WorldWideScience

Sample records for evaluating information retrieval

  1. Information Retrieval Evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Harman, Donna

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation has always played a major role in information retrieval, with the early pioneers such as Cyril Cleverdon and Gerard Salton laying the foundations for most of the evaluation methodologies in use today. The retrieval community has been extremely fortunate to have such a well-grounded evaluation paradigm during a period when most of the human language technologies were just developing. This lecture has the goal of explaining where these evaluation methodologies came from and how they have continued to adapt to the vastly changed environment in the search engine world today. The lecture

  2. Information retrieval implementing and evaluating search engines

    CERN Document Server

    Büttcher, Stefan; Cormack, Gordon V

    2016-01-01

    Information retrieval is the foundation for modern search engines. This textbook offers an introduction to the core topics underlying modern search technologies, including algorithms, data structures, indexing, retrieval, and evaluation. The emphasis is on implementation and experimentation; each chapter includes exercises and suggestions for student projects. Wumpus -- a multiuser open-source information retrieval system developed by one of the authors and available online -- provides model implementations and a basis for student work. The modular structure of the book allows instructors to use it in a variety of graduate-level courses, including courses taught from a database systems perspective, traditional information retrieval courses with a focus on IR theory, and courses covering the basics of Web retrieval. In addition to its classroom use, Information Retrieval will be a valuable reference for professionals in computer science, computer engineering, and software engineering.

  3. Formalizing Evaluation in Music Information Retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.

    2013-01-01

    We develop a formalism to disambiguate the evaluation of music information retrieval systems. We define a ``system,'' what it means to ``analyze'' one, and make clear the aims, parts, design, execution, interpretation, and assumptions of its ``evaluation.'' We apply this formalism to discuss...

  4. Order effect in interactive information retrieval evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Melanie Landvad; Borlund, Pia

    2016-01-01

    , and the good-subject effect shed light on how and why order effect may affect test participants’ IR system interaction and search behaviour. Research limitations/implications – Insight about order effect has implications for test design of IIR studies and hence the knowledge base generated on the basis...... of such studies. Due to the limited sample of 20 test participants (Library and Information Science (LIS) students) inference statistics is not applicable; hence conclusions can be drawn from this sample of test participants only. Originality/value – Only few studies in LIS focus on order effect and none from...... the perspective of IIR. Keywords Evaluation, Research methods, Information retrieval, User studies, Searching, Information searches...

  5. Using Replicates in Information Retrieval Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorhees, Ellen M; Samarov, Daniel; Soboroff, Ian

    2017-09-01

    This article explores a method for more accurately estimating the main effect of the system in a typical test-collection-based evaluation of information retrieval systems, thus increasing the sensitivity of system comparisons. Randomly partitioning the test document collection allows for multiple tests of a given system and topic (replicates). Bootstrap ANOVA can use these replicates to extract system-topic interactions-something not possible without replicates-yielding a more precise value for the system effect and a narrower confidence interval around that value. Experiments using multiple TREC collections demonstrate that removing the topic-system interactions substantially reduces the confidence intervals around the system effect as well as increases the number of significant pairwise differences found. Further, the method is robust against small changes in the number of partitions used, against variability in the documents that constitute the partitions, and the measure of effectiveness used to quantify system effectiveness.

  6. Retrieval practice enhances the ability to evaluate complex physiology information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, John; Linderholm, Tracy; Perez, Jose

    2018-05-01

    Many investigations have shown that retrieval practice enhances the recall of different types of information, including both medical and physiological, but the effects of the strategy on higher-order thinking, such as evaluation, are less clear. The primary aim of this study was to compare how effectively retrieval practice and repeated studying (i.e. reading) strategies facilitated the evaluation of two research articles that advocated dissimilar conclusions. A secondary aim was to determine if that comparison was affected by using those same strategies to first learn important contextual information about the articles. Participants were randomly assigned to learn three texts that provided background information about the research articles either by studying them four consecutive times (Text-S) or by studying and then retrieving them two consecutive times (Text-R). Half of both the Text-S and Text-R groups were then randomly assigned to learn two physiology research articles by studying them four consecutive times (Article-S) and the other half learned them by studying and then retrieving them two consecutive times (Article-R). Participants then completed two assessments: the first tested their ability to critique the research articles and the second tested their recall of the background texts. On the article critique assessment, the Article-R groups' mean scores of 33.7 ± 4.7% and 35.4 ± 4.5% (Text-R then Article-R group and Text-S then Article-R group, respectively) were both significantly (p Retrieval practice promoted superior critical evaluation of the research articles, and the results also indicated the strategy enhanced the recall of background information. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  7. Human Information Behaviour and Design, Development and Evaluation of Information Retrieval Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarz, Hamid

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to introduce the concept of human information behaviour and to explore the relationship between information behaviour of users and the existing approaches dominating design and evaluation of information retrieval (IR) systems and also to describe briefly new design and evaluation methods in which extensive…

  8. The Simplest Evaluation Measures for XML Information Retrieval that Could Possibly Work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd; Mihajlovic, V.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews several evaluation measures developed for evaluating XML information retrieval (IR) systems. We argue that these measures, some of which are currently in use by the INitiative for the Evaluation of XML Retrieval (INEX), are complicated, hard to understand, and hard to explain to

  9. Interactive Information Retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borlund, Pia

    2013-01-01

    The paper introduces the research area of interactive information retrieval (IIR) from a historical point of view. Further, the focus here is on evaluation, because much research in IR deals with IR evaluation methodology due to the core research interest in IR performance, system interaction...... and satisfaction with retrieved information. In order to position IIR evaluation, the Cranfield model and the series of tests that led to the Cranfield model are outlined. Three iconic user-oriented studies and projects that all have contributed to how IIR is perceived and understood today are presented......: The MEDLARS test, the Book House fiction retrieval system, and the OKAPI project. On this basis the call for alternative IIR evaluation approaches motivated by the three revolutions (the cognitive, the relevance, and the interactive revolutions) put forward by Robertson & Hancock-Beaulieu (1992) is presented...

  10. Introduction to information retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Manning, Christopher D; Schütze, Hinrich

    2008-01-01

    Class-tested and coherent, this textbook teaches classical and web information retrieval, including web search and the related areas of text classification and text clustering from basic concepts. It gives an up-to-date treatment of all aspects of the design and implementation of systems for gathering, indexing, and searching documents; methods for evaluating systems; and an introduction to the use of machine learning methods on text collections. All the important ideas are explained using examples and figures, making it perfect for introductory courses in information retrieval for advanced un

  11. Connectionist Interaction Information Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominich, Sandor

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of connectionist views for adaptive clustering in information retrieval focuses on a connectionist clustering technique and activation spreading-based information retrieval model using the interaction information retrieval method. Presents theoretical as well as simulation results as regards computational complexity and includes…

  12. Interactive Information Retrieval:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borlund, Pia

    IIR from the perspective of search dedication and task load in order to also include everyday life information seeking? With this presentation, the IIR community is invited to an exchange of ideas and is encouraged to engage in collaborations with the solving of these (and other) issues to our joint......This presentation addresses methodological issues of interactive information retrieval (IIR) evaluation in terms of what it entails to study users' use and interaction with IR systems, as well as their satisfaction with retrieved information. In particular, the presentation focuses on test design...... of the users to ensure a complete and realistic picture to enhance our understanding of IIR. The presentation also reflects on whether a re-thinking of the concept on an information need is necessary. One may ask whether it still makes sense to talk about types of information needs. Or should we rather study...

  13. FIRES: Fire Information Retrieval and Evaluation System - A program for fire danger rating analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia L. Andrews; Larry S. Bradshaw

    1997-01-01

    A computer program, FIRES: Fire Information Retrieval and Evaluation System, provides methods for evaluating the performance of fire danger rating indexes. The relationship between fire danger indexes and historical fire occurrence and size is examined through logistic regression and percentiles. Historical seasonal trends of fire danger and fire occurrence can be...

  14. Making Explicit the Formalism Underlying Evaluation in Music Information Retrieval Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.

    2014-01-01

    We make explicit the formalism underlying evaluation in music information retrieval research. We define a ``system,'' what it means to ``analyze'' one, and make clear the aims, parts, design, execution, interpretation, assumptions and limitations of its ``evaluation.'' We apply this formalism...... to discuss the MIREX automatic mood classification task....

  15. Introduction to information retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Manning, Christopher D; Schütze, Hinrich

    2008-01-01

    Class-tested and coherent, this textbook teaches classical and web information retrieval, including web search and the related areas of text classification and text clustering from basic concepts. It gives an up-to-date treatment of all aspects of the design and implementation of systems for gathering, indexing, and searching documents; methods for evaluating systems; and an introduction to the use of machine learning methods on text collections. All the important ideas are explained using examples and figures, making it perfect for introductory courses in information retrieval for advanced undergraduates and graduate students in computer science. Based on feedback from extensive classroom experience, the book has been carefully structured in order to make teaching more natural and effective. Slides and additional exercises (with solutions for lecturers) are also available through the book's supporting website to help course instructors prepare their lectures.

  16. Changing Information Retrieval Behaviours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Constantiou, Ioanna D.; Lehrer, Christiane; Hess, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    on the continuance of LBS use and indicate changes in individuals' information retrieval behaviours in everyday life. In particular, the distinct value dimension of LBS in specific contexts of use changes individuals' behaviours towards accessing location-related information....

  17. A study of the use of simulated work task situations in interactive information retrieval evaluations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borlund, Pia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to report a study of how the test instrument of a simulated work task situation is used in empirical evaluations of interactive information retrieval (IIR) and reported in the research literature. In particular, the author is interested to learn whether....... The paper addresses the need to carefully design and tailor simulated work task situations to suit the test participants in order to obtain the intended authentic and realistic IIR under study. Keywords Interactive information retrieval study, IIR study, Test design, Simulated work task situations, Meta-evaluation...... situations in IIR evaluations. In particular, with respect to the design and creation of realistic simulated work task situations. There is a lack of tailoring of the simulated work task situations to the test participants. Likewise, the requirement to include the test participants’ personal information...

  18. Private information retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Yi, Xun; Bertino, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    This book deals with Private Information Retrieval (PIR), a technique allowing a user to retrieve an element from a server in possession of a database without revealing to the server which element is retrieved. PIR has been widely applied to protect the privacy of the user in querying a service provider on the Internet. For example, by PIR, one can query a location-based service provider about the nearest car park without revealing his location to the server.The first PIR approach was introduced by Chor, Goldreich, Kushilevitz and Sudan in 1995 in a multi-server setting, where the user retriev

  19. Information retrieval system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, R. F.; Holcomb, J. E.; Kelroy, E. A.; Levine, D. A.; Mee, C., III

    1970-01-01

    Generalized information storage and retrieval system capable of generating and maintaining a file, gathering statistics, sorting output, and generating final reports for output is reviewed. File generation and file maintenance programs written for the system are general purpose routines.

  20. Beyond information retrieval: information discovery and multimedia information retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Raieli

    2017-01-01

    The paper compares the current methodologies for search and discovery of information and information resources: terminological search and term-based language, own of information retrieval (IR); semantic search and information discovery, being developed mainly through the language of linked data; semiotic search and content-based language, experienced by multimedia information retrieval (MIR).MIR semiotic methodology is, then, detailed.

  1. Information Retrieval Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd; Göker, Ayse; Davies, John

    2009-01-01

    Many applications that handle information on the internet would be completely inadequate without the support of information retrieval technology. How would we find information on the world wide web if there were no web search engines? How would we manage our email without spam filtering? Much of the

  2. Creation of reliable relevance judgments in information retrieval systems evaluation experimentation through crowdsourcing: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samimi, Parnia; Ravana, Sri Devi

    2014-01-01

    Test collection is used to evaluate the information retrieval systems in laboratory-based evaluation experimentation. In a classic setting, generating relevance judgments involves human assessors and is a costly and time consuming task. Researchers and practitioners are still being challenged in performing reliable and low-cost evaluation of retrieval systems. Crowdsourcing as a novel method of data acquisition is broadly used in many research fields. It has been proven that crowdsourcing is an inexpensive and quick solution as well as a reliable alternative for creating relevance judgments. One of the crowdsourcing applications in IR is to judge relevancy of query document pair. In order to have a successful crowdsourcing experiment, the relevance judgment tasks should be designed precisely to emphasize quality control. This paper is intended to explore different factors that have an influence on the accuracy of relevance judgments accomplished by workers and how to intensify the reliability of judgments in crowdsourcing experiment.

  3. Interactive information seeking, behaviour and retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Ruthven, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Information retrieval (IR) is a complex human activity supported by sophisticated systems. This book covers the whole spectrum of information retrieval, including: history and background information; behaviour and seeking task-based information; searching and retrieval approaches to investigating information; and, evaluation interfaces for IR.

  4. Information Retrieval in Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herschman, Arthur

    Discussed in this paper are the information problems in physics and the current program of the American Institute of Physics (AIP) being conducted in an attempt to develop an information retrieval system. The seriousness of the need is described by means of graphs indicating the exponential rise in the number of physics publications in the last…

  5. Topological Aspects of Information Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egghe, Leo; Rousseau, Ronald

    1998-01-01

    Discusses topological aspects of theoretical information retrieval, including retrieval topology; similarity topology; pseudo-metric topology; document spaces as topological spaces; Boolean information retrieval as a subsystem of any topological system; and proofs of theorems. (LRW)

  6. Rhetorical relations for information retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lioma, Christina; Larsen, Birger; Lu, Wei

    2012-01-01

    -called discourse structure has been applied successfully to several natural language processing tasks. This work studies the use of rhetorical relations for Information Retrieval (IR): Is there a correlation between certain rhetorical relations and retrieval performance? Can knowledge about a document’s rhetorical...... relations be useful to IR? We present a language model modification that considers rhetorical relations when estimating the relevance of a document to a query. Empirical evaluation of different versions of our model on TREC settings shows that certain rhetorical relations can benefit retrieval effectiveness...

  7. Music Information Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, J. Stephen

    2003-01-01

    Identifies MIR (Music Information Retrieval) computer system problems, historic influences, current state-of-the-art, and future MIR solutions through an examination of the multidisciplinary approach to MIR. Highlights include pitch; temporal factors; harmonics; tone; editorial, textual, and bibliographic facets; multicultural factors; locating…

  8. Development and evaluation of a geographic information retrieval system using fine grained toponyms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Palacio

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Geographic information retrieval (GIR is concerned with returning information in response to an information need, typically expressed in terms of a thematic and spatial component linked by a spatial relationship. However, evaluation initiatives have often failed to show significant differences between simple text baselines and more complex spatially enabled GIR approaches. We explore the effectiveness of three systems (a text baseline, spatial query expansion, and a full GIR system utilizing both text and spatial indexes at retrieving documents from a corpus describing mountaineering expeditions, centred around fine grained toponyms. To allow evaluation, we use user generated content (UGC in the form of metadata associated with individual articles to build a test collection of queries and judgments. The test collection allowed us to demonstrate that a GIR-based method significantly outperformed a text baseline for all but very specific queries associated with very small query radii. We argue that such approaches to test collection development have much to offer in the evaluation of GIR.

  9. Information, conservation and retrieval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eng, T [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Norberg, E [National Swedish Archives, Stockholm (Sweden); Torbacke, J [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of History; Jensen, M [Swedish Radiation Protection Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1996-12-01

    The seminar took place on the Swedish ship for transportation of radioactive wastes, M/S Sigyn, which at summer time is used for exhibitions. The seminar treated items related to general information needs in society and questions related to radioactive waste, i.e. how knowledge about a waste repository should be passed on to future generations. Three contributions are contained in the report from the seminar and are indexed separately: `Active preservation - otherwise no achieves`; `The conservation and dissemination of information - A democratic issue`; and, `Conservation and retrieval of information - Elements of a strategy to inform future societies about nuclear waste repositories`.

  10. Information, conservation and retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eng, T.; Norberg, E.; Torbacke, J.

    1996-12-01

    The seminar took place on the Swedish ship for transportation of radioactive wastes, M/S Sigyn, which at summer time is used for exhibitions. The seminar treated items related to general information needs in society and questions related to radioactive waste, i.e. how knowledge about a waste repository should be passed on to future generations. Three contributions are contained in the report from the seminar and are indexed separately: 'Active preservation - otherwise no achieves'; 'The conservation and dissemination of information - A democratic issue'; and, 'Conservation and retrieval of information - Elements of a strategy to inform future societies about nuclear waste repositories'

  11. Evaluating A Priori Ozone Profile Information Used in TEMPO Tropospheric Ozone Retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew S.; Sullivan, John T.; Liu, Xiong; Newchurch, Mike; Kuang, Shi; McGee, Thomas J.; Langford, Andrew O'Neil; Senff, Christoph J.; Leblanc, Thierry; Berkoff, Timothy; hide

    2016-01-01

    Ozone (O3) is a greenhouse gas and toxic pollutant which plays a major role in air quality. Typically, monitoring of surface air quality and O3 mixing ratios is primarily conducted using in situ measurement networks. This is partially due to high-quality information related to air quality being limited from space-borne platforms due to coarse spatial resolution, limited temporal frequency, and minimal sensitivity to lower tropospheric and surface-level O3. The Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) satellite is designed to address these limitations of current space-based platforms and to improve our ability to monitor North American air quality. TEMPO will provide hourly data of total column and vertical profiles of O3 with high spatial resolution to be used as a near-real-time air quality product. TEMPO O3 retrievals will apply the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory profile algorithm developed based on work from GOME, GOME-2, and OMI. This algorithm uses a priori O3 profile information from a climatological data-base developed from long-term ozone-sonde measurements (tropopause-based (TB) O3 climatology). It has been shown that satellite O3 retrievals are sensitive to a priori O3 profiles and covariance matrices. During this work we investigate the climatological data to be used in TEMPO algorithms (TB O3) and simulated data from the NASA GMAO Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-5) Forward Processing (FP) near-real-time (NRT) model products. These two data products will be evaluated with ground-based lidar data from the Tropospheric Ozone Lidar Network (TOLNet) at various locations of the US. This study evaluates the TB climatology, GEOS-5 climatology, and 3-hourly GEOS-5 data compared to lower tropospheric observations to demonstrate the accuracy of a priori information to potentially be used in TEMPO O3 algorithms. Here we present our initial analysis and the theoretical impact on TEMPO retrievals in the lower troposphere.

  12. Evaluating A Priori Ozone Profile Information Used in TEMPO Tropospheric Ozone Retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M. S.; Sullivan, J. T.; Liu, X.; Newchurch, M.; Kuang, S.; McGee, T. J.; Langford, A. O.; Senff, C. J.; Leblanc, T.; Berkoff, T.; Gronoff, G.; Chen, G.; Strawbridge, K. B.

    2016-12-01

    Ozone (O3) is a greenhouse gas and toxic pollutant which plays a major role in air quality. Typically, monitoring of surface air quality and O3 mixing ratios is primarily conducted using in situ measurement networks. This is partially due to high-quality information related to air quality being limited from space-borne platforms due to coarse spatial resolution, limited temporal frequency, and minimal sensitivity to lower tropospheric and surface-level O3. The Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) satellite is designed to address these limitations of current space-based platforms and to improve our ability to monitor North American air quality. TEMPO will provide hourly data of total column and vertical profiles of O3 with high spatial resolution to be used as a near-real-time air quality product. TEMPO O3 retrievals will apply the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory profile algorithm developed based on work from GOME, GOME-2, and OMI. This algorithm uses a priori O3 profile information from a climatological data-base developed from long-term ozone-sonde measurements (tropopause-based (TB) O3 climatology). It has been shown that satellite O3 retrievals are sensitive to a priori O3 profiles and covariance matrices. During this work we investigate the climatological data to be used in TEMPO algorithms (TB O3) and simulated data from the NASA GMAO Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-5) Forward Processing (FP) near-real-time (NRT) model products. These two data products will be evaluated with ground-based lidar data from the Tropospheric Ozone Lidar Network (TOLNet) at various locations of the US. This study evaluates the TB climatology, GEOS-5 climatology, and 3-hourly GEOS-5 data compared to lower tropospheric observations to demonstrate the accuracy of a priori information to potentially be used in TEMPO O3 algorithms. Here we present our initial analysis and the theoretical impact on TEMPO retrievals in the lower troposphere.

  13. JINR information retrieval system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnaudov, D.D.; Govorun, N.N.

    1975-01-01

    The organization of the main files of the JINR Information Retrieval System is described. There are four main files in the System. They are as follows: MD file that consists of abstracts of documents; OMPOD file where the index records of documents are gathered; MZD file that consists of list heads, and OMD file- the file of descriptors. The last three files are considered in some detail. The System is realized in the COBOL language on the CDC computer

  14. Affective Music Information Retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ju-Chiang; Yang, Yi-Hsuan; Wang, Hsin-Min

    2015-01-01

    Much of the appeal of music lies in its power to convey emotions/moods and to evoke them in listeners. In consequence, the past decade witnessed a growing interest in modeling emotions from musical signals in the music information retrieval (MIR) community. In this article, we present a novel generative approach to music emotion modeling, with a specific focus on the valence-arousal (VA) dimension model of emotion. The presented generative model, called \\emph{acoustic emotion Gaussians} (AEG)...

  15. Interactive Information Retrieval: An Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borlund, Pia

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces the research area of interactive information retrieval (IIR from a historical point of view. Further, the focus here is on evaluation, because much research in IR deals with IR evaluation methodology due to the core research interest in IR performance, system interaction and satisfaction with retrieved information. In order to position IIR evaluation, the Cranfield model and the series of tests that led to the Cranfield model are outlined. Three iconic user-oriented studies and projects that all have contributed to how IIR is perceived and understood today are presented: The MEDLARS test, the Book House fiction retrieval system, and the OKAPI project. On this basis the call for alternative IIR evaluation approaches motivated by the three revolutions (the cognitive, the relevance, and the interactive revolutions put forward by Robertson & Hancock-Beaulieu (1992 is presented. As a response to this call the 'IIR evaluation model' by Borlund (e.g., 2003a is introduced. The objective of the IIR evaluation model is to facilitate IIR evaluation as close as possible to actual information searching and IR processes, though still in a relatively controlled evaluation environment, in which the test instrument of a simulated work task situation plays a central part.

  16. RETRIEVAL EVENTS EVALUATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, T.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate impacts to the retrieval concept presented in the Design Analysis ''Retrieval Equipment and Strategy'' (Reference 6), from abnormal events based on Design Basis Events (DBE) and Beyond Design Basis Events (BDBE) as defined in two recent analyses: (1) DBE/Scenario Analysis for Preclosure Repository Subsurface Facilities (Reference 4); and (2) Preliminary Preclosure Design Basis Event Calculations for the Monitored Geologic Repository (Reference 5) The objective of this task is to determine what impacts the DBEs and BDBEs have on the equipment developed for retrieval. The analysis lists potential impacts and recommends changes to be analyzed in subsequent design analyses for developed equipment, or recommend where additional equipment may be needed, to allow retrieval to be performed in all DBE or BDBE situations. This analysis supports License Application design and therefore complies with the requirements of Systems Description Document input criteria comparison as presented in Section 7, Conclusions. In addition, the analysis discusses the impacts associated with not using concrete inverts in the emplacement drifts. The ''Retrieval Equipment and Strategy'' analysis was based on a concrete invert configuration in the emplacement drift. The scope of the analysis, as presented in ''Development Plan for Retrieval Events Evaluation'' (Reference 3) includes evaluation and criteria of the following: Impacts to retrieval from the emplacement drift based on DBE/BDBEs, and changes to the invert configuration for the preclosure period. Impacts to retrieval from the main drifts based on DBE/BDBEs for the preclosure period

  17. Multimedia Information Retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Rueger, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    At its very core multimedia information retrieval means the process of searching for and finding multimedia documents; the corresponding research field is concerned with building the best possible multimedia search engines. The intriguing bit here is that the query itself can be a multimedia excerpt: For example, when you walk around in an unknown place and stumble across an interesting landmark, would it not be great if you could just take a picture with your mobile phone and send it to a service that finds a similar picture in a database and tells you more about the building -- and about its

  18. Automated information retrieval using CLIPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raines, Rodney Doyle, III; Beug, James Lewis

    1991-01-01

    Expert systems have considerable potential to assist computer users in managing the large volume of information available to them. One possible use of an expert system is to model the information retrieval interests of a human user and then make recommendations to the user as to articles of interest. At Cal Poly, a prototype expert system written in the C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) serves as an Automated Information Retrieval System (AIRS). AIRS monitors a user's reading preferences, develops a profile of the user, and then evaluates items returned from the information base. When prompted by the user, AIRS returns a list of items of interest to the user. In order to minimize the impact on system resources, AIRS is designed to run in the background during periods of light system use.

  19. TRECVID: evaluating the effectiveness of information retrieval tasks on digital video

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeaton, A.F.; Over, P.; Kraaij, W.

    2004-01-01

    TRECVID is an annual exercise which encourages research in information retrieval from digital video by providing a large video test collection, uniform scoring procedures, and a forum for organizations interested in comparing their results. TRECVID benchmarking covers both interactive and manual

  20. Citation Index: an indispensable information retrieval tool for research and evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Kademani, B. S.; Vijai Kumar, *

    2002-01-01

    This paper highlights the information explosion, the need for bibliographic control, the need for information retrieval tools. Explains the emergence of Citation Index, concept of citation indexing, reasons for citing, its structure (print and electronic versions of Science citation Index and Social Science Citation Index ), and application of citation index. It also discusses the search effectiveness, factors taken into consideration for coverage of journals in citation indexes, Journal Cita...

  1. User-Based Information Retrieval System Interface Evaluation: An Examination of an On-Line Public Access Catalog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hert, Carol A.; Nilan, Michael S.

    1991-01-01

    Presents preliminary data that characterizes the relationship between what users say they are trying to accomplish when using an online public access catalog (OPAC) and their perceptions of what input to give the system. Human-machine interaction is discussed, and appropriate methods for evaluating information retrieval systems are considered. (18…

  2. Contextual Bandits for Information Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmann, K.; Whiteson, S.; de Rijke, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we give an overview of and outlook on research at the intersection of information retrieval (IR) and contextual bandit problems. A critical problem in information retrieval is online learning to rank, where a search engine strives to improve the quality of the ranked result lists it

  3. Intelligent Information Retrieval: An Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauch, Susan

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the application of artificial intelligence to online information retrieval systems and describes several systems: (1) CANSEARCH, from MEDLINE; (2) Intelligent Interface for Information Retrieval (I3R); (3) Gausch's Query Reformulation; (4) Environmental Pollution Expert (EP-X); (5) PLEXUS (gardening); and (6) SCISOR (corporate…

  4. Ontology-based Information Retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Styltsvig, Henrik Bulskov

    In this thesis, we will present methods for introducing ontologies in information retrieval. The main hypothesis is that the inclusion of conceptual knowledge such as ontologies in the information retrieval process can contribute to the solution of major problems currently found in information...... retrieval. This utilization of ontologies has a number of challenges. Our focus is on the use of similarity measures derived from the knowledge about relations between concepts in ontologies, the recognition of semantic information in texts and the mapping of this knowledge into the ontologies in use......, as well as how to fuse together the ideas of ontological similarity and ontological indexing into a realistic information retrieval scenario. To achieve the recognition of semantic knowledge in a text, shallow natural language processing is used during indexing that reveals knowledge to the level of noun...

  5. Topic structure for information retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, J.; Sanderson, M.; Zhai, C.; Zobel, J.; Allan, J.; Aslam, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    In my research, I propose a coherence measure, with the goal of discovering and using topic structures within and between documents, of which I explore its extensions and applications in information retrieval.

  6. Information retrieval in particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyanagi, Yoshio

    1983-01-01

    Various information retrieval systems for elementary particle physics are introduced. Scientific information has been distributed in the form of books, periodicals or preprints. Some periodicals include the abstracts of information only. Recently, computer systems, by which the information retrieval can be easily done, have been developed. The construction of networks connecting various computer systems is in progress. It is possible to call the data base of Rutherford Laboratory from a telephone terminal of Laurence Berkeley Laboratory. The access to the Network by British Science Research Council can be made from DESY or CERN. The examples of on-line information retrieval in Japan are presented. Some of the periodicals of secondary information and data books are also introduced. (Kato, T.)

  7. Information retrieval in digital environments

    CERN Document Server

    Dinet, Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    Information retrieval is a central and essential activity. It is indeed difficult to find a human activity that does not need to retrieve information in an environment which is often increasingly digital: moving and navigating, learning, having fun, communicating, informing, making a decision, etc. Most human activities are intimately linked to our ability to search quickly and effectively for relevant information, the stakes are sometimes extremely important: passing an exam, voting, finding a job, remaining autonomous, being socially connected, developing a critical spirit, or simply surviv

  8. Biomedical information retrieval across languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daumke, Philipp; Markü, Kornél; Poprat, Michael; Schulz, Stefan; Klar, Rüdiger

    2007-06-01

    This work presents a new dictionary-based approach to biomedical cross-language information retrieval (CLIR) that addresses many of the general and domain-specific challenges in current CLIR research. Our method is based on a multilingual lexicon that was generated partly manually and partly automatically, and currently covers six European languages. It contains morphologically meaningful word fragments, termed subwords. Using subwords instead of entire words significantly reduces the number of lexical entries necessary to sufficiently cover a specific language and domain. Mediation between queries and documents is based on these subwords as well as on lists of word-n-grams that are generated from large monolingual corpora and constitute possible translation units. The translations are then sent to a standard Internet search engine. This process makes our approach an effective tool for searching the biomedical content of the World Wide Web in different languages. We evaluate this approach using the OHSUMED corpus, a large medical document collection, within a cross-language retrieval setting.

  9. The Ecosystem of Information Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Munoz, Jose-Vicente; Martinez-Mendez, Francisco-Javier; Pastor-Sanchez, Juan-Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: This paper presents an initial proposal for a formal framework that, by studying the metric variables involved in information retrieval, can establish the sequence of events involved and how to perform it. Method: A systematic approach from the equations of Shannon and Weaver to establish the decidability of information retrieval…

  10. Information Retrieval for Ecological Syntheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, Helen R.; Beyer, Fiona R.

    2015-01-01

    Research syntheses are increasingly being conducted within the fields of ecology and environmental management. Information retrieval is crucial in any synthesis in identifying data for inclusion whilst potentially reducing biases in the dataset gathered, yet the nature of ecological information provides several challenges when compared with…

  11. Image Information Retrieval: An Overview of Current Research

    OpenAIRE

    Abby A. Goodrum

    2000-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of current research in image information retrieval and provides an outline of areas for future research. The approach is broad and interdisciplinary and focuses on three aspects of image research (IR): text-based retrieval, content-based retrieval, and user interactions with image information retrieval systems. The review concludes with a call for image retrieval evaluation studies similar to TREC.

  12. PROJECT EVALUATION OF TECHNICAL CONDITION OF SHIP STRUCTURES WITH USE OF INFORMATION RETRIEVAL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Юлия Алексеевна КАЗИМИРЕНКО

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms for evaluation of technical conditions of ship constructions were investigated and was developed a new specialized informational and search system for the collection, analysis and processing the defects of new materials during the designing, construction, operation of ships and floating structures for transportation of goods 1, 4, 6-8 classes of danger.

  13. Information Retrieval in Virtual Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puustjärvi, Juha; Pöyry, Päivi

    2006-01-01

    Information retrieval in the context of virtual universities deals with the representation, organization, and access to learning objects. The representation and organization of learning objects should provide the learner with an easy access to the learning objects. In this article, we give an overview of the ONES system, and analyze the relevance…

  14. Context based multimedia information retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Lasse Lohilahti

    The large amounts of digital media becoming available require that new approaches are developed for retrieving, navigating and recommending the data to users in a way that refl ects how we semantically perceive the content. The thesis investigates ways to retrieve and present content for users...... topics from a large collection of the transcribed speech to improve retrieval of spoken documents. The context modelling is done using a variant of probabilistic latent semantic analysis (PLSA), to extract properties of the textual sources that refl ect how humans perceive context. We perform PLSA...... of Wikipedia , as well as text-based semantic similarity. The final aspect investigated is how to include some of the structured data available in Wikipedia to include temporal information. We show that a multiway extension of PLSA makes it possible to extract temporally meaningful topics, better than using...

  15. Evaluation of information-theoretic similarity measures for content-based retrieval and detection of masses in mammograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tourassi, Georgia D.; Harrawood, Brian; Singh, Swatee; Lo, Joseph Y.; Floyd, Carey E.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate image similarity measures employed in an information-theoretic computer-assisted detection (IT-CAD) scheme. The scheme was developed for content-based retrieval and detection of masses in screening mammograms. The study is aimed toward an interactive clinical paradigm where physicians query the proposed IT-CAD scheme on mammographic locations that are either visually suspicious or indicated as suspicious by other cuing CAD systems. The IT-CAD scheme provides an evidence-based, second opinion for query mammographic locations using a knowledge database of mass and normal cases. In this study, eight entropy-based similarity measures were compared with respect to retrieval precision and detection accuracy using a database of 1820 mammographic regions of interest. The IT-CAD scheme was then validated on a separate database for false positive reduction of progressively more challenging visual cues generated by an existing, in-house mass detection system. The study showed that the image similarity measures fall into one of two categories; one category is better suited to the retrieval of semantically similar cases while the second is more effective with knowledge-based decisions regarding the presence of a true mass in the query location. In addition, the IT-CAD scheme yielded a substantial reduction in false-positive detections while maintaining high detection rate for malignant masses

  16. Database, expert systems, information retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedele, P.; Grandoni, G.; Mammarella, M.C.

    1989-12-01

    The great debate concerning the Italian high-school reform has induced a ferment of activity among the most interested and sensible of people. This was clearly demonstrated by the course 'Innovazione metodologico-didattica e tecnologie informatiche' organized for the staff of the 'lstituto Professionale L. Einaudi' of Lamezia Terme. The course was an interesting opportunity for discussions and interaction between the world of School and computer technology used in the Research field. This three day course included theoretical and practical lessons, showing computer facilities that could be useful for teaching. During the practical lessons some computer tools were presented from the very simple Electronic Sheets to the more complicated information Retrieval on CD-ROM interactive realizations. The main topics will be discussed later. They are: Modelling, Data Base, Integrated Information Systems, Expert Systems, Information Retrieval. (author)

  17. Functional alarming and information retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodstein, L.P.

    1985-08-01

    This paper deals with two facets of the design and efficient utilisation by operating personnel of computer-based interfaces for monitoring and the supervisory control of complex industrial systems - e.g., power stations, chemical plants, etc. These are alarming and information retrieval both of which are extremely sensitive to computerisation. For example, the advent of computers for display requires that some means of assuring easy and rapid access to large amounts of relevant stored information be found. In this paper, alarming and information retrieval are linked together through a multilevel functional description of the target plant. This representation serves as a framework for structuring the access to information as well as defining associated ''alarms'' at the various descriptive levels. Particular attention is paid to the level where mass and energy flows and balances are relevant. It is shown that the number of alarms here is reduced considerably while information about content and interrelationships is enhanced - which at the same time eases the retrieval problem. (author)

  18. Data Fusion in Information Retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Shengli

    2012-01-01

    The technique of data fusion has been used extensively in information retrieval due to the complexity and diversity of tasks involved such as web and social networks, legal, enterprise, and many others. This book presents both a theoretical and empirical approach to data fusion. Several typical data fusion algorithms are discussed, analyzed and evaluated. A reader will find answers to the following questions, among others: -          What are the key factors that affect the performance of data fusion algorithms significantly? -          What conditions are favorable to data fusion algorithms? -          CombSum and CombMNZ, which one is better? and why? -          What is the rationale of using the linear combination method? -          How can the best fusion option be found under any given circumstances?

  19. Hooked on Music Information Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Bas de Haas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a reply to 'Lure(d into listening: The potential of cognition-based music information retrieval,' in which Henkjan Honing discusses the potential impact of his proposed Listen, Lure & Locate project on Music Information Retrieval (MIR. Honing presents some critical remarks on data-oriented approaches in MIR, which we endorse. To place these remarks in context, we first give a brief overview of the state of the art of MIR research. Then we present a series of arguments that show why purely data-oriented approaches are unlikely to take MIR research and applications to a more advanced level. Next, we propose our view on MIR research, in which the modelling of musical knowledge has a central role. Finally, we elaborate on the ideas in Honing's paper from a MIR perspective in this paper and propose some additions to the Listen, Lure & Locate project.

  20. Information retrieval and individual differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Vilar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents individual differences, which are found in studies of information retrieval with emphasis on models of personality traits, cognitive and learning styles. It pays special attention to those models which are most often included in studies of information behaviour,information seeking,perceptions of IR systems, etc., but also brings forward some models which have not yet been included in such studies. Additionally, the relationship between different individual characteristics and individual’s chosen profession or academic area is discussed. In this context,the paper presents how investigation of individual differences can be useful in the design of IR systems.

  1. 108 Information Retrieval Methods in Libraries and Information ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    without adequate knowledge of information retrieval methods, the retrieval process for an ... discusses the concept of Information retrieval, the various information ..... Other advantages of automatic indexing are the maintenance of consistency.

  2. Topic Models in Information Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    Information Processing Systems, Cambridge, MA, MIT Press, 2004. Brown, P.F., Della Pietra, V.J., deSouza, P.V., Lai, J.C. and Mercer, R.L., Class-based...2003. http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-1216-0. Croft, W.B., Lucia , T.J., Cringean, J., and Willett, P., Retrieving Documents By Plausible Inference

  3. Task Oriented Tools for Information Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peilin

    2017-01-01

    Information Retrieval (IR) is one of the most evolving research fields and has drawn extensive attention in recent years. Because of its empirical nature, the advance of the IR field is closely related to the development of various toolkits. While the traditional IR toolkit mainly provides a platform to evaluate the effectiveness of retrieval…

  4. Conservaton and retrieval of information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, M.

    1993-01-01

    This is a summary of the findings of a Nordic working group formed in 1990 and given the task of establishing a basis for a common Nordic view of the need for information conservation for nuclear waste repositories by investigating the following: (1) the type of information that should be conserved; (2) the form in which the information should be kept; (3) the quality of the information as regards both type and form; and (4) the problems of future retrieval of information, including retrieval after very long periods of time. High-level waste from nuclear power generation will remain radioactive for very long times even though the major part of the radioactivity will have decayed within 1000 yr. Certain information about the waste must be kept for long time periods because future generations may-intentionally or inadvertently-come into contact with the radioactive waste. Current day waste management would benefit from an early identification of documents to be part of an archive for radioactive waste repositories. The same reasoning is valid for repositories for other toxic wastes

  5. Conservation and retrieval of information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, M.

    1993-01-01

    High-level waste from nuclear power generation will remain radioactive for thousands of years even though 99% of the radioactivity will have decayed within the first millennium. For a hypothetical group involved in future actions to retrieve or repair a repository, information about its location, design, and content would be necessary. The need of such groups can be used to design the information that should be kept in a waste archive. Two main strategies exist for long-germ information transfer, one which links information thorough successive transfers of archived material and other forms of knowledge in society, and one - such as marking the site with a monument - relying upon a direct link from the present to the distant future. Digital methods are not recommended for long-term storage, but digital processing may be a valuable tool to structure information summaries, and in the creation of better long-lasting records. Advances in archive management should also be pursued to widen the choice of information carriers of high durability. In the Nordic countries, during the first few thousand years, and perhaps up to the next period of glaciation, monuments at a repository site may be used to warn the public of the presence of dangerous waste. But messages from such markers may pose interpretation problems as we have today for messages left by earlier societies such as rune inscriptions. Since the national borders may change in the time scale relevant for nuclear waste, the creation of an international archive for all radioactive wastes would represent an improvement as regards conservation and retrieval of information. (EG)

  6. Personalized Mobile Information Retrieval System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okkyung Choi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Building a global Network Relations with the internet has made huge changes in personal information system and even comments left on a webpage of SNS(Social Network Services are appreciated as important elements that would provide valuable information for someone. Social Network is a relation between individuals or groups, represented in a graph model, which converts the concept of psychological and social relations into a logical structure by using node and link. But, most of the current personalized systems on the basis of Social Network are built and constructed mainly in the PC environment, and the systems are neither designed nor implemented in mobile environment. Hence, the objective of this study is to propose methods of providing Personalized Mobile Information Retrieval System using NFC (Near Field Communication Smartphone, which will be then used for Smartphone users. Besides, this study aims to verify its efficiency through a comparative analysis of existing studies.

  7. Multimedia information retrieval theory and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Raieli, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Novel processing and searching tools for the management of new multimedia documents have developed. Multimedia Information Retrieval (MMIR) is an organic system made up of Text Retrieval (TR); Visual Retrieval (VR); Video Retrieval (VDR); and Audio Retrieval (AR) systems. So that each type of digital document may be analysed and searched by the elements of language appropriate to its nature, search criteria must be extended. Such an approach is known as the Content Based Information Retrieval (CBIR), and is the core of MMIR. This novel content-based concept of information handling needs to be integrated with more traditional semantics. Multimedia Information Retrieval focuses on the tools of processing and searching applicable to the content-based management of new multimedia documents. Translated from Italian by Giles Smith, the book is divided in to two parts. Part one discusses MMIR and related theories, and puts forward new methodologies; part two reviews various experimental and operating MMIR systems, a...

  8. Information Retrieval Methods in Libraries and Information Centers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The volumes of information created, generated and stored are immense that without adequate knowledge of information retrieval methods, the retrieval process for an information user would be cumbersome and frustrating. Studies have further revealed that information retrieval methods are essential in information centers ...

  9. A Unified Mathematical Definition of Classical Information Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominich, Sandor

    2000-01-01

    Presents a unified mathematical definition for the classical models of information retrieval and identifies a mathematical structure behind relevance feedback. Highlights include vector information retrieval; probabilistic information retrieval; and similarity information retrieval. (Contains 118 references.) (Author/LRW)

  10. Vocabulary Control for Information Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, F. W.

    This book deals with properties of vocabularies for indexing and searching document collections; the construction, organization, display, and maintenance of these vocabularies; and the vocabulary as a factor affecting the performance of retrieval systems. Most of the text is concerned with vocabularies for post-coordinate retrieval systems, with…

  11. Scalable Distributed Architectures for Information Retrieval

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lu, Zhihong

    1999-01-01

    .... Our distributed architectures exploit parallelism in information retrieval on a cluster of parallel IR servers using symmetric multiprocessors, and use partial collection replication and selection...

  12. Peer to Peer Information Retrieval: An Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tigelaar, A.S.; Hiemstra, D.; Trieschnigg, D.

    2012-01-01

    Peer-to-peer technology is widely used for file sharing. In the past decade a number of prototype peer-to-peer information retrieval systems have been developed. Unfortunately, none of these have seen widespread real- world adoption and thus, in contrast with file sharing, information retrieval is

  13. Peer to Peer Information Retrieval: An Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tigelaar, A.S.; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Trieschnigg, Rudolf Berend

    Peer-to-peer technology is widely used for file sharing. In the past decade a number of prototype peer-to-peer information retrieval systems have been developed. Unfortunately, none of these have seen widespread real- world adoption and thus, in contrast with file sharing, information retrieval is

  14. Automated information retrieval system for radioactivation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrev, V.G.; Bochkov, P.E.; Gorokhov, S.A.; Nekrasov, V.V.; Tolstikova, L.I.

    1981-01-01

    An automated information retrieval system for radioactivation analysis has been developed. An ES-1022 computer and a problem-oriented software ''The description information search system'' were used for the purpose. Main aspects and sources of forming the system information fund, characteristics of the information retrieval language of the system are reported and examples of question-answer dialogue are given. Two modes can be used: selective information distribution and retrospective search [ru

  15. Status of sorption information retrieval system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hostetler, D.D.; Serne, R.J.; Brandstetter, A.

    1979-09-01

    A Sorption Information Retrieval System (SIRS) is being designed to provide an efficient, computerized, data base for information on radionuclide sorption in geologic media. The data bank will include Kd values for a large number of radionuclides occurring in radioactive wastes originating from the commercial nuclear power industry. Kd values determined to date span several groundwater compositions and a wide variety of rock types and minerals. The data system will not only include Kd values, but also background information on the experiments themselves. This will allow the potential user to retrieve not only the Kd values of interest but also sufficient information to evaluate the accuracy and usefulness of the data. During FY-1979, the logic structure of the system was designed, the software programmed, the data categories selected, and the data format specified. About 40% of the approximately 5000 Kd experiments performed by the Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP) and its subcontractors during FY-1977 and FY-1978 have been evaluated, coded and keypunched. Additional software improvements and system testing are needed before the system will be fully operational. A workshop requested by the NEA was held to discuss potential internatioal participation in the data system

  16. BIR 2014 - Bibliometric-enhanced Information Retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This first “Bibliometric-enhanced Information Retrieval” (BIR 2014) workshop1 aims to engage with the IR community about possible links to bibliometrics and scholarly communication. Bibliometric techniques are not yet widely used to enhance retrieval processes in digital libraries, although...... analysis of co-authorship network, can improve retrieval services for specific communities, as well as for large, cross-domain collections. This workshop aims to raise awareness of the missing link between information retrieval (IR) and bibliometrics / scientometrics and to create a common ground...... for the incorporation of bibliometric-enhanced services into retrieval at the digital library interface. Our interests include information retrieval, information seeking, science modelling, network analysis, and digital libraries. The goal is to apply insights from bibliometrics, scientometrics, and informetrics...

  17. Bibliometric-enhanced information retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mayr, Philipp; Scharnhorst, Andrea; Larsen, Birger; Schaer, Philipp; Mutschke, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Bibliometric techniques are not yet widely used to enhance retrieval processes in digital libraries, although they offer value-added effects for users. In this workshop we will explore how statistical modelling of scholarship, such as Bradfordizing or network analysis of coauthorship network, can

  18. Information Retrieval and the Philosophy of Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, David C.

    2003-01-01

    Provides an overview of some of the main ideas in the philosophy of language that have relevance to the issues of information retrieval, focusing on the description of the intellectual content. Highlights include retrieval problems; recall and precision; words and meanings; context; externalism and the philosophy of language; and scaffolding and…

  19. Information Retrieval and Graph Analysis Approaches for Book Recommendation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkoussas, Chahinez; Bellot, Patrice

    2015-01-01

    A combination of multiple information retrieval approaches is proposed for the purpose of book recommendation. In this paper, book recommendation is based on complex user's query. We used different theoretical retrieval models: probabilistic as InL2 (Divergence from Randomness model) and language model and tested their interpolated combination. Graph analysis algorithms such as PageRank have been successful in Web environments. We consider the application of this algorithm in a new retrieval approach to related document network comprised of social links. We called Directed Graph of Documents (DGD) a network constructed with documents and social information provided from each one of them. Specifically, this work tackles the problem of book recommendation in the context of INEX (Initiative for the Evaluation of XML retrieval) Social Book Search track. A series of reranking experiments demonstrate that combining retrieval models yields significant improvements in terms of standard ranked retrieval metrics. These results extend the applicability of link analysis algorithms to different environments.

  20. User interfaces of information retrieval systems and user friendliness

    OpenAIRE

    Polona Vilar; Maja Žumer

    2008-01-01

    The paper deals with the characteristics of user interfaces of information retrieval systems with the emphasis on design and evaluation. It presents users’ information retrieval tasks and the functions which are offered through interfaces. Design rules, guidelines and standards are presented, as well as criteria and methods for evaluation. Special emphasis is placed on the concept of user friendliness as one of the most important characteristic of the user interfaces. Various definitions of u...

  1. Parsimonious Language Models for Information Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd; Robertson, Stephen; Zaragoza, Hugo

    We systematically investigate a new approach to estimating the parameters of language models for information retrieval, called parsimonious language models. Parsimonious language models explicitly address the relation between levels of language models that are typically used for smoothing. As such,

  2. Memory retrieval of everyday information under stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Lisa-Marie; Merz, Christian J

    2018-07-01

    Psychosocial stress is known to crucially influence learning and memory processes. Several studies have already shown an impairing effect of elevated cortisol concentrations on memory retrieval. These studies mainly used learning material consisting of stimuli with a limited ecological validity. When using material with a social contextual component or with educational relevant material both impairing and enhancing stress effects on memory retrieval could be observed. In line with these latter studies, the present experiment also used material with a higher ecological validity (a coherent text consisting of daily relevant numeric, figural and verbal information). After encoding, retrieval took place 24 h later after exposure to psychosocial stress or a control procedure (20 healthy men per group). The stress group was further subdivided into cortisol responders and non-responders. Results showed a significantly impaired retrieval of everyday information in non-responders compared to responders and controls. Altogether, the present findings indicate the need of an appropriate cortisol response for the successful memory retrieval of everyday information. Thus, the present findings suggest that cortisol increases - contrary to a stressful experience per se - seem to play a protective role for retrieving everyday information. Additionally, it could be speculated that the previously reported impairing stress effects on memory retrieval might depend on the used learning material. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Web information retrieval based on ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of the Information Retrieval (IR) is to find a set of documents that are relevant for a specific information need of a user. Traditional Information Retrieval model commonly used in commercial search engine is based on keyword indexing system and Boolean logic queries. One big drawback of traditional information retrieval is that they typically retrieve information without an explicitly defined domain of interest to the users so that a lot of no relevance information returns to users, which burden the user to pick up useful answer from these no relevance results. In order to tackle this issue, many semantic web information retrieval models have been proposed recently. The main advantage of Semantic Web is to enhance search mechanisms with the use of Ontology's mechanisms. In this paper, we present our approach to personalize web search engine based on ontology. In addition, key techniques are also discussed in our paper. Compared to previous research, our works concentrate on the semantic similarity and the whole process including query submission and information annotation.

  4. Information Retrieval Research and ESPRIT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeaton, Alan F.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the European Strategic Programme of Research and Development in Information Technology (ESPRIT), and its five programs: advanced microelectronics, software technology, advanced information processing, office systems, and computer integrated manufacturing. The emphasis on logic programming and ESPRIT as the European response to the…

  5. Learning to rank for information retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Tie-Yan

    2011-01-01

    Due to the fast growth of the Web and the difficulties in finding desired information, efficient and effective information retrieval systems have become more important than ever, and the search engine has become an essential tool for many people. The ranker, a central component in every search engine, is responsible for the matching between processed queries and indexed documents. Because of its central role, great attention has been paid to the research and development of ranking technologies. In addition, ranking is also pivotal for many other information retrieval applications, such as coll

  6. Information retrieval system based on INIS tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pultorak, G.

    1976-01-01

    An information retrieval system based on the INIS computer tapes is described. It includes the three main elements of a computerized information system: a data base on a machine -readable medium, a collection of queries which represent the information needs from the data - base, and a set of programs by which the actual retrieval is done, according to the user's queries. The system is built for the center's computer, a CDC 3600, and its special features characterize, to a certain degree, the structure of the programs. (author)

  7. Fusion and diversification in information retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, S.

    2014-01-01

    Data fusion and search result diversification are two critical research topics in information retrieval. Data fusion approaches combine search result lists in order to produce a new and hopefully better ranking. We propose two data fusion models for microblog search that exploit temporal information

  8. AEROMETRIC INFORMATION RETRIEVAL SYSTEM (AIRS) - GRAPHICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerometric Information Retrieval System (AIRS) is a computer-based repository of information about airborne pollution in the United States and various World Health Organization (WHO) member countries. AIRS is administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and runs on t...

  9. BIRS - Bioterrorism Information Retrieval System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Ashish Kumar; Rashi; Wadhwa, Gulshan; Sharma, Sanjeev Kumar; Jain, Chakresh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Bioterrorism is the intended use of pathogenic strains of microbes to widen terror in a population. There is a definite need to promote research for development of vaccines, therapeutics and diagnostic methods as a part of preparedness to any bioterror attack in the future. BIRS is an open-access database of collective information on the organisms related to bioterrorism. The architecture of database utilizes the current open-source technology viz PHP ver 5.3.19, MySQL and IIS server under windows platform for database designing. Database stores information on literature, generic- information and unique pathways of about 10 microorganisms involved in bioterrorism. This may serve as a collective repository to accelerate the drug discovery and vaccines designing process against such bioterrorist agents (microbes). The available data has been validated from various online resources and literature mining in order to provide the user with a comprehensive information system. The database is freely available at http://www.bioterrorism.biowaves.org.

  10. Information Retrieval and Cognitive Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    ,another within cognitive engineering. Due to the present trend toward'integrated work stations,' however, time has now come to consider the benefit to be expected by merging the paradigms, research efforts, and the results already available.In the present contribution, an attempt is made to illustrate...... the cognitive engineering approach to analysis of work systems and design of work stations and to demonstrate the need for a closer interaction with the information and library sciences....

  11. Emergent web intelligence advanced information retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Badr, Youakim; Abraham, Ajith; Hassanien, Aboul-Ella

    2010-01-01

    Web Intelligence explores the impact of artificial intelligence and advanced information technologies representing the next generation of Web-based systems, services, and environments, and designing hybrid web systems that serve wired and wireless users more efficiently. Multimedia and XML-based data are produced regularly and in increasing way in our daily digital activities, and their retrieval must be explored and studied in this emergent web-based era. 'Emergent Web Intelligence: Advanced information retrieval, provides reviews of the related cutting-edge technologies and insights. It is v

  12. Care episode retrieval: distributional semantic models for information retrieval in the clinical domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Hans; Ginter, Filip; Marsi, Erwin; Peltonen, Laura-Maria; Salakoski, Tapio; Salanterä, Sanna

    2015-01-01

    Patients' health related information is stored in electronic health records (EHRs) by health service providers. These records include sequential documentation of care episodes in the form of clinical notes. EHRs are used throughout the health care sector by professionals, administrators and patients, primarily for clinical purposes, but also for secondary purposes such as decision support and research. The vast amounts of information in EHR systems complicate information management and increase the risk of information overload. Therefore, clinicians and researchers need new tools to manage the information stored in the EHRs. A common use case is, given a--possibly unfinished--care episode, to retrieve the most similar care episodes among the records. This paper presents several methods for information retrieval, focusing on care episode retrieval, based on textual similarity, where similarity is measured through domain-specific modelling of the distributional semantics of words. Models include variants of random indexing and the semantic neural network model word2vec. Two novel methods are introduced that utilize the ICD-10 codes attached to care episodes to better induce domain-specificity in the semantic model. We report on experimental evaluation of care episode retrieval that circumvents the lack of human judgements regarding episode relevance. Results suggest that several of the methods proposed outperform a state-of-the art search engine (Lucene) on the retrieval task.

  13. Systems and Architectures for Multimedia Information Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djeraba, C.; Sebe, N.; Lew, M.S.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we provide a brief survey on multimedia information retrieval and we introduce some ideas investigated in the special issue. We hope that the contributions of this issue will stimulate the readers to tackle the current challenges and problems in this highly important research

  14. Language-based multimedia information retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Franciska M.G.; Gauvain, J.L.; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Netter, K.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes various methods and approaches for language-based multimedia information retrieval, which have been developed in the projects POP-EYE and OLIVE and which will be developed further in the MUMIS project. All of these project aim at supporting automated indexing of video material

  15. Millennial Students' Mental Models of Information Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Lucy

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative study examines first-year college students' online search habits in order to identify patterns in millennials' mental models of information retrieval. The study employed a combination of modified contextual inquiry and concept mapping methodologies to elicit students' mental models. The researcher confirmed previously observed…

  16. Towards an Information Retrieval Theory of Everything

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd; Lammerink, J.M.W.; Katoen, Joost P.; Kok, J.N.; van de Pol, Jan Cornelis; Raamsdonk, F.

    2009-01-01

    I present three well-known probabilistic models of information retrieval in tutorial style: The binary independence probabilistic model, the language modeling approach, and Google's page rank. Although all three models are based on probability theory, they are very different in nature. Each model

  17. Random walk term weighting for information retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanco, R.; Lioma, Christina

    2007-01-01

    We present a way of estimating term weights for Information Retrieval (IR), using term co-occurrence as a measure of dependency between terms.We use the random walk graph-based ranking algorithm on a graph that encodes terms and co-occurrence dependencies in text, from which we derive term weights...

  18. Bibliographic Information Retrieval Systems: Increasing Cognitive Compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Philip J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the impact of research in artificial intelligence and human computer interaction on the design of bibliographic information retrieval systems, and presents design principles of a prototype system that uses semantically based searches and a knowledge base consisting of conceptual frames. (10 references) (CLB)

  19. The Development of Relevance in Information Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu-hsuan Huang

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to investigate the notion of relevance in information retrieval. It discusses various definitions for relevance from historical viewpoints and the characteristics of relevance judgments. Also, it introduces empirical results of important related researches.[Article content in Chinese

  20. Information retrieval models foundations and relationships

    CERN Document Server

    Roelleke, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Information Retrieval (IR) models are a core component of IR research and IR systems. The past decade brought a consolidation of the family of IR models, which by 2000 consisted of relatively isolated views on TF-IDF (Term-Frequency times Inverse-Document-Frequency) as the weighting scheme in the vector-space model (VSM), the probabilistic relevance framework (PRF), the binary independence retrieval (BIR) model, BM25 (Best-Match Version 25, the main instantiation of the PRF/BIR), and language modelling (LM). Also, the early 2000s saw the arrival of divergence from randomness (DFR).Regarding in

  1. User Needs and Strategies in Structured Information Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Ramirez Camps (Georgina)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractStructured information retrieval studies the combination of the content and the structure information of documents to perform different IR tasks. Different approaches make use of the structural information of documents to improve information retrieval effectiveness. However, most of

  2. Multilevel resistive information storage and retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohn, Andrew; Mickel, Patrick R.

    2016-08-09

    The present invention relates to resistive random-access memory (RRAM or ReRAM) systems, as well as methods of employing multiple state variables to form degenerate states in such memory systems. The methods herein allow for precise write and read steps to form multiple state variables, and these steps can be performed electrically. Such an approach allows for multilevel, high density memory systems with enhanced information storage capacity and simplified information retrieval.

  3. User interfaces of information retrieval systems and user friendliness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Vilar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the characteristics of user interfaces of information retrieval systems with the emphasis on design and evaluation. It presents users’ information retrieval tasks and the functions which are offered through interfaces. Design rules, guidelines and standards are presented, as well as criteria and methods for evaluation. Special emphasis is placed on the concept of user friendliness as one of the most important characteristic of the user interfaces. Various definitions of user friendliness are presented and their elements are also discussed. In the end, the paper shows how user interfaces should be designed, taken into consideration all these criteria.

  4. Web information retrieval for health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, S L; See-To, Eric W K; Tse, Y K

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents a Web Information Retrieval System (WebIRS), which is designed to assist the healthcare professionals to obtain up-to-date medical knowledge and information via the World Wide Web (WWW). The system leverages the document classification and text summarization techniques to deliver the highly correlated medical information to the physicians. The system architecture of the proposed WebIRS is first discussed, and then a case study on an application of the proposed system in a Hong Kong medical organization is presented to illustrate the adoption process and a questionnaire is administrated to collect feedback on the operation and performance of WebIRS in comparison with conventional information retrieval in the WWW. A prototype system has been constructed and implemented on a trial basis in a medical organization. It has proven to be of benefit to healthcare professionals through its automatic functions in classification and summarizing the medical information that the physicians needed and interested. The results of the case study show that with the use of the proposed WebIRS, significant reduction of searching time and effort, with retrieval of highly relevant materials can be attained.

  5. Relating the new language models of information retrieval to the traditional retrieval models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd; de Vries, A.P.

    During the last two years, exciting new approaches to information retrieval were introduced by a number of different research groups that use statistical language models for retrieval. This paper relates the retrieval algorithms suggested by these approaches to widely accepted retrieval algorithms

  6. Electronic publishing and intelligent information retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, A.

    1992-01-01

    Europeans are now taking steps to homogenize policies and standardize procedures in electronic publishing (EP) in astronomy and space sciences. This arose from an open meeting organized in Oct. 1991 at Strasbourg Observatory (France) and another business meeting held late Mar. 1992 with the major publishers and journal editors in astronomy and space sciences. The ultimate aim of EP might be considered as the so-called 'intelligent information retrieval' (IIR) or better named 'advanced information retrieval' (AIR), taking advantage of the fact that the material to be published appears at some stage in a machine-readable form. It is obvious that the combination of desktop and electronic publishing with networking and new structuring of knowledge bases will profoundly reshape not only our ways of publishing, but also our procedures of communicating and retrieving information. It should be noted that a world-wide survey among astronomers and space scientists carried out before the October 1991 colloquium on the various packages and machines used, indicated that TEX-related packages were already in majoritarian use in our community. It has also been stressed at each meeting that the European developments should be carried out in collaboration with what is done in the US (STELLAR project, for instance). American scientists and journal editors actually attended both meetings mentioned above. The paper will offer a review of the status of electronic publishing in astronomy and its possible contribution to advanced information retrieval in this field. It will also report on recent meetings such as the 'Astronomy from Large Databases-2 (ALD-2)' conference dealing with the latest developments in networking, in data, information, and knowledge bases, as well as in the related methodologies.

  7. Information Retrieval in Biomedical Research: From Articles to Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Information retrieval techniques have been applied to biomedical research for a variety of purposes, such as textual document retrieval and molecular data retrieval. As biomedical research evolves over time, information retrieval is also constantly facing new challenges, including the growing number of available data, the emerging new data types,…

  8. The Oklahoma Geographic Information Retrieval System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, W. A.

    1982-01-01

    The Oklahoma Geographic Information Retrieval System (OGIRS) is a highly interactive data entry, storage, manipulation, and display software system for use with geographically referenced data. Although originally developed for a project concerned with coal strip mine reclamation, OGIRS is capable of handling any geographically referenced data for a variety of natural resource management applications. A special effort has been made to integrate remotely sensed data into the information system. The timeliness and synoptic coverage of satellite data are particularly useful attributes for inclusion into the geographic information system.

  9. Description and search labor for information retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Warner, Julian

    2007-01-01

    Selection power is taken as the fundamental value for information retrieval systems. Selection power is regarded as produced by selection labor, which itself separates historically into description and search labor. As forms of mental labor, description and search labor participate in the conditions for labor and for mental labor. Concepts and distinctions applicable to physical and mental labor are indicated, introducing the necessity of labor for survival, the idea of technology as a human ...

  10. Statistical Language Models and Information Retrieval: Natural Language Processing Really Meets Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd; de Jong, Franciska M.G.

    2001-01-01

    Traditionally, natural language processing techniques for information retrieval have always been studied outside the framework of formal models of information retrieval. In this article, we introduce a new formal model of information retrieval based on the application of statistical language models.

  11. Cognitive approach to information retrieval and communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Zupanič

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive approach (viewpoint/standpoirit in the retrieval and communication of information, as well as in librarianship and information science has started gaining importance in the 70's. Today, it is present in literary and objective knowledge studies, as well as in studies of users,information brokers and systems of information retrieval.Cognitive approach exercises strong impact on several scientific disciplines which are grouped under the roof of cognitive science. The cognitive approach has caused split and the formation of a new paradigm, i.e. the cognitive paradigm, in many scientific disciplines.In the frames of the definition of Kuhn's concept of paradigm, it is evident that librarianship and information science are on the pre-paradigmatic level. I Iowever,some authors mention the existence of at least two paradigms in library and information science, i.e. physical and cognitive paradigm.The hištorical overview of cognitive oriented research works of Brookes, De Mey,Belkin, Ingwersen and others enables the insight into the development of library and information scientific thought up to the present.

  12. Information Retrieval and Graph Analysis Approaches for Book Recommendation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chahinez Benkoussas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A combination of multiple information retrieval approaches is proposed for the purpose of book recommendation. In this paper, book recommendation is based on complex user's query. We used different theoretical retrieval models: probabilistic as InL2 (Divergence from Randomness model and language model and tested their interpolated combination. Graph analysis algorithms such as PageRank have been successful in Web environments. We consider the application of this algorithm in a new retrieval approach to related document network comprised of social links. We called Directed Graph of Documents (DGD a network constructed with documents and social information provided from each one of them. Specifically, this work tackles the problem of book recommendation in the context of INEX (Initiative for the Evaluation of XML retrieval Social Book Search track. A series of reranking experiments demonstrate that combining retrieval models yields significant improvements in terms of standard ranked retrieval metrics. These results extend the applicability of link analysis algorithms to different environments.

  13. XPIR : Private Information Retrieval for Everyone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguilar-Melchor Carlos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A Private Information Retrieval (PIR scheme is a protocol in which a user retrieves a record from a database while hiding which from the database administrators. PIR can be achieved using mutuallydistrustful replicated databases, trusted hardware, or cryptography. In this paper we focus on the later setting which is known as single-database computationally- Private Information Retrieval (cPIR. Classic cPIR protocols require that the database server executes an algorithm over all the database content at very low speeds which impairs their usage. In [1], given certain assumptions, realistic at the time, Sion and Carbunar showed that cPIR schemes were not practical and most likely would never be. To this day, this conclusion is widely accepted by researchers and practitioners. Using the paradigm shift introduced by lattice-based cryptography, we show that the conclusion of Sion and Carbunar is not valid anymore: cPIR is of practical value. This is achieved without compromising security, using standard crytosystems, and conservative parameter choices.

  14. Method of and System for Information Retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    This invention relates to a system for and a method (100) of searching a collection of digital information (150) comprising a number of digital documents (110), the method comprising receiving or obtaining (102) a search query, the query comprising a number of search terms, searching (103) an ind......, a method of and a system for information retrieval or searching is readily provided that enhances the searching quality (i.e. the number of relevant documents retrieved and such documents being ranked high) when (also) using queries containing many search terms.......This invention relates to a system for and a method (100) of searching a collection of digital information (150) comprising a number of digital documents (110), the method comprising receiving or obtaining (102) a search query, the query comprising a number of search terms, searching (103) an index...... (300) using the search terms thereby providing information (301) about which digital documents (110) of the collection of digital information (150) that contains a given search term and one or more search related metrics (302; 303; 304; 305; 306), ranking (105) at least a part of the search result...

  15. Graph-Based Interactive Bibliographic Information Retrieval Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yongjun

    2017-01-01

    In the big data era, we have witnessed the explosion of scholarly literature. This explosion has imposed challenges to the retrieval of bibliographic information. Retrieval of intended bibliographic information has become challenging due to the overwhelming search results returned by bibliographic information retrieval systems for given input…

  16. Formal Concept Analysis for Information Retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Qadi, Abderrahim El; Aboutajedine, Driss; Ennouary, Yassine

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we describe a mechanism to improve Information Retrieval (IR) on the web. The method is based on Formal Concepts Analysis (FCA) that it is makes semantical relations during the queries, and allows a reorganizing, in the shape of a lattice of concepts, the answers provided by a search engine. We proposed for the IR an incremental algorithm based on Galois lattice. This algorithm allows a formal clustering of the data sources, and the results which it turns over are classified by ...

  17. Four Challenges for Music Information Retrieval Researchers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.; Collins, Nick

    Exemplified in the substantial amount of published research in music genre recognition, mood recognition and autotagging, content-based music information retrieval (MIR) advances an "engineering approach'': build a system producing the most "correct'' answers in datasets appearing throughout...... might not even be considering the through it answers "correctly''. It could thus be worthless for addressing real-world problems that must consider (e.g., music description). To emphasise the critical points above, and encourage a new approaches to research that address real-world problems, we present...

  18. INIS information retrieval based on IBM's IRMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadjokov, V.; Schmid, H.; Del Bigio, G.

    1975-01-01

    An information retrieval system for the INIS data base is described. It allows for batch processing on an IBM/360 or /370 computer operated under OS or VS. The program package consists basically of IBM's IRMS system which was converted from DOS to OS and adapted for INIS requirements. Sections 1-9 present the system from the user's point of view, deliberately omitting all the programming details. Program descriptions with data set definitions and file formats are given in sections 10-12. (author)

  19. Agricultural Library Information Retrieval Based on Improved Semantic Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Meiling , Xie

    2014-01-01

    International audience; To support users to quickly access information they need from the agricultural library’s vast information and to improve the low intelligence query service, a model for intelligent library information retrieval was constructed. The semantic web mode was introduced and the information retrieval framework was designed. The model structure consisted of three parts: Information data integration, user interface and information retrieval match. The key method supporting retr...

  20. 46 CFR 520.6 - Retrieval of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retrieval of information. 520.6 Section 520.6 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE CARRIER AUTOMATED TARIFFS § 520.6 Retrieval of information. (a) General. Tariffs systems shall present retrievers with the...

  1. Data Discretization for Novel Relationship Discovery in Information Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, G.

    2002-01-01

    Describes an information retrieval, visualization, and manipulation model which offers the user multiple ways to exploit the retrieval set, based on weighted query terms, via an interactive interface. Outlines the mathematical model and describes an information retrieval application built on the model to search structured and full-text files.…

  2. Database, expert systems, information retrieval; Banche dati, sistemi esperti e information retrieval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedele, P; Grandoni, G; Mammarella, M C [ENEA - Dipartimento Protezione Ambientale e Salute dell' Uomo, Centro Ricerche Energia, Casaccia (Italy)

    1989-12-15

    The great debate concerning the Italian high-school reform has induced a ferment of activity among the most interested and sensible of people. This was clearly demonstrated by the course 'Innovazione metodologico-didattica e tecnologie informatiche' organized for the staff of the 'lstituto Professionale L. Einaudi' of Lamezia Terme. The course was an interesting opportunity for discussions and interaction between the world of School and computer technology used in the Research field. This three day course included theoretical and practical lessons, showing computer facilities that could be useful for teaching. During the practical lessons some computer tools were presented from the very simple Electronic Sheets to the more complicated information Retrieval on CD-ROM interactive realizations. The main topics will be discussed later. They are: Modelling, Data Base, Integrated Information Systems, Expert Systems, Information Retrieval. (author)

  3. Fringe pattern information retrieval using wavelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, Cesar A.; Patimo, Caterina; Manicone, Pasquale D.; Lamberti, Luciano

    2005-08-01

    Two-dimensional phase modulation is currently the basic model used in the interpretation of fringe patterns that contain displacement information, moire, holographic interferometry, speckle techniques. Another way to look to these two-dimensional signals is to consider them as frequency modulated signals. This alternative interpretation has practical implications similar to those that exist in radio engineering for handling frequency modulated signals. Utilizing this model it is possible to obtain frequency information by using the energy approach introduced by Ville in 1944. A natural complementary tool of this process is the wavelet methodology. The use of wavelet makes it possible to obtain the local values of the frequency in a one or two dimensional domain without the need of previous phase retrieval and differentiation. Furthermore from the properties of wavelets it is also possible to obtain at the same time the phase of the signal with the advantage of a better noise removal capabilities and the possibility of developing simpler algorithms for phase unwrapping due to the availability of the derivative of the phase.

  4. A semantic medical multimedia retrieval approach using ontology information hiding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Kehua; Zhang, Shigeng

    2013-01-01

    Searching useful information from unstructured medical multimedia data has been a difficult problem in information retrieval. This paper reports an effective semantic medical multimedia retrieval approach which can reflect the users' query intent. Firstly, semantic annotations will be given to the multimedia documents in the medical multimedia database. Secondly, the ontology that represented semantic information will be hidden in the head of the multimedia documents. The main innovations of this approach are cross-type retrieval support and semantic information preservation. Experimental results indicate a good precision and efficiency of our approach for medical multimedia retrieval in comparison with some traditional approaches.

  5. Multimodal medical information retrieval with unsupervised rank fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourão, André; Martins, Flávio; Magalhães, João

    2015-01-01

    Modern medical information retrieval systems are paramount to manage the insurmountable quantities of clinical data. These systems empower health care experts in the diagnosis of patients and play an important role in the clinical decision process. However, the ever-growing heterogeneous information generated in medical environments poses several challenges for retrieval systems. We propose a medical information retrieval system with support for multimodal medical case-based retrieval. The system supports medical information discovery by providing multimodal search, through a novel data fusion algorithm, and term suggestions from a medical thesaurus. Our search system compared favorably to other systems in 2013 ImageCLEFMedical. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A Survey of Stemming Algorithms in Information Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moral, Cristian; de Antonio, Angélica; Imbert, Ricardo; Ramírez, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    Background: During the last fifty years, improved information retrieval techniques have become necessary because of the huge amount of information people have available, which continues to increase rapidly due to the use of new technologies and the Internet. Stemming is one of the processes that can improve information retrieval in terms of…

  7. Natural language retrieval in nuclear safety information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komata, Masaoki; Oosawa, Yasuo; Ujita, Hiroshi

    1983-01-01

    A natural language retrieval program NATLANG is developed to assist in the retrieval of information from event-and-cause descriptions in Licensee Event Reports (LER). The characteristics of NATLANG are (1) the use of base forms of words to retrieve related forms altered by the addition of prefixes or suffixes or changes in inflection, (2) direct access and short time retrieval with an alphabet pointer, (3) effective determination of the items and entries for a Hitachi event classification in a two step retrieval scheme, and (4) Japanese character output with the PL-1 language. NATLANG output reduces the effort needed to re-classify licensee events in the Hitachi event classification. (author)

  8. An Abstraction-Based Data Model for Information Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Richard A.; Angryk, Rafal A.

    Language ontologies provide an avenue for automated lexical analysis that may be used to supplement existing information retrieval methods. This paper presents a method of information retrieval that takes advantage of WordNet, a lexical database, to generate paths of abstraction, and uses them as the basis for an inverted index structure to be used in the retrieval of documents from an indexed corpus. We present this method as a entree to a line of research on using ontologies to perform word-sense disambiguation and improve the precision of existing information retrieval techniques.

  9. Information content of ozone retrieval algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, C.; Bhartia, P. K.; Chu, W. P.; Curran, R.; Deluisi, J.; Gille, J. C.; Hudson, R.; Mateer, C.; Rusch, D.; Thomas, R. J.

    1989-01-01

    The algorithms are characterized that were used for production processing by the major suppliers of ozone data to show quantitatively: how the retrieved profile is related to the actual profile (This characterizes the altitude range and vertical resolution of the data); the nature of systematic errors in the retrieved profiles, including their vertical structure and relation to uncertain instrumental parameters; how trends in the real ozone are reflected in trends in the retrieved ozone profile; and how trends in other quantities (both instrumental and atmospheric) might appear as trends in the ozone profile. No serious deficiencies were found in the algorithms used in generating the major available ozone data sets. As the measurements are all indirect in someway, and the retrieved profiles have different characteristics, data from different instruments are not directly comparable.

  10. Recommending Education Materials for Diabetic Questions Using Information Retrieval Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yuqun; Liu, Xusheng; Wang, Yanshan; Shen, Feichen; Liu, Sijia; Rastegar-Mojarad, Majid; Wang, Liwei; Liu, Hongfang

    2017-10-16

    Self-management is crucial to diabetes care and providing expert-vetted content for answering patients' questions is crucial in facilitating patient self-management. The aim is to investigate the use of information retrieval techniques in recommending patient education materials for diabetic questions of patients. We compared two retrieval algorithms, one based on Latent Dirichlet Allocation topic modeling (topic modeling-based model) and one based on semantic group (semantic group-based model), with the baseline retrieval models, vector space model (VSM), in recommending diabetic patient education materials to diabetic questions posted on the TuDiabetes forum. The evaluation was based on a gold standard dataset consisting of 50 randomly selected diabetic questions where the relevancy of diabetic education materials to the questions was manually assigned by two experts. The performance was assessed using precision of top-ranked documents. We retrieved 7510 diabetic questions on the forum and 144 diabetic patient educational materials from the patient education database at Mayo Clinic. The mapping rate of words in each corpus mapped to the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) was significantly different (Pretrieval algorithms. For example, for the top-retrieved document, the precision of the topic modeling-based, semantic group-based, and VSM models was 67.0%, 62.8%, and 54.3%, respectively. This study demonstrated that topic modeling can mitigate the vocabulary difference and it achieved the best performance in recommending education materials for answering patients' questions. One direction for future work is to assess the generalizability of our findings and to extend our study to other disease areas, other patient education material resources, and online forums. ©Yuqun Zeng, Xusheng Liu, Yanshan Wang, Feichen Shen, Sijia Liu, Majid Rastegar Mojarad, Liwei Wang, Hongfang Liu. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http

  11. Fuzzy Information Retrieval Using Genetic Algorithms and Relevance Feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Frederick E.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes an approach that combines concepts from information retrieval, fuzzy set theory, and genetic programing to improve weighted Boolean query formulation via relevance feedback. Highlights include background on information retrieval systems; genetic algorithms; subproblem formulation; and preliminary results based on a testbed. (Contains 12…

  12. A Prototype of an Intelligent System for Information Retrieval: IOTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaramella, Y.; Defude, B.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses expert systems and their value as components of information retrieval systems related to semantic inference, and describes IOTA, a model of an intelligent information retrieval system which emphasizes natural language query processing. Experimental results are discussed and current and future developments are highlighted. (Author/LRW)

  13. User-Centric Multi-Criteria Information Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Shawn R.; Zhang, Yi

    2009-01-01

    Information retrieval models usually represent content only, and not other considerations, such as authority, cost, and recency. How could multiple criteria be utilized in information retrieval, and how would it affect the results? In our experiments, using multiple user-centric criteria always produced better results than a single criteria.

  14. Innovations in information retrieval perspectives for theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Foster, Allen

    2011-01-01

    The advent of various information retrieval (IR) technologies and approaches to storage and retrieval provide communities with opportunities for mass documentation, digitization, and the recording of information in different forms. This book introduces and contextualizes these developments and looks at supporting research in IR.

  15. Prototyping a Distributed Information Retrieval System That Uses Statistical Ranking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, Donna; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Built using a distributed architecture, this prototype distributed information retrieval system uses statistical ranking techniques to provide better service to the end user. Distributed architecture was shown to be a feasible alternative to centralized or CD-ROM information retrieval, and user testing of the ranking methodology showed both…

  16. Evaluation of turbulent dissipation rate retrievals from Doppler Cloud Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Shupe

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Turbulent dissipation rate retrievals from cloud radar Doppler velocity measurements are evaluated using independent, in situ observations in Arctic stratocumulus clouds. In situ validation data sets of dissipation rate are derived using sonic anemometer measurements from a tethered balloon and high frequency pressure variation observations from a research aircraft, both flown in proximity to stationary, ground-based radars. Modest biases are found among the data sets in particularly low- or high-turbulence regimes, but in general the radar-retrieved values correspond well with the in situ measurements. Root mean square differences are typically a factor of 4–6 relative to any given magnitude of dissipation rate. These differences are no larger than those found when comparing dissipation rates computed from tethered-balloon and meteorological tower-mounted sonic anemometer measurements made at spatial distances of a few hundred meters. Temporal lag analyses suggest that approximately half of the observed differences are due to spatial sampling considerations, such that the anticipated radar-based retrieval uncertainty is on the order of a factor of 2–3. Moreover, radar retrievals are clearly able to capture the vertical dissipation rate structure observed by the in situ sensors, while offering substantially more information on the time variability of turbulence profiles. Together these evaluations indicate that radar-based retrievals can, at a minimum, be used to determine the vertical structure of turbulence in Arctic stratocumulus clouds.

  17. Information retrieval for children based on the aggregated search paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte Torres, Sergio

    This report presents research to develop information services for children by expanding and adapting current Information retrieval technologies according to the search characteristics and needs of children. Concretely, we will employ the aggregated search paradigm as theoretical framework. The

  18. Development of EDFSRS: evaluated data files storage and retrieval system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Akira

    1985-07-01

    EDFSRS: Evaluated Data Files Storage and Retrieval System has been developed, which is a complete service system for the evaluated nuclear data files compiled in the major three formats: ENDF/B, UKNDL and KEDAK. This system intends to give efficient loading and maintenance of evaluated nuclear data files to the data base administrators and efficient retrievals to their users not only with the easiness but with the best confidence. It can give users all of the information available in these major three formats. The system consists of more than fifteen independent programs and some 150 Mega byte data files and index files (data-base) of the loaded data. In addition it is designed to be operated in the on-line TSS (Time Sharing System) mode, so that users can get any information from their desk top terminals. This report is prepared as a reference manual of the EDFSRS. (author)

  19. Improve Biomedical Information Retrieval using Modified Learning to Rank Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bo; Lin, Hongfei; Lin, Yuan; Ma, Yunlong; Yang, Liang; Wang, Jian; Yang, Zhihao

    2016-06-14

    In these years, the number of biomedical articles has increased exponentially, which becomes a problem for biologists to capture all the needed information manually. Information retrieval technologies, as the core of search engines, can deal with the problem automatically, providing users with the needed information. However, it is a great challenge to apply these technologies directly for biomedical retrieval, because of the abundance of domain specific terminologies. To enhance biomedical retrieval, we propose a novel framework based on learning to rank. Learning to rank is a series of state-of-the-art information retrieval techniques, and has been proved effective in many information retrieval tasks. In the proposed framework, we attempt to tackle the problem of the abundance of terminologies by constructing ranking models, which focus on not only retrieving the most relevant documents, but also diversifying the searching results to increase the completeness of the resulting list for a given query. In the model training, we propose two novel document labeling strategies, and combine several traditional retrieval models as learning features. Besides, we also investigate the usefulness of different learning to rank approaches in our framework. Experimental results on TREC Genomics datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of our framework for biomedical information retrieval.

  20. Information Retrieval and Graph Analysis Approaches for Book Recommendation

    OpenAIRE

    Chahinez Benkoussas; Patrice Bellot

    2015-01-01

    A combination of multiple information retrieval approaches is proposed for the purpose of book recommendation. In this paper, book recommendation is based on complex user's query. We used different theoretical retrieval models: probabilistic as InL2 (Divergence from Randomness model) and language model and tested their interpolated combination. Graph analysis algorithms such as PageRank have been successful in Web environments. We consider the application of this algorithm in a new retrieval ...

  1. A model for information retrieval driven by conceptual spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Tanase, D.

    2015-01-01

    A retrieval model describes the transformation of a query into a set of documents. The question is: what drives this transformation? For semantic information retrieval type of models this transformation is driven by the content and structure of the semantic models. In this case, Knowledge Organization Systems (KOSs) are the semantic models that encode the meaning employed for monolingual and cross-language retrieval. The focus of this research is the relationship between these meanings’ repre...

  2. Semantic association ranking schemes for information retrieval ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    retrieval applications using term association graph representation ... Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Government College of ... Introduction ... leads to poor precision, e.g., model, python, and chip. ...... The approaches proposed in this paper focuses on the query-centric re-ranking of search results.

  3. The JPL Library information retrieval system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, J.

    1975-01-01

    The development, capabilities, and products of the computer-based retrieval system of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Library are described. The system handles books and documents, produces a book catalog, and provides a machine search capability. Programs and documentation are available to the public through NASA's computer software dissemination program.

  4. Bibliometric-Enhanced Information Retrieval. Editorial for the workshop.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mayr, Philipp; Schaer, Philipp; Scharnhorst, Andrea; Mutschke, Peter; de Rijke, Maarten; Kenter, Tom; de Vries, Arjen P.; Zhai, ChengXiang; de Jong, Franciska; Radinsky, Kira; Hofmann, Katja

    2014-01-01

    This first "Bibliometric-enhanced Information Retrieval" (BIR 2014) workshop aims to engage with the IR community about possible links to bibliometrics and scholarly communication. Bibliometric techniques are not yet widely used to enhance retrieval processes in digital libraries, although they

  5. CIRQuL: Complex Information Retrieval Query Language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihajlovic, V.; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Apers, Peter M.G.

    In this paper we will present a new framework for the retrieval of XML documents. We will describe the extension for existing query languages (XPath and XQuery) geared toward ranked information retrieval and full-text search in XML documents. Furthermore we will present language models for ranked

  6. Efficient Information Retrieval: Tools for Knowledge Management

    OpenAIRE

    Schmid, Beat; Stanoevska-Slabeva, Katarina; Handschuh, Siegfried; Hombrecher, Alexis

    1998-01-01

    Knowledge has become an important resource in many organisations. Thesuccess of an organisation depends on its ability to transform personal knowledge of employees into organisational knowledge. This knowledge can then be madewidely available to the entire organisation and be reused when needed.One necessary prerequisite for reusing knowledge, coded and stored indocuments, are appropriate classification and retrieval procedures. Classificationaccompanies the process of knowledge externalisati...

  7. Generalized phase retrieval algorithm based on information measures

    OpenAIRE

    Shioya, Hiroyuki; Gohara, Kazutoshi

    2006-01-01

    An iterative phase retrieval algorithm based on the maximum entropy method (MEM) is presented. Introducing a new generalized information measure, we derive a novel class of algorithms which includes the conventionally used error reduction algorithm and a MEM-type iterative algorithm which is presented for the first time. These different phase retrieval methods are unified on the basis of the framework of information measures used in information theory.

  8. Understanding information retrieval systems management, types, and standards

    CERN Document Server

    Bates, Marcia J

    2011-01-01

    In order to be effective for their users, information retrieval (IR) systems should be adapted to the specific needs of particular environments. The huge and growing array of types of information retrieval systems in use today is on display in Understanding Information Retrieval Systems: Management, Types, and Standards, which addresses over 20 types of IR systems. These various system types, in turn, present both technical and management challenges, which are also addressed in this volume. In order to be interoperable in a networked environment, IR systems must be able to use various types of

  9. A passage retrieval method based on probabilistic information retrieval model and UMLS concepts in biomedical question answering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrouti, Mourad; Ouatik El Alaoui, Said

    2017-04-01

    Passage retrieval, the identification of top-ranked passages that may contain the answer for a given biomedical question, is a crucial component for any biomedical question answering (QA) system. Passage retrieval in open-domain QA is a longstanding challenge widely studied over the last decades. However, it still requires further efforts in biomedical QA. In this paper, we present a new biomedical passage retrieval method based on Stanford CoreNLP sentence/passage length, probabilistic information retrieval (IR) model and UMLS concepts. In the proposed method, we first use our document retrieval system based on PubMed search engine and UMLS similarity to retrieve relevant documents to a given biomedical question. We then take the abstracts from the retrieved documents and use Stanford CoreNLP for sentence splitter to make a set of sentences, i.e., candidate passages. Using stemmed words and UMLS concepts as features for the BM25 model, we finally compute the similarity scores between the biomedical question and each of the candidate passages and keep the N top-ranked ones. Experimental evaluations performed on large standard datasets, provided by the BioASQ challenge, show that the proposed method achieves good performances compared with the current state-of-the-art methods. The proposed method significantly outperforms the current state-of-the-art methods by an average of 6.84% in terms of mean average precision (MAP). We have proposed an efficient passage retrieval method which can be used to retrieve relevant passages in biomedical QA systems with high mean average precision. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. An Integrated Information Retrieval Support System for Campus Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a new integrated information retrieval support system (IIRSS) which can help Web search engines retrieve cross-lingual information from heterogeneous resources stored in multi-databases in Intranet. The IIRSS, with a three-layer architecture, can cooperate with other application servers running in Intranet. By using intelligent agents to collect information and to create indexes on-the-fly, using an access control strategy to confine a user to browsing those accessible documents for him/her through a single portal, and using a new cross-lingual translation tool to help the search engine retrieve documents, the new system provides controllable information access with different authorizations, personalized services, and real-time information retrieval.

  11. Interfering effects of retrieval in learning new information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Bridgid; Roediger, Henry L

    2013-11-01

    In 7 experiments, we explored the role of retrieval in associative updating, that is, in incorporating new information into an associative memory. We tested the hypothesis that retrieval would facilitate incorporating a new contextual detail into a learned association. Participants learned 3 pieces of information-a person's face, name, and profession (in Experiments 1-5). In the 1st phase, participants in all conditions learned faces and names. In the 2nd phase, participants either restudied the face-name pair (the restudy condition) or were given the face and asked to retrieve the name (the test condition). In the 3rd phase, professions were presented for study just after restudy or testing. Our prediction was that the new information (the profession) would be more readily learned following retrieval of the face-name association compared to restudy of the face-name association. However, we found that the act of retrieval generally undermined acquisition of new associations rather than facilitating them. This detrimental effect emerged on both immediate and delayed tests. Further, the effect was not due to selective attention to feedback because we found impairment whether or not feedback was provided after the Phase 2 test. The data are novel in showing that the act of retrieving information can inhibit the ability to learn new information shortly thereafter. The results are difficult to accommodate within current theories that mostly emphasize benefits of retrieval for learning. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. On Region Algebras, XML Databases, and Information Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihajlovic, V.; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Apers, Peter M.G.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes some new ideas on developing a logical algebra for databases that manage textual data and support information retrieval functionality. We describe a first prototype of such a system.

  13. GRAMMAR RULE BASED INFORMATION RETRIEVAL MODEL FOR BIG DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Nadana Ravishankar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Though Information Retrieval (IR in big data has been an active field of research for past few years; the popularity of the native languages presents a unique challenge in big data information retrieval systems. There is a need to retrieve information which is present in English and display it in the native language for users. This aim of cross language information retrieval is complicated by unique features of the native languages such as: morphology, compound word formations, word spelling variations, ambiguity, word synonym, other language influence and etc. To overcome some of these issues, the native language is modeled using a grammar rule based approach in this work. The advantage of this approach is that the native language is modeled and its unique features are encoded using a set of inference rules. This rule base coupled with the customized ontological system shows considerable potential and is found to show better precision and recall.

  14. Embedding information retrieval in adaptive hypermedia : IR meets AHA!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aroyo, L.M.; De Bra, P.M.E.; Houben, G.J.P.M.; De Bra, P.M.E.; etal, xx

    2003-01-01

    Traditionally, adaptive hypermedia research concentrates on "closed" applications (with fixed contents). Certain applications ask for an extension of the contents considered, with data obtained through information retrieval. This paper addresses this issue, and tries to give an insight into research

  15. A Question Answering service for information retrieval in Cooper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesbers, Bas; Taddeo, Antonio; Van der Vegt, Wim; Van Bruggen, Jan; Koper, Rob

    2007-01-01

    Giesbers, B., Taddeo, A., van der Vegt, W., van Bruggen, J., Koper, R. (2007). A Question Answering service for information retrieval in Cooper. Paper presented at the Cooper workshop, September 18, Crete, Greece.

  16. A Process Model for Goal-Based Information Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvey Hyman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examine the domain of information search and propose a "goal-based" approach to study search strategy. We describe "goal-based information search" using a framework of Knowledge Discovery. We identify two Information Retrieval (IR goals using the constructs of Knowledge Acquisition (KA and Knowledge Explanation (KE. We classify these constructs into two specific information problems: An exploration-exploitation problem and an implicit-explicit problem. Our proposed framework is an extension of prior work in this domain, applying an IR Process Model originally developed for Legal-IR and adapted to Medical-IR. The approach in this paper is guided by the recent ACM-SIG Medical Information Retrieval (MedIR Workshop definition: "methodologies and technologies that seek to improve access to medical information archives via a process of information retrieval."

  17. Adaptive Visualization for Focused Personalized Information Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jae-wook

    2010-01-01

    The new trend on the Web has totally changed today's information access environment. The traditional information overload problem has evolved into the qualitative level beyond the quantitative growth. The mode of producing and consuming information is changing and we need a new paradigm for accessing information. Personalized search is one of…

  18. A visual retrieval environment for hypermedia information system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucarella, D; Zanzi, A [ENEL s.p.a., Centro Ricerca di Automatica, Cologno Monzese, Milan (Italy)

    1995-03-01

    The authors a graph-based object model that may be used as a uniform framework for direct manipulation of multimedia information. After an introduction motivating the need for abstraction and structuring mechanisms in hypermedia systems, the authors introduce the data model and the notion of perspective, a form of data abstraction that acts as a user interface to the system, providing control over the visibility of the objects and their properties. A perspective is defined to include an intention and an extension. The authors present a visual retrieval environment that effectively combines filtering, browsing, and navigation to provide an integrated view of the retrieval problem. Design and implementation issues are outlined for MORE (Multimedia Object Retrieval Environment), a prototype system relying on the proposed model. The focus is on the main user interface functionalities, and actual interaction sessions are presented including schema creation, information loading, and information retrieval

  19. Secure Retrieval of FFTF Testing, Design, and Operating Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butner, R. Scott; Wootan, David W.; Omberg, Ronald P.; Makenas, Bruce J.; Nielsen, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    . Accomplishments include secure retrieval of: more than 400 boxes of FFTF information, several hundred microfilm reels including Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR) information, and 40 boxes of information on the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF). All information preserved to date is now being stored and categorized consistent with the IAEA international standardized taxonomy. Earlier information largely related to irradiation testing is likewise being categorized. The fuel test results information exists in several different formats depending upon the final stage of the test evaluation. In some cases there is information from both non-destructive and destructive examination while in other cases only non-destructive results are available. Non-destructive information would include disassembly records, dimensional profilometry, gamma spectrometry, and neutron radiography. Information from destructive examinations would include fission gas analysis, metallography, and photomicrographs. Archiving of FFTF data, including both the reactor plant and the fuel test information, is being performed in coordination with other data archiving efforts underway under the aegis of the AFCI program. In addition to the FFTF efforts, archiving of data from the EBR-II reactor is being carried out by INL. All material at risk associated with FFTF documentation has been secured in a timely manner consistent with the stated plan. This documentation is now being categorized consistent with internationally agreed upon IAEA standards. Documents are being converted to electronic format for transfer to a large searchable electronic database being developed by INL. In addition, selected FFTF information is being used to generate test cases for large-scale simulation modeling efforts and for providing Design Data Need (DDN) packages as requested by the AFCI program.

  20. Associative conceptual space-based information retrieval systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Schuemie (Martijn); J.H. van den Berg (Jan)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractIn this `Information Era' with the availability of large collections of books, articles, journals, CD-ROMs, video films and so on, there exists an increasing need for intelligent information retrieval systems that enable users to find the information desired easily. Many attempts have

  1. Information Seek and Retrieval in Knowledge Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maximov, N.; Pryakhin, A.; Golitsyna, O.; Kupriyanov, V.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Information search is considered as a complex self-consistent process of constructing new knowledge, where knowledge is introduced as information related to context (specific circumstances). Operational space of such environment includes documentary components (implicit knowledge) and conceptual and terminological systems (glossaries, thesauri, and ontologies) as tools of cognitive process and semantic context. In the process of information search, context is injected by using a pre-coordinated linguistic structures (taxonomies, dictionaries of application domain) that is an adequate image for well-defined information, and by a cognitive tree taxonomy for new information needs, that is dynamically formed for each project or point of view in search task. A node of this structure can have as a properties both information (documents, queries, references to associated resources) and meta-information (application domain local dictionaries, corresponding parts of classifications, subject headings, thesauri, ontologies), and,in addition, the results of analytical processing. (author

  2. Locally decodable codes and private information retrieval schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Yekhanin, Sergey

    2010-01-01

    Locally decodable codes (LDCs) are codes that simultaneously provide efficient random access retrieval and high noise resilience by allowing reliable reconstruction of an arbitrary bit of a message by looking at only a small number of randomly chosen codeword bits. Local decodability comes with a certain loss in terms of efficiency - specifically, locally decodable codes require longer codeword lengths than their classical counterparts. Private information retrieval (PIR) schemes are cryptographic protocols designed to safeguard the privacy of database users. They allow clients to retrieve rec

  3. Can We Retrieve the Information Which Was Intentionally Forgotten? Electrophysiological Correlates of Strategic Retrieval in Directed Forgetting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinrui Mao

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Retrieval inhibition hypothesis of directed forgetting effects assumed TBF (to-be-forgotten items were not retrieved intentionally, while selective rehearsal hypothesis assumed the memory representation of retrieved TBF (to-be-forgotten items was weaker than TBR (to-be-remembered items. Previous studies indicated that directed forgetting effects of item-cueing method resulted from selective rehearsal at encoding, but the mechanism of retrieval inhibition that affected directed forgetting of TBF (to-be-forgotten items was not clear. Strategic retrieval is a control process allowing the selective retrieval of target information, which includes retrieval orientation and strategic recollection. Retrieval orientation via the comparison of tasks refers to the specific form of processing resulted by retrieval efforts. Strategic recollection is the type of strategies to recollect studied items for the retrieval success of targets. Using a “directed forgetting” paradigm combined with a memory exclusion task, our investigation of strategic retrieval in directed forgetting assisted to explore how retrieval inhibition played a role on directed forgetting effects. When TBF items were targeted, retrieval orientation showed more positive ERPs to new items, indicating that TBF items demanded more retrieval efforts. The results of strategic recollection indicated that: (a when TBR items were retrieval targets, late parietal old/new effects were only evoked by TBR items but not TBF items, indicating the retrieval inhibition of TBF items; (b when TBF items were retrieval targets, the late parietal old/new effect were evoked by both TBR items and TBF items, indicating that strategic retrieval could overcome retrieval inhibition of TBF items. These findings suggested the modulation of strategic retrieval on retrieval inhibition of directed forgetting, supporting that directed forgetting effects were not only caused by selective rehearsal, but also retrieval

  4. Information Retrieval and Criticality in Parity-Time-Symmetric Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Kohei; Ashida, Yuto; Ueda, Masahito

    2017-11-10

    By investigating information flow between a general parity-time (PT-)symmetric non-Hermitian system and an environment, we find that the complete information retrieval from the environment can be achieved in the PT-unbroken phase, whereas no information can be retrieved in the PT-broken phase. The PT-transition point thus marks the reversible-irreversible criticality of information flow, around which many physical quantities such as the recurrence time and the distinguishability between quantum states exhibit power-law behavior. Moreover, by embedding a PT-symmetric system into a larger Hilbert space so that the entire system obeys unitary dynamics, we reveal that behind the information retrieval lies a hidden entangled partner protected by PT symmetry. Possible experimental situations are also discussed.

  5. Foundations of Large-Scale Multimedia Information Management and Retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Edward Y

    2011-01-01

    "Foundations of Large-Scale Multimedia Information Management and Retrieval - Mathematics of Perception" covers knowledge representation and semantic analysis of multimedia data and scalability in signal extraction, data mining, and indexing. The book is divided into two parts: Part I - Knowledge Representation and Semantic Analysis focuses on the key components of mathematics of perception as it applies to data management and retrieval. These include feature selection/reduction, knowledge representation, semantic analysis, distance function formulation for measuring similarity, and

  6. Formal Concept Analysis and Information Retrieval – A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Codocedo , Victor; Napoli , Amedeo

    2015-01-01

    International audience; One of the first models to be proposed as a document index for retrieval purposes was a lattice structure, decades before the introduction of Formal Concept Analysis. Nevertheless, the main notions that we consider so familiar within the community (" extension " , " intension " , " closure operators " , " order ") were already an important part of it. In the '90s, as FCA was starting to settle as an epistemic community, lattice-based Information Retrieval (IR) systems ...

  7. Hypertext and hypermedia systems in information retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, K. M.; Kuhn, A. D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper opens with a brief history of hypertext and hypermedia in the context of information management during the 'information age.' Relevant terms are defined and the approach of the paper is explained. Linear and hypermedia information access methods are contrasted. A discussion of hyperprogramming in the handling of complex scientific and technical information follows. A selection of innovative hypermedia systems is discussed. An analysis of the Clinical Practice Library of Medicine NASA STI Program hypermedia application is presented. The paper concludes with a discussion of the NASA STI Program's future hypermedia project plans.

  8. Retrieval monitoring is influenced by information value: the interplay between importance and confidence on false memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Ian M; Bui, Dung C; Friedman, Michael C; Castel, Alan D

    2015-10-01

    The perceived value of information can influence one's motivation to successfully remember that information. This study investigated how information value can affect memory search and evaluation processes (i.e., retrieval monitoring). In Experiment 1, participants studied unrelated words associated with low, medium, or high values. Subsequent memory tests required participants to selectively monitor retrieval for different values. False memory effects were smaller when searching memory for high-value than low-value words, suggesting that people more effectively monitored more important information. In Experiment 2, participants studied semantically-related words, and the need for retrieval monitoring was reduced at test by using inclusion instructions (i.e., endorsement of any word related to the studied words) compared with standard instructions. Inclusion instructions led to increases in false recognition for low-value, but not for high-value words, suggesting that under standard-instruction conditions retrieval monitoring was less likely to occur for important information. Experiment 3 showed that words retrieved with lower confidence were associated with more effective retrieval monitoring, suggesting that the quality of the retrieved memory influenced the degree and effectiveness of monitoring processes. Ironically, unless encouraged to do so, people were less likely to carefully monitor important information, even though people want to remember important memories most accurately. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Using the weighted keyword model to improve information retrieval for answering biomedical questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong; Cao, Yong-Gang

    2009-03-01

    Physicians ask many complex questions during the patient encounter. Information retrieval systems that can provide immediate and relevant answers to these questions can be invaluable aids to the practice of evidence-based medicine. In this study, we first automatically identify topic keywords from ad hoc clinical questions with a Condition Random Field model that is trained over thousands of manually annotated clinical questions. We then report on a linear model that assigns query weights based on their automatically identified semantic roles: topic keywords, domain specific terms, and their synonyms. Our evaluation shows that this weighted keyword model improves information retrieval from the Text Retrieval Conference Genomics track data.

  10. Interdisciplinary perspectives on abstracts for information retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon Keng Chan

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the abstract genre from the perspectives of English for Specific Purposes (ESP practitioners and information professionals. It aims to determine specific interdisciplinary interests in the abstract, and to explore areas of collaboration in terms of research and pedagogical practices. A focus group (FG comprising information professionals from the Division of Information Studies, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, convened for a discussion on the subject of abstracts and abstracting. Two major issues that have significant implications for ESP practices emerged during the discussion. While differences in terms of approach to and objectives of the abstract genre are apparent between information professionals and language professionals, the demands for specific cognitive processes involved in abstracting proved to be similar. This area of similarity provides grounds for awareness raising and collaboration between the two disciplines. While ESP practitioners need to consider adding the dimension of information science to the rhetorical and linguistic scaffolding that they have been providing to novice-writers, information professionals can contribute useful insights about the qualities of abstracts that have the greatest impact in meeting the end-users' needs in information search.

  11. Music information retrieval in compressed audio files: a survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampoglou, Markos; Malamos, Athanasios G.

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, we present an organized survey of the existing literature on music information retrieval systems in which descriptor features are extracted directly from the compressed audio files, without prior decompression to pulse-code modulation format. Avoiding the decompression step and utilizing the readily available compressed-domain information can significantly lighten the computational cost of a music information retrieval system, allowing application to large-scale music databases. We identify a number of systems relying on compressed-domain information and form a systematic classification of the features they extract, the retrieval tasks they tackle and the degree in which they achieve an actual increase in the overall speed-as well as any resulting loss in accuracy. Finally, we discuss recent developments in the field, and the potential research directions they open toward ultra-fast, scalable systems.

  12. User's perspective: Information retrieval and usability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Zambrano Silva

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The point is to share some ideas to improve the on line database of "Defensor del Pueblo Andaluz", starting from an user's study and a bibliographic analysis. Our intention is to create an interface to make interactivity much easier and make it work as a connector bridge between the documentent´s information structure and the user's knowledge structure. With the only purpose to improve the user satis-faction level in the results of information search.

  13. Information Retrieval on social network: An Adaptive Proof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elveny, M.; Syah, R.; Elfida, M.; Nasution, M. K. M.

    2018-01-01

    Information Retrieval has become one of the areas for studying to get the trusty information, with which the recall and precision become the measurement form that represents it. Nevertheless, development in certain scientific fields make it possible to improve the performance of the Information Retrieval. In this case, through social networks whereby the role of social actor degrees plays a role. This is an implication of the query in which co-occurrence becomes an indication of social networks. An adaptive approach we use by involving this query in sequence to a stand-alone query, it has proven the relationship among them.

  14. Compounds in dictionary-based Cross-language information retrieval_revised

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Compound words form an important part of natural language. From the cross-lingual information retrieval (CLIR point of view it is important that many natural languages are highly productive with compounds, and translation resources cannot include entries for all compounds. Also, compounds are often content bearing words in a sentence. In Swedish, German and Finnish roughly one tenth of the words in a text prepared for information retrieval purposes are compounds. Important research questions concerning compound handling in dictionary-based cross-language information retrieval are 1 compound splitting into components, 2 normalisation of components, 3 translation of components and 4 query structuring for compounds and their components in the target language. The impact of compound processing on the performance of the cross-language information retrieval process is evaluated in this study and the results indicate that the effect is clearly positive.

  15. Cross document ontology based information for multimedia retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reidsma, Dennis; Kuper, Jan; Declerck, T.; Saggion, H.; Cunningham, H.; Ganter, B.; de Moor, A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the MUMIS project, which applies ontology based Information Extraction to improve the results of Information Retrieval in multimedia archives. It makes use of a domain specific ontology, multilingual lexicons and reasoning algorithms to automatically create a semantic annotation

  16. Learning to merge search results for efficient Distributed Information Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjin-Kam-Jet, Kien; Hiemstra, Djoerd

    2010-01-01

    Merging search results from different servers is a major problem in Distributed Information Retrieval. We used Regression-SVM and Ranking-SVM which would learn a function that merges results based on information that is readily available: i.e. the ranks, titles, summaries and URLs contained in the

  17. Environmental sciences information storage and retrieval system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engstrom, D.E.

    1975-01-01

    Reynolds Electrical and Engineering Co., Inc. (REECo), has since 1970 accumulated information relating to the AEC's Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG) programs at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). These programs, involving extensive soil, vegetation, and small-animal studies, have generated informational data concerning the collecting, processing, analyzing, and shipping of sample materials to various program participants and contractors. Future plans include incorporation of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory's resuspension study data, REECo's on-site air data, and EPA's large-animal, off-site air, and off-site soil data. (auth)

  18. BIRS – Bioterrorism Information Retrieval System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Ashish Kumar; Rashi; Wadhwa, Gulshan; Sharma, Sanjeev Kumar; Jain, Chakresh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Bioterrorism is the intended use of pathogenic strains of microbes to widen terror in a population. There is a definite need to promote research for development of vaccines, therapeutics and diagnostic methods as a part of preparedness to any bioterror attack in the future. BIRS is an open-access database of collective information on the organisms related to bioterrorism. The architecture of database utilizes the current open-source technology viz PHP ver 5.3.19, MySQL and IIS server under windows platform for database designing. Database stores information on literature, generic- information and unique pathways of about 10 microorganisms involved in bioterrorism. This may serve as a collective repository to accelerate the drug discovery and vaccines designing process against such bioterrorist agents (microbes). The available data has been validated from various online resources and literature mining in order to provide the user with a comprehensive information system. Availability The database is freely available at http://www.bioterrorism.biowaves.org PMID:23390356

  19. Acquisition and retrieval of ophthalmology academic information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses how to search and access ophthalmology information based on specialized websites and resources by introducing the database, search engines, electronic journals, electronic books and so on. Hope to help ophthalmic practitioners to carry out scientific research and clinical practice.

  20. Information Retrieval Using Hadoop Big Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motwani, Deepak; Madan, Madan Lal

    This paper concern on big data analysis which is the cognitive operation of probing huge amounts of information in an attempt to get uncovers unseen patterns. Through Big Data Analytics Applications such as public and private organization sectors have formed a strategic determination to turn big data into cut throat benefit. The primary occupation of extracting value from big data give rise to a process applied to pull information from multiple different sources; this process is known as extract transforms and lode. This paper approach extract information from log files and Research Paper, awareness reduces the efforts for blueprint finding and summarization of document from several positions. The work is able to understand better Hadoop basic concept and increase the user experience for research. In this paper, we propose an approach for analysis log files for finding concise information which is useful and time saving by using Hadoop. Our proposed approach will be applied on different research papers on a specific domain and applied for getting summarized content for further improvement and make the new content.

  1. Semantic knowledge representation for information retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Gödert, Winfried; Nagelschmidt, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    This book covers the basics of semantic web technologies and indexing languages, and describes their contribution to improve languages as a tool for subject queries and knowledge exploration. The book is relevant to information scientists, knowledge workers and indexers. It provides a suitable combination of theoretical foundations and practical applications.

  2. Music Information Retrieval from a Singing Voice Using Lyrics and Melody Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shozo Makino

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, several music information retrieval (MIR systems which retrieve musical pieces by the user's singing voice have been developed. All of these systems use only melody information for retrieval, although lyrics information is also useful for retrieval. In this paper, we propose a new MIR system that uses both lyrics and melody information. First, we propose a new lyrics recognition method. A finite state automaton (FSA is used as recognition grammar, and about 86% retrieval accuracy was obtained. We also develop an algorithm for verifying a hypothesis output by a lyrics recognizer. Melody information is extracted from an input song using several pieces of information of the hypothesis, and a total score is calculated from the recognition score and the verification score. From the experimental results, 95.0% retrieval accuracy was obtained with a query consisting of five words.

  3. Music Information Retrieval from a Singing Voice Using Lyrics and Melody Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki Motoyuki

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, several music information retrieval (MIR systems which retrieve musical pieces by the user's singing voice have been developed. All of these systems use only melody information for retrieval, although lyrics information is also useful for retrieval. In this paper, we propose a new MIR system that uses both lyrics and melody information. First, we propose a new lyrics recognition method. A finite state automaton (FSA is used as recognition grammar, and about retrieval accuracy was obtained. We also develop an algorithm for verifying a hypothesis output by a lyrics recognizer. Melody information is extracted from an input song using several pieces of information of the hypothesis, and a total score is calculated from the recognition score and the verification score. From the experimental results, 95.0 retrieval accuracy was obtained with a query consisting of five words.

  4. Distributed Systems and Applications of Information Filtering and Retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Giuliani, Alessandro; Semeraro, Giovanni; DART 2012

    2014-01-01

    This volume focuses on new challenges in distributed Information Filtering and Retrieval. It collects invited chapters and extended research contributions from the special session on Information Filtering and Retrieval: Novel Distributed Systems and Applications (DART) of the 4th International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Information Retrieval (KDIR 2012), held in Barcelona, Spain, on 4-7 October 2012. The main focus of DART was to discuss and compare suitable novel solutions based on intelligent techniques and applied to real-world applications. The chapters of this book present a comprehensive review of related works and state of the art. Authors, both practitioners and researchers, shared their results in several topics such as "Multi-Agent Systems", "Natural Language Processing", "Automatic Advertisement", "Customer Interaction Analytics", "Opinion Mining". Contributions have been careful reviewed by experts in the area, who also gave useful suggestions to improve the quality of the volume.

  5. Episodic retrieval involves early and sustained effects of reactivating information from encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeffrey D; Price, Mason H; Leiker, Emily K

    2015-02-01

    Several fMRI studies have shown a correspondence between the brain regions activated during encoding and retrieval, consistent with the view that memory retrieval involves hippocampally-mediated reinstatement of cortical activity. With the limited temporal resolution of fMRI, the precise timing of such reactivation is unclear, calling into question the functional significance of these effects. Whereas reactivation influencing retrieval should emerge with neural correlates of retrieval success, that signifying post-retrieval monitoring would trail retrieval. The present study employed EEG to provide a temporal landmark of retrieval success from which we could investigate the sub-trial time course of reactivation. Pattern-classification analyses revealed that early-onsetting reactivation differentiated the outcome of recognition-memory judgments and was associated with individual differences in behavioral accuracy, while reactivation was also evident in a sustained form later in the trial. The EEG findings suggest that, whereas prior fMRI findings could be interpreted as reflecting the contribution of reinstatement to retrieval success, they could also indicate the maintenance of episodic information in service of post-retrieval evaluation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Accelerating Information Retrieval from Profile Hidden Markov Model Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamimi, Ahmad; Ashhab, Yaqoub; Tamimi, Hashem

    2016-01-01

    Profile Hidden Markov Model (Profile-HMM) is an efficient statistical approach to represent protein families. Currently, several databases maintain valuable protein sequence information as profile-HMMs. There is an increasing interest to improve the efficiency of searching Profile-HMM databases to detect sequence-profile or profile-profile homology. However, most efforts to enhance searching efficiency have been focusing on improving the alignment algorithms. Although the performance of these algorithms is fairly acceptable, the growing size of these databases, as well as the increasing demand for using batch query searching approach, are strong motivations that call for further enhancement of information retrieval from profile-HMM databases. This work presents a heuristic method to accelerate the current profile-HMM homology searching approaches. The method works by cluster-based remodeling of the database to reduce the search space, rather than focusing on the alignment algorithms. Using different clustering techniques, 4284 TIGRFAMs profiles were clustered based on their similarities. A representative for each cluster was assigned. To enhance sensitivity, we proposed an extended step that allows overlapping among clusters. A validation benchmark of 6000 randomly selected protein sequences was used to query the clustered profiles. To evaluate the efficiency of our approach, speed and recall values were measured and compared with the sequential search approach. Using hierarchical, k-means, and connected component clustering techniques followed by the extended overlapping step, we obtained an average reduction in time of 41%, and an average recall of 96%. Our results demonstrate that representation of profile-HMMs using a clustering-based approach can significantly accelerate data retrieval from profile-HMM databases.

  7. Accelerating Information Retrieval from Profile Hidden Markov Model Databases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Tamimi

    Full Text Available Profile Hidden Markov Model (Profile-HMM is an efficient statistical approach to represent protein families. Currently, several databases maintain valuable protein sequence information as profile-HMMs. There is an increasing interest to improve the efficiency of searching Profile-HMM databases to detect sequence-profile or profile-profile homology. However, most efforts to enhance searching efficiency have been focusing on improving the alignment algorithms. Although the performance of these algorithms is fairly acceptable, the growing size of these databases, as well as the increasing demand for using batch query searching approach, are strong motivations that call for further enhancement of information retrieval from profile-HMM databases. This work presents a heuristic method to accelerate the current profile-HMM homology searching approaches. The method works by cluster-based remodeling of the database to reduce the search space, rather than focusing on the alignment algorithms. Using different clustering techniques, 4284 TIGRFAMs profiles were clustered based on their similarities. A representative for each cluster was assigned. To enhance sensitivity, we proposed an extended step that allows overlapping among clusters. A validation benchmark of 6000 randomly selected protein sequences was used to query the clustered profiles. To evaluate the efficiency of our approach, speed and recall values were measured and compared with the sequential search approach. Using hierarchical, k-means, and connected component clustering techniques followed by the extended overlapping step, we obtained an average reduction in time of 41%, and an average recall of 96%. Our results demonstrate that representation of profile-HMMs using a clustering-based approach can significantly accelerate data retrieval from profile-HMM databases.

  8. MIRANDA - Music Information Retrieval And Data Acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehn-Schiøler, Tue; Petersen, Kaare Brandt; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2006-01-01

    In this report we present a music data harvesting system based on a plug-in for a popular music player. When a user is playing a song using the plug-in, information about the song is anonymously submitted to a server. The data gathered using MIRANDA is intended to be released to the MIR community....... We argue that even though content-based data is of interest to the community, also meta data and usage data can be important for research in music similarity....

  9. A Fuzzy Semantic Information Retrieval System for Transactional Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A O Ajayi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an information retrieval system based on the concept of fuzzy logic to relate vague and uncertain objects with un-sharp boundaries. The simple but comprehensive user interface of the system permits the entering of uncertain specifications in query forms. The system was modelled and simulated in a Matlab environment; its implementation was carried out using Borland C++ Builder. The result of the performance measure of the system using precision and recall rates is encouraging. Similarly, the smaller amount of more precise information retrieved by the system will positively impact the response time perceived by the users.

  10. Learning to rank for information retrieval and natural language processing

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hang

    2014-01-01

    Learning to rank refers to machine learning techniques for training a model in a ranking task. Learning to rank is useful for many applications in information retrieval, natural language processing, and data mining. Intensive studies have been conducted on its problems recently, and significant progress has been made. This lecture gives an introduction to the area including the fundamental problems, major approaches, theories, applications, and future work.The author begins by showing that various ranking problems in information retrieval and natural language processing can be formalized as tw

  11. Impact of Metadata on Full-text Information Retrieval Performance: An Experimental Research on a Small Scale Turkish Corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çağdaş Çapkın

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Information institutions use text-based information retrieval systems to store, index and retrieve metadata, full-text, or both metadata and full-text (hybrid contents. The aim of this research was to evaluate impact of these contents on information retrieval performance. For this purpose, metadata (MIR, full-text (FIR and hybrid (HIR content information retrieval systems were developed with default Lucene information retrieval model for a small scale Turkish corpus. In order to evaluate performance of this three systems, “precision - recall” and “normalized recall” tests were conducted. Experimental findings showed that there were no significant differences between MIR and FIR in mean average precision (MAP performance. On the other hand, MAP performance of HIR was significantly higher in comparison to MIR and FIR. When information retrieval performance was evaluated as user-centered, the “normalized recall” performances of MIR and HIR were significantly higher than FIR. Additionally, there were no significant differences between the systems in retrieved relevant document means. Processing different types of contents such as metadata and full-text had some advantages and disadvantages for information retrieval systems in terms of term management. The advantages brought together in hybrid content processing (HIR and information retrieval performance improved.

  12. Personal health records: retrieving contextual information with Google Custom Search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan, Mahmud; Seldon, H Lee; Sayeed, Shohel

    2012-01-01

    Ubiquitous personal health records, which can accompany a person everywhere, are a necessary requirement for ubiquitous healthcare. Contextual information related to health events is important for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and for the maintenance of good health, yet it is seldom recorded in a health record. We describe a dual cellphone-and-Web-based personal health record system which can include 'external' contextual information. Much contextual information is available on the Internet and we can use ontologies to help identify relevant sites and information. But a search engine is required to retrieve information from the Web and developing a customized search engine is beyond our scope, so we can use Google Custom Search API Web service to get contextual data. In this paper we describe a framework which combines a health-and-environment 'knowledge base' or ontology with the Google Custom Search API to retrieve relevant contextual information related to entries in a ubiquitous personal health record.

  13. Information retrieval for dermatologists - An Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriganesh Vasumathi

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of the internet in all fields of medicine is becoming more and more common in most areas of the world. The factors contributing to limited or no usage are difficulty of access due to poor IT infrastructure, paucity of time and lack of awareness and knowledge of the optimal use of the internet. For healthcare professionals, lack of time is one of the most common reasons for venturing into anything new. The only way to tackle this is to make a conscious commitment to learning how to use the Internet effectively. The least that one could strive to do is to learn enough to get internet usage handled by junior colleagues, secretaries and external resources, and expect the best of outputs from each. This article will focus on the internet for dermatologists. It will cover a range of resources and include search techniques and evaluation criteria.

  14. Improving life sciences information retrieval using semantic web technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Dennis

    2007-05-01

    The ability to retrieve relevant information is at the heart of every aspect of research and development in the life sciences industry. Information is often distributed across multiple systems and recorded in a way that makes it difficult to piece together the complete picture. Differences in data formats, naming schemes and network protocols amongst information sources, both public and private, must be overcome, and user interfaces not only need to be able to tap into these diverse information sources but must also assist users in filtering out extraneous information and highlighting the key relationships hidden within an aggregated set of information. The Semantic Web community has made great strides in proposing solutions to these problems, and many efforts are underway to apply Semantic Web techniques to the problem of information retrieval in the life sciences space. This article gives an overview of the principles underlying a Semantic Web-enabled information retrieval system: creating a unified abstraction for knowledge using the RDF semantic network model; designing semantic lenses that extract contextually relevant subsets of information; and assembling semantic lenses into powerful information displays. Furthermore, concrete examples of how these principles can be applied to life science problems including a scenario involving a drug discovery dashboard prototype called BioDash are provided.

  15. Expert Search Strategies: The Information Retrieval Practices of Healthcare Information Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell-Rose, Tony; Chamberlain, Jon

    2017-10-02

    Healthcare information professionals play a key role in closing the knowledge gap between medical research and clinical practice. Their work involves meticulous searching of literature databases using complex search strategies that can consist of hundreds of keywords, operators, and ontology terms. This process is prone to error and can lead to inefficiency and bias if performed incorrectly. The aim of this study was to investigate the search behavior of healthcare information professionals, uncovering their needs, goals, and requirements for information retrieval systems. A survey was distributed to healthcare information professionals via professional association email discussion lists. It investigated the search tasks they undertake, their techniques for search strategy formulation, their approaches to evaluating search results, and their preferred functionality for searching library-style databases. The popular literature search system PubMed was then evaluated to determine the extent to which their needs were met. The 107 respondents indicated that their information retrieval process relied on the use of complex, repeatable, and transparent search strategies. On average it took 60 minutes to formulate a search strategy, with a search task taking 4 hours and consisting of 15 strategy lines. Respondents reviewed a median of 175 results per search task, far more than they would ideally like (100). The most desired features of a search system were merging search queries and combining search results. Healthcare information professionals routinely address some of the most challenging information retrieval problems of any profession. However, their needs are not fully supported by current literature search systems and there is demand for improved functionality, in particular regarding the development and management of search strategies. ©Tony Russell-Rose, Jon Chamberlain. Originally published in JMIR Medical Informatics (http://medinform.jmir.org), 02.10.2017.

  16. Evaluation of Technologies for Retrieval of Waste from Leaking Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamberger, Judith A.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Lewis, Benjamin E.; Randolph, John D.; Killough, Stephen M.

    2000-01-01

    The US Department of Energy Environmental and Waste Management Tanks Focus Area selected as a strategic initiative the need to identify and develop technologies for remediation of tanks that are known or are suspected to leak. This investigation identified and evaluated technical options for single-shell tank waste retrieval applicable to retrieve waste from potentially leaking tanks. Technologies that minimize leakage use minimal water, and dry retrieval technologies were evaluated. Safety, cost, authorization basis, and schedule risks were identified for each technology to provide River Protection Program with information to evaluate technical and programmatic risk. A workshop was held to identify technology needs and solutions. These approaches grouped into five categories: those related to waste dislodging, waste conveyance, both waste dislodging and conveyance, the deployment platform, and technologies related to leak detection, monitoring, and mitigation. Based on the ranking, six technologies were selected as potential candidates for further evaluation. These items were prioritized into four technologies to recommend for further evaluation (1) Air assisted TORE(R). The TORE(R) produces a processing vortex core with the ability to convey solids at pre-determined slurry concentrations over great distances. The dry TORE(R) concept uses air to develop the vortex to fluidize dry solids. The TORE(R)the solids in a slurry transport line. (2) Sonication for waste dislodging utilizes ultrasonic energy to fracture and dislodge hard waste types such as salt cake and sludge. (3) Novel long-reach manipulators concept is to investigate novel cost effective approaches for long-reach manipulator technology. (4) Next generation crawler technology envisions a non-umbilical dislodger, possibly radio controlled and powered remotely to provide a deployment platform not affected by path, or the need to retrace steps

  17. Data retrieval systems and models of information situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankowski, L.

    1984-01-01

    Demands placed on data retrieval systems and their basic parameters are given. According to the stage of development of data collection and processing, data retrieval systems may be divided into systems for the simple recording and provision of data, systems for recording and providing data with integrated statistical functions, and logical information systems. The structure is characterized of the said information systems as are methods of processing and representation of facts. The notion is defined of ''artificial intelligence'' in the development of logical information systems. The structure of representing knowledge in diverse forms of the model is decisive in logical information systems related to nuclear research. The main model elements are the characteristics of data, forms of representation and program. In dependence on the structure of data, the structure of the preparatory and transformation algorithms and on the aim of the system it is possible to classify data retrieval systems related to nuclear research and technology into five logical information models: linear, identification, advisory, theory-experiment models and problem solving models. The characteristics are given of the said models and examples of data retrieval systems for the individual models. (E.S.)

  18. A semantic approach to concept lattice-based information retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Codocedo , Victor; Lykourentzou , Ioanna; Napoli , Amedeo

    2014-01-01

    International audience; The volume of available information is growing, especially on the web, and in parallel the questions of the users are changing and becoming harder to satisfy. Thus there is a need for organizing the available information in a meaningful way in order to guide and improve document indexing for information retrieval applications taking into account more complex data such as semantic relations. In this paper we show that Formal Concept Analysis (FCA) and concept lattices p...

  19. Information evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Capet, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    During the reception of a piece of information, we are never passive. Depending on its origin and content, from our personal beliefs and convictions, we bestow upon this piece of information, spontaneously or after reflection, a certain amount of confidence. Too much confidence shows a degree of naivety, whereas an absolute lack of it condemns us as being paranoid. These two attitudes are symmetrically detrimental, not only to the proper perception of this information but also to its use. Beyond these two extremes, each person generally adopts an intermediate position when faced with the recep

  20. Information Retrieval in Telemedicine: a Comparative Study on Bibliographic Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Maryam; Sarabi, Roghayeh Ershad; Orak, Roohangiz Jamshidi; Bahaadinbeigy, Kambiz

    2015-06-01

    The first step in each systematic review is selection of the most valid database that can provide the highest number of relevant references. This study was carried out to determine the most suitable database for information retrieval in telemedicine field. Cinhal, PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus databases were searched for telemedicine matched with Education, cost benefit and patient satisfaction. After analysis of the obtained results, the accuracy coefficient, sensitivity, uniqueness and overlap of databases were calculated. The studied databases differed in the number of retrieved articles. PubMed was identified as the most suitable database for retrieving information on the selected topics with the accuracy and sensitivity ratios of 50.7% and 61.4% respectively. The uniqueness percent of retrieved articles ranged from 38% for Pubmed to 3.0% for Cinhal. The highest overlap rate (18.6%) was found between PubMed and Web of Science. Less than 1% of articles have been indexed in all searched databases. PubMed is suggested as the most suitable database for starting search in telemedicine and after PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science can retrieve about 90% of the relevant articles.

  1. Rare disease diagnosis as an information retrieval task

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragusin, Radu; Petcu, Paula; Lioma, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Increasingly more clinicians use web Information Retrieval (IR) systems to assist them in diagnosing difficult medical cases, for instance rare diseases that they may not be familiar with. However, web IR systems are not necessarily optimised for this task. For instance, clinicians’ queries tend...

  2. Learning to Rank for Information Retrieval from User Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmann, K.; Whiteson, S.; Schuth, A.; de Rijke, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this article we give an overview of our recent work on online learning to rank for information retrieval (IR). This work addresses IR from a reinforcement learning (RL) point of view, with the aim to enable systems that can learn directly from interactions with their users. Learning directly from

  3. Bibliometric-enhanced Information Retrieval : 2nd International BIR Workshop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mayr, Philipp; Frommholz, Ingo; Scharnhorst, Andrea; Mutschke, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This workshop brings together experts of communities which often have been perceived as different once: bibliometrics / scientometrics / informetrics on the one side and information retrieval on the other. Our motivation as organizers of the workshop started from the observation that main discourses

  4. Crossover Improvement for the Genetic Algorithm in Information Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrajitoru, Dana

    1998-01-01

    In information retrieval (IR), the aim of genetic algorithms (GA) is to help a system to find, in a huge documents collection, a good reply to a query expressed by the user. Analysis of phenomena seen during the implementation of a GA for IR has led to a new crossover operation, which is introduced and compared to other learning methods.…

  5. Utilizing Structural Knowledge for Information Retrieval in XML Databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihajlovic, V.; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Blok, H.E.; Apers, Peter M.G.

    In this paper we address the problem of immediate translation of eXtensible Mark-up Language (XML) information retrieval (IR) queries to relational database expressions and stress the benefits of using an intermediate XML-specific algebra over relational algebra. We show how adding an XML-specific

  6. Towards an Intelligent Possibilistic Web Information Retrieval Using Multiagent System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elayeb, Bilel; Evrard, Fabrice; Zaghdoud, Montaceur; Ahmed, Mohamed Ben

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to make a scientific contribution to web information retrieval (IR). Design/methodology/approach: A multiagent system for web IR is proposed based on new technologies: Hierarchical Small-Worlds (HSW) and Possibilistic Networks (PN). This system is based on a possibilistic qualitative approach which extends the…

  7. Experiences with automated categorization in e-government information retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonasen, Tanja Svarre; Lykke, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    High-precision search results are essential for supporting e-government employees’ information tasks. Prior studies have shown that existing features of e-government retrieval systems need improvement in terms of search facilities (e.g., Goh et al. 2008), navigation (e.g., de Jong and Lentz 2006)...

  8. Status report on SIRS: sorption information retrieval system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hostetler, D.D.; Serne, R.J.; Baldwin, A.J.; Petrie, G.M.

    1980-11-01

    Two major uses were identified for the Sorption Information Retrieval System: (1) to aid geochemists in the elucidation of sorption mechanisms; and (2) to aid safety assessment modelers in selection of Kds for any given scenerio. Other benefits such as providing an auditable vehicle for the Kd selection were also discussed

  9. Information Retrieval Diary of an Expert Technical Translator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremmins, Edward T.

    1984-01-01

    Recommends use of entries from the information retrieval diary of Ted Crump, expert technical translator at the National Institute of Health, in the construction of computer models showing how expert translators solve problems of ambiguity in language. Expert and inexpert translation systems, eponyms, abbreviations, and alphabetic solutions are…

  10. Protein Annotators' Assistant: A Novel Application of Information Retrieval Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    Protein Annotators' Assistant (PAA) is a software system which assists protein annotators in assigning functions to newly sequenced proteins. PAA employs a number of information retrieval techniques in a novel setting and is thus related to text categorization, where multiple categories may be suggested, except that in this case none of the…

  11. Design of an indigeous music information storage and retrieval ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main aim of the study was to design an appropriate Indigenous Music Information Storage and Retrieval System for Eritrea. A quantitative approach was mainly used to obtain data from a purposefully selected sample. The qualitative approach was also used in some research stages. Methods used included document

  12. Information Retrieval for Education: Making Search Engines Language Aware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Niels; Meurers, Detmar

    2010-01-01

    Search engines have been a major factor in making the web the successful and widely used information source it is today. Generally speaking, they make it possible to retrieve web pages on a topic specified by the keywords entered by the user. Yet web searching currently does not take into account which of the search results are comprehensible for…

  13. Professional assistance to users of information retrieval tools at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the need for professional assistance to users of information retrieval tools at the National Library of Nigeria, Enugu branch. A total of 38 (thirty-eight) users of the library were randomly selected and used for the study. It was found that most of the respondents 18(47.3%) consulted the card catalogue ...

  14. Kid's Catalog: An Information Retrieval System for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busey, Paula; Doerr, Tom

    1993-01-01

    Describes an online public access catalog for children, called the Kid's Catalog. Design objectives include eliminating the barriers to information retrieval outlined in the research literature; being fun, interactive, and respectful of children's intelligence and creativity; motivating children with an expansive range of subjects and search…

  15. Proof of concept: concept-based biomedical information retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trieschnigg, Rudolf Berend

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis we investigate the possibility to integrate domain-specific knowledge into biomedical information retrieval (IR). Recent decades have shown a fast growing interest in biomedical research, reflected by an exponential growth in scientific literature. An important problem for biomedical

  16. Ask Alice: an Artificial Retrieval of Information Agent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valstar, M.; Baur, T.; Cafaro, A.; Ghitulescu, A.; Potard, B.; Wagner, J.; Andre, E.; Durieu, L.; Aylett, M.; Dermouche, P.; Pelachaud, C.; Coutinho, E.; Schuller, B.; Zhang, Yue; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Theune, Mariet; van Waterschoot, Jelte Barachia

    2016-01-01

    We present a demonstration of the ARIA framework, a modular approach for rapid development of virtual humans for information retrieval that have linguistic, emotional, and social skills and a strong personality. We demonstrate the capabilities of our framework in a scenario where a popular book from

  17. Scientometrics and information retrieval: weak-links revitalized

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mayr, Philipp; Scharnhorst, Andrea

    This special issue brings together eight papers from experts of communities which often have been perceived as different once: bibliometrics, scientometrics and in- formetrics on the one side and information retrieval on the other. The idea of this special issue started at the workshop ‘‘Combining

  18. Support Vector Machines: Relevance Feedback and Information Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drucker, Harris; Shahrary, Behzad; Gibbon, David C.

    2002-01-01

    Compares support vector machines (SVMs) to Rocchio, Ide regular and Ide dec-hi algorithms in information retrieval (IR) of text documents using relevancy feedback. If the preliminary search is so poor that one has to search through many documents to find at least one relevant document, then SVM is preferred. Includes nine tables. (Contains 24…

  19. Mutual information based feature selection for medical image retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Lijia; Zhang, Shaomin; Li, Yan

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, authors propose a mutual information based method for lung CT image retrieval. This method is designed to adapt to different datasets and different retrieval task. For practical applying consideration, this method avoids using a large amount of training data. Instead, with a well-designed training process and robust fundamental features and measurements, the method in this paper can get promising performance and maintain economic training computation. Experimental results show that the method has potential practical values for clinical routine application.

  20. Distributed retrieval practice promotes superior recall of anatomy information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, John L; Perez, Jose; Linderholm, Tracy

    2017-07-01

    Effortful retrieval produces greater long-term recall of information when compared to studying (i.e., reading), as do learning sessions that are distributed (i.e., spaced apart) when compared to those that are massed together. Although the retrieval and distributed practice effects are well-established in the cognitive science literature, no studies have examined their additive effect with regard to learning anatomy information. The aim of this study was to determine how the benefits of retrieval practice vary with massed versus distributed learning. Participants used the following strategies to learn sets of skeletal muscle anatomy: (1) studying on three different days over a seven day period (SSSS 7,2,0 ), (2) studying and retrieving on three different days over a seven day period (SRSR 7,2,0 ), (3) studying on two different days over a two day period (SSSSSS 2,0 ), (4) studying and retrieving on two separate days over a two day period (SRSRSR 2,0 ), and (5) studying and retrieving on one day (SRx6 0 ). All strategies consisted of 12 learning phases and lasted exactly 24 minutes. Muscle information retention was assessed via free recall and using repeated measures ANOVAs. A week after learning, the recall scores were 24.72 ± 3.12, 33.88 ± 3.48, 15.51 ± 2.48, 20.72 ± 2.94, and 12.86 ± 2.05 for the SSSS 7,2,0 , SRSR 7,2,0 , SSSSSS 2,0 , STSTST 2,0 , and SRx6 0 strategies, respectively. In conclusion, the distributed strategies produced significantly better recall than the massed strategies, the retrieval-based strategies produced significantly better recall than the studying strategies, and the combination of distributed and retrieval practice generated the greatest recall of anatomy information. Anat Sci Educ 10: 339-347. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  1. Comprehensive Information Retrieval and Model Input Sequence (CIRMIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrichs, D.R.

    1977-04-01

    The Comprehensive Information Retrieval and Model Input Sequence (CIRMIS) was developed to provide the research scientist with man--machine interactive capabilities in a real-time environment, and thereby produce results more quickly and efficiently. The CIRMIS system was originally developed to increase data storage and retrieval capabilities and ground-water model control for the Hanford site. The overall configuration, however, can be used in other areas. The CIRMIS system provides the user with three major functions: retrieval of well-based data, special application for manipulating surface data or background maps, and the manipulation and control of ground-water models. These programs comprise only a portion of the entire CIRMIS system. A complete description of the CIRMIS system is given in this report. 25 figures, 7 tables

  2. Retrieving self-vocalized information: An event-related potential (ERP) study on the effect of retrieval orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosburg, Timm; Johansson, Mikael; Sprondel, Volker; Mecklinger, Axel

    2014-11-18

    Retrieval orientation refers to a pre-retrieval process and conceptualizes the specific form of processing that is applied to a retrieval cue. In the current event-related potential (ERP) study, we sought to find evidence for an involvement of the auditory cortex when subjects attempt to retrieve vocalized information, and hypothesized that adopting retrieval orientation would be beneficial for retrieval accuracy. During study, participants saw object words that they subsequently vocalized or visually imagined. At test, participants had to identify object names of one study condition as targets and to reject object names of the second condition together with new items. Target category switched after half of the test trials. Behaviorally, participants responded less accurately and more slowly to targets of the vocalize condition than to targets of the imagine condition. ERPs to new items varied at a single left electrode (T7) between 500 and 800ms, indicating a moderate retrieval orientation effect in the subject group as a whole. However, whereas the effect was strongly pronounced in participants with high retrieval accuracy, it was absent in participants with low retrieval accuracy. A current source density (CSD) mapping of the retrieval orientation effect indicated a source over left temporal regions. Independently from retrieval accuracy, the ERP retrieval orientation effect was surprisingly also modulated by test order. Findings are suggestive for an involvement of the auditory cortex in retrieval attempts of vocalized information and confirm that adopting retrieval orientation is potentially beneficial for retrieval accuracy. The effects of test order on retrieval-related processes might reflect a stronger focus on the newness of items in the more difficult test condition when participants started with this condition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Representation and alignment of sung queries for music information retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Norman H.; Wakefield, Gregory H.

    2005-09-01

    The pursuit of robust and rapid query-by-humming systems, which search melodic databases using sung queries, is a common theme in music information retrieval. The retrieval aspect of this database problem has received considerable attention, whereas the front-end processing of sung queries and the data structure to represent melodies has been based on musical intuition and historical momentum. The present work explores three time series representations for sung queries: a sequence of notes, a ``smooth'' pitch contour, and a sequence of pitch histograms. The performance of the three representations is compared using a collection of naturally sung queries. It is found that the most robust performance is achieved by the representation with highest dimension, the smooth pitch contour, but that this representation presents a formidable computational burden. For all three representations, it is necessary to align the query and target in order to achieve robust performance. The computational cost of the alignment is quadratic, hence it is necessary to keep the dimension small for rapid retrieval. Accordingly, iterative deepening is employed to achieve both robust performance and rapid retrieval. Finally, the conventional iterative framework is expanded to adapt the alignment constraints based on previous iterations, further expediting retrieval without degrading performance.

  4. Web User Profile Using XUL and Information Retrieval Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan MUNTEANU

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the importance of user profile in information retrieval, information filtering and recommender systems using explicit and implicit feedback. A Firefox extension (based on XUL used for gathering data needed to infer a web user profile and an example file with collected data are presented. Also an algorithm for creating and updating the user profile and keeping track of a fixed number k of subjects of interest is presented.

  5. Iterative Filtering of Retrieved Information to Increase Relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Zeidman

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Efforts have been underway for years to find more effective ways to retrieve information from large knowledge domains. This effort is now being driven particularly by the Internet and the vast amount of information that is available to unsophisticated users. In the early days of the Internet, some effort involved allowing users to enter Boolean equations of search terms into search engines, for example, rather than just a list of keywords. More recently, effort has focused on understanding a user's desires from past search histories in order to narrow searches. Also there has been much effort to improve the ranking of results based on some measure of relevancy. This paper discusses using iterative filtering of retrieved information to focus in on useful information. This work was done for finding source code correlation and the author extends his findings to Internet searching and e-commerce. The paper presents specific information about a particular filtering application and then generalizes it to other forms of information retrieval.

  6. Software Helps Retrieve Information Relevant to the User

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathe, Natalie; Chen, James

    2003-01-01

    The Adaptive Indexing and Retrieval Agent (ARNIE) is a code library, designed to be used by an application program, that assists human users in retrieving desired information in a hypertext setting. Using ARNIE, the program implements a computational model for interactively learning what information each human user considers relevant in context. The model, called a "relevance network," incrementally adapts retrieved information to users individual profiles on the basis of feedback from the users regarding specific queries. The model also generalizes such knowledge for subsequent derivation of relevant references for similar queries and profiles, thereby, assisting users in filtering information by relevance. ARNIE thus enables users to categorize and share information of interest in various contexts. ARNIE encodes the relevance and structure of information in a neural network dynamically configured with a genetic algorithm. ARNIE maintains an internal database, wherein it saves associations, and from which it returns associated items in response to a query. A C++ compiler for a platform on which ARNIE will be utilized is necessary for creating the ARNIE library but is not necessary for the execution of the software.

  7. Use of information-retrieval languages in automated retrieval of experimental data from long-term storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khovanskiy, Y. D.; Kremneva, N. I.

    1975-01-01

    Problems and methods are discussed of automating information retrieval operations in a data bank used for long term storage and retrieval of data from scientific experiments. Existing information retrieval languages are analyzed along with those being developed. The results of studies discussing the application of the descriptive 'Kristall' language used in the 'ASIOR' automated information retrieval system are presented. The development and use of a specialized language of the classification-descriptive type, using universal decimal classification indices as the main descriptors, is described.

  8. Evaluation of Retrievability of the Gunther Tulip Vena Cava Filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagami, Takuji; Kato, Takeharu; Hirota, Tatsuya; Yoshimatsu, Rika; Matsumoto, Tomohiro; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    2007-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the feasibility and safety of withdrawal of a Gunther tulip retrievable vena cava filter (GTF). Methods. Between June 2001 and December 2005, at our institution 86 GTFs were implanted for temporary caval filtration in 59 patients (37 women, 22 men; mean age 59.3 years, range 18-87 years). For GTFs retrieved thereafter, we retrospectively reviewed the following parameters: rate of success in retrieval, degree of trapped thrombus in the filter, and complications during retrieval. Results. Worsening of or new development of pulmonary embolism after filter implantation did not occur in any patient. Of the 86 GTFs implanted, retrieval of 80 was attempted. Among those 80 filters, 77 (96%) were successfully retrieved (with the standard method, n = 72; with the modified method, n = 5) without any complication. The period of implantation of the retrieved filters was 13.4 ± 4.2 days. In the 5 filters that were filled to a height of ≥ 1/4 with trapped thrombus, retrieval was performed after attempts were made to decrease trapped thrombi. In addition, a temporary filter or another GTF was temporarily placed at the cephalad level of the GTF during this removal procedure. Conclusion. GTFs can be retrieved in the majority of cases. Even when encountering situations in which the filter could not be removed using the standard method, withdrawal was possible in a high frequency of cases through various trials using modified methods

  9. Semantic concept-enriched dependence model for medical information retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sungbin; Choi, Jinwook; Yoo, Sooyoung; Kim, Heechun; Lee, Youngho

    2014-02-01

    In medical information retrieval research, semantic resources have been mostly used by expanding the original query terms or estimating the concept importance weight. However, implicit term-dependency information contained in semantic concept terms has been overlooked or at least underused in most previous studies. In this study, we incorporate a semantic concept-based term-dependence feature into a formal retrieval model to improve its ranking performance. Standardized medical concept terms used by medical professionals were assumed to have implicit dependency within the same concept. We hypothesized that, by elaborately revising the ranking algorithms to favor documents that preserve those implicit dependencies, the ranking performance could be improved. The implicit dependence features are harvested from the original query using MetaMap. These semantic concept-based dependence features were incorporated into a semantic concept-enriched dependence model (SCDM). We designed four different variants of the model, with each variant having distinct characteristics in the feature formulation method. We performed leave-one-out cross validations on both a clinical document corpus (TREC Medical records track) and a medical literature corpus (OHSUMED), which are representative test collections in medical information retrieval research. Our semantic concept-enriched dependence model consistently outperformed other state-of-the-art retrieval methods. Analysis shows that the performance gain has occurred independently of the concept's explicit importance in the query. By capturing implicit knowledge with regard to the query term relationships and incorporating them into a ranking model, we could build a more robust and effective retrieval model, independent of the concept importance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A prompt information retrieval system on handheld devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yo-Ping; Yen, Wei; Lin, Shi-Hung

    2007-04-01

    In this paper, we propose an intelligent bird information retrieval system which aims to construct a mobility-learning activity under the up-to-date wireless technology. The system consists of a Tablet PC and PDAs with wireless networking capabilities. The PDA is equipped with a friendly retrieval interface and a good learning environment. In our system, users only need to click the buttons or input the keywords to retrieve bird information. Besides, users can discuss or share their information and knowledge via the wireless network. Our system saves bird information in four categories including "Introduction," "Images," "Sound," "Streaming Media," and "Ecological Memo." The integral knowledge helps users understand more about birds. Data mining and fuzzy association rules are applied to recommend users those birds they may be interested in. A streaming server on the Tablet PC is built to provide the streaming media for PDA users. By this way, PDA users can enjoy the multimedia from Tablet PC in real time without downloading completely. Finally, the system is a perfect tool for outdoor teaching and can be easily extended to provide navigation and touring services for national parks or museums.

  11. Non-Compositional Term Dependence for Information Retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lioma, Christina; Simonsen, Jakob Grue; Larsen, Birger

    2015-01-01

    We present two novel models of document coherence and their application to information retrieval (IR). Both models approximate document coherence using discourse entities, e.g. the subject or object of a sentence. Our first model views text as a Markov process generating sequences of discourse...... entities (entity n-grams); we use the entropy of these entity n-grams to approximate the rate at which new information appears in text, reasoning that as more new words appear, the topic increasingly drifts and text coherence decreases. Our second model extends the work of Guinaudeau & Strube [28...... entities in text. Experiments with several instantiations of these models show that: (i) our models perform on a par with two other well-known models of text coherence even without any parameter tuning, and (ii) reranking retrieval results according to their coherence scores gives notable performance gains...

  12. AGRIS: Categorization and information retrieval based on IBM's IRMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, H.; Leatherdale, D.

    1976-01-01

    The subject breakdown of the AGRIS data base by categories interlinked with object and geographical codes is described. The use of these categories and codes in a mechanized information retrieval system is then considered. The system is a modification of IBM's Information Retrieval and Management System (IRMS); it allows for batch processing on an IBM/360 or /370 computer operated under OS or VS. As IRMS was developed for use with a controlled vocabulary, the search possibilities on the AGRIS files are necessarily limited. An artificial vocabulary is presented, derived from the AGRIS subject categories, object codes, geographic codes, language codes, and bibliographic data: type of record, literary indicator, volume/issue number, and the country code of the submitting centre. The use of the IRMS system for AGRIS is described, with details of programming deliberately omitted. Program descriptions with data set definitions and file formats are presented separately

  13. 8th International Workshop on Information Filtering and Retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Giuliani, Alessandro; Semeraro, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on new research challenges in intelligent information filtering and retrieval. It collects invited chapters and extended research contributions from DART 2014 (the 8th International Workshop on Information Filtering and Retrieval), held in Pisa (Italy), on December 10, 2014, and co-hosted with the XIII AI*IA Symposium on Artificial Intelligence. The main focus of DART was to discuss and compare suitable novel solutions based on intelligent techniques and applied to real-world contexts. The chapters of this book present a comprehensive review of related works and the current state of the art. The contributions from both practitioners and researchers have been carefully reviewed by experts in the area, who also gave useful suggestions to improve the quality of the book.

  14. A Fuzzy Semantic Information Retrieval System for Transactional Applications

    OpenAIRE

    A O Ajayi; H A Soriyan; G A Aderounmu

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present an information retrieval system based on the concept of fuzzy logic to relate vague and uncertain objects with un-sharp boundaries. The simple but comprehensive user interface of the system permits the entering of uncertain specifications in query forms. The system was modelled and simulated in a Matlab environment; its implementation was carried out using Borland C++ Builder. The result of the performance measure of the system using precision and recall rates is enc...

  15. The Use of a Context-Based Information Retrieval Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Carlson, 2004). However, in order to reduce plagiarism and manipulation, the specific details of these algorithms are closely protected and changed...age, academic background and gender can affect performance using information retrieval systems (Borgman, 1989). These factors can result in...and academic qualifications, a large proportion of the sample were recruited from a third year level or higher. 2.2 Materials 2.2.1 Demographic

  16. Experimental evaluation of ontology-based HIV/AIDS frequently asked question retrieval system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayalew, Yirsaw; Moeng, Barbara; Mosweunyane, Gontlafetse

    2018-05-01

    This study presents the results of experimental evaluations of an ontology-based frequently asked question retrieval system in the domain of HIV and AIDS. The main purpose of the system is to provide answers to questions on HIV/AIDS using ontology. To evaluate the effectiveness of the frequently asked question retrieval system, we conducted two experiments. The first experiment focused on the evaluation of the quality of the ontology we developed using the OQuaRE evaluation framework which is based on software quality metrics and metrics designed for ontology quality evaluation. The second experiment focused on evaluating the effectiveness of the ontology in retrieving relevant answers. For this we used an open-source information retrieval platform, Terrier, with retrieval models BM25 and PL2. For the measurement of performance, we used the measures mean average precision, mean reciprocal rank, and precision at 5. The results suggest that frequently asked question retrieval with ontology is more effective than frequently asked question retrieval without ontology in the domain of HIV/AIDS.

  17. The Retrieval Knowledge Center Evaluation Of Low Tank Level Mixing Technologies For DOE High Level Waste Tank Retrieval 10516

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellinger, A.

    2009-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Complex has over two-hundred underground storage tanks containing over 80-million gallons of legacy waste from the production of nuclear weapons. The majority of the waste is located at four major sites across the nation and is planned for treatment over a period of almost forty years. The DOE Office of Technology Innovation and Development within the Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) sponsors technology research and development programs to support processing advancements and technology maturation designed to improve the costs and schedule for disposal of the waste and closure of the tanks. Within the waste processing focus area are numerous technical initiatives which included the development of a suite of waste removal technologies to address the need for proven equipment and techniques to remove high level radioactive wastes from the waste tanks that are now over fifty years old. In an effort to enhance the efficiency of waste retrieval operations, the DOE-EM Office of Technology Innovation and Development funded an effort to improve communications and information sharing between the DOE's major waste tank locations as it relates to retrieval. The task, dubbed the Retrieval Knowledge Center (RKC) was co-lead by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) with core team members representing the Oak Ridge and Idaho sites, as well as, site contractors responsible for waste tank operations. One of the greatest challenges to the processing and closure of many of the tanks is complete removal of all tank contents. Sizeable challenges exist for retrieving waste from High Level Waste (HLW) tanks; with complications that are not normally found with tank retrieval in commercial applications. Technologies currently in use for waste retrieval are generally adequate for bulk removal; however, removal of tank heels, the materials settled in the bottom of the tank, using the same

  18. A Simple Method to Determine if a Music Information Retrieval System is a "Horse"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.

    2014-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a simple method to determine if a music information retrieval (MIR) system is using factors irrelevant to the task for which it is designed. This is of critical importance to certain use cases, but cannot be accomplished using standard approaches to evaluation in MIR...

  19. Information visualization to user-friendly interface construction for information retrieval systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Monique de Lira Vieira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The information presented through visualization help the Information Retrieval System (IRS to reach its main goal: to retrieve relevant information that meets the informational needs of its users. The objective of this article is to describe and analyze techniques proposed by the Information Visualization area and interface models discussed in Information Science Literature, which applied to graphical interface construction would facilitate the appropriation of information by the users of IRS and would help them to search, browse and retrieve information. The methodology consists of a literature review focusing on the potential contribution of the visual representation of information in the development of user-friendly interfaces to IRS, as well as identification and analyses of visualizations used as interfaces by IRS. The use of visualizations is of great importance in the communication between SRI and users, because the information presented through visual representation are better understood by user and allow the discovery of new knowledge.

  20. [SIBIL: an information tool for the information retrieval on bioethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dracos, Adriana

    2004-01-01

    The article describes the main features of the website SIBIL (Sistema Informativo per la Bioetica In Linea) implemented within the framework of a research project of the ISS for collecting, indexing and disseminating Italian literature on bioethics since 1995 through an integrated electronic system. The site, addressed to a wide range of people interested at different degrees and levels in bioethics, offers a comprehensive overview of the activities, such as courses and meetings, on the major ethical issues at stake in Italy, as well as a survey of the most important activities both at national and international level. The main feature of SIBIL is a database of a large collection of documents retrieved through sources or exploitation of the most important international electronic databases. A thesaurus of 1,600 terms, available in Italian and English, was created in order to organize documents with standardized criteria currently adopted in the Italian scientific environment. Future trends of the website are also discussed for sharing experiences with other countries and laying the basis for a European portal on bioethics.

  1. Information Retrieval and Text Mining Technologies for Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krallinger, Martin; Rabal, Obdulia; Lourenço, Anália; Oyarzabal, Julen; Valencia, Alfonso

    2017-06-28

    Efficient access to chemical information contained in scientific literature, patents, technical reports, or the web is a pressing need shared by researchers and patent attorneys from different chemical disciplines. Retrieval of important chemical information in most cases starts with finding relevant documents for a particular chemical compound or family. Targeted retrieval of chemical documents is closely connected to the automatic recognition of chemical entities in the text, which commonly involves the extraction of the entire list of chemicals mentioned in a document, including any associated information. In this Review, we provide a comprehensive and in-depth description of fundamental concepts, technical implementations, and current technologies for meeting these information demands. A strong focus is placed on community challenges addressing systems performance, more particularly CHEMDNER and CHEMDNER patents tasks of BioCreative IV and V, respectively. Considering the growing interest in the construction of automatically annotated chemical knowledge bases that integrate chemical information and biological data, cheminformatics approaches for mapping the extracted chemical names into chemical structures and their subsequent annotation together with text mining applications for linking chemistry with biological information are also presented. Finally, future trends and current challenges are highlighted as a roadmap proposal for research in this emerging field.

  2. Lower-Cost ∈-Private Information Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toledo Raphael R.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Private Information Retrieval (PIR, despite being well studied, is computationally costly and arduous to scale. We explore lower-cost relaxations of information-theoretic PIR, based on dummy queries, sparse vectors, and compositions with an anonymity system. We prove the security of each scheme using a flexible differentially private definition for private queries that can capture notions of imperfect privacy. We show that basic schemes are weak, but some of them can be made arbitrarily safe by composing them with large anonymity systems.

  3. On-Demand Associative Cross-Language Information Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraldo, André Pinto; Moreira, Viviane P.; Gonçalves, Marcos A.

    This paper proposes the use of algorithms for mining association rules as an approach for Cross-Language Information Retrieval. These algorithms have been widely used to analyse market basket data. The idea is to map the problem of finding associations between sales items to the problem of finding term translations over a parallel corpus. The proposal was validated by means of experiments using queries in two distinct languages: Portuguese and Finnish to retrieve documents in English. The results show that the performance of our proposed approach is comparable to the performance of the monolingual baseline and to query translation via machine translation, even though these systems employ more complex Natural Language Processing techniques. The combination between machine translation and our approach yielded the best results, even outperforming the monolingual baseline.

  4. Affinity between information retrieval system and search topic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebinuma, Yukio

    1979-01-01

    Ten search profiles are tested on the INIS system at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The results are plotted on recall-precision chart ranging from 100% recall to 100% precision. The curves are not purely systems-dependent nor search-dependent, and are determined substantially by the ''affinity'' between the system and the search topic. The curves are named ''Affinity curves of search topics with information retrieval systems'', and hence retrieval affinity factors are derived. They are obtained not only for individual search topics but also for averages in the system. By such a quantitative examination, the difference of affinity among search topics in a given system, that of the same search topic among various systems, and that of systems to the same group of search topics can be compared reasonably. (author)

  5. An integrated information retrieval and document management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, L. Stephen; Alvarez, J. Fernando; Chen, James; Chen, William; Cheung, Lai-Mei; Clancy, Susan; Wong, Alexis

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the requirements and prototype development for an intelligent document management and information retrieval system that will be capable of handling millions of pages of text or other data. Technologies for scanning, Optical Character Recognition (OCR), magneto-optical storage, and multiplatform retrieval using a Standard Query Language (SQL) will be discussed. The semantic ambiguity inherent in the English language is somewhat compensated-for through the use of coefficients or weighting factors for partial synonyms. Such coefficients are used both for defining structured query trees for routine queries and for establishing long-term interest profiles that can be used on a regular basis to alert individual users to the presence of relevant documents that may have just arrived from an external source, such as a news wire service. Although this attempt at evidential reasoning is limited in comparison with the latest developments in AI Expert Systems technology, it has the advantage of being commercially available.

  6. Controlled Retrieval of Specific Context Information in Children and Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorsbach, Thomas C; Friehe, Mary J; Teten, Amy Fair; Reimer, Jason F; Armendarez, Joseph J

    2015-01-01

    This study adapted a procedure used by Luo and Craik (2009) to examine whether developmental differences exist in the ability to use controlled retrieval processes to access the contextual details of memory representations. Participants from 3 age groups (mean ages 9, 12, and 25 years) were presented with words in 3 study contexts: with a black-and-white picture, with a color picture, or alone without a picture. Six recognition tests were then presented that varied in the demands (high or low) placed on the retrieval of specific contextual information. Each test consisted of a mixture of words that were old targets from 1 study context, distractors (i.e., previously studied words from a different context), and completely new words. A high-specificity and a low-specificity test list was paired with each test question, with high and low specificity being determined by the nature of the distractors used in a test list. High-specificity tests contained words that were studied in similar contexts: old targets (e.g., words studied with black-and-white pictures) and distractors (e.g., words studied with color pictures). In contrast, low-specificity tests contained words that were studied in dissimilar contexts: old targets (e.g., words studied with black-and-white pictures) and distractors (e.g., words previously studied without a picture). Relative to low-specificity tests, the retrieval conditions of high-specificity tests were assumed to place greater demands on the controlled access of specific contextual information. Analysis of recollection scores revealed that age differences were present on high-but not low-specificity tests, with the performance of 9-year-olds disproportionately affected by the retrieval demands of high-specificity tests.

  7. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) impairs encoding but not retrieval of verbal information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Mohini; Radhakrishnan, Rajiv; Addy, Peter H; Schnakenberg-Martin, Ashley M; Williams, Ashley H; Carbuto, Michelle; Elander, Jacqueline; Pittman, Brian; Andrew Sewell, R; Skosnik, Patrick D; D'Souza, Deepak Cyril

    2017-10-03

    Cannabis and agonists of the brain cannabinoid receptor (CB 1 R) produce acute memory impairments in humans. However, the extent to which cannabinoids impair the component processes of encoding and retrieval has not been established in humans. The objective of this analysis was to determine whether the administration of Δ 9 -Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the principal psychoactive constituent of cannabis, impairs encoding and/or retrieval of verbal information. Healthy subjects were recruited from the community. Subjects were administered the Rey-Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) either before administration of THC (experiment #1) (n=38) or while under the influence of THC (experiment #2) (n=57). Immediate and delayed recall on the RAVLT was compared. Subjects received intravenous THC, in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized manner at doses known to produce behavioral and subjective effects consistent with cannabis intoxication. Total immediate recall, short delayed recall, and long delayed recall were reduced in a statistically significant manner only when the RAVLT was administered to subjects while they were under the influence of THC (experiment #2) and not when the RAVLT was administered prior. THC acutely interferes with encoding of verbal memory without interfering with retrieval. These data suggest that learning information prior to the use of cannabis or cannabinoids is not likely to disrupt recall of that information. Future studies will be necessary to determine whether THC impairs encoding of non-verbal information, to what extent THC impairs memory consolidation, and the role of other cannabinoids in the memory-impairing effects of cannabis. Cannabinoids, Neural Synchrony, and Information Processing (THC-Gamma) http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/study/NCT00708994 NCT00708994 Pharmacogenetics of Cannabinoid Response http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00678730 NCT00678730. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Diffused holographic information storage and retrieval using photorefractive optical materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillen, Deanna Kay

    Holography offers a tremendous opportunity for dense information storage, theoretically one bit per cubic wavelength of material volume, with rapid retrieval, of up to thousands of pages of information simultaneously. However, many factors prevent the theoretical storage limit from being reached, including dynamic range problems and imperfections in recording materials. This research explores new ways of moving closer to practical holographic information storage and retrieval by altering the recording materials, in this case, photorefractive crystals, and by increasing the current storage capacity while improving the information retrieved. As an experimental example of the techniques developed, the information retrieved is the correlation peak from an optical recognition architecture, but the materials and methods developed are applicable to many other holographic information storage systems. Optical correlators can potentially solve any signal or image recognition problem. Military surveillance, fingerprint identification for law enforcement or employee identification, and video games are but a few examples of applications. A major obstacle keeping optical correlators from being universally accepted is the lack of a high quality, thick (high capacity) holographic recording material that operates with red or infrared wavelengths which are available from inexpensive diode lasers. This research addresses the problems from two positions: find a better material for use with diode lasers, and reduce the requirements placed on the material while maintaining an efficient and effective system. This research found that the solutions are new dopants introduced into photorefractive lithium niobate to improve wavelength sensitivities and the use of a novel inexpensive diffuser that reduces the dynamic range and optical element quality requirements (which reduces the cost) while improving performance. A uniquely doped set of 12 lithium niobate crystals was specified and

  9. Evaluation and use of TOVS retrievals at NMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, N. A.

    1980-01-01

    In a current analysis procedure at the National Meteorological Center (NMC), a first guess analysis (from the latest 6 or 12 hour forecast) is updated by new data. In the newest analysis procedures, which are based on optimum interpolation, the observational correction depends on the size of preassigned, expected observational errors versus the size of expected errors in the first guess forecast. In the case of Northern Hemisphere ocean temperatures, the latter are around 2 degrees. The infrared satellite retrievals have a similar size "error". If (as assumed) their errors are uncorrelated with the first guess error, they will improve the analysis. The larger errors of the microwave retrievals, however, mean that they will be given little weight in the analysis. An evaluation of the TIROS-N retrievals is currently underway at NMC to determine the impact of satellite derived data within operational analysis schemes, to isolate possible problems within current retrieval methods, and to offer possible solutions for these problems.

  10. Secure quantum private information retrieval using phase-encoded queries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olejnik, Lukasz [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland and Poznan Supercomputing and Networking Center, Noskowskiego 12/14, PL-61-704 Poznan (Poland)

    2011-08-15

    We propose a quantum solution to the classical private information retrieval (PIR) problem, which allows one to query a database in a private manner. The protocol offers privacy thresholds and allows the user to obtain information from a database in a way that offers the potential adversary, in this model the database owner, no possibility of deterministically establishing the query contents. This protocol may also be viewed as a solution to the symmetrically private information retrieval problem in that it can offer database security (inability for a querying user to steal its contents). Compared to classical solutions, the protocol offers substantial improvement in terms of communication complexity. In comparison with the recent quantum private queries [Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 230502 (2008)] protocol, it is more efficient in terms of communication complexity and the number of rounds, while offering a clear privacy parameter. We discuss the security of the protocol and analyze its strengths and conclude that using this technique makes it challenging to obtain the unconditional (in the information-theoretic sense) privacy degree; nevertheless, in addition to being simple, the protocol still offers a privacy level. The oracle used in the protocol is inspired both by the classical computational PIR solutions as well as the Deutsch-Jozsa oracle.

  11. Secure quantum private information retrieval using phase-encoded queries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olejnik, Lukasz

    2011-01-01

    We propose a quantum solution to the classical private information retrieval (PIR) problem, which allows one to query a database in a private manner. The protocol offers privacy thresholds and allows the user to obtain information from a database in a way that offers the potential adversary, in this model the database owner, no possibility of deterministically establishing the query contents. This protocol may also be viewed as a solution to the symmetrically private information retrieval problem in that it can offer database security (inability for a querying user to steal its contents). Compared to classical solutions, the protocol offers substantial improvement in terms of communication complexity. In comparison with the recent quantum private queries [Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 230502 (2008)] protocol, it is more efficient in terms of communication complexity and the number of rounds, while offering a clear privacy parameter. We discuss the security of the protocol and analyze its strengths and conclude that using this technique makes it challenging to obtain the unconditional (in the information-theoretic sense) privacy degree; nevertheless, in addition to being simple, the protocol still offers a privacy level. The oracle used in the protocol is inspired both by the classical computational PIR solutions as well as the Deutsch-Jozsa oracle.

  12. Web multimedia information retrieval using improved Bayesian algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yi-Jun; Chen, Chun; Yu, Yi-Min; Lin, Huai-Zhong

    2003-01-01

    The main thrust of this paper is application of a novel data mining approach on the log of user's feedback to improve web multimedia information retrieval performance. A user space model was constructed based on data mining, and then integrated into the original information space model to improve the accuracy of the new information space model. It can remove clutter and irrelevant text information and help to eliminate mismatch between the page author's expression and the user's understanding and expectation. User space model was also utilized to discover the relationship between high-level and low-level features for assigning weight. The authors proposed improved Bayesian algorithm for data mining. Experiment proved that the authors' proposed algorithm was efficient.

  13. Information Content of Aerosol Retrievals in the Sunglint Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottaviani, M.; Knobelspiesse, K.; Cairns, B.; Mishchenko, M.

    2013-01-01

    We exploit quantitative metrics to investigate the information content in retrievals of atmospheric aerosol parameters (with a focus on single-scattering albedo), contained in multi-angle and multi-spectral measurements with sufficient dynamical range in the sunglint region. The simulations are performed for two classes of maritime aerosols with optical and microphysical properties compiled from measurements of the Aerosol Robotic Network. The information content is assessed using the inverse formalism and is compared to that deriving from observations not affected by sunglint. We find that there indeed is additional information in measurements containing sunglint, not just for single-scattering albedo, but also for aerosol optical thickness and the complex refractive index of the fine aerosol size mode, although the amount of additional information varies with aerosol type.

  14. 45 CFR 205.35 - Mechanized claims processing and information retrieval systems; definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... claims processing and information retrieval systems; definitions. Section 205.35 through 205.38 contain...: (a) A mechanized claims processing and information retrieval system, hereafter referred to as an automated application processing and information retrieval system (APIRS), or the system, means a system of...

  15. 15 CFR 950.9 - Computerized Environmental Data and Information Retrieval Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Information Retrieval Service. 950.9 Section 950.9 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce... Computerized Environmental Data and Information Retrieval Service. The Environmental Data Index (ENDEX... computerized, information retrieval service provides a parallel subject-author-abstract referral service. A...

  16. 42 CFR 433.116 - FFP for operation of mechanized claims processing and information retrieval systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and information retrieval systems. 433.116 Section 433.116 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... FISCAL ADMINISTRATION Mechanized Claims Processing and Information Retrieval Systems § 433.116 FFP for operation of mechanized claims processing and information retrieval systems. (a) Subject to 42 CFR 433.113(c...

  17. Survey the role of emotions in information retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Behzadi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to identify the users' emotion in various stages of information retrieval based on the information retrieval model in web.From the methodological perspective, the present study is experimental, and the type of study is practical. The society comprised all MA students majoring in different humanistic science branches and studying at Imam Reza international university. The sample society of this research consisted of 30 participants. The sample size was determined through stratified random sampling via G*power software. Data collection was carried out by using: demographic and prior experience of using internet questionnaire, post search questionnaire and recorded videos of users' faces. The findings of the study demonstrated that: 1 during the initial stages of searching, the frequency of emotion of apprehension, and in general during the link tracking stage, the negative emotions with the overall 49/3 percent are more frequent than the other emotions in browsing and differentiation stages, the emotion of happy was more frequent than the other emotions. 2 These variances resulted in significant relations among different emotions of the users throughout the four stages of information retrieval. 3 In simple search, the respondents displayed the emotion of happy most frequently and the emotion of aversion least frequently. On the other hand, in complicated search, apprehension and aversion were the most and the least frequently-cited emotions, respectively. Overall, the negative emotions were reported more frequently in complicated search in comparison with the simple search. This demonstrated that any change in the difficulty level of search undertaking would cause users to exhibit different types of emotions.

  18. Evaluating Mobile Proactive Context-Aware Retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menegon, Davide; Mizzaro, Stefano; Nazzi, Elena

    We present the evaluation of a novel application for Web content perusal by means of context-aware mobile devices that proactively query an external search engine. To this aim, we develop a TREC-like benchmark and we use it to evaluate different strategies for automatic query construction...

  19. Rapid automatic keyword extraction for information retrieval and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Stuart J [Richland, WA; Cowley,; E, Wendy [Richland, WA; Crow, Vernon L [Richland, WA; Cramer, Nicholas O [Richland, WA

    2012-03-06

    Methods and systems for rapid automatic keyword extraction for information retrieval and analysis. Embodiments can include parsing words in an individual document by delimiters, stop words, or both in order to identify candidate keywords. Word scores for each word within the candidate keywords are then calculated based on a function of co-occurrence degree, co-occurrence frequency, or both. Based on a function of the word scores for words within the candidate keyword, a keyword score is calculated for each of the candidate keywords. A portion of the candidate keywords are then extracted as keywords based, at least in part, on the candidate keywords having the highest keyword scores.

  20. Interdisciplinarity and Computer Music Modeling and Information Retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grund, Cynthia M.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract This paper takes a look at computer music modeling and information retrieval (CMMIR) from the point of view of the humanities with emphasis upon areas relevant to the philosophy of music. The desire for more interdisciplinary research involving CMMIR and the humanities is expressed...... for interdisciplinary work involving CMMIR. The paper concludes with some remarks proffered during a panel discussion which took place near the end of the Pisa conference on September 28, 2006 and in correspondence inspired by this discussion, together with some brief commentary on the same. An earlier, somewhat short...

  1. User-Oriented and Cognitive Models of Information Retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Mette; Järvelin, Kalervo; Ingwersen, Peter

    2018-01-01

    The domain of user-oriented and cognitive information retrieval (IR) is first discussed, followed by a discussion on the dimensions and types of models one may build for the domain. The focus of the present entry is on the models of user-oriented and cognitive IR, not on their empirical...... applications. Several models with different emphases on user-oriented and cognitive IR are presented—ranging from overall approaches and relevance models to procedural models, cognitive models, and task-based models. The present entry does not discuss empirical findings based on the models....

  2. Retrieval and sleep both counteract the forgetting of spatial information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, James W; Paller, Ken A

    2018-06-01

    Repeatedly studying information is a good way to strengthen memory storage. Nevertheless, testing recall often produces superior long-term retention. Demonstrations of this testing effect, typically with verbal stimuli, have shown that repeated retrieval through testing reduces forgetting. Sleep also benefits memory storage, perhaps through repeated retrieval as well. That is, memories may generally be subject to forgetting that can be counteracted when memories become reactivated, and there are several types of reactivation: (i) via intentional restudying, (ii) via testing, (iii) without provocation during wake, or (iv) during sleep. We thus measured forgetting for spatial material subjected to repeated study or repeated testing followed by retention intervals with sleep versus wake. Four groups of subjects learned a set of visual object-location associations and either restudied the associations or recalled locations given the objects as cues. We found the advantage for restudied over retested information was greater in the PM than AM group. Additional groups tested at 5-min and 1-wk retention intervals confirmed previous findings of greater relative benefits for restudying in the short-term and for retesting in the long-term. Results overall support the conclusion that repeated reactivation through testing or sleeping stabilizes information against forgetting. © 2018 Antony and Paller; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  3. An Information Retrieval and Recommendation System for Astronomical Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukund, Nikhil; Thakur, Saurabh; Abraham, Sheelu; Aniyan, A. K.; Mitra, Sanjit; Sajeeth Philip, Ninan; Vaghmare, Kaustubh; Acharjya, D. P.

    2018-03-01

    We present a machine-learning-based information retrieval system for astronomical observatories that tries to address user-defined queries related to an instrument. In the modern instrumentation scenario where heterogeneous systems and talents are simultaneously at work, the ability to supply people with the right information helps speed up the tasks for detector operation, maintenance, and upgradation. The proposed method analyzes existing documented efforts at the site to intelligently group related information to a query and to present it online to the user. The user in response can probe the suggested content and explore previously developed solutions or probable ways to address the present situation optimally. We demonstrate natural language-processing-backed knowledge rediscovery by making use of the open source logbook data from the Laser Interferometric Gravitational Observatory (LIGO). We implement and test a web application that incorporates the above idea for LIGO Livingston, LIGO Hanford, and Virgo observatories.

  4. Optimal Rate Private Information Retrieval from Homomorphic Encryption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiayias Aggelos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of minimizing the communication in single-database private information retrieval protocols in the case where the length of the data to be transmitted is large. We present first rate-optimal protocols for 1-out-of-n computationallyprivate information retrieval (CPIR, oblivious transfer (OT, and strong conditional oblivious transfer (SCOT. These protocols are based on a new optimalrate leveled homomorphic encryption scheme for large-output polynomial-size branching programs, that might be of independent interest. The analysis of the new scheme is intricate: the optimal rate is achieved if a certain parameter s is set equal to the only positive root of a degree-(m + 1 polynomial, where m is the length of the branching program. We show, by using Galois theory, that even when m = 4, this polynomial cannot be solved in radicals. We employ the Newton-Puiseux algorithm to find a Puiseux series for s, and based on this, propose a Θ (logm-time algorithm to find an integer approximation to s.

  5. Comparing the Scale of Web Subject Directories Precision in Technical-Engineering Information Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdokht Wazirpour Keshmiri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research was to compare the scale of web subject directories precision in information retrieval of technical-engineering science. Information gathering was documentary and webometric. Keywords of technical-engineering science were chosen at twenty different subjects from IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and engineering magazines that situated in sciencedirect site. These keywords are used at five subject directories Yahoo, Google, Infomine, Intute, Dmoz, that were web directories high-utilization. Usually first results in searching tools are connected to searching keywords. Because, first ten results was evaluated in every search. These assessments to consist of scale of precision, scale of error, scale retrieval items in technical-engineering categories to retrieval items entirely. The used criteria for determining the scale of precision that was according to high-utilization standards in different documents, to consist of presence of the keywords in title, appearance of keywords at the part of web retrieved pages, keywords adjacency, URL of page, page description and subject categories. Information analysis was according to Kruskal-Wallis Test and L.S.D fisher. Results revealed that there was meaningful difference about precision of web subject directories in information retrieval of technical-engineering science, Therefore this theory was confirmed.web subject directories ranked from point of precision as follows. Google, Yahoo, Intute, Dmoz, and Infomine. The scale of observed error at the first results was another criterion that was used for comparing web subject directories. In this research, Yahoo had minimum scale of error and Infomine had most of error. This research also compared the scale of retrieval items in all of categories web subject directories entirely to retrieval items in technical-engineering categories, results revealed that there was meaningful difference between them. And

  6. JANE, A new information retrieval system for the Radiation Shielding Information Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trubey, D.K.

    1991-05-01

    A new information storage and retrieval system has been developed for the Radiation Shielding Information Center (RSIC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to replace mainframe systems that have become obsolete. The database contains citations and abstracts of literature which were selected by RSIC analysts and indexed with terms from a controlled vocabulary. The database, begun in 1963, has been maintained continuously since that time. The new system, called JANE, incorporates automatic indexing techniques and on-line retrieval using the RSIC Data General Eclipse MV/4000 minicomputer, Automatic indexing and retrieval techniques based on fuzzy-set theory allow the presentation of results in order of Retrieval Status Value. The fuzzy-set membership function depends on term frequency in the titles and abstracts and on Term Discrimination Values which indicate the resolving power of the individual terms. These values are determined by the Cover Coefficient method. The use of a commercial database base to store and retrieve the indexing information permits rapid retrieval of the stored documents. Comparisons of the new and presently-used systems for actual searches of the literature indicate that it is practical to replace the mainframe systems with a minicomputer system similar to the present version of JANE. 18 refs., 10 figs

  7. Visualizing thesauri in the field of information retrieval; Visualisierung von Thesauri im Bereich des Information Retrieval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riemer, J

    2007-10-09

    This thesis was written in the course of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) project aimed at visualizing the thesaurus used in the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) online database. The first part of the paper comprises a brief historical review of the development of thesauri, providing an overview of tools for categorizing knowledge and covering a spectrum from wordnets to folksonomies. The second part discusses existing strategies for displaying thesauri and explores basic considerations concerning the technical realization of visualizing a thesaurus as a Web application. A problem experienced by users when navigating through hierarchical thesauri is the quasi-standard to display word blocks in tabular form. Starting from a top term all word block terms (e.g. narrower, broader, related, forbidden terms, etc.) are listed vertically. Human perception however is much better suited to grasp relationships by spatial clustering of items within a context. The shortcoming of the tabular approach is further amplified by the widespread practise of putting the top term in alphabetical context to other top terms in order to assist navigation. However, using an alphabetical index for this purpose contradicts the paradigm of hierarchical thesauri in most cases. It is only in the domain of linguistic thesauri where the visualisation deviates from the classical tabular data view in favour of more intuitive visualisation paradigms. Yet in those cases applications always fall back on additional software that needs to be installed into the Web browser. The approach chosen in the present project tries to solve both problem areas and provides an intuitively usable visualisation technique for hierarchical thesauri which runs on any current web browser natively i.e. without any additional software needed. A considerable portion of the publication is devoted to the concrete implementation of the INIS project. Special attention is given to the methodologies and

  8. Using Fuzzy SOM Strategy for Satellite Image Retrieval and Information Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yo-Ping Huang

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an efficient satellite image retrieval and knowledge discovery model. The strategy comprises two major parts. First, a computational algorithm is used for off-line satellite image feature extraction, image data representation and image retrieval. Low level features are automatically extracted from the segmented regions of satellite images. A self-organization feature map is used to construct a two-layer satellite image concept hierarchy. The events are stored in one layer and the corresponding feature vectors are categorized in the other layer. Second, a user friendly interface is provided that retrieves images of interest and mines useful information based on the events in the concept hierarchy. The proposed system is evaluated with prominent features such as typhoons or high-pressure masses.

  9. Barriers to retrieving patient information from electronic health record data: failure analysis from the TREC Medical Records Track.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edinger, Tracy; Cohen, Aaron M; Bedrick, Steven; Ambert, Kyle; Hersh, William

    2012-01-01

    Secondary use of electronic health record (EHR) data relies on the ability to retrieve accurate and complete information about desired patient populations. The Text Retrieval Conference (TREC) 2011 Medical Records Track was a challenge evaluation allowing comparison of systems and algorithms to retrieve patients eligible for clinical studies from a corpus of de-identified medical records, grouped by patient visit. Participants retrieved cohorts of patients relevant to 35 different clinical topics, and visits were judged for relevance to each topic. This study identified the most common barriers to identifying specific clinic populations in the test collection. Using the runs from track participants and judged visits, we analyzed the five non-relevant visits most often retrieved and the five relevant visits most often overlooked. Categories were developed iteratively to group the reasons for incorrect retrieval for each of the 35 topics. Reasons fell into nine categories for non-relevant visits and five categories for relevant visits. Non-relevant visits were most often retrieved because they contained a non-relevant reference to the topic terms. Relevant visits were most often infrequently retrieved because they used a synonym for a topic term. This failure analysis provides insight into areas for future improvement in EHR-based retrieval with techniques such as more widespread and complete use of standardized terminology in retrieval and data entry systems.

  10. An introduction to the Marshall information retrieval and display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    An on-line terminal oriented data storage and retrieval system is presented which allows a user to extract and process information from stored data bases. The use of on-line terminals for extracting and displaying data from the data bases provides a fast and responsive method for obtaining needed information. The system consists of general purpose computer programs that provide the overall capabilities of the total system. The system can process any number of data files via a Dictionary (one for each file) which describes the data format to the system. New files may be added to the system at any time, and reprogramming is not required. Illustrations of the system are shown, and sample inquiries and responses are given.

  11. Information retrieval pathways for health information exchange in multiple care settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kierkegaard, Patrick; Kaushal, Rainu; Vest, Joshua R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine which health information exchange (HIE) technologies and information retrieval pathways healthcare professionals relied on to meet their information needs in the context of laboratory test results, radiological images and reports, and medication histories. Study Design...... The study reveals that healthcare professionals used a complex combination of information retrieval pathways for HIE to obtain clinical information from external organizations. The choice for each approach was setting- and information-specific, but was also highly dynamic across users and their information...... needs. Conclusions Our findings about the complex nature of information sharing in healthcare provide insights for informatics professionals about the usage of information; indicate the need for managerial support within each organization; and suggest approaches to improve systems for organizations...

  12. The user in interactive information retrieval evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingwersen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    ) Request types, test persons, task-based simulations of search situations and relevance or performance measures in IIR; 2) Ultra-Light Interactive IR experiments; 3) Interactive-Light IR studies; and 4) Naturalistic field investigations of IIR. The chapter concludes with a summary section, a reference list...

  13. Cooperative Telerobotic Retrieval system Phase 1 technology evaluation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyde, R.A.; Croft, K.M.

    1995-03-01

    This document describes the results from the Cooperative Telerobotic Retrieval demonstration and testing conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory during December 1994 and January 1995. The purpose of the demonstration was to ascertain the feasibility of the system for deploying tools both independently and cooperatively for supporting remote characterization and removal of buried waste in a safe manner and in compliance with all regulatory requirements. The procedures and goals of the demonstration were previously defined in the Cooperative Telerobotic Retrieval System Test Plan for Fiscal Year 1994, which served as a guideline for evaluating the system.

  14. A monitored retrievable storage facility: Technical background information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    The US government is seeking a site for a monitored retrievable storage facility (MRS). Employing proven technologies used in this country and abroad, the MRS will be an integral part of the federal system for safe and permanent disposal of the nation's high-level radioactive wastes. The MRS will accept shipments of spent fuel from commercial nuclear power plants, temporarily store the spent fuel above ground, and stage shipments of it to a geologic repository for permanent disposal. The law authorizing the MRS provides an opportunity for a state or an Indian tribe to volunteer to host the MRS. The law establishes the Office of the Nuclear Waste Negotiator, who is to seek a state or an Indian tribe willing to host an MRS at a technically-qualified site on reasonable terms, and is to negotiate a proposed agreement specifying the terms and conditions under which the MRS would be developed and operated at that site. This agreement can ensure that the MRS is acceptable to -- and benefits -- the host community. The proposed agreement must be submitted to Congress and enacted into law to become effective. This technical background information presents an overview of various aspects of a monitored retrievable storage facility, including the process by which it will be developed

  15. Source-constrained retrieval influences the encoding of new information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danckert, Stacey L; MacLeod, Colin M; Fernandes, Myra A

    2011-11-01

    Jacoby, Shimizu, Daniels, and Rhodes (Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 12, 852-857, 2005) showed that new words presented as foils among a list of old words that had been deeply encoded were themselves subsequently better recognized than new words presented as foils among a list of old words that had been shallowly encoded. In Experiment 1, by substituting a deep-versus-shallow imagery manipulation for the levels-of-processing manipulation, we demonstrated that the effect is robust and that it generalizes, also occurring with a different type of encoding. In Experiment 2, we provided more direct evidence for context-related encoding during tests of deeply encoded words, showing enhanced priming for foils presented among deeply encoded targets when participants made the same deep-encoding judgments on those items as had been made on the targets during study. In Experiment 3, we established that the findings from Experiment 2 are restricted to this specific deep judgment task and are not a general consequence of these foils being associated with deeply encoded items. These findings provide support for the source-constrained retrieval hypothesis of Jacoby, Shimizu, Daniels, and Rhodes: New information can be influenced by how surrounding items are encoded and retrieved, as long as the surrounding items recruit a coherent mode of processing.

  16. Development of an information retrieval tool for biomedical patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Tiago; Rodrigues, Rúben; Costa, Hugo; Rocha, Miguel

    2018-06-01

    The volume of biomedical literature has been increasing in the last years. Patent documents have also followed this trend, being important sources of biomedical knowledge, technical details and curated data, which are put together along the granting process. The field of Biomedical text mining (BioTM) has been creating solutions for the problems posed by the unstructured nature of natural language, which makes the search of information a challenging task. Several BioTM techniques can be applied to patents. From those, Information Retrieval (IR) includes processes where relevant data are obtained from collections of documents. In this work, the main goal was to build a patent pipeline addressing IR tasks over patent repositories to make these documents amenable to BioTM tasks. The pipeline was developed within @Note2, an open-source computational framework for BioTM, adding a number of modules to the core libraries, including patent metadata and full text retrieval, PDF to text conversion and optical character recognition. Also, user interfaces were developed for the main operations materialized in a new @Note2 plug-in. The integration of these tools in @Note2 opens opportunities to run BioTM tools over patent texts, including tasks from Information Extraction, such as Named Entity Recognition or Relation Extraction. We demonstrated the pipeline's main functions with a case study, using an available benchmark dataset from BioCreative challenges. Also, we show the use of the plug-in with a user query related to the production of vanillin. This work makes available all the relevant content from patents to the scientific community, decreasing drastically the time required for this task, and provides graphical interfaces to ease the use of these tools. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Information retrieval for the Cochrane systematic reviews: the case of breast cancer surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetana Cognetti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Systematic reviews are fundamental sources of knowledge on the state-of-the-art interventions for various clinical problems. One of the essential components in carrying out a systematic review is that of developing a comprehensive literature search. Materials and methods. Three Cochrane systematic reviews published in 2012 were retrieved using the MeSH descriptor breast neoplasms/surgery, and analyzed with respect to the information sources used and the search strategies adopted. In March 2014, an update of one of the reviews retrieved was also considered in the study. Results. The number of databases queried for each review ranged between three and seven. All the reviews reported the search strategies adopted, however some only partially. All the reviews explicitly claimed that the searches applied no language restriction although sources such as the free database Lilacs (in Spanish and Portuguese was not consulted. Conclusion. To improve the quality it is necessary to apply standards in carrying out systematic reviews (as laid down in the MECIR project. To meet these standards concerning literature searching, professional information retrieval specialist staff should be involved. The peer review committee in charge of evaluating the publication of a systematic review should also include specialists in information retrieval for assessing the quality of the literature search.

  18. Information retrieval for the Cochrane systematic reviews: the case of breast cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cognetti, Gaetana; Grossi, Laura; Lucon, Antonio; Solimini, Renata

    2015-01-01

    Systematic reviews are fundamental sources of knowledge on the state-of-the-art interventions for various clinical problems. One of the essential components in carrying out a systematic review is that of developing a comprehensive literature search. Three Cochrane systematic reviews published in 2012 were retrieved using the MeSH descriptor breast neoplasms/surgery, and analyzed with respect to the information sources used and the search strategies adopted. In March 2014, an update of one of the reviews retrieved was also considered in the study. The number of databases queried for each review ranged between three and seven. All the reviews reported the search strategies adopted, however some only partially. All the reviews explicitly claimed that the searches applied no language restriction although sources such as the free database Lilacs (in Spanish and Portuguese) was not consulted. To improve the quality it is necessary to apply standards in carrying out systematic reviews (as laid down in the MECIR project). To meet these standards concerning literature searching, professional information retrieval specialist staff should be involved. The peer review committee in charge of evaluating the publication of a systematic review should also include specialists in information retrieval for assessing the quality of the literature search.

  19. Issues in the use of neural networks in information retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Iatan, Iuliana F

    2017-01-01

    This book highlights the ability of neural networks (NNs) to be excellent pattern matchers and their importance in information retrieval (IR), which is based on index term matching. The book defines a new NN-based method for learning image similarity and describes how to use fuzzy Gaussian neural networks to predict personality. It introduces the fuzzy Clifford Gaussian network, and two concurrent neural models: (1) concurrent fuzzy nonlinear perceptron modules, and (2) concurrent fuzzy Gaussian neural network modules. Furthermore, it explains the design of a new model of fuzzy nonlinear perceptron based on alpha level sets and describes a recurrent fuzzy neural network model with a learning algorithm based on the improved particle swarm optimization method.

  20. Design and usability study of an iconic user interface to ease information retrieval of medical guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffon, Nicolas; Kerdelhué, Gaétan; Hamek, Saliha; Hassler, Sylvain; Boog, César; Lamy, Jean-Baptiste; Duclos, Catherine; Venot, Alain; Darmoni, Stéfan J

    2014-10-01

    Doc'CISMeF (DC) is a semantic search engine used to find resources in CISMeF-BP, a quality controlled health gateway, which gathers guidelines available on the internet in French. Visualization of Concepts in Medicine (VCM) is an iconic language that may ease information retrieval tasks. This study aimed to describe the creation and evaluation of an interface integrating VCM in DC in order to make this search engine much easier to use. Focus groups were organized to suggest ways to enhance information retrieval tasks using VCM in DC. A VCM interface was created and improved using the ergonomic evaluation approach. 20 physicians were recruited to compare the VCM interface with the non-VCM one. Each evaluator answered two different clinical scenarios in each interface. The ability and time taken to select a relevant resource were recorded and compared. A usability analysis was performed using the System Usability Scale (SUS). The VCM interface contains a filter based on icons, and icons describing each resource according to focus group recommendations. Some ergonomic issues were resolved before evaluation. Use of VCM significantly increased the success of information retrieval tasks (OR=11; 95% CI 1.4 to 507). Nonetheless, it took significantly more time to find a relevant resource with VCM interface (101 vs 65 s; p=0.02). SUS revealed 'good' usability with an average score of 74/100. VCM was successfully implemented in DC as an option. It increased the success rate of information retrieval tasks, despite requiring slightly more time, and was well accepted by end-users. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Cross-language information retrieval using PARAFAC2.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bader, Brett William; Chew, Peter; Abdelali, Ahmed (New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM); Kolda, Tamara Gibson

    2007-05-01

    A standard approach to cross-language information retrieval (CLIR) uses Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) in conjunction with a multilingual parallel aligned corpus. This approach has been shown to be successful in identifying similar documents across languages - or more precisely, retrieving the most similar document in one language to a query in another language. However, the approach has severe drawbacks when applied to a related task, that of clustering documents 'language-independently', so that documents about similar topics end up closest to one another in the semantic space regardless of their language. The problem is that documents are generally more similar to other documents in the same language than they are to documents in a different language, but on the same topic. As a result, when using multilingual LSA, documents will in practice cluster by language, not by topic. We propose a novel application of PARAFAC2 (which is a variant of PARAFAC, a multi-way generalization of the singular value decomposition [SVD]) to overcome this problem. Instead of forming a single multilingual term-by-document matrix which, under LSA, is subjected to SVD, we form an irregular three-way array, each slice of which is a separate term-by-document matrix for a single language in the parallel corpus. The goal is to compute an SVD for each language such that V (the matrix of right singular vectors) is the same across all languages. Effectively, PARAFAC2 imposes the constraint, not present in standard LSA, that the 'concepts' in all documents in the parallel corpus are the same regardless of language. Intuitively, this constraint makes sense, since the whole purpose of using a parallel corpus is that exactly the same concepts are expressed in the translations. We tested this approach by comparing the performance of PARAFAC2 with standard LSA in solving a particular CLIR problem. From our results, we conclude that PARAFAC2 offers a very promising alternative to

  2. The role of grammatical category information in spoken word retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duràn, Carolina Palma; Pillon, Agnesa

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the role of lexical syntactic information such as grammatical gender and category in spoken word retrieval processes by using a blocking paradigm in picture and written word naming experiments. In Experiments 1, 3, and 4, we found that the naming of target words (nouns) from pictures or written words was faster when these target words were named within a list where only words from the same grammatical category had to be produced (homogeneous category list: all nouns) than when they had to be produced within a list comprising also words from another grammatical category (heterogeneous category list: nouns and verbs). On the other hand, we detected no significant facilitation effect when the target words had to be named within a homogeneous gender list (all masculine nouns) compared to a heterogeneous gender list (both masculine and feminine nouns). In Experiment 2, using the same blocking paradigm by manipulating the semantic category of the items, we found that naming latencies were significantly slower in the semantic category homogeneous in comparison with the semantic category heterogeneous condition. Thus semantic category homogeneity caused an interference, not a facilitation effect like grammatical category homogeneity. Finally, in Experiment 5, nouns in the heterogeneous category condition had to be named just after a verb (category-switching position) or a noun (same-category position). We found a facilitation effect of category homogeneity but no significant effect of position, which showed that the effect of category homogeneity found in Experiments 1, 3, and 4 was not due to a cost of switching between grammatical categories in the heterogeneous grammatical category list. These findings supported the hypothesis that grammatical category information impacts word retrieval processes in speech production, even when words are to be produced in isolation. They are discussed within the context of extant theories of lexical production.

  3. A software package for acquisition, accounting and statistical evaluation of on-line retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helmreich, F.; Nevyjel, A.

    1981-03-01

    The described program system is used for the automatization of the administration in an information retrieval department. The data of the users and of every on line session are stored in two files and can be evaluated in different statistics. The data acquisition is done interactively, the statistic programs run as well in dialog and in batch. (author) [de

  4. Creating a Dutch testbed to evaluate the retrieval from textual databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd; van Leeuwen, David A.

    This paper describes the first large-scale evaluation of information retrieval systems using Dutch documents and queries. We describe in detail the characteristics of the Dutch test data, which is part of the official CLEF multilingual texttual database, and give an overview of the experimental

  5. Implementation and evaluation of a medical image management system with content-based retrieval support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carita, Edilson Carlos; Seraphim, Enzo; Honda, Marcelo Ossamu; Azevedo-Marques, Paulo Mazzoncini de

    2008-01-01

    Objective: the present paper describes the implementation and evaluation of a medical images management system with content-based retrieval support (PACS-CBIR) integrating modules focused on images acquisition, storage and distribution, and text retrieval by keyword and images retrieval by similarity. Materials and methods: internet-compatible technologies were utilized for the system implementation with free ware, and C ++ , PHP and Java languages on a Linux platform. There is a DICOM-compatible image management module and two query modules, one of them based on text and the other on similarity of image texture attributes. Results: results demonstrate an appropriate images management and storage, and that the images retrieval time, always < 15 sec, was found to be good by users. The evaluation of retrieval by similarity has demonstrated that the selected images extractor allowed the sorting of images according to anatomical areas. Conclusion: based on these results, one can conclude that the PACS-CBIR implementation is feasible. The system has demonstrated to be DICOM-compatible, and that it can be integrated with the local information system. The similar images retrieval functionality can be enhanced by the introduction of further descriptors. (author)

  6. Entropy of the information retrieved from black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mersini-Houghton, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The retrieval of black hole information was recently presented in two interesting proposals in the ‘Hawking Radiation’ conference: a revised version by Hooft of a proposal he initially suggested 20 years ago and, a new proposal by Hawking. Both proposals address the problem of black hole information loss at the classical level and derive an expression for the scattering matrix. The former uses gravitation back reaction of incoming particles that imprints its information on the outgoing modes. The latter uses supertranslation symmetry of horizons to relate a phase delay of the outgoing wave packet compared to their incoming wave partners. The difficulty in both proposals is that the entropy obtained from them appears to be infinite. By including quantum effects into the Hawking and Hooft’s proposals, I show that a subtlety arising from the inescapable measurement process, the quantum Zeno effect, not only tames divergences but it actually recovers the correct 1/4 of the area Bekenstein–Hawking entropy law of black holes. (note)

  7. Query-Time Optimization Techniques for Structured Queries in Information Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartright, Marc-Allen

    2013-01-01

    The use of information retrieval (IR) systems is evolving towards larger, more complicated queries. Both the IR industrial and research communities have generated significant evidence indicating that in order to continue improving retrieval effectiveness, increases in retrieval model complexity may be unavoidable. From an operational perspective,…

  8. Assimilation of SMOS Retrievals in the Land Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenship, Clay B.; Case, Jonathan L.; Zavodsky, Bradley T.; Crosson, William L.

    2016-01-01

    The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite provides retrievals of soil moisture in the upper 5 cm with a 30-50 km resolution and a mission accuracy requirement of 0.04 cm(sub 3 cm(sub -3). These observations can be used to improve land surface model soil moisture states through data assimilation. In this paper, SMOS soil moisture retrievals are assimilated into the Noah land surface model via an Ensemble Kalman Filter within the NASA Land Information System. Bias correction is implemented using Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF) matching, with points aggregated by either land cover or soil type to reduce sampling error in generating the CDFs. An experiment was run for the warm season of 2011 to test SMOS data assimilation and to compare assimilation methods. Verification of soil moisture analyses in the 0-10 cm upper layer and root zone (0-1 m) was conducted using in situ measurements from several observing networks in the central and southeastern United States. This experiment showed that SMOS data assimilation significantly increased the anomaly correlation of Noah soil moisture with station measurements from 0.45 to 0.57 in the 0-10 cm layer. Time series at specific stations demonstrate the ability of SMOS DA to increase the dynamic range of soil moisture in a manner consistent with station measurements. Among the bias correction methods, the correction based on soil type performed best at bias reduction but also reduced correlations. The vegetation-based correction did not produce any significant differences compared to using a simple uniform correction curve.

  9. Therapeutic evaluation of retrievable esophageal covered stent in treating achalasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yuwei; Zhang Fuqiang; Yuan Liang; Li Yunhui; Luo Bin; Yu Li; Sun Dingqiang

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical effect of retrievable esophageal covered metal internal stent in treating patients with achalasia. Methods: Under DSA guidance, peroral 'Z-type' double horn covered metal internal stent implantation was performed in 16 patients with achalasia. Esophagography was carried out about 28 days after the procedure and the stent was retrieved. Results: Of 16 cases, the stent fell off into the stomach two weeks after the operation in one. And the stent was successfully replaced after it was taken out. The placed stent was successfully retrieved in all cases 28 days after the treatment. No serious complications occurred. All the patients were followed up for 3 months to 3 years. During the follow-up period restenosis of the esophagus developed in two cases (at one and 1.5 years respectively), and the restenosis degree was relived after balloon dilation. Clinically, no esophageal symptoms, such as dysphagia, occurred in all patients. Conclusion: As a simple and safe technique, the retrievable esophageal covered metal internal stent implantation is very effective with fewer complications for the treatment of achalasia. Moreover, the technique carries lower restenosis occurrence. (authors)

  10. Initial ACTR retrieval technology evaluation test material recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, M.R.

    1996-04-01

    Millions of gallons of radiaoctive waste are contained in underground storage tanks at Hanford (SE Washington). Techniques for retrieving much of this waste from the storage tanks have been developed. Current baseline approach is to use sluice jets for single-shell tanks and mixer pumps for double-shell tanks. The Acquire Commercial Technology for Retrieval (ACTR) effort was initiated to identify potential improvements in or alternatives to the baseline waste retrieval methods. Communications with a variety of vendors are underway to identify improved methods that can be implemented at Hanford with little or no additional development. Commercially available retrieval methods will be evaluated by a combination of testing and system-level cost estimation. Current progress toward developing waste simulants for testing ACTR candidate methods is reported; the simulants are designed to model 4 different types of tank waste. Simulant recipes are given for wet sludge, hardpan/dried sludge,hard saltcake, and soft saltcake. Comparisons of the waste and simulant properties are documented in this report

  11. Improving information retrieval with multiple health terminologies in a quality-controlled gateway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soualmia, Lina F; Sakji, Saoussen; Letord, Catherine; Rollin, Laetitia; Massari, Philippe; Darmoni, Stéfan J

    2013-01-01

    The Catalog and Index of French-language Health Internet resources (CISMeF) is a quality-controlled health gateway, primarily for Web resources in French (n=89,751). Recently, we achieved a major improvement in the structure of the catalogue by setting-up multiple terminologies, based on twelve health terminologies available in French, to overcome the potential weakness of the MeSH thesaurus, which is the main and pivotal terminology we use for indexing and retrieval since 1995. The main aim of this study was to estimate the added-value of exploiting several terminologies and their semantic relationships to improve Web resource indexing and retrieval in CISMeF, in order to provide additional health resources which meet the users' expectations. Twelve terminologies were integrated into the CISMeF information system to set up multiple-terminologies indexing and retrieval. The same sets of thirty queries were run: (i) by exploiting the hierarchical structure of the MeSH, and (ii) by exploiting the additional twelve terminologies and their semantic links. The two search modes were evaluated and compared. The overall coverage of the multiple-terminologies search mode was improved by comparison to the coverage of using the MeSH (16,283 vs. 14,159) (+15%). These additional findings were estimated at 56.6% relevant results, 24.7% intermediate results and 18.7% irrelevant. The multiple-terminologies approach improved information retrieval. These results suggest that integrating additional health terminologies was able to improve recall. Since performing the study, 21 other terminologies have been added which should enable us to make broader studies in multiple-terminologies information retrieval.

  12. Hull Surface Information Retrieval and Optimization of High Speed Planing Craft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayob, A F; Wan Nik, W B; Ray, T; Smith, W F

    2012-01-01

    Traditional approach on ship design involve the use of a method which takes a form that was earlier called the 'general design diagram' and is now known as the 'design spiral' – an iterative ship design process that allows for an increase in complexity and precision across the design cycle. Several advancements have been made towards the design spiral, however inefficient for handling complex simultaneous design changes, especially when later variable changes affect the ship's performance characteristics evaluated in earlier stages. Reviewed in this paper are several advancements in high speed planing craft design in preliminary design stage. An optimization framework for high speed planing craft is discussed which consist of surface information retrieval module, a suite of state-of-the-art optimization algorithms and standard naval architectural performance estimation tools. A summary of the implementation of the proposed hull surface information retrieval and several case studies are presented to demonstrate the capabilities of the framework.

  13. An Intelligent Information Retrieval Approach Based on Two Degrees of Uncertainty Fuzzy Ontology

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Hourali; Gholam Ali Montazer

    2011-01-01

    In spite of the voluminous studies in the field of intelligent retrieval systems, effective retrieving of information has been remained an important unsolved problem. Implementations of different conceptual knowledge in the information retrieval process such as ontology have been considered as a solution to enhance the quality of results. Furthermore, the conceptual formalism supported by typical ontology may not be sufficient to represent uncertainty information due to the lack of clear-cut ...

  14. STATUS/IQ: A Semi-Intelligent Information Retrieval System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearsall, Jayne

    1990-01-01

    Provides background on the problems of traditional text retrieval systems and describes STATUS/IQ, an advanced text retrieval system that incorporates a natural language front-end and an advanced relevance ranking facility. The principles, capabilities, and benefits of the system are discussed, and an example of a STATUS/IQ session is presented…

  15. Disposal of Information Seeking and Retrieval Research: Replacement with a Radical Proposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budd, John M.; Anstaett, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Research and theory on the topics of information seeking and retrieval have been plagued by some fundamental problems for several decades. Many of the difficulties spring from mechanistic and instrumental thinking and modelling. Method: Existing models of information retrieval and information seeking are examined for efficacy in a…

  16. Developmental Differences in the Use of Retrieval Cues to Describe Episodic Information in Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Brian P.; Rathburn, Jill

    1984-01-01

    Examines reasons why second and fourth grade students use cues relatively ineffectively to retrieve episodic information. Four experiments tested the hypothesis that retrieval cue effectiveness varies with the extent to which cue information describes event information in memory. Results showed that problems of discriminability and…

  17. Exploiting semantic linkages among multiple sources for semantic information retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, JianQiang; Yang, Ji-Jiang; Liu, Chunchen; Zhao, Yu; Liu, Bo; Shi, Yuliang

    2014-07-01

    The vision of the Semantic Web is to build a global Web of machine-readable data to be consumed by intelligent applications. As the first step to make this vision come true, the initiative of linked open data has fostered many novel applications aimed at improving data accessibility in the public Web. Comparably, the enterprise environment is so different from the public Web that most potentially usable business information originates in an unstructured form (typically in free text), which poses a challenge for the adoption of semantic technologies in the enterprise environment. Considering that the business information in a company is highly specific and centred around a set of commonly used concepts, this paper describes a pilot study to migrate the concept of linked data into the development of a domain-specific application, i.e. the vehicle repair support system. The set of commonly used concepts, including the part name of a car and the phenomenon term on the car repairing, are employed to build the linkage between data and documents distributed among different sources, leading to the fusion of documents and data across source boundaries. Then, we describe the approaches of semantic information retrieval to consume these linkages for value creation for companies. The experiments on two real-world data sets show that the proposed approaches outperform the best baseline 6.3-10.8% and 6.4-11.1% in terms of top five and top 10 precisions, respectively. We believe that our pilot study can serve as an important reference for the development of similar semantic applications in an enterprise environment.

  18. Aerosol Retrievals from Proposed Satellite Bistatic Lidar Observations: Algorithm and Information Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, M. D.; Mishchenko, M. I.

    2017-12-01

    Accurate aerosol retrievals from space remain quite challenging and typically involve solving a severely ill-posed inverse scattering problem. We suggested to address this ill-posedness by flying a bistatic lidar system. Such a system would consist of formation flying constellation of a primary satellite equipped with a conventional monostatic (backscattering) lidar and an additional platform hosting a receiver of the scattered laser light. If successfully implemented, this concept would combine the measurement capabilities of a passive multi-angle multi-spectral polarimeter with the vertical profiling capability of a lidar. Thus, bistatic lidar observations will be free of deficiencies affecting both monostatic lidar measurements (caused by the highly limited information content) and passive photopolarimetric measurements (caused by vertical integration and surface reflection).We present a preliminary aerosol retrieval algorithm for a bistatic lidar system consisting of a high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) and an additional receiver flown in formation with it at a scattering angle of 165 degrees. This algorithm was applied to synthetic data generated using Mie-theory computations. The model/retrieval parameters in our tests were the effective radius and variance of the aerosol size distribution, complex refractive index of the particles, and their number concentration. Both mono- and bimodal aerosol mixtures were considered. Our algorithm allowed for definitive evaluation of error propagation from measurements to retrievals using a Monte Carlo technique, which involves random distortion of the observations and statistical characterization of the resulting retrieval errors. Our tests demonstrated that supplementing a conventional monostatic HSRL with an additional receiver dramatically increases the information content of the measurements and allows for a sufficiently accurate characterization of tropospheric aerosols.

  19. Evaluation of Current Planetary Boundary Layer Retrieval Capabilities from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santanello, Joseph A., Jr.; Schaefer, Alexander J.; Blaisdell, John; Yorks, John

    2016-01-01

    The PBL over land remains a significant gap in our water and energy cycle understanding from space. This work combines unique NASA satellite and model products to demonstrate the ability of current sensors (advanced IR sounding and lidar) to retrieve PBL properties and in turn their potential to be used globally to evaluate and improve weather and climate prediction models. While incremental progress has been made in recent AIRS retrieval versions, insufficient vertical resolution remains in terms of detecting PBL properties. Lidar shows promise in terms of detecting vertical gradients (and PBLh) in the lower troposphere, but daytime conditions over land remain a challenge due to noise, and their coverage is limited to approximately 2 weeks or longer return times.

  20. Intelligent Information Retrieval: Diagnosing Information Need. Part I. The Theoretical Framework for Developing an Intelligent IR Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Charles

    1998-01-01

    Suggests that the principles underlying the procedure used by doctors to diagnose a patient's disease are useful in the design of intelligent information-retrieval systems because the task of the doctor is conceptually similar to the computer or human intermediary's task in information retrieval: to draw out the user's query/information need.…

  1. Using Bayesian networks to support decision-focused information retrieval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehner, P.; Elsaesser, C.; Seligman, L. [Mitre Corp., McLean, VA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper has described an approach to controlling the process of pulling data/information from distributed data bases in a way that is specific to a persons specific decision making context. Our prototype implementation of this approach uses a knowledge-based planner to generate a plan, an automatically constructed Bayesian network to evaluate the plan, specialized processing of the network to derive key information items that would substantially impact the evaluation of the plan (e.g., determine that replanning is needed), automated construction of Standing Requests for Information (SRIs) which are automated functions that monitor changes and trends in distributed data base that are relevant to the key information items. This emphasis of this paper is on how Bayesian networks are used.

  2. Experiments with Cross-Language Information Retrieval on a Health Portal for Psychology and Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrenucci, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have been performed within cross-language information retrieval (CLIR) in the field of psychology and psychotherapy. The aim of this paper is to to analyze and assess the quality of available query translation methods for CLIR on a health portal for psychology. A test base of 100 user queries, 50 Multi Word Units (WUs) and 50 Single WUs, was used. Swedish was the source language and English the target language. Query translation methods based on machine translation (MT) and dictionary look-up were utilized in order to submit query translations to two search engines: Google Site Search and Quick Ask. Standard IR evaluation measures and a qualitative analysis were utilized to assess the results. The lexicon extracted with word alignment of the portal's parallel corpus provided better statistical results among dictionary look-ups. Google Translate provided more linguistically correct translations overall and also delivered better retrieval results in MT.

  3. Generic information can retrieve known biological associations: implications for biomedical knowledge discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman H H B M van Haagen

    Full Text Available MOTIVATION: Weighted semantic networks built from text-mined literature can be used to retrieve known protein-protein or gene-disease associations, and have been shown to anticipate associations years before they are explicitly stated in the literature. Our text-mining system recognizes over 640,000 biomedical concepts: some are specific (i.e., names of genes or proteins others generic (e.g., 'Homo sapiens'. Generic concepts may play important roles in automated information retrieval, extraction, and inference but may also result in concept overload and confound retrieval and reasoning with low-relevance or even spurious links. Here, we attempted to optimize the retrieval performance for protein-protein interactions (PPI by filtering generic concepts (node filtering or links to generic concepts (edge filtering from a weighted semantic network. First, we defined metrics based on network properties that quantify the specificity of concepts. Then using these metrics, we systematically filtered generic information from the network while monitoring retrieval performance of known protein-protein interactions. We also systematically filtered specific information from the network (inverse filtering, and assessed the retrieval performance of networks composed of generic information alone. RESULTS: Filtering generic or specific information induced a two-phase response in retrieval performance: initially the effects of filtering were minimal but beyond a critical threshold network performance suddenly drops. Contrary to expectations, networks composed exclusively of generic information demonstrated retrieval performance comparable to unfiltered networks that also contain specific concepts. Furthermore, an analysis using individual generic concepts demonstrated that they can effectively support the retrieval of known protein-protein interactions. For instance the concept "binding" is indicative for PPI retrieval and the concept "mutation abnormality" is

  4. Information retrieval pathways for health information exchange in multiple care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierkegaard, Patrick; Kaushal, Rainu; Vest, Joshua R

    2014-11-01

    To determine which health information exchange (HIE) technologies and information retrieval pathways healthcare professionals relied on to meet their information needs in the context of laboratory test results, radiological images and reports, and medication histories. Primary data was collected over a 2-month period across 3 emergency departments, 7 primary care practices, and 2 public health clinics in New York state. Qualitative research methods were used to collect and analyze data from semi-structured interviews and participant observation. The study reveals that healthcare professionals used a complex combination of information retrieval pathways for HIE to obtain clinical information from external organizations. The choice for each approach was setting- and information-specific, but was also highly dynamic across users and their information needs. Our findings about the complex nature of information sharing in healthcare provide insights for informatics professionals about the usage of information; indicate the need for managerial support within each organization; and suggest approaches to improve systems for organizations and agencies working to expand HIE adoption.

  5. A Domain Specific Lexicon Acquisition Tool for Cross-Language Information Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd; de Jong, Franciska M.G.; Kraaij, Wessel

    1997-01-01

    With the recent enormous increase of information dissemination via the web as incentive there is a growing interest in supporting tools for cross-language retrieval. In this paper we describe a disclosure and retrieval approach that fulfils the needs of both information providers and users by

  6. Experiments in Discourse Analysis Impact on Information Classification and Retrieval Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morato, Jorge; Llorens, J.; Genova, G.; Moreiro, J. A.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the inclusion of contextual information in indexing and retrieval systems to improve results and the ability to carry out text analysis by means of linguistic knowledge. Presents research that investigated whether discourse variables have an impact on information and retrieval and classification algorithms. (Author/LRW)

  7. A probabilistic justification for using tf.idf term weighting in information retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a new probabilistic model of information retrieval. The most important modeling assumption made is that documents and queries are defined by an ordered sequence of single terms. This assumption is not made in well known existing models of information retrieval, but is essential

  8. Nonmaterialized Relations and the Support of Information Retrieval Applications by Relational Database Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Clifford A.

    1991-01-01

    Describes several aspects of the problem of supporting information retrieval system query requirements in the relational database management system (RDBMS) environment and proposes an extension to query processing called nonmaterialized relations. User interactions with information retrieval systems are discussed, and nonmaterialized relations are…

  9. A Parallel Relational Database Management System Approach to Relevance Feedback in Information Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundquist, Carol; Frieder, Ophir; Holmes, David O.; Grossman, David

    1999-01-01

    Describes a scalable, parallel, relational database-drive information retrieval engine. To support portability across a wide range of execution environments, all algorithms adhere to the SQL-92 standard. By incorporating relevance feedback algorithms, accuracy is enhanced over prior database-driven information retrieval efforts. Presents…

  10. Personalizing Information Retrieval Using Interaction Behaviors in Search Sessions in Different Types of Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang

    2012-01-01

    When using information retrieval (IR) systems, users often pose short and ambiguous query terms. It is critical for IR systems to obtain more accurate representation of users' information need, their document preferences, and the context they are working in, and then incorporate them into the design of the systems to tailor retrieval to…

  11. Text mining scientific papers: a survey on FCA-based information retrieval research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelmans, J.; Ignatov, D.I.; Viaene, S.; Dedene, G.; Kuznetsov, S.O.

    2012-01-01

    Formal Concept Analysis (FCA) is an unsupervised clustering technique and many scientific papers are devoted to applying FCA in Information Retrieval (IR) research. We collected 103 papers published between 2003-2009 which mention FCA and information retrieval in the abstract, title or keywords.

  12. A framework for evaluating automatic indexing or classification in the context of retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golub, Korajlka; Soergel, Dagobert; Buchanan, George

    2016-01-01

    subject indexing, hard scientific evidence of their performance in operating information environments is scarce. A major reason for this is that research is usually conducted in laboratory conditions, excluding the complexities of real-life systems and situations. The paper reviews and discusses issues...... with existing evaluation approaches such as problems of aboutness and relevance assessments, implying the need to use more than a single “gold standard” method when evaluating indexing and retrieval and proposes a comprehensive evaluation framework. The framework is informed by a systematic review...

  13. Dissociable parietal regions facilitate successful retrieval of recently learned and personally familiar information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elman, Jeremy A; Cohn-Sheehy, Brendan I; Shimamura, Arthur P

    2013-03-01

    In fMRI analyses, the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is particularly active during the successful retrieval of episodic memory. To delineate the neural correlates of episodic retrieval more succinctly, we compared retrieval of recently learned spatial locations (photographs of buildings) with retrieval of previously familiar locations (photographs of familiar campus buildings). Episodic retrieval of recently learned locations activated a circumscribed region within the ventral PPC (anterior angular gyrus and adjacent regions in the supramarginal gyrus) as well as medial PPC regions (posterior cingulated gyrus and posterior precuneus). Retrieval of familiar locations activated more posterior regions in the ventral PPC (posterior angular gyrus, LOC) and more anterior regions in the medial PPC (anterior precuneus and retrosplenial cortex). These dissociable effects define more precisely PPC regions involved in the retrieval of recent, contextually bound information as opposed to regions involved in other processes, such as visual imagery, scene reconstruction, and self-referential processing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of Information Retrieval Process on Decision Making and Problem Solving: An Emprical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Keten

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Individuals who are unaware of a need for information and/or who have not experienced the information retrieval process while meeting such a need cannot be a part of information society. Only those individuals with an awareness that information is essential to the problem-solving and decision-making processes, who are equipped with information retrieval and utilization skills and who can further integrate such skills into their daily lives, can be a part of an information society and attain the capability of performing properly in their societal roles and thus ultimately of shaping their society. Moving from this context, this article defines the elements of the information retrieval process, starting with the concept of information, and studies the influences of the information retrieval process on problem solving and decision making.

  15. Cloud retrievals from satellite data using optimal estimation: evaluation and application to ATSR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Poulsen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Clouds play an important role in balancing the Earth's radiation budget. Hence, it is vital that cloud climatologies are produced that quantify cloud macro and micro physical parameters and the associated uncertainty. In this paper, we present an algorithm ORAC (Oxford-RAL retrieval of Aerosol and Cloud which is based on fitting a physically consistent cloud model to satellite observations simultaneously from the visible to the mid-infrared, thereby ensuring that the resulting cloud properties provide both a good representation of the short-wave and long-wave radiative effects of the observed cloud. The advantages of the optimal estimation method are that it enables rigorous error propagation and the inclusion of all measurements and any a priori information and associated errors in a rigorous mathematical framework. The algorithm provides a measure of the consistency between retrieval representation of cloud and satellite radiances. The cloud parameters retrieved are the cloud top pressure, cloud optical depth, cloud effective radius, cloud fraction and cloud phase.

    The algorithm can be applied to most visible/infrared satellite instruments. In this paper, we demonstrate the applicability to the Along-Track Scanning Radiometers ATSR-2 and AATSR. Examples of applying the algorithm to ATSR-2 flight data are presented and the sensitivity of the retrievals assessed, in particular the algorithm is evaluated for a number of simulated single-layer and multi-layer conditions. The algorithm was found to perform well for single-layer cloud except when the cloud was very thin; i.e., less than 1 optical depths. For the multi-layer cloud, the algorithm was robust except when the upper ice cloud layer is less than five optical depths. In these cases the retrieved cloud top pressure and cloud effective radius become a weighted average of the 2 layers. The sum of optical depth of multi-layer cloud is retrieved well until the cloud becomes thick

  16. Information retrieval system: impacts of water-level changes on uses of federal storage reservoirs of the Columbia River.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fickeisen, D.H.; Cowley, P.J.; Neitzel, D.A.; Simmons, M.A.

    1982-09-01

    A project undertaken to provide the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) with information needed to conduct environmental assessments and meet requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act (Regional Act) is described. Access to information on environmental effects would help BPA fulfill its responsibilities to coordinate power generation on the Columbia River system, protect uses of the river system (e.g., irrigation, recreation, navigation), and enhance fish and wildlife production. Staff members at BPA identified the need to compile and index information resources that would help answer environmental impact questions. A computer retrieval system that would provide ready access to the information was envisioned. This project was supported by BPA to provide an initial step toward a compilation of environmental impact information. Scientists at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) identified, gathered, and evaluated information related to environmental effects of water level on uses of five study reservoirs and developed and implemented and environmental data retrieval system, which provides for automated storage and retrieval of annotated citations to published and unpublished information. The data retrieval system is operating on BPA's computer facility and includes the reservoir water-level environmental data. This project was divided into several tasks, some of which were conducted simultaneously to meet project deadlines. The tasks were to identify uses of the five study reservoirs, compile and evaluate reservoir information, develop a data entry and retrieval system, identify and analyze research needs, and document the data retrieval system and train users. Additional details of the project are described in several appendixes.

  17. An information retrieval system using weighted descriptors generated by automatic frequency counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsubara, Yasutoshi

    1979-01-01

    An information retrieval system with improved relevance is described, in which a weighted descriptor file, generated by feedback of requester's relevance judgement on pretest results, is used. This method does not need modification of search formulas, and works better by only setting weight thresholds, and can alleviate searcher duties, as examples show. Index word weighting and retrieval word weighting are compared and some problems to be encountered when retrieval word weighting is combined to operational systems are pointed out. (author)

  18. Information retrieval system of nuclear power plant database (PPD) user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumi, Fumio; Horikami, Kunihiko; Kobayashi, Kensuke.

    1990-12-01

    A nuclear power plant database (PPD) and its retrieval system have been developed. The database involves a large number of safety design data of nuclear power plants, operating and planned in Japan. The information stored in the database can be retrieved at high speed, whenever they are needed, by use of the retrieval system. The report is a user's manual of the system to access the database utilizing a display unit of the JAERI computer network system. (author)

  19. [Design and implementation of medical instrument standard information retrieval system based on APS.NET].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kaijun

    2010-07-01

    This paper Analys the design goals of Medical Instrumentation standard information retrieval system. Based on the B /S structure,we established a medical instrumentation standard retrieval system with ASP.NET C # programming language, IIS f Web server, SQL Server 2000 database, in the. NET environment. The paper also Introduces the system structure, retrieval system modules, system development environment and detailed design of the system.

  20. Low-dose multiple-information retrieval algorithm for X-ray grating-based imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhentian; Huang Zhifeng; Chen Zhiqiang; Zhang Li; Jiang Xiaolei; Kang Kejun; Yin Hongxia; Wang Zhenchang; Stampanoni, Marco

    2011-01-01

    The present work proposes a low dose information retrieval algorithm for X-ray grating-based multiple-information imaging (GB-MII) method, which can retrieve the attenuation, refraction and scattering information of samples by only three images. This algorithm aims at reducing the exposure time and the doses delivered to the sample. The multiple-information retrieval problem in GB-MII is solved by transforming a nonlinear equations set to a linear equations and adopting the nature of the trigonometric functions. The proposed algorithm is validated by experiments both on conventional X-ray source and synchrotron X-ray source, and compared with the traditional multiple-image-based retrieval algorithm. The experimental results show that our algorithm is comparable with the traditional retrieval algorithm and especially suitable for high Signal-to-Noise system.

  1. Factors influencing user ability to retrieve information from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A sa mple size of 500 users and 12 librarians was selected from a study population of 5012 using stratified/simple random Sampling techniques. Two four - point likert-type questionnaires measuring three (3 ) variables that influence user ability to retrieve info rmation were developed, validated and administered.

  2. FORDAT : an information retrieval system for forest economic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry M. Spelter

    1981-01-01

    Time series data frequently used in Forest Service studies of wood products consumption have been stored in a data retrieval system on the computer of the University of Wisconsin. The data cover activity in wood processing from forest to end use. Prices and costs at succeeding stages, historical usage, production rates, and other relevant data to wood use analysis were...

  3. An information retrieval system for research file data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joan E. Lengel; John W. Koning

    1978-01-01

    Research file data have been successfully retrieved at the Forest Products Laboratory through a high-speed cross-referencing system involving the computer program FAMULUS as modified by the Madison Academic Computing Center at the University of Wisconsin. The method of data input, transfer to computer storage, system utilization, and effectiveness are discussed....

  4. Ontology lexicalization: Relationship between content and meaning in the context of Information Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo SCHIESSL

    Full Text Available Abstract The proposal presented in this study seeks to properly represent natural language to ontologies and vice-versa. Therefore, the semi-automatic creation of a lexical database in Brazilian Portuguese containing morphological, syntactic, and semantic information that can be read by machines was proposed, allowing the link between structured and unstructured data and its integration into an information retrieval model to improve precision. The results obtained demonstrated that the methodology can be used in the risco financeiro (financial risk domain in Portuguese for the construction of an ontology and the lexical-semantic database and the proposal of a semantic information retrieval model. In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed model, documents containing the main definitions of the financial risk domain were selected and indexed with and without semantic annotation. To enable the comparison between the approaches, two databases were created based on the texts with the semantic annotations to represent the semantic search. The first one represents the traditional search and the second contained the index built based on the texts with the semantic annotations to represent the semantic search. The evaluation of the proposal was based on recall and precision. The queries submitted to the model showed that the semantic search outperforms the traditional search and validates the methodology used. Although more complex, the procedure proposed can be used in all kinds of domains.

  5. Searching for evidence or approval? A commentary on database search in systematic reviews and alternative information retrieval methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Aogán; Tamás, Peter A

    2018-03-01

    Despite recognition that database search alone is inadequate even within the health sciences, it appears that reviewers in fields that have adopted systematic review are choosing to rely primarily, or only, on database search for information retrieval. This commentary reminds readers of factors that call into question the appropriateness of default reliance on database searches particularly as systematic review is adapted for use in new and lower consensus fields. It then discusses alternative methods for information retrieval that require development, formalisation, and evaluation. Our goals are to encourage reviewers to reflect critically and transparently on their choice of information retrieval methods and to encourage investment in research on alternatives. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Editorial for the Bibliometric-enhanced Information Retrieval Workshop at ECIR 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mayr, Philipp; Schaer, Philipp; Scharnhorst, Andrea; Mutschke, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This first "Bibliometric-enhanced Information Retrieval" (BIR 2014) workshop aims to engage with the IR community about possible links to bibliometrics and scholarly communication. Bibliometric techniques are not yet widely used to enhance retrieval processes in digital libraries, although they

  7. Modeling the Time Course of Feature Perception and Feature Information Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Christopher; Lamberts, Koen

    2006-01-01

    Three experiments investigated whether retrieval of information about different dimensions of a visual object varies as a function of the perceptual properties of those dimensions. The experiments involved two perception-based matching tasks and two retrieval-based matching tasks. A signal-to-respond methodology was used in all tasks. A stochastic…

  8. Retrieval practice is an efficient method of enhancing the retention of anatomy and physiology information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, John L

    2013-06-01

    Although a great deal of empirical evidence has indicated that retrieval practice is an effective means of promoting learning and memory, very few studies have investigated the strategy in the context of an actual class. The primary purpose of this study was to determine if a series of very brief retrieval quizzes could significantly improve the retention of previously tested information throughout an anatomy and physiology course. A second purpose was to determine if there were any significant differences between expanding and uniform patterns of retrieval that followed a standardized initial retrieval delay. Anatomy and physiology students were assigned to either a control group or groups that were repeatedly prompted to retrieve a subset of previously tested course information via a series of quizzes that were administered on either an expanding or a uniform schedule. Each retrieval group completed a total of 10 retrieval quizzes, and the series of quizzes required (only) a total of 2 h to complete. Final retention of the exam subset material was assessed during the last week of the semester. There were no significant differences between the expanding and uniform retrieval groups, but both retained an average of 41% more of the subset material than did the control group (ANOVA, F = 129.8, P = 0.00, ηp(2) = 0.36). In conclusion, retrieval practice is a highly efficient and effective strategy for enhancing the retention of anatomy and physiology material.

  9. On the integrated cognitive theory for information retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingwersen, Peter; Järvelin, Kalervo

    2008-01-01

    The paper demonstrates how the Laboratory Research Framework fits into the holistic Cognitive Framework for IR. It first discusses the Laboratory Framework with emphasis on its underlying assumptions and known limitations. This is followed by a view of interaction and relevance phenomena associat...... drawn from a collection, matching principles in a retrieval system, and the searcher's situation and task context. The paper ends with concluding points of summarization of issues encountered....

  10. On the Holistic Cognitive Theory for Information Retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingwersen, Peter; Järvelin, Kalervo

    2007-01-01

    The paper demonstrates how the Laboratory Research Framework fits into the holistic Cognitive Framework for IR. It first discusses the Laboratory Framework with emphasis on its underlying assumptions and known limitations. This is followed by a view of interaction and relevance phenomena associat...... drawn from a collection, matching principles in a retrieval system, and the searcher's situation and task context. The paper ends with concluding points of summarization of issues encountered....

  11. Query-by-Example Music Information Retrieval by Score-Informed Source Separation and Remixing Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goto Masataka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a novel query-by-example (QBE approach in music information retrieval that allows a user to customize query examples by directly modifying the volume of different instrument parts. The underlying hypothesis of this approach is that the musical mood of retrieved results changes in relation to the volume balance of different instruments. On the basis of this hypothesis, we aim to clarify the relationship between the change in the volume balance of a query and the genre of the retrieved pieces, called genre classification shift. Such an understanding would allow us to instruct users in how to generate alternative queries without finding other appropriate pieces. Our QBE system first separates all instrument parts from the audio signal of a piece with the help of its musical score, and then it allows users remix these parts to change the acoustic features that represent the musical mood of the piece. Experimental results showed that the genre classification shift was actually caused by the volume change in the vocal, guitar, and drum parts.

  12. Combining textual and visual information for image retrieval in the medical domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkoufas, Yiannis; Morou, Anna; Kalamboukis, Theodore

    2011-01-01

    In this article we have assembled the experience obtained from our participation in the imageCLEF evaluation task over the past two years. Exploitation on the use of linear combinations for image retrieval has been attempted by combining visual and textual sources of images. From our experiments we conclude that a mixed retrieval technique that applies both textual and visual retrieval in an interchangeably repeated manner improves the performance while overcoming the scalability limitations of visual retrieval. In particular, the mean average precision (MAP) has increased from 0.01 to 0.15 and 0.087 for 2009 and 2010 data, respectively, when content-based image retrieval (CBIR) is performed on the top 1000 results from textual retrieval based on natural language processing (NLP).

  13. Storing, Retrieving, and Processing Optical Information by Raman Backscattering in Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodin, I.Y.; Fisch, N.J.

    2002-01-01

    By employing stimulated Raman backscattering in a plasma, information carried by a laser pulse can be captured in the form of a very slowly propagating plasma wave that persists for a time large compared with the pulse duration. If the plasma is then probed with a short laser pulse, the information stored in the plasma wave can be retrieved in a second scattered electromagnetic wave. The recording and retrieving processes can conserve robustly the pulse shape, thus enabling the recording and retrieving with fidelity of information stored in optical signals

  14. Information retrieval and terminology extraction in online resources for patients with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seljan, Sanja; Baretić, Maja; Kucis, Vlasta

    2014-06-01

    Terminology use, as a mean for information retrieval or document indexing, plays an important role in health literacy. Specific types of users, i.e. patients with diabetes need access to various online resources (on foreign and/or native language) searching for information on self-education of basic diabetic knowledge, on self-care activities regarding importance of dietetic food, medications, physical exercises and on self-management of insulin pumps. Automatic extraction of corpus-based terminology from online texts, manuals or professional papers, can help in building terminology lists or list of "browsing phrases" useful in information retrieval or in document indexing. Specific terminology lists represent an intermediate step between free text search and controlled vocabulary, between user's demands and existing online resources in native and foreign language. The research aiming to detect the role of terminology in online resources, is conducted on English and Croatian manuals and Croatian online texts, and divided into three interrelated parts: i) comparison of professional and popular terminology use ii) evaluation of automatic statistically-based terminology extraction on English and Croatian texts iii) comparison and evaluation of extracted terminology performed on English manual using statistical and hybrid approaches. Extracted terminology candidates are evaluated by comparison with three types of reference lists: list created by professional medical person, list of highly professional vocabulary contained in MeSH and list created by non-medical persons, made as intersection of 15 lists. Results report on use of popular and professional terminology in online diabetes resources, on evaluation of automatically extracted terminology candidates in English and Croatian texts and on comparison of statistical and hybrid extraction methods in English text. Evaluation of automatic and semi-automatic terminology extraction methods is performed by recall

  15. Distinctive Information and False Recognition: The Contribution of Encoding and Retrieval Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Jason

    2006-01-01

    Four experiments evaluated the role of encoding-based and retrieval-based factors in the production of false recognition. The association of unusual fonts with study items, the match between study and test font, and the duration of retrieval time allotted to subjects to make recognition memory decisions were varied in order to examine the role…

  16. Re-evaluation of monitored retrievable storage concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, J.F.; Smith, R.I.

    1989-04-01

    In 1983, as a prelude to the monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility conceptual design, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted an evaluation for the US Department of Energy (DOE) that examined alternative concepts for storing spent LWR fuel and high- level wastes from fuel reprocessing. The evaluation was made considering nine concepts for dry away-from-reactor storage. The nine concepts evaluated were: concrete storage cask, tunnel drywell, concrete cask-in-trench, open-cycle vault, metal casks (transportable and stationary), closed-cycle vault, field drywell, and tunnel-rack vault. The purpose and scope of the re-evaluation did not require a repetition of the expert-based examinations used earlier. Instead, it was based on more detailed technical review by a small group, focusing on changes that had occurred since the initial evaluation was made. Two additional storage concepts--the water pool and the horizontal modular storage vault (NUHOMS system)--were ranked along with the original nine. The original nine concepts and the added two conceptual designs were modified as appropriate for a scenario with storage capacity for 15,000 MTU of spent fuel. Costs, area requirements, and technical and historical data pertaining to MRS storage were updated for each concept

  17. Re-evaluation of monitored retrievable storage concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, J.F.; Smith, R.I.

    1989-04-01

    In 1983, as a prelude to the monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility conceptual design, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted an evaluation for the US Department of Energy (DOE) that examined alternative concepts for storing spent LWR fuel and high- level wastes from fuel reprocessing. The evaluation was made considering nine concepts for dry away-from-reactor storage. The nine concepts evaluated were: concrete storage cask, tunnel drywell, concrete cask-in-trench, open-cycle vault, metal casks (transportable and stationary), closed-cycle vault, field drywell, and tunnel-rack vault. The purpose and scope of the re-evaluation did not require a repetition of the expert-based examinations used earlier. Instead, it was based on more detailed technical review by a small group, focusing on changes that had occurred since the initial evaluation was made. Two additional storage concepts--the water pool and the horizontal modular storage vault (NUHOMS system)--were ranked along with the original nine. The original nine concepts and the added two conceptual designs were modified as appropriate for a scenario with storage capacity for 15,000 MTU of spent fuel. Costs, area requirements, and technical and historical data pertaining to MRS storage were updated for each concept.

  18. Combining Passive Microwave Sounders with CYGNSS information for improved retrievals: Observations during Hurricane Harvey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, M. M.

    2017-12-01

    The launch of CYGNSS (Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System) has added an interesting component to satellite observations: it can provide wind speeds in the tropical area with a high repetition rate. Passive microwave sounders that are overpassing the same region can benefit from this information, when it comes to the retrieval of temperature or water profiles: the uncertainty about wind speeds has a strong impact on emissivity and reflectivity calculations with respect to surface temperature. This has strong influences on the uncertainty of retrieval of temperature and water content, especially under extreme weather conditions. Adding CYGNSS information to the retrieval can help to reduce errors and provide a significantly better sounder retrieval. Based on observations during Hurricane Harvey, we want to show the impact of CYGNSS data on the retrieval of passive microwave sensors. We will show examples on the impact on the retrieval from polar orbiting instruments, like the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) and AMSU-A/B on NOAA-18 and 19. In addition we will also show the impact on retrievals from HAMSR (High Altitude MMIC Sounding Radiometer), which was flying on the Global Hawk during the EPOCH campaign. We will compare the results with other observations and estimate the impact of additional CYGNSS information on the microwave retrieval, especially on the impact in error and uncertainty reduction. We think, that a synergetic use of these different data sources could significantly help to produce better assimilation products for forecast assimilation.

  19. Improving biomedical information retrieval by linear combinations of different query expansion techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulla, Ahmed AbdoAziz Ahmed; Lin, Hongfei; Xu, Bo; Banbhrani, Santosh Kumar

    2016-07-25

    Biomedical literature retrieval is becoming increasingly complex, and there is a fundamental need for advanced information retrieval systems. Information Retrieval (IR) programs scour unstructured materials such as text documents in large reserves of data that are usually stored on computers. IR is related to the representation, storage, and organization of information items, as well as to access. In IR one of the main problems is to determine which documents are relevant and which are not to the user's needs. Under the current regime, users cannot precisely construct queries in an accurate way to retrieve particular pieces of data from large reserves of data. Basic information retrieval systems are producing low-quality search results. In our proposed system for this paper we present a new technique to refine Information Retrieval searches to better represent the user's information need in order to enhance the performance of information retrieval by using different query expansion techniques and apply a linear combinations between them, where the combinations was linearly between two expansion results at one time. Query expansions expand the search query, for example, by finding synonyms and reweighting original terms. They provide significantly more focused, particularized search results than do basic search queries. The retrieval performance is measured by some variants of MAP (Mean Average Precision) and according to our experimental results, the combination of best results of query expansion is enhanced the retrieved documents and outperforms our baseline by 21.06 %, even it outperforms a previous study by 7.12 %. We propose several query expansion techniques and their combinations (linearly) to make user queries more cognizable to search engines and to produce higher-quality search results.

  20. Multimodal retrieval of autobiographical memories: sensory information contributes differently to the recollection of events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willander, Johan; Sikström, Sverker; Karlsson, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies on autobiographical memory have focused on unimodal retrieval cues (i.e., cues pertaining to one modality). However, from an ecological perspective multimodal cues (i.e., cues pertaining to several modalities) are highly important to investigate. In the present study we investigated age distributions and experiential ratings of autobiographical memories retrieved with unimodal and multimodal cues. Sixty-two participants were randomized to one of four cue-conditions: visual, olfactory, auditory, or multimodal. The results showed that the peak of the distributions depends on the modality of the retrieval cue. The results indicated that multimodal retrieval seemed to be driven by visual and auditory information to a larger extent and to a lesser extent by olfactory information. Finally, no differences were observed in the number of retrieved memories or experiential ratings across the four cue-conditions.

  1. Multimodal Retrieval of Autobiographical Memories: Sensory Information Contributes Differently to the Recollection of Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan eWillander

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies on autobiographical memory have focused on unimodal retrieval cues (i.e., cues pertaining to one modality. However, from an ecological perspective multimodal cues (i.e., cues pertaining to several modalities are highly important to investigate. In the present study we investigated age distributions and experiential ratings of autobiographical memories retrieved with unimodal and multimodal cues. Sixty-two participants were randomized to one of four cue-conditions: visual, olfactory, auditory, and multimodal. The results showed that the peak of the distributions depend on the modality of the retrieval cue. The results indicated that multimodal retrieval seemed to be driven by visual and auditory information to a larger extent and to a lesser extent by olfactory information. Finally, no differences were observed in the number of retrieved memories or experiential ratings across the four cue-conditions.

  2. NNWSI project information management system concepts evaluation report. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-08-01

    This report is intended as a first step in developing detailed information management system specifications for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project. The current state of information management at the NNWSI Project level is investigated and an information management system (IMS) is proposed. The IMS as it relates to aspects of Project and records management is discussed. Information management concepts and prospective IMS system components are investigated. Concepts and system components include: indexing, searching, retrieval, data base management system technology, computers, storage media, computer-assisted retrieval (CAR) of microfilm, electronic imaging-based systems, optical character recognition, and communications. Performance criteria and desirable system attributes applicable to the IMS are discussed. Six conceptual system approaches capable of satisfying the performance criteria are defined. System approaches include: fully centralized microfilm system based on CAR retrieval (Approach 1), partially distributed microfilm system based on CAR retrieval (Approach 2), fully distributed microfilm system based on CAR retrieval (Approach 3), fully centralized optical disk system based on electronic image and full-text retrieval (Approach 4), partially distributed optical system based on electron image and full-text retrieval (Approach 5), and fully distributed optical disk system based on electronic image and full-text retrieval (Approach 6). Technical and cost considerations associated with the six conceptual approaches are evaluated. Technical evaluation results indicate Approach 4 is the best conceptual approach, and cost evaluation results show no significant differences among approaches. On the basis of the evaluation, Approach 4 is recommended

  3. Intelligent Information Retrieval: Diagnosing Information Need. Part II. Uncertainty Expansion in a Prototype of a Diagnostic IR Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Charles; Cantero, Pablo; Sauve, Diane

    1998-01-01

    Outlines a prototype of an intelligent information-retrieval tool to facilitate information access for an undergraduate seeking information for a term paper. Topics include diagnosing the information need, Kuhlthau's information-search-process model, Shannon's mathematical theory of communication, and principles of uncertainty expansion and…

  4. Monitored retrievable storage facility site screening and evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-05-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 directs the Department of Energy to ''complete a detailed study of the need for and feasibility of, and to submit to the Congress a proposal for, the construction of one or more monitored retrievable storage facilities for high level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.'' The Act directs that the proposal includes site specific designs. Further, the proposal is to include, ''for the first such facility, at least three alternative sites and at least five alternative combinations of such proposed site and facility designs...'' as well as a recommendation of ''the combination among the alternatives that the Secretary deems preferable.'' An MRS Site Screening Task Force has been formed to help identify and evaluated potential MRS facility sites within a preferred region and with the application of a siting process and criteria developed by the DOE. The activities of the task force presented in this report includes: site screening (Sections 3, 4, and 5), the MRS facilities which are to be sited are described; the criteria, process and outcome of the screening process is presented; and descriptions of the candidate MRS facility sites are given, and site evaluations (Sections 6 through 9) where the rational for the site evaluations are presented, along with each evaluation and findings of the Task Force

  5. Monitored retrievable storage facility site screening and evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-05-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 directs the Department of Energy to ''complete a detailed study of the need for and feasibility of, and to submit to the Congress a proposal for, the construction of one or more monitored retrievable storage facilities for high level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.'' The Act directs that the proposal includes site specific designs. Further, the proposal is to include, ''for the first such facility, at least three alternative sites and at least five alternative combinations of such proposed sites and facility designs hor-ellipsis'' as well as a recommendation of ''the combination among the alternatives that the Secretary deems preferable.'' An MRS Site Screening Task Force has been formed to help identify and evaluate potential MRS facility sites within a preferred region and with the application of a siting process and criteria developed by the DOE. The activities of the Task Force presented in this report include: site evaluations (sections 10 through 12) where the rationale for the site evaluations are presented, along with each evaluation and findings of the Task Force. This in Volume 2 of a three volume document

  6. Monitored Retrievable Storage facility site screening and evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-05-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 directs the Department of Energy to ''complete a detailed study of the need for and feasibility of, and to submit to the Congress a proposal for, the construction of one or more monitored retrievable storage facilities for high level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.'' The Act directs that the proposal includes site specific designs. Further, the proposal is to include, ''for the first such facility, at least three alternative sites and at least five alternative combinations of such proposed sites and facility designs hor-ellipsis'' as well as a recommendation of ''the combination among the alternatives that the Secretary deems preferable.'' An MRS Site Screening Task Force has been formed to help identify and evaluate potential MRS facility sites within a preferred region and with the application of a siting process and criteria developed by the DOE. The activities of the Task Force presented in this report, all site evaluations (sections 13 through 16) where the rationale for the site evaluations are presented, along with each evaluation and findings of the Task Force. This is Volume 3 of a three volume document. References are also included in this volume

  7. Monitored retrievable storage facility site screening and evaluation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1985-05-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 directs the Department of Energy to complete a detailed study of the need for and feasibility of, and to submit to the Congress a proposal for, the construction of one or more monitored retrievable storage facilities for high level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.'' The Act directs that the proposal includes site specific designs. Further, the proposal is to include, for the first such facility, at least three alternative sites and at least five alternative combinations of such proposed sites and facility designs{hor ellipsis}'' as well as a recommendation of the combination among the alternatives that the Secretary deems preferable.'' An MRS Site Screening Task Force has been formed to help identify and evaluate potential MRS facility sites within a preferred region and with the application of a siting process and criteria developed by the DOE. The activities of the Task Force presented in this report include: site evaluations (sections 10 through 12) where the rationale for the site evaluations are presented, along with each evaluation and findings of the Task Force. This in Volume 2 of a three volume document.

  8. Monitored retrievable storage facility site screening and evaluation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1985-05-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 directs the Department of Energy to complete a detailed study of the need for and feasibility of, and to submit to the Congress a proposal for, the construction of one or more monitored retrievable storage facilities for high level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.'' The Act directs that the proposal includes site specific designs. Further, the proposal is to include, for the first such facility, at least three alternative sites and at least five alternative combinations of such proposed site and facility designs...'' as well as a recommendation of the combination among the alternatives that the Secretary deems preferable.'' An MRS Site Screening Task Force has been formed to help identify and evaluated potential MRS facility sites within a preferred region and with the application of a siting process and criteria developed by the DOE. The activities of the task force presented in this report includes: site screening (Sections 3, 4, and 5), the MRS facilities which are to be sited are described; the criteria, process and outcome of the screening process is presented; and descriptions of the candidate MRS facility sites are given, and site evaluations (Sections 6 through 9) where the rational for the site evaluations are presented, along with each evaluation and findings of the Task Force.

  9. Monitored Retrievable Storage facility site screening and evaluation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1985-05-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 directs the Department of Energy to complete a detailed study of the need for and feasibility of, and to submit to the Congress a proposal for, the construction of one or more monitored retrievable storage facilities for high level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.'' The Act directs that the proposal includes site specific designs. Further, the proposal is to include, for the first such facility, at least three alternative sites and at least five alternative combinations of such proposed sites and facility designs {hor ellipsis}'' as well as a recommendation of the combination among the alternatives that the Secretary deems preferable.'' An MRS Site Screening Task Force has been formed to help identify and evaluate potential MRS facility sites within a preferred region and with the application of a siting process and criteria developed by the DOE. The activities of the Task Force presented in this report, all site evaluations (sections 13 through 16) where the rationale for the site evaluations are presented, along with each evaluation and findings of the Task Force. This is Volume 3 of a three volume document. References are also included in this volume.

  10. Parallel interactive retrieval of item and associative information from event memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Gregory E; Criss, Amy H

    2017-09-01

    Memory contains information about individual events (items) and combinations of events (associations). Despite the fundamental importance of this distinction, it remains unclear exactly how these two kinds of information are stored and whether different processes are used to retrieve them. We use both model-independent qualitative properties of response dynamics and quantitative modeling of individuals to address these issues. Item and associative information are not independent and they are retrieved concurrently via interacting processes. During retrieval, matching item and associative information mutually facilitate one another to yield an amplified holistic signal. Modeling of individuals suggests that this kind of facilitation between item and associative retrieval is a ubiquitous feature of human memory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Using temporal information to construct, update, and retrieve situation models of narratives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinck, M.; Hähnel, A.; Becker, G.

    2001-01-01

    Four experiments explored how readers use temporal information to construct and update situation models and retrieve them from memory. In Experiment 1, readers spontaneously constructed temporal and spatial situation models of single sentences. In Experiment 2, temporal inconsistencies caused

  12. Strengthening safeguards information evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harry, J.; Hudson, P.

    2001-01-01

    The strengthening of safeguards should not be limited to the verification of explicit declarations made by the States. Additional information should guide the IAEA to set priorities for further investigations. Not only all aspects of the State's nuclear programme, including the application of safe, secure and transparent nuclear management, but also the level of compliance with other verifiable treaties, political motivation, economic capabilities, international relations and ties, co-operative attitude to safeguards, and general openness and transparency should be included. The evaluation of the diverse forms of information from different sources requires new reliable processes that will result in a high credibility and detection probability. The IAEA uses the physical model for the evaluation of the technical information, and proposed also Fuzzy Logic, or Calculation with Words, to handle the information. But for the evaluation it is questioned whether fuzziness could lead to a crisp judgement. In this paper an objective method of information evaluation is proposed, which allows to integrate different kinds of information and to include calibration and tests in the establishment of the evaluation process. This method, Delta, uses elicitation of a syndicate of experienced inspectors to integrate obvious indicators together with apparently innocent indicators, into a database that forms the core of the evaluation process. Nominal or ordinal scales could be applied to come to an objective and quantifiable result. Experience with this method can in the course of time result in predictive conclusions. 9 refs

  13. 42 CFR 433.127 - Termination of FFP for failure to provide access to claims processing and information retrieval...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... claims processing and information retrieval systems. 433.127 Section 433.127 Public Health CENTERS FOR... PROGRAMS STATE FISCAL ADMINISTRATION Mechanized Claims Processing and Information Retrieval Systems § 433.127 Termination of FFP for failure to provide access to claims processing and information retrieval...

  14. Scalability of Findability: Decentralized Search and Retrieval in Large Information Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Weimao

    2010-01-01

    Amid the rapid growth of information today is the increasing challenge for people to survive and navigate its magnitude. Dynamics and heterogeneity of large information spaces such as the Web challenge information retrieval in these environments. Collection of information in advance and centralization of IR operations are hardly possible because…

  15. Evaluation of ozone profile and tropospheric ozone retrievals from GEMS and OMI spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bak

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available South Korea is planning to launch the GEMS (Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer instrument into the GeoKOMPSAT (Geostationary Korea Multi-Purpose SATellite platform in 2018 to monitor tropospheric air pollutants on an hourly basis over East Asia. GEMS will measure backscattered UV radiances covering the 300–500 nm wavelength range with a spectral resolution of 0.6 nm. The main objective of this study is to evaluate ozone profiles and stratospheric column ozone amounts retrieved from simulated GEMS measurements. Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI Level 1B radiances, which have the spectral range 270–500 nm at spectral resolution of 0.42–0.63 nm, are used to simulate the GEMS radiances. An optimal estimation-based ozone profile algorithm is used to retrieve ozone profiles from simulated GEMS radiances. Firstly, we compare the retrieval characteristics (including averaging kernels, degrees of freedom for signal, and retrieval error derived from the 270–330 nm (OMI and 300–330 nm (GEMS wavelength ranges. This comparison shows that the effect of not using measurements below 300 nm on retrieval characteristics in the troposphere is insignificant. However, the stratospheric ozone information in terms of DFS decreases greatly from OMI to GEMS, by a factor of ∼2. The number of the independent pieces of information available from GEMS measurements is estimated to 3 on average in the stratosphere, with associated retrieval errors of ~1% in stratospheric column ozone. The difference between OMI and GEMS retrieval characteristics is apparent for retrieving ozone layers above ~20 km, with a reduction in the sensitivity and an increase in the retrieval errors for GEMS. We further investigate whether GEMS can resolve the stratospheric ozone variation observed from high vertical resolution Earth Observing System (EOS Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS. The differences in stratospheric ozone profiles between GEMS and MLS are comparable to those

  16. Visual working memory buffers information retrieved from visual long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Keisuke; Woodman, Geoffrey F

    2017-05-16

    Human memory is thought to consist of long-term storage and short-term storage mechanisms, the latter known as working memory. Although it has long been assumed that information retrieved from long-term memory is represented in working memory, we lack neural evidence for this and need neural measures that allow us to watch this retrieval into working memory unfold with high temporal resolution. Here, we show that human electrophysiology can be used to track information as it is brought back into working memory during retrieval from long-term memory. Specifically, we found that the retrieval of information from long-term memory was limited to just a few simple objects' worth of information at once, and elicited a pattern of neurophysiological activity similar to that observed when people encode new information into working memory. Our findings suggest that working memory is where information is buffered when being retrieved from long-term memory and reconcile current theories of memory retrieval with classic notions about the memory mechanisms involved.

  17. An information-processing model of three cortical regions: evidence in episodic memory retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Myeong-Ho; Goode, Adam; Stenger, V Andrew; Jung, Kwan-Jin; Carter, Cameron S; Anderson, John R

    2005-03-01

    ACT-R (Anderson, J.R., et al., 2003. An information-processing model of the BOLD response in symbol manipulation tasks. Psychon. Bull. Rev. 10, 241-261) relates the inferior dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex to a retrieval buffer that holds information retrieved from memory and the posterior parietal cortex to an imaginal buffer that holds problem representations. Because the number of changes in a problem representation is not necessarily correlated with retrieval difficulties, it is possible to dissociate prefrontal-parietal activations. In two fMRI experiments, we examined this dissociation using the fan effect paradigm. Experiment 1 compared a recognition task, in which representation requirement remains the same regardless of retrieval difficulty, with a recall task, in which both representation and retrieval loads increase with retrieval difficulty. In the recognition task, the prefrontal activation revealed a fan effect but not the parietal activation. In the recall task, both regions revealed fan effects. In Experiment 2, we compared visually presented stimuli and aurally presented stimuli using the recognition task. While only the prefrontal region revealed the fan effect, the activation patterns in the prefrontal and the parietal region did not differ by stimulus presentation modality. In general, these results provide support for the prefrontal-parietal dissociation in terms of retrieval and representation and the modality-independent nature of the information processed by these regions. Using ACT-R, we also provide computational models that explain patterns of fMRI responses in these two areas during recognition and recall.

  18. The retrieval of profile and chemical information from ground-based UV-visible spectroscopic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schofield, R.; Connor, B.J.; Kreher, K.; Johnston, P.V.; Rodgers, C.D.

    2004-01-01

    An algorithm has been developed to retrieve altitude information at different diurnal stages for trace gas species by combining direct-sun and zenith-sky UV-visible differential slant column density (DSCD) measurements. DSCDs are derived here using differential optical absorption spectroscopy. Combining the complementary zenith-sky measurements (sensitive to the stratosphere) with direct-sun measurements (sensitive to the troposphere) allows this vertical distinction. Trace gas species such as BrO and NO 2 have vertical profiles with strong diurnal dependence. Information about the diurnal variation is simultaneously retrieved with the altitude distribution of the trace gas. The retrieval is a formal optimal estimation profile retrieval, allowing a complete assessment of information content and errors

  19. Retrieval of Legal Information Through Discovery Layers: A Case Study Related to Indian Law Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kushwah, Shivpal Singh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this paper is to analyze and evaluate discovery layer search tools for retrieval of legal information in Indian law libraries. This paper covers current practices in legal information retrieval with special reference to Indian academic law libraries, and analyses its importance in the domain of law.Design/Methodology/Approach. A web survey and observational study method are used to collect the data. Data related to the discovery tools were collected using email and further discussion held with the discovery layer/ tool /product developers and their representatives.Findings. Results show that most of the Indian law libraries are subscribing to bundles of legal information resources such as Hein Online, JSTOR, LexisNexis Academic, Manupatra, Westlaw India, SCC web, AIR Online (CDROM, and so on. International legal and academic resources are compatible with discovery tools because they support various standards related to online publishing and dissemination such as OAI/PMH, Open URL, MARC21, and Z39.50, but Indian legal resources such as Manupatra, Air, and SCC are not compatible with the discovery layers. The central index is one of the important components in a discovery search interface, and discovery layer services/tools could be useful for Indian law libraries also if they can include multiple legal and academic resources in their central index. But present practices and observations reveal that discovery layers are not providing facility to cover legal information resources. Therefore, in the present form, discovery tools are not very useful; they are an incomplete and half solution for Indian libraries because all available Indian legal resources available in the law libraries are not covered.Originality/Value. Very limited research or published literature is available in the area of discovery layers and their compatibility with legal information resources.

  20. Children’s information retrieval: beyond examining search strategies and interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jochmann-Mannak, Hanna; Huibers, Theo W.C.; Sanders, T.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    The study of children’s information retrieval is still for the greater part untouched territory. Meanwhile, children can become lost in the digital information world, because they are confronted with search interfaces, both designed by and for adults. Most current research on children’s information

  1. A Computer-Based System Integrating Instruction and Information Retrieval: A Description of Some Methodological Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selig, Judith A.; And Others

    This report, summarizing the activities of the Vision Information Center (VIC) in the field of computer-assisted instruction from December, 1966 to August, 1967, describes the methodology used to load a large body of information--a programed text on basic opthalmology--onto a computer for subsequent information retrieval and computer-assisted…

  2. Designing and Implementing a Cross-Language Information Retrieval System Using Linguistic Corpora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Nezarat

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Information retrieval (IR is a crucial area of natural language processing (NLP and can be defined as finding documents whose content is relevant to the query need of a user. Cross-language information retrieval (CLIR refers to a kind of information retrieval in which the language of the query and that of searched document are different. In fact, it is a retrieval process where the user presents queries in one language to retrieve documents in another language. This paper tried to construct a bilingual lexicon of parallel chunks of English and Persian from two very large monolingual corpora an English-Persian parallel corpus which could be directly applied to cross-language information retrieval tasks. For this purpose, a statistical measure known as Association Score (AS was used to compute the association value between every two corresponding chunks in the corpus using a couple of complicated algorithms. Once the CLIR system was developed using this bilingual lexicon, an experiment was performed on a set of one hundred English and Persian phrases and collocations to see to what extend this system was effective in assisting the users find the most relevant and suitable equivalents of their queries in either language.

  3. An Agent-Based Framework for E-Commerce Information Retrieval Management Using Genetic Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floarea NASTASE

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the issue of improving retrieval performance management for retrieval from document collections that exist on the Internet. It also comes with a solution that uses the benefits of the agent technology and genetic algorithms in the process of the information retrieving management. The most important paradigms of information retrieval are mentioned having the goal to make more evident the advantages of using the genetic algorithms based one. Within the paper, also a genetic algorithm that can be use for the proposed solution is detailed and a comparative description between the dynamic and static proposed solution is made. In the end, new future directions are shown based on elements presented in this paper. The future results look very encouraging.

  4. INTEGRATION OF SPATIAL INFORMATION WITH COLOR FOR CONTENT RETRIEVAL OF REMOTE SENSING IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikesh Kumar Singh

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available There is rapid increase in image databases of remote sensing images due to image satellites with high resolution, commercial applications of remote sensing & high available bandwidth in last few years. The problem of content-based image retrieval (CBIR of remotely sensed images presents a major challenge not only because of the surprisingly increasing volume of images acquired from a wide range of sensors but also because of the complexity of images themselves. In this paper, a software system for content-based retrieval of remote sensing images using RGB and HSV color spaces is presented. Further, we also compare our results with spatiogram based content retrieval which integrates spatial information along with color histogram. Experimental results show that the integration of spatial information in color improves the image analysis of remote sensing data. In general, retrievals in HSV color space showed better performance than in RGB color space.

  5. Image retrieval by information fusion based on scalable vocabulary tree and robust Hausdorff distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Chang; Yu, Xiaoyang; Sun, Xiaoming; Yu, Boyang

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, Scalable Vocabulary Tree (SVT) has been shown to be effective in image retrieval. However, for general images where the foreground is the object to be recognized while the background is cluttered, the performance of the current SVT framework is restricted. In this paper, a new image retrieval framework that incorporates a robust distance metric and information fusion is proposed, which improves the retrieval performance relative to the baseline SVT approach. First, the visual words that represent the background are diminished by using a robust Hausdorff distance between different images. Second, image matching results based on three image signature representations are fused, which enhances the retrieval precision. We conducted intensive experiments on small-scale to large-scale image datasets: Corel-9, Corel-48, and PKU-198, where the proposed Hausdorff metric and information fusion outperforms the state-of-the-art methods by about 13, 15, and 15%, respectively.

  6. Information retrieval, critical appraisal and knowledge of evidence-based dentistry among Finnish dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, P; Virtanen, J I

    2017-11-01

    One of the core skills of competent dentist is the ability to search and analyse high-quality evidence. Problems in understanding the basic aspects of knowledge-based information may impede its implementation into clinical practice. We examined how Finnish dental students acquire scientific information and how familiar they are with methods for evaluating scientific evidence related to clinical questions. All fifth-year dental students (n = 120) at the three universities in Finland received a self-administered questionnaire. The three most commonly used sources of information were colleagues, the commercial Health Gate Portal for dental practitioners and personal lecture notes. Although students rarely read scientific journals, they did find that they possess at least passable or even good skills in literature retrieval. Three questions related to the appraisal of evidence in dentistry revealed that students' knowledge of evidence-based dentistry was inadequate to critically evaluate clinical research findings. Most students seem to lack knowledge of key methodological evidence-based terms. The present curricula in dental schools fail to encourage the students to search and acquire knowledge wider than their patients themselves do. Universities have the responsibility to teach dentists various methods of critical appraisal to cope with scientific information. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The Use of Metadata Visualisation Assist Information Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-01

    album title, the track length and the genre of music . Again, any of these pieces of information can be used to quickly search and locate specific...that person. Music files also have metadata tags, in a format called ID3. This usually contains information such as the artist, the song title, the...tracks, to provide more information about the entire music collection, or to find similar or diverse tracks within the collection. Metadata is

  8. Using pattern structures to support information retrieval with Formal Concept Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Codocedo , Victor; Lykourentzou , Ioanna; Astudillo , Hernan; Napoli , Amedeo

    2013-01-01

    International audience; In this paper we introduce a novel approach to information retrieval (IR) based on Formal Concept Analysis (FCA). The use of concept lattices to support the task of document retrieval in IR has proven effective since they allow querying in the space of terms modelled by concept intents and navigation in the space of documents modelled by concept extents. However, current approaches use binary representations to illustrate the relations between documents and terms (''do...

  9. On the Estimation and Use of Statistical Modelling in Information Retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Casper

    Automatic text processing often relies on assumptions about the distribution of some property (such as term frequency) in the data being processed. In information retrieval (IR) such assumptions may be contributed to (i) the absence of principled approaches for determining the correct statistical...... that assumptions regarding the distribution of dataset properties can be replaced with an effective, efficient and principled method for determining the best-fitting distribution and that using this distribution can lead to improved retrieval performance....

  10. Definition of an automatic information retrieval system independent from the data base used

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, E.R.

    1983-04-01

    A bibliographic information retrieval system using data stored at the standardized interchange format ISO 2709 or ANSI Z39.2, is specified. A set of comands for interchange format manipulation wich allows the data access at the logical level, achieving the data independence, are used. A data base description language, a storage structure and data base manipulation comands are specified, using retrieval techniques which consider the applications needs. (Author) [pt

  11. Interactions among emotional attention, encoding, and retrieval of ambiguous information: an eye-tracking study

    OpenAIRE

    Everaert, Jonas; Koster, Ernst

    2015-01-01

    Emotional biases in attention modulate encoding of emotional material into long-term memory, but little is known about the role of such attentional biases during emotional memory retrieval. The present study investigated how emotional biases in memory are related to attentional allocation during retrieval. Forty-nine individuals encoded emotionally positive and negative meanings derived from ambiguous information and then searched their memory for encoded meanings in response to a set of retr...

  12. Information retrieval from holographic interferograms: Fundamentals and problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vest, Charles M.

    1987-01-01

    Holographic interferograms can contain large amounts of information about flow and temperature fields. Their information content can be very high because they can be viewed from many different directions. This multidirectionality, and fringe localization add to the information contained in the fringe pattern if diffuse illumination is used. Additional information, and increased accuracy can be obtained through the use of dual reference wave holography to add reference fringes or to effect discrete phase shift or hetrodyne interferometry. Automated analysis of fringes is possible if interferograms are of simple structure and good quality. However, in practice a large number of practical problems can arise, so that a difficult image processing task results.

  13. Üstverinin Tam-Metin Bilgi Erişim Performansı Üzerindeki Etkisi: Küçük Ölçekli Türkçe Külliyat Üzerinde Deneysel Bir Araştırma / Impact of Metadata on Full-text Information Retrieval Performance: An Experimental Research on a Small Scale Turkish Corpus

    OpenAIRE

    Çapkın, Çağdaş

    2016-01-01

    Information institutions use text-based information retrieval systems to store, index and retrieve metadata, full-text, or both metadata and full-text (hybrid) contents. The aim of this research was to evaluate impact of these contents on information retrieval performance. For this purpose, metadata (MIR), full-text (FIR) and hybrid (HIR) content information retrieval systems were developed with default Lucene information retrieval model for a small scale Turkish corpus. In order to evaluate ...

  14. Distinct regions of prefrontal cortex are associated with the controlled retrieval and selection of social information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satpute, Ajay B; Badre, David; Ochsner, Kevin N

    2014-05-01

    Research in social neuroscience has uncovered a social knowledge network that is particularly attuned to making social judgments. However, the processes that are being performed by both regions within this network and those outside of this network that are nevertheless engaged in the service of making a social judgment remain unclear. To help address this, we drew upon research in semantic memory, which suggests that making a semantic judgment engages 2 distinct control processes: A controlled retrieval process, which aids in bringing goal-relevant information to mind from long-term stores, and a selection process, which aids in selecting the information that is goal-relevant from the information retrieved. In a neuroimaging study, we investigated whether controlled retrieval and selection for social information engage distinct portions of both the social knowledge network and regions outside this network. Controlled retrieval for social information engaged an anterior ventrolateral portion of the prefrontal cortex, whereas selection engaged both the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and temporoparietal junction within the social knowledge network. These results suggest that the social knowledge network may be more involved with the selection of social information than the controlled retrieval of it and incorporates lateral prefrontal regions in accessing memory for making social judgments.

  15. Infectious Cognition: Risk Perception Affects Socially Shared Retrieval-Induced Forgetting of Medical Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coman, Alin; Berry, Jessica N

    2015-12-01

    When speakers selectively retrieve previously learned information, listeners often concurrently, and covertly, retrieve their memories of that information. This concurrent retrieval typically enhances memory for mentioned information (the rehearsal effect) and impairs memory for unmentioned but related information (socially shared retrieval-induced forgetting, SSRIF), relative to memory for unmentioned and unrelated information. Building on research showing that anxiety leads to increased attention to threat-relevant information, we explored whether concurrent retrieval is facilitated in high-anxiety real-world contexts. Participants first learned category-exemplar facts about meningococcal disease. Following a manipulation of perceived risk of infection (low vs. high risk), they listened to a mock radio show in which some of the facts were selectively practiced. Final recall tests showed that the rehearsal effect was equivalent between the two risk conditions, but SSRIF was significantly larger in the high-risk than in the low-risk condition. Thus, the tendency to exaggerate consequences of news events was found to have deleterious consequences. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. A Compositional Relevance Model for Adaptive Information Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathe, Nathalie; Chen, James; Lu, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    There is a growing need for rapid and effective access to information in large electronic documentation systems. Access can be facilitated if information relevant in the current problem solving context can be automatically supplied to the user. This includes information relevant to particular user profiles, tasks being performed, and problems being solved. However most of this knowledge on contextual relevance is not found within the contents of documents, and current hypermedia tools do not provide any easy mechanism to let users add this knowledge to their documents. We propose a compositional relevance network to automatically acquire the context in which previous information was found relevant. The model records information on the relevance of references based on user feedback for specific queries and contexts. It also generalizes such information to derive relevant references for similar queries and contexts. This model lets users filter information by context of relevance, build personalized views of documents over time, and share their views with other users. It also applies to any type of multimedia information. Compared to other approaches, it is less costly and doesn't require any a priori statistical computation, nor an extended training period. It is currently being implemented into the Computer Integrated Documentation system which enables integration of various technical documents in a hypertext framework.

  17. SPIRAL (Sandia's Program for Information Retrieval and Listing)

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Leslie E.

    The general scope of SPIRAL is storage of free-flowing text information into a machine-readable library and recall of any portions of this stored information that are relevant to an inquiry. The major objectives in the design of the system were (1) to make it easy to use by persons unfamiliar with computer systems; and (2) to make it efficient, in…

  18. NASA Access Mechanism - Graphical user interface information retrieval system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Judy F.; Generous, Curtis; Duncan, Denise

    1993-01-01

    Access to online information sources of aerospace, scientific, and engineering data, a mission focus for NASA's Scientific and Technical Information Program, has always been limited by factors such as telecommunications, query language syntax, lack of standardization in the information, and the lack of adequate tools to assist in searching. Today, the NASA STI Program's NASA Access Mechanism (NAM) prototype offers a solution to these problems by providing the user with a set of tools that provide a graphical interface to remote, heterogeneous, and distributed information in a manner adaptable to both casual and expert users. Additionally, the NAM provides access to many Internet-based services such as Electronic Mail, the Wide Area Information Servers system, Peer Locating tools, and electronic bulletin boards.

  19. NASA access mechanism: Graphical user interface information retrieval system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Judy; Generous, Curtis; Duncan, Denise

    1993-01-01

    Access to online information sources of aerospace, scientific, and engineering data, a mission focus for NASA's Scientific and Technical Information Program, has always been limited to factors such as telecommunications, query language syntax, lack of standardization in the information, and the lack of adequate tools to assist in searching. Today, the NASA STI Program's NASA Access Mechanism (NAM) prototype offers a solution to these problems by providing the user with a set of tools that provide a graphical interface to remote, heterogeneous, and distributed information in a manner adaptable to both casual and expert users. Additionally, the NAM provides access to many Internet-based services such as Electronic Mail, the Wide Area Information Servers system, Peer Locating tools, and electronic bulletin boards.

  20. OntoTrader: An Ontological Web Trading Agent Approach for Environmental Information Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Iribarne

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern Web-based Information Systems (WIS are becoming increasingly necessary to provide support for users who are in different places with different types of information, by facilitating their access to the information, decision making, workgroups, and so forth. Design of these systems requires the use of standardized methods and techniques that enable a common vocabulary to be defined to represent the underlying knowledge. Thus, mediation elements such as traders enrich the interoperability of web components in open distributed systems. These traders must operate with other third-party traders and/or agents in the system, which must also use a common vocabulary for communication between them. This paper presents the OntoTrader architecture, an Ontological Web Trading agent based on the OMG ODP trading standard. It also presents the ontology needed by some system agents to communicate with the trading agent and the behavioral framework for the SOLERES OntoTrader agent, an Environmental Management Information System (EMIS. This framework implements a “Query-Searching/Recovering-Response” information retrieval model using a trading service, SPARQL notation, and the JADE platform. The paper also presents reflection, delegation and, federation mediation models and describes formalization, an experimental testing environment in three scenarios, and a tool which allows our proposal to be evaluated and validated.

  1. Interactions among emotional attention, encoding, and retrieval of ambiguous information: An eye-tracking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everaert, Jonas; Koster, Ernst H W

    2015-10-01

    Emotional biases in attention modulate encoding of emotional material into long-term memory, but little is known about the role of such attentional biases during emotional memory retrieval. The present study investigated how emotional biases in memory are related to attentional allocation during retrieval. Forty-nine individuals encoded emotionally positive and negative meanings derived from ambiguous information and then searched their memory for encoded meanings in response to a set of retrieval cues. The remember/know/new procedure was used to classify memories as recollection-based or familiarity-based, and gaze behavior was monitored throughout the task to measure attentional allocation. We found that a bias in sustained attention during recollection-based, but not familiarity-based, retrieval predicted subsequent memory bias toward positive versus negative material following encoding. Thus, during emotional memory retrieval, attention affects controlled forms of retrieval (i.e., recollection) but does not modulate relatively automatic, familiarity-based retrieval. These findings enhance understanding of how distinct components of attention regulate the emotional content of memories. Implications for theoretical models and emotion regulation are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. User centered and ontology based information retrieval system for life sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sy, Mohameth-François; Ranwez, Sylvie; Montmain, Jacky; Regnault, Armelle; Crampes, Michel; Ranwez, Vincent

    2012-01-25

    Because of the increasing number of electronic resources, designing efficient tools to retrieve and exploit them is a major challenge. Some improvements have been offered by semantic Web technologies and applications based on domain ontologies. In life science, for instance, the Gene Ontology is widely exploited in genomic applications and the Medical Subject Headings is the basis of biomedical publications indexation and information retrieval process proposed by PubMed. However current search engines suffer from two main drawbacks: there is limited user interaction with the list of retrieved resources and no explanation for their adequacy to the query is provided. Users may thus be confused by the selection and have no idea on how to adapt their queries so that the results match their expectations. This paper describes an information retrieval system that relies on domain ontology to widen the set of relevant documents that is retrieved and that uses a graphical rendering of query results to favor user interactions. Semantic proximities between ontology concepts and aggregating models are used to assess documents adequacy with respect to a query. The selection of documents is displayed in a semantic map to provide graphical indications that make explicit to what extent they match the user's query; this man/machine interface favors a more interactive and iterative exploration of data corpus, by facilitating query concepts weighting and visual explanation. We illustrate the benefit of using this information retrieval system on two case studies one of which aiming at collecting human genes related to transcription factors involved in hemopoiesis pathway. The ontology based information retrieval system described in this paper (OBIRS) is freely available at: http://www.ontotoolkit.mines-ales.fr/ObirsClient/. This environment is a first step towards a user centred application in which the system enlightens relevant information to provide decision help.

  3. User centered and ontology based information retrieval system for life sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sy Mohameth-François

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of the increasing number of electronic resources, designing efficient tools to retrieve and exploit them is a major challenge. Some improvements have been offered by semantic Web technologies and applications based on domain ontologies. In life science, for instance, the Gene Ontology is widely exploited in genomic applications and the Medical Subject Headings is the basis of biomedical publications indexation and information retrieval process proposed by PubMed. However current search engines suffer from two main drawbacks: there is limited user interaction with the list of retrieved resources and no explanation for their adequacy to the query is provided. Users may thus be confused by the selection and have no idea on how to adapt their queries so that the results match their expectations. Results This paper describes an information retrieval system that relies on domain ontology to widen the set of relevant documents that is retrieved and that uses a graphical rendering of query results to favor user interactions. Semantic proximities between ontology concepts and aggregating models are used to assess documents adequacy with respect to a query. The selection of documents is displayed in a semantic map to provide graphical indications that make explicit to what extent they match the user's query; this man/machine interface favors a more interactive and iterative exploration of data corpus, by facilitating query concepts weighting and visual explanation. We illustrate the benefit of using this information retrieval system on two case studies one of which aiming at collecting human genes related to transcription factors involved in hemopoiesis pathway. Conclusions The ontology based information retrieval system described in this paper (OBIRS is freely available at: http://www.ontotoolkit.mines-ales.fr/ObirsClient/. This environment is a first step towards a user centred application in which the system enlightens

  4. Determinants to trigger memory reconsolidation: The role of retrieval and updating information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Ortiz, Carlos J; Bermúdez-Rattoni, Federico

    2017-07-01

    Long-term memories can undergo destabilization/restabilization processes, collectively called reconsolidation. However, the parameters that trigger memory reconsolidation are poorly understood and are a matter of intense investigation. Particularly, memory retrieval is widely held as requisite to initiate reconsolidation. This assumption makes sense since only relevant cues will induce reconsolidation of a specific memory. However, recent studies show that pharmacological inhibition of retrieval does not avoid memory from undergoing reconsolidation, indicating that memory reconsolidation occurs through a process that can be dissociated from retrieval. We propose that retrieval is not a unitary process but has two dissociable components; one leading to the expression of memory and the other to reconsolidation, referred herein as executer and integrator respectively. The executer would lead to the behavioral expression of the memory. This component would be the one disrupted on the studies that show reconsolidation independence from retrieval. The integrator would deal with reconsolidation. This component of retrieval would lead to long-term memory destabilization when specific conditions are met. We think that an important number of reports are consistent with the hypothesis that reconsolidation is only initiated when updating information is acquired. We suggest that the integrator would initiate reconsolidation to integrate updating information into long-term memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. 'Meatball searching' - The adversarial approach to online information retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, R. F.

    1985-01-01

    It is proposed that the different styles of online searching can be described as either formal (highly precise) or informal with the needs of the client dictating which is most applicable at a particular moment. The background and personality of the searcher also come into play. Particular attention is focused on meatball searching which is a form of online searching characterized by deliberate vagueness. It requires generally comprehensive searches, often on unusual topics and with tight deadlines. It is most likely to occur in search centers serving many different disciplines and levels of client information sophistication. Various information needs are outlined as well as the laws of meatball searching and the adversarial approach. Traits and characteristics important to sucessful searching include: (1) concept analysis, (2) flexibility of thinking, (3) ability to think in synonyms and (4) anticipation of variant word forms and spellings.

  6. Hybrid iterative phase retrieval algorithm based on fusion of intensity information in three defocused planes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fa; Tan, Qiaofeng; Yan, Yingbai; Jin, Guofan

    2007-10-01

    Study of phase retrieval technology is quite meaningful, for its wide applications related to many domains, such as adaptive optics, detection of laser quality, precise measurement of optical surface, and so on. Here a hybrid iterative phase retrieval algorithm is proposed, based on fusion of the intensity information in three defocused planes. First the conjugate gradient algorithm is adapted to achieve a coarse solution of phase distribution in the input plane; then the iterative angular spectrum method is applied in succession for better retrieval result. This algorithm is still applicable even when the exact shape and size of the aperture in the input plane are unknown. Moreover, this algorithm always exhibits good convergence, i.e., the retrieved results are insensitive to the chosen positions of the three defocused planes and the initial guess of complex amplitude in the input plane, which has been proved by both simulations and further experiments.

  7. Optically secured information retrieval using two authenticated phase-only masks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaogang; Chen, Wen; Mei, Shengtao; Chen, Xudong

    2015-10-23

    We propose an algorithm for jointly designing two phase-only masks (POMs) that allow for the encryption and noise-free retrieval of triple images. The images required for optical retrieval are first stored in quick-response (QR) codes for noise-free retrieval and flexible readout. Two sparse POMs are respectively calculated from two different images used as references for authentication based on modified Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm (GSA) and pixel extraction, and are then used as support constraints in a modified double-phase retrieval algorithm (MPRA), together with the above-mentioned QR codes. No visible information about the target images or the reference images can be obtained from each of these authenticated POMs. This approach allows users to authenticate the two POMs used for image reconstruction without visual observation of the reference images. It also allows user to friendly access and readout with mobile devices.

  8. A Retrospective and Prospective View of Information Retrieval and Artificial Intelligence in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfield, Eugene

    2001-01-01

    Traces the development of information retrieval/services and suggests that the creation of large digital libraries seems inevitable. Examines possibilities for increasing electronic access and the role of artificial intelligence. Highlights include: searching full text; sending full texts; selective dissemination of information (SDI) profiling and…

  9. AEROMETRIC INFORMATION RETRIEVAL SYSTEM (AIRS) -GEOGRAPHIC, COMMON, AND MAINTENANCE SUBSYSTEM (GCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerometric Information Retrieval System (AIRS) is a computer-based repository of information about airborne pollution in the United States and various World Health Organization (WHO) member countries. AIRS is administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and runs on t...

  10. Information Retrieval Strategies of Millennial Undergraduate Students in Web and Library Database Searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Brandi

    2009-01-01

    Millennial students make up a large portion of undergraduate students attending colleges and universities, and they have a variety of online resources available to them to complete academically related information searches, primarily Web based and library-based online information retrieval systems. The content, ease of use, and required search…

  11. Not on the Same Page: Undergraduates' Information Retrieval in Electronic and Print Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Selinda Adelle; Hoffmann, Kristin; Dawson, Diane

    2010-01-01

    Academic libraries are increasingly collecting e-books, but little research has investigated how students use e-books compared to print texts. This study used a prompted think-aloud method to gain an understanding of the information retrieval behavior of students in both formats. Qualitative analysis identified themes that will inform instruction…

  12. Retrieval program system of Chinese Evaluated (frequently useful) Nuclear Decay Database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xiaolong; Zhou Chunmei

    1995-01-01

    The Chinese Evaluated (frequently useful) Nuclear Decay Database has been set up in MICRO-VAX-11 computer at Chinese Nuclear Data Center (CNDC). For users' convenience, the retrieval program system of the database is written. Retrieval can be carried out for one nucleus or multi-nucleus. The retrieved results can be displayed on terminal screen or output to M3081 printer and laser printer in ENSDF format, table report or scheme diagrams

  13. The Role of the Medical Students’ Emotional Mood in Information Retrieval from the Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Yari Zanganeh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Online information retrieval is a process the result of which is influenced by the changes in the emotional moods of the user. It seems reasonable to include emotional aspects in developing information retrieval systems in order to optimize the experience of the users. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the role of positive and negative affects in the information seeking process on the web among students of medical sciences. Methods: From the methodological perspective, the present study was an experimental and applied research. According to the nature of the experimental method, observation and questionnaire were used. The participants were the students of various fields of Medical Sciences. The research sample included 50 students of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences selected through purposeful sampling method; they regularly used World Wide Web and google engine for information retrieval in educational, Research, personal, or managerial activities. In order to collect the data, search tasks were characterized by the topic, sequence in a search process, difficulty level, and searcher’s interest (simple in a task. Face and content validity of the questionnaire were confirmed by the experts. Reliability of the questionnaire was tested by Alpha Cronbach. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (PA=0.777, NA=0.754 showed a high rate of reliability in a PANAS questionnaire. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS, version 20.0; also, to test the research hypothesis, T-Test and pair Samples T-Test were used. The P0.05. Conclusion: Information retrieval systems in the Web should identify positive and negative affects in the information seeking process in a set of perceiving signs in human interaction with the computer. The automatic identification of the users’ affect opens new dimensions into users moderators and information retrieval systems for successful retrieval from the Web.

  14. Beyond the Keyword Barrier: Knowledge-Based Information Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauldin, Michael; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Describes the inability of traditional subject index terms to represent relational information among concepts, and the development of frame based knowledge representation methods that provide relational semantic representations of documents and user queries. The discussion covers research in user interfaces and automatic document classifications,…

  15. Request language of the JINR information retrieval system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnaudov, D.D.; Kozhenkova, Z.I.

    1975-01-01

    A classification of operating languages of information retreival systems (IRS) is given. A justification is made for the selection of the descriptor no-grammar language for coding documents and queries in the JINR IRS. A Boolean form query minimization algorithm is applied

  16. Semi-automatic retrieval of definitional information: a northern Sotho ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work with PDFs, Highwire Press provides a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs. Alternatively, you can download the PDF file directly to your computer, from where it can be opened using a PDF reader. To download the PDF, click the Download link ...

  17. Professional assistance to users of information retrieval tools at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work with PDFs, Highwire Press provides a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs. Alternatively, you can download the PDF file directly to your computer, from where it can be opened using a PDF reader. To download the PDF, click the Download link ...

  18. Perspectives on Adaptivity in Information Retrieval Interaction (PAIRI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingwersen, Peter; Larsen, Birger; Kelly, Diane

    2010-01-01

    Adaptivity in IR interactions requires the IR systems adapting to users’ situations and the users adapting to the systems. System adaption entails dynamic user modeling, effective information architecture and enhanced search features such as search integration and relevance feedback; user adaptat...

  19. Content-Based Information Retrieval from Forensic Databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geradts, Z.J.M.H.

    2002-01-01

    In forensic science, the number of image databases is growing rapidly. For this reason, it is necessary to have a proper procedure for searching in these images databases based on content. The use of image databases results in more solved crimes; furthermore, statistical information can be obtained

  20. Toward Studying Music Cognition with Information Retrieval Techniques: Lessons Learned from the OpenMIIR Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stober, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    As an emerging sub-field of music information retrieval (MIR), music imagery information retrieval (MIIR) aims to retrieve information from brain activity recorded during music cognition-such as listening to or imagining music pieces. This is a highly inter-disciplinary endeavor that requires expertise in MIR as well as cognitive neuroscience and psychology. The OpenMIIR initiative strives to foster collaborations between these fields to advance the state of the art in MIIR. As a first step, electroencephalography (EEG) recordings of music perception and imagination have been made publicly available, enabling MIR researchers to easily test and adapt their existing approaches for music analysis like fingerprinting, beat tracking or tempo estimation on this new kind of data. This paper reports on first results of MIIR experiments using these OpenMIIR datasets and points out how these findings could drive new research in cognitive neuroscience.

  1. Toward Studying Music Cognition with Information Retrieval Techniques: Lessons Learned from the OpenMIIR Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Stober

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available As an emerging sub-field of music information retrieval (MIR, music imagery information retrieval (MIIR aims to retrieve information from brain activity recorded during music cognition–such as listening to or imagining music pieces. This is a highly inter-disciplinary endeavor that requires expertise in MIR as well as cognitive neuroscience and psychology. The OpenMIIR initiative strives to foster collaborations between these fields to advance the state of the art in MIIR. As a first step, electroencephalography (EEG recordings of music perception and imagination have been made publicly available, enabling MIR researchers to easily test and adapt their existing approaches for music analysis like fingerprinting, beat tracking or tempo estimation on this new kind of data. This paper reports on first results of MIIR experiments using these OpenMIIR datasets and points out how these findings could drive new research in cognitive neuroscience.

  2. Energy for agriculture. A computerized information retrieval system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stout, B.A.; Myers, C.A. (comps.)

    1979-12-01

    Energy may come from the sun or the earth or be the product of plant materials or agricultural wastes. Whatever its source, energy is indispensable to our way of life, beginning with the production, processing, and distribution of abundant, high quality food and fiber supplies. This specialized bibliography on the subject of energy for agriculture contains 2613 citations to the literature for 1973 through May 1979. Originally issued by Michigan State University (MSU), it is being reprinted and distributed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The literature citations will be incorporated into AGRICOLA (Agricultural On-Line Access), the comprehensive bibliographic data base maintained by Technical Information Systems (TIS), a component of USDA's Science and Education Administration (SEA). The citations and the listing of research projects will be combined with other relevant references to provide a continuously updated source of information on energy programs in the agricultural field. No abstracts are included.

  3. Anonymous Authentication Systems Based on Private Information Retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, Toru; Inenaga, Shunsuke; Ikeda, Daisuke; Baba, Kensuke; Yasuura, Hiroto

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on authentication with three types of entities: a user who sends an authentication request, an authentication-server who receives and verifies the request, and a database who supplies the authentication-server with information for verifying the request. This paper presents novel authentication protocols that satisfy the following important properties: (1) secure against replay attacks, (2) the database(s) cannot identify which user is authenticating and (3) the authenticati...

  4. A Study of Organizational Information Search, Acquisition, Storage and Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-01

    on organizational structures and processes are akin to the effects on the coping behaviors of individuals (Driver and Streufert, 1969; Farace , Monge...Crriizaiiorial Environment. Human Relations, 18: 21-32. Farace , R.B., Monge, P. R., & Russell, H. M. 1977. Crnmunicatino and Organizing. Reading, MA: Addison...inputs required for an organization to perform its tasks ( Farace , Monge, and Russell, 1977). Information load is reflected in the amount of

  5. A LDA-based approach to promoting ranking diversity for genomics information retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Yin, Xiaoshi; Li, Zhoujun; Hu, Xiaohua; Huang, Jimmy Xiangji

    2012-06-11

    In the biomedical domain, there are immense data and tremendous increase of genomics and biomedical relevant publications. The wealth of information has led to an increasing amount of interest in and need for applying information retrieval techniques to access the scientific literature in genomics and related biomedical disciplines. In many cases, the desired information of a query asked by biologists is a list of a certain type of entities covering different aspects that are related to the question, such as cells, genes, diseases, proteins, mutations, etc. Hence, it is important of a biomedical IR system to be able to provide relevant and diverse answers to fulfill biologists' information needs. However traditional IR model only concerns with the relevance between retrieved documents and user query, but does not take redundancy between retrieved documents into account. This will lead to high redundancy and low diversity in the retrieval ranked lists. In this paper, we propose an approach which employs a topic generative model called Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) to promoting ranking diversity for biomedical information retrieval. Different from other approaches or models which consider aspects on word level, our approach assumes that aspects should be identified by the topics of retrieved documents. We present LDA model to discover topic distribution of retrieval passages and word distribution of each topic dimension, and then re-rank retrieval results with topic distribution similarity between passages based on N-size slide window. We perform our approach on TREC 2007 Genomics collection and two distinctive IR baseline runs, which can achieve 8% improvement over the highest Aspect MAP reported in TREC 2007 Genomics track. The proposed method is the first study of adopting topic model to genomics information retrieval, and demonstrates its effectiveness in promoting ranking diversity as well as in improving relevance of ranked lists of genomics search

  6. The Wikipedia Image Retrieval Task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Tsikrika (Theodora); J. Kludas

    2010-01-01

    htmlabstractThe wikipedia image retrieval task at ImageCLEF provides a testbed for the system-oriented evaluation of visual information retrieval from a collection of Wikipedia images. The aim is to investigate the effectiveness of retrieval approaches that exploit textual and visual evidence in the

  7. Episodic Memory Retrieval Functionally Relies on Very Rapid Reactivation of Sensory Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldhauser, Gerd T; Braun, Verena; Hanslmayr, Simon

    2016-01-06

    Episodic memory retrieval is assumed to rely on the rapid reactivation of sensory information that was present during encoding, a process termed "ecphory." We investigated the functional relevance of this scarcely understood process in two experiments in human participants. We presented stimuli to the left or right of fixation at encoding, followed by an episodic memory test with centrally presented retrieval cues. This allowed us to track the reactivation of lateralized sensory memory traces during retrieval. Successful episodic retrieval led to a very early (∼100-200 ms) reactivation of lateralized alpha/beta (10-25 Hz) electroencephalographic (EEG) power decreases in the visual cortex contralateral to the visual field at encoding. Applying rhythmic transcranial magnetic stimulation to interfere with early retrieval processing in the visual cortex led to decreased episodic memory performance specifically for items encoded in the visual field contralateral to the site of stimulation. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that episodic memory functionally relies on very rapid reactivation of sensory information. Remembering personal experiences requires a "mental time travel" to revisit sensory information perceived in the past. This process is typically described as a controlled, relatively slow process. However, by using electroencephalography to measure neural activity with a high time resolution, we show that such episodic retrieval entails a very rapid reactivation of sensory brain areas. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation to alter brain function during retrieval revealed that this early sensory reactivation is causally relevant for conscious remembering. These results give first neural evidence for a functional, preconscious component of episodic remembering. This provides new insight into the nature of human memory and may help in the understanding of psychiatric conditions that involve the automatic intrusion of unwanted memories. Copyright

  8. Better late than never: information retrieval from black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunstein, Samuel L; Pirandola, Stefano; Życzkowski, Karol

    2013-03-08

    We show that, in order to preserve the equivalence principle until late times in unitarily evaporating black holes, the thermodynamic entropy of a black hole must be primarily entropy of entanglement across the event horizon. For such black holes, we show that the information entering a black hole becomes encoded in correlations within a tripartite quantum state, the quantum analogue of a one-time pad, and is only decoded into the outgoing radiation very late in the evaporation. This behavior generically describes the unitary evaporation of highly entangled black holes and requires no specially designed evolution. Our work suggests the existence of a matter-field sum rule for any fundamental theory.

  9. An evaluation of canonical forms for non-rigid 3D shape retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Pickup, David; Liu, Juncheng; Sun, Xianfang; Rosin, Paul L.; Martin, Ralph R.; Cheng, Zhiquan; Lian, Zhouhui; Nie, Sipin; Jin, Longcun; Shamai, Gil; Sahillioğlu, Yusuf; Kavan, Ladislav

    2018-01-01

    Canonical forms attempt to factor out a non-rigid shape’s pose, giving a pose-neutral shape. This opens up the\\ud possibility of using methods originally designed for rigid shape retrieval for the task of non-rigid shape retrieval.\\ud We extend our recent benchmark for testing canonical form algorithms. Our new benchmark is used to evaluate a\\ud greater number of state-of-the-art canonical forms, on five recent non-rigid retrieval datasets, within two different\\ud retrieval frameworks. A tota...

  10. An Intelligent Information Retrieval Approach Based on Two Degrees of Uncertainty Fuzzy Ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Hourali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the voluminous studies in the field of intelligent retrieval systems, effective retrieving of information has been remained an important unsolved problem. Implementations of different conceptual knowledge in the information retrieval process such as ontology have been considered as a solution to enhance the quality of results. Furthermore, the conceptual formalism supported by typical ontology may not be sufficient to represent uncertainty information due to the lack of clear-cut boundaries between concepts of the domains. To tackle this type of problems, one possible solution is to insert fuzzy logic into ontology construction process. In this article, a novel approach for fuzzy ontology generation with two uncertainty degrees is proposed. Hence, by implementing linguistic variables, uncertainty level in domain's concepts (Software Maintenance Engineering (SME domain has been modeled, and ontology relations have been modeled by fuzzy theory consequently. Then, we combined these uncertain models and proposed a new ontology with two degrees of uncertainty both in concept expression and relation expression. The generated fuzzy ontology was implemented for expansion of initial user's queries in SME domain. Experimental results showed that the proposed model has better overall retrieval performance comparing to keyword-based or crisp ontology-based retrieval systems.

  11. Improving information retrieval using Medical Subject Headings Concepts: a test case on rare and chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmoni, Stéfan J; Soualmia, Lina F; Letord, Catherine; Jaulent, Marie-Christine; Griffon, Nicolas; Thirion, Benoît; Névéol, Aurélie

    2012-07-01

    As more scientific work is published, it is important to improve access to the biomedical literature. Since 2000, when Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Concepts were introduced, the MeSH Thesaurus has been concept based. Nevertheless, information retrieval is still performed at the MeSH Descriptor or Supplementary Concept level. The study assesses the benefit of using MeSH Concepts for indexing and information retrieval. Three sets of queries were built for thirty-two rare diseases and twenty-two chronic diseases: (1) using PubMed Automatic Term Mapping (ATM), (2) using Catalog and Index of French-language Health Internet (CISMeF) ATM, and (3) extrapolating the MEDLINE citations that should be indexed with a MeSH Concept. Type 3 queries retrieve significantly fewer results than type 1 or type 2 queries (about 18,000 citations versus 200,000 for rare diseases; about 300,000 citations versus 2,000,000 for chronic diseases). CISMeF ATM also provides better precision than PubMed ATM for both disease categories. Using MeSH Concept indexing instead of ATM is theoretically possible to improve retrieval performance with the current indexing policy. However, using MeSH Concept information retrieval and indexing rules would be a fundamentally better approach. These modifications have already been implemented in the CISMeF search engine.

  12. Hospital nurses' information retrieval behaviours in relation to evidence based nursing: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alving, Berit Elisabeth; Christensen, Janne Buck; Thrysøe, Lars

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to provide an overview of the information retrieval behaviour of clinical nurses, in terms of the use of databases and other information resources and their frequency of use. Systematic searches carried out in five databases and handsearching were used to identify the studies from 2010 to 2016, with a populations, exposures and outcomes (PEO) search strategy, focusing on the question: In which databases or other information resources do hospital nurses search for evidence based information, and how often? Of 5272 titles retrieved based on the search strategy, only nine studies fulfilled the criteria for inclusion. The studies are from the United States, Canada, Taiwan and Nigeria. The results show that hospital nurses' primary choice of source for evidence based information is Google and peers, while bibliographic databases such as PubMed are secondary choices. Data on frequency are only included in four of the studies, and data are heterogenous. The reasons for choosing Google and peers are primarily lack of time; lack of information; lack of retrieval skills; or lack of training in database searching. Only a few studies are published on clinical nurses' retrieval behaviours, and more studies are needed from Europe and Australia. © 2018 Health Libraries Group.

  13. A Survey: Framework of an Information Retrieval for Malay Translated Hadith Document

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkefli Nurul Syeilla Syazhween

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews and analyses the limitation of the existing method used in the IR process in retrieving Malay Translated Hadith documents related to the search request. Traditional Malay Translated Hadith retrieval system has not focused on semantic extraction from text. The bag-of-words representation ignores the conceptual similarity of information in the query text and documents, which produce unsatisfactory retrieval results. Therefore, a more efficient IR framework is needed. This paper claims that the significant information extraction and subject-related information are actually important because the clues from this information can be used to search and find the relevance document to a query. Also, unimportant information can be discarded to represent the document content. So, semantic understanding of query and document is necessary to improve the effectiveness and accuracy of retrieval results for this domain study. Therefore, advance research is needed and it will be experimented in the future work. It is hoped that it will help users to search and find information regarding to the Malay Translated Hadith document.

  14. Tropospheric methanol observations from space: retrieval evaluation and constraints on the seasonality of biogenic emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. C. Wells

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Methanol retrievals from nadir-viewing space-based sensors offer powerful new information for quantifying methanol emissions on a global scale. Here we apply an ensemble of aircraft observations over North America to evaluate new methanol measurements from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES on the Aura satellite, and combine the TES data with observations from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI on the MetOp-A satellite to investigate the seasonality of methanol emissions from northern midlatitude ecosystems. Using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model as an intercomparison platform, we find that the TES retrieval performs well when the degrees of freedom for signal (DOFS are above 0.5, in which case the model:TES regressions are generally consistent with the model:aircraft comparisons. Including retrievals with DOFS below 0.5 degrades the comparisons, as these are excessively influenced by the a priori. The comparisons suggest DOFS >0.5 as a minimum threshold for interpreting retrievals of trace gases with a weak tropospheric signal. We analyze one full year of satellite observations and find that GEOS-Chem, driven with MEGANv2.1 biogenic emissions, underestimates observed methanol concentrations throughout the midlatitudes in springtime, with the timing of the seasonal peak in model emissions 1–2 months too late. We attribute this discrepancy to an underestimate of emissions from new leaves in MEGAN, and apply the satellite data to better quantify the seasonal change in methanol emissions for midlatitude ecosystems. The derived parameters (relative emission factors of 11.0, 0.26, 0.12 and 3.0 for new, growing, mature, and old leaves, respectively, plus a leaf area index activity factor of 0.5 for expanding canopies with leaf area index <1.2 provide a more realistic simulation of seasonal methanol concentrations in midlatitudes on the basis of both the IASI and TES measurements.

  15. Understanding vaccination resistance: vaccine search term selection bias and the valence of retrieved information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Jeanette B; Bell, Robert A

    2014-10-07

    Dubious vaccination-related information on the Internet leads some parents to opt out of vaccinating their children. To determine if negative, neutral and positive search terms retrieve vaccination information that differs in valence and confirms searchers' assumptions about vaccination. A content analysis of first-page Google search results was conducted using three negative, three neutral, and three positive search terms for the concepts "vaccine," "vaccination," and "MMR"; 84 of the 90 websites retrieved met inclusion requirements. Two coders independently and reliably coded for the presence or absence of each of 15 myths about vaccination (e.g., "vaccines cause autism"), statements that countered these myths, and recommendations for or against vaccination. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Across all websites, at least one myth was perpetuated on 16.7% of websites and at least one myth was countered on 64.3% of websites. The mean number of myths perpetuated on websites retrieved with negative, neutral, and positive search terms, respectively, was 1.93, 0.53, and 0.40. The mean number of myths countered on websites retrieved with negative, neutral, and positive search terms, respectively, was 3.0, 3.27, and 2.87. Explicit recommendations regarding vaccination were offered on 22.6% of websites. A recommendation against vaccination was more often made on websites retrieved with negative search terms (37.5% of recommendations) than on websites retrieved with neutral (12.5%) or positive (0%) search terms. The concerned parent who seeks information about the risks of childhood immunizations will find more websites that perpetuate vaccine myths and recommend against vaccination than the parent who seeks information about the benefits of vaccination. This suggests that search term valence can lead to online information that supports concerned parents' misconceptions about vaccines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A Part-Of-Speech term weighting scheme for biomedical information retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanshan; Wu, Stephen; Li, Dingcheng; Mehrabi, Saeed; Liu, Hongfang

    2016-10-01

    In the era of digitalization, information retrieval (IR), which retrieves and ranks documents from large collections according to users' search queries, has been popularly applied in the biomedical domain. Building patient cohorts using electronic health records (EHRs) and searching literature for topics of interest are some IR use cases. Meanwhile, natural language processing (NLP), such as tokenization or Part-Of-Speech (POS) tagging, has been developed for processing clinical documents or biomedical literature. We hypothesize that NLP can be incorporated into IR to strengthen the conventional IR models. In this study, we propose two NLP-empowered IR models, POS-BoW and POS-MRF, which incorporate automatic POS-based term weighting schemes into bag-of-word (BoW) and Markov Random Field (MRF) IR models, respectively. In the proposed models, the POS-based term weights are iteratively calculated by utilizing a cyclic coordinate method where golden section line search algorithm is applied along each coordinate to optimize the objective function defined by mean average precision (MAP). In the empirical experiments, we used the data sets from the Medical Records track in Text REtrieval Conference (TREC) 2011 and 2012 and the Genomics track in TREC 2004. The evaluation on TREC 2011 and 2012 Medical Records tracks shows that, for the POS-BoW models, the mean improvement rates for IR evaluation metrics, MAP, bpref, and P@10, are 10.88%, 4.54%, and 3.82%, compared to the BoW models; and for the POS-MRF models, these rates are 13.59%, 8.20%, and 8.78%, compared to the MRF models. Additionally, we experimentally verify that the proposed weighting approach is superior to the simple heuristic and frequency based weighting approaches, and validate our POS category selection. Using the optimal weights calculated in this experiment, we tested the proposed models on the TREC 2004 Genomics track and obtained average of 8.63% and 10.04% improvement rates for POS-BoW and POS

  17. Adaptation of machine translation for multilingual information retrieval in the medical domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecina, Pavel; Dušek, Ondřej; Goeuriot, Lorraine; Hajič, Jan; Hlaváčová, Jaroslava; Jones, Gareth J F; Kelly, Liadh; Leveling, Johannes; Mareček, David; Novák, Michal; Popel, Martin; Rosa, Rudolf; Tamchyna, Aleš; Urešová, Zdeňka

    2014-07-01

    We investigate machine translation (MT) of user search queries in the context of cross-lingual information retrieval (IR) in the medical domain. The main focus is on techniques to adapt MT to increase translation quality; however, we also explore MT adaptation to improve effectiveness of cross-lingual IR. Our MT system is Moses, a state-of-the-art phrase-based statistical machine translation system. The IR system is based on the BM25 retrieval model implemented in the Lucene search engine. The MT techniques employed in this work include in-domain training and tuning, intelligent training data selection, optimization of phrase table configuration, compound splitting, and exploiting synonyms as translation variants. The IR methods include morphological normalization and using multiple translation variants for query expansion. The experiments are performed and thoroughly evaluated on three language pairs: Czech-English, German-English, and French-English. MT quality is evaluated on data sets created within the Khresmoi project and IR effectiveness is tested on the CLEF eHealth 2013 data sets. The search query translation results achieved in our experiments are outstanding - our systems outperform not only our strong baselines, but also Google Translate and Microsoft Bing Translator in direct comparison carried out on all the language pairs. The baseline BLEU scores increased from 26.59 to 41.45 for Czech-English, from 23.03 to 40.82 for German-English, and from 32.67 to 40.82 for French-English. This is a 55% improvement on average. In terms of the IR performance on this particular test collection, a significant improvement over the baseline is achieved only for French-English. For Czech-English and German-English, the increased MT quality does not lead to better IR results. Most of the MT techniques employed in our experiments improve MT of medical search queries. Especially the intelligent training data selection proves to be very successful for domain adaptation of

  18. Flexible patient information search and retrieval framework: pilot implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdal, Selnur; Catalyurek, Umit V.; Saltz, Joel; Kamal, Jyoti; Gurcan, Metin N.

    2007-03-01

    Medical centers collect and store significant amount of valuable data pertaining to patients' visit in the form of medical free-text. In addition, standardized diagnosis codes (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification: ICD9-CM) related to those dictated reports are usually available. In this work, we have created a framework where image searches could be initiated through a combination of free-text reports as well as ICD9 codes. This framework enables more comprehensive search on existing large sets of patient data in a systematic way. The free text search is enriched by computer-aided inclusion of additional search terms enhanced by a thesaurus. This combination of enriched search allows users to access to a larger set of relevant results from a patient-centric PACS in a simpler way. Therefore, such framework is of particular use in tasks such as gathering images for desired patient populations, building disease models, and so on. As the motivating application of our framework, we implemented a search engine. This search engine processed two years of patient data from the OSU Medical Center's Information Warehouse and identified lung nodule location information using a combination of UMLS Meta-Thesaurus enhanced text report searches along with ICD9 code searches on patients that have been discharged. Five different queries with various ICD9 codes involving lung cancer were carried out on 172552 cases. Each search was completed under a minute on average per ICD9 code and the inclusion of UMLS thesaurus increased the number of relevant cases by 45% on average.

  19. A Probabilistic Model of Social Working Memory for Information Retrieval in Social Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liyuan; Xu, Qianli; Gan, Tian; Tan, Cheston; Lim, Joo-Hwee

    2018-05-01

    Social working memory (SWM) plays an important role in navigating social interactions. Inspired by studies in psychology, neuroscience, cognitive science, and machine learning, we propose a probabilistic model of SWM to mimic human social intelligence for personal information retrieval (IR) in social interactions. First, we establish a semantic hierarchy as social long-term memory to encode personal information. Next, we propose a semantic Bayesian network as the SWM, which integrates the cognitive functions of accessibility and self-regulation. One subgraphical model implements the accessibility function to learn the social consensus about IR-based on social information concept, clustering, social context, and similarity between persons. Beyond accessibility, one more layer is added to simulate the function of self-regulation to perform the personal adaptation to the consensus based on human personality. Two learning algorithms are proposed to train the probabilistic SWM model on a raw dataset of high uncertainty and incompleteness. One is an efficient learning algorithm of Newton's method, and the other is a genetic algorithm. Systematic evaluations show that the proposed SWM model is able to learn human social intelligence effectively and outperforms the baseline Bayesian cognitive model. Toward real-world applications, we implement our model on Google Glass as a wearable assistant for social interaction.

  20. Beyond information retrieval and electronic health record use: competencies in clinical informatics for medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hersh WR

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available William R Hersh,1 Paul N Gorman,1 Frances E Biagioli,2 Vishnu Mohan,1 Jeffrey A Gold,3 George C Mejicano4 1Department of Medical Informatics and Clinical Epidemiology, 2Department of Family Medicine, 3Department of Medicine, 4School of Medicine, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, USA Abstract: Physicians in the 21st century will increasingly interact in diverse ways with information systems, requiring competence in many aspects of clinical informatics. In recent years, many medical school curricula have added content in information retrieval (search and basic use of the electronic health record. However, this omits the growing number of other ways that physicians are interacting with information that includes activities such as clinical decision support, quality measurement and improvement, personal health records, telemedicine, and personalized medicine. We describe a process whereby six faculty members representing different perspectives came together to define competencies in clinical informatics for a curriculum transformation process occurring at Oregon Health & Science University. From the broad competencies, we also developed specific learning objectives and milestones, an implementation schedule, and mapping to general competency domains. We present our work to encourage debate and refinement as well as facilitate evaluation in this area. Keywords: curriculum transformation, clinical decision support, patient safety, health care quality, patient engagement

  1. What versus where: Investigating how autobiographical memory retrieval differs when accessed with thematic versus spatial information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Signy; Chu, Sonja

    2017-09-01

    Autobiographical memory research has investigated how cueing distinct aspects of a past event can trigger different recollective experiences. This research has stimulated theories about how autobiographical knowledge is accessed and organized. Here, we test the idea that thematic information organizes multiple autobiographical events whereas spatial information organizes individual past episodes by investigating how retrieval guided by these two forms of information differs. We used a novel autobiographical fluency task in which participants accessed multiple memory exemplars to event theme and spatial (location) cues followed by a narrative description task in which they described the memories generated to these cues. Participants recalled significantly more memory exemplars to event theme than to spatial cues; however, spatial cues prompted faster access to past memories. Results from the narrative description task revealed that memories retrieved via event theme cues compared to spatial cues had a higher number of overall details, but those recalled to the spatial cues were recollected with a greater concentration on episodic details than those retrieved via event theme cues. These results provide evidence that thematic information organizes and integrates multiple memories whereas spatial information prompts the retrieval of specific episodic content from a past event.

  2. Design and development of semantic web-based system for computer science domain-specific information retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritika Bansal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In semantic web-based system, the concept of ontology is used to search results by contextual meaning of input query instead of keyword matching. From the research literature, there seems to be a need for a tool which can provide an easy interface for complex queries in natural language that can retrieve the domain-specific information from the ontology. This research paper proposes an IRSCSD system (Information retrieval system for computer science domain as a solution. This system offers advanced querying and browsing of structured data with search results automatically aggregated and rendered directly in a consistent user-interface, thus reducing the manual effort of users. So, the main objective of this research is design and development of semantic web-based system for integrating ontology towards domain-specific retrieval support. Methodology followed is a piecemeal research which involves the following stages. First Stage involves the designing of framework for semantic web-based system. Second stage builds the prototype for the framework using Protégé tool. Third Stage deals with the natural language query conversion into SPARQL query language using Python-based QUEPY framework. Fourth Stage involves firing of converted SPARQL queries to the ontology through Apache's Jena API to fetch the results. Lastly, evaluation of the prototype has been done in order to ensure its efficiency and usability. Thus, this research paper throws light on framework development for semantic web-based system that assists in efficient retrieval of domain-specific information, natural language query interpretation into semantic web language, creation of domain-specific ontology and its mapping with related ontology. This research paper also provides approaches and metrics for ontology evaluation on prototype ontology developed to study the performance based on accessibility of required domain-related information.

  3. Visualizing thesauri in the field of information retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riemer, J.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis was written in the course of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) project aimed at visualizing the thesaurus used in the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) online database. The first part of the paper comprises a brief historical review of the development of thesauri, providing an overview of tools for categorizing knowledge and covering a spectrum from wordnets to folksonomies. The second part discusses existing strategies for displaying thesauri and explores basic considerations concerning the technical realization of visualizing a thesaurus as a Web application. A problem experienced by users when navigating through hierarchical thesauri is the quasi-standard to display word blocks in tabular form. Starting from a top term all word block terms (e.g. narrower, broader, related, forbidden terms, etc.) are listed vertically. Human perception however is much better suited to grasp relationships by spatial clustering of items within a context. The shortcoming of the tabular approach is further amplified by the widespread practise of putting the top term in alphabetical context to other top terms in order to assist navigation. However, using an alphabetical index for this purpose contradicts the paradigm of hierarchical thesauri in most cases. It is only in the domain of linguistic thesauri where the visualisation deviates from the classical tabular data view in favour of more intuitive visualisation paradigms. Yet in those cases applications always fall back on additional software that needs to be installed into the Web browser. The approach chosen in the present project tries to solve both problem areas and provides an intuitively usable visualisation technique for hierarchical thesauri which runs on any current web browser natively i.e. without any additional software needed. A considerable portion of the publication is devoted to the concrete implementation of the INIS project. Special attention is given to the methodologies and

  4. Modeling and mining term association for improving biomedical information retrieval performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qinmin; Huang, Jimmy Xiangji; Hu, Xiaohua

    2012-06-11

    The growth of the biomedical information requires most information retrieval systems to provide short and specific answers in response to complex user queries. Semantic information in the form of free text that is structured in a way makes it straightforward for humans to read but more difficult for computers to interpret automatically and search efficiently. One of the reasons is that most traditional information retrieval models assume terms are conditionally independent given a document/passage. Therefore, we are motivated to consider term associations within different contexts to help the models understand semantic information and use it for improving biomedical information retrieval performance. We propose a term association approach to discover term associations among the keywords from a query. The experiments are conducted on the TREC 2004-2007 Genomics data sets and the TREC 2004 HARD data set. The proposed approach is promising and achieves superiority over the baselines and the GSP results. The parameter settings and different indices are investigated that the sentence-based index produces the best results in terms of the document-level, the word-based index for the best results in terms of the passage-level and the paragraph-based index for the best results in terms of the passage2-level. Furthermore, the best term association results always come from the best baseline. The tuning number k in the proposed recursive re-ranking algorithm is discussed and locally optimized to be 10. First, modelling term association for improving biomedical information retrieval using factor analysis, is one of the major contributions in our work. Second, the experiments confirm that term association considering co-occurrence and dependency among the keywords can produce better results than the baselines treating the keywords independently. Third, the baselines are re-ranked according to the importance and reliance of latent factors behind term associations. These latent

  5. Learning and Relevance in Information Retrieval: A Study in the Application of Exploration and User Knowledge to Enhance Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, Harvey

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines the impact of exploration and learning upon eDiscovery information retrieval; it is written in three parts. Part I contains foundational concepts and background on the topics of information retrieval and eDiscovery. This part informs the reader about the research frameworks, methodologies, data collection, and…

  6. Information storage and retrieval system at Westinghouse Hanford Company Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theo, M.G.

    1977-01-01

    The information storage and retrieval system developed at Westinghouse--Hanford is described. It will be able to store over two million documents on line. The system uses an interactive minicomputer to search for keyworded documents. Documents of interest can be displayed on CRTs or printed on microfilm reader--printers. 31 figures

  7. Information Retrieval System Design Issues in a Microcomputer-Based Relational DBMS Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfram, Dietmar

    1992-01-01

    Outlines the file structure requirements for a microcomputer-based information retrieval system using FoxPro, a relational database management system (DBMS). Issues relating to the design and implementation of such systems are discussed, and two possible designs are examined in terms of space economy and practicality of implementation. (15…

  8. Fixed versus dynamic co-occurrence windows in TextRank term weights for information retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Wei; Cheng, Qikai; Lioma, Christina

    2012-01-01

    iteratively is a score for each vertex, i.e. a term weight, that can be used for information retrieval (IR) just like conventional term frequency based term weights. So far, when computing TextRank term weights over co-occurrence graphs, the window of term co-occurrence is always fixed. This work departs from...

  9. Proceedings of the 9th Dutch-Belgian Information Retrieval Workshop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aly, Robin; Hauff, C.; den Hamer, Ida; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Huibers, Theo W.C.; de Jong, Franciska M.G.

    Welcome to the 9th Dutch-Belgian Information Retrieval Workshop (DIR). I very well remember the DIR workshop in 2001 that was also organized in Twente. It took place exactly one day before my PhD defense, to give us the opportunity to have one of the PhD committee members, Stephen Robertson, as the

  10. Report on the first Twente Data Management Workshop on XML Databases and Information Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd; Mihajlovic, V.

    2004-01-01

    The Database Group of the University of Twente initiated a new series of workshops called Twente Data Management workshops (TDM), starting with one on XML Databases and Information Retrieval which took place on 21 June 2004 at the University of Twente. We have set ourselves two goals for the

  11. Millennial Undergraduate Research Strategies in Web and Library Information Retrieval Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Brandi

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes the author's dissertation regarding search strategies of millennial undergraduate students in Web and library online information retrieval systems. Millennials bring a unique set of search characteristics and strategies to their research since they have never known a world without the Web. Through the use of search engines,…

  12. Embedding Term Similarity and Inverse Document Frequency into a Logical Model of Information Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losada, David E.; Barreiro, Alvaro

    2003-01-01

    Proposes an approach to incorporate term similarity and inverse document frequency into a logical model of information retrieval. Highlights include document representation and matching; incorporating term similarity into the measure of distance; new algorithms for implementation; inverse document frequency; and logical versus classical models of…

  13. Global and Local Processing of Incidental Information and Memory Retrieval at 6 Months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Ramesh S.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Five experiments examined the role of global and local cues in memory retrieval in infancy. Results showed that infants encode and remember for substantial periods of time not only the shape of figures displayed in their periphery but also the global organization of these figures. They also adapt this information when responding to new events.…

  14. Hybrid ontology for semantic information retrieval model using keyword matching indexing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthayan, K R; Mala, G S Anandha

    2015-01-01

    Ontology is the process of growth and elucidation of concepts of an information domain being common for a group of users. Establishing ontology into information retrieval is a normal method to develop searching effects of relevant information users require. Keywords matching process with historical or information domain is significant in recent calculations for assisting the best match for specific input queries. This research presents a better querying mechanism for information retrieval which integrates the ontology queries with keyword search. The ontology-based query is changed into a primary order to predicate logic uncertainty which is used for routing the query to the appropriate servers. Matching algorithms characterize warm area of researches in computer science and artificial intelligence. In text matching, it is more dependable to study semantics model and query for conditions of semantic matching. This research develops the semantic matching results between input queries and information in ontology field. The contributed algorithm is a hybrid method that is based on matching extracted instances from the queries and information field. The queries and information domain is focused on semantic matching, to discover the best match and to progress the executive process. In conclusion, the hybrid ontology in semantic web is sufficient to retrieve the documents when compared to standard ontology.

  15. Evaluation of a Linear Mixing Model to Retrieve Soil and Vegetation Temperatures of Land Targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jinxin; Jia, Li; Cui, Yaokui; Zhou, Jie; Menenti, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    A simple linear mixing model of heterogeneous soil-vegetation system and retrieval of component temperatures from directional remote sensing measurements by inverting this model is evaluated in this paper using observations by a thermal camera. The thermal camera was used to obtain multi-angular TIR (Thermal Infra-Red) images over vegetable and orchard canopies. A whole thermal camera image was treated as a pixel of a satellite image to evaluate the model with the two-component system, i.e. soil and vegetation. The evaluation included two parts: evaluation of the linear mixing model and evaluation of the inversion of the model to retrieve component temperatures. For evaluation of the linear mixing model, the RMSE is 0.2 K between the observed and modelled brightness temperatures, which indicates that the linear mixing model works well under most conditions. For evaluation of the model inversion, the RMSE between the model retrieved and the observed vegetation temperatures is 1.6K, correspondingly, the RMSE between the observed and retrieved soil temperatures is 2.0K. According to the evaluation of the sensitivity of retrieved component temperatures on fractional cover, the linear mixing model gives more accurate retrieval accuracies for both soil and vegetation temperatures under intermediate fractional cover conditions

  16. Information Retrieval during Free Listing Is Biased by Memory: Evidence from Medicinal Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Carvalho Pires de Sousa

    Full Text Available Free listing is a methodological tool that is widely used in various scientific disciplines. A typical assumption of this approach is that individual lists reflect a subset of total knowledge and that the first items listed are the most culturally important. However, little is known about how cognitive processes influence free lists. In this study, we assess how recent memory of use, autonoetic and anoetic memory, and long-term associative memory can affect the composition and order of items in free lists and evaluate whether free lists indicate the most important items. Based on a model of local knowledge about medicinal plants and their therapeutic targets, which was collected via individual semi-structured interviews, we classify each item recorded in free lists according to the last time that the item was used by the informant (recently or long ago, the type of relevant memory (autonoetic or anoetic memory and the existing associations between therapeutic targets (similar or random. We find that individuals have a tendency to recall information about medicinal plants used during the preceding year and that the recalled plants were also the most important plants during this period. However, we find no trend in the recall of plants from long-term associative memory, although this phenomenon is well established in studies on cognitive psychology. We suggest that such evidence should be considered in studies that use lists of medicinal plants because this temporal cognitive limit on the retrieval of knowledge affects data interpretation.

  17. Twenty-One at TREC-8: using Language Technology for Information Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaij, Wessel; Pohlmann, Renée; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Voorhees, E.M; Harman, D.K.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the official runs of the Twenty-One group for TREC-8. The Twenty-One group participated in the Ad-hoc, CLIR, Adaptive Filtering and SDR tracks. The main focus of our experiments is the development and evaluation of retrieval methods that are motivated by natural language

  18. Retrieving transient conformational molecular structure information from inner-shell photoionization of laser-aligned molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Le, Anh-Thu; Yu, Chao; Lucchese, R. R.; Lin, C. D.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a scheme to retrieve transient conformational molecular structure information using photoelectron angular distributions (PADs) that have averaged over partial alignments of isolated molecules. The photoelectron is pulled out from a localized inner-shell molecular orbital by an X-ray photon. We show that a transient change in the atomic positions from their equilibrium will lead to a sensitive change in the alignment-averaged PADs, which can be measured and used to retrieve the former. Exploiting the experimental convenience of changing the photon polarization direction, we show that it is advantageous to use PADs obtained from multiple photon polarization directions. A simple single-scattering model is proposed and benchmarked to describe the photoionization process and to do the retrieval using a multiple-parameter fitting method. PMID:27025410

  19. The effect of retrieval on recall of information in individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Nader; Badour, Christal L; Freese, Bettina

    2009-05-01

    Cognitive theories of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) suggest that associative memory processes may play a crucial role in the development and maintenance of the disorder. In the current study we examined the effect of associative pair rehearsal on recall ability for threatening and non-threatening information using the retrieval-practice paradigm in individuals with PTSD, traumatized controls (TC), and non-traumatized controls (NAC). Across word type, NACs demonstrated a typical retrieval-induced forgetting effect. However, individuals with PTSD benefited less from rehearsal, and failed to inhibit recall of unpracticed words in practiced categories. Participants in the TC group displayed a retrieval-induced forgetting effect similar to those individuals in the PTSD group. These findings are consistent with research indicating that individuals with PTSD may derive less benefit from rehearsal and display general inhibitory difficulties when compared to non-traumatized controls.

  20. Health Professionals' Use of Online Information Retrieval Systems and Online Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lialiou, Paschalina; Pavlopoulou, Ioanna; Mantas, John

    2016-01-01

    Across-sectional survey was designed to determine health professionals' awareness and usage of online evidence retrieval systems in clinical practice. A questionnaire was used to measure professionals' behavior and utilization of online evidences, as well as, reasons and barriers on information retrieval. 439 nurses and physicians from public and private hospitals in Greece formulate the study's sample. The two most common reasons that individuals are using online information systems were for writing scientific manuscripts or filling a knowledge gap. A positive correlation was found between participants with postgraduate studies and information system usage. The majority of them (90,6%) believe that online information systems improves patient care and 67,6% of them had their own experiences on this. More support is needed to nurses and physicians in order to use the online evidence and as a result to improve the provided care and practices.

  1. Implementation of the common phrase index method on the phrase query for information retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatmawati, Triyah; Zaman, Badrus; Werdiningsih, Indah

    2017-08-01

    As the development of technology, the process of finding information on the news text is easy, because the text of the news is not only distributed in print media, such as newspapers, but also in electronic media that can be accessed using the search engine. In the process of finding relevant documents on the search engine, a phrase often used as a query. The number of words that make up the phrase query and their position obviously affect the relevance of the document produced. As a result, the accuracy of the information obtained will be affected. Based on the outlined problem, the purpose of this research was to analyze the implementation of the common phrase index method on information retrieval. This research will be conducted in English news text and implemented on a prototype to determine the relevance level of the documents produced. The system is built with the stages of pre-processing, indexing, term weighting calculation, and cosine similarity calculation. Then the system will display the document search results in a sequence, based on the cosine similarity. Furthermore, system testing will be conducted using 100 documents and 20 queries. That result is then used for the evaluation stage. First, determine the relevant documents using kappa statistic calculation. Second, determine the system success rate using precision, recall, and F-measure calculation. In this research, the result of kappa statistic calculation was 0.71, so that the relevant documents are eligible for the system evaluation. Then the calculation of precision, recall, and F-measure produces precision of 0.37, recall of 0.50, and F-measure of 0.43. From this result can be said that the success rate of the system to produce relevant documents is low.

  2. Information retrieval system with ability of analogical inference using semantic network and function of fuzzification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, K; Iwai, S

    1982-01-01

    In information retrieval system, it is necessary to grasp user's subject of interest in order to present appropriate documents to the user. In this paper, the authors propose a model of human ability of analogical inference based on association between key words and, using it, construct an information retrieval system in which the computer with the ability learns its user's subject of interest through question-answering with the user. In this system, the association between key words is represented by a semantic network, and a function of fuzzification of input information is introduced in the semantic network to implement the ability of analogical inference based on the association. Finally, the effect of analogical inference on the learning efficiency of the system is investigated. 5 references.

  3. The Effects of Emotional Visual Context on the Encoding and Retrieval of Body Odor Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parma, Valentina; Macedo, Stephanie; Rocha, Marta; Alho, Laura; Ferreira, Jacqueline; Soares, Sandra C

    2018-04-01

    Conditions during information encoding and retrieval are known to influence the sensory material stored and its recapitulation. However, little is known about such processes in olfaction. Here, we capitalized on the uniqueness of body odors (BOs) which, similar to fingerprints, allow for the identification of a specific person, by associating their presentation to a negative or a neutral emotional context. One hundred twenty-five receivers (68 F) were exposed to a male BO while watching either criminal or neutral videos (encoding phase) and were subsequently asked to recognize the target BO within either a congruent or an incongruent visual context (retrieval phase). The results showed that criminal videos were rated as more vivid, unpleasant, and arousing than neutral videos both at encoding and retrieval. Moreover, in terms of BO ratings, we found that odor intensity and arousal allow to distinguish the target from the foils when congruent criminal information is presented at encoding and retrieval. Finally, the accuracy performance was not significantly different from chance level for either condition. These findings provide insights on how olfactory memories are processed in emotional situations.

  4. Information Retrieval from SAGE II and MFRSR Multi-Spectral Extinction Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacis, Andrew A.; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Direct beam spectral extinction measurements of solar radiation contain important information on atmospheric composition in a form that is essentially free from multiple scattering contributions that otherwise tend to complicate the data analysis and information retrieval. Such direct beam extinction measurements are available from the solar occultation satellite-based measurements made by the Stratospheric and Aerosol Gas Experiment (SAGE II) instrument and by ground-based Multi-Filter Shadowband Radiometers (MFRSRs). The SAGE II data provide cross-sectional slices of the atmosphere twice per orbit at seven wavelengths between 385 and 1020 nm with approximately 1 km vertical resolution, while the MFRSR data provide atmospheric column measurements at six wavelengths between 415 and 940 nm but at one minute time intervals. We apply the same retrieval technique of simultaneous least-squares fit to the observed spectral extinctions to retrieve aerosol optical depth, effective radius and variance, and ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and water vapor amounts from the SAGE II and MFRSR measurements. The retrieval technique utilizes a physical model approach based on laboratory measurements of ozone and nitrogen dioxide extinction, line-by-line and numerical k-distribution calculations for water vapor absorption, and Mie scattering constraints on aerosol spectral extinction properties. The SAGE II measurements have the advantage of being self-calibrating in that deep space provides an effective zero point for the relative spectral extinctions. The MFRSR measurements require periodic clear-day Langley regression calibration events to maintain accurate knowledge of instrument calibration.

  5. Information content of OCO-2 oxygen A-band channels for retrieving marine liquid cloud properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Mark; Stephens, Graeme L.

    2018-03-01

    Information content analysis is used to select channels for a marine liquid cloud retrieval using the high-spectral-resolution oxygen A-band instrument on NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2). Desired retrieval properties are cloud optical depth, cloud-top pressure and cloud pressure thickness, which is the geometric thickness expressed in hectopascals. Based on information content criteria we select a micro-window of 75 of the 853 functioning OCO-2 channels spanning 763.5-764.6 nm and perform a series of synthetic retrievals with perturbed initial conditions. We estimate posterior errors from the sample standard deviations and obtain ±0.75 in optical depth and ±12.9 hPa in both cloud-top pressure and cloud pressure thickness, although removing the 10 % of samples with the highest χ2 reduces posterior error in cloud-top pressure to ±2.9 hPa and cloud pressure thickness to ±2.5 hPa. The application of this retrieval to real OCO-2 measurements is briefly discussed, along with limitations and the greatest caution is urged regarding the assumption of a single homogeneous cloud layer, which is often, but not always, a reasonable approximation for marine boundary layer clouds.

  6. Content-based image retrieval using spatial layout information in brain tumor T1-weighted contrast-enhanced MR images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Meiyan; Yang, Wei; Wu, Yao; Jiang, Jun; Gao, Yang; Chen, Yang; Feng, Qianjin; Chen, Wufan; Lu, Zhentai

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to develop content-based image retrieval (CBIR) system for the retrieval of T1-weighted contrast-enhanced MR (CE-MR) images of brain tumors. When a tumor region is fed to the CBIR system as a query, the system attempts to retrieve tumors of the same pathological category. The bag-of-visual-words (BoVW) model with partition learning is incorporated into the system to extract informative features for representing the image contents. Furthermore, a distance metric learning algorithm called the Rank Error-based Metric Learning (REML) is proposed to reduce the semantic gap between low-level visual features and high-level semantic concepts. The effectiveness of the proposed method is evaluated on a brain T1-weighted CE-MR dataset with three types of brain tumors (i.e., meningioma, glioma, and pituitary tumor). Using the BoVW model with partition learning, the mean average precision (mAP) of retrieval increases beyond 4.6% with the learned distance metrics compared with the spatial pyramid BoVW method. The distance metric learned by REML significantly outperforms three other existing distance metric learning methods in terms of mAP. The mAP of the CBIR system is as high as 91.8% using the proposed method, and the precision can reach 93.1% when the top 10 images are returned by the system. These preliminary results demonstrate that the proposed method is effective and feasible for the retrieval of brain tumors in T1-weighted CE-MR Images.

  7. Content-based image retrieval using spatial layout information in brain tumor T1-weighted contrast-enhanced MR images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiyan Huang

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop content-based image retrieval (CBIR system for the retrieval of T1-weighted contrast-enhanced MR (CE-MR images of brain tumors. When a tumor region is fed to the CBIR system as a query, the system attempts to retrieve tumors of the same pathological category. The bag-of-visual-words (BoVW model with partition learning is incorporated into the system to extract informative features for representing the image contents. Furthermore, a distance metric learning algorithm called the Rank Error-based Metric Learning (REML is proposed to reduce the semantic gap between low-level visual features and high-level semantic concepts. The effectiveness of the proposed method is evaluated on a brain T1-weighted CE-MR dataset with three types of brain tumors (i.e., meningioma, glioma, and pituitary tumor. Using the BoVW model with partition learning, the mean average precision (mAP of retrieval increases beyond 4.6% with the learned distance metrics compared with the spatial pyramid BoVW method. The distance metric learned by REML significantly outperforms three other existing distance metric learning methods in terms of mAP. The mAP of the CBIR system is as high as 91.8% using the proposed method, and the precision can reach 93.1% when the top 10 images are returned by the system. These preliminary results demonstrate that the proposed method is effective and feasible for the retrieval of brain tumors in T1-weighted CE-MR Images.

  8. Encoding and Retrieval Processes Involved in the Access of Source Information in the Absence of Item Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, B. Hunter; DeWitt, Michael R.; Knight, Justin B.; Hicks, Jason L.

    2014-01-01

    The current study sought to examine the relative contributions of encoding and retrieval processes in accessing contextual information in the absence of item memory using an extralist cuing procedure in which the retrieval cues used to query memory for contextual information were "related" to the target item but never actually studied.…

  9. Semantics-driven modelling of user preferences for information retrieval in the biomedical domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladun, Anatoly; Rogushina, Julia; Valencia-García, Rafael; Béjar, Rodrigo Martínez

    2013-03-01

    A large amount of biomedical and genomic data are currently available on the Internet. However, data are distributed into heterogeneous biological information sources, with little or even no organization. Semantic technologies provide a consistent and reliable basis with which to confront the challenges involved in the organization, manipulation and visualization of data and knowledge. One of the knowledge representation techniques used in semantic processing is the ontology, which is commonly defined as a formal and explicit specification of a shared conceptualization of a domain of interest. The work presented here introduces a set of interoperable algorithms that can use domain and ontological information to improve information-retrieval processes. This work presents an ontology-based information-retrieval system for the biomedical domain. This system, with which some experiments have been carried out that are described in this paper, is based on the use of domain ontologies for the creation and normalization of lightweight ontologies that represent user preferences in a determined domain in order to improve information-retrieval processes.

  10. Information retrieval for systematic reviews in food and feed topics: A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Hannah; O'Connor, Annette; Sargeant, Jan; Glanville, Julie

    2018-01-09

    Systematic review methods are now being used for reviews of food production, food safety and security, plant health, and animal health and welfare. Information retrieval methods in this context have been informed by human health-care approaches and ideally should be based on relevant research and experience. This narrative review seeks to identify and summarize current research-based evidence and experience on information retrieval for systematic reviews in food and feed topics. MEDLINE (Ovid), Science Citation Index (Web of Science), and ScienceDirect (http://www.sciencedirect.com/) were searched in 2012 and 2016. We also contacted topic experts and undertook citation searches. We selected and summarized studies reporting research on information retrieval, as well as published guidance and experience. There is little published evidence on the most efficient way to conduct searches for food and feed topics. There are few available study design search filters, and their use may be problematic given poor or inconsistent reporting of study methods. Food and feed research makes use of a wide range of study designs so it might be best to focus strategy development on capturing study populations, although this also has challenges. There is limited guidance on which resources should be searched and whether publication bias in disciplines relevant to food and feed necessitates extensive searching of the gray literature. There is some limited evidence on information retrieval approaches, but more research is required to inform effective and efficient approaches to searching to populate food and feed reviews. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. RETRIEVAL OF AEROSOL MICROPHYSICAL PROPERTIES BASED ON THE OPTIMAL ESTIMATION METHOD: INFORMATION CONTENT ANALYSIS FOR SATELLITE POLARIMETRIC REMOTE SENSING MEASUREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Z. Hou

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the information content for the retrieval of key aerosol microphysical and surface properties for multispectral single-viewing satellite polarimetric measurements cantered at 410, 443, 555, 670, 865, 1610 and 2250 nm over bright land. To conduct the information content analysis, the synthetic data are simulated by the Unified Linearized Vector Radiative Transfer Model (UNLVTM with the intensity and polarization together over bare soil surface for various scenarios. Following the optimal estimation theory, a principal component analysis method is employed to reconstruct the multispectral surface reflectance from 410 nm to 2250 nm, and then integrated with a linear one-parametric BPDF model to represent the contribution of polarized surface reflectance, thus further to decouple the surface-atmosphere contribution from the TOA measurements. Focusing on two different aerosol models with the aerosol optical depth equal to 0.8 at 550 nm, the total DFS and DFS component of each retrieval aerosol and surface parameter are analysed. The DFS results show that the key aerosol microphysical properties, such as the fine- and coarse-mode columnar volume concentration, the effective radius and the real part of complex refractive index at 550 nm, could be well retrieved with the surface parameters simultaneously over bare soil surface type. The findings of this study can provide the guidance to the inversion algorithm development over bright surface land by taking full use of the single-viewing satellite polarimetric measurements.

  12. Retrieval of Aerosol Microphysical Properties Based on the Optimal Estimation Method: Information Content Analysis for Satellite Polarimetric Remote Sensing Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, W. Z.; Li, Z. Q.; Zheng, F. X.; Qie, L. L.

    2018-04-01

    This paper evaluates the information content for the retrieval of key aerosol microphysical and surface properties for multispectral single-viewing satellite polarimetric measurements cantered at 410, 443, 555, 670, 865, 1610 and 2250 nm over bright land. To conduct the information content analysis, the synthetic data are simulated by the Unified Linearized Vector Radiative Transfer Model (UNLVTM) with the intensity and polarization together over bare soil surface for various scenarios. Following the optimal estimation theory, a principal component analysis method is employed to reconstruct the multispectral surface reflectance from 410 nm to 2250 nm, and then integrated with a linear one-parametric BPDF model to represent the contribution of polarized surface reflectance, thus further to decouple the surface-atmosphere contribution from the TOA measurements. Focusing on two different aerosol models with the aerosol optical depth equal to 0.8 at 550 nm, the total DFS and DFS component of each retrieval aerosol and surface parameter are analysed. The DFS results show that the key aerosol microphysical properties, such as the fine- and coarse-mode columnar volume concentration, the effective radius and the real part of complex refractive index at 550 nm, could be well retrieved with the surface parameters simultaneously over bare soil surface type. The findings of this study can provide the guidance to the inversion algorithm development over bright surface land by taking full use of the single-viewing satellite polarimetric measurements.

  13. A novel architecture for information retrieval system based on semantic web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui

    2011-12-01

    Nowadays, the web has enabled an explosive growth of information sharing (there are currently over 4 billion pages covering most areas of human endeavor) so that the web has faced a new challenge of information overhead. The challenge that is now before us is not only to help people locating relevant information precisely but also to access and aggregate a variety of information from different resources automatically. Current web document are in human-oriented formats and they are suitable for the presentation, but machines cannot understand the meaning of document. To address this issue, Berners-Lee proposed a concept of semantic web. With semantic web technology, web information can be understood and processed by machine. It provides new possibilities for automatic web information processing. A main problem of semantic web information retrieval is that when these is not enough knowledge to such information retrieval system, the system will return to a large of no sense result to uses due to a huge amount of information results. In this paper, we present the architecture of information based on semantic web. In addiction, our systems employ the inference Engine to check whether the query should pose to Keyword-based Search Engine or should pose to the Semantic Search Engine.

  14. Load Balancing Scheme on the Basis of Huffman Coding for P2P Information Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurasawa, Hisashi; Takasu, Atsuhiro; Adachi, Jun

    Although a distributed index on a distributed hash table (DHT) enables efficient document query processing in Peer-to-Peer information retrieval (P2P IR), the index costs a lot to construct and it tends to be an unfair management because of the unbalanced term frequency distribution. We devised a new distributed index, named Huffman-DHT, for P2P IR. The new index uses an algorithm similar to Huffman coding with a modification to the DHT structure based on the term distribution. In a Huffman-DHT, a frequent term is assigned to a short ID and allocated a large space in the node ID space in DHT. Throuth ID management, the Huffman-DHT balances the index registration accesses among peers and reduces load concentrations. Huffman-DHT is the first approach to adapt concepts of coding theory and term frequency distribution to load balancing. We evaluated this approach in experiments using a document collection and assessed its load balancing capabilities in P2P IR. The experimental results indicated that it is most effective when the P2P system consists of about 30, 000 nodes and contains many documents. Moreover, we proved that we can construct a Huffman-DHT easily by estimating the probability distribution of the term occurrence from a small number of sample documents.

  15. Reactivation of medial temporal lobe and occipital lobe during the retrieval of color information: A positron emission tomography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Aya; Abe, Nobuhito; Suzuki, Maki; Hirayama, Kazumi; Mori, Etsuro; Tashiro, Manabu; Itoh, Masatoshi; Fujii, Toshikatsu

    2007-02-01

    It is widely accepted that memory traces of an event include various types of information about the content of the event and about the circumstances in which the individual experienced it. However, how these various types of information are stored and later retrieved is poorly understood. One hypothesis postulates that the retrieval of specific event information reactivates regions that were active during the encoding of this information, with the aid of binding functions of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures. We used positron emission tomography to identify the brain regions related to the encoding and retrieval of color information. Specifically, we assessed whether overlapping activity was found in both the MTL structures and color-related cortical regions during the encoding and retrieval of color information attached with meaningless shapes. During the study, subjects were asked to encode colored (red or green) and achromatic random shapes. At subsequent testing, subjects were presented with only achromatic shapes, which had been presented with or without colors during encoding, and were engaged in retrieval tasks of shapes and colors. Overlapping activity was found in the MTL and occipital lobe (the lingual and inferior occipital gyri) in the right hemisphere during the encoding and retrieval of meaningless shapes with color information compared with those without color information. Although there are some limitations to be considered, the present findings seem to support the view that the retrieval of specific event information is associated with reactivation of both the MTL structures and the regions involved during encoding of the information.

  16. Evaluating Health Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millions of consumers get health information from magazines, TV or the Internet. Some of the information is reliable and up to date; some is not. How can ... the site have an editorial board? Is the information reviewed before it is posted? Be skeptical. Things ...

  17. Document Level Assessment of Document Retrieval Systems in a Pairwise System Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, Prabha; Ravana, Sri Devi

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The use of averaged topic-level scores can result in the loss of valuable data and can cause misinterpretation of the effectiveness of system performance. This study aims to use the scores of each document to evaluate document retrieval systems in a pairwise system evaluation. Method: The chosen evaluation metrics are document-level…

  18. A vector-product information retrieval system adapted to heterogeneous, distributed computing environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rorvig, Mark E.

    1991-01-01

    Vector-product information retrieval (IR) systems produce retrieval results superior to all other searching methods but presently have no commercial implementations beyond the personal computer environment. The NASA Electronic Library Systems (NELS) provides a ranked list of the most likely relevant objects in collections in response to a natural language query. Additionally, the system is constructed using standards and tools (Unix, X-Windows, Notif, and TCP/IP) that permit its operation in organizations that possess many different hosts, workstations, and platforms. There are no known commercial equivalents to this product at this time. The product has applications in all corporate management environments, particularly those that are information intensive, such as finance, manufacturing, biotechnology, and research and development.

  19. Distributed Information Search and Retrieval for Astronomical Resource Discovery and Data Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtagh, Fionn; Guillaume, Damien

    Information search and retrieval has become by nature a distributed task. We look at tools and techniques which are of importance in this area. Current technological evolution can be summarized as the growing stability and cohesiveness of distributed architectures of searchable objects. The objects themselves are more often than not multimedia, including published articles or grey literature reports, yellow page services, image data, catalogs, presentation and online display materials, and ``operations'' information such as scheduling and publicly accessible proposal information. The evolution towards distributed architectures, protocols and formats, and the direction of our own work, are focussed on in this paper.

  20. Monetary incentives at retrieval promote recognition of involuntarily learned emotional information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chunping; Li, Yunyun; Zhang, Qin; Cui, Lixia

    2018-03-07

    Previous studies have suggested that the effects of reward on memory processes are affected by certain factors, but it remains unclear whether the effects of reward at retrieval on recognition processes are influenced by emotion. The event-related potential was used to investigate the combined effect of reward and emotion on memory retrieval and its neural mechanism. The behavioral results indicated that the reward at retrieval improved recognition performance under positive and negative emotional conditions. The event-related potential results indicated that there were significant interactions between the reward and emotion in the average amplitude during recognition, and the significant reward effects from the frontal to parietal brain areas appeared at 130-800 ms for positive pictures and at 190-800 ms for negative pictures, but there were no significant reward effects of neutral pictures; the reward effect of positive items appeared relatively earlier, starting at 130 ms, and that of negative pictures began at 190 ms. These results indicate that monetary incentives at retrieval promote recognition of involuntarily learned emotional information.

  1. Administrative professional's role in the processing, retrieval, dissemination and repackaging of information in the networked enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to establish the administrative professional's role in the processing, retrieval, dissemination and repackaging of digital information in the networked enterprise, and to determine how the administrative professional can add value to the organisation and enhance its competitive position in industry. The digital economy has changed business practices to such an extent that research of the digital office environment and the administrative professional’s role in ...

  2. ECIR 2015 workshop on gamification for information retrieval (GamifIR'15)

    OpenAIRE

    Kazai, Gabriella; Hopfgartner, Frank; Kruschwitz, Udo; Meder, Micharl

    2015-01-01

    The second workshop on Gamification for Information Retrieval took place at ECIR 2015 in Vienna, Austria on the 29th of March. The workshop program included two invited keynote presentations, seven oral presentations of refereed papers, lots of mini discussion sessions and a fishbowl session. The presentations covered diverse topics from playing around with an eye tracker to a game with IR papers and even a game of scientific hangman, generating lively and fun discussions. The workshop was a ...

  3. Theory and approach of information retrievals from electromagnetic scattering and remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Jin, Ya-Qiu

    2006-01-01

    Covers several hot topics in current research of electromagnetic scattering, and radiative transfer in complex and random media, polarimetric scattering and SAR imagery technology, data validation and information retrieval from space-borne remote sensing, computational electromagnetics, etc.Including both forward modelling and inverse problems, analytic theory and numerical approachesAn overall summary of the author's works during most recent yearsAlso presents some insight for future research topics.

  4. Application of information-retrieval methods to the classification of physical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamotko, Z. N.; Khorolskaya, S. K.; Shatrovskiy, L. I.

    1975-01-01

    Scientific data received from satellites are characterized as a multi-dimensional time series, whose terms are vector functions of a vector of measurement conditions. Information retrieval methods are used to construct lower dimensional samples on the basis of the condition vector, in order to obtain these data and to construct partial relations. The methods are applied to the joint Soviet-French Arkad project.

  5. The development of soliton physics: an analysis based on information retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Y.H.; Ohe, Takeru; Kanada, Yasumasa.

    1978-01-01

    This paper uses information retrieval from available data bases such as INSPEC tapes in an attempt to quantify and demonstrate trends in the recent development of Soliton physics research. The date shows that Soliton physics research may be classified into three stages according to the annual numbers of published scientific papers (N): Stage 1: N - 10 0 Gestation (up to 1965) Stage 2: N - 10 1 Introduction (1966 - 1971) Stage 3: N - 10 2 Growth (1971 - present) (author)

  6. Opportunistic Carrier Sensing for Energy-Efficient Information Retrieval in Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Qing

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider distributed information retrieval for sensor networks with cluster heads or mobile access points. The performance metric used in the design is energy efficiency defined as the ratio of the average number of bits reliably retrieved by the access point to the total amount of energy consumed. A distributed opportunistic transmission protocol is proposed using a combination of carrier sensing and backoff strategy that incorporates channel state information (CSI of individual sensors. By selecting a set of sensors with the best channel states to transmit, the proposed protocol achieves the upper bound on energy efficiency when the signal propagation delay is negligible. For networks with substantial propagation delays, a backoff function optimized for energy efficiency is proposed. The design of this backoff function utilizes properties of extreme statistics and is shown to have mild performance loss in practical scenarios. We also demonstrate that opportunistic strategies that use CSI may not be optimal when channel acquisition at individual sensors consumes substantial energy. We show further that there is an optimal sensor density for which the opportunistic information retrieval is the most energy efficient. This observation leads to the design of the optimal sensor duty cycle.

  7. Nurses' information retrieval skills in psychiatric hospitals - are the requirements for evidence-based practice fulfilled?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivunen, Marita; Välimäki, Maritta; Hätönen, Heli

    2010-01-01

    Nursing professionals have long recognized the importance to practice of research and the value of research evidence. Nurses still do not use research findings in practice. The purpose of this paper was to describe nurses' skills in using literature databases and the Internet in psychiatric hospitals and associations of nurses' gender, age, and job position with their information retrieval skills. The study was carried out in 2004 among nursing staff (N=183) on nine acute psychiatric wards in two psychiatric hospitals in Finland (n=180, response rate 98%). The Finnish version of the European Computer Driving Licence test (ECDL) was used as a data collection instrument. The study showed that there were clear deficits in information retrieval skills among nurses working in psychiatric hospitals. Thus, nurses' competence does not support the realization of evidence-based practice in the hospitals. Therefore, it is important to increase nurses' information retrieval skills by tailoring continuing education modules. It would be also advisable to develop centralized systems for the internal dissemination of research findings for the use of nursing staff.

  8. Machine Learning or Information Retrieval Techniques for Bug Triaging: Which is better?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Goyal

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Bugs are the inevitable part of a software system. Nowadays, large software development projects even release beta versions of their products to gather bug reports from users. The collected bug reports are then worked upon by various developers in order to resolve the defects and make the final software product more reliable. The high frequency of incoming bugs makes the bug handling a difficult and time consuming task. Bug assignment is an integral part of bug triaging that aims at the process of assigning a suitable developer for the reported bug who corrects the source code in order to resolve the bug. There are various semi and fully automated techniques to ease the task of bug assignment. This paper presents the current state of the art of various techniques used for bug report assignment. Through exhaustive research, the authors have observed that machine learning and information retrieval based bug assignment approaches are most popular in literature. A deeper investigation has shown that the trend of techniques is taking a shift from machine learning based approaches towards information retrieval based approaches. Therefore, the focus of this work is to find the reason behind the observed drift and thus a comparative analysis is conducted on the bug reports of the Mozilla, Eclipse, Gnome and Open Office projects in the Bugzilla repository. The results of the study show that the information retrieval based technique yields better efficiency in recommending the developers for bug reports.

  9. A SHORT HISTORY CSISRS - AT THE CUTTING EDGE OF NUCLEAR DATA INFORMATION STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL SYSTEMS AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO CINDA, EXFOR AND ENDF.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOLDEN, N.E.

    2005-12-01

    A short history of CSISRS, pronounced ''scissors'' and standing for the Cross Section Information Storage and Retrieval System, is given. The relationship of CSISRS to CINDA, to the neutron nuclear data four-centers, to EXFOR and to ENDF, the evaluated neutron nuclear data file, is briefly explained.

  10. Exploring interdisciplinary relationships between linguistics and information retrieval from the 1960s to today

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engerer, Volkmar Paul

    2017-01-01

    This article explores how linguistics has influenced information retrieval (IR) and attempts to explain the impact of linguistics through an analysis of internal developments in information science generally, and IR in particular. It notes that information science/IR has been evolving from a case...... science into a fully fledged, “disciplined”/disciplinary science. The article establishes correspondences between linguistics and information science/IR using the three established IR paradigms—physical, cognitive, and computational—as a frame of reference. The current relationship between information...... science/IR and linguistics is elucidated through discussion of some recent information science publications dealing with linguistic topics and a novel technique, “keyword collocation analysis,” is introduced. Insights from interdisciplinarity research and case theory are also discussed. It is demonstrated...

  11. Evaluation of Retrieval Algorithms for Ice Microphysics Using CALIPSO/CloudSat and Earthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okamoto Hajime

    2016-01-01

    We performed several sensitivity studies to evaluate uncertainties in the retrieved ice microphysics due to ice particle orientation and shape. It was found that the implementation of orientation of horizontally oriented ice plate model in the algorithm drastically improved the retrieval results in both for nadir- and off-nadir lidar pointing periods. Differences in the retrieved microphysics between only randomly oriented ice model (3D-ice and mixture of 3D-ice and Q2Dplate model were large especially in off-nadir period, e.g., 100% in effective radius and one order in ice water content, respectively. And differences in the retrieved ice microphysics among different mixture models were smaller than about 50% for effective radius in nadir period.

  12. Understanding the aerosol information content in multi-spectral reflectance measurements using a synergetic retrieval algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Martynenko

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available An information content analysis for multi-wavelength SYNergetic AErosol Retrieval algorithm SYNAER was performed to quantify the number of independent pieces of information that can be retrieved. In particular, the capability of SYNAER to discern various aerosol types is assessed. This information content depends on the aerosol optical depth, the surface albedo spectrum and the observation geometry. The theoretical analysis is performed for a large number of scenarios with various geometries and surface albedo spectra for ocean, soil and vegetation. When the surface albedo spectrum and its accuracy is known under cloud-free conditions, reflectance measurements used in SYNAER is able to provide for 2–4° of freedom that can be attributed to retrieval parameters: aerosol optical depth, aerosol type and surface albedo.

    The focus of this work is placed on an information content analysis with emphasis to the aerosol type classification. This analysis is applied to synthetic reflectance measurements for 40 predefined aerosol mixtures of different basic components, given by sea salt, mineral dust, biomass burning and diesel aerosols, water soluble and water insoluble aerosols. The range of aerosol parameters considered through the 40 mixtures covers the natural variability of tropospheric aerosols. After the information content analysis performed in Holzer-Popp et al. (2008 there was a necessity to compare derived degrees of freedom with retrieved aerosol optical depth for different aerosol types, which is the main focus of this paper.

    The principle component analysis was used to determine the correspondence between degrees of freedom for signal in the retrieval and derived aerosol types. The main results of the analysis indicate correspondence between the major groups of the aerosol types, which are: water soluble aerosol, soot, mineral dust and sea salt and degrees of freedom in the algorithm and show the ability of the SYNAER to

  13. Concept similarity and related categories in information retrieval using formal concept analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, P.; Ducrou, J.; Dau, F.

    2012-11-01

    The application of formal concept analysis to the problem of information retrieval has been shown useful but has lacked any real analysis of the idea of relevance ranking of search results. SearchSleuth is a program developed to experiment with the automated local analysis of Web search using formal concept analysis. SearchSleuth extends a standard search interface to include a conceptual neighbourhood centred on a formal concept derived from the initial query. This neighbourhood of the concept derived from the search terms is decorated with its upper and lower neighbours representing more general and special concepts, respectively. SearchSleuth is in many ways an archetype of search engines based on formal concept analysis with some novel features. In SearchSleuth, the notion of related categories - which are themselves formal concepts - is also introduced. This allows the retrieval focus to shift to a new formal concept called a sibling. This movement across the concept lattice needs to relate one formal concept to another in a principled way. This paper presents the issues concerning exploring, searching, and ordering the space of related categories. The focus is on understanding the use and meaning of proximity and semantic distance in the context of information retrieval using formal concept analysis.

  14. The Role of Medial Temporal Lobe Regions in Incidental and Intentional Retrieval of Item and Relational Information in Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Chun; Giovanello, Kelly S

    2016-06-01

    Considerable neuropsychological and neuroimaging work indicates that the medial temporal lobes are critical for both item and relational memory retrieval. However, there remain outstanding issues in the literature, namely the extent to which medial temporal lobe regions are differentially recruited during incidental and intentional retrieval of item and relational information, and the extent to which aging may affect these neural substrates. The current fMRI study sought to address these questions; participants incidentally encoded word pairs embedded in sentences and incidental item and relational retrieval were assessed through speeded reading of intact, rearranged, and new word-pair sentences, while intentional item and relational retrieval were assessed through old/new associative recognition of a separate set of intact, rearranged, and new word pairs. Results indicated that, in both younger and older adults, anterior hippocampus and perirhinal cortex indexed incidental and intentional item retrieval in the same manner. In contrast, posterior hippocampus supported incidental and intentional relational retrieval in both age groups and an adjacent cluster in posterior hippocampus was recruited during both forms of relational retrieval for older, but not younger, adults. Our findings suggest that while medial temporal lobe regions do not differentiate between incidental and intentional forms of retrieval, there are distinct roles for anterior and posterior medial temporal lobe regions during retrieval of item and relational information, respectively, and further indicate that posterior regions may, under certain conditions, be over-recruited in healthy aging. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Phase retrieval from diffraction data utilizing pre-determined partial information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.S.; Marathe, S.; Kim, S.N.; Kang, H.C.; Noh, D.Y.

    2007-01-01

    We developed a phase retrieval algorithm that utilizes pre-determined partial phase information to overcome insufficient oversampling ratio in diffraction data. Implementing the Fourier modulus projection and the modified support projection manifesting the pre-determined information, a generalized difference map and HIO (Hybrid Input-Output) algorithms are developed. Optical laser diffraction data as well as simulated X-ray diffraction data are used to illustrate the validity of the proposed algorithm, which revealed the strength and the limitations of the algorithm. The proposed algorithm can expand the applicability of the diffraction based image reconstruction

  16. Scientometric Indicators and Webometrics - and the Polyrepresentation Principle in Information Retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingwersen, Peter

    and new ones based on scientific dataset usage and comparisons of link and download/reading patterns for newspapers. The third lecture on poly-representation provides an integrated and explicitly cognitive framework for understanding the process involved in information retrieval. The lecture outlined......This book contains the text of three lectures from the 28th Sarada Ranganathan Endowment Lectures, held in Bangalore in December 2010. The lectures were delivered by Dr. Peter Ingwersen, Professor at the Danish School of Library and Information Science, Copenhagen. The first lecture...

  17. The use of categorization information in language models for question retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Xin; Cong, Gao; Cui, Bin

    2009-01-01

    Community Question Answering (CQA) has emerged as a popular type of service meeting a wide range of information needs. Such services enable users to ask and answer questions and to access existing question-answer pairs. CQA archives contain very large volumes of valuable user-generated content...... and have become important information resources on the Web. To make the body of knowledge accumulated in CQA archives accessible, effective and efficient question search is required. Question search in a CQA archive aims to retrieve historical questions that are relevant to new questions posed by users...

  18. Retrieving the polarization information for satellite-to-ground light communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Qiangqiang; Guo, Zhongyi; Xu, Qiang; Gao, Jun; Jiao, Weiyan; Wang, Xinshun; Qu, Shiliang

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we have investigated the reconstruction of the polarization states (degree of polarization (DoP) and angle of polarization (AoP)) of the incident light which passed through a 10 km atmospheric medium between the satellite and the Earth. Here, we proposed a more practical atmospheric model in which the 10 km atmospheric medium is divided into ten layers to be appropriate for the Monte Carlo simulation algorithm. Based on this model, the polarization retrieve (PR) method can be used for reconstructing the initial polarization information effectively, and the simulated results demonstrate that the mean errors of the retrieved DoP and AoP are very close to zero. Moreover, the results also show that although the atmospheric medium system is fixed, the Mueller matrices for the downlink and uplink are completely different, which shows that the light transmissions in the two links are irreversible in the layered atmospheric medium system. (paper)

  19. Cluster-based query expansion using external collections in medical information retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Heung-Seon; Jung, Yuchul

    2015-12-01

    Utilizing external collections to improve retrieval performance is challenging research because various test collections are created for different purposes. Improving medical information retrieval has also gained much attention as various types of medical documents have become available to researchers ever since they started storing them in machine processable formats. In this paper, we propose an effective method of utilizing external collections based on the pseudo relevance feedback approach. Our method incorporates the structure of external collections in estimating individual components in the final feedback model. Extensive experiments on three medical collections (TREC CDS, CLEF eHealth, and OHSUMED) were performed, and the results were compared with a representative expansion approach utilizing the external collections to show the superiority of our method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Towards brain-activity-controlled information retrieval: Decoding image relevance from MEG signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppi, Jukka-Pekka; Kandemir, Melih; Saarinen, Veli-Matti; Hirvenkari, Lotta; Parkkonen, Lauri; Klami, Arto; Hari, Riitta; Kaski, Samuel

    2015-05-15

    We hypothesize that brain activity can be used to control future information retrieval systems. To this end, we conducted a feasibility study on predicting the relevance of visual objects from brain activity. We analyze both magnetoencephalographic (MEG) and gaze signals from nine subjects who were viewing image collages, a subset of which was relevant to a predetermined task. We report three findings: i) the relevance of an image a subject looks at can be decoded from MEG signals with performance significantly better than chance, ii) fusion of gaze-based and MEG-based classifiers significantly improves the prediction performance compared to using either signal alone, and iii) non-linear classification of the MEG signals using Gaussian process classifiers outperforms linear classification. These findings break new ground for building brain-activity-based interactive image retrieval systems, as well as for systems utilizing feedback both from brain activity and eye movements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Conjunctive patches subspace learning with side information for collaborative image retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lining; Wang, Lipo; Lin, Weisi

    2012-08-01

    Content-Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) has attracted substantial attention during the past few years for its potential practical applications to image management. A variety of Relevance Feedback (RF) schemes have been designed to bridge the semantic gap between the low-level visual features and the high-level semantic concepts for an image retrieval task. Various Collaborative Image Retrieval (CIR) schemes aim to utilize the user historical feedback log data with similar and dissimilar pairwise constraints to improve the performance of a CBIR system. However, existing subspace learning approaches with explicit label information cannot be applied for a CIR task, although the subspace learning techniques play a key role in various computer vision tasks, e.g., face recognition and image classification. In this paper, we propose a novel subspace learning framework, i.e., Conjunctive Patches Subspace Learning (CPSL) with side information, for learning an effective semantic subspace by exploiting the user historical feedback log data for a CIR task. The CPSL can effectively integrate the discriminative information of labeled log images, the geometrical information of labeled log images and the weakly similar information of unlabeled images together to learn a reliable subspace. We formally formulate this problem into a constrained optimization problem and then present a new subspace learning technique to exploit the user historical feedback log data. Extensive experiments on both synthetic data sets and a real-world image database demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme in improving the performance of a CBIR system by exploiting the user historical feedback log data.

  2. Development of digital dashboard system for medical practice: maximizing efficiency of medical information retrieval and communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kee Hyuck; Yoo, Sooyoung; Shin, HoGyun; Baek, Rong-Min; Chung, Chin Youb; Hwang, Hee

    2013-01-01

    It is reported that digital dashboard systems in hospitals provide a user interface (UI) that can centrally manage and retrieve various information related to patients in a single screen, support the decision-making of medical professionals on a real time basis by integrating the scattered medical information systems and core work flows, enhance the competence and decision-making ability of medical professionals, and reduce the probability of misdiagnosis. However, the digital dashboard systems of hospitals reported to date have some limitations when medical professionals use them to generally treat inpatients, because those were limitedly used for the work process of certain departments or developed to improve specific disease-related indicators. Seoul National University Bundang Hospital developed a new concept of EMR system to overcome such limitations. The system allows medical professionals to easily access all information on inpatients and effectively retrieve important information from any part of the hospital by displaying inpatient information in the form of digital dashboard. In this study, we would like to introduce the structure, development methodology and the usage of our new concept.

  3. Bat-Inspired Algorithm Based Query Expansion for Medical Web Information Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khennak, Ilyes; Drias, Habiba

    2017-02-01

    With the increasing amount of medical data available on the Web, looking for health information has become one of the most widely searched topics on the Internet. Patients and people of several backgrounds are now using Web search engines to acquire medical information, including information about a specific disease, medical treatment or professional advice. Nonetheless, due to a lack of medical knowledge, many laypeople have difficulties in forming appropriate queries to articulate their inquiries, which deem their search queries to be imprecise due the use of unclear keywords. The use of these ambiguous and vague queries to describe the patients' needs has resulted in a failure of Web search engines to retrieve accurate and relevant information. One of the most natural and promising method to overcome this drawback is Query Expansion. In this paper, an original approach based on Bat Algorithm is proposed to improve the retrieval effectiveness of query expansion in medical field. In contrast to the existing literature, the proposed approach uses Bat Algorithm to find the best expanded query among a set of expanded query candidates, while maintaining low computational complexity. Moreover, this new approach allows the determination of the length of the expanded query empirically. Numerical results on MEDLINE, the on-line medical information database, show that the proposed approach is more effective and efficient compared to the baseline.

  4. Automated Text Markup for Information Retrieval from an Electronic Textbook of Infectious Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrios, Daniel C.; Kehler, Andrew; Kim, David K.; Yu, Victor L.; Fagan, Lawrence M.

    1998-01-01

    The information needs of practicing clinicians frequently require textbook or journal searches. Making these sources available in electronic form improves the speed of these searches, but precision (i.e., the fraction of relevant to total documents retrieved) remains low. Improving the traditional keyword search by transforming search terms into canonical concepts does not improve search precision greatly. Kim et al. have designed and built a prototype system (MYCIN II) for computer-based information retrieval from a forthcoming electronic textbook of infectious disease. The system requires manual indexing by experts in the form of complex text markup. However, this mark-up process is time consuming (about 3 person-hours to generate, review, and transcribe the index for each of 218 chapters). We have designed and implemented a system to semiautomate the markup process. The system, information extraction for semiautomated indexing of documents (ISAID), uses query models and existing information-extraction tools to provide support for any user, including the author of the source material, to mark up tertiary information sources quickly and accurately.

  5. The semantic representation of event information depends on the cue modality: an instance of meaning-based retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Kristina; Sikström, Sverker; Willander, Johan

    2013-01-01

    The semantic content, or the meaning, is the essence of autobiographical memories. In comparison to previous research, which has mainly focused on the phenomenological experience and the age distribution of retrieved events, the present study provides a novel view on the retrieval of event information by quantifying the information as semantic representations. We investigated the semantic representation of sensory cued autobiographical events and studied the modality hierarchy within the multimodal retrieval cues. The experiment comprised a cued recall task, where the participants were presented with visual, auditory, olfactory or multimodal retrieval cues and asked to recall autobiographical events. The results indicated that the three different unimodal retrieval cues generate significantly different semantic representations. Further, the auditory and the visual modalities contributed the most to the semantic representation of the multimodally retrieved events. Finally, the semantic representation of the multimodal condition could be described as a combination of the three unimodal conditions. In conclusion, these results suggest that the meaning of the retrieved event information depends on the modality of the retrieval cues.

  6. The semantic representation of event information depends on the cue modality: an instance of meaning-based retrieval.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Karlsson

    Full Text Available The semantic content, or the meaning, is the essence of autobiographical memories. In comparison to previous research, which has mainly focused on the phenomenological experience and the age distribution of retrieved events, the present study provides a novel view on the retrieval of event information by quantifying the information as semantic representations. We investigated the semantic representation of sensory cued autobiographical events and studied the modality hierarchy within the multimodal retrieval cues. The experiment comprised a cued recall task, where the participants were presented with visual, auditory, olfactory or multimodal retrieval cues and asked to recall autobiographical events. The results indicated that the three different unimodal retrieval cues generate significantly different semantic representations. Further, the auditory and the visual modalities contributed the most to the semantic representation of the multimodally retrieved events. Finally, the semantic representation of the multimodal condition could be described as a combination of the three unimodal conditions. In conclusion, these results suggest that the meaning of the retrieved event information depends on the modality of the retrieval cues.

  7. A new Dobson Umkehr ozone profile retrieval method optimising information content and resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, K.; Tully, M. B.; Rhodes, S. K.; Schofield, R.

    2015-03-01

    The standard Dobson Umkehr methodology to retrieve coarse-resolution ozone profiles used by the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration uses designated solar zenith angles (SZAs). However, some information may be lost if measurements lie outside the designated SZA range (between 60° and 90°), or do not conform to the fitting technique. Also, while Umkehr measurements can be taken using multiple wavelength pairs (A, C and D), past retrieval methods have focused on a single pair (C). Here we present an Umkehr inversion method that uses measurements at all SZAs (termed operational) and all wavelength pairs. (Although, we caution direct comparison to other algorithms.) Information content for a Melbourne, Australia (38° S, 145° E) Umkehr measurement case study from 28 January 1994, with SZA range similar to that designated in previous algorithms is shown. When comparing the typical single wavelength pair with designated SZAs to the operational measurements, the total degrees of freedom (independent pieces of information) increases from 3.1 to 3.4, with the majority of the information gain originating from Umkehr layers 2 + 3 and 4 (10-20 km and 25-30 km respectively). In addition to this, using all available wavelength pairs increases the total degrees of freedom to 5.2, with the most significant increases in Umkehr layers 2 + 3 to 7 and 9+ (10-40 and 45-80 km). Investigating a case from 13 April 1970 where the measurements extend beyond the 90° SZA range gives further information gain, with total degrees of freedom extending to 6.5. Similar increases are seen in the information content. Comparing the retrieved Melbourne Umkehr time series with ozonesondes shows excellent agreement in layers 2 + 3 and 4 (10-20 and 25-30 km) for both C and A + C + D-pairs. Retrievals in layers 5 and 6 (25-30 and 30-35 km) consistently show lower ozone partial column compared to ozonesondes. This is likely due to stray light effects that are not accounted for in the

  8. Application of information retrieval approaches to case classification in the vaccine adverse event reporting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botsis, Taxiarchis; Woo, Emily Jane; Ball, Robert

    2013-07-01

    Automating the classification of adverse event reports is an important step to improve the efficiency of vaccine safety surveillance. Previously we showed it was possible to classify reports using features extracted from the text of the reports. The aim of this study was to use the information encoded in the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA(®)) in the US Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) to support and evaluate two classification approaches: a multiple information retrieval strategy and a rule-based approach. To evaluate the performance of these approaches, we selected the conditions of anaphylaxis and Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). We used MedDRA(®) Preferred Terms stored in the VAERS, and two standardized medical terminologies: the Brighton Collaboration (BC) case definitions and Standardized MedDRA(®) Queries (SMQ) to classify two sets of reports for GBS and anaphylaxis. Two approaches were used: (i) the rule-based instruments that are available by the two terminologies (the Automatic Brighton Classification [ABC] tool and the SMQ algorithms); and (ii) the vector space model. We found that the rule-based instruments, particularly the SMQ algorithms, achieved a high degree of specificity; however, there was a cost in terms of sensitivity in all but the narrow GBS SMQ algorithm that outperformed the remaining approaches (sensitivity in the testing set was equal to 99.06 % for this algorithm vs. 93.40 % for the vector space model). In the case of anaphylaxis, the vector space model achieved higher sensitivity compared with the best values of both the ABC tool and the SMQ algorithms in the testing set (86.44 % vs. 64.11 % and 52.54 %, respectively). Our results showed the superiority of the vector space model over the existing rule-based approaches irrespective of the standardized medical knowledge represented by either the SMQ or the BC case definition. The vector space model might make automation of case definitions for

  9. Information operator approach applied to the retrieval of vertical distributions of atmospheric constituents from ground-based FTIR measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senten, Cindy; de Mazière, Martine; Vanhaelewyn, Gauthier; Vigouroux, Corinne; Delmas, Robert

    2010-05-01

    The retrieval of information about the vertical distribution of an atmospheric absorber from high spectral resolution ground-based Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR) solar absorption spectra is an important issue in remote sensing. A frequently used technique at present is the optimal estimation method. This work introduces the application of an alternative method, namely the information operator approach (Doicu et al., 2007; Hoogen et al., 1999), for extracting the available information from such FTIR measurements. This approach has been implemented within the well-known retrieval code SFIT2, by adapting the optimal estimation method such as to take into account only the significant contributions to the solution. In particular, we demonstrate the feasibility of the method when applied to ground-based FTIR spectra taken at the southern (sub)tropical site Ile de La Réunion (21° S, 55° E) in 2007. A thorough comparison has been made between the retrieval results obtained with the original optimal estimation method and the ones obtained with the information operator approach, regarding profile and column stability, information content and corresponding full error budget evaluation. This has been done for the target species ozone (O3), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and carbon monoxide (CO). It is shown that the information operator approach performs well and is capable of achieving the same accuracy as optimal estimation, with a gain of stability and with the additional advantage of being less sensitive to the choice of a priori information as well as to the actual signal-to-noise ratio. Keywords: ground-based FTIR, solar absorption spectra, greenhouse gases, information operator approach References Doicu, A., Hilgers, S., von Bargen, A., Rozanov, A., Eichmann, K.-U., von Savigny, C., and Burrows, J.P.: Information operator approach and iterative regularization methods for atmospheric remote sensing, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 103, 340-350, 2007

  10. Retrieval evaluation and distance learning from perceived similarity between endomicroscopy videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Barbara; Vercauteren, Tom; Buchner, Anna M; Wallace, Michael B; Ayache, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    Evaluating content-based retrieval (CBR) is challenging because it requires an adequate ground-truth. When the available groundtruth is limited to textual metadata such as pathological classes, retrieval results can only be evaluated indirectly, for example in terms of classification performance. In this study we first present a tool to generate perceived similarity ground-truth that enables direct evaluation of endomicroscopic video retrieval. This tool uses a four-points Likert scale and collects subjective pairwise similarities perceived by multiple expert observers. We then evaluate against the generated ground-truth a previously developed dense bag-of-visual-words method for endomicroscopic video retrieval. Confirming the results of previous indirect evaluation based on classification, our direct evaluation shows that this method significantly outperforms several other state-of-the-art CBR methods. In a second step, we propose to improve the CBR method by learning an adjusted similarity metric from the perceived similarity ground-truth. By minimizing a margin-based cost function that differentiates similar and dissimilar video pairs, we learn a weight vector applied to the visual word signatures of videos. Using cross-validation, we demonstrate that the learned similarity distance is significantly better correlated with the perceived similarity than the original visual-word-based distance.

  11. Context-dependent retrieval of information by neural-network dynamics with continuous attractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuboshita, Yukihiro; Okamoto, Hiroshi

    2007-08-01

    Memory retrieval in neural networks has traditionally been described by dynamic systems with discrete attractors. However, recent neurophysiological findings of graded persistent activity suggest that memory retrieval in the brain is more likely to be described by dynamic systems with continuous attractors. To explore what sort of information processing is achieved by continuous-attractor dynamics, keyword extraction from documents by a network of bistable neurons, which gives robust continuous attractors, is examined. Given an associative network of terms, a continuous attractor led by propagation of neuronal activation in this network appears to represent keywords that express underlying meaning of a document encoded in the initial state of the network-activation pattern. A dominant hypothesis in cognitive psychology is that long-term memory is archived in the network structure, which resembles associative networks of terms. Our results suggest that keyword extraction by the neural-network dynamics with continuous attractors might symbolically represent context-dependent retrieval of short-term memory from long-term memory in the brain.

  12. Assimilation of SMOS Retrieved Soil Moisture into the Land Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenship, Clay; Case, Jonathan; Zavodsky, Bradley; Jedlovec, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Soil moisture retrievals from the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) instrument are assimilated into the Noah land surface model (LSM) within the NASA Land Information System (LIS). Before assimilation, SMOS retrievals are bias-corrected to match the model climatological distribution using a Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF) matching approach. Data assimilation is done via the Ensemble Kalman Filter. The goal is to improve the representation of soil moisture within the LSM, and ultimately to improve numerical weather forecasts through better land surface initialization. We present a case study showing a large area of irrigation in the lower Mississippi River Valley, in an area with extensive rice agriculture. High soil moisture value in this region are observed by SMOS, but not captured in the forcing data. After assimilation, the model fields reflect the observed geographic patterns of soil moisture. Plans for a modeling experiment and operational use of the data are given. This work helps prepare for the assimilation of Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) retrievals in the near future.

  13. Harnessing the Power of Education Research Databases with the Pearl-Harvesting Methodological Framework for Information Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandieson, Robert W.; Kirkpatrick, Lori C.; Sandieson, Rachel M.; Zimmerman, Walter

    2010-01-01

    Digital technologies enable the storage of vast amounts of information, accessible with remarkable ease. However, along with this facility comes the challenge to find pertinent information from the volumes of nonrelevant information. The present article describes the pearl-harvesting methodological framework for information retrieval. Pearl…

  14. A Two-Level Cache for Distributed Information Retrieval in Search Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weizhe Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve the performance of distributed information retrieval in search engines, we propose a two-level cache structure based on the queries of the users’ logs. We extract the highest rank queries of users from the static cache, in which the queries are the most popular. We adopt the dynamic cache as an auxiliary to optimize the distribution of the cache data. We propose a distribution strategy of the cache data. The experiments prove that the hit rate, the efficiency, and the time consumption of the two-level cache have advantages compared with other structures of cache.

  15. Automatic generation of stop word lists for information retrieval and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Stuart J

    2013-01-08

    Methods and systems for automatically generating lists of stop words for information retrieval and analysis. Generation of the stop words can include providing a corpus of documents and a plurality of keywords. From the corpus of documents, a term list of all terms is constructed and both a keyword adjacency frequency and a keyword frequency are determined. If a ratio of the keyword adjacency frequency to the keyword frequency for a particular term on the term list is less than a predetermined value, then that term is excluded from the term list. The resulting term list is truncated based on predetermined criteria to form a stop word list.

  16. GamifIR 2016 - SIGIR 2016 Workshop on Gamification for Information Retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Meder, Michael; Hopfgartner, Frank; Kazai, Gabriella; Kruschwitz, Udo

    2016-01-01

    The third workshop on Gamification for Information Retrieval (GamifIR) took place on\\ud the 21th of July 2016 in conjunction with SIGIR 2016 in Pisa, Italy. It was the first GamifIR\\ud held in conjunction with the SIGIR, the first and second GamifIR workshops were both colocated\\ud with ECIR. The workshop program included one invited keynote presentation, seven\\ud paper presentations and a discussion session. The keynote presentation stated the necessity\\ud of proper theory for gamification d...

  17. A two-level cache for distributed information retrieval in search engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weizhe; He, Hui; Ye, Jianwei

    2013-01-01

    To improve the performance of distributed information retrieval in search engines, we propose a two-level cache structure based on the queries of the users' logs. We extract the highest rank queries of users from the static cache, in which the queries are the most popular. We adopt the dynamic cache as an auxiliary to optimize the distribution of the cache data. We propose a distribution strategy of the cache data. The experiments prove that the hit rate, the efficiency, and the time consumption of the two-level cache have advantages compared with other structures of cache.

  18. A Vision-Based System for Object Identification and Information Retrieval in a Smart Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Raphael; Monekosso, Dorothy; de Jager, Deon; Remagnino, Paolo

    This paper describes a hand held device developed to assist people to locate and retrieve information about objects in a home. The system developed is a standalone device to assist persons with memory impairments such as people suffering from Alzheimer's disease. A second application is object detection and localization for a mobile robot operating in an ambient assisted living environment. The device relies on computer vision techniques to locate a tagged object situated in the environment. The tag is a 2D color printed pattern with a detection range and a field of view such that the user may point from a distance of over 1 meter.

  19. Evaluation and Windspeed Dependence of MODIS Aerosol Retrievals Over Open Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleidman, Richard G.; Smirnov, Alexander; Levy, Robert C.; Mattoo, Shana; Tanre, Didier

    2011-01-01

    The Maritime Aerosol Network (MAN) data set provides high quality ground-truth to validate the MODIS aerosol product over open ocean. Prior validation of the ocean aerosol product has been limited to coastal and island sites. Comparing MODIS Collection 5 ocean aerosol retrieval products with collocated MAN measurements from ships shows that MODIS is meeting the pre-launch uncertainty estimates for aerosol optical depth (AOD) with 64% and 67% of retrievals at 550 nm, and 74% and 78% of retrievals at 870 nm, falling within expected uncertainty for Terra and Aqua, respectively. Angstrom Exponent comparisons show a high correlation between MODIS retrievals and shipboard measurements (R= 0.85 Terra, 0.83 Aqua), although the MODIS aerosol algorithm tends to underestimate particle size for large particles and overestimate size for small particles, as seen in earlier Collections. Prior analysis noted an offset between Terra and Aqua ocean AOD, without concluding which sensor was more accurate. The simple linear regression reported here, is consistent with other anecdotal evidence that Aqua agreement with AERONET is marginally better. However we cannot claim based on the current study that the better Aqua comparison is statistically significant. Systematic increase of error as a function of wind speed is noted in both Terra and Aqua retrievals. This wind speed dependency enters the retrieval when winds deviate from the 6 m/s value assumed in the rough ocean surface and white cap parameterizations. Wind speed dependency in the results can be mitigated by using auxiliary NCEP wind speed information in the retrieval process.

  20. Global polar geospatial information service retrieval based on search engine and ontology reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nengcheng; E, Dongcheng; Di, Liping; Gong, Jianya; Chen, Zeqiang

    2007-01-01

    In order to improve the access precision of polar geospatial information service on web, a new methodology for retrieving global spatial information services based on geospatial service search and ontology reasoning is proposed, the geospatial service search is implemented to find the coarse service from web, the ontology reasoning is designed to find the refined service from the coarse service. The proposed framework includes standardized distributed geospatial web services, a geospatial service search engine, an extended UDDI registry, and a multi-protocol geospatial information service client. Some key technologies addressed include service discovery based on search engine and service ontology modeling and reasoning in the Antarctic geospatial context. Finally, an Antarctica multi protocol OWS portal prototype based on the proposed methodology is introduced.