Mgsbnd SO4/Cl type and the SO4sbnd Cl type. Prolonged rock water interaction has resulted in high TDS (average of 2131 mg/l) and high EC (average of 2725 μS/cm) of the groundwater. The average nitrate (56.38 mg/l) value in the area is higher than the WHO prescribed limits of 50 mg/l in drinking water and is attributed to agricultural activities. The Drinking Water Quality Index (DWQI) shows that 33% of the water samples fall within the excellent to good category whereas the remaining samples fall in the poor to unsuitable for drinking category. In terms of Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR), Sodium percentage (Na %) and Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC) the groundwater is suitable for irrigation however the high salinity values can adversely affect the plant physiology.

  11. Water quality and geochemistry evaluation of groundwater upstream and downstream of the Khirbet Al-Samra wastewater treatment plant/Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajjali, William; Al-Hadidi, Kheir; Ismail, Ma'mmon

    2017-03-01

    Groundwater in the northeastern Amman-Zarqa basin is an important source of water for irrigation. The quality and quantity of water has deteriorated due to mismanagement and misunderstanding of the hydrogeological system. Overexploitation of groundwater resources upstream of the Khirbet Al-Samra wastewater treatment plant (KSWTP) has lowered the water table 43 m since the beginning of groundwater development in 1968. Heavy pumping of groundwater downstream of KSWTP has not dropped the water level due to constant recharge from the Zarqa river bed. The water level of groundwater is rising continuously at a rate of 20 cm per year since building the KSWTP in 1985. Groundwater salinity has also shifted the quality of the aquifer from fresh to brackish. Continual irrigation from the groundwater upstream of KSWTP dissolves accumulated salt from the soil formed by evaporation, and the contaminated water infiltrates back to the aquifer, thereby increasing both salt and nitrate concentrations. The intense irrigation from the reclaimed water downstream of KSWTP and leakage of treated wastewater from the Zarqa River to the shallow groundwater is a secondary source of salt and nitrates. The isotopic composition of groundwater varies over a wide range and is associated with the meteoric water line affected by Mediterranean Sea air moisture. The isotopic composition of groundwater is represented by evaporation line (EL) with a low slope of 3.6. The enrichment of groundwater in δ18O and δD is attributed mainly to the two processes of evaporation before infiltration of return flow and mixing of different types of water in KSWTP originating from different aquifers. The EL starts from a location more depleted than the weighted mean value of the Amman rainfall station on the Eastern Meteoric Water Line indicating that the recharge took place under the climate regime prevailing today in Jordan and the recharge of the groundwater originates from a greater elevation than that of the

  12. Chemical quality and regulatory compliance of drinking water in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsdottir, Maria J; Gardarsson, Sigurdur M; Jonsson, Gunnar St; Bartram, Jamie

    2016-11-01

    Assuring sufficient quality of drinking water is of great importance for public wellbeing and prosperity. Nations have developed regulatory system with the aim of providing drinking water of sufficient quality and to minimize the risk of contamination of the water supply in the first place. In this study the chemical quality of Icelandic drinking water was evaluated by systematically analyzing results from audit monitoring where 53 parameters were assessed for 345 samples from 79 aquifers, serving 74 water supply systems. Compliance to the Icelandic Drinking Water Regulation (IDWR) was evaluated with regard to parametric values, minimum requirement of sampling, and limit of detection. Water quality compliance was divided according to health-related chemicals and indicators, and analyzed according to size. Samples from few individual locations were benchmarked against natural background levels (NBLs) in order to identify potential pollution sources. The results show that drinking compliance was 99.97% in health-related chemicals and 99.44% in indicator parameters indicating that Icelandic groundwater abstracted for drinking water supply is generally of high quality with no expected health risks. In 10 water supply systems, of the 74 tested, there was an indication of anthropogenic chemical pollution, either at the source or in the network, and in another 6 water supplies there was a need to improve the water intake to prevent surface water intrusion. Benchmarking against the NBLs proved to be useful in tracing potential pollution sources, providing a useful tool for identifying pollution at an early stage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Water quality in Una River Basin – Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Silva Tavares

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the water quality of the lower portion of Una River Basin, Pernambuco, by means of analysis of physical, chemical and microbiological parameters. The monitoring was conducted among October 2013 and March 2014. Sampling locations were in the cities of Catende, Palmares and Água Preta, selecting three collection points in each district. Parameters analyzed: temperature, electric conductivity, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, turbidity, potassium, pH, total phosphorus, thermotolerant coliforms, and Escherichia Coli. The results showed the water quality in the Basin Una River is outside of CONAMA standars Resolution 357/2005 for fresh water Class II parameters: dissolved oxygen, pH, phosphorus, thermotolerant coliforms and Escherichia Coli. Potassium concentration shows the discharge of effluents from the processing of sugar cane in the hydrous body did not affect the quality of the water. The main contamination source of water was the release of domestic sewage.

  14. Hydrology and heterogeneneous distribution of water quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out on the hydrology and heterogeneous distribution of water quality characteristics in the Lagoon of Porto-Novo between July 2014 and June 2015. The water body was stratified into 12 strata for sampling. Data and samples were collected based on season and stations. The results were analyzed in the ...

  15. STREAMFLOW AND WATER QUALITY REGRESSION MODELING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The upper reaches of Imo-river system between Nekede and Obigbo hydrological stations (a stretch of 24km) have been studied for the purpose of water quality and streamflow modeling. Model's applications on water supply to Nekede and Obigbo communities were equally explored with the development of mass curves.

  16. Water quality in the Okavango Delta

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-03-12

    Mar 12, 2010 ... This review will discuss levels of water quality parameters, such as .... have a cascading negative impact on species at higher trophic levels, such as fish, ... into water through photosynthesis by plants and phytoplankton or via diffusion ...... Delta, Botswana, and its contribution to the structure and function.

  17. Identification and Assessment of Potential Water Quality Impact Factors for Drinking-Water Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Gu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Various reservoirs have been serving as the most important drinking water sources in Zhejiang Province, China, due to the uneven distribution of precipitation and severe river pollution. Unfortunately, rapid urbanization and industrialization have been continuously challenging the water quality of the drinking-water reservoirs. The identification and assessment of potential impacts is indispensable in water resource management and protection. This study investigates the drinking water reservoirs in Zhejiang Province to better understand the potential impact on water quality. Altogether seventy-three typical drinking reservoirs in Zhejiang Province encompassing various water storage levels were selected and evaluated. Using fifty-two reservoirs as training samples, the classification and regression tree (CART method and sixteen comprehensive variables, including six sub-sets (land use, population, socio-economy, geographical features, inherent characteristics, and climate, were adopted to establish a decision-making model for identifying and assessing their potential impacts on drinking-water quality. The water quality class of the remaining twenty-one reservoirs was then predicted and tested based on the decision-making model, resulting in a water quality class attribution accuracy of 81.0%. Based on the decision rules and quantitative importance of the independent variables, industrial emissions was identified as the most important factor influencing the water quality of reservoirs; land use and human habitation also had a substantial impact on water quality. The results of this study provide insights into the factors impacting the water quality of reservoirs as well as basic information for protecting reservoir water resources.

  18. Identification and Assessment of Potential Water Quality Impact Factors for Drinking-Water Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qing; Deng, Jinsong; Wang, Ke; Lin, Yi; Li, Jun; Gan, Muye; Ma, Ligang; Hong, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Various reservoirs have been serving as the most important drinking water sources in Zhejiang Province, China, due to the uneven distribution of precipitation and severe river pollution. Unfortunately, rapid urbanization and industrialization have been continuously challenging the water quality of the drinking-water reservoirs. The identification and assessment of potential impacts is indispensable in water resource management and protection. This study investigates the drinking water reservoirs in Zhejiang Province to better understand the potential impact on water quality. Altogether seventy-three typical drinking reservoirs in Zhejiang Province encompassing various water storage levels were selected and evaluated. Using fifty-two reservoirs as training samples, the classification and regression tree (CART) method and sixteen comprehensive variables, including six sub-sets (land use, population, socio-economy, geographical features, inherent characteristics, and climate), were adopted to establish a decision-making model for identifying and assessing their potential impacts on drinking-water quality. The water quality class of the remaining twenty-one reservoirs was then predicted and tested based on the decision-making model, resulting in a water quality class attribution accuracy of 81.0%. Based on the decision rules and quantitative importance of the independent variables, industrial emissions was identified as the most important factor influencing the water quality of reservoirs; land use and human habitation also had a substantial impact on water quality. The results of this study provide insights into the factors impacting the water quality of reservoirs as well as basic information for protecting reservoir water resources. PMID:24919129

  19. Development of specific water quality index for water supply in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaiwat Prakirake

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the specific water quality index for assessing water quality in terms of water supply (WSI usage has been developed by using Delphi technique and its application in Thai rivers is proposed. The thirteen parameters including turbidity, DO, pH, NO3-N, TDS, FCB, Fe, color, BOD, Mn, NH3-N, hardness, and total PO4-P are employed for the estimation of water quality. The sub-index transformation curves are established for each variable to assess the variation in water quality level. An appropriate function to aggregate overall sub-indices was weighted Solway function that provided reasonableresults for reducing ambiguous and eclipsing effects for high and slightly polluted samples. The developed WSI couldbe applied to measure water quality into 5 levels - very good (85-100; good (80-<85; average (65-<80; poor (40-<65and very poor (<40. The proposed WSI could be used for evaluating water quality in terms of water supply. In addition, it could be used for analyzing long-term trait analysis and comparing water quality among different reaches of rivers or between different watersheds.

  20. Spatio-Temporal Trends and Identification of Correlated Variables with Water Quality for Drinking-Water Reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qing; Wang, Ke; Li, Jiadan; Ma, Ligang; Deng, Jinsong; Zheng, Kefeng; Zhang, Xiaobin; Sheng, Li

    2015-10-20

    It is widely accepted that characterizing the spatio-temporal trends of water quality parameters and identifying correlated variables with water quality are indispensable for the management and protection of water resources. In this study, cluster analysis was used to classify 56 typical drinking water reservoirs in Zhejiang Province into three groups representing different water quality levels, using data of four water quality parameters for the period 2006-2010. Then, the spatio-temporal trends in water quality were analyzed, assisted by geographic information systems (GIS) technology and statistical analysis. The results indicated that the water quality showed a trend of degradation from southwest to northeast, and the overall water quality level was exacerbated during the study period. Correlation analysis was used to evaluate the relationships between water quality parameters and ten independent variables grouped into four categories (land use, socio-economic factors, geographical features, and reservoir attributes). According to the correlation coefficients, land use and socio-economic indicators were identified as the most significant factors related to reservoir water quality. The results offer insights into the spatio-temporal variations of water quality parameters and factors impacting the water quality of drinking water reservoirs in Zhejiang Province, and they could assist managers in making effective strategies to better protect water resources.

  1. Spatio-Temporal Trends and Identification of Correlated Variables with Water Quality for Drinking-Water Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Gu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that characterizing the spatio-temporal trends of water quality parameters and identifying correlated variables with water quality are indispensable for the management and protection of water resources. In this study, cluster analysis was used to classify 56 typical drinking water reservoirs in Zhejiang Province into three groups representing different water quality levels, using data of four water quality parameters for the period 2006–2010. Then, the spatio-temporal trends in water quality were analyzed, assisted by geographic information systems (GIS technology and statistical analysis. The results indicated that the water quality showed a trend of degradation from southwest to northeast, and the overall water quality level was exacerbated during the study period. Correlation analysis was used to evaluate the relationships between water quality parameters and ten independent variables grouped into four categories (land use, socio-economic factors, geographical features, and reservoir attributes. According to the correlation coefficients, land use and socio-economic indicators were identified as the most significant factors related to reservoir water quality. The results offer insights into the spatio-temporal variations of water quality parameters and factors impacting the water quality of drinking water reservoirs in Zhejiang Province, and they could assist managers in making effective strategies to better protect water resources.

  2. Assesment of the water quality and prevalence of water borne ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-03

    Sep 3, 2008 ... 1Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Niger Delta University, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. 2Department of .... on water quality. Chemical intoxication in drinking water may either be acute or chronic in nature. The acute health effect may be in form of skin irritation, skin rash, nausea ...

  3. Bacteriological quality of water and water borne diseases in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Monthly water samples were assessed for bacteriological quality from main supply, household storage and morbidity reported houses. The difference in proportion of potable and non potable water at storage points was statistically significant. The overall incidence rate of target diseases was 3.58%,majority were diaarrhoel ...

  4. Impacts of Water Quality on Residential Water Heating Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2013-11-01

    Water heating is a ubiquitous energy use in all residential housing, accounting for 17.7% of residential energy use (EIA 2012). Today, there are many efficient water heating options available for every fuel type, from electric and gas to more unconventional fuel types like propane, solar, and fuel oil. Which water heating option is the best choice for a given household will depend on a number of factors, including average daily hot water use (total gallons per day), hot water draw patterns (close together or spread out), the hot water distribution system (compact or distributed), installation constraints (such as space, electrical service, or venting accommodations) and fuel-type availability and cost. While in general more efficient water heaters are more expensive than conventional water heating technologies, the savings in energy use and, thus, utility bills can recoup the additional upfront investment and make an efficient water heater a good investment over time in most situations, although the specific payback period for a given installation will vary widely. However, the expected lifetime of a water heater in a given installation can dramatically influence the cost effectiveness and savings potential of a water heater and should be considered, along with water use characteristics, fuel availability and cost, and specific home characteristics when selecting the optimum water heating equipment for a particular installation. This report provides recommendations for selecting and maintaining water heating equipment based on local water quality characteristics.

  5. Water Quality in Madura Strait, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Nugrahadi, M. Saleh; Yanagi, Tetsuo; 柳, 哲雄

    2003-01-01

    Observations on water quality based on physical、chemical and biological properties of sea surface water were conducted on 13-14 September 2000 and on 14-15 May 2001 in Madura Strait, Indonesia. Particular emphasis has been placed on Surabaya and Porong estuaries and its surrounding coastal water, where rivers carry contaminated load from land and debouch. The observation showed that Madura Strait received a lot of pollutant from the rivers.

  6. Remote sensing of water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovis, W. A.

    1978-01-01

    Remote sensing from aircraft has been used to determine water content in areas such as the New York Bight. Extension of the techniques developed to satellite sensing of the Chesapeake Bay will begin in 1978 with the launch of Nimbus-G. Remote sensing offers a number of interesting possibilities for investigating a reasonably large body of water, such as the Chesapeake Bay, coupled with some disadvantages. The chief advantage of remote sensing is that it offers the opportunity to cover large areas in relatively short periods of time. Low altitude satellites traveling at about 7 km/s can cover the Chesapeake Bay in about 1 minute so that the entire Bay can be studied under almost identical conditions of solar illumination.

  7. Water quality in rural Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, R; Faulkner, B; Veal, D; Cramer, G; Meiklejohn, M

    1998-04-01

    Grab samples of drinking water collected from reservoirs and from creeks flowing over pristine land, farmland or land having mixed use were analysed for their physicochemical and microbiological characteristics. A significant difference between sites for conductivity and sites for pH was noted using a two-way ANOVA. No significant interactions were detected between any of the other parameters: Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Escherichia coli, coliforms, plate count, turbidity or rainfall.

  8. Water quality index for Al-Gharraf River, southern Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salam Hussein Ewaid

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Water Quality Index has been developed mathematically to evaluate the water quality of Al-Gharraf River, the main branch of the Tigris River in the south of Iraq. Water samples were collected monthly from five sampling stations during 2015–2016, and 11 parameters were analyzed: biological oxygen demand, total dissolved solids, the concentration of hydrogen ions, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, phosphates, nitrates, chlorides, as well as turbidity, total hardness, electrical conductivity and alkalinity. The index classified the river water, without including turbidity as a parameter, as good for drinking at the first station, poor at stations 2, 3, 4 and very poor at station 5. When turbidity was included, the index classified the river water as unsuitable for drinking purposes in the entire river. The study highlights the importance of applying the water quality indices which indicate the total effect of the ecological factors on surface water quality and which give a simple interpretation of the monitoring data to help local people in improving water quality.

  9. 1994 Ergonomics Program Quality Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longbotham, L.; Miller, D.P.

    1995-06-01

    A telephone survey was conducted to evaluate the quality of service provided to the primary customers of the Corporate Ergonomics Group (CEG). One hundred clients who received services between October 1993 and June 1994 were asked questions on their expectations, implementation of ergonomic recommendations, follow-ups, time required, productivity improvements, symptom alleviation, and satisfaction. Suggestions on how processes could be improved were also solicited. In general, recommendations are being implemented, worksite evaluations are going smoothly, and customers are satisfied with the process. The CEG was pleased to learn that half of the people who implemented recommendations experienced improvements in productivity, and four out of five symptomatic customers experienced partial or complete relief. Through analysis of the data and by studying clients` suggestions for process improvement, the CEG has developed a strategy for changing and improving current procedures and practices. These plans can be found in the last section of this report.

  10. Water quality management for Lake Mariout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Donia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A hydrodynamic and water quality model was used to study the current status of the Lake Mariout subject to the pollution loadings from the agricultural drains and the point sources discharging directly to the Lake. The basic water quality modelling component simulates the main water quality parameters including the oxygen compounds (BOD, COD, DO, nutrients compounds (NH4, TN, TP, and finally the temperature, salinity and inorganic matter. Many scenarios have been conducted to improve the circulation and the water quality in the lake and to assess the spreading and mixing of the discharge effluents and its impact on the water quality of the main basin. Several pilot interventions were applied through the model in the Lake Mariout together with the upgrades of the East and West Waste Water Treatment Plants in order to achieve at least 5% reduction in the pollution loads entering the Mediterranean Sea through Lake Mariout in order to improve the institutional mechanisms for sustainable coastal zone management in Alexandria in particular to reduce land-based pollution to the Mediterranean Sea.

  11. Quality Assurance Project Plan - Modeling the Impact of Hydraulic Fracturing on Water Resources Based on Water Acquisition Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    This planning document describes the quality assurance/quality control activities and technical requirements that will be used during the research study. The goal of this project is to evaluate the potential impacts of large volume water withdrawals.

  12. Improving Water Quality With Conservation Buffers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrance, R.; Dabney, S.; Schultz, R.

    2003-12-01

    Conservation buffer technologies are new approaches that need wider application. In-field buffer practices work best when used in combination with other buffer types and other conservation practices. Vegetative barriers may be used in combination with edge-of-field buffers to protect and improve their function and longevity by dispersing runoff and encouraging sediment deposition upslope of the buffer. It's important to understand how buffers can be managed to help reduce nutrient transport potential for high loading of nutrients from manure land application sites, A restored riparian wetland buffer retained or removed at least 59 percent of the nitrogen and 66 percent of the phosphorus that entered from an adjacent manure land application site. The Bear Creek National Restoration Demonstration Watershed project in Iowa has been the site of riparian forest buffers and filter strips creation; constructed wetlands to capture tile flow; stream-bank bioengineering; in-stream structures; and controlling livestock grazing. We need field studies that test various widths of buffers of different plant community compositions for their efficacy in trapping surface runoff, reducing nonpoint source pollutants in subsurface waters, and enhancing the aquatic ecosystem. Research is needed to evaluate the impact of different riparian grazing strategies on channel morphology, water quality, and the fate of livestock-associated pathogens and antibiotics. Integrating riparian buffers and other conservation buffers into these models is a key objective in future model development.

  13. Klang River water quality modelling using music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahari, Nazirul Mubin; Zawawi, Mohd Hafiz; Muda, Zakaria Che; Sidek, Lariyah Mohd; Fauzi, Nurfazila Mohd; Othman, Mohd Edzham Fareez; Ahmad, Zulkepply

    2017-09-01

    Water is an essential resource that sustains life on earth; changes in the natural quality and distribution of water have ecological impacts that can sometimes be devastating. Recently, Malaysia is facing many environmental issues regarding water pollution. The main causes of river pollution are rapid urbanization, arising from the development of residential, commercial, industrial sites, infrastructural facilities and others. The purpose of the study was to predict the water quality of the Connaught Bridge Power Station (CBPS), Klang River. Besides that, affects to the low tide and high tide and. to forecast the pollutant concentrations of the Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Total Suspended Solid (TSS) for existing land use of the catchment area through water quality modeling (by using the MUSIC software). Besides that, to identifying an integrated urban stormwater treatment system (Best Management Practice or BMPs) to achieve optimal performance in improving the water quality of the catchment using the MUSIC software in catchment areas having tropical climates. Result from MUSIC Model such as BOD5 at station 1 can be reduce the concentration from Class IV to become Class III. Whereas, for TSS concentration from Class III to become Class II at the station 1. The model predicted a mean TSS reduction of 0.17%, TP reduction of 0.14%, TN reduction of 0.48% and BOD5 reduction of 0.31% for Station 1 Thus, from the result after purposed BMPs the water quality is safe to use because basically water quality monitoring is important due to threat such as activities are harmful to aquatic organisms and public health.

  14. 40 CFR 130.6 - Water quality management plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality management plans. 130.6... QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.6 Water quality management plans. (a) Water quality management (WQM... and certified and approved updates to those plans. Continuing water quality planning shall be based...

  15. The role of water in food quality decay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Piazza

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The impact of water on food thermodynamics and physics, and therefore on its quality, is more important than any other food chemical component. When fundamentals of chemical kinetics apply, the rates of the reactions that are responsible of food quality decay can be described as a function of food composition and of other external elements interacting with foods. Among them, water activity and water content have been widely used to determine the role of water in the kinetic reactions of deterioration. Recently, researchers have found limitations in using the water activity parameter. According to them, the role of water in foods can be better described by evaluating the role in the stability of the quality attributes of the non-equilibrium states of amorphous food products. Following this approach, the dynamics of the changes are described in kinetics terms and can be efficiently better predicted by the glass transition temperature more than by the water activity. The glass transition, which is a second order transition in amorphous materials from the glassy to the rubbery state, is primarily dependent on water which is a plasticizer and is responsible for the physical state of multiphase systems (as foods are together with the temperature. The subject of the role of water in the decay of food quality will be presented in this paper according to the principles of food material science.

  16. Water quality assessment of solar-assisted adsorption desalination cycle

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Youngdeuk

    2014-07-01

    This study focuses on the water quality assessment (feed, product and brine) of the pilot adsorption desalination (AD) plant. Seawater from the Red Sea is used as feed to the AD plant. Water quality tests are evaluated by complying the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards with major primary and secondary inorganic drinking water pollutants and other commonly tested water quality parameters. Chemical testing of desalinated water at the post desalination stage confirms the high quality of produced fresh water. Test results have shown that the adsorption desalination process is very effective in eliminating all forms of salts, as evidenced by the significant reduction of the TDS levels from approximately 40,000. ppm in feed seawater to less than 10. ppm. Test results exhibit extremely low levels of parameters which are generally abundant in feed seawater. The compositions of seawater and process related parameters such as chloride, sodium, bromide, sulfate, calcium, magnesium, and silicate in desalinated water exhibit values of less than 0.1. ppm. Reported conductivity measurements of desalinated water are comparable to distilled water conductivity levels and ranged between 2 and 6. μS/cm while TOC and TIC levels are also extremely low and its value is less than 0.5. ppm. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  17. quality assessment of sachet and bottled water soldin gboko, benue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    microorganisms in food and other microbial environments. The need to define the quality of water has developed with the increasing demand for water which is suitable for specific uses and conforms to desired quality [2]. Although water quality and water quantity are inextricably linked, water quality deserves special.

  18. Quality-assurance results for routine water analysis in US Geological Survey laboratories, water year 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, T.J.; Ludtke, A.S.; Krizman, T.L.

    1994-01-01

    The US. Geological Survey operates a quality- assurance program based on the analyses of reference samples for the National Water Quality Laboratory in Arvada, Colorado, and the Quality of Water Service Unit in Ocala, Florida. Reference samples containing selected inorganic, nutrient, and low ionic-strength constituents are prepared and disguised as routine samples. The program goal is to determine precision and bias for as many analytical methods offered by the participating laboratories as possible. The samples typically are submitted at a rate of approximately 5 percent of the annual environmental sample load for each constituent. The samples are distributed to the laboratories throughout the year. Analytical data for these reference samples reflect the quality of environmental sample data produced by the laboratories because the samples are processed in the same manner for all steps from sample login through data release. The results are stored permanently in the National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System. During water year 1991, 86 analytical procedures were evaluated at the National Water Quality Laboratory and 37 analytical procedures were evaluated at the Quality of Water Service Unit. An overall evaluation of the inorganic (major ion and trace metal) constituent data for water year 1991 indicated analytical imprecision in the National Water Quality Laboratory for 5 of 67 analytical procedures: aluminum (whole-water recoverable, atomic emission spectrometric, direct-current plasma); calcium (atomic emission spectrometric, direct); fluoride (ion-exchange chromatographic); iron (whole-water recoverable, atomic absorption spectrometric, direct); and sulfate (ion-exchange chromatographic). The results for 11 of 67 analytical procedures had positive or negative bias during water year 1991. Analytical imprecision was indicated in the determination of two of the five National Water Quality Laboratory nutrient constituents: orthophosphate as phosphorus and

  19. Image quality metrics for the evaluation of print quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Marius; Bonnier, Nicolas; Hardeberg, Jon Y.; Albregtsen, Fritz

    2011-01-01

    Image quality metrics have become more and more popular in the image processing community. However, so far, no one has been able to define an image quality metric well correlated with the percept for overall image quality. One of the causes is that image quality is multi-dimensional and complex. One approach to bridge the gap between perceived and calculated image quality is to reduce the complexity of image quality, by breaking the overall quality into a set of quality attributes. In our research we have presented a set of quality attributes built on existing attributes from the literature. The six proposed quality attributes are: sharpness, color, lightness, artifacts, contrast, and physical. This set keeps the dimensionality to a minimum. An experiment validated the quality attributes as suitable for image quality evaluation. The process of applying image quality metrics to printed images is not straightforward, because image quality metrics require a digital input. A framework has been developed for this process, which includes scanning the print to get a digital copy, image registration, and the application of image quality metrics. With quality attributes for the evaluation of image quality and a framework for applying image quality metrics, a selection of suitable image quality metrics for the different quality attributes has been carried out. Each of the quality attributes has been investigated, and an experimental analysis carried out to find the most suitable image quality metrics for the given quality attributes. For the sharpness attributes the Structural SIMilarity index (SSIM) by Wang et al. (2004) is the the most suitable, and for the other attributes further evaluation is required.

  20. Integrating water quality responses to best management practices in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, André; Boaventura, Rui A R; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2017-11-03

    Nutrient nonpoint pollution has a significant impact on water resources worldwide. The main challenge of this work was to assess the application of best management practices in agricultural land to comply with water quality legislation for surface waters. The Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN was used to evaluate water quality of Ave River in Portugal. Best management practices (infiltration basin) (BMP) were applied to agricultural land (for 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15% area) with removal efficiencies of 50% for fecal coliforms and 30% for nitrogen, phosphorus, and biochemical oxygen demand. The inflow of water quality constituents was reduced for all scenarios, with fecal coliforms achieving the highest reduction between 5.8 and 28.9% and nutrients and biochemical oxygen demand between 2 and 13%. Biochemical oxygen demand and orthophosphates concentrations achieved a good water quality status according to the European Legislation for scenarios of BMP applied to 3 and 12% agricultural area, respectively. Fecal coliform levels in Ave River basin require further treatment to fall below the established value in the abovementioned legislation. This study shows that agricultural watersheds such as Ave basins demand special attention in regard to nonpoint pollution sources effects on water quality and nutrient loads.

  1. Evaluation of military field-water quality: Volume 6, Infectious organisms of military concern associated with nonconsumptive exposure: Assessment of health risks and recommendations for establishing related standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, R.C.; Olivieri, A.W.; Danielson, R.E.; Badger, P.G.

    1986-02-01

    This study is an assessment of the risk of illness due to exposure to water-related (i.e., water-based, water-washed) infectious organisms. The organisms under consideration are Aeromonas spp., Leptospira spp., Pseudomonas spp., Staphylococcus spp., non-cholerae Vibrio spp., Acanthamoeba spp., Balantidium coli, Naegleria spp., Ascaris lumbricoides, Dracunculus medinesis, Schistosoma spp., and the agents responsible for cercarial dermatitis (i.e., Trichobilharzia, Gigantobilharzia, and Austrobilharzia). Evaluation of the risk to disease associated with the above pathogens requires information in specific areas such as dose response, concentration of agents in the environment, and environmental persistence. The existing body of knowledge concerning these agents ranges from speculation to established fact. Unfortunately, areas of information critical to risk assessment are frequently unavailable. Because of this lack of data, the risk assessment presented is semiquantitative and limited to the presentation of an environmental classification scheme. 14 refs., 2 figs., 57 tabs.

  2. Water Quality and Sustainable Environmental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setegn, S. G.

    2014-12-01

    Lack of adequate safe water, the pollution of the aquatic environment and the mismanagement of resources are major causes of ill-health and mortality, particularly in the developing countries. In order to accommodate more growth, sustainable fresh water resource management will need to be included in future development plans. One of the major environmental issues of concern to policy-makers is the increased vulnerability of ground water quality. The main challenge for the sustainability of water resources is the control of water pollution. To understand the sustainability of the water resources, one needs to understand the impact of future land use and climate changes on the natural resources. Providing safe water and basic sanitation to meet the Millennium Development Goals will require substantial economic resources, sustainable technological solutions and courageous political will. A balanced approach to water resources exploitation for development, on the one hand, and controls for the protection of health, on the other, is required if the benefits of both are to be realized without avoidable detrimental effects manifesting themselves. Meeting the millennium development goals for water and sanitation in the next decade will require substantial economic resources, sustainable technological solutions and courageous political will. In addition to providing "improved" water and "basic" sanitation services, we must ensure that these services provide: safe drinking water, adequate quantities of water for health, hygiene, agriculture and development and sustainable sanitation approaches to protect health and the environment.

  3. Long Term Resource Monitoring Program Water Quality Component Review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Soballe, David M; Houser, Jeffrey N

    2006-01-01

    ...) adequacy and suitability of the water quality procedures manual, (4) adequacy and efficiency of procedures for quality assurance and quality control in data collection and laboratory analyses, (5...

  4. Risk-based water resources planning: Coupling water allocation and water quality management under extreme droughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi-Naeini, M.; Bussi, G.; Hall, J. W.; Whitehead, P. G.

    2016-12-01

    The main aim of water companies is to have a reliable and safe water supply system. To fulfil their duty the water companies have to consider both water quality and quantity issues and challenges. Climate change and population growth will have an impact on water resources both in terms of available water and river water quality. Traditionally, a distinct separation between water quality and abstraction has existed. However, water quality can be a bottleneck in a system since water treatment works can only treat water if it meets certain standards. For instance, high turbidity and large phytoplankton content can increase sharply the cost of treatment or even make river water unfit for human consumption purposes. It is vital for water companies to be able to characterise the quantity and quality of water under extreme weather events and to consider the occurrence of eventual periods when water abstraction has to cease due to water quality constraints. This will give them opportunity to decide on water resource planning and potential changes to reduce the system failure risk. We present a risk-based approach for incorporating extreme events, based on future climate change scenarios from a large ensemble of climate model realisations, into integrated water resources model through combined use of water allocation (WATHNET) and water quality (INCA) models. The annual frequency of imposed restrictions on demand is considered as measure of reliability. We tested our approach on Thames region, in the UK, with 100 extreme events. The results show increase in frequency of imposed restrictions when water quality constraints were considered. This indicates importance of considering water quality issues in drought management plans.

  5. The effectiveness of large household water storage tanks for protecting the quality of drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jay P; VanDerslice, James

    2007-06-01

    Many communities along the US-Mexico border remain without infrastructure for water and sewage. Residents in these communities often collect and store their water in open 55-gallon drums. This study evaluated changes in drinking water quality resulting from an intervention that provided large closed water storage tanks (2,500-gallons) to individual homes lacking a piped water supply. After the intervention, many of the households did not change the source of their drinking water to the large storage tanks. Therefore, water quality results were first compared based on the source of the household's drinking water: store or vending machine, large tank, or collected from a public supply and transported by the household. Of the households that used the large storage tank as their drinking water supply, drinking water quality was generally of poorer quality. Fifty-four percent of samples collected prior to intervention had detectable levels of total coliforms, while 82% of samples were positive nine months after the intervention (p water quality at different points between collection by water delivery trucks and delivery to the household's large storage tank. Thirty percent of the samples taken immediately after water was delivered to the home had high total coliforms (> 10 CFU/100 ml). Mean free chlorine levels dropped from 0.43 mg/l, where the trucks filled their tanks, to 0.20 mg/l inside the household's tank immediately after delivery. Results of this study have implications for interventions that focus on safe water treatment and storage in the home, and for guidelines regarding the level of free chlorine required in water delivered by water delivery trucks.

  6. Microbiological quality of drinking water from dispensers in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasi Daniela

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Water coolers are popular in office buildings and commercial stores and the quality of this source of drinking water has the potential to cause waterborne outbreaks, especially in sensitive and immunocompromised subjects. The aim of this study was to determine the quality of water plumbed in coolers from commercial stores in comparison with tap water in Italy. Methods For each sample, microbial parameters and chemical indicators of contamination were evaluated and information about the date of installation, time since last ordinary and extraordinary maintenance of water coolers was collected. Results In all samples the chemical parameters (nitrite, ammonium, free active chlorine residual did not exceed the reference values of the drinking water regulation; the pH value in 86.8% samples of the carbonated waters was lower than the reference limit. The microbiological results indicated that the bacteria count at 22°C and 37°C was higher than the required values in 71% and 81% for the non-carbonated water and in 86% and 88% for the carbonated one, respectively. Enterococcus spp. and Escherichia coli were not detected in any of the water samples. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found in only one sample of the tap water and in 28.9% and 23.7% of the non-carbonated and carbonated water samples, respectively. No statistically significant differences in bacterial counts at 22°C and 37°C have been found between the non-carbonated and carbonated water from the sampled coolers in relation with the time since the last filter was substituted. The bacteriological quality of tap water was superior to that of non-carbonated and carbonated water from coolers. Conclusion The results emphasize the importance of adopting appropriate routinely monitoring system in order to prevent or to diminish the chances of contamination of this water source.

  7. Microbiological quality of drinking water from dispensers in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, Giorgio; Cavallotti, Ivan; Arnese, Antonio; Amiranda, Ciro; Anastasi, Daniela; Angelillo, Italo F

    2010-01-26

    Water coolers are popular in office buildings and commercial stores and the quality of this source of drinking water has the potential to cause waterborne outbreaks, especially in sensitive and immunocompromised subjects. The aim of this study was to determine the quality of water plumbed in coolers from commercial stores in comparison with tap water in Italy. For each sample, microbial parameters and chemical indicators of contamination were evaluated and information about the date of installation, time since last ordinary and extraordinary maintenance of water coolers was collected. In all samples the chemical parameters (nitrite, ammonium, free active chlorine residual) did not exceed the reference values of the drinking water regulation; the pH value in 86.8% samples of the carbonated waters was lower than the reference limit. The microbiological results indicated that the bacteria count at 22 degrees C and 37 degrees C was higher than the required values in 71% and 81% for the non-carbonated water and in 86% and 88% for the carbonated one, respectively. Enterococcus spp. and Escherichia coli were not detected in any of the water samples. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found in only one sample of the tap water and in 28.9% and 23.7% of the non-carbonated and carbonated water samples, respectively. No statistically significant differences in bacterial counts at 22 degrees C and 37 degrees C have been found between the non-carbonated and carbonated water from the sampled coolers in relation with the time since the last filter was substituted. The bacteriological quality of tap water was superior to that of non-carbonated and carbonated water from coolers. The results emphasize the importance of adopting appropriate routinely monitoring system in order to prevent or to diminish the chances of contamination of this water source.

  8. Water quality assessment with hierarchical cluster analysis based on Mahalanobis distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiangjun; Shao, Fengjing; Wu, Shunyao; Zhang, Hanlin; Xu, Si

    2017-07-01

    Water quality assessment is crucial for assessment of marine eutrophication, prediction of harmful algal blooms, and environment protection. Previous studies have developed many numeric modeling methods and data driven approaches for water quality assessment. The cluster analysis, an approach widely used for grouping data, has also been employed. However, there are complex correlations between water quality variables, which play important roles in water quality assessment but have always been overlooked. In this paper, we analyze correlations between water quality variables and propose an alternative method for water quality assessment with hierarchical cluster analysis based on Mahalanobis distance. Further, we cluster water quality data collected form coastal water of Bohai Sea and North Yellow Sea of China, and apply clustering results to evaluate its water quality. To evaluate the validity, we also cluster the water quality data with cluster analysis based on Euclidean distance, which are widely adopted by previous studies. The results show that our method is more suitable for water quality assessment with many correlated water quality variables. To our knowledge, it is the first attempt to apply Mahalanobis distance for coastal water quality assessment.

  9. Urban Runoff and Water Quality Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Tae [Kyonggi University, Suwon (Korea)

    1998-12-31

    The characteristics of storm and water quality are investigated based on the measuring data of the test river, the Hongje. The water quality of the test river is generally good comparing to other urban rivers in Seoul, because of the interception of sewer flow. But this system makes the river dry up for 3-4 months in winter. On the other hand, in rainy period the storm from the combined sewer system causes rapid increasing pollutants loads. In order to simulate the urban storm and water quality of the test basin, the models such as SWMM, ILLUDAS, STORM, HEC-1 were applied and the results are compared in its applicability and accuracy aspects. All models discussed here have shown good results and it seems that SWMM is the most effective model in simulating both quantity and quality. Also, regression relations between the water quantity and quality were derived and their applicabilities were discussed. This regression model is a simple effective tool for estimating the pollutant loads in the rainy period, but if the amount of discharge is bigger than measuring range of raw data, the accuracy becomes poor. This model could be supplemented by expanding the range of collecting data and introducing the river characteristics. The HEC-1 would be another effective model to simulate storm runoff of a river basin including urban area. (author). 15 refs., 13 tabs., 13 figs.

  10. Water Quality Management Survey Columbus AFB, Mississippi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-01

    existing outfall provides chlorine contact time, since the WTP does not have a chlorine contact tank. 2. The base anaerobic digestor is operated by... digestor may be sourin;. but the pH and solids may not indicate the impending upset. C. Surface Water 1. According to the State of Mississippi Water Quality...acids to alkalinity ratio should be added as a control indicator for the anaerobic digestor . Changes in the ratio can indicate hydraulic overload, organic

  11. Small drinking water systems under spatiotemporal water quality variability: a risk-based performance benchmarking framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereskie, Ty; Haider, Husnain; Rodriguez, Manuel J; Sadiq, Rehan

    2017-08-23

    Traditional approaches for benchmarking drinking water systems are binary, based solely on the compliance and/or non-compliance of one or more water quality performance indicators against defined regulatory guidelines/standards. The consequence of water quality failure is dependent on location within a water supply system as well as time of the year (i.e., season) with varying levels of water consumption. Conventional approaches used for water quality comparison purposes fail to incorporate spatiotemporal variability and degrees of compliance and/or non-compliance. This can lead to misleading or inaccurate performance assessment data used in the performance benchmarking process. In this research, a hierarchical risk-based water quality performance benchmarking framework is proposed to evaluate small drinking water systems (SDWSs) through cross-comparison amongst similar systems. The proposed framework (R WQI framework) is designed to quantify consequence associated with seasonal and location-specific water quality issues in a given drinking water supply system to facilitate more efficient decision-making for SDWSs striving for continuous performance improvement. Fuzzy rule-based modelling is used to address imprecision associated with measuring performance based on singular water quality guidelines/standards and the uncertainties present in SDWS operations and monitoring. This proposed R WQI framework has been demonstrated using data collected from 16 SDWSs in Newfoundland and Labrador and Quebec, Canada, and compared to the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment WQI, a traditional, guidelines/standard-based approach. The study found that the R WQI framework provides an in-depth state of water quality and benchmarks SDWSs more rationally based on the frequency of occurrence and consequence of failure events.

  12. Water Quality Monitoring of Texas Offshore Artificial Reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodkin, L.; Lee, M.

    2016-02-01

    Artificial reefs provide a habitat for marine organisms and abundant ecosystem services. In reef ecosystems, several organisms tolerate a small range of physical water properties and any change in water quality could affect their survival. Therefore, monitoring how these artificial reefs respond to environmental changes due to natural and anthropogenic causes is essential for management. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department (TPWD-ARP) are collaboratively monitoring artificial reefs located in the Gulf of Mexico in order to understand the productivity of these ecosystems, and their response to environmental changes. To accomplish this, TPWD use established protocols for biological monitoring, and the USGS collects physical and chemical water quality data. The selected artificial reef sites are located nearby national marine sanctuaries to facilitate comparison to natural reefs, but also provide enough spatial variability for comparison purposes. Additionally, the sites differ in artificial reef foundation providing an opportunity to evaluate variability in reefing structure. Physical water quality parameter profiles are collected to: (1)document variability of water quality between sites, (2)characterize the environmental conditions at the artificial reefs, and (3)monitor the reefs for potential impacts from anthropogenic stresses. Monitors have also been deployed at selected locations between trips to obtain a continuous record of physical water quality parameters. Water quality samples for nutrients, chlorophyll a, Pheophytin a, and an assortment of metal analytes are collected by USGS divers at the top of each artificial reef structure. Collecting long-term monitoring data with targeted sampling for constituents of concern at artificial reefs may provide a foundation to determine their current status and establish trends that can be used for future management. A record of hydrographic variables could be used to explain and

  13. Interventions to improve water quality for preventing diarrhoea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clasen, Thomas F; Alexander, Kelly T; Sinclair, David; Boisson, Sophie; Peletz, Rachel; Chang, Howard H; Majorin, Fiona; Cairncross, Sandy

    2015-01-01

    unimproved water sources (30 studies) and unimproved or unclear sanitation (34 studies). The primary outcome in most studies was self-reported diarrhoea, which is at high risk of bias due to the lack of blinding in over 80% of the included studies. Source-based water quality improvements There is currently insufficient evidence to know if source-based improvements such as protected wells, communal tap stands, or chlorination/filtration of community sources consistently reduce diarrhoea (one cluster-RCT, five CBA studies, very low quality evidence). We found no studies evaluating reliable piped-in water supplies delivered to households. Point-of-use water quality interventions On average, distributing water disinfection products for use at the household level may reduce diarrhoea by around one quarter (Home chlorination products: RR 0.77, 95% CI 0.65 to 0.91; 14 trials, 30,746 participants, low quality evidence; flocculation and disinfection sachets: RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.58 to 0.82, four trials, 11,788 participants, moderate quality evidence). However, there was substantial heterogeneity in the size of the effect estimates between individual studies. Point-of-use filtration systems probably reduce diarrhoea by around a half (RR 0.48, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.59, 18 trials, 15,582 participants, moderate quality evidence). Important reductions in diarrhoea episodes were shown with ceramic filters, biosand systems and LifeStraw® filters; (Ceramic: RR 0.39, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.53; eight trials, 5763 participants, moderate quality evidence; Biosand: RR 0.47, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.57; four trials, 5504 participants, moderate quality evidence; LifeStraw®: RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.51 to 0.93; three trials, 3259 participants, low quality evidence). Plumbed in filters have only been evaluated in high-income settings (RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.94, three trials, 1056 participants, fixed effects model). In low-income settings, solar water disinfection (SODIS) by distribution of plastic bottles with instructions

  14. Water quality as a predictor of gastrointestinal illness following incidental contact water recreation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorevitch, Samuel; DeFlorio-Barker, Stephanie; Jones, Rachael M; Liu, Li

    2015-10-15

    Microbial measures of water quality are predictors of gastrointestinal illness among swimmers in some settings but not in others. Little is known whether water quality measures predict illness among people who engage in popular water recreation activities such as paddling, rowing, fishing, or boating ("incidental contact water recreation"). We sought to evaluate indicator microbes, protozoan pathogens, and turbidity as predictors of gastrointestinal illness following incidental contact water recreation. A cohort study of incidental contact water recreation was conducted in the Chicago, USA area. Recreation took place on inland lakes, rivers, Lake Michigan, and an urban waterway heavily impacted by wastewater effluent. Water samples were analyzed for Escherichia coli, enterococci, somatic coliphages, F+ coliphages, Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. (oo)cysts, and for turbidity. Median enterococci concentrations were 71.0 and 199.8 colony forming units/100  mL at general use and effluent-dominated waters, respectively. Among 4694 study participants with complete covariate data, 193 (4.1%) developed gastrointestinal illness within three days of water recreation. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, water quality metrics did not predict gastrointestinal illness among water recreators. Several variables other than water quality were associated acute gastrointestinal illness. The odds of such illness was increased by approximately two-fold by the presence of a chronic gastrointestinal condition, water exposure to the face, and by approximately 50% among those who fished (as opposed to other incidental contact activities). The odds of illness were reduced by approximately 50% among individuals who frequently used a water body for recreation. Unlike studies of swimmers at wastewater-impacted beaches that observed associations between water quality and illness incidence, this study did not. Public health protections for incidental contact recreation might

  15. Hydrogeochemistry and quality assessment of some ground water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to evaluate the groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking purposes in Enugu and environs, southeastern Nigeria. Water samples for this study were collected from ten different locations within the study area. Nine of the samples were subjected to physico-chemical analyses only, two out of ...

  16. Water-safety strategies and local-scale spatial quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nillesen, A.L.

    2013-01-01

    Delta regions throughout the world are subject to increasing flood risks. For protection, regional water safety strategies are being developed. Local-scale spatial qualities should be included in their evaluation. An experimental methodology has been developed for this purpose. This paper

  17. Hydrological and Water Quality Characteristics of Rivers Feeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, FDC analysis, in conjunction with water quality assessment, was used to evaluate the reliability of rivers flows that supply small earth dams designed for ... It is then recommended that construction of such small earth dams should be preceded by thorough scientific design through appropriate engineering and ...

  18. General survey and conclusions with regard to the connection of water quantity and water quality studies of surface waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijtema, P.E.

    1979-01-01

    Publikatie die bestaat uit twee delen: 1. General survey of the relation between water quantity and water quality; 2. Conclusions with regard to the connection of water quantity and water quality studies of surface waters

  19. 40 CFR 227.31 - Applicable marine water quality criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicable marine water quality... § 227.31 Applicable marine water quality criteria. Applicable marine water quality criteria means the criteria given for marine waters in the EPA publication “Quality Criteria for Water” as published in 1976...

  20. Water quality assessment using water quality index and geographical information system methods in the coastal waters of Andaman Sea, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Dilip Kumar; Devi, Marimuthu Prashanthi; Vidyalakshmi, Rajendran; Brindha, Balan; Vinithkumar, Nambali Valsalan; Kirubagaran, Ramalingam

    2015-11-15

    Seawater samples at 54 stations in the year 2011-2012 from Chidiyatappu, Port Blair, Rangat and Aerial Bays of Andaman Sea, have been investigated in the present study. Datasets obtained have been converted into simple maps using coastal water quality index (CWQI) and Geographical Information System (GIS) based overlay mapping technique to demarcate healthy and polluted areas. Analysis of multiple parameters revealed poor water quality in Port Blair and Rangat Bays. The anthropogenic activities may be the likely cause for poor water quality. Whereas, good water quality was witnessed at Chidiyatappu Bay. Higher CWQI scores were perceived in the open sea. However, less exploitation of coastal resources owing to minimal anthropogenic activity indicated good water quality index at Chidiyatappu Bay. This study is an attempt to integrate CWQI and GIS based mapping technique to derive a reliable, simple and useful output for water quality monitoring in coastal environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Water quality, compliance, and health outcomes among utilities implementing Water Safety Plans in France and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setty, Karen E; Kayser, Georgia L; Bowling, Michael; Enault, Jerome; Loret, Jean-Francois; Serra, Claudia Puigdomenech; Alonso, Jordi Martin; Mateu, Arnau Pla; Bartram, Jamie

    2017-05-01

    Water Safety Plans (WSPs), recommended by the World Health Organization since 2004, seek to proactively identify potential risks to drinking water supplies and implement preventive barriers that improve safety. To evaluate the outcomes of WSP application in large drinking water systems in France and Spain, we undertook analysis of water quality and compliance indicators between 2003 and 2015, in conjunction with an observational retrospective cohort study of acute gastroenteritis incidence, before and after WSPs were implemented at five locations. Measured water quality indicators included bacteria (E. coli, fecal streptococci, total coliform, heterotrophic plate count), disinfectants (residual free and total chlorine), disinfection by-products (trihalomethanes, bromate), aluminum, pH, turbidity, and total organic carbon, comprising about 240K manual samples and 1.2M automated sensor readings. We used multiple, Poisson, or Tobit regression models to evaluate water quality before and after the WSP intervention. The compliance assessment analyzed exceedances of regulated, recommended, or operational water quality thresholds using chi-squared or Fisher's exact tests. Poisson regression was used to examine acute gastroenteritis incidence rates in WSP-affected drinking water service areas relative to a comparison area. Implementation of a WSP generally resulted in unchanged or improved water quality, while compliance improved at most locations. Evidence for reduced acute gastroenteritis incidence following WSP implementation was found at only one of the three locations examined. Outcomes of WSPs should be expected to vary across large water utilities in developed nations, as the intervention itself is adapted to the needs of each location. The approach may translate to diverse water quality, compliance, and health outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Sustainable River Water Quality Management in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Al-Mamun

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Ecological status of Malaysia is not as bad as many other developing nations in the world. However, despite the enforcement of the Environmental Quality Act (EQA in 1974, the water quality of Malaysian inland water (especially rivers is following deteriorating trend. The rivers are mainly polluted due to the point and non-point pollution sources. Point sources are monitored and controlled by the Department of Environment (DOE, whereas a significant amount of pollutants is contributed by untreated sullage and storm runoff. Nevertheless, it is not too late to take some bold steps for the effective control of non-point source pollution and untreated sullage discharge, which play significant roles on the status of the rivers. This paper reviews the existing procedures and guidelines related to protection of the river water quality in Malaysia.  There is a good possibility that the sewage and effluent discharge limits in the Environmental Quality Act (EQA may pose hindrance against achieving good quality water in the rivers as required by the National Water Quality Standards (NWQS. For instance, Ammoniacal Nitrogen (NH3-N is identified as one of the main pollutants to render many of the rivers polluted but it was not considered in the EQA as a monitoring parameter until the new regulations published in 2009.  Surprisingly, the new regulation for sewage and industrial effluent limits set allowable NH3-N concentration quite high (5 mg/L, which may result in low Water Quality Index (WQI values for the river water. The water environment is a dynamic system. Periodical review of the monitoring requirements, detecting emerging pollutants in sewage, effluent and runoff, and proper revision of water quality standards are necessary for the management of sustainable water resources in the country. ABSTRAK: Satus ekologi Malaysia tidak seburuk kebanyakan negara membangun lain di dunia. Walaupun Akta Kualiti Alam Sekitar (EQA dikuatkuasakan pada tahun 1974

  3. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Agricultural Management Practices under Climate Change for Water Quality Improvement in a Rural Agricultural Watershed of Oklahoma, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasoulzadeh Gharibdousti, S.; Kharel, G.; Stoecker, A.; Storm, D.

    2016-12-01

    One of the main causes of water quality impairment in the United States is human induced Non-Point Source (NPS) pollution through intensive agriculture. Fort Cobb Reservoir (FCR) watershed located in west-central Oklahoma, United States is a rural agricultural catchment with known issues of NPS pollution including suspended solids, siltation, nutrients, and pesticides. The FCR watershed with an area of 813 km2 includes one major lake fed by four tributaries. Recently, several Best Management Practices (BMPs) have been implemented in the watershed (such as no-tillage and cropland to grassland conversion) to improve water quality. In this study we aim to estimate the effectiveness of different BMPs in improving watershed health under future climate projections. We employed the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to develop the hydrological model of the FCR watershed. The watershed was delineated using the 10 m USGS Digital Elevation Model and divided into 43 sub-basins with an average area of 8 km2 (min. 0.2 km2 - max. 28 km2). Through a combination of Soil Survey Geographic Database- SSURGO soil data, the US Department of Agriculture crop layer and the slope information, the watershed was further divided into 1,217 hydrologic response units. The historical climate pattern in the watershed was represented by two different weather stations. The model was calibrated (1991 - 2000) and validated (2001 - 2010) against the monthly USGS observations of streamflow recorded at the watershed outlet using three statistical matrices: coefficient of determination (R2), Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NS) and percentage bias (PB). Model parametrization resulted into satisfactory values of R2 (0.56) and NS (0.56) in calibration period and an excellent model performance (R2 = 0.75; NS = 0.75; PB = water and sediment yields under a combination of three Coupled Model Intercomparison Project-5 Global Climate Model projections and two concentration pathways (4.5 and 8.5) downscaled to the

  4. Linking Spatial Variations in Water Quality with Water and Land Management using Multivariate Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yongshan; Qian, Yun; Migliaccio, Kati White; Li, Yuncong; Conrad, Cecilia

    2014-03-01

    Most studies using multivariate techniques for pollution source evaluation are conducted in free-flowing rivers with distinct point and nonpoint sources. This study expanded on previous research to a managed "canal" system discharging into the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, where water and land management is the single most important anthropogenic factor influencing water quality. Hydrometric and land use data of four drainage basins were uniquely integrated into the analysis of 25 yr of monthly water quality data collected at seven stations to determine the impact of water and land management on the spatial variability of water quality. Cluster analysis (CA) classified seven monitoring stations into four groups (CA groups). All water quality parameters identified by discriminant analysis showed distinct spatial patterns among the four CA groups. Two-step principal component analysis/factor analysis (PCA/FA) was conducted with (i) water quality data alone and (ii) water quality data in conjunction with rainfall, flow, and land use data. The results indicated that PCA/FA of water quality data alone was unable to identify factors associated with management activities. The addition of hydrometric and land use data into PCA/FA revealed close associations of nutrients and color with land management and storm-water retention in pasture and citrus lands; total suspended solids, turbidity, and NO + NO with flow and Lake Okeechobee releases; specific conductivity with supplemental irrigation supply; and dissolved O with wetland preservation. The practical implication emphasizes the importance of basin-specific land and water management for ongoing pollutant loading reduction and ecosystem restoration programs. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  5. Water Quality Considerations and Related Dishwashing Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Nina I.

    A number of the chemical and physical factors which cause dishwashing problems are presented in a series of charts. Water quality considerations are vital, but the importance of good housekeeping and proper operating practices cannot and must not be minimized. Topics discussed include--(1) dissolved minerals, (2) dissolved gases, (3) detergents,…

  6. Water Quality Response to Forest Biomass Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin Rau; Augustine Muwamba; Carl Trettin; Sudhanshu Panda; Devendra Amatya; Ernest Tollner

    2017-01-01

    Forested watersheds provide approximately 80% of freshwater drinking resources in the United States (Fox et al. 2007). The water originating from forested watersheds is typically of high quality when compared to agricul¬tural watersheds, and concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus are nine times higher, on average, in agricultur¬al watersheds when compared to...

  7. Water quality assessment and hydrochemical characteristics of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 123; Issue 1. Water quality assessment and hydrochemical characteristics of groundwater on the aspect of metals in an old town, Foshan, south China. Guanxing Huang Zongyu Chen Jichao Sun. Volume 123 Issue 1 February 2014 pp 91-100 ...

  8. surface water quality in addis ababa, ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT: The main threat to the surface water quality in Addis Ababa is environmental pollution derived from domestic and industrial activities. Due to the inadequacy of controlled waste management strategies and waste treatment plants, people are forced to discharge wastes both on open surface and within.

  9. Water quality of the Modder River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Koning

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal and spatial patterns in the Modder River system, the influence of Botshabelo's sewage outflow’ on the water quality of the river, as well as the presence of any toxic compounds were determined. The Modder and Klein Modder Rivers do not follow distinctive seasonal patterns in terms of chemical parameters.

  10. Robustness of river basin water quality models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Blois, Chris; Wind, H.G.; de Kok, Jean-Luc; Koppeschaar, K.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the concept of robustness is introduced and applied to a model for the analysis of the impacts of spatially distributed policy measures on the surface water quality on a river basin scale. In this model the influence of precipitation on emissions and resuspension of pollutants in the

  11. New challenges in integrated water quality modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rode, M.; Arhonditsis, G.; Balin, D.; Kebede, T.; Krysanova, V.; Griensven, A.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.

    2010-01-01

    There is an increasing pressure for development of integrated water quality models that effectively couple catchment and in-stream biogeochemical processes. This need stems from increasing legislative requirements and emerging demands related to contemporary climate and land use changes. Modelling

  12. Compost improves urban soil and water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Construction in urban zones compacts the soil, which hinders root growth and infiltration and may increase erosion, which may degrade water quality. The purpose of our study was to determine the whether planting prairie grasses and adding compost to urban soils can mitigate these concerns. We simula...

  13. CORRELATION STUDY AMONG WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-09-01

    Sep 1, 2015 ... CORRELATION STUDY AMONG WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS OF. GROUNDWATER OF VALSAD DISTRICT OF SOUTH GUJARAT (INDIA). P. Shroff. 1. , R. T. Vashi. 1,*. , V. A. Champaneri. 2 and K. K. Patel. 1. 1Department of Chemistry, Navyug Science College, Surat-395009, (Gujarat), India. 2.

  14. TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL PHYSICOCHEMICAL WATER QUALITY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), suspended solids (SS), pH, oil and grease, and electroconductivity. (EC). The samples were collected in both dry and rainy seasons of 2006 and analysed using standard methods. Results showed that the impairment of water quality in a stream depended on the type of industry in its ...

  15. Water quality criteria for hexachloroethane: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, K.A.; Hovatter, P.S.; Ross, R.H.

    1988-03-01

    The available data regarding the environmental fate, aquatic toxicity, and mammalian toxicity of hexachloroethane, which is used in military screening smokes, were reviewed. The USEPA guidelines were used to generate water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life and its uses and of human health. 16 tabs.

  16. FISH PHYSIOLOGY, TOXICOLOGY, AND WATER QUALITY:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenty-one participants from Europe, North America and China convened in Chongqing, China, October 12-14, 2005, for the Eighth International Symposium in Fish Physiology, Toxicology and Water Quality. The subject of the meeting was "Hypoxia in vertebrates: Comparisons of terrestr...

  17. Evaluation of Perceived Spatial Audio Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Berg

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The increased use of audio applications capable of conveying enhanced spatial quality puts focus on how such a quality should be evaluated. Different approaches to evaluation of perceived quality are briefly discussed and a new technique is introduced. In a series of experiment, attributes were elicited from subjects, tested and subsequently used for derivation of evaluation scales that were feasible for subjective evaluation of the spatial quality of certain multichannel stimuli. The findings of these experiments led to the development of a novel method for evaluation of spatial audio in surround sound systems. Parts of the method were subsequently implemented in the OPAQUE software prototype designed to facilitate the elicitation process. The prototype was successfully tested in a pilot experiment. The experiments show that attribute scales derived from subjects' personal constructs are functional for evaluation of perceived spatial audio quality. Finally, conclusions on the importance of spatial quality evaluation of new applications are made.

  18. Drainage water management effects on tile discharge and water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen (N) fluxes from tile drained watersheds have been implicated in water quality studies of the Mississippi River Basin, but the contribution of tile drains to N export in headwater watersheds is not well understood. The objective of this study was to ascertain seasonal and annual contribution...

  19. SF Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund: Projects and Accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund (SFBWQIF) projects listed here are part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  20. Specific Water Quality Sites for Cache County, Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map shows specific water-quality items and hydrologic data site information which come from QWDATA (Water Quality) and GWSI (Ground Water Information System)....

  1. Specific Water Quality Sites for Summit County, Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map shows specific water-quality items and hydrologic data site information which come from QWDATA (Water Quality) and GWSI (Ground Water Information System)....

  2. Specific Water Quality Sites for Iron County, Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map shows specific water-quality items and hydrologic data site information which come from QWDATA (Water Quality) and GWSI (Ground Water Information System)....

  3. Specific Water Quality Sites for Tooele County, Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map shows specific water-quality items and hydrologic data site information which come from QWDATA (Water Quality) and GWSI (Ground Water Information System)....

  4. Monitoring and modeling of microbial and biological water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbial and biological water quality informs on the health of water systems and their suitability for uses in irrigation, recreation, aquaculture, and other activities. Indicators of microbial and biological water quality demonstrate high spatial and temporal variability. Therefore, monitoring str...

  5. Specific Water Quality Sites for Morgan County, Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map shows specific water-quality items and hydrologic data site information which come from QWDATA (Water Quality) and GWSI (Ground Water Information System)....

  6. Specific Water Quality Sites for Weber County, Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map shows specific water-quality items and hydrologic data site information which come from QWDATA (Water Quality) and GWSI (Ground Water Information System)....

  7. Specific Water Quality Sites for Uintah County, Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map shows specific water-quality items and hydrologic data site information which come from QWDATA (Water Quality) and GWSI (Ground Water Information System)....

  8. Specific Water Quality Sites for Sanpete County, Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map shows specific water-quality items and hydrologic data site information which come from QWDATA (Water Quality) and GWSI (Ground Water Information System)....

  9. Specific Water Quality Sites for Wasatch County, Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map shows specific water-quality items and hydrologic data site information which come from QWDATA (Water Quality) and GWSI (Ground Water Information System)....

  10. Specific Water Quality Sites for Carbon County, Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map shows specific water-quality items and hydrologic data site information which come from QWDATA (Water Quality) and GWSI (Ground Water Information System)....

  11. Assessing water quality trends in catchments with contrasting hydrological regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherriff, Sophie C.; Shore, Mairead; Mellander, Per-Erik

    2016-04-01

    Environmental resources are under increasing pressure to simultaneously achieve social, economic and ecological aims. Increasing demand for food production, for example, has expanded and intensified agricultural systems globally. In turn, greater risks of diffuse pollutant delivery (suspended sediment (SS) and Phosphorus (P)) from land to water due to higher stocking densities, fertilisation rates and soil erodibility has been attributed to deterioration of chemical and ecological quality of aquatic ecosystems. Development of sustainable and resilient management strategies for agro-ecosystems must detect and consider the impact of land use disturbance on water quality over time. However, assessment of multiple monitoring sites over a region is challenged by hydro-climatic fluctuations and the propagation of events through catchments with contrasting hydrological regimes. Simple water quality metrics, for example, flow-weighted pollutant exports have potential to normalise the impact of catchment hydrology and better identify water quality fluctuations due to land use and short-term climate fluctuations. This paper assesses the utility of flow-weighted water quality metrics to evaluate periods and causes of critical pollutant transfer. Sub-hourly water quality (SS and P) and discharge data were collected from hydrometric monitoring stations at the outlets of five small (~10 km2) agricultural catchments in Ireland. Catchments possess contrasting land uses (predominantly grassland or arable) and soil drainage (poorly, moderately or well drained) characteristics. Flow-weighted water quality metrics were calculated and evaluated according to fluctuations in source pressure and rainfall. Flow-weighted water quality metrics successfully identified fluctuations in pollutant export which could be attributed to land use changes through the agricultural calendar, i.e., groundcover fluctuations. In particular, catchments with predominantly poor or moderate soil drainage

  12. Identification of water quality degradation hotspots in developing countries by applying large scale water quality modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malsy, Marcus; Reder, Klara; Flörke, Martina

    2014-05-01

    Decreasing water quality is one of the main global issues which poses risks to food security, economy, and public health and is consequently crucial for ensuring environmental sustainability. During the last decades access to clean drinking water increased, but 2.5 billion people still do not have access to basic sanitation, especially in Africa and parts of Asia. In this context not only connection to sewage system is of high importance, but also treatment, as an increasing connection rate will lead to higher loadings and therefore higher pressure on water resources. Furthermore, poor people in developing countries use local surface waters for daily activities, e.g. bathing and washing. It is thus clear that water utilization and water sewerage are indispensable connected. In this study, large scale water quality modelling is used to point out hotspots of water pollution to get an insight on potential environmental impacts, in particular, in regions with a low observation density and data gaps in measured water quality parameters. We applied the global water quality model WorldQual to calculate biological oxygen demand (BOD) loadings from point and diffuse sources, as well as in-stream concentrations. Regional focus in this study is on developing countries i.e. Africa, Asia, and South America, as they are most affected by water pollution. Hereby, model runs were conducted for the year 2010 to draw a picture of recent status of surface waters quality and to figure out hotspots and main causes of pollution. First results show that hotspots mainly occur in highly agglomerated regions where population density is high. Large urban areas are initially loading hotspots and pollution prevention and control become increasingly important as point sources are subject to connection rates and treatment levels. Furthermore, river discharge plays a crucial role due to dilution potential, especially in terms of seasonal variability. Highly varying shares of BOD sources across

  13. Quality-assurance plan for water-quality activities in the U.S. Geological Survey Washington Water Science Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Kathleen E.; Huffman, Raegan L.; Barton, Cynthia

    2017-05-08

    In accordance with guidelines set forth by the Office of Water Quality in the Water Mission Area of the U.S. Geological Survey, a quality-assurance plan has been created for use by the Washington Water Science Center (WAWSC) in conducting water-quality activities. This qualityassurance plan documents the standards, policies, and procedures used by the WAWSC for activities related to the collection, processing, storage, analysis, and publication of water-quality data. The policies and procedures documented in this quality-assurance plan for water-quality activities complement the quality-assurance plans for surface-water and groundwater activities at the WAWSC.

  14. Evaluation of nonpoint-source contamination, Wisconsin; selected streamwater-quality data, land-use and best-management practices inventory, and quality assurance and quality control, water year 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi, Steven R.; Walker, John F.; Graczyk, D.J.; Greb, S.R.; Owens, D.W.; Rappold, K.F.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of the watershed-management evaluation monitoring program in Wisconsin is to evaluate the effectiveness of the best-management practices (BMPs) for rural streams, urban streams, and urban storm sewers. This report is an annual summary of the data collected for the program and a report of the results from several different special studies conducted within this program.

  15. Evaluation of Physical Training Lesson Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Nina V. Skorik

    2013-01-01

    The article considers approaches to evaluation of a PT lesson quality, using qualimetry methods, develops “quality tree” of a PT lesson, presents factors, enabling to estimate a PT lesson quality qualitatively and determine quantitative meanings of certain components of this estimation, determines validity of characteristics, involved in “quality tree” of a PT lesson. Analysis of quantitative estimation of a PT lesson quality, conducted on the basis of qualimetry methods enables to online the...

  16. Financial audit services quality: analysis and evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Vaicekauskas, Darius

    2015-01-01

    The object of the doctoral dissertation is financial audit service quality (further – audit service quality). The aim of the doctoral dissertation is to conceptualize audit service quality and based on the conceptual model to analyse and evaluate audit service quality in Lithuania while providing recommendations for quality improvements. The aim is achieved while applying following research methods: analysis of scientific literature, content analysis, questionnaire survey, expert judgement. ...

  17. Chapter 5: Surface water quality sampling in streams and canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface water sampling and water quality assessments have greatly evolved in the United States since the 1970s establishment of the Clean Water Act. Traditionally, water quality referred to only the chemical characteristics of the water and its toxicological properties related to drinking water or ...

  18. Evaluation of Phytoremediation of Coal Bed Methane Product Water and Waters of Quality Similar to that Associated with Coal Bed Methane Reserves of the Powder River Basin, Montana and Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Bauder

    2008-09-30

    when water supplies sourced from coalbed methane extraction are plentiful. Constructed wetlands, planted to native, salt tolerant species demonstrated potential to utilize substantial volumes of coalbed methane product water, although plant community transitions to mono-culture and limited diversity communities is a likely consequence over time. Additionally, selected, cultured forage quality barley varieties and native plant species such as Quail bush, 4-wing saltbush, and seaside barley are capable of sustainable, high quality livestock forage production, when irrigated with coalbed methane product water sourced from the Powder River Basin. A consequence of long-term plant water use which was enumerated is elevated salinity and sodicity concentrations within soil and shallow alluvial groundwater into which coalbed methane product water might drain. The most significant conclusion of these investigations was the understanding that phytoremediation is not a viable, effective technique for management of coalbed methane product water under the present circumstances of produced water within the Powder River Basin. Phytoremediation is likely an effective approach to sodium and salt removal from salt-impaired sites after product water discharges are discontinued and site reclamation is desired. Coalbed methane product water of the Powder River Basin is most frequently impaired with respect to beneficial use quality by elevated sodicity, a water quality constituent which can cause swelling, slaking, and dispersion of smectite-dominated clay soils, such as commonly occurring within the Powder River Basin. To address this issue, a commercial-scale fluid-bed, cationic resin exchange treatment process and prototype operating treatment plant was developed and beta-tested by Drake Water Technologies under subcontract to this award. Drake Water Technologies secured U.S. Patent No. 7,368,059-B2, 'Method for removal of benevolent cations from contaminated water', a beta

  19. Chesapeake Bay Program Water Quality Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chesapeake Information Management System (CIMS), designed in 1996, is an integrated, accessible information management system for the Chesapeake Bay Region. CIMS is an organized, distributed library of information and software tools designed to increase basin-wide public access to Chesapeake Bay information. The information delivered by CIMS includes technical and public information, educational material, environmental indicators, policy documents, and scientific data. Through the use of relational databases, web-based programming, and web-based GIS a large number of Internet resources have been established. These resources include multiple distributed on-line databases, on-demand graphing and mapping of environmental data, and geographic searching tools for environmental information. Baseline monitoring data, summarized data and environmental indicators that document ecosystem status and trends, confirm linkages between water quality, habitat quality and abundance, and the distribution and integrity of biological populations are also available. One of the major features of the CIMS network is the Chesapeake Bay Program's Data Hub, providing users access to a suite of long- term water quality and living resources databases. Chesapeake Bay mainstem and tidal tributary water quality, benthic macroinvertebrates, toxics, plankton, and fluorescence data can be obtained for a network of over 800 monitoring stations.

  20. Water quality monitoring using remote sensing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adsavakulchai, Suwannee; Panichayapichet, Paweena

    2003-03-01

    There has been a rapid growth of shrimp farm around Kung Krabaen Bay in the past decade. This has caused enormous rise in generation of domestic and industrial wastes. Most of these wastes are disposed in the Kung Krabaen Bay. There is a serious need to retain this glory by better water quality management of this river. Conventional methods of monitoring of water quality have limitations in collecting information about water quality parameters for a large region in detailed manner due to high cost and time. Satellite based technologies have offered an alternate approach for many environmental monitoring needs. In this study, the high-resolution satellite data (LANDSAT TM) was utilized to develop mathematical models for monitoring of chlorophyll-a. Comparison between empirical relationship of spectral reflectance with chl-a and band ratio between the near infrared (NIR) and red was suggested to detect chlorophyll in water. This concept has been successfully employed for marine zones and big lakes but not for narrow rivers due to constraints of spatial resolution of satellite data. This information will be very useful in locating point and non-point sources of pollution and will help in designing and implementing controlling structures.

  1. Quality and Control of Water Vapor Winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.; Atkinson, Robert J.

    1996-01-01

    Water vapor imagery from the geostationary satellites such as GOES, Meteosat, and GMS provides synoptic views of dynamical events on a continual basis. Because the imagery represents a non-linear combination of mid- and upper-tropospheric thermodynamic parameters (three-dimensional variations in temperature and humidity), video loops of these image products provide enlightening views of regional flow fields, the movement of tropical and extratropical storm systems, the transfer of moisture between hemispheres and from the tropics to the mid- latitudes, and the dominance of high pressure systems over particular regions of the Earth. Despite the obvious larger scale features, the water vapor imagery contains significant image variability down to the single 8 km GOES pixel. These features can be quantitatively identified and tracked from one time to the next using various image processing techniques. Merrill et al. (1991), Hayden and Schmidt (1992), and Laurent (1993) have documented the operational procedures and capabilities of NOAA and ESOC to produce cloud and water vapor winds. These techniques employ standard correlation and template matching approaches to wind tracking and use qualitative and quantitative procedures to eliminate bad wind vectors from the wind data set. Techniques have also been developed to improve the quality of the operational winds though robust editing procedures (Hayden and Veldon 1991). These quality and control approaches have limitations, are often subjective, and constrain wind variability to be consistent with model derived wind fields. This paper describes research focused on the refinement of objective quality and control parameters for water vapor wind vector data sets. New quality and control measures are developed and employed to provide a more robust wind data set for climate analysis, data assimilation studies, as well as operational weather forecasting. The parameters are applicable to cloud-tracked winds as well with minor

  2. 939 ASPECT OF GROUNDWATER QUALITY EVALUATION IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2015-11-12

    Nov 12, 2015 ... Key Words: Groundwater, Itapa, Evaluation, Ekiti, Southwestern, Nigeria ... safe drinking water is a basic human right essential to all ... treatment were done according to standard .... will make the water poisonous to plants.

  3. Managing Air Quality - Ongoing Evaluation of Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes the importance of evaluating if air quality programs are achieving the desired results to inform environmental program managers, regulated industry and the public, and provides EPA examples.

  4. Quality of surface water in Missouri, water year 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Miya N.; Heimann, David C.

    2016-11-14

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, designed and operates a series of monitoring stations on streams and springs throughout Missouri known as the Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network. During water year 2015 (October 1, 2014, through September 30, 2015), data were collected at 74 stations—72 Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network stations and 2 U.S. Geological Survey National Stream Quality Assessment Network stations. Dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, water temperature, suspended solids, suspended sediment, Escherichia coli bacteria, fecal coliform bacteria, dissolved nitrate plus nitrite as nitrogen, total phosphorus, dissolved and total recoverable lead and zinc, and select pesticide compound summaries are presented for 71 of these stations. The stations primarily have been classified into groups corresponding to the physiography of the State, primary land use, or unique station types. In addition, a summary of hydrologic conditions in the State including peak streamflows, monthly mean streamflows, and 7-day low flows is presented.

  5. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - MO 2009 Stream Team Volunteer Water Quality Monitoring Sites (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — This data set shows the monitoring locations of trained Volunteer Water Quality Monitors. A monitoring site is considered to be a 300 foot section of stream channel....

  6. Quality control in public participation assessments of water quality: the OPAL Water Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, N L; Turner, S D; Goldsmith, B; Gosling, L; Davidson, T A

    2016-07-22

    Public participation in scientific data collection is a rapidly expanding field. In water quality surveys, the involvement of the public, usually as trained volunteers, generally includes the identification of aquatic invertebrates to a broad taxonomic level. However, quality assurance is often not addressed and remains a key concern for the acceptance of publicly-generated water quality data. The Open Air Laboratories (OPAL) Water Survey, launched in May 2010, aimed to encourage interest and participation in water science by developing a 'low-barrier-to-entry' water quality survey. During 2010, over 3000 participant-selected lakes and ponds were surveyed making this the largest public participation lake and pond survey undertaken to date in the UK. But the OPAL approach of using untrained volunteers and largely anonymous data submission exacerbates quality control concerns. A number of approaches were used in order to address data quality issues including: sensitivity analysis to determine differences due to operator, sampling effort and duration; direct comparisons of identification between participants and experienced scientists; the use of a self-assessment identification quiz; the use of multiple participant surveys to assess data variability at single sites over short periods of time; comparison of survey techniques with other measurement variables and with other metrics generally considered more accurate. These quality control approaches were then used to screen the OPAL Water Survey data to generate a more robust dataset. The OPAL Water Survey results provide a regional and national assessment of water quality as well as a first national picture of water clarity (as suspended solids concentrations). Less than 10 % of lakes and ponds surveyed were 'poor' quality while 26.8 % were in the highest water quality band. It is likely that there will always be a question mark over untrained volunteer generated data simply because quality assurance is uncertain

  7. Water Quality Vocabulary Development and Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, B. A.; Yu, J.; Cox, S. J.

    2013-12-01

    Semantic descriptions of observed properties and associated units of measure are fundamental to understanding of environmental observations, including groundwater, surface water and marine water quality. Semantic descriptions can be captured in machine-readable ontologies and vocabularies, thus providing support for the annotation of observation values from the disparate data sources with appropriate and accurate metadata, which is critical for achieving semantic interoperability. However, current stand-alone water quality vocabularies provide limited support for cross-system comparisons or data fusion. To enhance semantic interoperability, the alignment of water-quality properties with definitions of chemical entities and units of measure in existing widely-used vocabularies is required. Modern ontologies and vocabularies are expressed, organized and deployed using Semantic Web technologies. We developed an ontology for observed properties (i.e. a model for expressing appropriate controlled vocabularies) which extends the NASA/TopQuadrant QUDT ontology for Unit and QuantityKind with two additional classes and two properties (see accompanying paper by Cox, Simons and Yu). We use our ontology to populate the Water Quality vocabulary with a set of individuals of each of the four key classes (and their subclasses), and add appropriate relationships between these individuals. This ontology is aligned with other relevant stand-alone Water Quality vocabularies and domain ontologies. Developing the Water Quality vocabulary involved two main steps. First, the Water Quality vocabulary was populated with individuals of the ObservedProperty class, which was determined from a census of existing datasets and services. Each ObservedProperty individual relates to other individuals of Unit and QuantityKind (taken from QUDT where possible), and to IdentifiedObject individuals. As a large fraction of observed water quality data are classified by the chemical substance involved, the

  8. 76 FR 6727 - Proposed Amendments to the Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-08

    ... COMMISSION 18 CFR Part 410 Proposed Amendments to the Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive... and locations for public hearings on proposed amendments to its Water Quality Regulations, Water Code... amendments to the Commission's Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan relating to the...

  9. Evaluation of nonpoint-source contamination, Wisconsin: Land-use and Best-Management-Practices inventory, selected streamwater-quality data, urban-watershed quality assurance and quality control, constituent loads in rural streams, and snowmelt-runoff analysis, water year 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J.F.; Graczyk, D.J.; Corsi, S.R.; Owens, D.W.; Wierl, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of the watershed-management evaluation monitoring program in Wisconsin is to evaluate the effectiveness of best-management practices (BMP) for controlling nonpoint-source contamination in rural and urban watersheds. This report is an annual summary of the data collected for the program by the U.S Geological Survey and a report of the results of several different detailed analyses of the data. A land-use and BMP inventory is ongoing for 12 evaluation monitoring projects to track the sources of nonpoint-source pollution in each watershed and to document implementation of BMP's that may cause changes in the water quality of streams. Updated information is gathered each year, mapped, and stored in a geographic-information-system data base. Summaries of data collected during water years 1989-94 are presented. A water year is the period beginning October 1 and ending September 30; the water year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends. Suspended-sediment and total-phosphorus data (storm loads and annual loads) are summarized for eight rural sites. For all sites, the annual suspended-sediment or suspended-solids load for water year 1993 exceeded the average for the period of data collection; the minimum annual loads were transported in water year 1991 or 1992. Continuous dissolved-oxygen data were collected at seven rural sites during water year 1994. Data for water years 1990-93 are summarized and plotted in terms of percentage of time that a particular concentration is equaled or exceeded. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations in four streams were less than 9 mg/L at least 50 percent of the time, a condition that fails to meet suggested criterion for coldwater streams. The dissolved-oxygen probability curve for one of the coldwater streams is markedly different than the curves for the other streams, perhaps because of differences in aquatic biomass. Blank quality-assurance samples were collected at two of the urban evaluation monitoring sites to

  10. Microbial water quality of treated water and raw water sources in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbial water quality is an essential aspect in the provision of potable water for domestic use. The provision of adequate amounts of safe water for domestic purposes has become difficult for most municipalities mandated to do so in Zimbabwe. Morton-Jaffray Treatment Plant supplies potable water to Harare City and ...

  11. Suitability of a Coupled Hydrodynamic Water Quality Model to Predict Changes in Water Quality from Altered Meteorological Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon van der Linden

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Downscaled climate scenarios can be used to inform management decisions on investment in infrastructure or alternative water sources within water supply systems. Appropriate models of the system components, such as catchments, rivers, lakes and reservoirs, are required. The climatic sensitivity of the coupled hydrodynamic water quality model ELCOM-CAEDYM was investigated, by incrementally altering boundary conditions, to determine its suitability for evaluating climate change impacts. A series of simulations were run with altered boundary condition inputs for the reservoir. Air and inflowing water temperature (TEMP, wind speed (WIND and reservoir inflow and outflow volumes (FLOW were altered to investigate the sensitivity of these key drivers over relevant domains. The simulated water quality variables responded in broadly plausible ways to the altered boundary conditions; sensitivity of the simulated cyanobacteria population to increases in temperature was similar to published values. However the negative response of total chlorophyll-a suggested by the model was not supported by an empirical analysis of climatic sensitivity. This study demonstrated that ELCOM-CAEDYM is sensitive to climate drivers and may be suitable for use in climate impact studies. It is recommended that the influence of structural and parameter derived uncertainty on the results be evaluated. Important factors in determining phytoplankton growth were identified and the importance of inflowing water quality was emphasized.

  12. Ecosystem-specific water quality indices | Rangeti | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The water quality index (WQI) has emerged as a central tool for analysing and reporting quality trends since 1965. It provides a better overview of water quality variability in a catchment than conventional monitoring programmes that use individual variables. Since water quality is not static, due to point and non-point ...

  13. 40 CFR 130.8 - Water quality report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality report. 130.8 Section... QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.8 Water quality report. (a) Each State shall prepare and submit biennially to the Regional Administrator a water quality report in accordance with section 305(b) of the Act...

  14. 40 CFR 130.4 - Water quality monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality monitoring. 130.4... QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.4 Water quality monitoring. (a) In accordance with section 106(e)(1.../quality control guidance. (b) The State's water monitoring program shall include collection and analysis...

  15. Water Quality Protection from Nutrient Pollution: Case ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water bodies and coastal areas around the world are threatened by increases in upstream sediment and nutrient loads, which influence drinking water sources, aquatic species, and other ecologic functions and services of streams, lakes, and coastal water bodies. For example, increased nutrient fluxes from the Mississippi River Basin have been linked to increased occurrences of seasonal hypoxia in northern Gulf of Mexico. Lake Erie is another example where in the summer of 2014 nutrients, nutrients, particularly phosphorus, washed from fertilized farms, cattle feedlots, and leaky septic systems; caused a severe algae bloom, much of it poisonous; and resulted in the loss of drinking water for a half-million residents. Our current management strategies for point and non-point source nutrient loadings need to be improved to protect and meet the expected increased future demands of water for consumption, recreation, and ecological integrity. This presentation introduces management practices being implemented and their effectiveness in reducing nutrient loss from agricultural fields, a case analysis of nutrient pollution of the Grand Lake St. Marys and possible remedies, and ongoing work on watershed modeling to improve our understanding on nutrient loss and water quality. Presented at the 3rd International Conference on Water Resource and Environment.

  16. Effect of chlorination of drinking-water on water quality and childhood diarrhoea in a village in Pakistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter K; Ensink, Jeroen H J; Jayasinghe, Gayathri

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the importance of public-domain transmission of pathogens in drinking-water, an intervention study was carried out by chlorinating the public water-supply system in a village in Pakistan. The water quality improved and reached a geometric mean of 3 Escherichia coli per 100 m...... that in a neighbouring village where most children used water from a non-chlorinated water-supply system with very poor water quality. In this study area, under non-epidemic conditions, the reduction of faecal bacteria in the public drinking-water supply by chlorination does not seem to be a priority intervention...

  17. 9 CFR 108.11 - Water quality requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water quality requirements. 108.11... LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS § 108.11 Water quality requirements. A certification from the appropriate water pollution control agency, that the establishment is in compliance with applicable water quality control...

  18. 7 CFR 634.23 - Water quality plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water quality plan. 634.23 Section 634.23 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING RURAL CLEAN WATER PROGRAM Participant RCWP Contracts § 634.23 Water quality plan. (a) The participant's water quality plan, developed with technical assistance by the NRCS or its...

  19. Microbiological Quality of Drinking Water Sources in Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbiological Quality of Drinking Water Sources in Rural Communities of Dire Dawa Administrative Council. ... the membrane filtration method. Water analysis demonstrated that all water sources in the ... The majority of the drinking water sources is either of unacceptable quality or grossly polluted. Regular quality control ...

  20. A multivariate analysis of water quality in lake Naivasha, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ndungu, J.N.; Augustijn, Dionysius C.M.; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; Fulanda, B.; Kitaka, N.; Mathooko, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Water quality information in aquatic ecosystems is crucial in setting up guidelines for resource management. This study explores the water quality status and pollution sources in Lake Naivasha, Kenya. Analysis of water quality parameters at seven sampling sites was carried out from water samples

  1. Water quality in New Zealand's planted forests: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenda R. Baillie; Daniel G. Neary

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviewed the key physical, chemical and biological water quality attributes of surface waters in New Zealand’s planted forests. The purpose was to: a) assess the changes in water quality throughout the planted forestry cycle from afforestation through to harvesting; b) compare water quality from planted forests with other land uses in New Zealand; and c)...

  2. Development of a water quality index based on a European ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... water supply rather than general supply, and has been developed by studying the supranational standard, i.e. the European Community Standard. Three classification schemes for water quality are proposed for surface water quality assessment. Water quality determinants of the new index are cadmium, cyanide, mercury, ...

  3. Municipal water resources management: evaluation of water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Car wash can be defined as a facility used to clean the exterior and in some cases, the interior of motor vehicles. These facilities are common in Bauchi and other cities in Nigeria. They use water as a major input thereby causing serious challenges to water resources management. Car wash facilities in Bauchi depend on ...

  4. Pollution induced tidal variability in water quality of Mahim Estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zingde, M.D.; Sabnis, M.M.

    Variability of water quality due to release of wastewater in Mahim Estuary (Maharashtra, India) and associated nearshore waters is discussed. The mixing of low salinity contaminated estuary water with high salinity bay water was considerably...

  5. Dynamics in surface water solute concentrations and consequences for water quality monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozemeijer, J.; Van der Velde, Y.; Broers, H. P.; van Geer, F.

    2012-04-01

    For the evaluation of action programs to reduce surface water pollution, water authorities invest heavily in water quality monitoring. However, sampling frequencies are generally insufficient to capture the dynamical behavior of solute concentrations. This results in large uncertainties in the estimates of loads and average concentrations, which complicates water quality assessments. The main causes of dynamics in groundwater and surface water quality are variations in human land management, biochemical processes, and meteorological conditions. In this study, we focused on the short-term variations in water quality that are normally not captured with common monthly measurement intervals. Our multi-scale experimental research setup in The Netherlands revealed that weather induced variations are the major cause of short-term variations in water quality. During rainfall events, the relative contribution of different flow routes (groundwater, tile drain, overland flow) to the total surface water discharge changes. These different flow routes have different residence times in the subsurface and therefore different chemical compositions. For example, our continuous nitrate concentration measurements repetitively showed a lowering in stream water nitrate concentrations in response to rainfall events. This lowering was caused by a temporal dilution of nitrate-rich tile drain effluent with nitrate-poor rainwater. On the other hand, the continuously measured phosphorus concentrations peaked during rainfall events due to the resuspension of phosphorus-rich sediments. We will also present the following options to deal with the highly dynamic behavior of solute concentrations in surface water quality monitoring practice: (1) use modern equipment for continuous concentration measurements, (2) measure average concentrations using passive samplers, and (3) use the explanatory strength of generally available high-frequency data (e.g. precipitation and discharge records) to

  6. [Microbial indicators and fresh water quality assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briancesco, Rossella

    2005-01-01

    Traditionally, the microbiological quality of waters has been measured by the analysis of indicator microorganisms. The article reviews the sanitary significance of traditional indicators of faecal contamination (total coliforms, faecal coliforms and faecal streptococci) and points out their limits. For some characteristics Escherichia coli may be considered a more useful indicator then faecal coliforms and recently it has been included in all recent laws regarding fresh, marine and drinking water. A clearer taxonomic definition of faecal streptococci evidenced the difficulty into defining a specific standard methodology of enumeration and suggested the more suitable role of enterococci as indicator microorganisms. Several current laws require the detection of enterococci. The resistance of Clostridium perfringens spores may mean that they would serve as a useful indicator of the sanitary quality of sea sediments.

  7. Performance characterization of water recovery and water quality from chemical/organic waste products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, W. M.; Rogers, T. D.; Chowdhury, H.; Cullingford, H. S.

    1989-01-01

    The water reclamation subsystems currently being evaluated for the Space Shuttle Freedom are briefly reviewed with emphasis on a waste water management system capable of processing wastes containing high concentrations of organic/inorganic materials. The process combines low temperature/pressure to vaporize water with high temperature catalytic oxidation to decompose volatile organics. The reclaimed water is of potable quality and has high potential for maintenance under sterile conditions. Results from preliminary experiments and modifications in process and equipment required to control reliability and repeatability of system operation are presented.

  8. Water quality objectives as a management tool for sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Everard, Mark

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the potential role that quality objectives, particularly when backed by statutory force, may play in the sustainable management of river water quality. Economic valuation techniques are discussed, as well as the theory of "critical natural capital". A brief history of water quality legislation includes the implementation of the National Water Council classification in 1979, and the statutory water quality objectives introduced under the Water Resources Act ...

  9. Dishwashing water recycling system and related water quality standards for military use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Jared; Verbyla, Matthew E; Lee, Woo Hyoung; Randall, Andrew A; Amundsen, Ted J; Zastrow, Dustin J

    2015-10-01

    As the demand for reliable and safe water supplies increases, both water quality and available quantity are being challenged by population growth and climate change. Greywater reuse is becoming a common practice worldwide; however, in remote locations of limited water supply, such as those encountered in military installations, it is desirable to expand its classification to include dishwashing water to maximize the conservation of fresh water. Given that no standards for dishwashing greywater reuse by the military are currently available, the current study determined a specific set of water quality standards for dishwater recycling systems for U.S. military field operations. A tentative water reuse standard for dishwashing water was developed based on federal and state regulations and guidelines for non-potable water, and the developed standard was cross-evaluated by monitoring water quality data from a full-scale dishwashing water recycling system using an innovative electrocoagulation and ultrafiltration process. Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) was also performed based on exposure scenarios derived from literature data. As a result, a specific set of dishwashing water reuse standards for field analysis (simple, but accurate) was finalized as follows: turbidity (reuse and will be expected to ensure that water quality is safe for field operations, but not so stringent that design complexity, cost, and operational and maintenance requirements will not be feasible for field use. In addition the parameters can be monitored using simple equipment in a field setting with only modest training requirements and real-time or rapid sample turn-around. This standard may prove useful in future development of civilian guidelines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Water Quality Criteria for Disperse Red 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-01

    mixture were identified as azobenzene , azoxybenzene, aminobiphenyl, and phenyldiazo- benzene. The second fraction, 73.6 percent of the mixture...antagonistic effects; and genotoxicity, teratogenicity, and carcinogenicity. The data are derived primarily from animal studies, but clinical case histories ...on can be used for calculating a water quality criterion (using the uncertainty factor approach). Also the history of each TLV should be examined to

  11. Attenuation coefficients for water quality trading

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, AA; Chen, X.; Fox, J; Fulda, M; Dorsey, R.; Seapy, B; Glenday, J; E Bray

    2014-01-01

    Water quality trading has been proposed as a cost-effective approach for reducing nutrient loads through credit generation from agricultural or point source reductions sold to buyers facing costly options. We present a systematic approach to determine attenuation coefficients and their uncertainty. Using a process-based model, we determine attenuation with safety margins at many watersheds for total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) loads as they transport from point of load reduction t...

  12. Water Quality Index for measuring drinking water quality in rural Bangladesh: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, Tahera; Jhohura, Fatema Tuz; Akter, Fahmida; Chowdhury, Tridib Roy; Mistry, Sabuj Kanti; Dey, Digbijoy; Barua, Milan Kanti; Islam, Md Akramul; Rahman, Mahfuzar

    2016-02-09

    Public health is at risk due to chemical contaminants in drinking water which may have immediate health consequences. Drinking water sources are susceptible to pollutants depending on geological conditions and agricultural, industrial, and other man-made activities. Ensuring the safety of drinking water is, therefore, a growing problem. To assess drinking water quality, we measured multiple chemical parameters in drinking water samples from across Bangladesh with the aim of improving public health interventions. In this cross-sectional study conducted in 24 randomly selected upazilas, arsenic was measured in drinking water in the field using an arsenic testing kit and a sub-sample was validated in the laboratory. Water samples were collected to test water pH in the laboratory as well as a sub-sample of collected drinking water was tested for water pH using a portable pH meter. For laboratory testing of other chemical parameters, iron, manganese, and salinity, drinking water samples were collected from 12 out of 24 upazilas. Drinking water at sample sites was slightly alkaline (pH 7.4 ± 0.4) but within acceptable limits. Manganese concentrations varied from 0.1 to 5.5 mg/L with a median value of 0.2 mg/L. The median iron concentrations in water exceeded WHO standards (0.3 mg/L) at most of the sample sites and exceeded Bangladesh standards (1.0 mg/L) at a few sample sites. Salinity was relatively higher in coastal districts. After laboratory confirmation, arsenic concentrations were found higher in Shibchar (Madaripur) and Alfadanga (Faridpur) compared to other sample sites exceeding WHO standard (0.01 mg/L). Of the total sampling sites, 33 % had good-quality water for drinking based on the Water Quality Index (WQI). However, the majority of the households (67 %) used poor-quality drinking water. Higher values of iron, manganese, and arsenic reduced drinking water quality. Awareness raising on chemical contents in drinking water at household level is required to

  13. Water quality data for national-scale aquatic research: The Water Quality Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Emily K.; Carr, Lindsay; DeCicco, Laura; Dugan, Hilary; Hanson, Paul C.; Hart, Julia A.; Kreft, James; Read, Jordan S.; Winslow, Luke

    2017-01-01

    Aquatic systems are critical to food, security, and society. But, water data are collected by hundreds of research groups and organizations, many of which use nonstandard or inconsistent data descriptions and dissemination, and disparities across different types of water observation systems represent a major challenge for freshwater research. To address this issue, the Water Quality Portal (WQP) was developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Geological Survey, and the National Water Quality Monitoring Council to be a single point of access for water quality data dating back more than a century. The WQP is the largest standardized water quality data set available at the time of this writing, with more than 290 million records from more than 2.7 million sites in groundwater, inland, and coastal waters. The number of data contributors, data consumers, and third-party application developers making use of the WQP is growing rapidly. Here we introduce the WQP, including an overview of data, the standardized data model, and data access and services; and we describe challenges and opportunities associated with using WQP data. We also demonstrate through an example the value of the WQP data by characterizing seasonal variation in lake water clarity for regions of the continental U.S. The code used to access, download, analyze, and display these WQP data as shown in the figures is included as supporting information.

  14. Water quality data for national-scale aquatic research: The Water Quality Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Emily K.; Carr, Lindsay; De Cicco, Laura; Dugan, Hilary A.; Hanson, Paul C.; Hart, Julia A.; Kreft, James; Read, Jordan S.; Winslow, Luke A.

    2017-02-01

    xml:id="wrcr22485-sec-1001" numbered="no">Aquatic systems are critical to food, security, and society. But, water data are collected by hundreds of research groups and organizations, many of which use nonstandard or inconsistent data descriptions and dissemination, and disparities across different types of water observation systems represent a major challenge for freshwater research. To address this issue, the Water Quality Portal (WQP) was developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Geological Survey, and the National Water Quality Monitoring Council to be a single point of access for water quality data dating back more than a century. The WQP is the largest standardized water quality data set available at the time of this writing, with more than 290 million records from more than 2.7 million sites in groundwater, inland, and coastal waters. The number of data contributors, data consumers, and third-party application developers making use of the WQP is growing rapidly. Here we introduce the WQP, including an overview of data, the standardized data model, and data access and services; and we describe challenges and opportunities associated with using WQP data. We also demonstrate through an example the value of the WQP data by characterizing seasonal variation in lake water clarity for regions of the continental U.S. The code used to access, download, analyze, and display these WQP data as shown in the figures is included as supporting information.

  15. Evaluation of groundwater and surface water quality and human risk assessment for trace metals in human settlements around the Bosomtwe Crater Lake in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asare-Donkor, Noah Kyame; Boadu, Thomas Asare; Adimado, Anthony Apeke

    2016-01-01

    Geogenic and anthropogenic activities introduce certain metals into the environment which tend to deteriorate the quality of both surface and groundwater in the Bosomtwe Crater Lake and its surroundings. In this study spatio-temporal variations in concentrations and risk assessment of selected trace metals (As, Fe, Pb, Zn, Cr, Cd and Ni) were investigated during the wet and dry seasons for surface and groundwater in selected human settlements around the lake. The levels of As, Cd and Ni were generally small and were below the detection limit of the instrument. The results showed no significant seasonal variations in the mean levels of Pb, Fe, Zn and Cr in water from the Bosomtwe Crater Lake. The hazard quotients and health hazard indices through ingestion and dermal contact of lake and groundwater in towns around the lake for both adults and children gave values which were below the acceptable limit of less than unity (lake and groundwater from the lake and its surroundings poses carcinogenic risk with regard to the level of Pb and Cr. Hence appropriate control measures and interventions should be put in place to protect the health of the human population in the study area.

  16. [Research progress on quality evaluation of saffron].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiang-di; Ouyang, Zhen; Yang, Bin

    2017-02-01

    Saffron, a precious spice and a traditional medicinal herb in the international trade market, has attracted much attention about its quality evaluation.Saffron has been successfully cultivated in some areas in China,such as Shanghai, Zhejiang, Jiangsu, but few studies were focused on the quality difference between saffron cultivated in China and in foreign countries, which obstructed the entrance of saffron cultivated in China into international trade market. The paper is to review the current research progress on quality evaluation of saffron from the following respects: the chemical composition, the identification of authenticity and adulterants, the detection of artificial colorants, the indexes and methods of quality evaluation,the quality evaluation of different specifications in the international trade market, and the parameters which affected the quality of saffron. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  17. Determination of some potable water indicators in evaluation of chemical safety of potable water in Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Kostik, Vesna; Memeti, Shaban; Hamiti, Lirije

    2013-01-01

    Physical and chemical drinking water indicators provide baseline information for water quality and help identify trends or changes in water quality over time. The main goal of this study is determination of some physical and chemical parameters in potable water in the Republic of Macedonia in order to make physical and chemical safety evaluation of potable water which is distributed to the consumers. The study included a total of 518 samples of potable water from different supply syste...

  18. Multidimensional Measurement of Household Water Poverty in a Mumbai Slum: Looking Beyond Water Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbaraman, Ramnath; Nolan, Laura; Sawant, Kiran; Shitole, Shrutika; Shitole, Tejal; Nanarkar, Mahesh; Patil-Deshmukh, Anita; Bloom, David E

    2015-01-01

    A focus on bacterial contamination has limited many studies of water service delivery in slums, with diarrheal illness being the presumed outcome of interest. We conducted a mixed methods study in a slum of 12,000 people in Mumbai, India to measure deficiencies in a broader array of water service delivery indicators and their adverse life impacts on the slum's residents. Six focus group discussions and 40 individual qualitative interviews were conducted using purposeful sampling. Quantitative data on water indicators-quantity, access, price, reliability, and equity-were collected via a structured survey of 521 households selected using population-based random sampling. In addition to negatively affecting health, the qualitative findings reveal that water service delivery failures have a constellation of other adverse life impacts-on household economy, employment, education, quality of life, social cohesion, and people's sense of political inclusion. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, price of water is the factor most strongly associated with use of inadequate water quantity (≤20 liters per capita per day). Water service delivery failures and their adverse impacts vary based on whether households fetch water or have informal water vendors deliver it to their homes. Deficiencies in water service delivery are associated with many non-health-related adverse impacts on slum households. Failure to evaluate non-health outcomes may underestimate the deprivation resulting from inadequate water service delivery. Based on these findings, we outline a multidimensional definition of household "water poverty" that encourages policymakers and researchers to look beyond evaluation of water quality and health. Use of multidimensional water metrics by governments, slum communities, and researchers may help to ensure that water supplies are designed to advance a broad array of health, economic, and social outcomes for the urban poor.

  19. Multidimensional Measurement of Household Water Poverty in a Mumbai Slum: Looking Beyond Water Quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramnath Subbaraman

    Full Text Available A focus on bacterial contamination has limited many studies of water service delivery in slums, with diarrheal illness being the presumed outcome of interest. We conducted a mixed methods study in a slum of 12,000 people in Mumbai, India to measure deficiencies in a broader array of water service delivery indicators and their adverse life impacts on the slum's residents.Six focus group discussions and 40 individual qualitative interviews were conducted using purposeful sampling. Quantitative data on water indicators-quantity, access, price, reliability, and equity-were collected via a structured survey of 521 households selected using population-based random sampling.In addition to negatively affecting health, the qualitative findings reveal that water service delivery failures have a constellation of other adverse life impacts-on household economy, employment, education, quality of life, social cohesion, and people's sense of political inclusion. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, price of water is the factor most strongly associated with use of inadequate water quantity (≤20 liters per capita per day. Water service delivery failures and their adverse impacts vary based on whether households fetch water or have informal water vendors deliver it to their homes.Deficiencies in water service delivery are associated with many non-health-related adverse impacts on slum households. Failure to evaluate non-health outcomes may underestimate the deprivation resulting from inadequate water service delivery. Based on these findings, we outline a multidimensional definition of household "water poverty" that encourages policymakers and researchers to look beyond evaluation of water quality and health. Use of multidimensional water metrics by governments, slum communities, and researchers may help to ensure that water supplies are designed to advance a broad array of health, economic, and social outcomes for the urban poor.

  20. Multidimensional Measurement of Household Water Poverty in a Mumbai Slum: Looking Beyond Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbaraman, Ramnath; Nolan, Laura; Sawant, Kiran; Shitole, Shrutika; Shitole, Tejal; Nanarkar, Mahesh; Patil-Deshmukh, Anita; Bloom, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective A focus on bacterial contamination has limited many studies of water service delivery in slums, with diarrheal illness being the presumed outcome of interest. We conducted a mixed methods study in a slum of 12,000 people in Mumbai, India to measure deficiencies in a broader array of water service delivery indicators and their adverse life impacts on the slum’s residents. Methods Six focus group discussions and 40 individual qualitative interviews were conducted using purposeful sampling. Quantitative data on water indicators—quantity, access, price, reliability, and equity—were collected via a structured survey of 521 households selected using population-based random sampling. Results In addition to negatively affecting health, the qualitative findings reveal that water service delivery failures have a constellation of other adverse life impacts—on household economy, employment, education, quality of life, social cohesion, and people’s sense of political inclusion. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, price of water is the factor most strongly associated with use of inadequate water quantity (≤20 liters per capita per day). Water service delivery failures and their adverse impacts vary based on whether households fetch water or have informal water vendors deliver it to their homes. Conclusions Deficiencies in water service delivery are associated with many non-health-related adverse impacts on slum households. Failure to evaluate non-health outcomes may underestimate the deprivation resulting from inadequate water service delivery. Based on these findings, we outline a multidimensional definition of household “water poverty” that encourages policymakers and researchers to look beyond evaluation of water quality and health. Use of multidimensional water metrics by governments, slum communities, and researchers may help to ensure that water supplies are designed to advance a broad array of health, economic, and social outcomes for

  1. Wireless sensor networks: A survey on monitoring water quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mompoloki Pule

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Diseases related to poor water and sanitation conditions have over 200 million cases reported annually, causing 5–10 million deaths world-wide. Water quality monitoring has thus become essential to the supply of clean and safe water. Conventional monitoring processes involve manual collection of samples from various points in the distribution network, followed by laboratory testing and analysis. This process has proved to be ineffective since it is laborious, time consuming and lacks real-time results to promote proactive response to water contamination. Wireless sensor networks (WSN have since been considered a promising alternative to complement conventional monitoring processes. These networks are relatively affordable and allow measurements to be taken remotely, in real-time and with minimal human intervention. This work surveys the application of WSN in environmental monitoring, with particular emphasis on water quality. Various WSN based water quality monitoring methods suggested by other authors are studied and analyzed, taking into account their coverage, energy and security concerns. The work also compares and evaluates sensor node architectures proposed the various authors in terms of monitored parameters, microcontroller/microprocessor units (MCU and wireless communication standards adopted, localization, data security implementation, power supply architectures, autonomy and potential application scenarios.

  2. Microbial quality of agricultural water in Central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topalcengiz, Zeynal; Strawn, Laura K.

    2017-01-01

    The microbial quality of water that comes into the edible portion of produce is believed to directly relate to the safety of produce, and metrics describing indicator organisms are commonly used to ensure safety. The US FDA Produce Safety Rule (PSR) sets very specific microbiological water quality metrics for agricultural water that contacts the harvestable portion of produce. Validation of these metrics for agricultural water is essential for produce safety. Water samples (500 mL) from six agricultural ponds were collected during the 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 growing seasons (46 and 44 samples respectively, 540 from all ponds). Microbial indicator populations (total coliforms, generic Escherichia coli, and enterococci) were enumerated, environmental variables (temperature, pH, conductivity, redox potential, and turbidity) measured, and pathogen presence evaluated by PCR. Salmonella isolates were serotyped and analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Following rain events, coliforms increased up to 4.2 log MPN/100 mL. Populations of coliforms and enterococci ranged from 2 to 8 and 1 to 5 log MPN/100 mL, respectively. Microbial indicators did not correlate with environmental variables, except pH (PWater quality for tested agricultural ponds, below recommended standards, did not guarantee the absence of pathogens. Investigating the relationships among physicochemical attributes, environmental factors, indicator microorganisms, and pathogen presence allows researchers to have a greater understanding of contamination risks from agricultural surface waters in the field. PMID:28399144

  3. 30 CFR 71.601 - Drinking water; quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 71.601 Section 71.601... Water § 71.601 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions of § 71.600 shall meet the applicable minimum health requirements for drinking water established by the...

  4. Microbial quality of drinking water from groundtanks and tankers at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Groundtank households had better quality drinking water than households using storage containers filled from communal tankers. Uncovered storage containers had the poorest microbial water quality among all storage containers. All stored water did not meet drinking water standards, although mains water did.

  5. Occurrence, molecular characterization and antibiogram of water quality indicator bacteria in river water serving a water treatment plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okeke, Benedict C., E-mail: bokeke@aum.edu [Department of Biology, Auburn University at Montgomery, P.O. Box 244023, Montgomery, AL 36124 (United States); Thomson, M. Sue [Department of Biology, Auburn University at Montgomery, P.O. Box 244023, Montgomery, AL 36124 (United States); Moss, Elica M. [Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Science, Alabama A and M University, AL 35762 (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Water pollution by microorganisms of fecal origin is a current world-wide public health concern. Total coliforms, fecal coliforms (Escherichia coli) and enterococci are indicators commonly used to assess the microbiological safety of water resources. In this study, influent water samples and treated water were collected seasonally from a water treatment plant and two major water wells in a Black Belt county of Alabama and evaluated for water quality indicator bacteria. Influent river water samples serving the treatment plant were positive for total coliforms, fecal coliforms (E. coli), and enterococci. The highest number of total coliform most probable number (MPN) was observed in the winter (847.5 MPN/100 mL) and the lowest number in the summer (385.6 MPN/100 mL). Similarly E. coli MPN was substantially higher in the winter (62.25 MPN/100 mL). Seasonal variation of E. coli MPN in influent river water samples was strongly correlated with color (R{sup 2} = 0.998) and turbidity (R{sup 2} = 0.992). Neither E. coli nor other coliform type bacteria were detected in effluent potable water from the treatment plant. The MPN of enterococci was the highest in the fall and the lowest in the winter. Approximately 99.7 and 51.5 enterococci MPN/100 mL were recorded in fall and winter seasons respectively. One-way ANOVA tests revealed significant differences in seasonal variation of total coliforms (P < 0.05), fecal coliforms (P < 0.01) and enterococci (P < 0.01). Treated effluent river water samples and well water samples revealed no enterococci contamination. Representative coliform bacteria selected by differential screening on Coliscan Easygel were identified by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence analysis. E. coli isolates were sensitive to gentamicin, trimethoprim/sulfamethazole, ciprofloxacin, vancomycin, tetracycline, ampicillin, cefixime, and nitrofurantoin. Nonetheless, isolate BO-54 displayed decreased sensitivity compared to other E. coli isolates. Antibiotic sensitivity

  6. Quality assessment of drinking water in Temeke District (part II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... parameters of drinking water samples from different drinking water sources. The drinking water sources examined included tap water, river water and well water (deep and shallow wells). Water quality studied includes pH, chloride, nitrate and total hardness levels. The concentrations of total hardness in mg CaCO3/L and ...

  7. Assessment of drinking water quality and rural household water treatment in Balaka District, Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkwate, Raphael C.; Chidya, Russel C. G.; Wanda, Elijah M. M.

    2017-08-01

    Access to drinking water from unsafe sources is widespread amongst communities in rural areas such as Balaka District in Malawi. This situation puts many individuals and communities at risk of waterborne diseases despite some households adopting household water treatment to improve the quality of the water. However, there still remains data gaps regarding the quality of drinking water from such sources and the household water treatment methods used to improve public health. This study was, therefore, conducted to help bridge the knowledge gap by evaluating drinking water quality and adoption rate of household water treatment and storage (HWTS) practices in Nkaya, Balaka District. Water samples were collected from eleven systematically selected sites and analyzed for physico-chemical and microbiological parameters: pH, TDS, electrical conductivity (EC), turbidity, F-, Cl-, NO3-, Na, K, Fe, Faecal Coliform (FC) and Faecal Streptococcus (FS) bacteria using standard methods. The mean results were compared to the World Health Organization (WHO) and Malawi Bureau of Standards (MBS) (MS 733:2005) to ascertain the water quality for drinking purposes. A total of 204 randomly selected households were interviewed to determine their access to drinking water, water quality perception and HWTS among others. The majority of households (72%, n = 83) in Njerenje accessed water from shallow wells and rivers whilst in Phimbi boreholes were commonly used. Several households (>95%, n = 204) were observed to be practicing HWST techniques by boiling or chlorination and water storage in closed containers. The levels of pH (7.10-7.64), F- (0.89-1.46 mg/L), Cl- (5.45-89.84 mg/L), NO3- (0-0.16 mg/L), Na (20-490 mg/L), K (2.40-14 mg/L) and Fe (0.10-0.40 mg/L) for most sites were within the standard limits. The EC (358-2220 μS/cm), turbidity (0.54-14.60 NTU), FC (0-56 cfu/100 mL) and FS (0-120 cfu/100 mL) - mainly in shallow wells, were found to be above the WHO and MBS water quality

  8. WATER QUALITY INDEX FOR ASSESSMENT OF DRINKING WATER SOURCES FROM MEDIAŞ TOWN, SIBIU COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROŞU CRISTINA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the drinking water sources quality from Mediaş Town, Sibiu County. In November 2013, 6 water samples were taken from different drinking water sources and each water sample was analysed to determinate physico-chemical parameters (using a portable multiparameter WTW 320i major ions (using DIONEX ICS1500 ion chromatograph and heavy metals (using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer model ZENIT 700 Analytik Jena. The investigated physico-chemical parameters were: temperature, salinity, electrical conductivity (EC, pH, total dissolved solids (TDS and redox potential (ORP. The analysed major ions were: lithium (Li+, sodium (Na+, potassium (K+, magnesium (Mg2+, calcium (Ca2+, fluoride( F-, chloride (Cl-, bromide (Br-, nitrite (NO2-, nitrate (NO3-, phosphate (PO43- and sulphate (SO42-. The investigated heavy metals were: lead (Pb, zinc (Zn, cooper (Cu, iron (Fe, cadmium (Cd, nickel (Ni, chromium (Cr and arsenic (As. The Water Quality Index (WQI was calculated using the analysed water quality parameters and it ranged from 76 (very poor water quality to 375 (unsuitable for drinking.

  9. Quality-assurance and data-management plan for water-quality activities in the Kansas Water Science Center, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Teresa J.; Bennett, Trudy J.; Foster, Guy M.; Graham, Jennifer L.; Putnam, James E.

    2014-01-01

    As the Nation’s largest water, earth, and biological science and civilian mapping information agency, the U.S. Geological Survey is relied on to collect high-quality data, and produce factual and impartial interpretive reports. This quality-assurance and data-management plan provides guidance for water-quality activities conducted by the Kansas Water Science Center. Policies and procedures are documented for activities related to planning, collecting, storing, documenting, tracking, verifying, approving, archiving, and disseminating water-quality data. The policies and procedures described in this plan complement quality-assurance plans for continuous water-quality monitoring, surface-water, and groundwater activities in Kansas.

  10. 1990 National Water Quality Laboratory Services Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritt, Jeffrey; Jones, Berwyn E.

    1989-01-01

    PREFACE This catalog provides information about analytical services available from the National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL) to support programs of the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey. To assist personnel in the selection of analytical services, the catalog lists cost, sample volume, applicable concentration range, detection level, precision of analysis, and preservation techniques for samples to be submitted for analysis. Prices for services reflect operationa1 costs, the complexity of each analytical procedure, and the costs to ensure analytical quality control. The catalog consists of five parts. Part 1 is a glossary of terminology; Part 2 lists the bottles, containers, solutions, and other materials that are available through the NWQL; Part 3 describes the field processing of samples to be submitted for analysis; Part 4 describes analytical services that are available; and Part 5 contains indices of analytical methodology and Chemical Abstract Services (CAS) numbers. Nomenclature used in the catalog is consistent with WATSTORE and STORET. The user is provided with laboratory codes and schedules that consist of groupings of parameters which are measured together in the NWQL. In cases where more than one analytical range is offered for a single element or compound, different laboratory codes are given. Book 5 of the series 'Techniques of Water Resources Investigations of the U.S. Geological Survey' should be consulted for more information about the analytical procedures included in the tabulations. This catalog supersedes U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 86-232 '1986-87-88 National Water Quality Laboratory Services Catalog', October 1985.

  11. COMPARISON OF WATER RATES IAP RISK INDICES AND THE QUALITY OF DRINKING WATER IRCA USED FOR DETERMINING THE QUALITY OF DRINKING WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Mauricio González Díaz

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This work discusses the results of a technical and operative diagnosis of the urban system of aqueduct of the municipality of Villapinzón. Water quality and public service characteristics were determined assessed against the legal principles of continuity, quality and coverage of the domiciliary public service law. Drinking water quality was evaluated according to the methodology established by Resolution 2115 de 2007 of the Ministerial de la Protection Social de Colombia. In addition, a new methodology is suggested and the calculated indexes are compared to those determined by resolution 2115 de 2007. An analysis of the results indicates the proposed methodology is more reliable than the current methodology for determining water quality criteria.

  12. Approaches to verification of two-dimensional water quality models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butkus, S.R. (Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, TN (USA). Water Quality Dept.)

    1990-11-01

    The verification of a water quality model is the one procedure most needed by decision making evaluating a model predictions, but is often not adequate or done at all. The results of a properly conducted verification provide the decision makers with an estimate of the uncertainty associated with model predictions. Several statistical tests are available for quantifying of the performance of a model. Six methods of verification were evaluated using an application of the BETTER two-dimensional water quality model for Chickamauga reservoir. Model predictions for ten state variables were compared to observed conditions from 1989. Spatial distributions of the verification measures showed the model predictions were generally adequate, except at a few specific locations in the reservoir. The most useful statistics were the mean standard error of the residuals. Quantifiable measures of model performance should be calculated during calibration and verification of future applications of the BETTER model. 25 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Barriers to adopting satellite remote sensing for water quality management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satellite technology can provide a robust and synoptic approach for measuring water quality parameters. Water quality measures typically include chlorophyll-a, suspended material, light attenuation, and colored dissolved organic matter. The Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal ...

  14. Initial Survey Instructions for Spring Water Monitoring : Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Initial survey instructions for 1.04 spring water monitoring (quality) and 1.06 management unit water monitoring (quality) at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge....

  15. Marine water-quality management in South- Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Taljaard, Susan

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available development with potential influence on water quality. The management plan is divided into three logical components, i.e. site-specific statutory requirements and environmental objectives; system design with specific reference to influences on water quality...

  16. Water Quality Assessment and Total Maximum Daily Loads Information (ATTAINS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Water Quality Assessment TMDL Tracking And Implementation System (ATTAINS) stores and tracks state water quality assessment decisions, Total Maximum Daily Loads...

  17. Marine water quality under climate change conditions/scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Jonathan; Torresan, Silvia; Critto, Andrea; Zabeo, Alex; Brigolin, Daniele; Carniel, Sandro; Pastres, Roberto; Marcomini, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    The increase of sea temperature and the changes in marine currents are generating impacts on coastal waters such as changes in water biogeochemical and physical parameters (e.g. primary production, pH, salinity) leading to progressive degradation of the marine environment. With the main aim of analysing the potential impacts of climate change on coastal water quality, a Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology was developed and applied to coastal marine waters of the North Adriatic (i.e. coastal water bodies of the Veneto and Friuli Venezia Giulia regions, Italy). RRA integrates the outputs of regional models providing information on macronutrients (i.e. dissolved inorganic nitrogen e reactive phosphorus), dissolved oxygen, pH, salinity and temperature, etc., under future climate change scenarios with site-specific environmental and socio-economic indicators (e.g. biotic index, presence and extension of seagrasses, presence of aquaculture). The presented approach uses Geographic Information Systems to manage, analyse, and visualize data and employs Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis for the integration of stakeholders preferences and experts judgments into the evaluation process. RRA outputs are hazard, exposure, vulnerability, risk and damage maps useful for the identification and prioritization of hot-spot areas and vulnerable targets in the considered region. Therefore, the main aim of this contribution is to apply the RRA methodology to integrate, visualize, and rank according to spatial distribution, physical and chemical data concerning the coastal waters of the North Adriatic Sea in order to predict possible changes of the actual water quality.

  18. A Global Observatory of Lake Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Andrew N.; Hunter, Peter D.; Spyrakos, Evangelos; Neil, Claire; Simis, Stephen; Groom, Steve; Merchant, Chris J.; Miller, Claire A.; O'Donnell, Ruth; Scott, E. Marian

    2017-04-01

    Our planet's surface waters are a fundamental resource encompassing a broad range of ecosystems that are core to global biogeochemical cycling, biodiversity and food and energy security. Despite this, these same waters are impacted by multiple natural and anthropogenic pressures and drivers of environmental change. The complex interaction between physical, chemical and biological processes in surface waters poses significant challenges for in situ monitoring and assessment and this often limits our ability to adequately capture the dynamics of aquatic systems and our understanding of their status, functioning and response to pressures. Recent developments in the availability of satellite platforms for Earth observation (including ESA's Copernicus Programme) offers an unprecedented opportunity to deliver measures of water quality at a global scale. The UK NERC-funded GloboLakes project is a five-year research programme investigating the state of lakes and their response to climatic and other environmental drivers of change through the realization of a near-real time satellite based observatory (Sentinel-3) and archive data processing (MERIS, SeaWiFS) to produce a 20-year time-series of observed ecological parameters and lake temperature for more than 1000 lakes globally. However, the diverse and complex optical properties of lakes mean that algorithm performance often varies markedly between different water types. The GloboLakes project is overcoming this challenge by developing a processing chain whereby algorithms are dynamically selected according to the optical properties of the lake under observation. The development and validation of the GloboLakes processing chain has been supported by access to extensive in situ data from more than thirty partners around the world that are now held in the LIMNADES community-owned data repository developed under the auspices of GloboLakes. This approach has resulted in a step-change in our ability to produce regional and

  19. Evaluation of Military Field-Water Quality. Volume 9. Data for Assessing Health Risks in Potential Theaters of Operation for U.S. Military Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-01

    including iron, nickel, cobat, zinc, silver, cadmium, and mercury . In water, these complexes dissociate to different degrees and release metallocyanide...diarrhea, constipation, fulminating dysentery. Giardia lamblia Chronic diarrhea, cramps, anorexia. Water-washed and water-based Health effects infectious

  20. Impact of fish pond manuring on microbial water quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mlejnková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish pond manuring is often used in fish farming for intensification of fish production by balancing the ratio between carbon and other nutrients. However, the using of manure, classified as hazardous organic matter originating from animal faeces, poses a risk to the water environment.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of semi-liquid pig manure application on faecal pollution and related potential health risk of fish pond utilization.The evaluation of faecal pollution was made during 6 years; the microbiological monitoring was completed with the water chemistry data. Our results showed that a better situation was in ponds, processes of which can be regulated by changes in nutrient contents, i.e., by controlled manure application. The absolute counts of microbial indicators were not significantly different in the control non-manured and manured fish ponds, but sporadically detected high faecal indicators counts in summer can represent a potential health risk. According to our results, the water quality of fish ponds is influenced due to manuring but the immediate impact of manuring in fish ponds and recipients in our study proved neither in deterioration of microbiological quality and health risk enhancement nor in the water quality assessed by chemical analyses.

  1. Proactive modeling of water quality impacts of extreme precipitation events in a drinking water reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeznach, Lillian C; Hagemann, Mark; Park, Mi-Hyun; Tobiason, John E

    2017-10-01

    Extreme precipitation events are of concern to managers of drinking water sources because these occurrences can affect both water supply quantity and quality. However, little is known about how these low probability events impact organic matter and nutrient loads to surface water sources and how these loads may impact raw water quality. This study describes a method for evaluating the sensitivity of a water body of interest from watershed input simulations under extreme precipitation events. An example application of the method is illustrated using the Wachusett Reservoir, an oligo-mesotrophic surface water reservoir in central Massachusetts and a major drinking water supply to metropolitan Boston. Extreme precipitation event simulations during the spring and summer resulted in total organic carbon, UV-254 (a surrogate measurement for reactive organic matter), and total algae concentrations at the drinking water intake that exceeded recorded maximums. Nutrient concentrations after storm events were less likely to exceed recorded historical maximums. For this particular reservoir, increasing inter-reservoir transfers of water with lower organic matter content after a large precipitation event has been shown in practice and in model simulations to decrease organic matter levels at the drinking water intake, therefore decreasing treatment associated oxidant demand, energy for UV disinfection, and the potential for formation of disinfection byproducts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Continuous Water-Quality Monitoring of Streams in Johnson County, Kansas, 2002-06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Teresa J.; Lee, Casey J.; Ziegler, Andrew C.

    2008-01-01

    Water quality in Johnson County, Kansas was characterized on the basis of continuous, in-stream monitoring. The results summarized in this fact sheet may be used to better understand concentration and load variability during changing seasonal and streamflow conditions and to assess water-quality conditions relative to water-quality standards and management goals. The baseline information also will be useful for evaluating future changes in land use and effectiveness of implemented best management practices.

  3. The water quality of the river Svratka and its tributaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Grmela

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Water quality in river depends on water quality of its tributaries. During the year 2011 nine selected sites downstream under the Vír dam (from 108 to 79 river km were monitored. For observation were chosen tributaries Besének, Loučka, Nedvědička, Chlebský creek, Hodonínka, Vrtěžířský creek and Tresný creek. At the same time samples from the places above and under the whole monitored section of the river were taken. Basic physicochemical parameters were monitored monthly during the vegetation period. Flow velocity and discharge were assessed three times. Based on the water quality evaluation of, the river Svratka and its tributaries Hodonínka, Vrtěžířský creek and Tresný creek belong to the second quality class, tributaries Besének, Loučka, Nedvědička and Chlebský belong to the third quality class. In the monitored section the retention of phosphorus in annual amount about 2.2 tons were occurance. Annual volume of phosphorus at the end of observed section (upstream the Tišnov town was nearly 17.5 tons. Annual total balance of nitrogen at the end of monitored section was 700 tons per year and 6000 tons of carbon per year. The major source of these nutrients is the river Loučka.

  4. Development of a Sound Quality Evaluation System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Preben; Thomsen, Carsten; Lee, Sanjil

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the first version of the Sound Quality Evaluation System. The purpose of the system is to predict the subjective sound quality of home theater systems from objective measurements. 16 home theater systems were measured in an anechoic room. Several metrics...... expected to correlate w ith the subjective quality were proposed and tested. A model for the sound quality was created by mapping the subjective evaluations of the Home Theater System s with the metrics calculated for each system. Correlation between subjective listening test and the prediction is presente...

  5. The social ecology of water in a Mumbai slum: failures in water quality, quantity, and reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbaraman, Ramnath; Shitole, Shrutika; Shitole, Tejal; Sawant, Kiran; O'Brien, Jennifer; Bloom, David E; Patil-Deshmukh, Anita

    2013-02-26

    Urban slums in developing countries that are not recognized by the government often lack legal access to municipal water supplies. This results in the creation of insecure "informal" water distribution systems (i.e., community-run or private systems outside of the government's purview) that may increase water-borne disease risk. We evaluate an informal water distribution system in a slum in Mumbai, India using commonly accepted health and social equity indicators. We also identify predictors of bacterial contamination of drinking water using logistic regression analysis. Data were collected through two studies: the 2008 Baseline Needs Assessment survey of 959 households and the 2011 Seasonal Water Assessment, in which 229 samples were collected for water quality testing over three seasons. Water samples were collected in each season from the following points along the distribution system: motors that directly tap the municipal supply (i.e., "point-of-source" water), hoses going to slum lanes, and storage and drinking water containers from 21 households. Depending on season, households spend an average of 52 to 206 times more than the standard municipal charge of Indian rupees 2.25 (US dollars 0.04) per 1000 liters for water, and, in some seasons, 95% use less than the WHO-recommended minimum of 50 liters per capita per day. During the monsoon season, 50% of point-of-source water samples were contaminated. Despite a lack of point-of-source water contamination in other seasons, stored drinking water was contaminated in all seasons, with rates as high as 43% for E. coli and 76% for coliform bacteria. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, monsoon and summer seasons were associated with significantly increased odds of drinking water contamination. Our findings reveal severe deficiencies in water-related health and social equity indicators. All bacterial contamination of drinking water occurred due to post-source contamination during storage in the household

  6. SOME INDICATORS OF WATER QUALITY OF THE TAMIŠ RIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRAGAN MARKOVIĆ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the results obtained in field analysis performed at the Tamiš River, starting from the settlement Jaša Tomić (the border between Serbia and Romania to Pančevo (the confluence of Tamiš into the Danube. The Tamiš is a 359 km long river rising in the southern Carpathian Mountains. It flows through the Banat region and flows into the Danube near Pančevo. Over the years, the water quality of the river has severely deteriorated and badly affected the environment and the river ecosystem. In situ measurements enabled determination of physico-chemical parameters of water quality of the Tamiš River at every 400 m of the watercourse, such as: water temperature, pH value, electrical conductivity, contents of dissolved oxygen and oxygen saturation. The main reason of higher pollution of Tamiš is seen in connection to DTD hydro system. Sampling was performed at 7 points with regard to color, turbidity, total hardness, alkalinity, concentration of ammonium nitrogen, nitrite nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, iron, chlorides and sulphates in samples. The aim of the present work was to evaluate water quality in the Tamiš River taking into account significant pollution, which originates from settlements, industry and agriculture, and to suggest appropriate preventive measures to further decrease the pollution of the river's water.

  7. Application of expert systems technology in water-quality modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnwell, T.O.; Brown, L.C.; Marek, W.

    1989-01-01

    Computerized modeling is becoming an integral part of decision making in water pollution control. Expert Systems is an innovative methodology that can assist in building, using, and interpreting the output of the models. The paper reviews the use and evaluates the potential of expert systems technology in environmental modeling and describes the elements of an expert advisor for the stream water quality model QUAL2E. Some general conclusions are presented about the tools available to develop the system, the level of available technology in knowledge-based engineering, and the value of approaching problems from a knowledge engineering perspective.

  8. Assessment of Anthropogenic Activities on Water Quality of Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Water Quality Index (WQI) were used to establish relationship among water quality parameters and determine the water quality status. First six components of PCA accounted for 90.96% of observed variations and showed similarity between the sampling stations indicating different ...

  9. 78 FR 54517 - Water Quality Standards Regulatory Clarifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ... September 4, 2013 Part II Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR Part 131 Water Quality Standards Regulatory... Rules#0;#0; ] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 131 RIN 2040-AF 16 Water Quality Standards... Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is proposing changes to the federal water quality standards (WQS...

  10. 77 FR 71191 - 2012 Recreational Water Quality Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-29

    ... AGENCY 2012 Recreational Water Quality Criteria AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of availability of the 2012 Recreational Water Quality Criteria. SUMMARY: Pursuant to section 304... availability of the 2012 Recreational Water Quality Criteria (RWQC). The document contains the EPA's...

  11. Nationwide assessment of nonpoint source threats to water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas C. Brown; Pamela Froemke

    2012-01-01

    Water quality is a continuing national concern, in part because the containment of pollution from nonpoint (diffuse) sources remains a challenge. We examine the spatial distribution of nonpoint-source threats to water quality. On the basis of comprehensive data sets for a series of watershed stressors, the relative risk of water-quality impairment was estimated for the...

  12. 40 CFR 35.2111 - Revised water quality standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Revised water quality standards. 35... stream segments which have not, at least once since December 29, 1981, had their water quality standards...) The State has in good faith submitted such water quality standards and the Regional Administrator has...

  13. Water Quality Conditions at Tributary Projects in the Omaha District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    biodiversity . Managing sediment loading will typically enhance water quality and aquatic 6 habitat and prolong the recreational use of a reservoir...in reservoirs and can have a significant affect on water quality. DOC and POC are decomposed by microbial organisms. This decomposition exerts an... Water Quality Conditions at Tributary Projects in the Omaha District U.S. Army Corps of

  14. 40 CFR 35.2102 - Water quality management planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35... Administrator shall first determine that the project is: (a) Included in any water quality management plan being implemented for the area under section 208 of the Act or will be included in any water quality management plan...

  15. 40 CFR 35.2023 - Water quality management planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35... to the States to carry out water quality management planning including but not limited to: (1... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2023 Water quality...

  16. To What Extent is Drinking Water Tested in Sub-Saharan Africa? A Comparative Analysis of Regulated Water Quality Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peletz, Rachel; Kumpel, Emily; Bonham, Mateyo; Rahman, Zarah; Khush, Ranjiv

    2016-03-02

    Water quality information is important for guiding water safety management and preventing water-related diseases. To assess the current status of regulated water quality monitoring in sub-Saharan Africa, we evaluated testing programs for fecal contamination in 72 institutions (water suppliers and public health agencies) across 10 countries. Data were collected through written surveys, in-person interviews, and analysis of microbial water quality testing levels. Though most institutions did not achieve the testing levels specified by applicable standards or World Health Organization (WHO) Guidelines, 85% of institutions had conducted some microbial water testing in the previous year. Institutions were more likely to meet testing targets if they were suppliers (as compared to surveillance agencies), served larger populations, operated in urban settings, and had higher water quality budgets (all p water providers and rural public health offices will require greater attention and additional resources to achieve regulatory compliance for water quality monitoring in sub-Saharan Africa. The cost-effectiveness of water quality monitoring should be improved by the application of risk-based water management approaches. Efforts to strengthen monitoring capacity should pay greater attention to program sustainability and institutional commitment to water safety.

  17. To What Extent is Drinking Water Tested in Sub-Saharan Africa? A Comparative Analysis of Regulated Water Quality Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peletz, Rachel; Kumpel, Emily; Bonham, Mateyo; Rahman, Zarah; Khush, Ranjiv

    2016-01-01

    Water quality information is important for guiding water safety management and preventing water-related diseases. To assess the current status of regulated water quality monitoring in sub-Saharan Africa, we evaluated testing programs for fecal contamination in 72 institutions (water suppliers and public health agencies) across 10 countries. Data were collected through written surveys, in-person interviews, and analysis of microbial water quality testing levels. Though most institutions did not achieve the testing levels specified by applicable standards or World Health Organization (WHO) Guidelines, 85% of institutions had conducted some microbial water testing in the previous year. Institutions were more likely to meet testing targets if they were suppliers (as compared to surveillance agencies), served larger populations, operated in urban settings, and had higher water quality budgets (all p water providers and rural public health offices will require greater attention and additional resources to achieve regulatory compliance for water quality monitoring in sub-Saharan Africa. The cost-effectiveness of water quality monitoring should be improved by the application of risk-based water management approaches. Efforts to strengthen monitoring capacity should pay greater attention to program sustainability and institutional commitment to water safety. PMID:26950135

  18. Water quality and bed sediment quality in the Albemarle Sound, North Carolina, 2012–14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorman, Michelle C.; Fitzgerald, Sharon A.; Gurley, Laura N.; Rhoni-Aref, Ahmed; Loftin, Keith A.

    2017-01-23

    , 12 metals in surficial bed sediments were detected at levels above a published sediment-quality threshold. These metals included chromium, mercury, copper, lead, arsenic, nickel, and cadmium. Sites with several metal concentrations above the respective thresholds had relatively high concentrations of organic carbon or fine sediment (silt plus clay), or both and were predominantly located in the western and northwestern parts of the Albemarle Sound.Results from the second phase were generally similar to those of the first in that relatively few constituents exceeded a water-quality threshold, both pH and chlorophyll a were detected above the respective water-quality thresholds, and many of these elevated concentrations occurred in the northern embayments and in Currituck Sound. In contrast to the results from phase one, the cyanotoxin, microcystin was detected at more than 10 times the water-quality threshold during a phytoplankton bloom on the Chowan River at Mount Gould, North Carolina in August of 2013. This was the only cyanotoxin concentration measured during the entire study that exceeded a respective water-quality threshold.The information presented in this report can be used to improve understanding of water-quality conditions in the Albemarle Sound, particularly when evaluating causal and response variables that are indicators of eutrophication. In particular, this information can be used by State agencies to help develop water-quality criteria for nutrients, and to understand factors like cyanotoxins that may affect fisheries and recreation in the Albemarle Sound region.

  19. Evaluation of Technological Quality of Meat Produced from Nsukka ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The technological quality of raw meat from Nsukka local abattoir was evaluated by analyzing the proximate composition, water holding capacity, pH, Napole yield and sensory colour and texture of longissimus dorsi [LD] and psoas major [PM] of beef and pork. Results show that moisture [71.36 – 72.76%], protein [21.37 ...

  20. 76 FR 16285 - Amendments to the Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan To Update Water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... COMMISSION 18 CFR Part 410 Amendments to the Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan To Update Water Quality Criteria for Toxic Pollutants in the Delaware Estuary and Extend These Criteria to... amendments to its Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan to update the Commission's...