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Sample records for evaluating epistatic interaction

  1. Epistatic interactions on chromosome 14 influencing stillbirth in Fleckvieh cattle

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    Gábor Mészáros

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP data of 7384 Fleckvieh bulls was analyzed to identify epistatic interactions influencing stillbirth. Deregressed breeding values were used as phenotypes. The epistatic effects were identified as significant interaction terms from pairwise linear regressions performed for each SNP after accounting for multiple testing. Majority of the detected epistatic effects were located in the 9-31Mb region of chromosome 14, corresponding to the most significant region from the genome wide association. Additional epistatic SNPs at 50.5Mb and 80.5 Mb at the same chromosome were detected. The region around 25 Mb contained genes connected to height and body size such as PLAG1, CHCHD7, LYN, RDHE2 (SDR16C5 and PENK. The other interesting region at 50.5Mb contained the TRPS1 gene influencing bone malformations. Both regions have been identified as candidates influencing stillbirth.

  2. An empirical comparison of several recent epistatic interaction detection methods.

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    Wang, Yue; Liu, Guimei; Feng, Mengling; Wong, Limsoon

    2011-11-01

    Many new methods have recently been proposed for detecting epistatic interactions in GWAS data. There is, however, no in-depth independent comparison of these methods yet. Five recent methods-TEAM, BOOST, SNPHarvester, SNPRuler and Screen and Clean (SC)-are evaluated here in terms of power, type-1 error rate, scalability and completeness. In terms of power, TEAM performs best on data with main effect and BOOST performs best on data without main effect. In terms of type-1 error rate, TEAM and BOOST have higher type-1 error rates than SNPRuler and SNPHarvester. SC does not control type-1 error rate well. In terms of scalability, we tested the five methods using a dataset with 100 000 SNPs on a 64 bit Ubuntu system, with Intel (R) Xeon(R) CPU 2.66 GHz, 16 GB memory. TEAM takes ~36 days to finish and SNPRuler reports heap allocation problems. BOOST scales up to 100 000 SNPs and the cost is much lower than that of TEAM. SC and SNPHarvester are the most scalable. In terms of completeness, we study how frequently the pruning techniques employed by these methods incorrectly prune away the most significant epistatic interactions. We find that, on average, 20% of datasets without main effect and 60% of datasets with main effect are pruned incorrectly by BOOST, SNPRuler and SNPHarvester. The software for the five methods tested are available from the URLs below. TEAM: http://csbio.unc.edu/epistasis/download.php BOOST: http://ihome.ust.hk/~eeyang/papers.html. SNPHarvester: http://bioinformatics.ust.hk/SNPHarvester.html. SNPRuler: http://bioinformatics.ust.hk/SNPRuler.zip. Screen and Clean: http://wpicr.wpic.pitt.edu/WPICCompGen/. wangyue@nus.edu.sg.

  3. Stripe rust and leaf rust resistance QTL mapping, epistatic interactions, and co-localization with stem rust resistance loci in spring wheat evaluated over three continents.

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    Singh, A; Knox, R E; DePauw, R M; Singh, A K; Cuthbert, R D; Campbell, H L; Shorter, S; Bhavani, S

    2014-11-01

    In wheat, advantageous gene-rich or pleiotropic regions for stripe, leaf, and stem rust and epistatic interactions between rust resistance loci should be accounted for in plant breeding strategies. Leaf rust (Puccinia triticina Eriks.) and stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. tritici Eriks) contribute to major production losses in many regions worldwide. The objectives of this research were to identify and study epistatic interactions of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for stripe and leaf rust resistance in a doubled haploid (DH) population derived from the cross of Canadian wheat cultivars, AC Cadillac and Carberry. The relationship of leaf and stripe rust resistance QTL that co-located with stem rust resistance QTL previously mapped in this population was also investigated. The Carberry/AC Cadillac population was genotyped with DArT(®) and simple sequence repeat markers. The parents and population were phenotyped for stripe rust severity and infection response in field rust nurseries in Kenya (Njoro), Canada (Swift Current), and New Zealand (Lincoln); and for leaf rust severity and infection response in field nurseries in Canada (Swift Current) and New Zealand (Lincoln). AC Cadillac was a source of stripe rust resistance QTL on chromosomes 2A, 2B, 3A, 3B, 5B, and 7B; and Carberry was a source of resistance on chromosomes 2B, 4B, and 7A. AC Cadillac contributed QTL for resistance to leaf rust on chromosome 2A and Carberry contributed QTL on chromosomes 2B and 4B. Stripe rust resistance QTL co-localized with previously reported stem rust resistance QTL on 2B, 3B, and 7B, while leaf rust resistance QTL co-localized with 4B stem rust resistance QTL. Several epistatic interactions were identified both for stripe and leaf rust resistance QTL. We have identified useful combinations of genetic loci with main and epistatic effects. Multiple disease resistance regions identified on chromosomes 2A, 2B, 3B, 4B, 5B, and 7B are prime candidates for further investigation and

  4. Mechanistic basis of an epistatic interaction reducing age at onset in hereditary spastic paraplegia.

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    Newton, Timothy; Allison, Rachel; Edgar, James R; Lumb, Jennifer H; Rodger, Catherine E; Manna, Paul T; Rizo, Tania; Kohl, Zacharias; Nygren, Anders O H; Arning, Larissa; Schüle, Rebecca; Depienne, Christel; Goldberg, Lisa; Frahm, Christiane; Stevanin, Giovanni; Durr, Alexandra; Schöls, Ludger; Winner, Beate; Beetz, Christian; Reid, Evan

    2018-05-01

    Many genetic neurological disorders exhibit variable expression within affected families, often exemplified by variations in disease age at onset. Epistatic effects (i.e. effects of modifier genes on the disease gene) may underlie this variation, but the mechanistic basis for such epistatic interactions is rarely understood. Here we report a novel epistatic interaction between SPAST and the contiguous gene DPY30, which modifies age at onset in hereditary spastic paraplegia, a genetic axonopathy. We found that patients with hereditary spastic paraplegia caused by genomic deletions of SPAST that extended into DPY30 had a significantly younger age at onset. We show that, like spastin, the protein encoded by SPAST, the DPY30 protein controls endosomal tubule fission, traffic of mannose 6-phosphate receptors from endosomes to the Golgi, and lysosomal ultrastructural morphology. We propose that additive effects on this pathway explain the reduced age at onset of hereditary spastic paraplegia in patients who are haploinsufficient for both genes.

  5. Multifactor dimensionality reduction reveals a three-locus epistatic interaction associated with susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collins, Ryan L; Hu, Ting; Wejse, Christian

    2013-01-01

    for this problem. The goal of the present study was to apply MDR to mining high-order epistatic interactions in a population-based genetic study of tuberculosis (TB). Results The study used a previously published data set consisting of 19 candidate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 321 pulmonary TB cases...

  6. Understanding Epistatic Interactions between Genes Targeted by Non-coding Regulatory Elements in Complex Diseases

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    Min Kyung Sung

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies have proven the highly polygenic architecture of complex diseases or traits; therefore, single-locus-based methods are usually unable to detect all involved loci, especially when individual loci exert small effects. Moreover, the majority of associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms resides in non-coding regions, making it difficult to understand their phenotypic contribution. In this work, we studied epistatic interactions associated with three common diseases using Korea Association Resource (KARE data: type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM, hypertension (HT, and coronary artery disease (CAD. We showed that epistatic single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were enriched in enhancers, as well as in DNase I footprints (the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements [ENCODE] Project Consortium 2012, which suggested that the disruption of the regulatory regions where transcription factors bind may be involved in the disease mechanism. Accordingly, to identify the genes affected by the SNPs, we employed whole-genome multiple-cell-type enhancer data which discovered using DNase I profiles and Cap Analysis Gene Expression (CAGE. Assigned genes were significantly enriched in known disease associated gene sets, which were explored based on the literature, suggesting that this approach is useful for detecting relevant affected genes. In our knowledge-based epistatic network, the three diseases share many associated genes and are also closely related with each other through many epistatic interactions. These findings elucidate the genetic basis of the close relationship between DM, HT, and CAD.

  7. Hybrid male sterility in rice is due to epistatic interactions with a pollen killer locus.

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    Kubo, Takahiko; Yoshimura, Atsushi; Kurata, Nori

    2011-11-01

    In intraspecific crosses between cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) subspecies indica and japonica, the hybrid male sterility gene S24 causes the selective abortion of male gametes carrying the japonica allele (S24-j) via an allelic interaction in the heterozygous hybrids. In this study, we first examined whether male sterility is due solely to the single locus S24. An analysis of near-isogenic lines (NIL-F(1)) showed different phenotypes for S24 in different genetic backgrounds. The S24 heterozygote with the japonica genetic background showed male semisterility, but no sterility was found in heterozygotes with the indica background. This result indicates that S24 is regulated epistatically. A QTL analysis of a BC(2)F(1) population revealed a novel sterility locus that interacts with S24 and is found on rice chromosome 2. The locus was named Epistatic Factor for S24 (EFS). Further genetic analyses revealed that S24 causes male sterility when in combination with the homozygous japonica EFS allele (efs-j). The results suggest that efs-j is a recessive sporophytic allele, while the indica allele (EFS-i) can dominantly counteract the pollen sterility caused by S24 heterozygosity. In summary, our results demonstrate that an additional epistatic locus is an essential element in the hybrid sterility caused by allelic interaction at a single locus in rice. This finding provides a significant contribution to our understanding of the complex molecular mechanisms underlying hybrid sterility and microsporogenesis.

  8. Multi-location wheat stripe rust QTL analysis: genetic background and epistatic interactions.

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    Vazquez, M Dolores; Zemetra, Robert; Peterson, C James; Chen, Xianming M; Heesacker, Adam; Mundt, Christopher C

    2015-07-01

    Epistasis and genetic background were important influences on expression of stripe rust resistance in two wheat RIL populations, one with resistance conditioned by two major genes and the other conditioned by several minor QTL. Stripe rust is a foliar disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) caused by the air-borne fungus Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici and is present in most regions around the world where commercial wheat is grown. Breeding for durable resistance to stripe rust continues to be a priority, but also is a challenge due to the complexity of interactions among resistance genes and to the wide diversity and continuous evolution of the pathogen races. The goal of this study was to detect chromosomal regions for resistance to stripe rust in two winter wheat populations, 'Tubbs'/'NSA-98-0995' (T/N) and 'Einstein'/'Tubbs' (E/T), evaluated across seven environments and mapped with diversity array technology and simple sequence repeat markers covering polymorphic regions of ≈1480 and 1117 cM, respectively. Analysis of variance for phenotypic data revealed significant (P located in chromosomes 2AS and 6AL, with epistatic interaction between them, were responsible for the main phenotypic response. For the T/N population, eight QTL were identified, with those in chromosomes 2AL and 2BL accounting for the largest percentage of the phenotypic variance.

  9. Strong Selection Significantly Increases Epistatic Interactions in the Long-Term Evolution of a Protein.

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    Aditi Gupta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Epistatic interactions between residues determine a protein's adaptability and shape its evolutionary trajectory. When a protein experiences a changed environment, it is under strong selection to find a peak in the new fitness landscape. It has been shown that strong selection increases epistatic interactions as well as the ruggedness of the fitness landscape, but little is known about how the epistatic interactions change under selection in the long-term evolution of a protein. Here we analyze the evolution of epistasis in the protease of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 using protease sequences collected for almost a decade from both treated and untreated patients, to understand how epistasis changes and how those changes impact the long-term evolvability of a protein. We use an information-theoretic proxy for epistasis that quantifies the co-variation between sites, and show that positive information is a necessary (but not sufficient condition that detects epistasis in most cases. We analyze the "fossils" of the evolutionary trajectories of the protein contained in the sequence data, and show that epistasis continues to enrich under strong selection, but not for proteins whose environment is unchanged. The increase in epistasis compensates for the information loss due to sequence variability brought about by treatment, and facilitates adaptation in the increasingly rugged fitness landscape of treatment. While epistasis is thought to enhance evolvability via valley-crossing early-on in adaptation, it can hinder adaptation later when the landscape has turned rugged. However, we find no evidence that the HIV-1 protease has reached its potential for evolution after 9 years of adapting to a drug environment that itself is constantly changing. We suggest that the mechanism of encoding new information into pairwise interactions is central to protein evolution not just in HIV-1 protease, but for any protein adapting to a changing

  10. bNEAT: a Bayesian network method for detecting epistatic interactions in genome-wide association studies

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    Chen Xue-wen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detecting epistatic interactions plays a significant role in improving pathogenesis, prevention, diagnosis and treatment of complex human diseases. A recent study in automatic detection of epistatic interactions shows that Markov Blanket-based methods are capable of finding genetic variants strongly associated with common diseases and reducing false positives when the number of instances is large. Unfortunately, a typical dataset from genome-wide association studies consists of very limited number of examples, where current methods including Markov Blanket-based method may perform poorly. Results To address small sample problems, we propose a Bayesian network-based approach (bNEAT to detect epistatic interactions. The proposed method also employs a Branch-and-Bound technique for learning. We apply the proposed method to simulated datasets based on four disease models and a real dataset. Experimental results show that our method outperforms Markov Blanket-based methods and other commonly-used methods, especially when the number of samples is small. Conclusions Our results show bNEAT can obtain a strong power regardless of the number of samples and is especially suitable for detecting epistatic interactions with slight or no marginal effects. The merits of the proposed approach lie in two aspects: a suitable score for Bayesian network structure learning that can reflect higher-order epistatic interactions and a heuristic Bayesian network structure learning method.

  11. An information-gain approach to detecting three-way epistatic interactions in genetic association studies

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    Hu, Ting; Chen, Yuanzhu; Kiralis, Jeff W

    2013-01-01

    Background Epistasis has been historically used to describe the phenomenon that the effect of a given gene on a phenotype can be dependent on one or more other genes, and is an essential element for understanding the association between genetic and phenotypic variations. Quantifying epistasis......-way epistasis. Methods Such a measure is based on information gain, and is able to separate all lower order effects from pure three-way epistasis. Results Our method was verified on synthetic data and applied to real data from a candidate-gene study of tuberculosis in a West African population....... In the tuberculosis data, we found a statistically significant pure three-way epistatic interaction effect that was stronger than any lower-order associations. Conclusion Our study provides a methodological basis for detecting and characterizing high-order gene-gene interactions in genetic association studies....

  12. Distinct configurations of protein complexes and biochemical pathways revealed by epistatic interaction network motifs

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    Casey, Fergal

    2011-08-22

    Abstract Background Gene and protein interactions are commonly represented as networks, with the genes or proteins comprising the nodes and the relationship between them as edges. Motifs, or small local configurations of edges and nodes that arise repeatedly, can be used to simplify the interpretation of networks. Results We examined triplet motifs in a network of quantitative epistatic genetic relationships, and found a non-random distribution of particular motif classes. Individual motif classes were found to be associated with different functional properties, suggestive of an underlying biological significance. These associations were apparent not only for motif classes, but for individual positions within the motifs. As expected, NNN (all negative) motifs were strongly associated with previously reported genetic (i.e. synthetic lethal) interactions, while PPP (all positive) motifs were associated with protein complexes. The two other motif classes (NNP: a positive interaction spanned by two negative interactions, and NPP: a negative spanned by two positives) showed very distinct functional associations, with physical interactions dominating for the former but alternative enrichments, typical of biochemical pathways, dominating for the latter. Conclusion We present a model showing how NNP motifs can be used to recognize supportive relationships between protein complexes, while NPP motifs often identify opposing or regulatory behaviour between a gene and an associated pathway. The ability to use motifs to point toward underlying biological organizational themes is likely to be increasingly important as more extensive epistasis mapping projects in higher organisms begin.

  13. Fitness ranking of individual mutants drives patterns of epistatic interactions in HIV-1.

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    Javier P Martínez

    Full Text Available Fitness interactions between mutations, referred to as epistasis, can strongly impact evolution. For RNA viruses and retroviruses with their high mutation rates, epistasis may be particularly important to overcome fitness losses due to the accumulation of deleterious mutations and thus could influence the frequency of mutants in a viral population. As human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 resistance to azidothymidine (AZT requires selection of sequential mutations, it is a good system to study the impact of epistasis. Here we present a thorough analysis of a classical AZT-resistance pathway (the 41-215 cluster of HIV-1 variants by fitness measurements in single round infection assays covering physiological drug concentrations ex vivo. The sign and value of epistasis varied and did not predict the epistatic effect on the mutant frequency. This complex behavior is explained by the fitness ranking of the variants that strongly depends on environmental factors, i.e., the presence and absence of drugs and the host cells used. Although some interactions compensate fitness losses, the observed small effect on the relative mutant frequencies suggests that epistasis might be inefficient as a buffering mechanism for fitness losses in vivo. While the use of epistasis-based hypotheses to make general assumptions on the evolutionary dynamics of viral populations is appealing, our data caution their interpretation without further knowledge on the characteristics of the viral mutant spectrum under different environmental conditions.

  14. The role of epistatic interactions underpinning resistance to parasitic Varroa mites in haploid honey bee (Apis mellifera) drones.

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    Conlon, Benjamin H; Frey, Eva; Rosenkranz, Peter; Locke, Barbara; Moritz, Robin F A; Routtu, Jarkko

    2018-06-01

    The Red Queen hypothesis predicts that host-parasite coevolutionary dynamics can select for host resistance through increased genetic diversity, recombination and evolutionary rates. However, in haplodiploid organisms such as the honeybee (Apis mellifera), models suggest the selective pressure is weaker than in diploids. Haplodiploid sex determination, found in A. mellifera, can allow deleterious recessive alleles to persist in the population through the diploid sex with negative effects predominantly expressed in the haploid sex. To overcome these negative effects in haploid genomes, epistatic interactions have been hypothesized to play an important role. Here, we use the interaction between A. mellifera and the parasitic mite Varroa destructor to test epistasis in the expression of resistance, through the inhibition of parasite reproduction, in haploid drones. We find novel loci on three chromosomes which explain over 45% of the resistance phenotype. Two of these loci interact only additively, suggesting their expression is independent of each other, but both loci interact epistatically with the third locus. With drone offspring inheriting only one copy of the queen's chromosomes, the drones will only possess one of two queen alleles throughout the years-long lifetime of the honeybee colony. Varroa, in comparison, completes its highly inbred reproductive cycle in a matter of weeks, allowing it to rapidly evolve resistance. Faced with the rapidly evolving Varroa, a diversity of pathways and epistatic interactions for the inhibition of Varroa reproduction could therefore provide a selective advantage to the high levels of recombination seen in A. mellifera. This allows for the remixing of phenotypes despite a fixed queen genotype. © 2018 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2018 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  15. QTL mapping and epistatic interaction analysis in asparagus bean for several characterized and novel horticulturally important traits

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    2013-01-01

    Background Asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata. ssp sesquipedalis) is a subspecies and special vegetable type of cowpea (Vigna. unguiculata L. Walp.) important in Asia. Genetic basis of horticulturally important traits of asparagus bean is still poorly understood, hindering the utilization of targeted, DNA marker-assisted breeding in this crop. Here we report the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and epistatic interactions for four horticultural traits, namely, days to first flowering (FLD), nodes to first flower (NFF), leaf senescence (LS) and pod number per plant (PN) using a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of asparagus bean. Results A similar genetic mode of one major QTL plus a few minor QTLs was found to dominate each of the four traits, with the number of QTLs for individual traits ranging from three to four. These QTLs were distributed on 7 of the 11 chromosomes. Major QTLs for FLD, NFF and LS were co-localized on LG 11, indicative of tight linkage. Genome wide epistasis analysis detected two and one interactive locus pairs that significantly affect FLD and LS, respectively, and the epistatic QTLs for FLD appeared to work in different ways. Synteny based comparison of QTL locations revealed conservation of chromosome regions controlling these traits in related legume crops. Conclusion Major, minor, and epistatic QTLs were found to contribute to the inheritance of the FLD, NFF, LS, and PN. Positions of many of these QTLs are conserved among closely related legume species, indicating common mechanisms they share. To our best knowledge, this is the first QTL mapping report using an asparagus bean × asparagus bean intervarietal population and provides marker-trait associations for marker-assisted approaches to selection. PMID:23375055

  16. Lack of evidence for intermolecular epistatic interactions between adiponectin and resistin gene polymorphisms in Malaysian male subjects

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    Cia-Hin Lau

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Epistasis (gene-gene interaction is a ubiquitous component of the genetic architecture of complex traits such as susceptibility to common human diseases. Given the strong negative correlation between circulating adiponectin and resistin levels, the potential intermolecular epistatic interactions between ADIPOQ (SNP+45T > G, SNP+276G > T, SNP+639T > C and SNP+1212A > G and RETN (SNP-420C > G and SNP+299G > A gene polymorphisms in the genetic risk underlying type 2 diabetes (T2DM and metabolic syndrome (MS were assessed. The potential mutual influence of the ADIPOQ and RETN genes on their adipokine levels was also examined. The rare homozygous genotype (risk alleles of SNP-420C > G at the RETN locus tended to be co-inherited together with the common homozygous genotypes (protective alleles of SNP+639T > C and SNP+1212A > G at the ADIPOQ locus. Despite the close structural relationship between the ADIPOQ and RETN genes, there was no evidence of an intermolecular epistatic interaction between these genes. There was also no reciprocal effect of the ADIPOQ and RETN genes on their adipokine levels, i.e., ADIPOQ did not affect resistin levels nor did RETN affect adiponectin levels. The possible influence of the ADIPOQ gene on RETN expression warrants further investigation.

  17. Epigenetic and epistatic interactions between serotonin transporter and brain-derived neurotrophic factor genetic polymorphism: insights in depression.

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    Ignácio, Z M; Réus, G Z; Abelaira, H M; Quevedo, J

    2014-09-05

    Epidemiological studies have shown significant results in the interaction between the functions of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and 5-HT in mood disorders, such as major depressive disorder (MDD). The latest research has provided convincing evidence that gene transcription of these molecules is a target for epigenetic changes, triggered by stressful stimuli that starts in early childhood and continues throughout life, which are subsequently translated into structural and functional phenotypes culminating in depressive disorders. The short variants of 5-HTTLPR and BDNF-Met are seen as forms which are predisposed to epigenetic aberrations, which leads individuals to a susceptibility to environmental adversities, especially when subjected to stress in early life. Moreover, the polymorphic variants also feature epistatic interactions in directing the functional mechanisms elicited by stress and underlying the onset of depressive disorders. Also emphasized are works which show some mediators between stress and epigenetic changes of the 5-HTT and BDNF genes, such as the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), which is a cellular transcription factor. Both the HPA axis and CREB are also involved in epistatic interactions between polymorphic variants of 5-HTTLPR and Val66Met. This review highlights some research studying changes in the epigenetic patterns intrinsic to genes of 5-HTT and BDNF, which are related to lifelong environmental adversities, which in turn increases the risks of developing MDD. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Spatiotemporal dynamics and epistatic interaction sites in dengue virus type 1: a comprehensive sequence-based analysis.

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    Pei-Yu Chu

    Full Text Available The continuing threat of dengue fever necessitates a comprehensive characterisation of its epidemiological trends. Phylogenetic and recombination events were reconstructed based on 100 worldwide dengue virus (DENV type 1 genome sequences with an outgroup (prototypes of DENV2-4. The phylodynamic characteristics and site-specific variation were then analysed using data without the outgroup. Five genotypes (GI-GV and a ladder-like structure with short terminal branch topology were observed in this study. Apparently, the transmission of DENV1 was geographically random before gradual localising with human activity as GI-GIII in South Asia, GIV in the South Pacific, and GV in the Americas. Genotypes IV and V have recently shown higher population densities compared to older genotypes. All codon regions and all tree branches were skewed toward a negative selection, which indicated that their variation was restricted by protein function. Notably, multi-epistatic interaction sites were found in both PrM 221 and NS3 1730. Recombination events accumulated in regions E, NS3-NS4A, and particularly in region NS5. The estimated coevolution pattern also highlights the need for further study of the biological role of protein PrM 221 and NS3 1730. The recent transmission of emergent GV sublineages into Central America and Europe mandates closely monitoring of genotype interaction and succession.

  19. An epistatic interaction between the PAX8 and STK17B genes in papillary thyroid cancer susceptibility.

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    Iñigo Landa

    Full Text Available Papillary Thyroid Cancer (PTC is a heterogeneous and complex disease; susceptibility to PTC is influenced by the joint effects of multiple common, low-penetrance genes, although relatively few have been identified to date. Here we applied a rigorous combined approach to assess both the individual and epistatic contributions of genetic factors to PTC susceptibility, based on one of the largest series of thyroid cancer cases described to date. In addition to identifying the involvement of TSHR variation in classic PTC, our pioneer study of epistasis revealed a significant interaction between variants in STK17B and PAX8. The interaction was detected by MD-MBR (p = 0.00010 and confirmed by other methods, and then replicated in a second independent series of patients (MD-MBR p = 0.017. Furthermore, we demonstrated an inverse correlation between expression of PAX8 and STK17B in a set of cell lines derived from human thyroid carcinomas. Overall, our work sheds additional light on the genetic basis of thyroid cancer susceptibility, and suggests a new direction for the exploration of the inherited genetic contribution to disease using association studies.

  20. Molecular signature of epistatic selection: interrogating genetic interactions in the sex-ratio meiotic drive of Drosophila simulans.

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    Chevin, Luis-Miguel; Bastide, Héloïse; Montchamp-Moreau, Catherine; Hospital, Frédéric

    2009-06-01

    Fine scale analyses of signatures of selection allow assessing quantitative aspects of a species' evolutionary genetic history, such as the strength of selection on genes. When several selected loci lie in the same genomic region, their epistatic interactions may also be investigated. Here, we study how the neutral polymorphism pattern was shaped by two close recombining loci that cause 'sex-ratio' meiotic drive in Drosophila simulans, as an example of strong selection with potentially strong epistasis. We compare the polymorphism data observed in a natural population with the results of forward stochastic simulations under several contexts of epistasis between the candidate loci for the drive. We compute the likelihood of different possible scenarios, in order to determine which configuration is most consistent with the data. Our results highlight that fine scale analyses of well-chosen candidate genomic regions provide information-rich data that can be used to investigate the genotype-phenotype-fitness map, which can hardly be studied in genome-wide analyses. We also emphasize that initial conditions and time of observation (here, time after the interruption of a partial selective sweep) are crucial parameters in the interpretation of real data, while these are often overlooked in theoretical studies.

  1. Directed Evolution Reveals Unexpected Epistatic Interactions That Alter Metabolic Regulation and Enable Anaerobic Xylose Use by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

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    Trey K Sato

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The inability of native Saccharomyces cerevisiae to convert xylose from plant biomass into biofuels remains a major challenge for the production of renewable bioenergy. Despite extensive knowledge of the regulatory networks controlling carbon metabolism in yeast, little is known about how to reprogram S. cerevisiae to ferment xylose at rates comparable to glucose. Here we combined genome sequencing, proteomic profiling, and metabolomic analyses to identify and characterize the responsible mutations in a series of evolved strains capable of metabolizing xylose aerobically or anaerobically. We report that rapid xylose conversion by engineered and evolved S. cerevisiae strains depends upon epistatic interactions among genes encoding a xylose reductase (GRE3, a component of MAP Kinase (MAPK signaling (HOG1, a regulator of Protein Kinase A (PKA signaling (IRA2, and a scaffolding protein for mitochondrial iron-sulfur (Fe-S cluster biogenesis (ISU1. Interestingly, the mutation in IRA2 only impacted anaerobic xylose consumption and required the loss of ISU1 function, indicating a previously unknown connection between PKA signaling, Fe-S cluster biogenesis, and anaerobiosis. Proteomic and metabolomic comparisons revealed that the xylose-metabolizing mutant strains exhibit altered metabolic pathways relative to the parental strain when grown in xylose. Further analyses revealed that interacting mutations in HOG1 and ISU1 unexpectedly elevated mitochondrial respiratory proteins and enabled rapid aerobic respiration of xylose and other non-fermentable carbon substrates. Our findings suggest a surprising connection between Fe-S cluster biogenesis and signaling that facilitates aerobic respiration and anaerobic fermentation of xylose, underscoring how much remains unknown about the eukaryotic signaling systems that regulate carbon metabolism.

  2. Directed Evolution Reveals Unexpected Epistatic Interactions That Alter Metabolic Regulation and Enable Anaerobic Xylose Use by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

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    Sato, Trey K; Tremaine, Mary; Parreiras, Lucas S; Hebert, Alexander S; Myers, Kevin S; Higbee, Alan J; Sardi, Maria; McIlwain, Sean J; Ong, Irene M; Breuer, Rebecca J; Avanasi Narasimhan, Ragothaman; McGee, Mick A; Dickinson, Quinn; La Reau, Alex; Xie, Dan; Tian, Mingyuan; Reed, Jennifer L; Zhang, Yaoping; Coon, Joshua J; Hittinger, Chris Todd; Gasch, Audrey P; Landick, Robert

    2016-10-01

    The inability of native Saccharomyces cerevisiae to convert xylose from plant biomass into biofuels remains a major challenge for the production of renewable bioenergy. Despite extensive knowledge of the regulatory networks controlling carbon metabolism in yeast, little is known about how to reprogram S. cerevisiae to ferment xylose at rates comparable to glucose. Here we combined genome sequencing, proteomic profiling, and metabolomic analyses to identify and characterize the responsible mutations in a series of evolved strains capable of metabolizing xylose aerobically or anaerobically. We report that rapid xylose conversion by engineered and evolved S. cerevisiae strains depends upon epistatic interactions among genes encoding a xylose reductase (GRE3), a component of MAP Kinase (MAPK) signaling (HOG1), a regulator of Protein Kinase A (PKA) signaling (IRA2), and a scaffolding protein for mitochondrial iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster biogenesis (ISU1). Interestingly, the mutation in IRA2 only impacted anaerobic xylose consumption and required the loss of ISU1 function, indicating a previously unknown connection between PKA signaling, Fe-S cluster biogenesis, and anaerobiosis. Proteomic and metabolomic comparisons revealed that the xylose-metabolizing mutant strains exhibit altered metabolic pathways relative to the parental strain when grown in xylose. Further analyses revealed that interacting mutations in HOG1 and ISU1 unexpectedly elevated mitochondrial respiratory proteins and enabled rapid aerobic respiration of xylose and other non-fermentable carbon substrates. Our findings suggest a surprising connection between Fe-S cluster biogenesis and signaling that facilitates aerobic respiration and anaerobic fermentation of xylose, underscoring how much remains unknown about the eukaryotic signaling systems that regulate carbon metabolism.

  3. Both epistatic and additive effects of QTLs are involved in polygenic induced resistance to disease: a case study, the interaction pepper - Phytophthora capsici Leonian.

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    Lefebvre, V; Palloix, A

    1996-09-01

    To study the resistance of pepper to Phytophthora capsici, we analyzed 94 doubled-haploid (DH) lines derived from the intraspecific F1 hybrid obtained from a cross between Perennial, an Indian pungent resistant line, and Yolo Wonder, an American bell-pepper susceptible line, with 119 DNA markers. Four different criteria were used to evaluate the resistance, corresponding to different steps or mechanisms of the host-pathogen interaction: root-rot index, receptivity, inducibility and stability. Three distinct ANOVA models between DNA marker genotypes and the four disease criteria identified 13 genomic regions, distributed across several linkage groups or unlinked markers, affecting the resistance of pepper to P. capsici. Some QTLs were criterion specific, whereas others affect several criteria, so that the four resistance criteria were controlled by different combinations of QTLs. The QTLs were very different in their quantitative effect (R(2) values), including major QTLs which explained 41-55% of the phenotypic variance, intermediate QTLs with additive or/and epistatic action (17-28% of the variance explained) and minor QTLs. Favourable alleles of some minor QTLs were carried in the susceptible parent. The total phenotypic variation accounted for by QTLs reached up to 90% for receptivity, with an important part due to epistasis effects between QTLs (with or without additive effects). The relative impact of resistance QTLs in disease response is discussed.

  4. Exploitation of genetic interaction network topology for the prediction of epistatic behavior

    KAUST Repository

    Alanis Lobato, Gregorio

    2013-10-01

    Genetic interaction (GI) detection impacts the understanding of human disease and the ability to design personalized treatment. The mapping of every GI in most organisms is far from complete due to the combinatorial amount of gene deletions and knockdowns required. Computational techniques to predict new interactions based only on network topology have been developed in network science but never applied to GI networks.We show that topological prediction of GIs is possible with high precision and propose a graph dissimilarity index that is able to provide robust prediction in both dense and sparse networks.Computational prediction of GIs is a strong tool to aid high-throughput GI determination. The dissimilarity index we propose in this article is able to attain precise predictions that reduce the universe of candidate GIs to test in the lab. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  5. Exploitation of genetic interaction network topology for the prediction of epistatic behavior

    KAUST Repository

    Alanis Lobato, Gregorio; Cannistraci, Carlo; Ravasi, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Genetic interaction (GI) detection impacts the understanding of human disease and the ability to design personalized treatment. The mapping of every GI in most organisms is far from complete due to the combinatorial amount of gene deletions and knockdowns required. Computational techniques to predict new interactions based only on network topology have been developed in network science but never applied to GI networks.We show that topological prediction of GIs is possible with high precision and propose a graph dissimilarity index that is able to provide robust prediction in both dense and sparse networks.Computational prediction of GIs is a strong tool to aid high-throughput GI determination. The dissimilarity index we propose in this article is able to attain precise predictions that reduce the universe of candidate GIs to test in the lab. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  6. Epistatic Interaction of CYP1A1 and COMT Polymorphisms in Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Matos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a clear association between the excessive and cumulative exposure to estrogens and the development of cancer in hormone-sensitive tissues, such as the cervix. We studied the association of CYP1A1 M1 (rs4646903 and COMT (rs4680 polymorphisms in 130 cervical cancer cases (c-cancer and 179 controls. The CYP1A1 TT genotype was associated with a lower risk for c-cancer (OR = 0.39, p=0.002. The allele C of CYP1A1 was a risk for c-cancer (OR = 2.29, p=0.002. Women with COMT LL genotype had a higher risk of developing c-cancer (OR = 4.83, p<0.001. For the interaction of the CYP1A1&COMT, we observed that TC&HL genotypes had a greater risk for c-cancer (OR = 6.07, p=0.006 and TT&HL genotypes had a protection effect (OR = 0.24, p<0.001. The CYP1A1 TT and COMT LL genotypes had higher estradiol levels in c-cancer (p<0.001 and p=0.037, resp.. C-cancer is associated with less production of 2-methoxy-estradiol resultant of functional polymorphisms of CYP1A1 and COMT, separately. CYP1A1 and COMT work in a metabolic sequence and their interaction could lead to an alternative pathway of estrogen metabolism with production of 16-OH-estrone that is more proliferative.

  7. Epistatic interaction between haplotypes of the ghrelin ligand and receptor genes influence susceptibility to myocardial infarction and coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baessler, Andrea; Fischer, Marcus; Mayer, Bjoern; Koehler, Martina; Wiedmann, Silke; Stark, Klaus; Doering, Angela; Erdmann, Jeanette; Riegger, Guenter; Schunkert, Heribert; Kwitek, Anne E; Hengstenberg, Christian

    2007-04-15

    Data from both experimental models and humans provide evidence that ghrelin and its receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (ghrelin receptor, GHSR), possess a variety of cardiovascular effects. Thus, we hypothesized that genetic variants within the ghrelin system (ligand ghrelin and its receptor GHSR) are associated with susceptibility to myocardial infarction (MI) and coronary artery disease (CAD). Seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covering the GHSR region as well as eight SNPs across the ghrelin gene (GHRL) region were genotyped in index MI patients (864 Caucasians, 'index MI cases') from the German MI family study and in matched controls without evidence of CAD (864 Caucasians, 'controls', MONICA Augsburg). In addition, siblings of these MI patients with documented severe CAD (826 'affected sibs') were matched likewise with controls (n = 826 Caucasian 'controls') and used for verification. The effect of interactions between genetic variants of both genes of the ghrelin system was explored by conditional classification tree models. We found association of several GHSR SNPs with MI [best SNP odds ratio (OR) 1.7 (1.2-2.5); P = 0.002] using a recessive model. Moreover, we identified a common GHSR haplotype which significantly increases the risk for MI [multivariate adjusted OR for homozygous carriers 1.6 (1.1-2.5) and CAD OR 1.6 (1.1-2.5)]. In contrast, no relationship between genetic variants and the disease could be revealed for GHRL. However, the increase in MI/CAD frequency related to the susceptible GHSR haplotype was abolished when it coincided with a common GHRL haplotype. Multivariate adjustments as well as permutation-based methods conveyed the same results. These data are the first to demonstrate an association of SNPs and haplotypes within important genes of the ghrelin system and the susceptibility to MI, whereas association with MI/CAD could be identified for genetic variants across GHSR, no relationship could be revealed for GHRL

  8. A novel epistatic interaction at two loci causing hybrid male sterility in an inter-subspecific cross of rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Takahiko; Yamagata, Yoshiyuki; Eguchi, Maki; Yoshimura, Atsushi

    2008-12-01

    Postzygotic reproductive isolation (RI) often arises in inter-subspecific crosses as well as inter-specific crosses of rice (Oryza sativa L.). To further understand the genetic architecture of the postzygotic RI, we analyzed genes causing hybrid sterility and hybrid breakdown in a rice inter-subspecific cross. Here we report hybrid male sterility caused by epistatic interaction between two novel genes, S24 and S35, which were identified on rice chromosomes 5 and 1, respectively. Genetic analysis using near-isogenic lines (NILs) carrying IR24 (ssp. indica) segments with Asominori (ssp. japonica) genetic background revealed a complicated aspect of the epistasis. Allelic interaction at the S24 locus in the heterozygous plants caused abortion of male gametes carrying the Asominori allele (S24-as) independent of the S35 genotype. On the other hand, male gametes carrying the Asominori allele at the S35 locus (S35-as) showed abortion only when the IR24 allele at the S24 locus (S24-ir) was concurrently introgressed into the S35 heterozygous plants, indicating that the sterility phenotype due to S35 was dependent on the S24 genotype through negative epistasis between S24-ir and S35-as alleles. Due to the interaction between S24 and S35, self-pollination of the double heterozygous plants produced pollen-sterile progeny carrying the S24-ir/S24-ir S35-as/S35-ir genotype in addition to the S24 heterozygous plants. This result suggests that the S35 gene might function as a modifier of S24. This study presents strong evidence for the importance of epistatic interaction as a part of the genetic architecture of hybrid sterility in rice. In addition, it suggests that diverse systems have been developed as postzygotic RI mechanisms within the rice.

  9. Missing value imputation for epistatic MAPs

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, Colm

    2010-04-20

    Abstract Background Epistatic miniarray profiling (E-MAPs) is a high-throughput approach capable of quantifying aggravating or alleviating genetic interactions between gene pairs. The datasets resulting from E-MAP experiments typically take the form of a symmetric pairwise matrix of interaction scores. These datasets have a significant number of missing values - up to 35% - that can reduce the effectiveness of some data analysis techniques and prevent the use of others. An effective method for imputing interactions would therefore increase the types of possible analysis, as well as increase the potential to identify novel functional interactions between gene pairs. Several methods have been developed to handle missing values in microarray data, but it is unclear how applicable these methods are to E-MAP data because of their pairwise nature and the significantly larger number of missing values. Here we evaluate four alternative imputation strategies, three local (Nearest neighbor-based) and one global (PCA-based), that have been modified to work with symmetric pairwise data. Results We identify different categories for the missing data based on their underlying cause, and show that values from the largest category can be imputed effectively. We compare local and global imputation approaches across a variety of distinct E-MAP datasets, showing that both are competitive and preferable to filling in with zeros. In addition we show that these methods are effective in an E-MAP from a different species, suggesting that pairwise imputation techniques will be increasingly useful as analogous epistasis mapping techniques are developed in different species. We show that strongly alleviating interactions are significantly more difficult to predict than strongly aggravating interactions. Finally we show that imputed interactions, generated using nearest neighbor methods, are enriched for annotations in the same manner as measured interactions. Therefore our method potentially

  10. The Mosaic Ancestry of the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel and the D. melanogaster Reference Genome Reveals a Network of Epistatic Fitness Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, John E.

    2015-01-01

    North American populations of Drosophila melanogaster derive from both European and African source populations, but despite their importance for genetic research, patterns of ancestry along their genomes are largely undocumented. Here, I infer geographic ancestry along genomes of the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP) and the D. melanogaster reference genome, which may have implications for reference alignment, association mapping, and population genomic studies in Drosophila. Overall, the proportion of African ancestry was estimated to be 20% for the DGRP and 9% for the reference genome. Combining my estimate of admixture timing with historical records, I provide the first estimate of natural generation time for this species (approximately 15 generations per year). Ancestry levels were found to vary strikingly across the genome, with less African introgression on the X chromosome, in regions of high recombination, and at genes involved in specific processes (e.g., circadian rhythm). An important role for natural selection during the admixture process was further supported by evidence that many unlinked pairs of loci showed a deficiency of Africa–Europe allele combinations between them. Numerous epistatic fitness interactions may therefore exist between African and European genotypes, leading to ongoing selection against incompatible variants. By focusing on hubs in this network of fitness interactions, I identified a set of interacting loci that include genes with roles in sensation and neuropeptide/hormone reception. These findings suggest that admixed D. melanogaster samples could become an important study system for the genetics of early-stage isolation between populations. PMID:26354524

  11. The Mosaic Ancestry of the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel and the D. melanogaster Reference Genome Reveals a Network of Epistatic Fitness Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, John E

    2015-12-01

    North American populations of Drosophila melanogaster derive from both European and African source populations, but despite their importance for genetic research, patterns of ancestry along their genomes are largely undocumented. Here, I infer geographic ancestry along genomes of the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP) and the D. melanogaster reference genome, which may have implications for reference alignment, association mapping, and population genomic studies in Drosophila. Overall, the proportion of African ancestry was estimated to be 20% for the DGRP and 9% for the reference genome. Combining my estimate of admixture timing with historical records, I provide the first estimate of natural generation time for this species (approximately 15 generations per year). Ancestry levels were found to vary strikingly across the genome, with less African introgression on the X chromosome, in regions of high recombination, and at genes involved in specific processes (e.g., circadian rhythm). An important role for natural selection during the admixture process was further supported by evidence that many unlinked pairs of loci showed a deficiency of Africa-Europe allele combinations between them. Numerous epistatic fitness interactions may therefore exist between African and European genotypes, leading to ongoing selection against incompatible variants. By focusing on hubs in this network of fitness interactions, I identified a set of interacting loci that include genes with roles in sensation and neuropeptide/hormone reception. These findings suggest that admixed D. melanogaster samples could become an important study system for the genetics of early-stage isolation between populations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  12. Progeny-testing of full-sibs IBD in a SSC2 QTL region highlights epistatic interactions for fatness traits in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iannuccelli Nathalie

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many QTL have been detected in pigs, but very few of them have been fine-mapped up to the causal mutation. On SSC2, the IGF2-intron3-G3072A mutation has been described as the causative polymorphism for a QTL underlying muscle mass and backfat deposition, but further studies have demonstrated that at least one additional QTL should segregate downstream of this mutation. A marker-assisted backcrossing design was set up in order to confirm the segregation of this second locus, reduce its confidence interval and better understand its mode of segregation. Results Five recombinant full-sibs, with genotype G/G at the IGF2 mutation, were progeny-tested. Only two of them displayed significant QTL for fatness traits although four inherited the same paternal and maternal chromosomes, thus exhibiting the same haplotypic contrast in the QTL region. The hypothesis of an interaction with another region in the genome was proposed to explain these discrepancies and after a genome scan, four different regions were retained as potential interacting regions with the SSC2 QTL. A candidate interacting region on SSC13 was confirmed by the analysis of an F2 pedigree, and in the backcross pedigree one haplotype in this region was found to mask the SSC2 QTL effect. Conclusions Assuming the hypothesis of interactions with other chromosomal regions, the QTL could be unambiguously mapped to a 30 cM region delimited by recombination points. The marker-assisted backcrossing design was successfully used to confirm the segregation of a QTL on SSC2 and, because full-sibs that inherited the same alleles from their two parents were analysed, the detection of epistatic interactions could be performed between alleles and not between breeds as usually done with the traditional Line-Cross model. Additional analyses of other recombinant sires should provide more information to further improve the fine-mapping of this locus, and confirm or deny the interaction

  13. Epistatic association mapping in homozygous crop cultivars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Yan Lü

    Full Text Available The genetic dissection of complex traits plays a crucial role in crop breeding. However, genetic analysis and crop breeding have heretofore been performed separately. In this study, we designed a new approach that integrates epistatic association analysis in crop cultivars with breeding by design. First, we proposed an epistatic association mapping (EAM approach in homozygous crop cultivars. The phenotypic values of complex traits, along with molecular marker information, were used to perform EAM. In our EAM, all the main-effect quantitative trait loci (QTLs, environmental effects, QTL-by-environment interactions and QTL-by-QTL interactions were included in a full model and estimated by empirical Bayes approach. A series of Monte Carlo simulations was performed to confirm the reliability of the new method. Next, the information from all detected QTLs was used to mine novel alleles for each locus and to design elite cross combination. Finally, the new approach was adopted to dissect the genetic basis of seed length in 215 soybean cultivars obtained, by stratified random sampling, from 6 geographic ecotypes in China. As a result, 19 main-effect QTLs and 3 epistatic QTLs were identified, more than 10 novel alleles were mined and 3 elite parental combinations, such as Daqingdou and Zhengzhou790034, were predicted.

  14. High-resolution mapping of a fruit firmness-related quantitative trait locus in tomato reveals epistatic interactions associated with a complex combinatorial locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Natalie H; Bonnet, Julien; Grivet, Laurent; Lynn, James; Graham, Neil; Smith, Rebecca; Sun, Guiping; Walley, Peter G; Poole, Mervin; Causse, Mathilde; King, Graham J; Baxter, Charles; Seymour, Graham B

    2012-08-01

    Fruit firmness in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is determined by a number of factors including cell wall structure, turgor, and cuticle properties. Firmness is a complex polygenic trait involving the coregulation of many genes and has proved especially challenging to unravel. In this study, a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for fruit firmness was mapped to tomato chromosome 2 using the Zamir Solanum pennellii interspecific introgression lines (ILs) and fine-mapped in a population consisting of 7,500 F2 and F3 lines from IL 2-3 and IL 2-4. This firmness QTL contained five distinct subpeaks, Fir(s.p.)QTL2.1 to Fir(s.p.)QTL2.5, and an effect on a distal region of IL 2-4 that was nonoverlapping with IL 2-3. All these effects were located within an 8.6-Mb region. Using genetic markers, each subpeak within this combinatorial locus was mapped to a physical location within the genome, and an ethylene response factor (ERF) underlying Fir(s.p.)QTL2.2 and a region containing three pectin methylesterase (PME) genes underlying Fir(s.p.)QTL2.5 were nominated as QTL candidate genes. Statistical models used to explain the observed variability between lines indicated that these candidates and the nonoverlapping portion of IL 2-4 were sufficient to account for the majority of the fruit firmness effects. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify the expression of each candidate gene. ERF showed increased expression associated with soft fruit texture in the mapping population. In contrast, PME expression was tightly linked with firm fruit texture. Analysis of a range of recombinant lines revealed evidence for an epistatic interaction that was associated with this combinatorial locus.

  15. Quantitative Trait Locus Analysis of seed germination and seedling vigour in Brassica rapa reveals QTL hotspots and epistatic interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basnet, R.K.; Duwal, A.; Tiwari, D.N.; Xiao, D.; Monakhos, S.; Bucher, J.; Visser, R.G.F.; Groot, S.P.C.; Bonnema, A.B.; Maliepaard, C.A.

    2015-01-01

    The genetic basis of seed germination and seedling vigour is largely unknown in Brassica species. We performed a study to evaluate the genetic basis of these important traits in a B. rapa doubled haploid population from a cross of a yellow-seeded oil-type yellow sarson and a black-seeded

  16. Quantitative genome-wide genetic interaction screens reveal global epistatic relationships of protein complexes in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Babu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale proteomic analyses in Escherichia coli have documented the composition and physical relationships of multiprotein complexes, but not their functional organization into biological pathways and processes. Conversely, genetic interaction (GI screens can provide insights into the biological role(s of individual gene and higher order associations. Combining the information from both approaches should elucidate how complexes and pathways intersect functionally at a systems level. However, such integrative analysis has been hindered due to the lack of relevant GI data. Here we present a systematic, unbiased, and quantitative synthetic genetic array screen in E. coli describing the genetic dependencies and functional cross-talk among over 600,000 digenic mutant combinations. Combining this epistasis information with putative functional modules derived from previous proteomic data and genomic context-based methods revealed unexpected associations, including new components required for the biogenesis of iron-sulphur and ribosome integrity, and the interplay between molecular chaperones and proteases. We find that functionally-linked genes co-conserved among γ-proteobacteria are far more likely to have correlated GI profiles than genes with divergent patterns of evolution. Overall, examining bacterial GIs in the context of protein complexes provides avenues for a deeper mechanistic understanding of core microbial systems.

  17. Improved functional overview of protein complexes using inferred epistatic relationships

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, Colm

    2011-05-23

    Abstract Background Epistatic Miniarray Profiling(E-MAP) quantifies the net effect on growth rate of disrupting pairs of genes, often producing phenotypes that may be more (negative epistasis) or less (positive epistasis) severe than the phenotype predicted based on single gene disruptions. Epistatic interactions are important for understanding cell biology because they define relationships between individual genes, and between sets of genes involved in biochemical pathways and protein complexes. Each E-MAP screen quantifies the interactions between a logically selected subset of genes (e.g. genes whose products share a common function). Interactions that occur between genes involved in different cellular processes are not as frequently measured, yet these interactions are important for providing an overview of cellular organization. Results We introduce a method for combining overlapping E-MAP screens and inferring new interactions between them. We use this method to infer with high confidence 2,240 new strongly epistatic interactions and 34,469 weakly epistatic or neutral interactions. We show that accuracy of the predicted interactions approaches that of replicate experiments and that, like measured interactions, they are enriched for features such as shared biochemical pathways and knockout phenotypes. We constructed an expanded epistasis map for yeast cell protein complexes and show that our new interactions increase the evidence for previously proposed inter-complex connections, and predict many new links. We validated a number of these in the laboratory, including new interactions linking the SWR-C chromatin modifying complex and the nuclear transport apparatus. Conclusion Overall, our data support a modular model of yeast cell protein network organization and show how prediction methods can considerably extend the information that can be extracted from overlapping E-MAP screens.

  18. Epistatic adaptive evolution of human color vision.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shozo Yokoyama

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Establishing genotype-phenotype relationship is the key to understand the molecular mechanism of phenotypic adaptation. This initial step may be untangled by analyzing appropriate ancestral molecules, but it is a daunting task to recapitulate the evolution of non-additive (epistatic interactions of amino acids and function of a protein separately. To adapt to the ultraviolet (UV-free retinal environment, the short wavelength-sensitive (SWS1 visual pigment in human (human S1 switched from detecting UV to absorbing blue light during the last 90 million years. Mutagenesis experiments of the UV-sensitive pigment in the Boreoeutherian ancestor show that the blue-sensitivity was achieved by seven mutations. The experimental and quantum chemical analyses show that 4,008 of all 5,040 possible evolutionary trajectories are terminated prematurely by containing a dehydrated nonfunctional pigment. Phylogenetic analysis further suggests that human ancestors achieved the blue-sensitivity gradually and almost exclusively by epistasis. When the final stage of spectral tuning of human S1 was underway 45-30 million years ago, the middle and long wavelength-sensitive (MWS/LWS pigments appeared and so-called trichromatic color vision was established by interprotein epistasis. The adaptive evolution of human S1 differs dramatically from orthologous pigments with a major mutational effect used in achieving blue-sensitivity in a fish and several mammalian species and in regaining UV vision in birds. These observations imply that the mechanisms of epistatic interactions must be understood by studying various orthologues in different species that have adapted to various ecological and physiological environments.

  19. Genomic value prediction for quantitative traits under the epistatic model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Shizhong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most quantitative traits are controlled by multiple quantitative trait loci (QTL. The contribution of each locus may be negligible but the collective contribution of all loci is usually significant. Genome selection that uses markers of the entire genome to predict the genomic values of individual plants or animals can be more efficient than selection on phenotypic values and pedigree information alone for genetic improvement. When a quantitative trait is contributed by epistatic effects, using all markers (main effects and marker pairs (epistatic effects to predict the genomic values of plants can achieve the maximum efficiency for genetic improvement. Results In this study, we created 126 recombinant inbred lines of soybean and genotyped 80 makers across the genome. We applied the genome selection technique to predict the genomic value of somatic embryo number (a quantitative trait for each line. Cross validation analysis showed that the squared correlation coefficient between the observed and predicted embryo numbers was 0.33 when only main (additive effects were used for prediction. When the interaction (epistatic effects were also included in the model, the squared correlation coefficient reached 0.78. Conclusions This study provided an excellent example for the application of genome selection to plant breeding.

  20. PEPIS: A Pipeline for Estimating Epistatic Effects in Quantitative Trait Locus Mapping and Genome-Wide Association Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenchao Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The term epistasis refers to interactions between multiple genetic loci. Genetic epistasis is important in regulating biological function and is considered to explain part of the 'missing heritability,' which involves marginal genetic effects that cannot be accounted for in genome-wide association studies. Thus, the study of epistasis is of great interest to geneticists. However, estimating epistatic effects for quantitative traits is challenging due to the large number of interaction effects that must be estimated, thus significantly increasing computing demands. Here, we present a new web server-based tool, the Pipeline for estimating EPIStatic genetic effects (PEPIS, for analyzing polygenic epistatic effects. The PEPIS software package is based on a new linear mixed model that has been used to predict the performance of hybrid rice. The PEPIS includes two main sub-pipelines: the first for kinship matrix calculation, and the second for polygenic component analyses and genome scanning for main and epistatic effects. To accommodate the demand for high-performance computation, the PEPIS utilizes C/C++ for mathematical matrix computing. In addition, the modules for kinship matrix calculations and main and epistatic-effect genome scanning employ parallel computing technology that effectively utilizes multiple computer nodes across our networked cluster, thus significantly improving the computational speed. For example, when analyzing the same immortalized F2 rice population genotypic data examined in a previous study, the PEPIS returned identical results at each analysis step with the original prototype R code, but the computational time was reduced from more than one month to about five minutes. These advances will help overcome the bottleneck frequently encountered in genome wide epistatic genetic effect analysis and enable accommodation of the high computational demand. The PEPIS is publically available at http://bioinfo.noble.org/PolyGenic_QTL/.

  1. PEPIS: A Pipeline for Estimating Epistatic Effects in Quantitative Trait Locus Mapping and Genome-Wide Association Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenchao; Dai, Xinbin; Wang, Qishan; Xu, Shizhong; Zhao, Patrick X

    2016-05-01

    The term epistasis refers to interactions between multiple genetic loci. Genetic epistasis is important in regulating biological function and is considered to explain part of the 'missing heritability,' which involves marginal genetic effects that cannot be accounted for in genome-wide association studies. Thus, the study of epistasis is of great interest to geneticists. However, estimating epistatic effects for quantitative traits is challenging due to the large number of interaction effects that must be estimated, thus significantly increasing computing demands. Here, we present a new web server-based tool, the Pipeline for estimating EPIStatic genetic effects (PEPIS), for analyzing polygenic epistatic effects. The PEPIS software package is based on a new linear mixed model that has been used to predict the performance of hybrid rice. The PEPIS includes two main sub-pipelines: the first for kinship matrix calculation, and the second for polygenic component analyses and genome scanning for main and epistatic effects. To accommodate the demand for high-performance computation, the PEPIS utilizes C/C++ for mathematical matrix computing. In addition, the modules for kinship matrix calculations and main and epistatic-effect genome scanning employ parallel computing technology that effectively utilizes multiple computer nodes across our networked cluster, thus significantly improving the computational speed. For example, when analyzing the same immortalized F2 rice population genotypic data examined in a previous study, the PEPIS returned identical results at each analysis step with the original prototype R code, but the computational time was reduced from more than one month to about five minutes. These advances will help overcome the bottleneck frequently encountered in genome wide epistatic genetic effect analysis and enable accommodation of the high computational demand. The PEPIS is publically available at http://bioinfo.noble.org/PolyGenic_QTL/.

  2. Phenotypic and epistatic grouping of hypo- and hyper-rec mus mutants in Aspergillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafer, E; Chae, S K

    1994-03-01

    The mutants musK to musS of Aspergillus nidulans are sensitive to methyl-methanesulfonate (MMS) and several of them are meiotic-defective and alter mitotic recombination frequencies. All were found to be cross-sensitive to 4-nitro-quinoline-N-oxide (4-NQO) but unexpectedly none of them was hypersensitive to gamma-rays and few to UV light. Double mus; uvs mutants were constructed to test for interactions with uvs mutations of the four epistatic groups of Aspergillus, "UvsF", "UvsC", "UvsI", and "UvsB". All meiotic-defective mus mutations caused some lethal interactions, usually with uvsF. None of them showed epistasis with UvsF or UvsB group mutants and one, musO, may represent a new group. Three mus mutations that affect recombination were assigned to the UvsC group, namely musN and K, and also musL which is recombination-defective and closely resembles uvsC. While uvsC mutants are mutators and lack UV-mutagenesis, most mus mutants had no effects on mutation. Only musR, which appeared epistatic with uvsI, showed reduced UV-reversion frequencies similar to uvsI. The recombination-proficient mus mutants appeared to be epistatic with more than one group, but in several cases sensitivities were slight and overlaps insufficient to obtain corroborating results with MMS and 4-NQO.

  3. Epistatic Effects Contribute to Variation in BMD in Fischer 344 × Lewis F2 Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Daniel L; Liu, Lixiang; Alam, Imranul; Sun, Qiwei; Econs, Michael J; Foroud, Tatiana; Turner, Charles H

    2008-01-01

    To further delineate the factors underlying the complex genetic architecture of BMD in the rat model, a genome screen for epistatic interactions was conducted. Several significant interactions were identified, involving both previously identified and novel QTLs. Introduction The variation in several of the risk factors for osteoporotic fracture, including BMD, has been shown to be caused largely by genetic differences. However, the genetic architecture of BMD is complex in both humans and in model organisms. We have previously reported quantitative trait locus (QTL) results for BMD from a genome screen of 595 female F2 progeny of Fischer 344 and Lewis rats. These progeny also provide an excellent opportunity to search for epistatic effects, or interaction between genetic loci, that contribute to fracture risk. Materials and Methods Microsatellite marker data from a 20-cM genome screen was analyzed along with weight-adjusted BMD (DXA and pQCT) phenotypic data using the R/qtl software package. Genotype and phenotype data were permuted to determine a genome-wide significance threshold for the epistasis or interaction LOD score corresponding to an α level of 0.01. Results and Conclusions Novel loci on chromosomes 12 and 15 showed a strong epistatic effect on total BMD at the femoral midshaft by pQCT (LOD = 5.4). A previously reported QTL on chromosome 7 was found to interact with a novel locus on chromosome 20 to affect whole lumbar BMD by pQCT (LOD = 6.2). These results provide new information regarding the mode of action of previously identified rat QTLs, as well as identifying novel loci that act in combination with known QTLs or with other novel loci to contribute to the risk factors for osteoporotic fracture. PMID:17907919

  4. Epistatic effects contribute to variation in BMD in Fischer 344 x Lewis F2 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Daniel L; Liu, Lixiang; Alam, Imranul; Sun, Qiwei; Econs, Michael J; Foroud, Tatiana; Turner, Charles H

    2008-01-01

    To further delineate the factors underlying the complex genetic architecture of BMD in the rat model, a genome screen for epistatic interactions was conducted. Several significant interactions were identified, involving both previously identified and novel QTLs. The variation in several of the risk factors for osteoporotic fracture, including BMD, has been shown to be caused largely by genetic differences. However, the genetic architecture of BMD is complex in both humans and in model organisms. We have previously reported quantitative trait locus (QTL) results for BMD from a genome screen of 595 female F(2) progeny of Fischer 344 and Lewis rats. These progeny also provide an excellent opportunity to search for epistatic effects, or interaction between genetic loci, that contribute to fracture risk. Microsatellite marker data from a 20-cM genome screen was analyzed along with weight-adjusted BMD (DXA and pQCT) phenotypic data using the R/qtl software package. Genotype and phenotype data were permuted to determine a genome-wide significance threshold for the epistasis or interaction LOD score corresponding to an alpha level of 0.01. Novel loci on chromosomes 12 and 15 showed a strong epistatic effect on total BMD at the femoral midshaft by pQCT (LOD = 5.4). A previously reported QTL on chromosome 7 was found to interact with a novel locus on chromosome 20 to affect whole lumbar BMD by pQCT (LOD = 6.2). These results provide new information regarding the mode of action of previously identified rat QTLs, as well as identifying novel loci that act in combination with known QTLs or with other novel loci to contribute to the risk factors for osteoporotic fracture.

  5. Inference of epistatic effects in a key mitochondrial protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Erik D.; Grishin, Nick V.

    2018-06-01

    We use Potts model inference to predict pair epistatic effects in a key mitochondrial protein—cytochrome c oxidase subunit 2—for ray-finned fishes. We examine the effect of phylogenetic correlations on our predictions using a simple exact fitness model, and we find that, although epistatic effects are underpredicted, they maintain a roughly linear relationship to their true (model) values. After accounting for this correction, epistatic effects in the protein are still relatively weak, leading to fitness valleys of depth 2 N s ≃-5 in compensatory double mutants. Interestingly, positive epistasis is more pronounced than negative epistasis, and the strongest positive effects capture nearly all sites subject to positive selection in fishes, similar to virus proteins evolving under selection pressure in the context of drug therapy.

  6. uvsI mutants defective in UV mutagenesis define a fourth epistatic group of uvs genes in Aspergillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, S K; Kafer, E

    1993-01-01

    Three UV-sensitive mutations of A. nidulans, uvsI, uvsJ and uvsA, were tested for epistatic relationships with members of the previously established groups, here called the "UvsF", "UvsC", and "UvsB" groups. uvsI mutants are defective for spontaneous and induced reversion of certain point mutations and differ also for other properties from previously analyzed uvs types. They are very sensitive to the killing effects of UV-light and 4-NQO (4-nitro-quinoline-N-oxide) but not to MMS (methylmethane sulfonate). When double- and single-mutant uvs strains were compared for sensitivity to these three agents, synergistic or additive effects were found for uvsI with all members of the three groups. The uvsI gene may therefore represent a fourth epistatic group, possibly involved in mutagenic repair. On the other hand, uvsJ was clearly epistatic with members of the UvsF group and fitted well into this group also by phenotype. The uvsA gene was tentatively assigned to the UvsC group. uvsA showed epistatic interactions with uvsC in all tests, and like UvsC-group mutants is UV-sensitive mainly in dividing cells. However, the uvsA mutation does not cause the defects in recombination and UV mutagenesis typical for this group.

  7. Identification of quantitative trait loci underlying seed protein content of soybean including main, epistatic, and QTL × environment effects in different regions of Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Weili; Li, Wen; Zhang, Qi; Wu, Depeng; Zhao, Xue; Li, Haiyan; Han, Yingpeng; Li, Wenbin

    2017-08-01

    The objective here was to identify QTL underlying soybean protein content (PC), and to evaluate the additive and epistatic effects of the QTLs. A mapping population, consisting of 129 recombinant inbred lines (RILs), was created by crossing 'Dongnong 46' and 'L-100'. Phenotypic data of the parents and RILs were collected for 4 years in three locations of Heilongjiang Province of China. A total of 213 SSR markers were used to construct a genetic linkage map. Eight QTLs, located on seven chromosomes (Chr), were identified to be associated with PC among the 10 tested environments. Of the seven QTLs, five QTLs, qPR-2 (Satt710, on Chr9), qPR-3 (Sat_122, on Chr12), qPR-5 (Satt543, on Chr17), qPR-7 (Satt163, on Chr18), and qPR-8 (Satt614, on Chr20), were detected in six, seven, seven, six, and seven environments, respectively, implying relatively stable QTLs. qPR-3 could explain 3.33%-11.26% of the phenotypic variation across eight tested environments. qPR-5 and qPR-8 explained 3.64%-10.1% and 11.86%-18.40% of the phenotypic variation, respectively, across seven tested environments. Eight QTLs associated with PC exhibited additive and (or) additive × environment interaction effects. The results showed that environment-independent QTLs often had higher additive effects. Moreover, five epistatic pairwise QTLs were identified in the 10 environments.

  8. Epistatic determinism of durum wheat resistance to the wheat spindle streak mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtz, Yan; Bonnefoy, Michel; Viader, Véronique; Ardisson, Morgane; Rode, Nicolas O; Poux, Gérard; Roumet, Pierre; Marie-Jeanne, Véronique; Ranwez, Vincent; Santoni, Sylvain; Gouache, David; David, Jacques L

    2017-07-01

    The resistance of durum wheat to the Wheat spindle streak mosaic virus (WSSMV) is controlled by two main QTLs on chromosomes 7A and 7B, with a huge epistatic effect. Wheat spindle streak mosaic virus (WSSMV) is a major disease of durum wheat in Europe and North America. Breeding WSSMV-resistant cultivars is currently the only way to control the virus since no treatment is available. This paper reports studies of the inheritance of WSSMV resistance using two related durum wheat populations obtained by crossing two elite cultivars with a WSSMV-resistant emmer cultivar. In 2012 and 2015, 354 recombinant inbred lines (RIL) were phenotyped using visual notations, ELISA and qPCR and genotyped using locus targeted capture and sequencing. This allowed us to build a consensus genetic map of 8568 markers and identify three chromosomal regions involved in WSSMV resistance. Two major regions (located on chromosomes 7A and 7B) jointly explain, on the basis of epistatic interactions, up to 43% of the phenotypic variation. Flanking sequences of our genetic markers are provided to facilitate future marker-assisted selection of WSSMV-resistant cultivars.

  9. A bi-dimensional genome scan for prolificacy traits in pigs shows the existence of multiple epistatic QTL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bidanel Jean P

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prolificacy is the most important trait influencing the reproductive efficiency of pig production systems. The low heritability and sex-limited expression of prolificacy have hindered to some extent the improvement of this trait through artificial selection. Moreover, the relative contributions of additive, dominant and epistatic QTL to the genetic variance of pig prolificacy remain to be defined. In this work, we have undertaken this issue by performing one-dimensional and bi-dimensional genome scans for number of piglets born alive (NBA and total number of piglets born (TNB in a three generation Iberian by Meishan F2 intercross. Results The one-dimensional genome scan for NBA and TNB revealed the existence of two genome-wide highly significant QTL located on SSC13 (P SSC17 (P P P P P Conclusions The complex inheritance of prolificacy traits in pigs has been evidenced by identifying multiple additive (SSC13 and SSC17, dominant and epistatic QTL in an Iberian × Meishan F2 intercross. Our results demonstrate that a significant fraction of the phenotypic variance of swine prolificacy traits can be attributed to first-order gene-by-gene interactions emphasizing that the phenotypic effects of alleles might be strongly modulated by the genetic background where they segregate.

  10. The Spiral-Interactive Program Evaluation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaleel, Ibrahim Adamu

    1988-01-01

    Describes the spiral interactive program evaluation model, which is designed to evaluate vocational-technical education programs in secondary schools in Nigeria. Program evaluation is defined; utility oriented and process oriented models for evaluation are described; and internal and external evaluative factors and variables that define each…

  11. CRISPR Perturbation of Gene Expression Alters Bacterial Fitness under Stress and Reveals Underlying Epistatic Constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otoupal, Peter B; Erickson, Keesha E; Escalas-Bordoy, Antoni; Chatterjee, Anushree

    2017-01-20

    The evolution of antibiotic resistance has engendered an impending global health crisis that necessitates a greater understanding of how resistance emerges. The impact of nongenetic factors and how they influence the evolution of resistance is a largely unexplored area of research. Here we present a novel application of CRISPR-Cas9 technology for investigating how gene expression governs the adaptive pathways available to bacteria during the evolution of resistance. We examine the impact of gene expression changes on bacterial adaptation by constructing a library of deactivated CRISPR-Cas9 synthetic devices to tune the expression of a set of stress-response genes in Escherichia coli. We show that artificially inducing perturbations in gene expression imparts significant synthetic control over fitness and growth during stress exposure. We present evidence that these impacts are reversible; strains with synthetically perturbed gene expression regained wild-type growth phenotypes upon stress removal, while maintaining divergent growth characteristics under stress. Furthermore, we demonstrate a prevailing trend toward negative epistatic interactions when multiple gene perturbations are combined simultaneously, thereby posing an intrinsic constraint on gene expression underlying adaptive trajectories. Together, these results emphasize how CRISPR-Cas9 can be employed to engineer gene expression changes that shape bacterial adaptation, and present a novel approach to synthetically control the evolution of antimicrobial resistance.

  12. Evaluation of drug interaction microcomputer software: Dambro's Drug Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, T I; Giudici, R A

    1990-01-01

    Dambro's Drug Interactions was evaluated using general and specific criteria. The installation process, ease of learning and use were rated excellent. The user documentation and quality of the technical support were good. The scope of coverage, clinical documentation, frequency of updates, and overall clinical performance were fair. The primary advantages of the program are the quick searching and detection of drug interactions, and the attempt to provide useful interaction data, i.e., significance and reference. The disadvantages are the lack of current drug interaction information, outdated references, lack of evaluative drug interaction information, and the inability to save or print patient profiles. The program is not a good value for the pharmacist but has limited use as a quick screening tool.

  13. Teaching Program Evaluation on Interactive Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Keith; Steinhauser, Jim; Newman, Isadore

    This paper describes a five-session course entitled "Program Evaluation," which was taught via interactive television in the summer of 2002 to 68 doctoral and master's students in 5 of 6 locations throughout New Mexico. Students received a 4-hour lecture and then participated in off-line activities directed by the instructor. Problems in distance…

  14. Using Affinity Diagrams to Evaluate Interactive Prototypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucero, Andrés

    2015-01-01

    our particular use of affinity diagramming in prototype evaluations. We reflect on a decade’s experience using affinity diagramming across a number of projects, both in industry and academia. Our affinity diagramming process in interaction design has been tailored and consists of four stages: creating...

  15. Cockpit design and evaluation using interactive graphics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, S. M.

    1975-01-01

    A general overview of the characteristics of an interactive graphics system which was developed to assist cockpit engineers design and evaluate work stations was presented. The manikin used in this COMputerized BIomechanical MAN-model (COMBIMAN) was described, as are provisions for generating work stations and assessing interactions between man and environment. The applications of the present system are explained, and critiques of COMBIMAN are presented. The limitations of the existing programs and the requirements of the designers necessitate future revisions and additions to the biomechanical and erogonomic properties of COMBIMAN. Some of these enhancements are discussed.

  16. Modularization and epistatic hierarchy determine homeostatic actions of multiple blood pressure quantitative trait loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvet, Cristina; Crespo, Kimberley; Ménard, Annie; Roy, Julie; Deng, Alan Y

    2013-11-15

    Hypertension, the most frequently diagnosed clinical condition world-wide, predisposes individuals to morbidity and mortality, yet its underlying pathological etiologies are poorly understood. So far, a large number of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) have been identified in both humans and animal models, but how they function together in determining overall blood pressure (BP) in physiological settings is unknown. Here, we systematically and comprehensively performed pair-wise comparisons of individual QTLs to create a global picture of their functionality in an inbred rat model. Rather than each of numerous QTLs contributing to infinitesimal BP increments, a modularized pattern arises: two epistatic 'blocks' constitute basic functional 'units' for nearly all QTLs, designated as epistatic module 1 (EM1) and EM2. This modularization dictates the magnitude and scope of BP effects. Any EM1 member can contribute to BP additively to that of EM2, but not to those of the same module. Members of each EM display epistatic hierarchy, which seems to reflect a related functional pathway. Rat homologues of 11 human BP QTLs belong to either EM1 or EM2. Unique insights emerge into the novel genetic mechanism and hierarchy determining BP in the Dahl salt-sensitive SS/Jr (DSS) rat model that implicate a portion of human QTLs. Elucidating the pathways underlying EM1 and EM2 may reveal the genetic regulation of BP.

  17. Prediction of genetic values of quantitative traits with epistatic effects in plant breeding populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D; Salah El-Basyoni, I; Stephen Baenziger, P; Crossa, J; Eskridge, K M; Dweikat, I

    2012-11-01

    Though epistasis has long been postulated to have a critical role in genetic regulation of important pathways as well as provide a major source of variation in the process of speciation, the importance of epistasis for genomic selection in the context of plant breeding is still being debated. In this paper, we report the results on the prediction of genetic values with epistatic effects for 280 accessions in the Nebraska Wheat Breeding Program using adaptive mixed least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO). The development of adaptive mixed LASSO, originally designed for association mapping, for the context of genomic selection is reported. The results show that adaptive mixed LASSO can be successfully applied to the prediction of genetic values while incorporating both marker main effects and epistatic effects. Especially, the prediction accuracy is substantially improved by the inclusion of two-locus epistatic effects (more than onefold in some cases as measured by cross-validation correlation coefficient), which is observed for multiple traits and planting locations. This points to significant potential in using non-additive genetic effects for genomic selection in crop breeding practices.

  18. Identification of QTLs with main, epistatic and QTL by environment ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    interaction effects for seed shape and hundred-seed weight in soybean ... worldwide. It provides about 69 and 30% of dietary protein ... as main component of plants is affected by seed shape. ... In this analysis, in 2010–2012, seed shape and.

  19. Development and Evaluation of an Interactive Pen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Froilan G. Destreza

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Technologies have reached the classroom. It is one of the means of teaching strategies nowadays. Multimedia projectors have become one of the teaching tools the teacher cannot bear without it. The concept of making this tool to be interactive and easier to use was far conceived by the researcher. The researcher’s objective was to develop such tool and evaluate it according to its portability, simplicity, robustness, user-friendliness, effectiveness and efficiency. The respondents of the project were both the students and teachers of Batangas State University ARASOF-Nasugbu. The researcher has developed different prototypes for the interactive pen and tested in different environment and demonstrated the “know-how” of the project. The project was built using a simple infrared light emitting diode (IR LED, infrared tracker, and software which computes, detects and interact with the application program. Evaluation of the project followed the demonstration. The project got a high acceptance according to its portability, simplicity, robustness, user-friendliness, effectiveness and efficiency. The researcher is recommending the full implementation of the project in the Batangas State University ARASOF- Nasugbu and for better enhancement of the project by eliminating the pen.

  20. Soil-structure interaction - an engineering evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjian, A.H.

    1976-01-01

    The two methods of analysis for structure interaction, the impedance and the finite element methods, are reviewed with regard to their present capabilities to address the significant factors of the problem. The objective of the paper is to evaluate if an adequate engineering solution to the problem is provided by either approach. Questions related to the reduction of seismic motions with depth scattering of incident waves, the three-dimensionality of the real problem, soil damping, strain dependency of soil properties and the uncertainties associated with all of the above are discussed in sufficient detail. All conclusions made are based on referenced material. It appears that both methods as presently practised have not yet completely solved the problem, the impedance approach has come closer to addressing the more significant issues. Because of this finding, in addition to its simplicity and low cost, the impedance approach is the perfect engineering method for soil-structure interaction. (Auth.)

  1. Nuclear interactive evaluations on distributed processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dix, G.E.; Congdon, S.P.

    1988-01-01

    BWR [boiling water reactor] nuclear design is a complicated process, involving trade-offs among a variety of conflicting objectives. Complex computer calculations and usually required for each design iteration. GE Nuclear Energy has implemented a system where the evaluations are performed interactively on a large number of small microcomputers. This approach minimizes the time it takes to carry out design iterations even through the processor speeds are low compared with modern super computers. All of the desktop microcomputers are linked to a common data base via an ethernet communications system so that design data can be shared and data quality can be maintained

  2. In vitro evaluation of the interaction between methanol extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antimicrobial interaction studies between methanol extract of lichen (Ramalina farinacea (I) ach. (Fam: Ramalinacea) and tetracycline, against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus was evaluated. Preliminary antimicrobial properties of the extract were evaluated. Antimicrobial interaction studies between the methanol ...

  3. Order effect in interactive information retrieval evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Melanie Landvad; Borlund, Pia

    2016-01-01

    , and the good-subject effect shed light on how and why order effect may affect test participants’ IR system interaction and search behaviour. Research limitations/implications – Insight about order effect has implications for test design of IIR studies and hence the knowledge base generated on the basis...... of such studies. Due to the limited sample of 20 test participants (Library and Information Science (LIS) students) inference statistics is not applicable; hence conclusions can be drawn from this sample of test participants only. Originality/value – Only few studies in LIS focus on order effect and none from...... the perspective of IIR. Keywords Evaluation, Research methods, Information retrieval, User studies, Searching, Information searches...

  4. A developmental systems perspective on epistasis: computational exploration of mutational interactions in model developmental regulatory networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayson Gutiérrez

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The way in which the information contained in genotypes is translated into complex phenotypic traits (i.e. embryonic expression patterns depends on its decoding by a multilayered hierarchy of biomolecular systems (regulatory networks. Each layer of this hierarchy displays its own regulatory schemes (i.e. operational rules such as +/- feedback and associated control parameters, resulting in characteristic variational constraints. This process can be conceptualized as a mapping issue, and in the context of highly-dimensional genotype-phenotype mappings (GPMs epistatic events have been shown to be ubiquitous, manifested in non-linear correspondences between changes in the genotype and their phenotypic effects. In this study I concentrate on epistatic phenomena pervading levels of biological organization above the genetic material, more specifically the realm of molecular networks. At this level, systems approaches to studying GPMs are specially suitable to shed light on the mechanistic basis of epistatic phenomena. To this aim, I constructed and analyzed ensembles of highly-modular (fully interconnected networks with distinctive topologies, each displaying dynamic behaviors that were categorized as either arbitrary or functional according to early patterning processes in the Drosophila embryo. Spatio-temporal expression trajectories in virtual syncytial embryos were simulated via reaction-diffusion models. My in silico mutational experiments show that: 1 the average fitness decay tendency to successively accumulated mutations in ensembles of functional networks indicates the prevalence of positive epistasis, whereas in ensembles of arbitrary networks negative epistasis is the dominant tendency; and 2 the evaluation of epistatic coefficients of diverse interaction orders indicates that, both positive and negative epistasis are more prevalent in functional networks than in arbitrary ones. Overall, I conclude that the phenotypic and fitness effects of

  5. Participant Interaction in Asynchronous Learning Environments: Evaluating Interaction Analysis Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchette, Judith

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this empirical study was to determine the extent to which three different objective analytical methods--sequence analysis, surface cohesion analysis, and lexical cohesion analysis--can most accurately identify specific characteristics of online interaction. Statistically significant differences were found in all points of…

  6. Evaluation of an Interactive Undergraduate Cosmology Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Aaron; Coble, Kimberly A.; Martin, Dominique; Hayes, Patrycia; Targett, Tom; Cominsky, Lynn R.

    2018-06-01

    The Big Ideas in Cosmology is an immersive set of web-based learning modules that integrates text, figures, and visualizations with short and long interactive tasks as well as labs that allow students to manipulate and analyze real cosmological data. This enables the transformation of general education astronomy and cosmology classes from primarily lecture and book-based courses to a format that builds important STEM skills, while engaging those outside the field with modern discoveries and a more realistic sense of practices and tools used by professional astronomers. Over two semesters, we field-tested the curriculum in general education cosmology classes at a state university in California [N ~ 80]. We administered pre- and post-instruction multiple-choice and open-ended content surveys as well as the CLASS, to gauge the effectiveness of the course and modules. Questions addressed included the structure, composition, and evolution of the universe, including students’ reasoning and “how we know.”Module development and evaluation was supported by NASA ROSES E/PO Grant #NNXl0AC89G, the Illinois Space Grant Consortium, the Fermi E/PO program, Sonoma State University’s Space Science Education and Public Outreach Group, and San Francisco State University. The modules are published by Great River Learning/Kendall-Hunt.

  7. The user in interactive information retrieval evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingwersen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    ) Request types, test persons, task-based simulations of search situations and relevance or performance measures in IIR; 2) Ultra-Light Interactive IR experiments; 3) Interactive-Light IR studies; and 4) Naturalistic field investigations of IIR. The chapter concludes with a summary section, a reference list...

  8. Interactive segmentation techniques algorithms and performance evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    He, Jia; Kuo, C-C Jay

    2013-01-01

    This book focuses on interactive segmentation techniques, which have been extensively studied in recent decades. Interactive segmentation emphasizes clear extraction of objects of interest, whose locations are roughly indicated by human interactions based on high level perception. This book will first introduce classic graph-cut segmentation algorithms and then discuss state-of-the-art techniques, including graph matching methods, region merging and label propagation, clustering methods, and segmentation methods based on edge detection. A comparative analysis of these methods will be provided

  9. An epistatic effect of KRT25 on SP6 is involved in curly coat in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomer, Annika; Gottschalk, Maren; Christmann, Anna; Naccache, Fanny; Jung, Klaus; Hewicker-Trautwein, Marion; Distl, Ottmar; Metzger, Julia

    2018-04-23

    Curly coat represents an extraordinary type of coat in horses, particularly seen in American Bashkir Curly Horses and Missouri Foxtrotters. In some horses with curly coat, a hypotrichosis of variable extent was observed, making the phenotype appear more complex. In our study, we aimed at investigating the genetic background of curly coat with and without hypotrichosis using high density bead chip genotype and next generation sequencing data. Genome-wide association analysis detected significant signals (p = 1.412 × 10 -05 -1.102 × 10 -08 ) on horse chromosome 11 at 22-35 Mb. In this significantly associated region, six missense variants were filtered out from whole-genome sequencing data of three curly coated horses of which two variants within KRT25 and SP6 could explain all hair phenotypes. Horses heterozygous or homozygous only for KRT25 variant showed curly coat and hypotrichosis, whereas horses with SP6 variant only, exhibited curly coat without hypotrichosis. Horses with mutant alleles in both variants developed curly hair and hypotrichosis. Thus, mutant KRT25 allele is masking SP6 allele effect, indicative for epistasis of KRT25 variant over SP6 variant. In summary, genetic variants in two different genes, KRT25 and SP6, are responsible for curly hair. All horses with KRT25 variant are additionally hypotrichotic due to the KRT25 epistatic effect on SP6.

  10. Evaluation of Interactive Website Design Indicators for e-Entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Chih-Chao Chung; Li-Chung Chao; Chin-Hui Chen; Shi-Jer Lou

    2016-01-01

    Using an analytic network process (ANP) as an analytical tool, this study aims to construct an ANP evaluation model of interactive website design indicators. Through a review of the literature, interactive website design of e-entrepreneurship is generalized to the following dimensions: (1) Design; (2) Checking; (3) Service; (4) Interactive; and (5) Promotion, including 19 design indicators. The research is conducted for a case company. According to the findings, the model helps the case compa...

  11. 2nd Workshop on Evaluating Child Robot Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaga, Cristina; Lohse, M.; Charisi, Vasiliki; Evers, Vanessa; Neerincx, Marc; Kanda, Takayuki; Leite, Iolanda

    Many researchers have started to explore natural interaction scenarios for children. No matter if these children are normally developing or have special needs, evaluating Child-Robot Interaction (CRI) is a challenge. To find methods that work well and provide reliable data is difficult, for example

  12. Evaluation of self-interaction parameters from binary phase diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellison, T.L.

    1977-10-01

    The feasibility of calculating Wagner self-interaction parameters from binary phase diagrams was examined. The self-interaction parameters of 22 non-ferrous liquid solutions were calculated utilizing an equation based on the equality of the chemical potentials of a component in two equilibrium phases. Utilization of the equation requires the evaluation of the first and second derivatives of various liquidus and solidus data at infinite dilution of the solute component. Several numerical methods for evaluating the derivatives of tabular data were examined. A method involving power series curve fitting and subsequent differentiation of the power series was found to be the most suitable for the interaction parameter calculations. Comparison of the calculated self-interaction parameters with values obtained from thermodynamic measurements indicates that the Wagner self-interaction parameter can be successfully calculated from binary phase diagrams

  13. Epistatic and Independent Effects on Schizophrenia-Related Phenotypes Following Co-disruption of the Risk Factors Neuregulin-1 × DISC1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Tuathaigh, Colm M P; Fumagalli, Fabio; Desbonnet, Lieve; Perez-Branguli, Francesc; Moloney, Gerard; Loftus, Samim; O'Leary, Claire; Petit, Emilie; Cox, Rachel; Tighe, Orna; Clarke, Gerard; Lai, Donna; Harvey, Richard P; Cryan, John F; Mitchell, Kevin J; Dinan, Timothy G; Riva, Marco A; Waddington, John L

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have addressed likely gene × gene (ie, epistatic) interactions in mediating risk for schizophrenia. Using a preclinical genetic approach, we investigated whether simultaneous disruption of the risk factors Neuregulin-1 (NRG1) and Disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) would produce a disease-relevant phenotypic profile different from that observed following disruption to either gene alone. NRG1 heterozygotes exhibited hyperactivity and disruption to prepulse inhibition, both reversed by antipsychotic treatment, and accompanied by reduced striatal dopamine D2 receptor protein expression, impaired social cognition, and altered glutamatergic synaptic protein expression in selected brain areas. Single gene DISC1 mutants demonstrated a disruption in social cognition and nest-building, altered brain 5-hydroxytryptamine levels and hippocampal ErbB4 expression, and decreased cortical expression of the schizophrenia-associated microRNA miR-29b. Co-disruption of DISC1 and NRG1, indicative of epistasis, evoked an impairment in sociability and enhanced self-grooming, accompanied by changes in hypothalamic oxytocin/vasopressin gene expression. The findings indicate specific behavioral correlates and underlying cellular pathways downstream of main effects of DNA variation in the schizophrenia-associated genes NRG1 and DISC1. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Evaluation of Interactive Website Design Indicators for e-Entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chao Chung

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Using an analytic network process (ANP as an analytical tool, this study aims to construct an ANP evaluation model of interactive website design indicators. Through a review of the literature, interactive website design of e-entrepreneurship is generalized to the following dimensions: (1 Design; (2 Checking; (3 Service; (4 Interactive; and (5 Promotion, including 19 design indicators. The research is conducted for a case company. According to the findings, the model helps the case company review its current execution of interactive website design indicators and the experts’ opinions of the importance of interactive website design indicators. In addition, by comprehensive comparison, it confirms key design indicators and analyzes the managerial implications to help the case company set up precise strategic planning and resource distribution to enhance corporate operational performance and competitiveness.

  15. Evaluation of drug-drug interactions among patients with chronic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The risk of drug-drug interactions (DDIs) is high in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) necessitating dose adjustments or the avoidance of drug combinations. This study aimed to evaluate DDIs among patients with CKD in the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH), Enugu, South-East Nigeria.

  16. Exploring Action Research as an Approach to Interactive (Participatory) Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudary, Imran Anjum; Imran, Shahida

    2012-01-01

    This investigation seeks to understand "action research" as an approach to "interactive form of evaluation". The first half of the investigation illuminates the approach with the help of the selective body of literature and the second half draws attention to its application in the field with the help of an authentic evaluation…

  17. Bacteria Hunt: Evaluating multi-paradigm BCI interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mühl, C.; Gürkök, Hayrettin; Plass - Oude Bos, D.; Thurlings, Marieke E.; Scherffig, Lasse; Duvinage, Matthieu; Elbakyan, Alexandra A.; Kang, SungWook; Poel, Mannes; Heylen, Dirk K.J.

    The multimodal, multi-paradigm brain-computer interfacing (BCI) game Bacteria Hunt was used to evaluate two aspects of BCI interaction in a gaming context. One goal was to examine the effect of feedback on the ability of the user to manipulate his mental state of relaxation. This was done by having

  18. Age Differences in Voice Evaluation: From Auditory-Perceptual Evaluation to Social Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lortie, Catherine L.; Deschamps, Isabelle; Guitton, Matthieu J.; Tremblay, Pascale

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The factors that influence the evaluation of voice in adulthood, as well as the consequences of such evaluation on social interactions, are not well understood. Here, we examined the effect of listeners' age and the effect of talker age, sex, and smoking status on the auditory-perceptual evaluation of voice, voice-related psychosocial…

  19. Psychometric evaluation of the Social Interaction Phobia Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Alison R; Carleton, R Nicholas; Weeks, Justin W

    2012-01-01

    The present study evaluated the psychometric properties of a novel measure of social anxiety symptoms, the Social Interaction Phobia Scale (SIPS), as a stand-alone item set, using an undergraduate sample (N=512). The 14-item SIPS has three subscales assessing Social Interaction Anxiety, Fear of Overt Evaluation, and Fear of Attracting Attention. Confirmatory factor analyses replicated the three-factor structure for the SIPS originally reported by Carleton et al. All SIPS scores demonstrated good internal consistency. The convergent validity of the SIPS was supported by strong and positive correlations between all SIPS scores and measures of social anxiety and fear of evaluation; the finding that the relationships between all SIPS scores and a social anxiety measure were stronger than relationships between all SIPS scores and measures of other constructs supported the discriminant validity of the SIPS. Results suggest that the SIPS possesses excellent psychometric properties.

  20. Using GOMS and NASA-TLX to Evaluate Human-Computer Interaction Process in Interactive Segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramkumar, A.; Stappers, P.J.; Niessen, W.J.; Adebahr, S; Schimek-Jasch, T; Nestle, U; Song, Y.

    2016-01-01

    HCI plays an important role in interactive medical image segmentation. The Goals, Operators, Methods, and Selection rules (GOMS) model and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) questionnaire are different methods that are often used to evaluate the HCI

  1. Apple fruit acidity is genetically diversified by natural variations in three hierarchical epistatic genes MdSAUR37, MdPP2CH and MdALMTII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Dongjie; Shen, Fei; Wang, Yi; Wu, Ting; Xu, Xuefeng; Zhang, Xinzhong; Han, Zhenhai

    2018-05-11

    Many efforts have been made to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) to facilitate practical marker-assisted selection (MAS) in plants. In the present study, we identified four genome-wide major QTLs responsible for apple fruit acidity by MapQTL and BSA-seq analyses using two independent pedigree-based populations. Candidate genes were screened in major QTL regions, and three functional gene markers, including a non-synonymous A/G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the coding region of MdPP2CH, a 36-bp insertion in the promoter of MdSAUR37, and a previously reported SNP in MdALMTII, were validated to influence the malate content of apple fruits. In addition, MdPP2CH inactivated three vacuolar H + -ATPases (MdVHA-A3, MdVHA-B2 and MdVHA-D2) and one aluminium-activated malate transporter (MdALMTII) via dephosphorylation and negatively influenced fruit malate accumulation. The dephosphotase activity of MdPP2CH was suppressed by MdSAUR37, which implied a higher hierarchy of genetic interaction. Therefore, the MdSAUR37/MdPP2CH/MdALMTII chain cascaded hierarchical epistatic genetic effects to precisely determine apple fruit malate content. An A/G SNP (-1010) on MdMYB44 promoter region from a major QTL (qtl08.1) was closely associated with fruit malate content. The predicted phenotype values (PPVs) were estimated using the tentative genotype values of the gene markers, and the PPVs were significantly correlated with the observed phenotype values. Our findings provide an insight into plant genome-based selection in apples and will aid in conducting research to understand the physiological fundamentals of quantitative genetics. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. The origin of human complex diversity: Stochastic epistatic modules and the intrinsic compatibility between distributional robustness and phenotypic changeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijichi, Shinji; Ijichi, Naomi; Ijichi, Yukina; Imamura, Chikako; Sameshima, Hisami; Kawaike, Yoichi; Morioka, Hirofumi

    2018-01-01

    The continuing prevalence of a highly heritable and hypo-reproductive extreme tail of a human neurobehavioral quantitative diversity suggests the possibility that the reproductive majority retains the genetic mechanism for the extremes. From the perspective of stochastic epistasis, the effect of an epistatic modifier variant can randomly vary in both phenotypic value and effect direction among the careers depending on the genetic individuality, and the modifier careers are ubiquitous in the population distribution. The neutrality of the mean genetic effect in the careers warrants the survival of the variant under selection pressures. Functionally or metabolically related modifier variants make an epistatic network module and dozens of modules may be involved in the phenotype. To assess the significance of stochastic epistasis, a simplified module-based model was employed. The individual repertoire of the modifier variants in a module also participates in the genetic individuality which determines the genetic contribution of each modifier in the career. Because the entire contribution of a module to the phenotypic outcome is consequently unpredictable in the model, the module effect represents the total contribution of the related modifiers as a stochastic unit in the simulations. As a result, the intrinsic compatibility between distributional robustness and quantitative changeability could mathematically be simulated using the model. The artificial normal distribution shape in large-sized simulations was preserved in each generation even if the lowest fitness tail was un-reproductive. The robustness of normality beyond generations is analogous to the real situations of human complex diversity including neurodevelopmental conditions. The repeated regeneration of the un-reproductive extreme tail may be inevitable for the reproductive majority's competence to survive and change, suggesting implications of the extremes for others. Further model-simulations to

  3. Evaluation of clustering algorithms for protein-protein interaction networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Helden Jacques

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein interactions are crucial components of all cellular processes. Recently, high-throughput methods have been developed to obtain a global description of the interactome (the whole network of protein interactions for a given organism. In 2002, the yeast interactome was estimated to contain up to 80,000 potential interactions. This estimate is based on the integration of data sets obtained by various methods (mass spectrometry, two-hybrid methods, genetic studies. High-throughput methods are known, however, to yield a non-negligible rate of false positives, and to miss a fraction of existing interactions. The interactome can be represented as a graph where nodes correspond with proteins and edges with pairwise interactions. In recent years clustering methods have been developed and applied in order to extract relevant modules from such graphs. These algorithms require the specification of parameters that may drastically affect the results. In this paper we present a comparative assessment of four algorithms: Markov Clustering (MCL, Restricted Neighborhood Search Clustering (RNSC, Super Paramagnetic Clustering (SPC, and Molecular Complex Detection (MCODE. Results A test graph was built on the basis of 220 complexes annotated in the MIPS database. To evaluate the robustness to false positives and false negatives, we derived 41 altered graphs by randomly removing edges from or adding edges to the test graph in various proportions. Each clustering algorithm was applied to these graphs with various parameter settings, and the clusters were compared with the annotated complexes. We analyzed the sensitivity of the algorithms to the parameters and determined their optimal parameter values. We also evaluated their robustness to alterations of the test graph. We then applied the four algorithms to six graphs obtained from high-throughput experiments and compared the resulting clusters with the annotated complexes. Conclusion This

  4. Simplified Human-Robot Interaction: Modeling and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balazs Daniel

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a novel concept of human-robot interaction (HRI modeling is proposed. Including factors like trust in automation, situational awareness, expertise and expectations a new user experience framework is formed for industrial robots. Service Oriented Robot Operation, proposed in a previous paper, creates an abstract level in HRI and it is also included in the framework. This concept is evaluated with exhaustive tests. Results prove that significant improvement in task execution may be achieved and the new system is more usable for operators with less experience with robotics; personnel specific for small and medium enterprises (SMEs.

  5. Reliability evaluation of containments including soil-structure interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires, J.; Hwang, H.; Reich, M.

    1985-12-01

    Soil-structure interaction effects on the reliability assessment of containment structures are examined. The probability-based method for reliability evaluation of nuclear structures developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory is extended to include soil-structure interaction effects. In this method, reliability of structures is expressed in terms of limit state probabilities. Furthermore, random vibration theory is utilized to calculate limit state probabilities under random seismic loads. Earthquake ground motion is modeled by a segment of a zero-mean, stationary, filtered Gaussian white noise random process, represented by its power spectrum. All possible seismic hazards at a site, represented by a hazard curve, are also included in the analysis. The soil-foundation system is represented by a rigid surface foundation on an elastic halfspace. Random and other uncertainties in the strength properties of the structure, in the stiffness and internal damping of the soil, are also included in the analysis. Finally, a realistic reinforced concrete containment is analyzed to demonstrate the application of the method. For this containment, the soil-structure interaction effects on; (1) limit state probabilities, (2) structural fragility curves, (3) floor response spectra with probabilistic content, and (4) correlation coefficients for total acceleration response at specified structural locations, are examined in detail. 25 refs., 21 figs., 12 tabs

  6. Microarrays for the evaluation of cell-biomaterial surface interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thissen, H.; Johnson, G.; McFarland, G.; Verbiest, B. C. H.; Gengenbach, T.; Voelcker, N. H.

    2007-01-01

    The evaluation of cell-material surface interactions is important for the design of novel biomaterials which are used in a variety of biomedical applications. While traditional in vitro test methods have routinely used samples of relatively large size, microarrays representing different biomaterials offer many advantages, including high throughput and reduced sample handling. Here, we describe the simultaneous cell-based testing of matrices of polymeric biomaterials, arrayed on glass slides with a low cell-attachment background coating. Arrays were constructed using a microarray robot at 6 fold redundancy with solid pins having a diameter of 375 μm. Printed solutions contained at least one monomer, an initiator and a bifunctional crosslinker. After subsequent UV polymerisation, the arrays were washed and characterised by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Cell culture experiments were carried out over 24 hours using HeLa cells. After labelling with CellTracker ® Green for the final hour of incubation and subsequent fixation, the arrays were scanned. In addition, individual spots were also viewed by fluorescence microscopy. The evaluation of cell-surface interactions in high-throughput assays as demonstrated here is a key enabling technology for the effective development of future biomaterials.

  7. Mutations to Less-Preferred Synonymous Codons in a Highly Expressed Gene of Escherichia coli: Fitness and Epistatic Interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Hauber

    Full Text Available Codon-tRNA coevolution to maximize protein production has been, until recently, the dominant hypothesis to explain codon-usage bias in highly expressed bacterial genes. Two predictions of this hypothesis are 1 selection is weak; and 2 similar silent replacements at different codons should have similar fitness consequence. We used an allele-replacement strategy to change five specific 3rd-codon-position (silent sites in the highly expressed Escherichia coli ribosomal protein gene rplQ from the wild type to a less-preferred alternative. We introduced the five mutations within a 10-codon region. Four of the silent sites were chosen to test the second prediction, with a CTG to CTA mutation being introduced at two closely linked leucine codons and an AAA to AAG mutation being introduced at two closely linked lysine codons. We also introduced a fifth silent mutation, a GTG to GTA mutation at a valine codon in the same genic region. We measured the fitness effect of the individual mutations by competing each single-mutant strain against the parental wild-type strain, using a disrupted form of the araA gene as a selectively neutral phenotypic marker to distinguish between strains in direct competition experiments. Three of the silent mutations had a fitness effect of |s| > 0.02, which is contradictory to the prediction that selection will be weak. The two leucine mutations had significantly different fitness effects, as did the two lysine mutations, contradictory to the prediction that similar mutations at different codons should have similar fitness effects. We also constructed a strain carrying all five silent mutations in combination. Its fitness effect was greater than that predicted from the individual fitness values, suggesting that negative synergistic epistasis acts on the combination allele.

  8. Detection of epistatic effects with logic regression and a classical linear regression model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malina, Magdalena; Ickstadt, Katja; Schwender, Holger; Posch, Martin; Bogdan, Małgorzata

    2014-02-01

    To locate multiple interacting quantitative trait loci (QTL) influencing a trait of interest within experimental populations, usually methods as the Cockerham's model are applied. Within this framework, interactions are understood as the part of the joined effect of several genes which cannot be explained as the sum of their additive effects. However, if a change in the phenotype (as disease) is caused by Boolean combinations of genotypes of several QTLs, this Cockerham's approach is often not capable to identify them properly. To detect such interactions more efficiently, we propose a logic regression framework. Even though with the logic regression approach a larger number of models has to be considered (requiring more stringent multiple testing correction) the efficient representation of higher order logic interactions in logic regression models leads to a significant increase of power to detect such interactions as compared to a Cockerham's approach. The increase in power is demonstrated analytically for a simple two-way interaction model and illustrated in more complex settings with simulation study and real data analysis.

  9. Robust ray-tracing algorithms for interactive dose rate evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrotte, L.

    2011-01-01

    More than ever, it is essential today to develop simulation tools to rapidly evaluate the dose rate received by operators working on nuclear sites. In order to easily study numerous different scenarios of intervention, computation times of available softwares have to be all lowered. This mainly implies to accelerate the geometrical computations needed for the dose rate evaluation. These computations consist in finding and sorting the whole list of intersections between a big 3D scene and multiple groups of 'radiative' rays meeting at the point where the dose has to be measured. In order to perform all these computations in less than a second, we first propose a GPU algorithm that enables the efficient management of one big group of coherent rays. Then we present a modification of this algorithm that guarantees the robustness of the ray-triangle intersection tests through the elimination of the precision issues due to floating-point arithmetic. This modification does not require the definition of scene-dependent coefficients ('epsilon' style) and only implies a small loss of performance (less than 10%). Finally we propose an efficient strategy to handle multiple ray groups (corresponding to multiple radiative objects) which use the previous results.Thanks to these improvements, we are able to perform an interactive and robust dose rate evaluation on big 3D scenes: all of the intersections (more than 13 million) between 700 000 triangles and 12 groups of 100 000 rays each are found, sorted along each ray and transferred to the CPU in 470 milliseconds. (author) [fr

  10. A Bone-Implant Interaction Mouse Model for Evaluating Molecular Mechanism of Biomaterials/Bone Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenlong; Dan, Xiuli; Wang, Ting; Lu, William W; Pan, Haobo

    2016-11-01

    The development of an optimal animal model that could provide fast assessments of the interaction between bone and orthopedic implants is essential for both preclinical and theoretical researches in the design of novel biomaterials. Compared with other animal models, mice have superiority in accessing the well-developed transgenic modification techniques (e.g., cell tracing, knockoff, knockin, and so on), which serve as powerful tools in studying molecular mechanisms. In this study, we introduced the establishment of a mouse model, which was specifically tailored for the assessment of bone-implant interaction in a load-bearing bone marrow microenvironment and could potentially allow the molecular mechanism study of biomaterials by using transgenic technologies. The detailed microsurgery procedures for developing a bone defect (Φ = 0.8 mm) at the metaphysis region of the mouse femur were recorded. According to our results, the osteoconductive and osseointegrative properties of a well-studied 45S5 bioactive glass were confirmed by utilizing our mouse model, verifying the reliability of this model. The feasibility and reliability of the present model were further checked by using other materials as objects of study. Furthermore, our results indicated that this animal model provided a more homogeneous tissue-implant interacting surface than the rat at the early stage of implantation and this is quite meaningful for conducting quantitative analysis. The availability of transgenic techniques to mechanism study of biomaterials was further testified by establishing our model on Nestin-GFP transgenic mice. Intriguingly, the distribution of Nestin + cells was demonstrated to be recruited to the surface of 45S5 glass as early as 3 days postsurgery, indicating that Nestin + lineage stem cells may participate in the subsequent regeneration process. In summary, the bone-implant interaction mouse model could serve as a potential candidate to evaluate the early stage tissue

  11. Interactive model evaluation tool based on IPython notebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balemans, Sophie; Van Hoey, Stijn; Nopens, Ingmar; Seuntjes, Piet

    2015-04-01

    In hydrological modelling, some kind of parameter optimization is mostly performed. This can be the selection of a single best parameter set, a split in behavioural and non-behavioural parameter sets based on a selected threshold or a posterior parameter distribution derived with a formal Bayesian approach. The selection of the criterion to measure the goodness of fit (likelihood or any objective function) is an essential step in all of these methodologies and will affect the final selected parameter subset. Moreover, the discriminative power of the objective function is also dependent from the time period used. In practice, the optimization process is an iterative procedure. As such, in the course of the modelling process, an increasing amount of simulations is performed. However, the information carried by these simulation outputs is not always fully exploited. In this respect, we developed and present an interactive environment that enables the user to intuitively evaluate the model performance. The aim is to explore the parameter space graphically and to visualize the impact of the selected objective function on model behaviour. First, a set of model simulation results is loaded along with the corresponding parameter sets and a data set of the same variable as the model outcome (mostly discharge). The ranges of the loaded parameter sets define the parameter space. A selection of the two parameters visualised can be made by the user. Furthermore, an objective function and a time period of interest need to be selected. Based on this information, a two-dimensional parameter response surface is created, which actually just shows a scatter plot of the parameter combinations and assigns a color scale corresponding with the goodness of fit of each parameter combination. Finally, a slider is available to change the color mapping of the points. Actually, the slider provides a threshold to exclude non behaviour parameter sets and the color scale is only attributed to the

  12. User-evaluated Gestures for Touchless Interactions from a Distance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fikkert, F.W.; van der Vet, P.E.; Nijholt, Antinus

    2010-01-01

    Very big displays are now commonplace but interactions with them are limited, even poorly understood. Recently, understanding touch-based interactions have received a great deal of attention due to the popularity and low costs of these displays. The direct extension of such interactions, touch less

  13. Modelling operator cognitive interactions in nuclear power plant safety evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senders, J.W.; Moray, N.; Smiley, A.; Sellen, A.

    1985-08-01

    The overall objectives of the study were to review methods which are applicable to the analysis of control room operator cognitive interactions in nuclear plant safety evaluations and to indicate where future research effort in this area should be directed. This report is based on an exhaustive search and review of the literature on NPP (Nuclear Power Plant) operator error, human error, human cognitive function, and on human performance. A number of methods which have been proposed for the estimation of data for probabilistic risk analysis have been examined and have been found wanting. None addresses the problem of diagnosis error per se. Virtually all are concerned with the more easily detected and identified errors of action. None addresses underlying cause and mechanism. It is these mechanisms which must be understood if diagnosis errors and other cognitive errors are to be controlled and predicted. We have attempted to overcome the deficiencies of earlier work and have constructed a model/taxonomy, EXHUME, which we consider to be exhaustive. This construct has proved to be fruitful in organizing our thinking about the kinds of error that can occur and the nature of self-correcting mechanisms, and has guided our thinking in suggesting a research program which can provide the data needed for quantification of cognitive error rates and of the effects of mitigating efforts. In addition a preliminary outline of EMBED, a causal model of error, is given based on general behavioural research into perception, attention, memory, and decision making. 184 refs

  14. A test to evaluation non-linear soil structure interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagiwara, T.; Kitada, Y.

    2005-01-01

    JNES is planning a new project to study non-linear soil-structure interaction (SSI) effect under large earthquake ground motions equivalent to and/or over a design earthquake ground motion of S2. Concerning the SSI test, it is pointed out that handling of the scale effect of the specimen taking into account the surrounding soil on the earthquake response evaluation to the actual structure is essential issue for the scaled model test. Thus, for the test, the largest specimen possible and the biggest input motion possible are necessary. Taking into account the above issues, new test methodology, which utilizes artificial earthquake ground motion, is considered desirable if it can be performed at a realistic cost. With this motivation, we have studied the test methodology which applying blasting power as for a big earthquake ground motion. The information from a coalmine company in the U.S.A. indicates that the works performed in the surface coalmine to blast a rock covering a coal layer generates a big artificial ground motion, which is similar to earthquake ground motion. Application of this artificial earthquake ground motion for the SSI test is considered very promising because the blasting work is carried out periodically for mining coal so that we can apply artificial motions generated by the work if we construct a building model at a closed point to the blasting work area. The major purposes of the test are to understand (a) basic earthquake response characteristics of a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) reactor building when a large earthquake strikes the NPP site and (b) nonlinear characteristics of SSI phenomenon during a big earthquake. In the paper of ICONE-13, we will introduce the test method and basic characteristics of measured artificial ground motions generated by the blasting works on an actual site. (authors)

  15. Self-Consistent Criteria for Evaluation of Neutron Interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, H.F.; Newlon, C.E.; Knight, J.R.

    2007-01-01

    New safe interaction criteria for containers of fissionable materials handled at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant have been developed on the basis of an interaction theory using the basic concepts of a safe solid angle subtended by interacting containers, and the multiplication factor as determined by two-group theory for an individually safe containers The calculated results agree satisfactorily with experimental data obtained with identical interacting units involving both cylinders and slabs containing highly enriched uranium, the core compositions of which were varied between H/U-235 atomic ratios of 44.3 and 337. The application of the derived interaction criteria to items containing material with low moderation or low U-235 assay, and to containers for which nuclear safety is dependent upon control of the U-235 mass or U-235 concentration is discussed.

  16. Introduction to a Protein Interaction System Used for Quantitative Evaluation of Biomolecular Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Yamniuk, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    A central goal of molecular biology is the determination of biomolecular function. This comes largely from a knowledge of the non-covalent interactions that biological small and macro-molecules experience. The fundamental mission of the Molecular Interactions Research Group (MIRG) of the ABRF is to show how solution biophysical tools are used to quantitatively characterize molecular interactions, and to educate the ABRF members and scientific community on the utility and limitations of core t...

  17. Students' Evaluation of Classroom Interactions of Their Biology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    teacher classroom interactions were positively correlated and uncertainty, ... implementation is that, if biology teachers were to display more leadership, helpful and ... Accepted methods to overcome poor academic achievement in science have ... activities and experiences through which teachers; curriculum, materials, and.

  18. Evaluation of Mobile Phones for Large Display Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Jens; Thelen, Sebastian; Ebert, Achim

    2012-01-01

    Large displays have become more and more common in the last few years. While interaction with these displays can be conducted using standard methods such as computer mouse and keyboard, this approach causes issues in multi-user environments, where the various conditions for providing multiple keyboards and mice, together with the facilities to employ them, cannot be met. To solve this problem, interaction using mobile phones was proposed by several authors. Previous solutions were specialized...

  19. EVALUATING AUSTRALIAN FOOTBALL LEAGUE PLAYER CONTRIBUTIONS USING INTERACTIVE NETWORK SIMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Sargent

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the contribution of Australian Football League (AFL players to their team's on-field network by simulating player interactions within a chosen team list and estimating the net effect on final score margin. A Visual Basic computer program was written, firstly, to isolate the effective interactions between players from a particular team in all 2011 season matches and, secondly, to generate a symmetric interaction matrix for each match. Negative binomial distributions were fitted to each player pairing in the Geelong Football Club for the 2011 season, enabling an interactive match simulation model given the 22 chosen players. Dynamic player ratings were calculated from the simulated network using eigenvector centrality, a method that recognises and rewards interactions with more prominent players in the team network. The centrality ratings were recorded after every network simulation and then applied in final score margin predictions so that each player's match contribution-and, hence, an optimal team-could be estimated. The paper ultimately demonstrates that the presence of highly rated players, such as Geelong's Jimmy Bartel, provides the most utility within a simulated team network. It is anticipated that these findings will facilitate optimal AFL team selection and player substitutions, which are key areas of interest to coaches. Network simulations are also attractive for use within betting markets, specifically to provide information on the likelihood of a chosen AFL team list "covering the line".

  20. Visualization of acoustic particle interaction and agglomeration: Theory evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, T.L.; Koopmann, G.H.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper experimentally observed trajectories of particles undergoing acoustically induced interaction and agglomeration processes are compared to and validated with numerically generated trajectories based on existing agglomeration theories. Models for orthokinetic, scattering, mutual radiation pressure, and hydrodynamic particle interaction are considered in the analysis. The characteristic features of the classical orthokinetic agglomeration hypothesis, such as collision processes and agglomerations due to the relative entrainment motion, are not observed in the digital images. The measured entrainment rates of the particles are found to be consistently lower than the theoretically predicted values. Some of the experiments reveal certain characteristics which may possibly be related to mutual scattering interaction. The study's most significant discovery is the so-called tuning fork agglomeration [T. L. Hoffmann and G. H. Koopmann, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 99, 2130 endash 2141 (1996)]. It is shown that this phenomenon contradicts the theories for mutual scattering interaction and mutual radiation pressure interaction, but agrees with the acoustic wake effect model in its intrinsic feature of attraction between particles aligned along the acoustic axis. A model by Dianov et al. [Sov. Phys. Acoust. 13 (3), 314 endash 319 (1968)] is used to describe this effect based on asymmetric flow fields around particles under Oseen flow conditions. It is concluded that this model is consistent with the general characteristics of the tuning fork agglomerations, but lacks certain refinements with respect to accurate quantification of the effect. copyright 1997 Acoustical Society of America

  1. Standard problems to evaluate soil structure interaction computer codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, C.A.; Costantino, C.J.; Philippacopoulos, A.J.

    1979-01-01

    The seismic response of nuclear power plant structures is often calculated using lumped parameter methods. A finite element model of the structure is coupled to the soil with a spring-dashpot system used to represent the interaction process. The parameters of the interaction model are based on analytic solutions to simple problems which are idealizations of the actual problems of interest. The objective of the work reported in this paper is to compare predicted responses using the standard lumped parameter models with experimental data. These comparisons are shown to be good for a fairly uniform soil system and for loadings which do not result in nonlinear interaction effects such as liftoff. 7 references, 7 figures

  2. Empirical evaluation of neutral interactions in host-parasite networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canard, E F; Mouquet, N; Mouillot, D; Stanko, M; Miklisova, D; Gravel, D

    2014-04-01

    While niche-based processes have been invoked extensively to explain the structure of interaction networks, recent studies propose that neutrality could also be of great importance. Under the neutral hypothesis, network structure would simply emerge from random encounters between individuals and thus would be directly linked to species abundance. We investigated the impact of species abundance distributions on qualitative and quantitative metrics of 113 host-parasite networks. We analyzed the concordance between neutral expectations and empirical observations at interaction, species, and network levels. We found that species abundance accurately predicts network metrics at all levels. Despite host-parasite systems being constrained by physiology and immunology, our results suggest that neutrality could also explain, at least partially, their structure. We hypothesize that trait matching would determine potential interactions between species, while abundance would determine their realization.

  3. Evaluating DEM results with FEM perspectives of load : soil interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tadesse, D.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Load - soil interaction, soil structure, soil mechanical properties, FEM (Finite Element Method), Plaxis (Finite Element Code), granular particles, shear stress, DEM (Distinct Element Method),

  4. Towards a standard on evaluation of tactile/haptic interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinclair, I.; Carter, J.; Kassner, S.; Erp, J.B.F. van; Weber, G.; Elliott, L.; Andrew, I.

    2012-01-01

    Tactile and haptic interaction is becoming increasingly important; ergonomic standards can ensure that systems are designed with sufficient concern for ergonomics and interoperability. ISO (through working group TC159/SC4/WG9) is developing international standards in this subject area, dual-tracked

  5. Mood swings: design and evaluation of affective interactive art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialoskorski, Leticia S.S.; Westerink, Joyce H.D.M.; van den Broek, Egon

    2009-01-01

    The field of affective computing is concerned with developing emphatic products, such as affective consumer products, affective games, and affective art. This paper describes Mood Swings, an affective interactive art system, which interprets and visualizes affect expressed by a person. Mood Swings

  6. Nonunion of acetabular fractures: evaluation with interactive multiplanar CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhlman, J.E.; Fishman, E.K.; Ney, D.R.; Brooker, A.F. Jr.; Magid, D.

    1989-01-01

    Nonunions involving fractures of the acetabulum are reportedly rare, with few citings and little discussion in the literature. It is possible that acetabular nonunions go undetected because imaging of the acetabulum is difficult by conventional radiography. We report two cases of fracture nonunion involving the weight-bearing surface of the acetabulum diagnosed with the aid of computed tomography (CT) and a newly developed interactive 2D/3D orthotool that uniquely processes and reformats routine CT data. The interactive 2D/3D orthotool is a sophisticated computer program that allows dynamic viewing of standard multiplanar reconstructions in the axial, coronal, and sagittal planes as well as multiple oblique projections. The 2D/3D orthotool provides on screen correlation of two-dimensional multiplanar images with three-dimensional reconstructions of the pelvis. The authors found this capability ideally suited for studying fractures with off-axis orientation such as those through the acetabular dome, greatly facilitating the diagnosis of nonunion

  7. Evaluating Interactions of Forest Conservation Policies on Avoided Deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robalino, Juan; Sandoval, Catalina; Barton, David N.; Chacon, Adriana; Pfaff, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    We estimate the effects on deforestation that have resulted from policy interactions between parks and payments and between park buffers and payments in Costa Rica between 2000 and 2005. We show that the characteristics of the areas where protected and unprotected lands are located differ significantly. Additionally, we find that land characteristics of each of the policies and of the places where they interact also differ significantly. To adequately estimate the effects of the policies and their interactions, we use matching methods. Matching is implemented not only to define adequate control groups, as in previous research, but also to define those groups of locations under the influence of policies that are comparable to each other. We find that it is more effective to locate parks and payments away from each other, rather than in the same location or near each other. The high levels of enforcement inside both parks and lands with payments, and the presence of conservation spillovers that reduce deforestation near parks, significantly reduce the potential impact of combining these two policies. PMID:25909323

  8. Evaluating interactions of forest conservation policies on avoided deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robalino, Juan; Sandoval, Catalina; Barton, David N; Chacon, Adriana; Pfaff, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    We estimate the effects on deforestation that have resulted from policy interactions between parks and payments and between park buffers and payments in Costa Rica between 2000 and 2005. We show that the characteristics of the areas where protected and unprotected lands are located differ significantly. Additionally, we find that land characteristics of each of the policies and of the places where they interact also differ significantly. To adequately estimate the effects of the policies and their interactions, we use matching methods. Matching is implemented not only to define adequate control groups, as in previous research, but also to define those groups of locations under the influence of policies that are comparable to each other. We find that it is more effective to locate parks and payments away from each other, rather than in the same location or near each other. The high levels of enforcement inside both parks and lands with payments, and the presence of conservation spillovers that reduce deforestation near parks, significantly reduce the potential impact of combining these two policies.

  9. Evaluating interactions of forest conservation policies on avoided deforestation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Robalino

    Full Text Available We estimate the effects on deforestation that have resulted from policy interactions between parks and payments and between park buffers and payments in Costa Rica between 2000 and 2005. We show that the characteristics of the areas where protected and unprotected lands are located differ significantly. Additionally, we find that land characteristics of each of the policies and of the places where they interact also differ significantly. To adequately estimate the effects of the policies and their interactions, we use matching methods. Matching is implemented not only to define adequate control groups, as in previous research, but also to define those groups of locations under the influence of policies that are comparable to each other. We find that it is more effective to locate parks and payments away from each other, rather than in the same location or near each other. The high levels of enforcement inside both parks and lands with payments, and the presence of conservation spillovers that reduce deforestation near parks, significantly reduce the potential impact of combining these two policies.

  10. Assessment of Social Competence in an Evaluation-Interaction Analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, John J.; Redden, Joan

    1977-01-01

    Discusses a study designed to explore behavior changes in subjects' performances as a function of evaluative feedback and examines the relations between judgements of physical attractiveness and social competence. (MH)

  11. Epistasis × environment interactions among Arabidopsis thaliana glucosinolate genes impact complex traits and fitness in the field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerwin, Rachel E.; Feusier, Julie; Muok, Alise

    2017-01-01

    (GSL) defense chemistry, leaf damage, and relative fitness using mutant lines of Arabidopsis thaliana varying at pairs of causal aliphatic GSL defense genes to test the impact of epistatic and epistasis × environment interactions on adaptive trait variation. We found that aliphatic GSL accumulation...

  12. Evaluation of conservatism in analysis of fuel-coolant interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, A.B.; Erdman, C.A.; Garner, P.L.; Haas, P.M.; Allen, C.L.

    Using the ANL parametric model developed by Cho e.a. the following mechanisms and parameters involved in fuel-coolant interaction were examined: coherence of fuel-sodium mixing; two-phase heat transfer; sodium-to-fuel mass ratio; fuel particle size; heat transfer to plenum and core cladding; constraint geometry. Both overpower and loss-of-flow transients were studied. Main attention is given to the maximum mechanical work to be expected. As a general conclusion, it can be stated that more realistic models will result in a reduction of the estimated mechanical work

  13. Evaluating an interactive voice response system for persons with disabilities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greeff, M

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available -evaluated before the next iteration. During the re-evaluation its current fitness value is compared with its previous fitness value, i.e. its fitness value after the previous iteration. If the two values differ more than a specified value, 2922 978... when the true POF is unknown. The size of the non-dominated solution set can also be used to measure an algorithm’s performance [18]. Ca´mara et al. proposed measures of accuracy, stability and reaction capacity of an algorithm, that are based...

  14. Initial evaluation of an interactive test of sentence gist recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tye-Murray, N; Witt, S; Castelloe, J

    1996-12-01

    The laser videodisc-based Sentence Gist Recognition (SGR) test consists of sets of topically related sentences that are cued by short film clips. Clients respond to test items by selecting picture illustrations and may interact with the talker by using repair strategies when they do not recognize a test item. The two experiments, involving 40 and 35 adult subjects, respectively, indicated that the SGR may better predict subjective measures of speechreading and listening performance than more traditional audiologic sentence and nonsense syllable tests. Data from cochlear implant users indicated that the SGR accounted for a greater percentage of the variance for selected items of the Communication Profile for the Hearing-Impaired and the Speechreading Questionnaire for Cochlear-Implant Users than two other audiologic tests. As in previous work, subjects were most apt to ask the talker to repeat an utterance that they did not recognize than to ask the talker to restructure it. It is suggested that the SGR may reflect the interactive nature of conversation and provide a simulated real-world listening and/or speechreading task. The principles underlaying this test are consistent with the development of other computer technologies and concepts, such as compact discinteractive and virtual reality.

  15. Evaluating Dialogue Competence in Naturally Occurring Child-Child Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naerland, Terje

    2011-01-01

    The principal aim of this paper is to contribute to the pursuit of evaluating pragmatic language competence in preschool years by observation-based data. Initially, the relations between age and language development measured as mean length of utterance (MLU) and three dialogue skills are described. The occurrences of "focus on the dialogue…

  16. Genetics of simple and complex host-parasite interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidhu, G.S.; Webster, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    In nature a host plant can be viewed as a miniature replica of an ecological system where true and incidental parasites share the same habitat. Consequently, they influence each other's presence directly by interspecific interaction, and indirectly by inducing changes in the host's physiology and so form disease complexes. Since all physiological phenomena have their counterpart in the respective genetic systems of interacting organisms, valuable genetic information can be derived from the analysis of complex parasitic systems. Disease complexes may be classified according to the nature of interaction between various parasites on the same host. One parasite may nullify the host's resistance to another (e.g. Tomato - Meloidogyne incognita + Fusarium oxysporum lycopersici system). Conversely, a parasite may invoke resistance in the host against another parasite (e.g. Tomato - Fusarium oxysporum lycopersici + Verticillium albo atrum system). From the study of simple parasitic systems we know that resistance versus susceptibility against a single parasite is normally monogenically controlled. However, when more than one parasite interacts to invoke or nullify each other's responses on the same host plant, the genetic results suggest epistatic ratios. Nevertheless, epistatic ratios have been obtained also from simple parasitic systems owing to gene interaction. The epistatic ratios obtained from complex and simple parasitic systems are contrasted and compared. It is suggested that epistatic ratios obtained from simple parasitic systems may, in fact, be artifacts resulting from complex parasitic associations that often occur in nature. Polygenic inheritance and the longevity of a cultivar is also discussed briefly in relation to complex parasitic associations. Induced mutations can play a significant role in the study of complex parasitic associations, and thus can be very useful in controlling plant diseases

  17. Experimental evaluation of human-system interaction on alarm design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, F.-H.; Lee, Y.-L.; Hwang, S.-L.; Yenn, T.-C.; Yu, Y.-C.; Hsu, C.-C.; Huang, H.-W.

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluates the practicability of automatic reset alarm system in Fourth Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) of Taiwan. The features of auto-reset alarm system include dynamic prioritization of all alarm signals and fast system reset. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of automatic/manual reset on operation time, situational awareness (SA), task load index (TLX), and subjective ratings. All participants, including Experts and Novices, took part in the experiment on the alarm system simulator with Load Rejection procedure. The experimental results imply that the auto-reset alarm system may be applied in an advanced control room under Load Rejection procedure, because all participants' operation time were reduced as well as Novice's SA were raised up. Nevertheless, to ensure operating safety in FNPP, the effects of the auto-reset alarm system in other procedures/special situations still need to be tested in the near future

  18. Drug interactions evaluation: An integrated part of risk assessment of therapeutics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Lei; Reynolds, Kellie S.; Zhao, Ping; Huang, Shiew-Mei

    2010-01-01

    Pharmacokinetic drug interactions can lead to serious adverse events or decreased drug efficacy. The evaluation of a new molecular entity's (NME's) drug-drug interaction potential is an integral part of risk assessment during drug development and regulatory review. Alteration of activities of enzymes or transporters involved in the absorption, distribution, metabolism, or excretion of a new molecular entity by concomitant drugs may alter drug exposure, which can impact response (safety or efficacy). The recent Food and Drug Administration (FDA) draft drug interaction guidance ( (http://www.fda.gov/downloads/Drugs/GuidanceComplianceRegulatoryInformation/Guidances/ucm072101.pdf)) highlights the methodologies and criteria that may be used to guide drug interaction evaluation by industry and regulatory agencies and to construct informative labeling for health practitioner and patients. In addition, the Food and Drug Administration established a 'Drug Development and Drug Interactions' website to provide up-to-date information regarding evaluation of drug interactions ( (http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DevelopmentApprovalProcess/DevelopmentResources/DrugInteractionsLabeling/ucm080499.htm)). This review summarizes key elements in the FDA drug interaction guidance and new scientific developments that can guide the evaluation of drug-drug interactions during the drug development process.

  19. The development of evaluation methodology for advanced interactive communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, K.

    2005-01-01

    Face-to-face communication is one of the essential style of communication. Trough face-to-face communication, people exchange much information at a time, both verbal and non-verbal information, which is most effective to learn each other. The authors focused on the face-to-face communication, and developed an evaluation method to quantify the effectiveness of communication. We regard conversation as an exchange of keywords. The effectiveness of conversation is valued by the amount of the keywords, and the achievement of mutual understandings. Through two people's face-to-face communication, the author quantified the shared information by measuring the change of the amount of the participants' knowledge. The participants' knowledge is counted by the words they can give. We measured the change in their shared knowledge (number of the words they gave associated to the theme). And we also quantified the discords in their understandings against their partners by measuring the discords between the knowledge that they think they share and the knowledge that they really share. Through these data, we evaluate the effectiveness of communication and analyzed the trends of mutual understanding. (authors)

  20. Evaluation of osprey habitat suitability and interaction with contaminant exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toschik, P.C.; Christman, M.C.; Rattner, B.A.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) have been the focus of conservation efforts since their dramatic population decline attributed to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and related chemicals in the 1960s. Several recent studies of ospreys nesting in the United States have indicated improved reproduction. However, the density of breeding ospreys varies greatly among locations, with some areas seemingly habitable but not occupied. Because of concerns about pollution in the highly industrialized portions of the Delaware River and Bay, USA, we evaluated contaminant exposure and productivity in ospreys nesting on the Delaware River and Bay in 2002. We characterized habitat in the coastal zone of Delaware, USA, and the area around the river in Pennsylvania, USA, using data we collected as well as extant information provided by state and federal sources. We characterized habitat based on locations of occupied osprey nests in Delaware and Pennsylvania. We evaluated water clarity, water depth, land use and land cover, nest availability, and contaminants in sediment for use in a nest-occupancy model. Our results demonstrated that the presence of occupied nests was associated with water depth, water clarity, distance to an occupied osprey nest, and presence of urban land use, whereas a companion study demonstrated that hatching success was associated with the principal components derived from organochlorine-contaminant concentrations in osprey eggs (total polychlorinated biphenyls, p,p'-dichlorodiphenylethylene, chlordane and metabolites, and heptachlor epoxide). Our study provides guidelines for resource managers and local conservation organizations in management of ospreys and in development of habitat models that are appropriate for other piscivorous and marsh-nesting birds.

  1. Development and Evaluation of an Interactive WebQuest Environment: "Web Macerasi"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbahar, Yasemin; Madran, R. Orcun; Kalelioglu, Filiz

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to develop a web-based interactive system, Web Macerasi, for teaching-learning and evaluation purposes, and to find out the possible effects of this system. The study has two stages. In the first stage, a WebQuest site was designed as an interactive system in which various Internet and web technologies were used for…

  2. Studying Interaction in Undergraduate Tutorials: Results from a Small-Scale Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Lorraine; Carey, Phil; Mair, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on an observation-based evaluation of student-tutor interaction in first-year undergraduate tutorials. Using a single case analysis, the paper looks at how tutors and students built and maintained relationships through two different though interlinked forms of interaction--storytelling and the use of classroom space for…

  3. Evaluation Criteria for Interactive E-Books for Open and Distance Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Aras; Bozkaya, Mujgan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this mixed method study is to identify evaluation criteria for interactive e-books. To find answers for the research questions of the study, both quantitative and qualitative data were collected through a four-round Delphi study with a panel consisting of 30 experts. After that, a total of 20 interactive e-books were examined with…

  4. Questionnaires for eliciting evaluation data from users of interactive question answering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Diane; Kantor, Paul B.; Morse, Emile; Scholtz, Jean; Sun, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Evaluating interactive question answering (QA) systems with real users can be challenging because traditional evaluation measures based on the relevance of items returned are difficult to employ since relevance judgments can be unstable in multi-user evaluations. The work reported in this paper evaluates, in distinguishing among a set of interactive QA systems, the effectiveness of three questionnaires: a Cognitive Workload Questionnaire (NASA TLX), and Task and System Questionnaires customized to a specific interactive QA application. These Questionnaires were evaluated with four systems, seven analysts, and eight scenarios during a 2-week workshop. Overall, results demonstrate that all three Questionnaires are effective at distinguishing among systems, with the Task Questionnaire being the most sensitive. Results also provide initial support for the validity and reliability of the Questionnaires.

  5. Combinations of Methods for Collaborative Evaluation of the Usability of Interactive Software Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Solano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Usability is a fundamental quality characteristic for the success of an interactive system. It is a concept that includes a set of metrics and methods in order to obtain easy-to-learn and easy-to-use systems. Usability Evaluation Methods, UEM, are quite diverse; their application depends on variables such as costs, time availability, and human resources. A large number of UEM can be employed to assess interactive software systems, but questions arise when deciding which method and/or combination of methods gives more (relevant information. We propose Collaborative Usability Evaluation Methods, CUEM, following the principles defined by the Collaboration Engineering. This paper analyzes a set of CUEM conducted on different interactive software systems. It proposes combinations of CUEM that provide more complete and comprehensive information about the usability of interactive software systems than those evaluation methods conducted independently.

  6. The influence of intention and outcome on evaluations of social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoying; Hua, Rui; Yang, Zhangxiang; Yin, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Reading and making sense of social interactions between individuals is an important part of our daily social lives. Given that actions tend to be interpreted in terms of intent within the observed outcome, we investigated how intent and outcome interactively influence evaluations of social interactions. Through visual animations, intent was operationalized as an agent's (i.e., actor's) act intentionally or unintentionally having an influence on another agent (i.e., affectee). In Experiment 1, the act was helpful and the consequences brought small or great benefits to the affectee. In Experiment 2, the act was harmful and brought small or great losses to the affectee. We found that for both helpful and harmful contexts, social interaction evaluations were influenced by an interaction between the intent and outcome of the act. Specifically, great help/harm (i.e., the great-benefits or great-losses condition) was rated as a stronger social interaction than small help/harm, and the difference was larger in the intentional condition than in the unintentional condition. Furthermore, regardless of the interaction valence, the effect of the intent was larger than the effect of the outcome when evaluating social interaction. This result suggests that observers consider the intent and outcome jointly when evaluating a given social interaction, and the intent has a privileged role in this process. These findings are consistent with the idea that the intent is often deemed to be the cause driving the effect of outcome, and they help us to understand how social interactions are constructed within the action understanding system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. LEAP: biomarker inference through learning and evaluating association patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xia; Neapolitan, Richard E

    2015-03-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) high-dimensional datasets are available from Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS). Such data provide researchers opportunities to investigate the complex genetic basis of diseases. Much of genetic risk might be due to undiscovered epistatic interactions, which are interactions in which combination of several genes affect disease. Research aimed at discovering interacting SNPs from GWAS datasets proceeded in two directions. First, tools were developed to evaluate candidate interactions. Second, algorithms were developed to search over the space of candidate interactions. Another problem when learning interacting SNPs, which has not received much attention, is evaluating how likely it is that the learned SNPs are associated with the disease. A complete system should provide this information as well. We develop such a system. Our system, called LEAP, includes a new heuristic search algorithm for learning interacting SNPs, and a Bayesian network based algorithm for computing the probability of their association. We evaluated the performance of LEAP using 100 1,000-SNP simulated datasets, each of which contains 15 SNPs involved in interactions. When learning interacting SNPs from these datasets, LEAP outperformed seven others methods. Furthermore, only SNPs involved in interactions were found to be probable. We also used LEAP to analyze real Alzheimer's disease and breast cancer GWAS datasets. We obtained interesting and new results from the Alzheimer's dataset, but limited results from the breast cancer dataset. We conclude that our results support that LEAP is a useful tool for extracting candidate interacting SNPs from high-dimensional datasets and determining their probability. © 2015 The Authors. *Genetic Epidemiology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. SecondLife as an Evaluation Platform for Multiagent Systems Featuring Social Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Rosina, Peter

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we propose to use SecondLife as an evaluation environment for multiagent systems that model social group dynamics and social interactions. To this end we developed a control interface for NPCs in SecondLife that allows for running supervised or unsupervised long-term evaluations. Thus...

  9. Assessing SNP-SNP interactions among DNA repair, modification and metabolism related pathway genes in breast cancer susceptibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadav Sapkota

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWASs have identified low-penetrance common variants (i.e., single nucleotide polymorphisms, SNPs associated with breast cancer susceptibility. Although GWASs are primarily focused on single-locus effects, gene-gene interactions (i.e., epistasis are also assumed to contribute to the genetic risks for complex diseases including breast cancer. While it has been hypothesized that moderately ranked (P value based weak single-locus effects in GWASs could potentially harbor valuable information for evaluating epistasis, we lack systematic efforts to investigate SNPs showing consistent associations with weak statistical significance across independent discovery and replication stages. The objectives of this study were i to select SNPs showing single-locus effects with weak statistical significance for breast cancer in a GWAS and/or candidate-gene studies; ii to replicate these SNPs in an independent set of breast cancer cases and controls; and iii to explore their potential SNP-SNP interactions contributing to breast cancer susceptibility. A total of 17 SNPs related to DNA repair, modification and metabolism pathway genes were selected since these pathways offer a priori knowledge for potential epistatic interactions and an overall role in breast carcinogenesis. The study design included predominantly Caucasian women (2,795 cases and 4,505 controls from Alberta, Canada. We observed two two-way SNP-SNP interactions (APEX1-rs1130409 and RPAP1-rs2297381; MLH1-rs1799977 and MDM2-rs769412 in logistic regression that conferred elevated risks for breast cancer (P(interaction<7.3 × 10(-3. Logic regression identified an interaction involving four SNPs (MBD2-rs4041245, MLH1-rs1799977, MDM2-rs769412, BRCA2-rs1799943 (P(permutation = 2.4 × 10(-3. SNPs involved in SNP-SNP interactions also showed single-locus effects with weak statistical significance, while BRCA2-rs1799943 showed stronger statistical significance (P

  10. The binary response of the GAL/MEL genetic switch of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is critically dependent on Gal80p-Gal4p interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Adhikari, Akshay Kumar; Bhat, Paike Jayadeva

    2016-09-01

    Studies on the Saccharomyces cerevisiae GAL/MEL genetic switch have revealed that its bistability is dependent on ultrasensitivity that can be altered or abolished by disabling different combinations of nested feedback loops. In contrast, we have previously demonstrated that weakening of the interaction between Gal80p and Gal4p alone is sufficient to abolish the ultrasensitivity (Das Adhikari et al. 2014). Here, we demonstrate that altering the epistatic interaction between Gal80p and Gal4p also abolishes the bistability, and the switch response to galactose becomes graded instead of binary. However, the GAL/MEL switch of wild-type and epistatically altered strains responded in a graded fashion to melibiose. The properties of the epistatically altered strain resemble Kluyveromyces lactis, which separated from the Saccharomyces lineage 100 mya before whole-genome duplication (WGD). Based on the results reported here, we propose that epistatic interactions played a crucial role in the evolution of the fine regulation of S. cerevisiae GAL/MEL switch following WGD. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Evaluation of potential interactions between mycophenolic acid derivatives and proton pump inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabardi, Steven; Olyaei, Ali

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence of gastrointestinal (GI) complications in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients, impact of the complications on transplant outcomes, and the potential interactions between mycophenolic acid (MPA) derivatives and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). An unrestricted literature search (1980-January 2012) was performed with MEDLINE and EMBASE using the following key words: drug-drug interaction, enteric-coated mycophenolic acid, GI complications, mycophenolate mofetil, solid organ transplant, and proton pump inhibitor, including individual agents within the class. Abstracts from scientific meetings were also evaluated. Additionally, reference citations from identified publications were reviewed. Relevant English-language, original research articles and review articles were evaluated if they focused on any of the topics identified in the search or included substantial content addressing GI complications in SOT recipients or drug interactions. GI complications are frequent among SOT recipients, with some studies showing prevalence rates as high as 70%. Transplant outcomes among renal transplant recipients are significantly impacted by GI complications, especially in patients requiring immunosuppressant dosage reductions or premature discontinuation. To this end, PPI use among patients receiving transplants is common. Recent data demonstrate that PPIs significantly reduce the overall exposure to MPA after oral administration of mycophenolate mofetil. Similar studies show this interaction does not exist between PPIs and enteric-coated mycophenolic acid (EC-MPA). Unfortunately, most of the available data evaluating this interaction are pharmacokinetic analyses that do not investigate the clinical impact of this interaction. A significant interaction exists between PPIs and mycophenolate mofetil secondary to reduced dissolution of mycophenolate mofetil in higher pH environments. EC-MPA is not absorbed in the stomach; therefore, low intragastric acidity

  12. A kernel regression approach to gene-gene interaction detection for case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicholas B; Schaid, Daniel J

    2013-11-01

    Gene-gene interactions are increasingly being addressed as a potentially important contributor to the variability of complex traits. Consequently, attentions have moved beyond single locus analysis of association to more complex genetic models. Although several single-marker approaches toward interaction analysis have been developed, such methods suffer from very high testing dimensionality and do not take advantage of existing information, notably the definition of genes as functional units. Here, we propose a comprehensive family of gene-level score tests for identifying genetic elements of disease risk, in particular pairwise gene-gene interactions. Using kernel machine methods, we devise score-based variance component tests under a generalized linear mixed model framework. We conducted simulations based upon coalescent genetic models to evaluate the performance of our approach under a variety of disease models. These simulations indicate that our methods are generally higher powered than alternative gene-level approaches and at worst competitive with exhaustive SNP-level (where SNP is single-nucleotide polymorphism) analyses. Furthermore, we observe that simulated epistatic effects resulted in significant marginal testing results for the involved genes regardless of whether or not true main effects were present. We detail the benefits of our methods and discuss potential genome-wide analysis strategies for gene-gene interaction analysis in a case-control study design. © 2013 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  13. Evaluation of pedestrian safety at intersections: A theoretical framework based on pedestrian-vehicle interaction patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Ying; Wang, Menglong; Sun, Jian; Li, Keping

    2016-11-01

    Pedestrians are the most vulnerable road users, and pedestrian safety has become a major research focus in recent years. Regarding the quality and quantity issues with collision data, conflict analysis using surrogate safety measures has become a useful method to study pedestrian safety. However, given the inequality between pedestrians and vehicles in encounters and the multiple interactions between pedestrians and vehicles, it is insufficient to simply use the same indicator(s) or the same way to aggregate indicators for all conditions. In addition, behavioral factors cannot be neglected. To better use information extracted from trajectories for safety evaluation and pay more attention on effects of behavioral factors, this paper develops a more sophisticated framework for pedestrian conflict analysis that takes pedestrian-vehicle interactions into consideration. A concept of three interaction patterns has been proposed for the first time, namely "hard interaction," "no interaction," and "soft-interaction." Interactions have been categorized under one of these patterns by analyzing profiles of speed and conflict indicators during the whole interactive processes. In this paper, a support vector machine (SVM) approach has been adopted to classify severity levels for a dataset including 1144 events extracted from three intersections in Shanghai, China, followed by an analysis of variable importance. The results revealed that different conflict indicators have different contributions to indicating the severity level under various interaction patterns. Therefore, it is recommended either to use specific conflict indicators or to use weighted indicator aggregation for each interaction pattern when evaluating pedestrian safety. The implementation has been carried out at the fourth crosswalk, and the results indicate that the proposed method can achieve a higher accuracy and better robustness than conventional methods. Furthermore, the method is helpful for better

  14. Thermodynamic and kinetic approaches for evaluation of monoclonal antibody - Lipoprotein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multia, Evgen; Sirén, Heli; Andersson, Karl; Samuelsson, Jörgen; Forssén, Patrik; Fornstedt, Torgny; Öörni, Katariina; Jauhiainen, Matti; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa

    2017-02-01

    Two complementary instrumental techniques were used, and the data generated was processed with advanced numerical tools to investigate the interactions between anti-human apoB-100 monoclonal antibody (anti-apoB-100 Mab) and apoB-100 containing lipoproteins. Partial Filling Affinity Capillary Electrophoresis (PF-ACE) combined with Adsorption Energy Distribution (AED) calculations provided information on the heterogeneity of the interactions without any a priori model assumptions. The AED calculations evidenced a homogenous binding site distribution for the interactions. Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) studies were used to evaluate thermodynamics and kinetics of the Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL) and anti-apoB-100 Mab interactions. High affinity and selectivity were observed, and the emerging data sets were analysed with so called Interaction Maps. In thermodynamic studies, the interaction between LDL and anti-apoB-100 Mab was found to be predominantly enthalpy driven. Both techniques were also used to study antibody interactions with Intermediate-Density (IDL) and Very Low-Density (VLDL) Lipoproteins. By screening affinity constants for IDL-VLDL sample in a single injection we were able to distinguish affinity constants for both subpopulations using the numerical Interaction Map tool. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. An Evaluation-Driven Design Approach to Develop Learning Environments Based on Full-Body Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinverni, Laura; Schaper, Marie-Monique; Pares, Narcís

    2016-01-01

    The development of learning environments based on full-body interaction has become an increasingly important field of research in recent years. However, the design and evaluation strategies currently used present some significant limitations. Two major shortcomings are: the inadequate involvement of children in the design process and a lack of…

  16. Proposing an Evaluation Framework for Interventions: Focusing on Students' Behaviours in Interactive Science Exhibitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauan, Nils Petter; DeWitt, Jennifer; Kolstø, Stein Dankert

    2017-01-01

    Materials designed for self-guided experiences such as worksheets and digital applications are widely used as tools to enable interactive science exhibitions to support students' progress towards conceptual understanding. However, there is a need to find expedient ways to evaluate the quality of educational experiences resulting from the use of…

  17. Evaluating Treatments for Functionally Equivalent Problem Behavior Maintained by Adult Compliance with Mands during Interactive Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jonathan D.; Bednar, Mary K.; Willse, Lena V.; Goetzel, Amanda L.; Concepcion, Anthony; Pincus, Shari M.; Hardesty, Samantha L.; Bowman, Lynn G.

    2017-01-01

    A primary goal of behavioral interventions is to reduce dangerous or inappropriate behavior and to generalize treatment effects across various settings. However, there is a lack of research evaluating generalization of treatment effects while individuals with functionally equivalent problem behavior interact with each other. For the current study,…

  18. An Interactive Web-Based Program for Stepfamilies: Development and Evaluation of Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelatt, Vicky A.; Adler-Baeder, Francesca; Seeley, John R.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a family life education program for stepfamilies that is self-administered, interactive, and web-based. The program uses behavior-modeling videos to demonstrate effective couple, parenting, and stepparenting practices. A diverse sample of 300 parents/stepparents of a child aged 11-15 years were randomized into…

  19. Evaluation of Two Methods for Modeling Measurement Errors When Testing Interaction Effects with Observed Composite Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Yu-Yu; Kwok, Oi-Man; Lai, Mark H. C.

    2018-01-01

    Path models with observed composites based on multiple items (e.g., mean or sum score of the items) are commonly used to test interaction effects. Under this practice, researchers generally assume that the observed composites are measured without errors. In this study, we reviewed and evaluated two alternative methods within the structural…

  20. Pre-evaluation and interactive editing of B-spline and GERBS curves and surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laksâ, Arne

    2017-12-01

    Interactive computer based geometry editing is very useful for designers and artists. Our goal has been to develop useful tools for geometry editing in a way that increases the ability for creative design. When we interactively editing geometry, we want to see the change happening gradually and smoothly on the screen. Pre-evaluation is a tool for increasing the speed of the graphics when doing interactive affine operation on control points and control surfaces. It is then possible to add details on surfaces, and change shape in a smooth and continuous way. We use pre-evaluation on basis functions, on blending functions and on local surfaces. Pre-evaluation can be made hierarchi-cally and is thus useful for local refinements. Sampling and plotting of curves, surfaces and volumes can today be handled by the GPU and it is therefore important to have a structured organization and updating system to be able to make interactive editing as smooth and user friendly as possible. In the following, we will show a structure for pre-evaluation and an optimal organisation of the computation and we will show the effect of implementing both of these techniques.

  1. A Simple and Computationally Efficient Approach to Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction Analysis of Gene-Gene Interactions for Quantitative Traits

    OpenAIRE

    Gui, Jiang; Moore, Jason H.; Williams, Scott M.; Andrews, Peter; Hillege, Hans L.; van der Harst, Pim; Navis, Gerjan; Van Gilst, Wiek H.; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane

    2013-01-01

    We present an extension of the two-class multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) algorithm that enables detection and characterization of epistatic SNP-SNP interactions in the context of a quantitative trait. The proposed Quantitative MDR (QMDR) method handles continuous data by modifying MDR's constructive induction algorithm to use a T-test. QMDR replaces the balanced accuracy metric with a T-test statistic as the score to determine the best interaction model. We used a simulation to ide...

  2. A study of the use of simulated work task situations in interactive information retrieval evaluations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borlund, Pia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to report a study of how the test instrument of a simulated work task situation is used in empirical evaluations of interactive information retrieval (IIR) and reported in the research literature. In particular, the author is interested to learn whether....... The paper addresses the need to carefully design and tailor simulated work task situations to suit the test participants in order to obtain the intended authentic and realistic IIR under study. Keywords Interactive information retrieval study, IIR study, Test design, Simulated work task situations, Meta-evaluation...... situations in IIR evaluations. In particular, with respect to the design and creation of realistic simulated work task situations. There is a lack of tailoring of the simulated work task situations to the test participants. Likewise, the requirement to include the test participants’ personal information...

  3. INTERACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jochum, Elizabeth; Borggreen, Gunhild; Murphey, TD

    This paper considers the impact of visual art and performance on robotics and human-computer interaction and outlines a research project that combines puppetry and live performance with robotics. Kinesics—communication through movement—is the foundation of many theatre and performance traditions ...

  4. Evaluation for the design of experience in virtual environments: modeling breakdown of interaction and illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, T; Wright, P; Smith, S

    2001-04-01

    New and emerging media technologies have the potential to induce a variety of experiences in users. In this paper, it is argued that the inducement of experience presupposes that users are absorbed in the illusion created by these media. Looking to another successful visual medium, film, this paper borrows from the techniques used in "shaping experience" to hold spectators' attention in the illusion of film, and identifies what breaks the illusion/experience for spectators. This paper focuses on one medium, virtual reality (VR), and advocates a transparent or "invisible style" of interaction. We argue that transparency keeps users in the "flow" of their activities and consequently enhances experience in users. Breakdown in activities breaks the experience and subsequently provides opportunities to identify and analyze potential causes of usability problems. Adopting activity theory, we devise a model of interaction with VR--through consciousness and activity--and introduce the concept of breakdown in illusion. From this, a model of effective interaction with VR is devised and the occurrence of breakdown in interaction and illusion is identified along a continuum of engagement. Evaluation guidelines for the design of experience are proposed and applied to usability problems detected in an empirical study of a head-mounted display (HMD) VR system. This study shows that the guidelines are effective in the evaluation of VR. Finally, we look at the potential experiences that may be induced in users and propose a way to evaluate user experience in virtual environments (VEs) and other new and emerging media.

  5. Epistasis × environment interactions among Arabidopsis thaliana glucosinolate genes impact complex traits and fitness in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerwin, Rachel E; Feusier, Julie; Muok, Alise; Lin, Catherine; Larson, Brandon; Copeland, Daniel; Corwin, Jason A; Rubin, Matthew J; Francisco, Marta; Li, Baohua; Joseph, Bindu; Weinig, Cynthia; Kliebenstein, Daniel J

    2017-08-01

    Despite the growing number of studies showing that genotype × environment and epistatic interactions control fitness, the influences of epistasis × environment interactions on adaptive trait evolution remain largely uncharacterized. Across three field trials, we quantified aliphatic glucosinolate (GSL) defense chemistry, leaf damage, and relative fitness using mutant lines of Arabidopsis thaliana varying at pairs of causal aliphatic GSL defense genes to test the impact of epistatic and epistasis × environment interactions on adaptive trait variation. We found that aliphatic GSL accumulation was primarily influenced by additive and epistatic genetic variation, leaf damage was primarily influenced by environmental variation and relative fitness was primarily influenced by epistasis and epistasis × environment interactions. Epistasis × environment interactions accounted for up to 48% of the relative fitness variation in the field. At a single field site, the impact of epistasis on relative fitness varied significantly over 2 yr, showing that epistasis × environment interactions within a location can be temporally dynamic. These results suggest that the environmental dependency of epistasis can profoundly influence the response to selection, shaping the adaptive trajectories of natural populations in complex ways, and deserves further consideration in future evolutionary studies. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. Epistatic mutations in PUMA BH3 drive an alternate binding mode to potently and selectively inhibit anti-apoptotic Bfl-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenson, Justin M.; Ryan, Jeremy A.; Grant, Robert A.; Letai, Anthony; Keating, Amy E. (DFCI); (MIT)

    2017-06-08

    Overexpression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins contributes to cancer progression and confers resistance to chemotherapy. Small molecules that target Bcl-2 are used in the clinic to treat leukemia, but tight and selective inhibitors are not available for Bcl-2 paralog Bfl-1. Guided by computational analysis, we designed variants of the native BH3 motif PUMA that are > 150-fold selective for Bfl-1 binding. The designed peptides potently trigger disruption of the mitochondrial outer membrane in cells dependent on Bfl-1, but not in cells dependent on other anti-apoptotic homologs. High-resolution crystal structures show that designed peptide FS2 binds Bfl-1 in a shifted geometry, relative to PUMA and other binding partners, due to a set of epistatic mutations. FS2 modified with an electrophile reacts with a cysteine near the peptide-binding groove to augment specificity. Designed Bfl-1 binders provide reagents for cellular profiling and leads for developing enhanced and cell-permeable peptide or small-molecule inhibitors.

  7. Budding yeast mms4 is epistatic with rad52 and the function of Mms4 can be replaced by a bacterial Holliday junction resolvase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odagiri, Nao; Seki, Masayuki; Onoda, Fumitoshi; Yoshimura, Akari; Watanabe, Sei; Enomoto, Takemi

    2003-03-01

    MMS4 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was originally identified as the gene responsible for one of the collection of methyl methanesulfonate (MMS)-sensitive mutants, mms4. Recently it was identified as a synthetic lethal gene with an SGS1 mutation. Epistatic analyses revealed that MMS4 is involved in a pathway leading to homologous recombination requiring Rad52 or in the recombination itself, in which SGS1 is also involved. MMS sensitivity of mms4 but not sgs1, was suppressed by introducing a bacterial Holliday junction (HJ) resolvase, RusA. The frequencies of spontaneously occurring unequal sister chromatid recombination (SCR) and loss of marker in the rDNA in haploid mms4 cells and interchromosomal recombination between heteroalleles in diploid mms4 cells were essentially the same as those of wild-type cells. Although UV- and MMS-induced interchromosomal recombination was defective in sgs1 diploid cells, hyper-induction of interchromosomal recombination was observed in diploid mms4 cells, indicating that the function of Mms4 is dispensable for this type of recombination.

  8. Event Generators for Simulating Heavy Ion Interactions of Interest in Evaluating Risks in Human Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas L.; Pinsky, Lawrence; Andersen, Victor; Empl, Anton; Lee, Kerry; Smirmov, Georgi; Zapp, Neal; Ferrari, Alfredo; Tsoulou, Katerina; Roesler, Stefan; hide

    2005-01-01

    Simulating the Space Radiation environment with Monte Carlo Codes, such as FLUKA, requires the ability to model the interactions of heavy ions as they penetrate spacecraft and crew member's bodies. Monte-Carlo-type transport codes use total interaction cross sections to determine probabilistically when a particular type of interaction has occurred. Then, at that point, a distinct event generator is employed to determine separately the results of that interaction. The space radiation environment contains a full spectrum of radiation types, including relativistic nuclei, which are the most important component for the evaluation of crew doses. Interactions between incident protons with target nuclei in the spacecraft materials and crew member's bodies are well understood. However, the situation is substantially less comfortable for incident heavier nuclei (heavy ions). We have been engaged in developing several related heavy ion interaction models based on a Quantum Molecular Dynamics-type approach for energies up through about 5 GeV per nucleon (GeV/A) as part of a NASA Consortium that includes a parallel program of cross section measurements to guide and verify this code development.

  9. MATERNAL DEPRESSION AND ATTACHMENT: THE EVALUATION OF MOTHER-CHILD INTERACTIONS DURING FEEDING PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra eSantona

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Internal working models of attachment (IWM can moderate the effect of maternal depression on mother-child interactions and child development. Clinical depression pre-dating birthgiving has been found to predict incoherent and less sensitive caregiving. Dysfunctional patterns observed, included interactive modes linked to feeding behaviors which may interfere with hunger-satiation biological rhythms and the establishment of children’s autonomy and individuation. Feeding interactions between depressed mothers and their children seem to be characterized by repetitive interactive failures: children refuse food through oppositional behavior or negativity. The aim of this study was to investigate parenting skills in the context of feeding in mothers with major depression from the point of view of attachment theory. This perspective emphasises parents’ emotion, relational and affective history and personal resources. The sample consisted of 60 mother-child dyads. Mothers were divided into two groups: 30 with Major Depression and 30 without disorders. Children’s age ranged between 12 and 36 months The measures employed were the Adult Attachment Interview and the Scale for the Evaluation of Alimentary Interactions between Mothers and Children. Insecure attachment prevailed in mothers with major depression,, with differences on the Subjective Experience and State of Mind Scales. Groups also differed in maternal sensitivity, degrees of interactive

  10. Evaluations of antimony and strontium interaction in an Al–Si–Cu–Zn die cast alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahany, Saeed, E-mail: saeedfarahany@gmail.com; Idris, Mohd Hasbullah; Ourdjini, Ali

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Probable interactions between Sb and Sr in a complex Al–Si alloy were evaluated. • Sequence of addition did not affect thermal and microscopical characteristics. • Threshold ratio for the Sb and Sr interaction is proposed. - Abstract: The interaction between antimony and strontium in an ADC12 die casting alloy is investigated comprehensively by using a computer aided cooling curve thermal analysis coupled with microstructure inspection. The results of the thermal analysis show significant changes in Al–Si eutectic reaction based on different concentrations of Sb and Sr. Sb reduces the efficiency of Sr in modifying the eutectic Si. Based upon the data obtained in this study, the threshold Sr/Sb ratio should exceed about 0.5 in order to obtain fully modified structure. Moreover, a pre-eutectic reaction of Al{sub 2}Si{sub 2}Sr intermetallic was detected for high concentrations of Sr.

  11. A communicational framework for evaluating interaction with IT by analyzing user-reception of electronic texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wentzer, Helle

    2006-01-01

    Interpreting IT as a medium for continuous communication across time and place of the communicators offers a way of analyzing the effect of IT in concrete practices. The users’ readings determine the actual communication with IT. A poetics of how meaning is translated from one person to another...... through semiotic texts is presented, termed the poetics of the e-text. The poetics of the e-text offers a meta-communicational framework for identifying user constraints in the possibilities of interacting with the system. Identifying communicational problems with ICT-mediated interactions again offer...... grounds for redesigning and re-author the e-text. The poetics of the e-text are subsequently applied as a method of analyzing user-reception and evaluating the interaction with ICT. Examples are given from user-receptions of collaborating with ICT in home care, Denmark....

  12. Protein structure modelling and evaluation based on a 4-distance description of side-chain interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inbar Yuval

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate evaluation and modelling of residue-residue interactions within and between proteins is a key aspect of computational structure prediction including homology modelling, protein-protein docking, refinement of low-resolution structures, and computational protein design. Results Here we introduce a method for accurate protein structure modelling and evaluation based on a novel 4-distance description of residue-residue interaction geometry. Statistical 4-distance preferences were extracted from high-resolution protein structures and were used as a basis for a knowledge-based potential, called Hunter. We demonstrate that 4-distance description of side chain interactions can be used reliably to discriminate the native structure from a set of decoys. Hunter ranked the native structure as the top one in 217 out of 220 high-resolution decoy sets, in 25 out of 28 "Decoys 'R' Us" decoy sets and in 24 out of 27 high-resolution CASP7/8 decoy sets. The same concept was applied to side chain modelling in protein structures. On a set of very high-resolution protein structures the average RMSD was 1.47 Å for all residues and 0.73 Å for buried residues, which is in the range of attainable accuracy for a model. Finally, we show that Hunter performs as good or better than other top methods in homology modelling based on results from the CASP7 experiment. The supporting web site http://bioinfo.weizmann.ac.il/hunter/ was developed to enable the use of Hunter and for visualization and interactive exploration of 4-distance distributions. Conclusions Our results suggest that Hunter can be used as a tool for evaluation and for accurate modelling of residue-residue interactions in protein structures. The same methodology is applicable to other areas involving high-resolution modelling of biomolecules.

  13. Roles of biomarkers in evaluating interactions among mixtures of lead, cadmium and arsenic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Gensheng; Fowler, Bruce A.

    2008-01-01

    Human exposure to environmental chemicals is most correctly characterized as exposure to mixtures of these agents. The metals/metalloids, lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and arsenic (As), are among the leading toxic agents detected in the environment. Exposure to these elements, particularly at chronic low dose levels, is still a major public health concern. Concurrent exposure to Pb, Cd, or As may produce additive or synergistic interactions or even new effects that are not seen in single component exposures. Evaluating these interactions on a mechanistic basis is essential for risk assessment and management of metal/metalloid mixtures. This paper will review a number of individual studies that addressed interactions of these metals/metalloids in both experimental and human exposure studies with particular emphasis on biomarkers. In general, co-exposure to metal/metalloid mixtures produced more severe effects at both relatively high dose and low dose levels in a biomarker-specific manner. These effects were found to be mediated by dose, duration of exposure and genetic factors. While traditional endpoints, such as morphological changes and biochemical parameters for target organ toxicity, were effective measures for evaluating the toxicity of high dose metal/metalloid mixtures, biomarkers for oxidative stress, altered heme biosynthesis parameters, and stress proteins showed clear responses in evaluating toxicity of low dose metal/metalloid mixtures. Metallothionein, heat shock proteins, and glutathione are involved in regulating interactive effects of metal/metalloid mixtures at low dose levels. These findings suggest that further studies on interactions of these metal/metalloid mixtures utilizing biomarker endpoints are highly warranted

  14. Evaluation of virtual environment as a form of interactive resuscitation exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leszczyński, Piotr; Charuta, Anna; Kołodziejczak, Barbara; Roszak, Magdalena

    2017-10-01

    There is scientific evidence confirming the effectiveness of e-learning within resuscitation, however, there is not enough research on modern examination techniques within the scope. The aim of the pilot research is to compare the exam results in the field of Advanced Life Support in a traditional (paper) and interactive (computer) form as well as to evaluate satisfaction of the participants. A survey was conducted which meant to evaluate satisfaction of exam participants. Statistical analysis of the collected data was conducted at a significance level of α = 0.05 using STATISTICS v. 12. Final results of the traditional exam (67.5% ± 15.8%) differed significantly (p test. Significant differences between the results of a traditional test and the one supported by Computer Based Learning system showed the possibility of achieving a more detailed competence verification in the field of resuscitation thanks to interactive solutions.

  15. Numerical evaluation of energy barriers and magnetic relaxation in interacting nanostructured magnetic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chubykalo-Fesenko, Oksana A.; Chantrell, Roy W.

    2004-01-01

    We discuss a model to quantify long-time thermally induced magnetization reversal in magnetic systems with distributed properties. Two algorithms, based on kinetic and Metropolis Monte Carlo are introduced. While the former requires the constant recalculation of all energy barriers and is useful when the interactions are weak, the latter uses the Metropolis Monte Carlo to estimate the magnetization trajectory and, consequently, only the most probable transition rates are evaluated. The ridge optimization method is used to evaluate the energy barriers in a multidimensional energy landscape. The algorithms are applied to a granular system modeled by means of Voronoi polyhedra and having random in-plane anisotropy

  16. An evaluation of diverse methods of obtaining effective Schroedinger interaction potentials for elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amos, K.; Allen, L.J.; Steward, C.; Hodgson, P.E.; Sofianos, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    Direct solution of the Schroedinger equation and inversion methods of analysis of elastic scattering data are considered to evaluate the information that they can provide about the physical interaction between colliding nuclear particles. It was found that both optical model and inversion methods based upon inverse scattering theories are subject to ambiguities. Therefore, it is essential that elastic scattering data analyses are consistent with microscopic calculations of the potential. 25 refs

  17. An evaluation of diverse methods of obtaining effective Schroedinger interaction potentials for elastic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amos, K.; Allen, L.J.; Steward, C. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Hodgson, P.E. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics; Sofianos, S.A. [University of South Africa (UNISA), Pretoria (South Africa). Dept. of Physics

    1995-10-01

    Direct solution of the Schroedinger equation and inversion methods of analysis of elastic scattering data are considered to evaluate the information that they can provide about the physical interaction between colliding nuclear particles. It was found that both optical model and inversion methods based upon inverse scattering theories are subject to ambiguities. Therefore, it is essential that elastic scattering data analyses are consistent with microscopic calculations of the potential. 25 refs.

  18. The social-devaluation effect: Interactive evaluation deteriorates likeability of objects based on daily relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsunori eAriga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although previous research has explored the effects of discussion on optimal and collective group outcomes, it is unclear how an individual's preference for an object is modulated by discussion with others. This study investigated the determinants of likeability ratings under two conditions. In Experiment 1, pairs of participants consisting of friends evaluated various photographic images. Under the interactive condition, the participants discussed their impressions of each image for 30 seconds and then independently rated how much they liked it. Under the non-interactive condition, the participants did not interact with each other but instead only thought about their impressions of each image for 30 seconds before rating its likeability. The results indicate that the exchange of impressions between the participants affected the individual likeability ratings of objects. More specifically, the interactive participants generally rated the images as less likeable than did the non-interactive participants (social-devaluation effect. However, in Experiment 2, the effect was eliminated when the pairs consisted of strangers. These findings suggest that shared information modulates individual preferences but only when a daily relationship exists within a group.

  19. Evaluating display fidelity and interaction fidelity in a virtual reality game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahan, Ryan P; Bowman, Doug A; Zielinski, David J; Brady, Rachael B

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, consumers have witnessed a technological revolution that has delivered more-realistic experiences in their own homes through high-definition, stereoscopic televisions and natural, gesture-based video game consoles. Although these experiences are more realistic, offering higher levels of fidelity, it is not clear how the increased display and interaction aspects of fidelity impact the user experience. Since immersive virtual reality (VR) allows us to achieve very high levels of fidelity, we designed and conducted a study that used a six-sided CAVE to evaluate display fidelity and interaction fidelity independently, at extremely high and low levels, for a VR first-person shooter (FPS) game. Our goal was to gain a better understanding of the effects of fidelity on the user in a complex, performance-intensive context. The results of our study indicate that both display and interaction fidelity significantly affect strategy and performance, as well as subjective judgments of presence, engagement, and usability. In particular, performance results were strongly in favor of two conditions: low-display, low-interaction fidelity (representative of traditional FPS games) and high-display, high-interaction fidelity (similar to the real world).

  20. Evaluation of crack interaction effect for in-plane surface cracks using elastic finite element analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, Nam Su; Choi, Suhn; Park, Keun Bae; Kim, Jong Min; Choi, Jae Boong; Kim, Young Jin

    2008-01-01

    The crack-tip stress fields and fracture mechanics assessment parameters, such as the elastic stress intensity factor and the elastic-plastic J-integral, for a surface crack can be significantly affected by adjacent cracks. Such a crack interaction effect due to multiple cracks can magnify the fracture mechanics assessment parameters. There are many factors to be considered, for instance the relative distance between adjacent cracks, crack shape and loading condition, to quantify a crack interaction effect on the fracture mechanics assessment parameters. Thus, the current guidance on a crack interaction effect (crack combination rule), including ASME Sec. XI, BS7910, British Energy R6 and API RP579, provide different rules for combining multiple surface cracks into a single surface crack. The present paper investigates a crack interaction effect by evaluating the elastic stress intensity factor of adjacent surface cracks in a plate along the crack front through detailed 3-dimensional elastic finite element analyses. The effects of the geometric parameters, the relative distance between cracks and the crack shape, on the stress intensity factor are systematically investigated. As for the loading condition, only axial tension is considered. Based on the elastic finite element results, the acceptability of the crack combination rules provided in the existing guidance was investigated, and the relevant recommendations on a crack interaction for in-plane surface cracks in a plate were discussed

  1. An Interactive Website to Reduce Sexual Risk Behavior: Process Evaluation of TeensTalkHealth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Sonya S; Sieving, Renee E; Terveen, Loren G; Rosser, B R Simon; Kodet, Amy J; Rothberg, Vienna D

    2015-09-02

    Different theoretical frameworks support the use of interactive websites to promote sexual health. Although several Web-based interventions have been developed to address sexual risk taking among young people, no evaluated interventions have attempted to foster behavior change through moderated interaction among a virtual network of adolescents (who remain anonymous to one another) and health professionals. The objective was to conduct a summative process evaluation of TeensTalkHealth, an interactive sexual health website designed to promote condom use and other healthy decision making in the context of romantic and sexual relationships. Evaluation data were obtained from 147 adolescents who participated in a feasibility and acceptability study. Video vignettes, teen-friendly articles, and other content served as conversation catalysts between adolescents and health educators on message boards. Adolescents' perceptions that the website encouraged condom use across a variety of relationship situations were very high. Almost 60% (54/92, 59%) of intervention participants completed two-thirds or more of requested tasks across the 4-month intervention. Adolescents reported high levels of comfort, perceived privacy, ease of website access and use, and perceived credibility of health educators. Potential strategies to enhance engagement and completion of intervention tasks during future implementations of TeensTalkHealth are discussed, including tailoring of content, periodic website chats with health educators and anonymous peers, and greater incorporation of features from popular social networking websites. TeensTalkHealth is a feasible, acceptable, and promising approach to complement and enhance existing services for youth.

  2. Inferring genetic interactions from comparative fitness data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crona, Kristina; Gavryushkin, Alex; Greene, Devin; Beerenwinkel, Niko

    2017-12-20

    Darwinian fitness is a central concept in evolutionary biology. In practice, however, it is hardly possible to measure fitness for all genotypes in a natural population. Here, we present quantitative tools to make inferences about epistatic gene interactions when the fitness landscape is only incompletely determined due to imprecise measurements or missing observations. We demonstrate that genetic interactions can often be inferred from fitness rank orders, where all genotypes are ordered according to fitness, and even from partial fitness orders. We provide a complete characterization of rank orders that imply higher order epistasis. Our theory applies to all common types of gene interactions and facilitates comprehensive investigations of diverse genetic interactions. We analyzed various genetic systems comprising HIV-1, the malaria-causing parasite Plasmodium vivax , the fungus Aspergillus niger , and the TEM-family of β-lactamase associated with antibiotic resistance. For all systems, our approach revealed higher order interactions among mutations.

  3. Interactive contour delineation of organs at risk in radiotherapy: Clinical evaluation on NSCLC patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolz, J; Kirişli, H A; Fechter, T; Karnitzki, S; Oehlke, O; Nestle, U; Vermandel, M; Massoptier, L

    2016-05-01

    Accurate delineation of organs at risk (OARs) on computed tomography (CT) image is required for radiation treatment planning (RTP). Manual delineation of OARs being time consuming and prone to high interobserver variability, many (semi-) automatic methods have been proposed. However, most of them are specific to a particular OAR. Here, an interactive computer-assisted system able to segment various OARs required for thoracic radiation therapy is introduced. Segmentation information (foreground and background seeds) is interactively added by the user in any of the three main orthogonal views of the CT volume and is subsequently propagated within the whole volume. The proposed method is based on the combination of watershed transformation and graph-cuts algorithm, which is used as a powerful optimization technique to minimize the energy function. The OARs considered for thoracic radiation therapy are the lungs, spinal cord, trachea, proximal bronchus tree, heart, and esophagus. The method was evaluated on multivendor CT datasets of 30 patients. Two radiation oncologists participated in the study and manual delineations from the original RTP were used as ground truth for evaluation. Delineation of the OARs obtained with the minimally interactive approach was approved to be usable for RTP in nearly 90% of the cases, excluding the esophagus, which segmentation was mostly rejected, thus leading to a gain of time ranging from 50% to 80% in RTP. Considering exclusively accepted cases, overall OARs, a Dice similarity coefficient higher than 0.7 and a Hausdorff distance below 10 mm with respect to the ground truth were achieved. In addition, the interobserver analysis did not highlight any statistically significant difference, at the exception of the segmentation of the heart, in terms of Hausdorff distance and volume difference. An interactive, accurate, fast, and easy-to-use computer-assisted system able to segment various OARs required for thoracic radiation therapy has

  4. Learning objects and interactive whiteboards: a evaluation proposal of learning objects for mathematics teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Henrique Fiscarelli

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The current conditions of the classroom learning tend to be a one-way process based in teacher exposition, this make a negative impact on learning make it a mechanical and not meaningful activity. One possibility to improve the quality of teaching is to innovate methodologies and varying forms of presenting information to students, such as the use of technology in the teaching process. The Interactive Whiteboard (IBW is one of the technologies that are being implemented in Brazilian schools. One of the promising possibilities to add value to the use of LDI in classroom are "learning objects" (LO. However, one problem is that often the LO are not fully suited to the dynamics of IWB, whether functional or pedagogical point of view. The objective of this study is to analyze and propose a set of indicators that evaluate the learning objects for use in conjunction with Interactive Whiteboards. The selection and definition of evaluation indicators was carried from the literature review on the subject and based on LDI experiences of use in Municipal Elementary School. After defining the set of indicators was conducted a evaluation of a sample of 30 OA utilized to teaching mathematics in 3rd grade of elementary school. The results of the evaluation indicate that the proposed indicators are suitable for a pre-analysis of OA and assisting in the process of selection of these.

  5. Evaluating Otto the Auto: Does Engagement in an Interactive Website Improve Young Children's Transportation Safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwebel, David C; Johnston, Anna; Shen, Jiabin; Li, Peng

    2017-07-19

    Transportation-related injuries are a leading cause of pediatric death, and effective interventions are limited. Otto the Auto is a website offering engaging, interactive activities. We evaluated Otto among a sample of sixty-nine 4- and 5-year-old children, who participated in a randomized parallel group design study. Following baseline evaluation, children engaged with either Otto or a control website for 2 weeks and then were re-evaluated. Children who used Otto failed to show increases in transportation safety knowledge or behavior compared to the control group, although there was a dosage effect whereby children who engaged in the website more with parents gained safer behavior patterns. We conclude Otto may have some efficacy when engaged by children with their parents, but continued efforts to develop and refine engaging, effective, theory-driven strategies to teach children transportation safety, including via internet, should be pursued.

  6. Subjective evaluation of physical and mental workload interactions across different muscle groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Ranjana K; Agnew, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Both physical and mental demands, and their interactions, have been shown to increase biomechanical loading and physiological reactivity as well as impair task performance. Because these interactions have shown to be muscle-dependent, the aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity of the NASA Task Load Index (NASA TLX) and Ratings of Perceived Exertion (RPE) to evaluate physical and mental workload during muscle-specific tasks. Twenty-four participants performed upper extremity and low back exertions at three physical workload levels in the absence and presence of a mental stressor. Outcome measures included RPE and NASA TLX (six sub-scales) ratings. The findings indicate that while both RPEs and NASA TLX ratings were sensitive to muscle-specific changes in physical demand, only an additional mental stressor and its interaction with either physical demand or muscle groups influenced the effort sub-scale and overall workload scores of the NASA TLX. While additional investigations in actual work settings are warranted, the NASA TLX shows promise in evaluating perceived workload that is sensitive not only to physical and mental demands but also sensitive in determining workload for tasks that employ different muscle groups.

  7. Evaluating interaction energies of weakly bonded systems using the Buckingham-Hirshfeld method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishtal, A.; Van Alsenoy, C.; Geerlings, P.

    2014-05-01

    We present the finalized Buckingham-Hirshfeld method (BHD-DFT) for the evaluation of interaction energies of non-bonded dimers with Density Functional Theory (DFT). In the method, dispersion energies are evaluated from static multipole polarizabilities, obtained on-the-fly from Coupled Perturbed Kohn-Sham calculations and partitioned into diatomic contributions using the iterative Hirshfeld partitioning method. The dispersion energy expression is distributed over four atoms and has therefore a higher delocalized character compared to the standard pairwise expressions. Additionally, full multipolar polarizability tensors are used as opposed to effective polarizabilities, allowing to retain the anisotropic character at no additional computational cost. A density dependent damping function for the BLYP, PBE, BP86, B3LYP, and PBE0 functionals has been implemented, containing two global parameters which were fitted to interaction energies and geometries of a selected number of dimers using a bi-variate RMS fit. The method is benchmarked against the S22 and S66 data sets for equilibrium geometries and the S22x5 and S66x8 data sets for interaction energies around the equilibrium geometry. Best results are achieved using the B3LYP functional with mean average deviation values of 0.30 and 0.24 kcal/mol for the S22 and S66 data sets, respectively. This situates the BHD-DFT method among the best performing dispersion inclusive DFT methods. Effect of counterpoise correction on DFT energies is discussed.

  8. GIS-Based Evaluation of Spatial Interactions by Geographic Disproportionality of Industrial Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jemyung Lee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Diversity of regional industry is regarded as a key factor for regional development, as it has a positive relationship with economic stability, which attracts population. This paper focuses on how the spatial imbalance of industrial diversity contributes to the population change caused by inter-regional migration. This paper introduces a spatial interaction model for the Geographic Information System (GIS-based simulation of the spatial interactions to evaluate the demographic attraction force. The proposed model adopts the notions of gravity, entropy, and virtual work. An industrial classification by profit level is introduced and its diversity is quantified with the entropy of information theory. The introduced model is applied to the cases of 207 regions in South Korea. Spatial interactions are simulated with an optimized model and their resultant forces, the demographic attraction forces, are compared with observed net migration for verification. The results show that the evaluated attraction forces from industrial diversity have a very significant, positive, and moderate relationship with net migration, while other conventional factors of industry, population, economy, and the job market do not. This paper concludes that the geographical quality of industrial diversity has positive and significant effects on population change by migration.

  9. Evaluation of the interaction of surfactants with stratum corneum model membrane from Bothrops jararaca by DSC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baby, André Rolim; Lacerda, Aurea Cristina Lemos; Velasco, Maria Valéria Robles; Lopes, Patrícia Santos; Kawano, Yoshio; Kaneko, Telma Mary

    2006-07-06

    The interaction of surfactants sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), cetyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (CTAC) and lauryl alcohol ethoxylated (12 mol ethylene oxide) (LAE-12OE) was evaluated on the stratum corneum (SC) of shed snake skins from Bothrops jararaca, used as model membrane, and thermal characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Surfactant solutions were employed above of the critical micellar concentration (CMC) with treatment time of 8h. The SDS interaction with the SC model membrane has increased the characteristic transition temperature of 130 degrees C in approximately 10 degrees C for the water loss and keratin denaturation, indicating an augmentation of the water content. Samples treated with CTAC have a decrease of the water loss temperature, while, for the LAE-12OE treated samples, changes on the transition temperature have not been observed.

  10. Evaluating the Effects of Immersive Embodied Interaction on Cognition in Virtual Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Dhaval

    Virtual reality is on its advent of becoming mainstream household technology, as technologies such as head-mounted displays, trackers, and interaction devices are becoming affordable and easily available. Virtual reality (VR) has immense potential in enhancing the fields of education and training, and its power can be used to spark interest and enthusiasm among learners. It is, therefore, imperative to evaluate the risks and benefits that immersive virtual reality poses to the field of education. Research suggests that learning is an embodied process. Learning depends on grounded aspects of the body including action, perception, and interactions with the environment. This research aims to study if immersive embodiment through the means of virtual reality facilitates embodied cognition. A pedagogical VR solution which takes advantage of embodied cognition can lead to enhanced learning benefits. Towards achieving this goal, this research presents a linear continuum for immersive embodied interaction within virtual reality. This research evaluates the effects of three levels of immersive embodied interactions on cognitive thinking, presence, usability, and satisfaction among users in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. Results from the presented experiments show that immersive virtual reality is greatly effective in knowledge acquisition and retention, and highly enhances user satisfaction, interest and enthusiasm. Users experience high levels of presence and are profoundly engaged in the learning activities within the immersive virtual environments. The studies presented in this research evaluate pedagogical VR software to train and motivate students in STEM education, and provide an empirical analysis comparing desktop VR (DVR), immersive VR (IVR), and immersive embodied VR (IEVR) conditions for learning. This research also proposes a fully immersive embodied interaction metaphor (IEIVR) for learning of computational

  11. An Interactive Website to Reduce Sexual Risk Behavior: Process Evaluation of TeensTalkHealth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieving, Renee E; Terveen, Loren G; Rosser, BR Simon; Kodet, Amy J; Rothberg, Vienna D

    2015-01-01

    Background Different theoretical frameworks support the use of interactive websites to promote sexual health. Although several Web-based interventions have been developed to address sexual risk taking among young people, no evaluated interventions have attempted to foster behavior change through moderated interaction among a virtual network of adolescents (who remain anonymous to one another) and health professionals. Objective The objective was to conduct a summative process evaluation of TeensTalkHealth, an interactive sexual health website designed to promote condom use and other healthy decision making in the context of romantic and sexual relationships. Methods Evaluation data were obtained from 147 adolescents who participated in a feasibility and acceptability study. Video vignettes, teen-friendly articles, and other content served as conversation catalysts between adolescents and health educators on message boards. Results Adolescents’ perceptions that the website encouraged condom use across a variety of relationship situations were very high. Almost 60% (54/92, 59%) of intervention participants completed two-thirds or more of requested tasks across the 4-month intervention. Adolescents reported high levels of comfort, perceived privacy, ease of website access and use, and perceived credibility of health educators. Potential strategies to enhance engagement and completion of intervention tasks during future implementations of TeensTalkHealth are discussed, including tailoring of content, periodic website chats with health educators and anonymous peers, and greater incorporation of features from popular social networking websites. Conclusions TeensTalkHealth is a feasible, acceptable, and promising approach to complement and enhance existing services for youth. PMID:26336157

  12. On the practice of ignoring center-patient interactions in evaluating hospital performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varewyck, Machteld; Vansteelandt, Stijn; Eriksson, Marie; Goetghebeur, Els

    2016-01-30

    We evaluate the performance of medical centers based on a continuous or binary patient outcome (e.g., 30-day mortality). Common practice adjusts for differences in patient mix through outcome regression models, which include patient-specific baseline covariates (e.g., age and disease stage) besides center effects. Because a large number of centers may need to be evaluated, the typical model postulates that the effect of a center on outcome is constant over patient characteristics. This may be violated, for example, when some centers are specialized in children or geriatric patients. Including interactions between certain patient characteristics and the many fixed center effects in the model increases the risk for overfitting, however, and could imply a loss of power for detecting centers with deviating mortality. Therefore, we assess how the common practice of ignoring such interactions impacts the bias and precision of directly and indirectly standardized risks. The reassuring conclusion is that the common practice of working with the main effects of a center has minor impact on hospital evaluation, unless some centers actually perform substantially better on a specific group of patients and there is strong confounding through the corresponding patient characteristic. The bias is then driven by an interplay of the relative center size, the overlap between covariate distributions, and the magnitude of the interaction effect. Interestingly, the bias on indirectly standardized risks is smaller than on directly standardized risks. We illustrate our findings by simulation and in an analysis of 30-day mortality on Riksstroke. © 2015 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. An evaluation framework for multimodal interaction determining quality aspects and modality choice

    CERN Document Server

    Wechsung, Ina

    2014-01-01

    This book presents (1) an exhaustive and empirically validated taxonomy of quality aspects of multimodal interaction as well as respective measurement methods, (2) a validated questionnaire specifically tailored to the evaluation of multimodal systems and covering most of the taxonomy‘s quality aspects, (3) insights on how the quality perceptions of multimodal systems relate to the quality perceptions of its individual components, (4) a set of empirically tested factors which influence modality choice, and (5) models regarding the relationship of the perceived quality of a modality and the actual usage of a modality.

  14. [Systematic evaluation of retention behavior of carbohydrates in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qing; Wang, Jun; Liang, Tu; Xu, Xiaoyong; Jin, Yu

    2013-11-01

    A systematic evaluation of retention behavior of carbohydrates in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) was performed. The influences of mobile phase, stationary phase and buffer salt on the retention of carbohydrates were investigated. According to the results, the retention time of carbohydrates decreased as the proportion of acetonitrile in mobile phase decreased. Increased time of carbohydrates was observed as the concentration of buffer salt in mobile phase increased. The retention behavior of carbohydrates was also affected by organic solvent and HILIC stationary phase. Furthermore, an appropriate retention equation was used in HILIC mode. The retention equation lnk = a + blnC(B) + cC(B) could quantitatively describe the retention factors of carbohydrates of plant origin with good accuracy: the relative error of the predicted time to actual time was less than 0.3%. The evaluation results could provide guidance for carbohydrates to optimize the experimental conditions in HILIC method development especially for carbohydrate separation

  15. A life evaluation under creep-fatigue-environment interaction of Ni-base wrought alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Hiroshi; Kitagawa, Masaki; Ohtomo, Akira; Itoh, Mitsuyoshi

    1986-01-01

    In order to determine a failure criteria under cyclic loading and affective environment for HTGR systems, a series of strain controlled low-cycle fatigue tests were carried out at HTGR maximum gas temperatures in air, in vacuum and in HTGR helium environments on two nickel-base wrought alloys, namely Inconel 617 and Hastelloy XR. This paper first describes the creep-fatigue-environment properties of these alloys followed by a proposal of an evaluation method of creep-fatigue-environment interaction based on the experimental data to define the more reasonable design criteria, which is a modification of the linear damage summation rule. Second, the creep-fatigue properties of Hastelloy XR at 900 deg C and the result evaluated by this proposed method are shown. This criterion is successfully applied to the life prediction at 900 deg C. In addition, the creep-fatigue properties of Hastelloy XR-II are discussed. (author)

  16. Design, synthesis, and evaluation of an alpha-helix mimetic library targeting protein-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaginian, Alex; Whitby, Landon R; Hong, Sukwon; Hwang, Inkyu; Farooqi, Bilal; Searcey, Mark; Chen, Jiandong; Vogt, Peter K; Boger, Dale L

    2009-04-22

    The design and solution-phase synthesis of an alpha-helix mimetic library as an integral component of a small-molecule library targeting protein-protein interactions are described. The iterative design, synthesis, and evaluation of the candidate alpha-helix mimetic was initiated from a precedented triaryl template and refined by screening the designs for inhibition of MDM2/p53 binding. Upon identifying a chemically and biologically satisfactory design and consistent with the screening capabilities of academic collaborators, the corresponding complete library was assembled as 400 mixtures of 20 compounds (20 x 20 x 20-mix), where the added subunits are designed to mimic all possible permutations of the naturally occurring i, i + 4, i + 7 amino acid side chains of an alpha-helix. The library (8000 compounds) was prepared using a solution-phase synthetic protocol enlisting acid/base liquid-liquid extractions for purification on a scale that insures its long-term availability for screening campaigns. Screening of the library for inhibition of MDM2/p53 binding not only identified the lead alpha-helix mimetic upon which the library was based, but also suggests that a digestion of the initial screening results that accompany the use of such a comprehensive library can provide insights into the nature of the interaction (e.g., an alpha-helix mediated protein-protein interaction) and define the key residues and their characteristics responsible for recognition.

  17. Replication Kits for the papers "Automated Usability Evaluation of Virtual Reality Applications" and "VR Interaction Modalities for the Evaluation of Technical Device Prototypes" submitted to the CHI 2018

    OpenAIRE

    Harms, Patrick; Holderied, Hanna

    2017-01-01

    This replication kit contains all necessary data to reproduce the setup and results of both papers 'Automated Usability Evaluation of Virtual Reality Applications' and 'VR Interaction Modalities for the Evaluation of Technical Device Prototypes' as submitted to the CHI 2018. It includes the Unity Projects that show a coffee machine and a copier scene (sometimes refered to as printer scene, as well, as it is an integrated device) that can be interacted with with the help of the four interactio...

  18. Interactive contour delineation of organs at risk in radiotherapy: Clinical evaluation on NSCLC patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolz, J.; Kirişli, H. A.; Massoptier, L.; Fechter, T.; Karnitzki, S.; Oehlke, O.; Nestle, U.; Vermandel, M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Accurate delineation of organs at risk (OARs) on computed tomography (CT) image is required for radiation treatment planning (RTP). Manual delineation of OARs being time consuming and prone to high interobserver variability, many (semi-) automatic methods have been proposed. However, most of them are specific to a particular OAR. Here, an interactive computer-assisted system able to segment various OARs required for thoracic radiation therapy is introduced. Methods: Segmentation information (foreground and background seeds) is interactively added by the user in any of the three main orthogonal views of the CT volume and is subsequently propagated within the whole volume. The proposed method is based on the combination of watershed transformation and graph-cuts algorithm, which is used as a powerful optimization technique to minimize the energy function. The OARs considered for thoracic radiation therapy are the lungs, spinal cord, trachea, proximal bronchus tree, heart, and esophagus. The method was evaluated on multivendor CT datasets of 30 patients. Two radiation oncologists participated in the study and manual delineations from the original RTP were used as ground truth for evaluation. Results: Delineation of the OARs obtained with the minimally interactive approach was approved to be usable for RTP in nearly 90% of the cases, excluding the esophagus, which segmentation was mostly rejected, thus leading to a gain of time ranging from 50% to 80% in RTP. Considering exclusively accepted cases, overall OARs, a Dice similarity coefficient higher than 0.7 and a Hausdorff distance below 10 mm with respect to the ground truth were achieved. In addition, the interobserver analysis did not highlight any statistically significant difference, at the exception of the segmentation of the heart, in terms of Hausdorff distance and volume difference. Conclusions: An interactive, accurate, fast, and easy-to-use computer-assisted system able to segment various OARs

  19. Interactive contour delineation of organs at risk in radiotherapy: Clinical evaluation on NSCLC patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolz, J., E-mail: jose.dolz.upv@gmail.com [AQUILAB, Loos-les-Lille 59120, France and University Lille, Inserm, CHU Lille, U1189–ONCO-THAI–Image Assisted Laser Therapy for Oncology, Lille F-59000 (France); Kirişli, H. A.; Massoptier, L. [AQUILAB, Loos-les-Lille 59120 (France); Fechter, T.; Karnitzki, S.; Oehlke, O.; Nestle, U. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center, Freiburg 79106 (Germany); Vermandel, M. [Inserm Onco Thai U1189, Université Lille 2, CHRU Lille, Lille 59037 (France)

    2016-05-15

    Purpose: Accurate delineation of organs at risk (OARs) on computed tomography (CT) image is required for radiation treatment planning (RTP). Manual delineation of OARs being time consuming and prone to high interobserver variability, many (semi-) automatic methods have been proposed. However, most of them are specific to a particular OAR. Here, an interactive computer-assisted system able to segment various OARs required for thoracic radiation therapy is introduced. Methods: Segmentation information (foreground and background seeds) is interactively added by the user in any of the three main orthogonal views of the CT volume and is subsequently propagated within the whole volume. The proposed method is based on the combination of watershed transformation and graph-cuts algorithm, which is used as a powerful optimization technique to minimize the energy function. The OARs considered for thoracic radiation therapy are the lungs, spinal cord, trachea, proximal bronchus tree, heart, and esophagus. The method was evaluated on multivendor CT datasets of 30 patients. Two radiation oncologists participated in the study and manual delineations from the original RTP were used as ground truth for evaluation. Results: Delineation of the OARs obtained with the minimally interactive approach was approved to be usable for RTP in nearly 90% of the cases, excluding the esophagus, which segmentation was mostly rejected, thus leading to a gain of time ranging from 50% to 80% in RTP. Considering exclusively accepted cases, overall OARs, a Dice similarity coefficient higher than 0.7 and a Hausdorff distance below 10 mm with respect to the ground truth were achieved. In addition, the interobserver analysis did not highlight any statistically significant difference, at the exception of the segmentation of the heart, in terms of Hausdorff distance and volume difference. Conclusions: An interactive, accurate, fast, and easy-to-use computer-assisted system able to segment various OARs

  20. A multimedia interactive education system for prostate cancer patients: development and preliminary evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefenbach, Michael A; Butz, Brian P

    2004-01-21

    A cancer diagnosis is highly distressing. Yet, to make informed treatment choices patients have to learn complicated disease and treatment information that is often fraught with medical and statistical terminology. Thus, patients need accurate and easy-to-understand information. To introduce the development and preliminary evaluation through focus groups of a novel highly-interactive multimedia-education software program for patients diagnosed with localized prostate cancer. The prostate interactive education system uses the metaphor of rooms in a virtual health center (ie, reception area, a library, physician offices, group meeting room) to organize information. Text information contained in the library is tailored to a person's information-seeking preference (ie, high versus low information seeker). We conducted a preliminary evaluation through 5 separate focus groups with prostate cancer survivors (N = 18) and their spouses (N = 15). Focus group results point to the timeliness and high acceptability of the software among the target audience. Results also underscore the importance of a guide or tutor who assists in navigating the program and who responds to queries to facilitate information retrieval. Focus groups have established the validity of our approach and point to new directions to further enhance the user interface.

  1. Evaluation of Early Ground Control Station Configurations for Interacting with a UAS Traffic Management (UTM) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Arik-Quang V.; Martin, Lynne; Mohlenbrink, Christoph; Bienert, Nancy; Wolte, Cynthia; Gomez, Ashley; Claudatos, Lauren; Mercer, Joey

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report on a human factors evaluation of ground control station design concepts for interacting with an unmanned traffic management system. The data collected for this paper comes from recent field tests for NASA's Unmanned Traffic Management (UTM) project, and covers the following topics; workload, situation awareness, as well as flight crew communication, coordination, and procedures. The goal of this evaluation was to determine if the various software implementations for interacting with the UTM system can be described and classified into design concepts to provide guidance for the development of future UTM interfaces. We begin with a brief description of NASA's UTM project, followed by a description of the test range configuration related to a second development phase. We identified (post hoc) two classes in which the ground control stations could be grouped. This grouping was based on level of display integration. The analysis was exploratory and informal. It was conducted to compare ground stations across those two classes and against the aforementioned topics. Herein, we discuss the results.

  2. Laboratory Evaluation of Interactions in the Degradation of a Polypropylene Geotextile in Marine Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Carneiro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The long-term behaviour of geosynthetics applied in coastal engineering structures can be adversely affected by many agents. This paper studies the resistance of a nonwoven polypropylene geotextile against some degradation agents present in marine environments and evaluates the existence of interactions between them. For that purpose, the geotextile was exposed to some laboratory degradation tests: immersion tests (in seawater, deionised water, and sodium chloride 35 g·L−1, thermooxidation, and artificial weathering. The geotextile was (1 exposed separately to each degradation test and (2 exposed successively to combinations of two or three degradation tests. The damage caused by the degradation tests was evaluated by monitoring the tensile properties of the geotextile. Based on the changes occurred in tensile strength, reduction factors were determined. The reduction factors obtained directly in the multiple exposures were compared with those obtained by the traditional methodology for the combined effect of the degradation agents. The results, among other findings, showed the existence of relevant interactions between the degradation agents and showed that the reduction factors obtained by the traditional methodology were unable to represent accurately (by underestimating the degradation occurred in the geotextile.

  3. Development and evaluation of an interactive electronic laboratory manual for cooperative learning of medical histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Mohammed K; Kirkley, Debbie L; Kibble, Jonathan D

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the development of an interactive computer-based laboratory manual, created to facilitate the teaching and learning of medical histology. The overarching goal of developing the manual is to facilitate self-directed group interactivities that actively engage students during laboratory sessions. The design of the manual includes guided instruction for students to navigate virtual slides, exercises for students to monitor learning, and cases to provide clinical relevance. At the end of the laboratory activities, student groups can generate a laboratory report that may be used to provide formative feedback. The instructional value of the manual was evaluated by a questionnaire containing both closed-ended and open-ended items. Closed-ended items using a five-point Likert-scale assessed the format and navigation, instructional contents, group process, and learning process. Open-ended items assessed student's perception on the effectiveness of the manual in facilitating their learning. After implementation for two consecutive years, student evaluation of the manual was highly positive and indicated that it facilitated their learning by reinforcing and clarifying classroom sessions, improved their understanding, facilitated active and cooperative learning, and supported self-monitoring of their learning. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Anatomists.

  4. Evaluation on Impact Interaction between Abutment and Steel Girder Subjected to Nonuniform Seismic Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to evaluate the impact interaction between the abutment and the girder subjected to nonuniform seismic excitation. An impact model based on tests is presented by taking material properties of the backfill of the abutment into consideration. The conditional simulation is performed to investigate the spatial variation of earthquake ground motions. A two-span continuous steel box girder bridge is taken as the example to analyze and assess the pounding interaction between the abutment and the girder. The detailed nonlinear finite element (FE model is established and the steel girder and the reinforced concrete piers are modeled by nonlinear fiber elements. The pounding element of the abutment is simulated by using a trilinear compression gap element. The elastic-perfectly plastic element is used to model the nonlinear rubber bearings. The comparisons of the pounding forces, the shear forces of the nonlinear bearings, the moments of reinforced concrete piers, and the axial pounding stresses of the steel girder are studied. The made observations indicate that the nonuniform excitation for multisupport bridge is imperative in the analysis and evaluation of the pounding effects of the bridges.

  5. A multiplexed microfluidic system for evaluation of dynamics of immune-tumor interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, N; Doty, D; Zielstorff, M; Kariv, I; Moy, L Y; Gimbel, A; Chevillet, J R; Lowry, N; Santos, J; Mott, V; Kratchman, L; Lau, T; Addona, G; Chen, H; Borenstein, J T

    2018-05-25

    Recapitulation of the tumor microenvironment is critical for probing mechanisms involved in cancer, and for evaluating the tumor-killing potential of chemotherapeutic agents, targeted therapies and immunotherapies. Microfluidic devices have emerged as valuable tools for both mechanistic studies and for preclinical evaluation of therapeutic agents, due to their ability to precisely control drug concentrations and gradients of oxygen and other species in a scalable and potentially high throughput manner. Most existing in vitro microfluidic cancer models are comprised of cultured cancer cells embedded in a physiologically relevant matrix, collocated with vascular-like structures. However, the recent emergence of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) as a powerful therapeutic modality against many cancers has created a need for preclinical in vitro models that accommodate interactions between tumors and immune cells, particularly for assessment of unprocessed tumor fragments harvested directly from patient biopsies. Here we report on a microfluidic model, termed EVIDENT (ex vivo immuno-oncology dynamic environment for tumor biopsies), that accommodates up to 12 separate tumor biopsy fragments interacting with flowing tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in a dynamic microenvironment. Flow control is achieved with a single pump in a simple and scalable configuration, and the entire system is constructed using low-sorption materials, addressing two principal concerns with existing microfluidic cancer models. The system sustains tumor fragments for multiple days, and permits real-time, high-resolution imaging of the interaction between autologous TILs and tumor fragments, enabling mapping of TIL-mediated tumor killing and testing of various ICI treatments versus tumor response. Custom image analytic algorithms based on machine learning reported here provide automated and quantitative assessment of experimental results. Initial studies indicate that the system is capable of

  6. Intermolecular interactions in the condensed phase: Evaluation of semi-empirical quantum mechanical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Anders S; Kromann, Jimmy C; Jensen, Jan H; Cui, Qiang

    2017-10-28

    To facilitate further development of approximate quantum mechanical methods for condensed phase applications, we present a new benchmark dataset of intermolecular interaction energies in the solution phase for a set of 15 dimers, each containing one charged monomer. The reference interaction energy in solution is computed via a thermodynamic cycle that integrates dimer binding energy in the gas phase at the coupled cluster level and solute-solvent interaction with density functional theory; the estimated uncertainty of such calculated interaction energy is ±1.5 kcal/mol. The dataset is used to benchmark the performance of a set of semi-empirical quantum mechanical (SQM) methods that include DFTB3-D3, DFTB3/CPE-D3, OM2-D3, PM6-D3, PM6-D3H+, and PM7 as well as the HF-3c method. We find that while all tested SQM methods tend to underestimate binding energies in the gas phase with a root-mean-squared error (RMSE) of 2-5 kcal/mol, they overestimate binding energies in the solution phase with an RMSE of 3-4 kcal/mol, with the exception of DFTB3/CPE-D3 and OM2-D3, for which the systematic deviation is less pronounced. In addition, we find that HF-3c systematically overestimates binding energies in both gas and solution phases. As most approximate QM methods are parametrized and evaluated using data measured or calculated in the gas phase, the dataset represents an important first step toward calibrating QM based methods for application in the condensed phase where polarization and exchange repulsion need to be treated in a balanced fashion.

  7. Intermolecular interactions in the condensed phase: Evaluation of semi-empirical quantum mechanical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Anders S.; Kromann, Jimmy C.; Jensen, Jan H.; Cui, Qiang

    2017-10-01

    To facilitate further development of approximate quantum mechanical methods for condensed phase applications, we present a new benchmark dataset of intermolecular interaction energies in the solution phase for a set of 15 dimers, each containing one charged monomer. The reference interaction energy in solution is computed via a thermodynamic cycle that integrates dimer binding energy in the gas phase at the coupled cluster level and solute-solvent interaction with density functional theory; the estimated uncertainty of such calculated interaction energy is ±1.5 kcal/mol. The dataset is used to benchmark the performance of a set of semi-empirical quantum mechanical (SQM) methods that include DFTB3-D3, DFTB3/CPE-D3, OM2-D3, PM6-D3, PM6-D3H+, and PM7 as well as the HF-3c method. We find that while all tested SQM methods tend to underestimate binding energies in the gas phase with a root-mean-squared error (RMSE) of 2-5 kcal/mol, they overestimate binding energies in the solution phase with an RMSE of 3-4 kcal/mol, with the exception of DFTB3/CPE-D3 and OM2-D3, for which the systematic deviation is less pronounced. In addition, we find that HF-3c systematically overestimates binding energies in both gas and solution phases. As most approximate QM methods are parametrized and evaluated using data measured or calculated in the gas phase, the dataset represents an important first step toward calibrating QM based methods for application in the condensed phase where polarization and exchange repulsion need to be treated in a balanced fashion.

  8. SciSpark: Highly Interactive and Scalable Model Evaluation and Climate Metrics for Scientific Data and Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We will construct SciSpark, a scalable system for interactive model evaluation and for the rapid development of climate metrics and analyses. SciSpark directly...

  9. A map of directional genetic interactions in a metazoan cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Bernd; Sandmann, Thomas; Horn, Thomas; Billmann, Maximilian; Chaudhary, Varun; Huber, Wolfgang; Boutros, Michael

    2015-03-06

    Gene-gene interactions shape complex phenotypes and modify the effects of mutations during development and disease. The effects of statistical gene-gene interactions on phenotypes have been used to assign genes to functional modules. However, directional, epistatic interactions, which reflect regulatory relationships between genes, have been challenging to map at large-scale. Here, we used combinatorial RNA interference and automated single-cell phenotyping to generate a large genetic interaction map for 21 phenotypic features of Drosophila cells. We devised a method that combines genetic interactions on multiple phenotypes to reveal directional relationships. This network reconstructed the sequence of protein activities in mitosis. Moreover, it revealed that the Ras pathway interacts with the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodelling complex, an interaction that we show is conserved in human cancer cells. Our study presents a powerful approach for reconstructing directional regulatory networks and provides a resource for the interpretation of functional consequences of genetic alterations.

  10. Epistatic participation of REV1 and REV3 in the formation of UV-induced frameshift mutations in cell cycle-arrested yeast cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidenreich, Erich [Institute of Cancer Research, Department of Medicine I, Medical University of Vienna, Borschkegasse 8a, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: erich.heidenreich@meduniwien.ac.at; Eisler, Herfried [Institute of Cancer Research, Department of Medicine I, Medical University of Vienna, Borschkegasse 8a, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Steinboeck, Ferdinand [Institute of Cancer Research, Department of Medicine I, Medical University of Vienna, Borschkegasse 8a, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2006-01-29

    Mutations arising in times of cell cycle arrest may provide a selective advantage for unicellular organisms adapting to environmental changes. For multicellular organisms, however, they may pose a serious threat, in that such mutations in somatic cells contribute to carcinogenesis and ageing. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae presents a convenient model system for studying the incidence and the mechanisms of stationary-phase mutation in a eukaryotic organism. Having studied the emergence of frameshift mutants after several days of starvation-induced cell cycle arrest, we previously reported that all (potentially error-prone) translesion synthesis (TLS) enzymes identified in S. cerevisiae did not contribute to the basal level of spontaneous stationary-phase mutations. However, we observed that an increased frequency of stationary-phase frameshift mutations, brought about by a defective nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway or by UV irradiation, was dependent on Rev3p, the catalytic subunit of the TLS polymerase zeta (Pol {zeta}). Employing the same two conditions, we now examined the effect of deletions of the genes coding for polymerase eta (Pol {eta}) (RAD30) and Rev1p (REV1). In a NER-deficient strain background, the increased incidence of stationary-phase mutations was only moderately influenced by a lack of Pol {eta} but completely reduced to wild type level by a knockout of the REV1 gene. UV-induced stationary-phase mutations were abundant in wild type and rad30{delta} strains, but substantially reduced in a rev1{delta} as well as a rev3{delta} strain. The similarity of the rev1{delta} and the rev3{delta} phenotype and an epistatic relationship evident from experiments with a double-deficient strain suggests a participation of Rev1p and Rev3p in the same mutagenic pathway. Based on these results, we propose that the response of cell cycle-arrested cells to an excess of exo- or endogenously induced DNA damage includes a novel replication

  11. Evaluation of different delivery modes of an interactive e-learning programme for teaching cultural diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, Kamila; Prout, Hayley; Kinnersley, Paul; Houston, Helen

    2009-01-01

    UK medical schools find it challenging to provide standardised teaching to expanding year intakes. In addition, developing and implementing diversity training can cause difficulties. This paper describes the evaluation of an interactive e-learning programme to raise awareness and understanding of communication difficulties in diversity consultations. The programme was part of an undergraduate portfolio-based community module. Three hundred and two students were assigned to one of three delivery methods--a large group setting, small groups with a facilitator, and as part of distance learning while on community placement. The evaluation included analysis of their coursework marks, a self-completed evaluation questionnaire, and small group discussions. Two hundred and twenty-three students took part in the evaluation. They were able to apply the concepts they learnt to clinical examples from their own experiences. Type of delivery did not affect coursework marks, but students tended to prefer the e-learning as part of a distance learning package. They offered helpful suggestions to improve its complexity and range. The acceptability and utility of this e-learning module both in face to face teaching and remote placement has been demonstrated, and evaluation by the students has provided valuable information for its further development. All medical schools should include some diversity training, and further research should concentrate on the effects of this type of learning on longer term outcomes such as attitude and performance tests. Such tools could reduce demands on staff time in facilitation of small groupwork, and their cost effectiveness could be increased by making them available to other medical schools.

  12. Use of live interactive webcasting for an international postgraduate module in ehealth: case study evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ray B; Maramba, Inocencio; Boulos, Maged N Kamel; Alexander, Tara

    2009-11-13

    Producing "traditional" e-learning can be time consuming, and in a topic such as eHealth, it may have a short shelf-life. Students sometimes report feeling isolated and lacking in motivation. Synchronous methods can play an important part in any blended approach to learning. The aim was to develop, deliver, and evaluate an international postgraduate module in eHealth using live interactive webcasting. We developed a hybrid solution for live interactive webcasting using a scan converter, mixer, and digitizer, and video server to embed a presenter-controlled talking head or copy of the presenter's computer screen (normally a PowerPoint slide) in a student chat room. We recruited 16 students from six countries and ran weekly 2.5-hour live sessions for 10 weeks. The content included the use of computers by patients, patient access to records, different forms of e-learning for patients and professionals, research methods in eHealth, geographic information systems, and telehealth. All sessions were recorded-presentations as video files and the student interaction as text files. Students were sent an email questionnaire of mostly open questions seeking their views of this form of learning. Responses were collated and anonymized by a colleague who was not part of the teaching team. Sessions were generally very interactive, with most students participating actively in breakout or full-class discussions. In a typical 2.5-hour session, students posted about 50 messages each. Two students did not complete all sessions; one withdrew from the pressure of work after session 6, and one from illness after session 7. Fourteen of the 16 responded to the feedback questionnaire. Most students (12/14) found the module useful or very useful, and all would recommend the module to others. All liked the method of delivery, in particular the interactivity, the variety of students, and the "closeness" of the group. Most (11/14) felt "connected" with the other students on the course. Many

  13. A novel apparatus for interocular interaction evaluation in children with and without anisometropic amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Xin Jie Angela; Alexander, Jack; He, Ming Guang; Yang, Zhi Kuan; Suttle, Catherine

    2012-07-01

    Dichoptic visual stimulation may be achieved using shutter goggles and mirror systems. These methods vary in their feasibility for use in children. This study aims to investigate the feasibility of use of a simple trial frame-based system to evaluate interactions in children. Low contrast acuity, contrast sensitivity and alignment sensitivity were measured in the non-dominant eye of 10 normally-sighted children, 14 anisometropic children without amblyopia and 14 anisometropic amblyopic children (aged 5-11 years) using goggles and a trial frame apparatus (TFA). The dominant eye was either fully or partially occluded. The difference in visual functions in the non-dominant eye between the full and partial occlusion conditions was termed the 'interaction index'. Agreement between the TFA and goggles in terms of visual functions and interactions was assessed in anisometropic children with and without amblyopia using the Bland-Altman method and t-test. Training sessions allowed subjects to become accustomed to the systems and tasks. The duration of training, the number of breaks requested by subjects and their willingness to attend further experiments were recorded in 10 subjects from each group and were compared between groups and between systems. Both Bland-Altman and t-test methods indicated acceptable agreement between the TFA and goggles in visual function and interaction measures (p > 0.05), except for contrast sensitivity measured in anisometropic children without amblyopia (p = 0.042). For all subject groups, contrast sensitivity training was significantly longer using goggles than using the TFA (p ≤ 0.001). Significantly more breaks were requested in acuity and contrast sensitivity testing, when goggles were used than when the TFA was used (p amblyopia showed a significantly greater willingness to attend more experiments using the TFA than using goggles (p = 0.025). The TFA may be a useful tool in studies of interactions in amblyopes, particularly in studies

  14. No praise, please: Depressive symptoms, reactivity to positive social interaction, and fear of positive evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenberger, Julia; Wiggert, Nicole; Agroskin, Dmitrij; Wilhelm, Frank H; Blechert, Jens

    2017-03-01

    Depression is characterized by depressed mood and loss of interest or pleasure. Resulting alterations in emotional reactivity have been explained by three different accounts: 'positive attenuation', 'negative potentiation', and 'emotion context insensitivity'. Despite the importance of depression-related emotional alteration in social interactions, research with naturalistic interpersonal stimuli is scarce and underlying mechanisms largely unknown. Hence, the present study examined subjective emotional reactivity to brief negative, positive, and neutral social-evaluative videos as a function of depressive symptoms in an adult sample (N = 84). Fear of positive evaluation (FPE) and fear of negative evaluation (FNE), often conceptualized as cognitive components of social anxiety, were examined as possible mediators. Results revealed that more depression symptoms were related to diminished pleasantness responses to both positive and neutral videos. When considering all three video conditions simultaneously, only responses to positive videos remained significantly related to depression scores, supporting the 'positive attenuation' account. Moreover, FPE was found to uniquely mediate the relationship between depressive symptoms and pleasantness responses to positive videos. Results indicate that emotional reactivity to positive interpersonal stimuli is relevant for theoretical and clinical considerations of depression. This research underlines the importance of FPE not only for understanding social anxiety but also depression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluating interactive technology for an evolving case study on learning and satisfaction of graduate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Marjorie A; Schaffner, Barbara H

    2016-07-01

    Nursing education is challenged to prepare students for complex healthcare needs through the integration of teamwork and informatics. Technology has become an important teaching tool in the blended classroom to enhance group based learning experiences. Faculty evaluation of classroom technologies is imperative prior to adoption. Few studies have directly compared various technologies and their impact on student satisfaction and learning. The purpose of this study was to evaluate technology enhanced teaching methods on the learning and satisfaction of graduate students in an advanced pharmacology class using an unfolding case study. After IRB approval, students were randomly assigned to one of three groups: blogging group, wiki group or webinar group. Students completed the evolving case study using the assigned interactive technology. Student names were removed from the case studies. Faculty evaluated the case study using a rubric, while blinded to the assigned technology method used. No significant difference was found on case study grades, the range of grades on the assignment demonstrated little differences between the methods used. Students indicated an overall positive impact related to networking and collaboration on a satisfaction survey. Impact of technology methods needs to be explored in other areas of graduate nursing education. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Ethological Evaluation of the Effects of Social Defeat Stress in Mice: Beyond the Social Interaction Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques-Alves, Aron M; Queiroz, Claudio M

    2015-01-01

    In rodents, repeated exposure to unavoidable aggression followed by sustained sensory treat can lead to prolonged social aversion. The chronic social defeat stress model explores that phenomenon and it has been used as an animal model for human depression. However, some authors have questioned whether confounding effects may arise as the model also boosts anxiety-related behaviors. Despite its wide acceptance, most studies extract limited information from the behavior of the defeated animal. Often, the normalized occupancy around the social stimulus, the interaction zone, is taken as an index of depression. We hypothesized that this parameter is insufficient to fully characterize the behavioral consequences of this form of stress. Using an ethological approach, we showed that repeated social defeat delayed the expression of social investigation in long (10 min) sessions of social interaction. Also, the incidence of defensive behaviors, including stretched-attend posture and high speed retreats, was significantly higher in defeated mice in comparison to controls. Interestingly, a subpopulation of defeated mice showed recurrent and non-habituating stretched-attend posture and persistent flights during the entire session. Two indexes were created based on defensive behaviors to show that only recurrent flights correlates with sucrose intake. Together, the present study corroborates the idea that this model of social stress can precipitate a myriad of behaviors not readily disentangled. We propose that long sessions (>150 s) and detailed ethological evaluation during social interaction tests are necessary to provide enough information to correctly classify defeated animals in terms of resilience and susceptibility to social defeat stress.

  17. Evaluation of an interactive, case-based review session in teaching medical microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blewett, Earl L; Kisamore, Jennifer L

    2009-01-01

    Background Oklahoma State University-Center for Health Sciences (OSU-CHS) has replaced its microbiology wet laboratory with a variety of tutorials including a case-based interactive session called Microbial Jeopardy!. The question remains whether the time spent by students and faculty in the interactive case-based tutorial is worthwhile? This study was designed to address this question by analyzing both student performance data and assessing students' perceptions regarding the tutorial. Methods Both quantitative and qualitative data were used in the current study. Part One of the study involved assessing student performance using archival records of seven case-based exam questions used in the 2004, 2005, 2006, and 2007 OSU-CHS Medical Microbiology course. Two sample t-tests for proportions were used to test for significant differences related to tutorial usage. Part Two used both quantitative and qualitative means to assess student's perceptions of the Microbial Jeopardy! session. First, a retrospective survey was administered to students who were enrolled in Medical Microbiology in 2006 or 2007. Second, responses to open-ended items from the 2008 course evaluations were reviewed for comments regarding the Microbial Jeopardy! session. Results Both student performance and student perception data support continued use of the tutorials. Quantitative and qualitative data converge to suggest that students like and learn from the interactive, case-based session. Conclusion The case-based tutorial appears to improve student performance on case-based exam questions. Additionally, students perceived the tutorial as helpful in preparing for exam questions and reviewing the course material. The time commitment for use of the case-based tutorial appears to be justified. PMID:19712473

  18. Evaluation of an interactive, case-based review session in teaching medical microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blewett, Earl L; Kisamore, Jennifer L

    2009-08-27

    Oklahoma State University-Center for Health Sciences (OSU-CHS) has replaced its microbiology wet laboratory with a variety of tutorials including a case-based interactive session called Microbial Jeopardy!. The question remains whether the time spent by students and faculty in the interactive case-based tutorial is worthwhile? This study was designed to address this question by analyzing both student performance data and assessing students' perceptions regarding the tutorial. Both quantitative and qualitative data were used in the current study. Part One of the study involved assessing student performance using archival records of seven case-based exam questions used in the 2004, 2005, 2006, and 2007 OSU-CHS Medical Microbiology course. Two sample t-tests for proportions were used to test for significant differences related to tutorial usage. Part Two used both quantitative and qualitative means to assess student's perceptions of the Microbial Jeopardy! session. First, a retrospective survey was administered to students who were enrolled in Medical Microbiology in 2006 or 2007. Second, responses to open-ended items from the 2008 course evaluations were reviewed for comments regarding the Microbial Jeopardy! session. Both student performance and student perception data support continued use of the tutorials. Quantitative and qualitative data converge to suggest that students like and learn from the interactive, case-based session. The case-based tutorial appears to improve student performance on case-based exam questions. Additionally, students perceived the tutorial as helpful in preparing for exam questions and reviewing the course material. The time commitment for use of the case-based tutorial appears to be justified.

  19. Ethological Evaluation of the Effects of Social Defeat Stress in Mice: Beyond the Social Interaction Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques-Alves, Aron M.; Queiroz, Claudio M.

    2016-01-01

    In rodents, repeated exposure to unavoidable aggression followed by sustained sensory treat can lead to prolonged social aversion. The chronic social defeat stress model explores that phenomenon and it has been used as an animal model for human depression. However, some authors have questioned whether confounding effects may arise as the model also boosts anxiety-related behaviors. Despite its wide acceptance, most studies extract limited information from the behavior of the defeated animal. Often, the normalized occupancy around the social stimulus, the interaction zone, is taken as an index of depression. We hypothesized that this parameter is insufficient to fully characterize the behavioral consequences of this form of stress. Using an ethological approach, we showed that repeated social defeat delayed the expression of social investigation in long (10 min) sessions of social interaction. Also, the incidence of defensive behaviors, including stretched-attend posture and high speed retreats, was significantly higher in defeated mice in comparison to controls. Interestingly, a subpopulation of defeated mice showed recurrent and non-habituating stretched-attend posture and persistent flights during the entire session. Two indexes were created based on defensive behaviors to show that only recurrent flights correlates with sucrose intake. Together, the present study corroborates the idea that this model of social stress can precipitate a myriad of behaviors not readily disentangled. We propose that long sessions (>150 s) and detailed ethological evaluation during social interaction tests are necessary to provide enough information to correctly classify defeated animals in terms of resilience and susceptibility to social defeat stress. PMID:26869895

  20. Evaluation of an interactive, case-based review session in teaching medical microbiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kisamore Jennifer L

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oklahoma State University-Center for Health Sciences (OSU-CHS has replaced its microbiology wet laboratory with a variety of tutorials including a case-based interactive session called Microbial Jeopardy!. The question remains whether the time spent by students and faculty in the interactive case-based tutorial is worthwhile? This study was designed to address this question by analyzing both student performance data and assessing students' perceptions regarding the tutorial. Methods Both quantitative and qualitative data were used in the current study. Part One of the study involved assessing student performance using archival records of seven case-based exam questions used in the 2004, 2005, 2006, and 2007 OSU-CHS Medical Microbiology course. Two sample t-tests for proportions were used to test for significant differences related to tutorial usage. Part Two used both quantitative and qualitative means to assess student's perceptions of the Microbial Jeopardy! session. First, a retrospective survey was administered to students who were enrolled in Medical Microbiology in 2006 or 2007. Second, responses to open-ended items from the 2008 course evaluations were reviewed for comments regarding the Microbial Jeopardy! session. Results Both student performance and student perception data support continued use of the tutorials. Quantitative and qualitative data converge to suggest that students like and learn from the interactive, case-based session. Conclusion The case-based tutorial appears to improve student performance on case-based exam questions. Additionally, students perceived the tutorial as helpful in preparing for exam questions and reviewing the course material. The time commitment for use of the case-based tutorial appears to be justified.

  1. Computational psychotherapy research: scaling up the evaluation of patient-provider interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imel, Zac E; Steyvers, Mark; Atkins, David C

    2015-03-01

    In psychotherapy, the patient-provider interaction contains the treatment's active ingredients. However, the technology for analyzing the content of this interaction has not fundamentally changed in decades, limiting both the scale and specificity of psychotherapy research. New methods are required to "scale up" to larger evaluation tasks and "drill down" into the raw linguistic data of patient-therapist interactions. In the current article, we demonstrate the utility of statistical text analysis models called topic models for discovering the underlying linguistic structure in psychotherapy. Topic models identify semantic themes (or topics) in a collection of documents (here, transcripts). We used topic models to summarize and visualize 1,553 psychotherapy and drug therapy (i.e., medication management) transcripts. Results showed that topic models identified clinically relevant content, including affective, relational, and intervention related topics. In addition, topic models learned to identify specific types of therapist statements associated with treatment-related codes (e.g., different treatment approaches, patient-therapist discussions about the therapeutic relationship). Visualizations of semantic similarity across sessions indicate that topic models identify content that discriminates between broad classes of therapy (e.g., cognitive-behavioral therapy vs. psychodynamic therapy). Finally, predictive modeling demonstrated that topic model-derived features can classify therapy type with a high degree of accuracy. Computational psychotherapy research has the potential to scale up the study of psychotherapy to thousands of sessions at a time. We conclude by discussing the implications of computational methods such as topic models for the future of psychotherapy research and practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Ethological evaluation of the effects of social defeat stress in mice: beyond the social interaction ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aron Miranda Henriques-Alves

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In rodents, repeated exposure to unavoidable aggression followed by sustained sensory treat can lead to prolonged social aversion. The chronic social defeat stress model explores that phenomenon and it has been used as an animal model for human depression. However, some authors have questioned whether confounding effects may arise as the model also boosts anxiety-related behaviors. Despite its wide acceptance, most studies extract limited information from the behavior of the defeated animal. Often, the normalized occupancy around the social stimulus, the interaction zone, is taken as an index of depression. We hypothesized that this parameter is insufficient to fully characterize the behavioral consequences of this form of stress. Using an ethological approach, we showed that repeated social defeat delayed the expression of social investigation in long (10 min sessions of social interaction. Also, the incidence of defensive behaviors, including stretched-attend posture and high speed retreats, was significantly higher in defeated mice in comparison to controls. Interestingly, a subpopulation of defeated mice showed recurrent and non-habituating stretched-attend posture and persistent flights during the entire session. Two indexes were created based on defensive behaviors to show that only recurrent flights correlates with sucrose intake. Together, the present study corroborates the idea that this model of social stress can precipitate a myriad of behaviors not readily disentangled. We propose that long sessions (> 150 s and detailed ethological evaluation during social interaction tests are necessary to provide enough information to correctly classify defeated animals in terms of resilience and susceptibility to social defeat stress.

  3. Team interaction skills evaluation criteria for nuclear power plant control room operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, J.C.; Toquam, J.; Gaddy, C.

    1991-09-01

    Previous research has shown the value of good team interaction skills to group performance, yet little progress has been made on in terms of how such skills can be measured. In this study rating scales developed previously (Montgomery, et al., 1990) were extensively revised and cast into a Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale (BARS) and a Behavioral Frequency format. Rating data were collected using 13 training instructors at the Diablo Canyon Nuclear Plant, who rated three videotapes of simulator scenario performance during a day-long training session and later evaluated control room crews during requalification training. High levels of interrater agreement on both rating scales were found. However, the factor structure of the ratings was generally inconsistent with that hypothesized. Analysis of training ratings using Cronbach's components of accuracy (Cronbach, 1955) indicated that BARS ratings generally exhibited less error than did the Behavioral Frequency ratings. The results are discussed in terms of both field and research implications

  4. Interaction of core self-evaluations and perceived organizational support on work-to-family enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNall, Laurel A; Masuda, Aline D; Shanock, Linda Rhoades; Nicklin, Jessica M

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to offer an empirical test of J. H. Greenhaus and G. N. Powell's (2006) model of work-family enrichment by examining dispositional (i.e., core self-evaluations; CSEs) and situational (i.e., perceived organizational support; POS) factors associated with work-to-family enrichment (WFE) and whether these variables interact in predicting WFE. In a survey of 220 employed adults, our hierarchical regression analysis revealed that in highly supportive work environments, individuals reported high WFE regardless of CSE. However, when POS was low, individuals high in CSEs reported higher WFE than those low in CSEs, in support of conservation of resources theory (S. E. Hobfoll, 2002). Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  5. Evaluation of genotype x environment interactions in maize hybrids using GGE biplot analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Aykut Tonk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Seventeen hybrid maize genotypes were evaluated at four different locations in 2005 and 2006 cropping seasonsunder irrigated conditions in Turkey. The analysis of variance showed that mean squares of environments (E, genotypes (G andGE interactions (GEI were highly significant and accounted for 74, 7 and 19 % of treatment combination sum squares, respectively.To determine the effects of GEI on grain yield, the data were subjected to the GGE biplot analysis. Maize hybrid G16 can be proposedas reliably growing in test locations for high grain yield. Also, only the Yenisehir location could be best representative of overalllocations for deciding about which experimental hybrids can be recommended for grain yield in this study. Consequently, using ofgrain yield per plant instead of grain yield per plot in hybrid maize breeding programs could be preferred by private companies dueto some advantages.

  6. Evaluation of Algorithms for Photon Depth of Interaction Estimation for the TRIMAGE PET Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarlinghi, Niccolò; Belcari, Nicola; Cerello, Piergiorgio; Pennazio, Francesco; Sportelli, Giancarlo; Zaccaro, Emanuele; Del Guerra, Alberto

    2016-02-01

    The TRIMAGE consortium aims to develop a multimodal PET/MR/EEG brain scanner dedicated to the early diagnosis of schizophrenia and other mental health disorders. The TRIMAGE PET component features a full ring made of 18 detectors, each one consisting of twelve 8 ×8 Silicon PhotoMultipliers (SiPMs) tiles coupled to two segmented LYSO crystal matrices with staggered layers. The identification of the pixel where a photon interacted is performed on-line at the front-end level, thus allowing the FPGA board to emit fully digital event packets. This allows to increase the effective bandwidth, but imposes restrictions on the complexity of the algorithms to be implemented. In this work, two algorithms, whose implementation is feasible directly on an FPGA, are presented and evaluated. The first algorithm is driven by physical considerations, while the other consists in a two-class linear Support Vector Machine (SVM). The validation of the algorithm performance is carried out by using simulated data generated with the GAMOS Monte Carlo. The obtained results show that the achieved accuracy in layer identification is above 90% for both the proposed approaches. The feasibility of tagging and rejecting events that underwent multiple interactions within the detector is also discussed.

  7. Application of Differential Colorimetry To Evaluate Anthocyanin-Flavonol-Flavanol Ternary Copigmentation Interactions in Model Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordillo, Belén; Rodríguez-Pulido, Francisco J; González-Miret, M Lourdes; Quijada-Morín, Natalia; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián C; García-Estévez, Ignacio; Heredia, Francisco J; Escribano-Bailón, M Teresa

    2015-09-09

    The combined effect of anthocyanin-flavanol-flavonol ternary interactions on the colorimetric and chemical stability of malvidin-3-glucoside has been studied. Model solutions with fixed malvidin-3-glucoside/(+)-catechin ratio (MC) and variable quercetin-3-β-d-glucoside concentration (MC+Q) and solutions with fixed malvidin-3-glucoside/quercetin-3-β-d-glucoside ratio (MQ) and variable (+)-catechin concentration (MQ+C) were tested at levels closer to those existing in wines. Color variations during storage were evaluated by differential colorimetry. Changes in the anthocyanin concentration were monitored by HPLC-DAD. CIELAB color-difference formulas were demonstrated to be of practical interest to assess the stronger and more stable interaction of quercetin-3-β-d-glucoside with MC binary mixture than (+)-catechin with MQ mixture. The results imply that MC+Q ternary solutions kept their intensity and bluish tonalities for a longer time in comparison to MQ+C solutions. The stability of malvidin-3-glucoside improves when the concentration of quercetin-3-β-d-glucoside increases in MC+Q mixtures, whereas the addition of (+)-catechin in MQ+C mixtures resulted in an opposite effect.

  8. In vitro evaluation of the interactions between human corneal endothelial cells and extracellular matrix proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jin San; Kim, Eun Young; Kim, Min Jeong; Giegengack, Matthew; Khan, Faraaz A; Soker, Shay; Khang, Gilson

    2013-01-01

    The corneal endothelium is the innermost cell layer of the cornea and rests on Descemet's membrane consisting of various extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins which can directly affect the cellular behaviors such as cell adhesion, proliferation, polarity, morphogenesis and function. The objective of this study was to investigate the interactions between the ECM environment and human corneal endothelial cells (HCECs), with the ultimate goal to improve cell proliferation and function in vitro. To evaluate the interaction of HCECs with ECM proteins, cells were seeded on ECM-coated tissue culture dishes, including collagen type I (COL I), collagen type IV (COL IV), fibronectin (FN), FNC coating mix (FNC) and laminin (LM). Cell adhesion and proliferation of HCECs on each substratum and expression of CEC markers were studied. The results showed that HCECs plated on the COL I, COL IV, FN and FNC-coated plates had enhanced cell adhesion initially; the number for COL I, COL IV, FN and FNC was significantly higher than the control (P < 0.05). In addition, cells grown on ECM protein-coated dishes showed more compact cellular morphology and CEC marker expression compared to cells seeded on uncoated dishes. Collectively, our results suggest that an adequate ECM protein combination can provide a long-term culture environment for HCECs for corneal endothelium transplantation. (paper)

  9. Evaluation of kriging based surrogate models constructed from mesoscale computations of shock interaction with particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Oishik, E-mail: oishik-sen@uiowa.edu [Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Gaul, Nicholas J., E-mail: nicholas-gaul@ramdosolutions.com [RAMDO Solutions, LLC, Iowa City, IA 52240 (United States); Choi, K.K., E-mail: kyung-choi@uiowa.edu [Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Jacobs, Gustaaf, E-mail: gjacobs@sdsu.edu [Aerospace Engineering, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92115 (United States); Udaykumar, H.S., E-mail: hs-kumar@uiowa.edu [Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Macro-scale computations of shocked particulate flows require closure laws that model the exchange of momentum/energy between the fluid and particle phases. Closure laws are constructed in this work in the form of surrogate models derived from highly resolved mesoscale computations of shock-particle interactions. The mesoscale computations are performed to calculate the drag force on a cluster of particles for different values of Mach Number and particle volume fraction. Two Kriging-based methods, viz. the Dynamic Kriging Method (DKG) and the Modified Bayesian Kriging Method (MBKG) are evaluated for their ability to construct surrogate models with sparse data; i.e. using the least number of mesoscale simulations. It is shown that if the input data is noise-free, the DKG method converges monotonically; convergence is less robust in the presence of noise. The MBKG method converges monotonically even with noisy input data and is therefore more suitable for surrogate model construction from numerical experiments. This work is the first step towards a full multiscale modeling of interaction of shocked particle laden flows.

  10. Evaluation of potential interactions between forest biomass production and Canadian wildlife. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulombe, R.; Lemay, A.B.

    1983-06-01

    Forest management for biomass production can be undertaken in all provinces of Canada. Raw material can be extracted either from sawmills, logged areas, silvicultural treatments or short-rotation intensive culture. All forests are suitable habitats for wildlife. However, some species (e.g. woodland caribou, lynx, marten, owl) are extremely dependant on mature forests. Logging these forests generally contributes to reduction of habitats and thus populations. Management of second growth forests should take into consideration these species by extending rotations so part of the forests will serve the species. Removal of snags and downed logs to increase amount of raw material will contribute to reduced habitats of, for instance, tree-nesting birds. As these aspects have not been intensively studied within the Canadian forest regions, interactions can hardly be specified. Studies are recommended to analyse the overall problems and define measures to prevent detrimental effects. Other species (rare, threatened or endangered) will need specific attention and precaution while managing forests. Some are highly sensitive to noise and human disturbance (e.g. whooping crane, white pelican, peregrine falcon), others are very sensitive to harassment. Increased human presence within managed forests will necessitate more educational programs to prevent detrimental effects. Some species of reptiles, amphibians and fish are so poorly documented that only basic studies of the biology, ecology and distribution will permit to identify and evaluate interactions with these new forestry concepts. 289 refs., 19 figs., 36 tabs.

  11. Evaluation of Tissue Interactions with Mechanical Elements of a Transscleral Drug Delivery Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey T. Borenstein

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work was to evaluate tissue-device interactions due to implantation of a mechanically operated drug delivery system onto the posterior sclera. Two test devices were designed and fabricated to model elements of the drug delivery device—one containing a free-spinning ball bearing and the other encasing two articulating gears. Openings in the base of test devices modeled ports for drug passage from device to sclera. Porous poly(tetrafluoroethylene (PTFE membranes were attached to half of the gear devices to minimize tissue ingrowth through these ports. Test devices were sutured onto rabbit eyes for 10 weeks. Tissue-device interactions were evaluated histologically and mechanically after removal to determine effects on device function and changes in surrounding tissue. Test devices were generally well-tolerated during residence in the animal. All devices encouraged fibrous tissue formation between the sclera and the device, fibrous tissue encapsulation and invasion around the device, and inflammation of the conjunctiva. Gear devices encouraged significantly greater inflammation in all cases and a larger rate of tissue ingrowth. PTFE membranes prevented tissue invasion through the covered drug ports, though tissue migrated in through other smaller openings. The torque required to turn the mechanical elements increased over 1000 times for gear devices, but only on the order of 100 times for membrane-covered gear devices and less than 100 times for ball bearing devices. Maintaining a lower device profile, minimizing microscale motion on the eye surface and covering drug ports with a porous membrane may minimize inflammation, decreasing the risk of damage to surrounding tissues and minimizing disruption of device operation.

  12. Separation and characterization of resins and asphaltenes coming from Castilla crude Evaluation of their molecular interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, Lina; Alvarez, Mario; Grosso, Jorge Luis; Navarro, Uriel

    2004-01-01

    The study of resins and asphaltenes, the heaviest fractions of oil, has become an area of interest due to the abundance of heavy crude oils in Colombia and Latin America. We studied the chemical composition of the heavy fractions of Castilla crude oil, evaluated some of its molecular parameters and found evidence of the interaction between the resins extracted from the crude with the asphaltenes of the original crude. With this objective, we carried out at the pilot plant level precipitation of the resin-asphaltene (R-A) aggregate by adding and mixing under controlled conditions, a paraffin solvent, from the Apiay refinery, called Apiasol. By extracting Soxhlet with the same solvent, resin 1 of aggregate R-A was separated. Resin ll defined as the soluble fraction that is part of the maltenes, was separated from the deasphalted crude by open column chromatography, using alumina as support, according to the SAR method (Saturated, Aromatics, Resins). The fractions of resins and the asphaltenes obtained, were characterized by: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), FT-lR, DRX, elementary analysis (C, H, N, S), metal content (Ni and V), distribution of molecular weight by GPC, and average molecular weight by VPO. The results obtained show evidence that resin l which is part of the aggregate has less average molecular weight than resin ll which is present in the fraction of maltenes. In addition, some changes were found in the elementary analysis of among the resins. On the one hand, and taking into account the existing theories of molecular interactions among these fractions, it was found that the resins l separated from the R-A aggregate, when added to the crude, they stabilize their asphaltenes. This evaluation was carried out by analyzing the flocculation point of the crude and its mixtures with 1,9% and 3,8% of resin l, when they are titrated with a precipitating agent in an NIR cell that works with high pressure and temperature

  13. Evaluation of the total gamma-ray production cross-sections for nonelastic interaction of fast neutrons with iron nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savin, M.V.; Nefedov, Yu.Ya; Livke, A.V.; Zvenigorodskij, A.G.

    2001-01-01

    Experimental data on the total gamma-ray production cross-sections for inelastic interaction of fast neutrons with iron nuclei were analysed. The total gamma-ray production cross-sections, grouped according to E γ , were evaluated in the neutron energy range 0.5-19 MeV. The statistical spline approximation method was used to evaluate the experimental data. Evaluated data stored in the ENDF, JENDL, BROND, and other libraries on gamma-ray production spectra and cross-sections for inelastic interaction of fast neutrons with iron nuclei, were analysed. (author)

  14. The Blue Dog: evaluation of an interactive software program to teach young children how to interact safely with dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwebel, David C; Morrongiello, Barbara A; Davis, Aaron L; Stewart, Julia; Bell, Melissa

    2012-04-01

    Pre-post-randomized design evaluated The Blue Dog, a dog safety software program. 76 children aged 3.5-6 years completed 3 tasks to evaluate dog safety pre- and postintervention: (a) pictures (recognition of safe/risky behavior), (b) dollhouse (recall of safe behavior via simulated dollhouse scenarios), and (c) live dog (actual behavior with unfamiliar live dog). Following preintervention evaluation, children were randomly assigned to dog or fire safety conditions, each involving 3 weeks of home computer software use. Children using Blue Dog had greater change in recognition of risky dog situations than children learning fire safety. No between-group differences emerged in recall (dollhouse) or engagement (live-dog) in risky behavior. Families enjoyed using the software. Blue Dog taught children knowledge about safe engagement with dogs, but did not influence recall or implementation of safe behaviors. Dog bites represent a significant pediatric injury concern and continued development of effective interventions is needed.

  15. The interactive effects of affect and shopping goal on information search and product evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fangyuan; Wyer, Robert S; Shen, Hao

    2015-12-01

    Although shoppers often want to evaluate products to make a purchase decision, they can also shop for enjoyment. In each case, the amount of time they spend on shopping and the number of options they consider can depend on the mood they happen to be in. We predicted that mood can signal whether the goal has been attained and when people should stop processing information. When people are primarily motivated to purchase a particular type of product, positive mood signals that they have done enough. Thus, they consider less information if they are happy than if they are unhappy. When people shop for enjoyment, however, positive mood signals that they are still having fun. Thus, they consider more information when they are happy than when they are not. Four experiments among university students (N = 827) examined these possibilities. Experiment 1 provided initial evidence for the interactive effects of mood and goals on search behavior and product evaluation. Other studies examined the implications of this conceptualization for different domains: (a) the relative impact of brand and attribute information on judgments (Experiment 2), (b) gender differences in shopping behavior (Experiment 3), and (c) the number of options that people review in an actual online shopping website (Experiment 4). (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Simulations and experimental evaluation of an active orthosis for interaction in virtual environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsveov Mihail

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the development of a human arm active orthosis is presented. The orthosis is designed primarily for training and rehabilitation in virtual environments.The orthosis system is intended for embodiment in virtual reality where it is allowing human to perceive forces at different body parts or the weight of lifted objects. In the paper the choice of a mechanical structure is shown equivalent to the structure of the human arm. A mechanical model of the orthosis arm as haptic device is built, where kinematic and dynamic parameters are evaluated. Impedance control scheme is selected as the most suitable for force refection at the hand or arm. An open-loop impedance controller is presented in the paper. Computer experiments are carried out using the dimensions of a real arm orthosis. Computer experiments have been carried out to provide force reflection by VR, according to virtual scenario. The conducted simulations show the range of the forces on the operator hand, orthosis can provide. The results of additional measurements and experimental evaluations of physical quantities in the interaction in a virtual environment are revealed in the paper.

  17. First evaluations of ex-vessel fuel-coolant interaction with MC3D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meignen, R.; Dupas, J.; Chaumont, B.

    2003-01-01

    In the frame of severe accident nuclear safety studies, we evaluate for French PWR's the potential of Steam Explosion in the reactor pit, consecutively to a vessel failure and to the mixing of the corium with the water that might be present. The evaluations are made with MC3D. This thermalhydraulic multiphasic code has firstly been qualified and its main parameters chosen so that a sufficient validation is obtained with regards to reactor situations. The safety study for ex-vessel situations is a step-by-step procedure that leads to a progressive process of hypotheses relaxations. We find that it is important to adequately model the corium ejection from the RPV. The rapid transition of the flow at the breach towards 2-phase dispersed flow leads to an important mixing of corium and water. The vessel pressurization is a very important parameter and strong pressure cases lead to a fine fragmentation and thus a high voiding. The small pressure cases are more dangerous for two reasons: the corium is dispersed in larger drops, and some important interactions (in the premixing sense) are reported

  18. Heuristics to Evaluate Interactive Systems for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khowaja, Kamran; Salim, Siti Salwah; Asemi, Adeleh

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we adapted and expanded a set of guidelines, also known as heuristics, to evaluate the usability of software to now be appropriate for software aimed at children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We started from the heuristics developed by Nielsen in 1990 and developed a modified set of 15 heuristics. The first 5 heuristics of this set are the same as those of the original Nielsen set, the next 5 heuristics are improved versions of Nielsen's, whereas the last 5 heuristics are new. We present two evaluation studies of our new heuristics. In the first, two groups compared Nielsen's set with the modified set of heuristics, with each group evaluating two interactive systems. The Nielsen's heuristics were assigned to the control group while the experimental group was given the modified set of heuristics, and a statistical analysis was conducted to determine the effectiveness of the modified set, the contribution of 5 new heuristics and the impact of 5 improved heuristics. The results show that the modified set is significantly more effective than the original, and we found a significant difference between the five improved heuristics and their corresponding heuristics in the original set. The five new heuristics are effective in problem identification using the modified set. The second study was conducted using a system which was developed to ascertain if the modified set was effective at identifying usability problems that could be fixed before the release of software. The post-study analysis revealed that the majority of the usability problems identified by the experts were fixed in the updated version of the system.

  19. Research on interactive genetic-geological models to evaluate favourability for undiscovered uranium resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, W.I.; Granger, H.C.; Lupe, R.; McCammon, R.B.

    1980-01-01

    Current methods of evaluating favourability for undiscovered uranium resources are unduly subjective, quite possibly inconsistent and, as a consequence, of questionable reliability. This research is aimed at reducing the subjectivity and increasing the reliability by designing an improved method that depends largely on geological data and their statistical frequency of occurrence. This progress report outlines a genetic approach to modelling the geological factors that controlled uranium mineralization in order to evaluate the favourability for the occurrence of undiscovered uranium deposits of the type modelled. A genetic model is constructed from all the factors that describe the processes, in chronological sequence, that formed uranium deposits thought to have a common origin. The field and laboratory evidence for the processes constitute a geologic-occurrence base that parallels the chronological sequence of events. The genetic model and the geologic-occurrence base are portrayed as two columns of an interactive matrix called the ''genetic-geologic model''. For each column, eight chronological stages are used to describe the overall formation of the uranium deposits. These stages consist of (1) precursor processes; (2) host-rock formation; (3) preparation of host-rock; (4) uranium-source development; (5) transport of uranium; (6) primary uranium deposition; (7) post-deposition modification; and (8) preservation. To apply the genetic-geological model to evaluate favourability, a question is posed that determines the presence or absence of each attribute listed under the geologic-occurrence base. By building a logic circuit of the attributes according to either their essential or non-essential nature, the resultant match between a well-documented control area and the test area may be determined. The degree of match is a measure of favourability for uranium occurrence as hypothesized in the genetic model

  20. Heuristics to Evaluate Interactive Systems for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Khowaja

    Full Text Available In this paper, we adapted and expanded a set of guidelines, also known as heuristics, to evaluate the usability of software to now be appropriate for software aimed at children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD. We started from the heuristics developed by Nielsen in 1990 and developed a modified set of 15 heuristics. The first 5 heuristics of this set are the same as those of the original Nielsen set, the next 5 heuristics are improved versions of Nielsen's, whereas the last 5 heuristics are new. We present two evaluation studies of our new heuristics. In the first, two groups compared Nielsen's set with the modified set of heuristics, with each group evaluating two interactive systems. The Nielsen's heuristics were assigned to the control group while the experimental group was given the modified set of heuristics, and a statistical analysis was conducted to determine the effectiveness of the modified set, the contribution of 5 new heuristics and the impact of 5 improved heuristics. The results show that the modified set is significantly more effective than the original, and we found a significant difference between the five improved heuristics and their corresponding heuristics in the original set. The five new heuristics are effective in problem identification using the modified set. The second study was conducted using a system which was developed to ascertain if the modified set was effective at identifying usability problems that could be fixed before the release of software. The post-study analysis revealed that the majority of the usability problems identified by the experts were fixed in the updated version of the system.

  1. In-site interaction evaluation of Tn density by inhibition/competition assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles, Ana [Radiopharmacy Department, Nuclear Research Center, Faculty of Sciences, University of the Republic, Montevideo (Uruguay)], E-mail: anamar@cin.edu.uy; Medeiros, Andrea [Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Medicine, University of the Republic, Montevideo (Uruguay); Berois, Nora [Laboratory of Glycobiology and Tumor Immunology, Pasteur Institute of Montevideo (Uruguay); Balter, Henia S. [Radiopharmacy Department, Nuclear Research Center, Faculty of Sciences, University of the Republic, Montevideo (Uruguay); Pauwels, Ernest K. [University Medical Center Leiden, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Osinaga, Eduardo [Laboratory of Glycobiology and Tumor Immunology, Pasteur Institute of Montevideo (Uruguay); Department of Immunobiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of the Republic, Montevideo (Uruguay)

    2010-05-15

    The tumor-associated structure N-acetyl-galactosamine-O-Ser/Thr (Tn antigen), which is overexpressed in various tumor cell types, notably of the breast, ovary and colon, is an interesting determinant that is useful for cancer diagnosis and follow-up. The aim of this research was to study different assay strategies in order to determine the most sensitive system for further application in epitope characterization and binding assessment. The tetrameric isolectin obtained from Vicia villosa seeds (VVLB{sub 4}) shows high affinity for the tumor-associated structure. A monoclonal antibody against VVLB{sub 4}, MabVV{sub 34}, was generated, and the interaction between MabVV{sub 34} and VVLB{sub 4} was studied by means of binding and inhibition assays. Several synthetic peptides (10 amino acid sequences) designed from the amino acid sequence of VVLB{sub 4} and obtained from trypsin digestion were tested to determine which amino acids were involved in the interaction between MabVV{sub 34} and VVLB{sub 4}. The further unraveling of this epitope was investigated by inhibition using designed synthetic peptides as well as mixtures mimicking variable density effect. Under the experimental circumstances, MabVV{sub 34} was able to inhibit the binding of VVLB{sub 4} to Tn. Two of the four peptide sequences assayed showed better inhibition properties. Finally, mixtures containing these selected sequences allowed the evaluation of binding and inhibition as a function of Tn density. We conclude that the present study facilitates the further development of a specific Tn marker and may contribute to the development of Tn-like radiolabelled peptides or Tn-specific radiolabelled fragments providing a highly selective tool for cancer diagnosis and treatment. This strategy may contribute to characterize the new generation of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and therapy based on biomolecules like antibodies, fragments or peptides, whose application is directly guided by their specific

  2. Hydroxyurea-Lactose Interaction Study: In Silico and In Vitro Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachchhao, Kunal B; Patil, R R; Patil, C R; Patil, Dipak D

    2017-11-01

    The Maillard reaction between hydroxyurea (a primary amine-containing drug) and lactose (used as an excipient) was explored. The adduct of these compounds was synthesized by heating hydroxyurea with lactose monohydrate at 60 °C in borate buffer (pH 9.2) for 12 h. Synthesis of the adduct was confirmed using UV-visible spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared, differential scanning calorimetry, high-pressure liquid chromatography, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry studies. An in silico investigation of how the adduct formation affected the interactions of hydroxyurea with its biological target oxyhemoglobin, to which it binds to generate nitric oxide and regulates fetal hemoglobin synthesis, was carried out. The in silico evaluations were complemented by an in vitro assay of the anti-sickling activity. Co-incubation of hydroxyurea with deoxygenated blood samples reduced the percentage of sickled cells from 38% to 12 ± 1.6%, whereas the percentage of sickled cells in samples treated with the adduct was 17 ± 1.2%. This indicated loss of anti-sickling activity in the case of the adduct. This study confirmed that hydroxyurea can participate in a Maillard reaction if lactose is used as a diluent. Although an extended study at environmentally feasible temperatures was not carried out in the present investigation, the partial loss of the anti-sickling activity of hydroxyurea was investigated along with the in silico drug-target interactions. The results indicated that the use of lactose in hydroxyurea formulations needs urgent reconsideration and that lactose must be replaced by other diluents that do not form Maillard adducts.

  3. Evaluation of the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug interactions between cilnidipine and valsartan, in healthy volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jieon; Lee, Howard; Jang, Kyungho; Lim, Kyoung Soo; Shin, Dongseong; Yu, Kyung-Sang

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Although cilnidipine and valsartan are widely coadministered to patients with hypertension, their drug–drug interaction potential has not been investigated. This study compared the pharmacokinetic (PK), pharmacodynamic (PD), and tolerability profiles of cilnidipine and valsartan, both alone and in combination, in healthy male subjects. Patients and methods Fifty-four subjects, enrolled into an open-label, single-dose, three-treatment, three-period crossover study, randomly received cilnidipine (10 mg), valsartan (160 mg), or both according to one of six sequences. Blood samples were collected at baseline and up to 24 hours after drug administration in each period. Plasma concentrations of cilnidipine and valsartan were determined by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) and area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to the last measurable time (AUClast) were estimated using a noncompartmental method. Tolerability was evaluated by assessing adverse events (AEs), vital signs, electrocardiograms, and clinical laboratory tests. Blood pressure was also measured for PD assessment. Results A total of 51 subjects completed the study. The PK profile of cilnidipine was not significantly affected by coadministered valsartan; the geometric mean ratio and 90% confidence interval (90% CI) of AUClast for cilnidipine with and without valsartan was 1.04 (0.98–1.10). Likewise, cilnidipine did not affect the PK of valsartan; the geometric mean ratio (90% CI) of AUClast for valsartan with and without cilnidipine was 0.94 (0.83–1.07). Coadministration of cilnidipine and valsartan reduced blood pressure in an additive way. No serious AEs were reported, and both cilnidipine and valsartan were well tolerated. Conclusion Coadministered cilnidipine and valsartan do not cause a significant PK or PD interaction, and they are well tolerated. PMID:25336921

  4. Evaluation of algorithms for photon depth of interaction estimation for the TRIMAGE PET component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camarlinghi, Niccolo; Belcari, Nicola [University of Pisa (Italy); Cerello, Piergiorgio [University of Torino (Italy); Sportelli, Giancarlo [University of Pisa (Italy); Pennazio, Francesco [University of Torino (Italy); Zaccario, Emanuele; Del Guerra, Alberto [University of Pisa (Italy)

    2015-05-18

    The TRIMAGE consortium aims to develop a multimodal PET/MR/EEG brain scanner dedicated to the early diagnosis of schizophrenia and other mental health disorders. The PET component features a full ring made of 18 detectors, each one consisting of twelve 8x8 Silicon PhotoMultipliers (SiPMs) tiles coupled to two segmented LYSO crystal matrices with staggered layers. In each module, the crystals belonging to the bottom layer are coupled one to one to the SiPMs, while each crystal of the top layer is coupled to four crystals of the bottom layer. This configuration allows to increase the crystal thickness while reducing the depth of interaction uncertainty, as photons interacting in different layers are expected to produce different light patterns on the SiPMs. The PET scanner will implement the pixel/layer identification on a front-end FPGA. This will allow increasing the effective bandwidth, setting at the same time restrictions on the complexity of the algorithms to be implemented. In this work two algorithms whose implementation is feasible directly on an FPGA are presented and evaluated. The first algorithm implements a method based on adaptive thresholding, while the other uses a linear Support Vector Machine (SVM) trained to distinguish the light pattern coming from two different layers. The validation of the algorithm performance is carried out by using simulated data generated with the GAMOS Monte Carlo. The obtained results show that the achieved accuracy in layer and pixel identification is above the 90% for both the proposed approaches.

  5. Methods used in evaluating data for the interaction of neutrons with light elements (A < 19)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, L.

    1980-01-01

    In the interaction of neutrons with light nuclei, many anomalies are observed. In particular, the probability for gamma-ray production is generally small over most of the neutron energy range. On the other hand, 6 Li, 3 He, 10 B, and 7 Be have thermal absorption cross sections which range from 940 to 48,000 barns. 10 B is the only isotope that has a positive Q for a 3-body reaction, the (n,t2α). As the neutron energy increases, however, 3- and 4-particle direct breakup and sequential formation cross sections dominate the nonelastic for D, T, 6 Li, 7 Be, 10 B, and 12 C above a few MeV. For higher-mass isotopes, particle emission (protons and α's) are often the preferred mode for deexcitation of levels excited via (n,n') reactions, where energetically possible. Very few of these partial cross sections have been measured with the necessary precision. Problems are particularly inherent in experiments on negative-Q reactions near the 3-body threshold. The many-body problem must be treated as several two-body sequential steps in a theoretical analysis; the emitted particle angular distribution is required as input, but is rarely known. Precise knowledge about individual partial cross sections is often important, especially when neutron multiplication, breeding of fusion fuel, radioactive contamination, depletion or buildup of the target, energy transfer, or time-dependent parameters are required. Specific examples are described for the evaluation of neutron interactions with light elements which employ isotopic spin, inverse reactions, charge-conjugate reactions, and the elastic scattering of charged particles (with Wick's Limit). 18 figures, 1 table

  6. A GOAL QUESTION METRIC (GQM APPROACH FOR EVALUATING INTERACTION DESIGN PATTERNS IN DRAWING GAMES FOR PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Sulistiyo Kusumo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an increasing interest to use smart devices’ drawing games for educational benefit. In Indonesia, our government classifies children age four to six years old as preschool children. Not all preschool children can use drawing games easily. Further, drawing games may not fulfill all Indonesia's preschool children’s drawing competencies. This research proposes to use Goal-Question Metric (GQM to investigate and evaluate interaction design patterns of preschool children in order to achieve the drawing competencies for preschool children in two drawing Android-based games: Belajar Menggambar (in English: Learn to Draw and Coret: Belajar Menggambar (in English: Scratch: Learn to Draw. We collected data from nine students of a preschool children education in a user research. The results show that GQM can assist to evaluate interaction design patterns in achieving the drawing competencies. Our approach can also yield interaction design patterns by comparing interaction design patterns in two drawing games used.

  7. Evaluation of an interactive case simulation system in dermatology and venereology for medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hindbeck Hans

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most of the many computer resources used in clinical teaching of dermatology and venereology for medical undergraduates are information-oriented and focus mostly on finding a "correct" multiple-choice alternative or free-text answer. We wanted to create an interactive computer program, which facilitates not only factual recall but also clinical reasoning. Methods Through continuous interaction with students, a new computerised interactive case simulation system, NUDOV, was developed. It is based on authentic cases and contains images of real patients, actors and healthcare providers. The student selects a patient and proposes questions for medical history, examines the skin, and suggests investigations, diagnosis, differential diagnoses and further management. Feedback is given by comparing the user's own suggestions with those of a specialist. In addition, a log file of the student's actions is recorded. The program includes a large number of images, video clips and Internet links. It was evaluated with a student questionnaire and by randomising medical students to conventional teaching (n = 85 or conventional teaching plus NUDOV (n = 31 and comparing the results of the two groups in a final written examination. Results The questionnaire showed that 90% of the NUDOV students stated that the program facilitated their learning to a large/very large extent, and 71% reported that extensive working with authentic computerised cases made it easier to understand and learn about diseases and their management. The layout, user-friendliness and feedback concept were judged as good/very good by 87%, 97%, and 100%, respectively. Log files revealed that the students, in general, worked with each case for 60–90 min. However, the intervention group did not score significantly better than the control group in the written examination. Conclusion We created a computerised case simulation program allowing students to manage patients in a non

  8. Importance of Sodium Fuel Interaction in Fast Reactor Safety Evaluation - CEA Point of View

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanguy, P.

    1976-01-01

    The consequences of interactions between molten metal (aluminium-uranium alloy) and water have long been a subject of concern for those in charge of reactor safety, following accidents observed or induced in certain reactors (BORAX, SL1, SPERT 1 D). In such accidents, as in similar cases occurring in traditional industries (aluminium foundries, steel works, paper mills...) the contact between the hot liquid product and the coolant entails rapid vaporization of the latter with effects identical to that of an explosive. Although chemical reactions of water decomposition occur in some cases, the main phenomenon is the conversion of the thermal energy stored in the hot substance into mechanical energy. Despite the fact that a molten oxide fuel differs from an aluminium-uranium alloy, as does sodium from water, the consequences of possible contact between the molten mixed uranium and plutonium oxide and sodium must be carefully studied since such a contact may occur in accident conditions in sodium-cooled fast neutron reactors. The essential purpose of an evaluation of reactor safety in accident conditions is in fact to ensure the containment of dangerous products Consequently, any phenomenon likely to endanger containment barriers must be carefully examined. In conclusion: Whereas an accident within an assembly seems to show little likelihood of creating conditions seriously endangering fuel containment, the gravity of problems associated with an overall accident on the core is worthy of thorough and attentive study. In the case of an overall accident on the core of a fast reactor, the interaction between the molten fuel and the sodium is of consequence at two levels. The first is the retention of mechanical energy which may be considerable. The second is the recovery of fuel fragments in an overall cooled configuration but where local cooling problems may give rise to interaction. A greater effort is required in performing tests and mastering their results to

  9. Evaluation of novel candidate variations and their interactions related to bipolar disorders: Analysis of GWAS data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acikel C

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cengizhan Acikel,1 Yesim Aydin Son,2 Cemil Celik,3 Husamettin Gul4 1Department of Biostatistics, Gulhane Military Medical Academy, 2Department of Health Informatics, Graduate School of Informatics, Middle East Technical University, 3Department of Medical Psychiatry, 4Department of Medical Informatics, Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Ankara, Turkey Background: Multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR is a nonparametric approach that can be used to detect relevant interactions between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. The aim of this study was to build the best genomic model based on SNP associations and to identify candidate polymorphisms that are the underlying molecular basis of the bipolar disorders. Methods: This study was performed on Whole-Genome Association Study of Bipolar Disorder (dbGaP [database of Genotypes and Phenotypes] study accession number: phs000017.v3.p1 data. After preprocessing of the genotyping data, three classification-based data mining methods (ie, random forest, naïve Bayes, and k-nearest neighbor were performed. Additionally, as a nonparametric, model-free approach, the MDR method was used to evaluate the SNP profiles. The validity of these methods was evaluated using true classification rate, recall (sensitivity, precision (positive predictive value, and F-measure. Results: Random forests, naïve Bayes, and k-nearest neighbors identified 16, 13, and ten candidate SNPs, respectively. Surprisingly, the top six SNPs were reported by all three methods. Random forests and k-nearest neighbors were more successful than naïve Bayes, with recall values >0.95. On the other hand, MDR generated a model with comparable predictive performance based on five SNPs. Although different SNP profiles were identified in MDR compared to the classification-based models, all models mapped SNPs to the DOCK10 gene. Conclusion: Three classification-based data mining approaches, random forests, naïve Bayes, and k-nearest neighbors

  10. Evaluation of Lagrangian, Eulerian, and arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian methods for fluid-structure interaction problems in HCDA analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.W.; Chu, H.Y.; Gvildys, J.; Wang, C.Y.

    1979-01-01

    The analysis of fluid-structure interaction involves the calculation of both fluid transient and structure dynamics. In the structural analysis, Lagrangian meshes have been used exclusively, whereas for the fluid transient, Lagrangian, Eulerian, and arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (quasi-Eulerian) meshes have been used. This paper performs an evaluation on these three types of meshes. The emphasis is placed on the applicability of the method in analyzing fluid-structure interaction problems in HCDA analysis

  11. Evaluating Types of Students' Interactions in a Wiki-Based Collaborative Learning Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokofieva, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Wiki technology has been promoted as a collaborative software platform. This study investigates interactions that occur in a wiki-based collaborative learning project. The study draws on interaction literature and investigates the types of interactions with which students are engaged in wiki-based group projects, clusters that reflect online…

  12. Consensus-based evaluation of clinical significance and management of anticancer drug interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansman, F.G.A.; Reyners, A.K.L.; van Roon, E.N.; Smorenburg, C.H.; Helgason, H.H.; le Comte, M.; Wensveen, B.M.; van den Tweel, A.M.A.; de Blois, M.; Kwee, W.; Kerremans, A.L.; Brouwers, J.R.B.J.

    Background: Anticancer drug interactions can affect the efficacy and toxicity of anticancer treatment and that of the interacting drugs. However, information on the significance, prevention, and management of these interactions is currently lacking. Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess

  13. Social interactions between people with dementia: pilot evaluation of an observational instrument in a nursing home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mabire, J.B.; Gay, M.C.; Vrignaud, P.; Garitte, C.; Vernooij-Dassen, M.J.F.J.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In dementia, cognitive and psychological disorders might interfere with maintaining social interactions. We have little information about the nature of these interactions of people with dementia in nursing homes. The aim of this study is to investigate social interactions between people

  14. Structuring Design and Evaluation of an Interactive Installation Through Swarms of Light Rays with Human-Artifact Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erkut, Cumhur; Fehr, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    We present the design and evaluation of an interactive installation to be explored by movement and sound under Human-Activity Model. In the installation, movement qualities that are extracted from the motion tracking data excite a dynamical system (a synthetic flock of agents), which responds...... out a questionnaire afterwards. In this paper, we report our preliminary work on the analysis of the tensions of interaction with the installation under the Human-Artifact Model. Our results indicate exploration and discovery as the main motives of the interaction. This is different than utilitarian...

  15. EVALUATING THE TARGET, EFFECT, ACTION INTERACTION (TEA MODEL OF SPINAL MANIPULATION THERAPY ON SACROILIAC JOINT DYSFUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Salman Bashir

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: In physical therapy, usually the effects of treatment on any condition will be evaluated based on the mode of action on the target tissue. Some treatments will have direct and indirect effects. Due to indirect effects, there may be changes in other tissues or systems in and around the target tissue. The interaction between target, effect, and action was studied under TEA model. In sacroiliac joint dysfunction, Muscle Energy Technique (MET and Spinal Manipulation Therapy (SMT were proved as useful treatment approaches but one is targeted on muscles (MET the other targets on joint (SMT. The indirect effects of both the approaches can’t be neglected. This study focused on evaluating indirect effects of SMT. Methods: A pilot study was conducted to see the effect of Spinal Manipulation Therapy on muscles (Transverse Abdominus, Internal Oblique when applied in patients with sacroiliac joint dysfunction. 44 subjects diagnosed with sacroiliac joint dysfunction were recruited in the study. Resting thickness was measured by ultrasound before and after Spinal Manipulation Therapy. SPSS version 17 was used for statistical analysis. Paired t-test compared pre and post test results. Results: After conducting Pilot study revealed that Pre resting thickness of Transverse Abdominus and Internal Oblique is (3.5±0.10 and (5.47± 0.15 Post resting Thickness of TrA (Transverse Abdominus and Internal Oblique (IO is (3.90±0.12 and (7.63±0.80 Results are significant as P-Value 0.000 that is <0.05. Conclusion: Here is concluded that SMT is a useful method to treat muscles through its direct action is on the Sacroiliac joint in Sacroiliac joint dysfunction. So we can use it for treating muscles by applying on joints (Indirect method.

  16. IDRC and BetterEvaluation launch an interactive guide to manage ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-10-21

    Oct 21, 2016 ... ... evaluations, this guide is intended for program and project managers. ... used to hire evaluators, and guide the management of the evaluation. ... Strategic Evaluation on Communicating Research for Influence: Part I.

  17. Evaluating interactive computer-based scenarios designed for learning medical technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Johanna; Dalholm, Elisabeth Hornyánszky; Wallergård, Mattias; Johansson, Gerd

    2014-11-01

    The use of medical equipment is growing in healthcare, resulting in an increased need for resources to educate users in how to manage the various devices. Learning the practical operation of a device is one thing, but learning how to work with the device in the actual clinical context is more challenging. This paper presents a computer-based simulation prototype for learning medical technology in the context of critical care. Properties from simulation and computer games have been adopted to create a visualization-based, interactive and contextually bound tool for learning. A participatory design process, including three researchers and three practitioners from a clinic for infectious diseases, was adopted to adjust the form and content of the prototype to the needs of the clinical practice and to create a situated learning experience. An evaluation with 18 practitioners showed that practitioners were positive to this type of tool for learning and that it served as a good platform for eliciting and sharing knowledge. Our conclusion is that this type of tools can be a complement to traditional learning resources to situate the learning in a context without requiring advanced technology or being resource-demanding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluating the interaction of a tracheobronchial stent in an ovine in-vivo model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Donnacha J; Thiebes, Anja Lena; Cornelissen, Christian G; O'Brien, Barry; Jockenhoevel, Stefan; Bruzzi, Mark; McHugh, Peter E

    2018-04-01

    Tracheobronchial stents are used to restore patency to stenosed airways. However, these devices are associated with many complications such as stent migration, granulation tissue formation, mucous plugging and stent strut fracture. Of these, granulation tissue formation is the complication that most frequently requires costly secondary interventions. In this study a biomechanical lung modelling framework recently developed by the authors to capture the lung in-vivo stress state under physiological loading is employed in conjunction with ovine pre-clinical stenting results and device experimental data to evaluate the effect of stent interaction on granulation tissue formation. Stenting is simulated using a validated model of a prototype covered laser-cut tracheobronchial stent in a semi-specific biomechanical lung model, and physiological loading is performed. Two computational methods are then used to predict possible granulation tissue formation: the standard method which utilises the increase in maximum principal stress change, and a newly proposed method which compares the change in contact pressure over a respiratory cycle. These computational predictions of granulation tissue formation are then compared to pre-clinical stenting observations after a 6-week implantation period. Experimental results of the pre-clinical stent implantation showed signs of granulation tissue formation both proximally and distally, with a greater proximal reaction. The standard method failed to show a correlation with the experimental results. However, the contact change method showed an apparent correlation with granulation tissue formation. These results suggest that this new method could be used as a tool to improve future device designs.

  19. Study on the analytical methods to evaluate the interaction effects of embedded nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuzawa, R.; Chiba, O.; Tohdo, M.; Hatori, T.

    1987-01-01

    For the seismic response analyses of nuclear power plants which are more or less embedded into soil medium, it is very important to evaluate the interactive effects on the interface between soil and foundation wall, such as wave propagation to infinity radiated from the side wall. The methods generally used in these analyses can be classified into the two basic procedures. One is the direct procedure in which a structure and soil are medeled together into finite elements or beam elements having the quiet boundary; transmitting boundary, non-reflecting boundary. The other is the substructure procedure in which the computational procedure is divided into two steps. In the first step the behavior of massless foundation due to an external force and seismic motion under the assumption as rigid foundation is analyzed, and the results are represented by impedance functions and foundation input motions. Using the results, the structural response analyses are performed. Taking the substructure procedure for seismic response analyses of embedded nuclear power plants, it is the purpose of this paper to present the features of solutions on impedance functions and foundation input motions obtained by various methods such as 3- or 2-dimensional approach, and their influences on structural responses

  20. Redesign of a computerized clinical reminder for colorectal cancer screening: a human-computer interaction evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleem Jason J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Based on barriers to the use of computerized clinical decision support (CDS learned in an earlier field study, we prototyped design enhancements to the Veterans Health Administration's (VHA's colorectal cancer (CRC screening clinical reminder to compare against the VHA's current CRC reminder. Methods In a controlled simulation experiment, 12 primary care providers (PCPs used prototypes of the current and redesigned CRC screening reminder in a within-subject comparison. Quantitative measurements were based on a usability survey, workload assessment instrument, and workflow integration survey. We also collected qualitative data on both designs. Results Design enhancements to the VHA's existing CRC screening clinical reminder positively impacted aspects of usability and workflow integration but not workload. The qualitative analysis revealed broad support across participants for the design enhancements with specific suggestions for improving the reminder further. Conclusions This study demonstrates the value of a human-computer interaction evaluation in informing the redesign of information tools to foster uptake, integration into workflow, and use in clinical practice.

  1. On-orbit evaluation of the control system/structural mode interactions on OSO-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slafer, L. I.

    1980-01-01

    The Orbiting Solar Observatory-8 experienced severe structural mode/control loop interaction problems during the spacecraft development. Extensive analytical studies, using the hybrid coordinate modeling approach, and comprehensive ground testing were carried out in order to achieve the system's precision pointing performance requirements. A recent series of flight tests were conducted with the spacecraft in which a wide bandwidth, high resolution telemetry system was utilized to evaluate the on-orbit flexible dynamics characteristics of the vehicle along with the control system performance. This paper describes the results of these tests, reviewing the basic design problem, analytical approach taken, ground test philosophy, and on-orbit testing. Data from the tests was used to determine the primary mode frequency, damping, and servo coupling dynamics for the on-orbit condition. Additionally, the test results have verified analytically predicted differences between the on-orbit and ground test environments. The test results have led to a validation of both the analytical modeling and servo design techniques used during the development of the control system, and also verified the approach taken to vehicle and servo ground testing.

  2. Evaluation of physical and chemical properties and their interactions in fat, oil, and grease (FOG) deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Martin A; Jensen, Jeanette L; Gracz, Hanna S; Dancer, Jens; Keener, Kevin M

    2017-10-15

    Fat, oil and grease (FOG) blockages in sewer systems are a substantial problem in the United States. It has been estimated that over 50% of sewer overflows are a result of FOG blockages. In this work, a thorough laboratory study was undertaken to examine key variables that contribute to FOG deposit formation under controlled conditions. Physical and chemical properties and their interactions were evaluated and conditions that generated deposits that mimicked field FOG deposits were identified. It was found that 96 of the of 128 reaction conditions tested in the laboratory formed FOG deposits with similar physical and chemical characteristics as field FOG deposits. It was also found that FOG deposits can be created through fatty acid crystallization and not just saponification. Furthermore FOG deposits were found to be more complex than previously documented and contain free fatty acids, fatty acid metal salts, triacylglycerol's, diacylglycerol's and, monoacylglycerol's. Lastly it was found that FOG deposits that only contained saturated fatty acids were on average 2.1 times higher yield strength than deposits that contained unsaturated fatty acids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of creep-fatigue/ environment interaction in Ni-base wrought alloys for HTGR application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Hiroshi; Kitagawa, Masaki; Ohtomo, Akira

    1986-01-01

    High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) systems should be designed based on the high temperature structural strength design procedures. On the development of design code, the determination of failure criteria under cyclic loading and severe environments is one of the most important items. By using the previous experimental data for Ni-base wrought alloys, Inconel 617 and Hastelloy XR, several evaluation methods for creep-fatigue interaction were examined for their capability to predict their cyclic loading behavior for HTGR application. At first, the strainrange partitioning method, the frequency modified damage function and the linear damage summation rule were discussed. However, these methods were not satisfactory with the above experimental results. Thus, in this paper, a new fracture criterion, which is a modification of the linear damage summation rule, is proposed based on the experimental data. In this criterion, fracture is considered to occur when the sum of the fatigue damage, which is the function of the applied cyclic strain magnitude, and the modified creep damage, which is the function of the applied cyclic stress magnitude (determined as time devided by cyclic creep rupture time reflecting difference of creep damages by tensile creep and compressive creep), reaches a constant value. This criterion was successfully applied to the life prediction of materials at HTGR temperatures. (author)

  4. Electrochemical evaluation of avidin-biotin interaction on self-assembled gold electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, S.-J.; Chang, B.-W.; Wu, C.-C.; Lai, M.-F.; Chang, H.-C.

    2005-01-01

    The avidin-biotin interaction on 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid self-assembled gold electrodes was investigated by means of cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The interfacial properties of the modified electrodes were evaluated in the presence of the Fe(China) 6 3-/4- couple redox as a probe. A simple equivalent circuit model with a constant phase element was used to interpret the obtained impedance spectra. The results of cyclic voltammetry showed that the voltammetric behavior of the redox probe was influenced by the electrode surface modification. It is evident that the accumulation of treated substances and the binding of biotin to avidin on the electrode surface resulted in the increasing electron-transfer resistance and the decreasing capacitance. The changes in the electron-transfer resistance on the avidin-modified electrodes were more sensitive than that in the capacitance while detecting biotin over the 2-10 μg/mL concentration. The detection amount can be as low as 20 ng/mL based on the electron-transfer resistance that presented the change of 4.3 kΩ without the use of labels. The development of a rapid, facile, and sensitive method for the quantitation of nanogram quantities of biomolecules utilizing EIS may be achieved

  5. Synthesis of dimeric arylβ-D-galactopyranosides for the evaluation of their interaction with the Erythrina cristagalli lectin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, Rute Cunha; Meyer, Nadia Burkowski; Prado, Maria Auxiliadora Fontes; Alves, Ricardo Jose; Rojo, Javier

    2009-01-01

    The synthesis of two new D-galactose-based dimers having a 1,4-butanediamine spacer is reported aiming at the evaluation of their interaction with the Erythrina cristagalli lectin. The title compounds were prepared in four and five steps from 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-β-D-galactopyranoside bromide, in 20 % and 15 % overall yield, respectively, using the Doebner modification of the Koenavenagel reaction as the key sep. The lectin-carbohydrate interaction could be evaluated for only one dimer, due to solubility problems. A twofold enhancement of affinity was observed, compared to the corresponding monovalent ligand. (author)

  6. Streamlined analysis technique for the evaluation of pellet clad interaction in PWR reload cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beard, Ch.; Morita, T.; Brown, J.

    2007-01-01

    For some applications, an analysis is required to explicitly demonstrate that fuel failure due to pellet-clad interaction (PCI) is prevented by the core limits and the protection system for both Condition I (normal operation) operation and for Condition II (events of moderate frequency) events. This analysis needs to address the entire range of normal operation allowed by the Technical Specifications and all Condition II transients. The obvious approach which has been utilized for many years is a simulation of normal operation power maneuvers followed by explicit Condition II transients as a function of key core parameters. This is a sampling approach and has concerns about the overall coverage of the potential space. An alternative approach is the 3D FAC power distribution analysis methodology that was based upon the Westinghouse Relaxed Axial Offset Control Strategy (RAOC) evaluation process. The 3D FAC methodology uses a parametric representation of variables affecting the power distributions, defining a grid mesh over a space of Condition I and Condition II parameters. The operation space is defined by a power range, temperature range, rod position range, axial offset range, core protection limits and representative xenon distributions. Then the 3D FAC evaluation consists of systematically calculating the 3D power distribution and margin to the core and fuel limits for each mesh point of this multi-dimensional space. The PCI margin is obtained by the comparison of the 3D power distributions over the Condition II space and the 3D maximum allowed power, which is dependent on the fuel rod history. The fuel history model utilizes the power history developed in the 3-dimensional nuclear analysis code to define local powers for the specified fuel rods to be analyzed. It tracks the rod history and provides the maximum allowed power for the point. This model is appropriate for base load operation, extended reduced power operation, return to power operation and

  7. Aircraft Abnormal Conditions Detection, Identification, and Evaluation Using Innate and Adaptive Immune Systems Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Azzawi, Dia

    Abnormal flight conditions play a major role in aircraft accidents frequently causing loss of control. To ensure aircraft operation safety in all situations, intelligent system monitoring and adaptation must rely on accurately detecting the presence of abnormal conditions as soon as they take place, identifying their root cause(s), estimating their nature and severity, and predicting their impact on the flight envelope. Due to the complexity and multidimensionality of the aircraft system under abnormal conditions, these requirements are extremely difficult to satisfy using existing analytical and/or statistical approaches. Moreover, current methodologies have addressed only isolated classes of abnormal conditions and a reduced number of aircraft dynamic parameters within a limited region of the flight envelope. This research effort aims at developing an integrated and comprehensive framework for the aircraft abnormal conditions detection, identification, and evaluation based on the artificial immune systems paradigm, which has the capability to address the complexity and multidimensionality issues related to aircraft systems. Within the proposed framework, a novel algorithm was developed for the abnormal conditions detection problem and extended to the abnormal conditions identification and evaluation. The algorithm and its extensions were inspired from the functionality of the biological dendritic cells (an important part of the innate immune system) and their interaction with the different components of the adaptive immune system. Immunity-based methodologies for re-assessing the flight envelope at post-failure and predicting the impact of the abnormal conditions on the performance and handling qualities are also proposed and investigated in this study. The generality of the approach makes it applicable to any system. Data for artificial immune system development were collected from flight tests of a supersonic research aircraft within a motion-based flight

  8. Streamlined analysis technique for the evaluation of pellet clad interaction in PWR reload cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beard, Ch.; Morita, T.; Brown, J. [Westinghouse Electric Company, LLC, Nuclear Fuel Div., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2007-07-01

    For some applications, an analysis is required to explicitly demonstrate that fuel failure due to pellet-clad interaction (PCI) is prevented by the core limits and the protection system for both Condition I (normal operation) operation and for Condition II (events of moderate frequency) events. This analysis needs to address the entire range of normal operation allowed by the Technical Specifications and all Condition II transients. The obvious approach which has been utilized for many years is a simulation of normal operation power maneuvers followed by explicit Condition II transients as a function of key core parameters. This is a sampling approach and has concerns about the overall coverage of the potential space. An alternative approach is the 3D FAC power distribution analysis methodology that was based upon the Westinghouse Relaxed Axial Offset Control Strategy (RAOC) evaluation process. The 3D FAC methodology uses a parametric representation of variables affecting the power distributions, defining a grid mesh over a space of Condition I and Condition II parameters. The operation space is defined by a power range, temperature range, rod position range, axial offset range, core protection limits and representative xenon distributions. Then the 3D FAC evaluation consists of systematically calculating the 3D power distribution and margin to the core and fuel limits for each mesh point of this multi-dimensional space. The PCI margin is obtained by the comparison of the 3D power distributions over the Condition II space and the 3D maximum allowed power, which is dependent on the fuel rod history. The fuel history model utilizes the power history developed in the 3-dimensional nuclear analysis code to define local powers for the specified fuel rods to be analyzed. It tracks the rod history and provides the maximum allowed power for the point. This model is appropriate for base load operation, extended reduced power operation, return to power operation and

  9. Comparative evaluation of the drug interaction screening programs MediQ and ID PHARMA CHECK in neurological inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorina, Olesya I; Haueis, Patrick; Semmler, Alexander; Marti, Isabelle; Gonzenbach, Roman R; Guzek, Markus; Kullak-Ublick, Gerd A; Weller, Michael; Russmann, Stefan

    2012-08-01

    The comparative evaluation of clinical decision support software (CDSS) programs regarding their sensitivity and positive predictive value for the identification of clinically relevant drug interactions. In this research, we used a cross-sectional study that identified potential drug interactions using the CDSS MediQ and the ID PHARMA CHECK in 484 neurological inpatients. Interactions were reclassified according to the Zurich Interaction System, a multidimensional classification that incorporates the Operational Classification of Drug Interactions. In 484 patients with 2812 prescriptions, MediQ and ID PHARMA CHECK generated a total of 1759 and 1082 alerts, respectively. MediQ identified 658 unique potentially interacting combinations, 8 classified as "high danger," 164 as "average danger," and 486 as "low danger." ID PHARMA CHECK detected 336 combinations assigned to one or several of 12 risk and management categories. Altogether, both CDSS issued alerts relating to 808 unique potentially interacting combinations. According to the Zurich Interaction System, 6 of these were contraindicated, 25 were provisionally contraindicated, 190 carried a conditional risk, and 587 had a minimal risk of adverse events. The positive predictive value for alerts having at least a conditional risk was 0.24 for MediQ and 0.48 for ID PHARMA CHECK. CDSS showed major differences in the identification and grading of interactions, and many interactions were only identified by one of the two CDSS. For both programs, only a small proportion of all identified interactions appeared clinically relevant, and the selected display of alerts that imply management changes is a key issue in the further development and local setup of such programs. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Evaluation of multiple intelligences in children aged 7 to 11 years through the implementation of an interactive software

    OpenAIRE

    Rebolledo Rodríguez, Rigel A.; Samaniego González, Euclides

    2017-01-01

    This document describes the evaluation project of multiple intelligences in children aged 7 to 11 years through the implementation of an interactive software, developed on Android for tablets, allowing parents, teachers, tutors, psy-chologists or other responsible adult, identifying the different types of intelligences that have children in order to know each other and develop their skills and their future potential. Similarly, research was developed to evaluate the effective-ness of the t...

  11. Measuring the Impact of a Moving Target: Towards a Dynamic Framework for Evaluating Collaborative Adaptive Interactive Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    O?Grady, Laura; Witteman, Holly; Bender, Jacqueline L; Urowitz, Sara; Wiljer, David; Jadad, Alejandro R

    2009-01-01

    Background Website evaluation is a key issue for researchers, organizations, and others responsible for designing, maintaining, endorsing, approving, and/or assessing the use and impact of interventions designed to influence health and health services. Traditionally, these evaluations have included elements such as content credibility, interface usability, and overall design aesthetics. With the emergence of collaborative, adaptive, and interactive ("Web 2.0") technologies such as wikis and o...

  12. Evaluation of documented drug interactions and contraindications associated with herbs and dietary supplements: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, H-H; Lin, H-W; Simon Pickard, A; Tsai, H-Y; Mahady, G B

    2012-11-01

    The use of herbs and dietary supplements (HDS) alone or concomitantly with medications can potentially increase the risk of adverse events experienced by the patients. This review aims to evaluate the documented HDS-drug interactions and contraindications. A structured literature review was conducted on PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, tertiary literature and Internet. While 85 primary literatures, six books and two web sites were reviewed for a total of 1,491 unique pairs of HDS-drug interactions, 213 HDS entities and 509 medications were involved. HDS products containing St. John's Wort, magnesium, calcium, iron, ginkgo had the greatest number of documented interactions with medications. Warfarin, insulin, aspirin, digoxin, and ticlopidine had the greatest number of reported interactions with HDS. Medications affecting the central nervous system or cardiovascular system had more documented interactions with HDS. Of the 882 HDS-drug interactions being described its mechanism and severity, 42.3% were due to altered pharmacokinetics and 240 were described as major interactions. Of the 152 identified HDS contraindications, the most frequent involved gastrointestinal (16.4%), neurological (14.5%), and renal/genitourinary diseases (12.5%). Flaxseed, echinacea, and yohimbe had the largest number of documented contraindications. Although HDS-drug interactions and contraindications primarily concerned a relatively small subset of commonly used medications and HDS entities, this review provides the summary to identify patients, HDS products, and medications that are more susceptible to HDS-drug interactions and contraindications. The findings would facilitate the health-care professionals to communicate these documented interactions and contraindications to their patients and/or caregivers thereby preventing serious adverse events and improving desired therapeutic outcomes. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Evaluating Multiple Levels of an Interaction Fidelity Continuum on Performance and Learning in Near-Field Training Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Ayush; Bertrand, Jeffrey W; Gramopadhye, Anand K; Madathil, Kapil C; Babu, Sabarish V

    2018-04-01

    With costs of head-mounted displays (HMDs) and tracking technology decreasing rapidly, various virtual reality applications are being widely adopted for education and training. Hardware advancements have enabled replication of real-world interactions in virtual environments to a large extent, paving the way for commercial grade applications that provide a safe and risk-free training environment at a fraction of the cost. But this also mandates the need to develop more intrinsic interaction techniques and to empirically evaluate them in a more comprehensive manner. Although there exists a body of previous research that examines the benefits of selected levels of interaction fidelity on performance, few studies have investigated the constituent components of fidelity in a Interaction Fidelity Continuum (IFC) with several system instances and their respective effects on performance and learning in the context of a real-world skills training application. Our work describes a large between-subjects investigation conducted over several years that utilizes bimanual interaction metaphors at six discrete levels of interaction fidelity to teach basic precision metrology concepts in a near-field spatial interaction task in VR. A combined analysis performed on the data compares and contrasts the six different conditions and their overall effects on performance and learning outcomes, eliciting patterns in the results between the discrete application points on the IFC. With respect to some performance variables, results indicate that simpler restrictive interaction metaphors and highest fidelity metaphors perform better than medium fidelity interaction metaphors. In light of these results, a set of general guidelines are created for developers of spatial interaction metaphors in immersive virtual environments for precise fine-motor skills training simulations.

  14. Understanding the Effect of Response Rate and Class Size Interaction on Students Evaluation of Teaching in a Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Kuwaiti, Ahmed; AlQuraan, Mahmoud; Subbarayalu, Arun Vijay

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to investigate the interaction between response rate and class size and its effects on students' evaluation of instructors and the courses offered at a higher education Institution in Saudi Arabia. Study Design: A retrospective study design was chosen. Methods: One thousand four hundred and forty four different courses…

  15. Designing and Evaluating Tutoring Feedback Strategies for Digital Learning Environments on the Basis of the Interactive Tutoring Feedback Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narciss, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the interactive tutoring feedback model (ITF-model; Narciss, 2006; 2008), and how it can be applied to the design and evaluation of feedback strategies for digital learning environments. The ITF-model conceptualizes formative tutoring feedback as a multidimensional instructional activity that aims at contributing to the…

  16. Evaluation of an Interactive Workshop Designed to Teach Practical Welfare Techniques to Beef Cattle Caretakers and Decision Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewell, Reneé; Hanthorn, Christy; Danielson, Jared; Burzette, Rebecca; Coetzee, Johann; Griffin, D. Dee; Ramirez, Alejandro; Dewell, Grant

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to evaluate the use of an interactive workshop designed to teach novel practical welfare techniques to beef cattle caretakers and decision makers. Following training, respondents reported being more likely to use or recommend use of local anesthesia for dehorning and castration and were more inclined to use meloxicam…

  17. An Evaluation of the Interactive Query Expansion in an Online Library Catalogue with a Graphical User Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock-Beaulieu, Micheline; And Others

    1995-01-01

    An online library catalog was used to evaluate an interactive query expansion facility based on relevance feedback for the Okapi, probabilistic, term weighting, retrieval system. A graphical user interface allowed searchers to select candidate terms extracted from relevant retrieved items to reformulate queries. Results suggested that the…

  18. CountMeIn: Evaluating Social Presence in a Collaborative Pervasive Mobile Game Using NFC and Touchscreen Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolbert, M.; El Ali, A.; Nack, F.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the motivation, design and evaluation of CountMeIn, a mobile collaborative pervasive memory game to revive social interactions in public places (e.g. a train station or bus stop). Two versions of CountMeIn were tested; an NFC-based and a touchscreen version. In a 2×1

  19. An Interactive 3D Virtual Anatomy Puzzle for Learning and Simulation - Initial Demonstration and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messier, Erik; Wilcox, Jascha; Dawson-Elli, Alexander; Diaz, Gabriel; Linte, Cristian A

    2016-01-01

    To inspire young students (grades 6-12) to become medical practitioners and biomedical engineers, it is necessary to expose them to key concepts of the field in a way that is both exciting and informative. Recent advances in medical image acquisition, manipulation, processing, visualization, and display have revolutionized the approach in which the human body and internal anatomy can be seen and studied. It is now possible to collect 3D, 4D, and 5D medical images of patient specific data, and display that data to the end user using consumer level 3D stereoscopic display technology. Despite such advancements, traditional 2D modes of content presentation such as textbooks and slides are still the standard didactic equipment used to teach young students anatomy. More sophisticated methods of display can help to elucidate the complex 3D relationships between structures that are so often missed when viewing only 2D media, and can instill in students an appreciation for the interconnection between medicine and technology. Here we describe the design, implementation, and preliminary evaluation of a 3D virtual anatomy puzzle dedicated to helping users learn the anatomy of various organs and systems by manipulating 3D virtual data. The puzzle currently comprises several components of the human anatomy and can be easily extended to include additional organs and systems. The 3D virtual anatomy puzzle game was implemented and piloted using three display paradigms - a traditional 2D monitor, a 3D TV with active shutter glass, and the DK2 version Oculus Rift, as well as two different user interaction devices - a space mouse and traditional keyboard controls.

  20. Experimental evaluation of the interaction between strength concrete block walls under vertical loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. O. CASTRO

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper aims to evaluate the interaction between structural masonry walls made of high performance concrete blocks, under vertical loads. Two H-shaped flanged wall series, all full scale and using direct bond, have been analyzed experimentally. In one series, three flanged-walls were built with the central wall (web supported and, in the other one, three specimens were built without any support at the central web. The load was applied on the central wall and vertical displacements were measured by means of displacement transducers located at eighteen points in the wall-assemblages. The results showed that the estimated load values for the flanges were close to those supported by the walls without central support, where 100% of the load transfer to the flanges occur. The average transfer load rate calculated based on the deformation ratio in the upper and lower section of the flanged-walls, with the central web support, were 37.65% and 77.30%, respectively, showing that there is load transfer from the central wall (web toward the flanges, particularly in the lower part of the flanged walls. Thus, there is indication that the distribution of vertical loads may be considered for projects of buildings for service load, such as in the method of isolated walls group. For estimation of the failure load, the method that considers the walls acting independently showed better results, due to the fact that failure started at the top of the central wall, where there is no effect of load distribution from the adjacent walls.

  1. Limbic-Auditory Interactions of Tinnitus: An Evaluation Using Diffusion Tensor Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunbey, H P; Gunbey, E; Aslan, K; Bulut, T; Unal, A; Incesu, L

    2017-06-01

    Tinnitus is defined as an imaginary subjective perception in the absence of an external sound. Convergent evidence proposes that tinnitus perception includes auditory, attentional and emotional components. The aim of this study was to investigate the thalamic, auditory and limbic interactions associated with tinnitus-related distress by Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI). A total of 36 tinnitus patients, 20 healthy controls underwent an audiological examination, as well as a magnetic resonance imaging protocol including structural and DTI sequences. All participants completed the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) and Visual Analog Scales (VAS) related with tinnitus. The fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were obtained for the auditory cortex (AC), inferior colliculus (IC), lateral lemniscus (LL), medial geniculate body (MGB), thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN), amygdala (AMG), hippocampus (HIP), parahippocampus (PHIP) and prefrontal cortex (PFC). In tinnitus patients the FA values of IC, MGB, TRN, AMG, HIP decreased and the ADC values of IC, MGB, TRN, AMG, PHIP increased significantly. The contralateral IC-LL and bilateral MGB FA values correlated negatively with hearing loss. A negative relation was found between the AMG-HIP FA values and THI and VAS scores. Bilateral ADC values of PHIP and PFC significantly correlated with the attention deficiency-VAS scores. In conclusion, this is the first DTI study to investigate the grey matter structures related to tinnitus perception and the significant correlation of FA and ADC with clinical parameters suggests that DTI can provide helpful information for tinnitus. Magnifying the microstructures in DTI can help evaluate the three faces of tinnitus nature: hearing, emotion and attention.

  2. Cytogenetic evaluation and DNA interaction studies of the food colorants amaranth, erythrosine and tartrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpountoukas, Panagiotis; Pantazaki, Anastasia; Kostareli, Efterpi; Christodoulou, Pantelitsa; Kareli, Dimitra; Poliliou, Stamatia; Mourelatos, Costas; Lambropoulou, Vasso; Lialiaris, Theodore

    2010-10-01

    Food coloring agents, amaranth, erythrosine and tartrazine have been tested at 0.02-8mM in human peripheral blood cells in vitro, in order to investigate their genotoxic, cytotoxic and cytostatic potential. Amaranth at the highest concentration (8mM) demonstrates high genotoxicity, cytostaticity and cytotoxicity. The frequency of SCEs/cell was increased 1.7 times over the control level. Additionally, erythrosine at 8, 4 and 2mM shows a high cytotoxicity and cytostaticity. Finally, tartrazine seems to be toxic at 8 and 4mM. No signs of genotoxicity were observed. Reversely, tartrazine showed cytotoxicity at 1 and 2mM. Furthermore, spectroscopic titration studies for the interaction of these food additives with DNA showed that these dyes bind to calf thymus DNA and distinct isosbestic points are observed clearly suggesting binding of the dyes to DNA. Additionally DNA electrophoretic mobility experiments showed that these colorants are obviously capable for strong binding to linear dsDNA causing its degradation. PCR amplification of all DNA fragments (which previously were pre-treated with three different concentrations of the colorants, extracted from agarose gel after separation and then purified), seems to be attenuated with a manner dye concentration-dependent reflecting in a delayed electrophoretic mobility due to the possible binding of some molecules of the dyes. Evaluation of the data and curves were obtained after quantitative and qualitative analysis of the lanes of the gel by an analyzer computer program. Our results indicate that these food colorants had a toxic potential to human lymphocytes in vitro and it seems that they bind directly to DNA. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Some fundamental aspects of fault-tree and digraph-matrix relationships for a systems-interaction evaluation procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alesso, H.P.

    1982-01-01

    Recent events, such as Three Mile Island-2, Brown's Ferry-3, and Crystal River-3, have demonstrated that complex accidents can occur as a result of dependent (common-cause/mode) failures. These events are now being called Systems Interactions. A procedure for the identification and evaluation of Systems Interactions is being developed by the NRC. Several national laboratories and utilities have contributed preliminary procedures. As a result, there are several important views of the Systems Interaction problem. This report reviews some fundamental mathematical background of both fault-oriented and success-oriented risk analyses in order to bring out the advantages and disadvantages of each. In addition, it outlines several fault-oriented/dependency analysis approaches and several success-oriented/digraph-matrix approaches. The objective is to obtain a broad perspective of present options for solving the Systems Interaction problem

  4. Development and Evaluation of an Interactive Electronic Laboratory Manual for Cooperative Learning of Medical Histology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Mohammed K.; Kirkley, Debbie L.; Kibble, Jonathan D.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the development of an interactive computer-based laboratory manual, created to facilitate the teaching and learning of medical histology. The overarching goal of developing the manual is to facilitate self-directed group interactivities that actively engage students during laboratory sessions. The design of the manual…

  5. Relevant patient perceptions and experiences for evaluating quality of interaction with physiotherapists during outpatient rehabilitation: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Baño-Aledo, M Elena; Medina-Mirapeix, Francesc; Escolar-Reina, Pilar; Montilla-Herrador, Joaquina; Collins, Sean M

    2014-03-01

    To identify elements of the physiotherapist-patient interaction considered by patients when they evaluate the quality of care in outpatient rehabilitation settings. A qualitative study with nine focus groups, Two researchers conducted the focus groups, and a topic guide with predetermined questions was used. Each group discussion was audiotaped,, transcribed verbatim and analyzed thematically according to a modified grounded theory approach. Three postacute ambulatory centers in Barcelona, Madrid and Seville (Spain). Fifty-seven adults undergoing outpatient rehabilitation for musculoskeletal conditions/injuries. Patients based their evaluations of quality of care on their assessment of physiotherapists' willingness to provide information and education, technical expertise and interpersonal manners (eg. respect, emotional support and sensitivity changes in the patient's status). Both positive and negative aspects of the physiotherapist-patient interaction emerged under all these themes, except for friendly and respectful communication. This study identified which elements of the physiotherapist-patient interaction are considered by patients when evaluating the quality of care in rehabilitation outpatient settings. Further research should work to develop self-report questionnaires about patients' experiences of the physiotherapist-patient interaction in rehabilitation services to provide empirical and quantitative evidence. Copyright © 2013 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Structure and interaction in dense colloidal systems: evaluation of scattering data by the generalized indirect Fourier transformation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, Gerhard; Glatter, Otto

    2006-01-01

    The generalized indirect Fourier transformation (GIFT) technique is a versatile tool for the evaluation of small angle scattering data. It does not depend on models for the size and shape of the particles and requires model assumptions only for the interaction effects that are typically not as sensitive to the details of the assumptions. We review here the development of the technique from its inception, focusing on the included interaction models for hard, charged and attractive spheres, and lamellae. A considerable number of applications has also been reported ranging from surfactants, emulsions, microemulsions, food science, and ceramics to melts and block-copolymers

  7. A general method, a la Transport, for evaluation of the perturbing effects of solenoidal inserts in storage ring interaction regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, J.J.

    1976-07-01

    It may be expected that solenoid magnets will be used in many storage ring experiments. Typically an insert would consist of a main solenoid at the interaction point with a symmetrical pair of compensating solenoids located somewhere between the main solenoid and the ends of the interaction region. The magnetic fields of such an insert may significantly affect storage ring performance. We suggest here a simple, systematic method for evaluation of the effects, which together with adequate design supervision and field measurements will help to prevent any serious operational problems that might result if significant perturbations went unnoticed. 5 refs

  8. GSFLOW model simulations used to evaluate the impact of irrigated agriculture on surface water - groundwater interaction

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Watershed-scale coupled surface water (SW) – groundwater (GW) flow modeling was used to examine changes in streamflow and SW – GW interaction resulting from...

  9. Soil-structure interaction effects on the reliability evaluation of reactor containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires, J.; Hwang, H.; Reich, M.

    1986-01-01

    The probability-based method for the seismic reliability assessment of nuclear structures, which has been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), is extended to include the effects of soil-structure interaction. A reinforced concrete containment building is analyzed in order to examine soil-structure interaction effects on: (1) structural fragilities; (2) floor response spectra statistics; and (3) correlation coefficients for total acceleration responses at specified structural locations

  10. Cannabidiol exhibits anxiolytic but not antipsychotic property evaluated in the social interaction test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Valéria; Levin, Raquel; Peres, Fernanda Fiel; Niigaki, Suzy T; Calzavara, Mariana B; Zuardi, Antônio W; Hallak, Jaime E; Crippa, José A; Abílio, Vanessa C

    2013-03-05

    Cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychotomimetic compound of the Cannabis sativa, has been reported to have central therapeutic actions, such as antipsychotic and anxiolytic effects. We have recently reported that Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHRs) present a deficit in social interaction that is ameliorated by atypical antipsychotics. In addition, SHRs present a hyperlocomotion that is reverted by typical and atypical antipsychotics, suggesting that this strain could be useful to study negative symptoms (modeled by a decrease in social interaction) and positive symptoms (modeled by hyperlocomotion) of schizophrenia as well as the effects of potential antipsychotics drugs. At the same time, an increase in social interaction in control animals similar to that induced by benzodiazepines is used to screen potential anxiolytic drugs. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of CBD on social interaction presented by control animals (Wistar) and SHRs. The lowest dose of CBD (1mg/kg) increased passive and total social interaction of Wistar rats. However, the hyperlocomotion and the deficit in social interaction displayed by SHRs were not altered by any dose of CBD. Our results do not support an antipsychotic property of cannabidiol on symptoms-like behaviors in SHRs but reinforce the anxiolytic profile of this compound in control rats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of the Humanity Research Paradigms based on Analysis of Human – Environment Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Sameh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available As claimed by many behavioral scientists, designing should be based on the knowledge of interaction between human and environment. Environmental quality is also created in the context in which humans interact with their environment. To achieve such quality, designers should develop appropriate models for explaining this relationship, and this requires an understanding of human nature and the environment. Criticisms on the Modern Movement have shown that architects have often used incomplete and simplistic models in this regard, while most of design ideas are based on the definitions of human and environment and the interaction between them. However, the most important question that is raised is that how understanding of human nature and the environment and their interaction, which depends on foundations of different views, can affect the pursuit of quality in designing? Therefore, the present paper, in addition to introduction and comparison of common paradigms in humanities as the and methodological foundation of human sciences, aims to deal with the relationship of human and the environment from the perspective of objectivist, relativist, and critical paradigms in order to identify the characteristics and differences in their views on the analysis of the quality of this interaction. This is the most important step that paves the way for understanding the qualitative foundations of the environment and human life quality and also the quality of interaction between them.

  12. DISTANCE LEARNING STUDENTS’ NEED: Evaluating Interactions from Moore’s Theory of Transactional Distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusmanizah USTATI

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study draws on the experience from a focus group interviews under the distance learning programme known as Program Pensiswazahan Guru (PPG organized by the Malaysian Ministry of Education in collaboration with local universities and institutes of education. Its purpose is to uncover students’ perception about the platform used by International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM which is the Learning Management System (LMS. LMS is a vital instructional medium especially for the varsity distant learners. Michael Moore’s Theory of Transactional Distance is used as the guiding framework to gain insights on learning and interactions in this e-learning setting. Teacher-student interactions are analyzed for better understanding of the phenomena under study. The findings indicate that in terms of usability LMS is perceived as a good platform to acquire information on content and to receive feedback from instructors. However, IIUM learners hope for more interactivity where learners can communicate amongst themselves beside engaging with the instructor-learner- content interactions that they currently experience via the system. This study aspires to provide insights on the significance of interactions from distance learners’ perception.

  13. A conceptual framework to evaluate human-wildlife interactions within coupled human and natural systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita T. Morzillo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Landscape characteristics affect human-wildlife interactions. However, there is a need to better understand mechanisms that drive those interactions, particularly feedbacks that exist between wildlife-related impacts, human reaction to and behavior as a result of those impacts, and how land use and landscape characteristics may influence those components within coupled human and natural systems. Current conceptual models of human-wildlife interactions often focus on species population size as the independent variable driving those interactions. Such an approach potentially overlooks important feedbacks among and drivers of human-wildlife interactions that result from mere wildlife presence versus absence. We describe an emerging conceptual framework that focuses on wildlife as a driver of human behavior and allows us to better understand linkages between humans, wildlife, and the broader landscape. We also present results of a pilot analysis related to our own ongoing study of urban rodent control behavior to illustrate one application of this framework within a study of urban landscapes.

  14. Evaluation of Drug Interactions and Prescription Errors of Poultry Veterinarians in North of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madadi MS

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Drug prescription errors are a common cause of adverse incidents and may lead to adverse outcomes, sometimes in subtle ways, being compounded by circumstances or further errors. Therefore, it is important that veterinarians issue the correct drug at the correct dose. Using two or more prescribed drugs may lead to drug interactions. Some drug interactions are very harmful and may have potential threats to the patient's health that is called antagonism. In a survey study, medication errors of 750 prescriptions, including dosage errors and drug interactions were studied. The results indicated that 20.8% of prescriptions had at least one drug interaction. The most interactions were related to antibiotics (69.1%, Sulfonamides (46.7%, Methenamine (46.7% and Florfenicol (20.2%. Analysis of dosage errors indicated that total drugs consumed by broilers in the summer are more than winter seasons. Based on these results, avoiding medication errors are important in the balanced prescribing of drugs and regular education of veterinary practitioners in a certain interval is needed.

  15. Systematic research review of observational approaches used to evaluate mother-child mealtime interactions during preschool years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmeier, Heidi; Skouteris, Helen; Hetherington, Marion

    2015-01-01

    The family meal and social interactions during the meal are important events in a child's life. Specifically, mealtime interactions have been linked to child weight status, the development of children's eating patterns, and socialization. Mealtime interactions may be observed and evaluated to provide insights into this important event beyond self-reported measurements. We aimed to identify, review, and examine studies in which mother-child mealtime behaviors were measured through observation. MEDLINE Complete, PsycINFO, and PsycARTICLES were systematically searched by using sensitive search strategies. We included observational studies of mother-child eating and mealtimes and associations between mother-child interactions and preschool child eating or weight status published to March 2014. Thirteen articles were included in our review. All studies but one were cross-sectional, and none of the studies evaluated how mutual dimensions (e.g., parent responsiveness to the child and child responsiveness to the parent) of dyadic interactions between mothers and children influence maternal feeding practices, children's eating, and weight. The parenting style was associated with maternal feeding practices but not directly with children's eating. Parental discouragements to eat and negative statements about food were associated with higher child weight status. Parental encouragement to eat was associated with higher child weight status as well as maternal body mass index. No associations were shown between maternal reports of feeding practices and observed maternal feeding practices. Parents' overarching attitudes and approaches to parenting appear to be associated with their feeding practices or styles. Future studies should implement longitudinal observational methods with the capacity to measure levels of dimensions within bidirectional parent-child interactions and the extent to which these factors influence maternal practices, children's eating, and weight status.

  16. Evaluation of the effect of prepulses on HF laser-target interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matzen, M.K.

    1979-06-01

    We have assessed the effect of multinanosecond, low-power-density prepulses on the interaction of multinanosecond, 10 14 W/cm 2 , approx. 3 -μm HF laser pulses with slab targets. The emphasis is on analyzing absorption and x-ray conversion efficiency. A survey of previous experiments gives no evidence that these prepulses will affect the total absorption. However, prepulses have been observed to cause qualitative changes in both the x-ray spectrum and conversion efficiency. Numerical simulations indicate that the laser-target interaction is effectively insensitive to low-power-density prepulses. These studies imply that basic laser-target experiments with multiplexed, HF laser pulses will provide an important characterization of the interaction of long pulse, multi-line, approx. 3 μm radiation with targets. Future wavelength comparison experiments will require prepulse suppression or target isolation

  17. Aging/Systems Interaction Study, Component Residual Lifetime Evaluation and Feasibility of Relicensing. Progress report, FY 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Close, J.A.; Jacobs, P.T.; Korth, G.E.; Mudlin, J.M.; Server, W.L.; Spaletta, H.W.

    1985-10-01

    This report documents the work performed on four research tasks in Fiscal Year 1985 (FY-1985) which were part of the Aging/Systems Interaction Study, Component Residual Lifetime Evaluation and Feasibility of Relicensing Project. The technical and management/institutional objectives for the project are described, followed by a description of the results of each task. The work on Task 1 involved identifying and prioritizing new research activities for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. A proposed methodology and plan for aging-system interaction studies was developed in Task 2. The description of Task 3 work comprises a summary of nuclear plant life extension activities in the US, the technical basis associated with the residual life of metallic materials and a proposed plan for research on residual life assessment. Task 4 describes the initial evaluation of selected Standard Review Plan (NUREG-0800) sections to investigate the feasibility of relicensing. 14 refs., 13 figs., 20 tabs

  18. Variants of SCARB1 and VDR Involved in Complex Genetic Interactions May Be Implicated in the Genetic Susceptibility to Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Pośpiech

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The current data are still inconclusive in terms of a genetic component involved in the susceptibility to renal cell carcinoma. Our aim was to evaluate 40 selected candidate polymorphisms for potential association with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC based on independent group of 167 patients and 200 healthy controls. The obtained data were searched for independent effects of particular polymorphisms as well as haplotypes and genetic interactions. Association testing implied position rs4765623 in the SCARB1 gene (OR=1.688, 95% CI: 1.104–2.582, P=0.016 and a haplotype in VDR comprising positions rs739837, rs731236, rs7975232, and rs1544410 (P=0.012 to be the risk factors in the studied population. The study detected several epistatic effects contributing to the genetic susceptibility to ccRCC. Variation in GNAS1 was implicated in a strong synergistic interaction with BIRC5. This effect was part of a model suggested by multifactor dimensionality reduction method including also a synergy between GNAS1 and SCARB1 (P=0.036. Significance of GNAS1-SCARB1 interaction was further confirmed by logistic regression (P=0.041, which also indicated involvement of SCARB1 in additional interaction with EPAS1 (P=0.008 as well as revealing interactions between GNAS1 and EPAS1 (P=0.016, GNAS1 and MC1R (P=0.031, GNAS1 and VDR (P=0.032, and MC1R and VDR (P=0.035.

  19. Evaluation of bentonite alteration due to interactions with iron. Sensitivity analyses to identify the important factors for the bentonite alteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Wilson, James; Sato, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    Performance assessment of geological disposal systems for high-level radioactive waste requires a consideration of long-term systems behaviour. It is possible that the alteration of swelling clay present in bentonite buffers might have an impact on buffer functions. In the present study, iron (as a candidate overpack material)-bentonite (I-B) interactions were evaluated as the main buffer alteration scenario. Existing knowledge on alteration of bentonite during I-B interactions was first reviewed, then the evaluation methodology was developed considering modeling techniques previously used overseas. A conceptual model for smectite alteration during I-B interactions was produced. The following reactions and processes were selected: 1) release of Fe 2+ due to overpack corrosion; 2) diffusion of Fe 2+ in compacted bentonite; 3) sorption of Fe 2+ on smectite edge and ion exchange in interlayers; 4) dissolution of primary phases and formation of alteration products. Sensitivity analyses were performed to identify the most important factors for the alteration of bentonite by I-B interactions. (author)

  20. Experimental evaluation of the interaction effect between plastic and creep deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikegami, K.; Niitsu, Y.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental study of plasticity-creep interaction effects is reported. The combined stress tests are performed on thin wall tubular specimens of SUS 304 stainless steel at room temperature and high temperature (600 0 C). The plastic behaviors subsequent to creep pre-strain and creep behaviors subsequent to plastic pre-strain are obtained for loading along straight stress paths with a corner. The inelastic behaviors including both plastic and creep deformations are experimentally investigated. The interaction effects between plastic and creep deformations are quantitatively estimated with the equi-plastic strain surface. (author)

  1. On evaluation of the nuclear interaction effect on muon sticking in μ-catalyzed dt synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khiger, L.Ya.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of nucler interaction on the muon -alpha-particle sticking coefficient is considered on the basis of the previously developed formalism of description of the deuterium and tritium nuclei muon catalysed fusion. The account of Coulomb interaction between the muon and nuclear subsystem in the intermediate state is shown to change substantially this coefficient. The results of numerical calculations of the sticking coefficient are presented, the value of the coefficient turns out to be 3 - 4% higher than that found in the sudden approximation

  2. An interactive FORTRAN program for the evaluation of structure factors and pair distribution functions from neutron diffraction experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abel, W.

    1985-02-01

    This report describes an interactive program to evaluate neutron diffraction data using the Graphic System (GS) under MVS (TSO). Different evaluation steps may be directed by a CLIST. The present program is limited to cylindrical sample geometry. From the fully corrected static structure factor the pair correlation function g(r) and the radial density function may be calculated from which the mean coordination number can be obtained by numerical integration over the main peak. Producing a hardcopy output on a mechanical plotter is provided. (orig.) [de

  3. Sound Synthesis and Evaluation of Interactive Footsteps for Virtual Reality Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordahl, Rolf; Serafin, Stefania; Turchet, Luca

    2010-01-01

    A system to synthesize in real-time the sound of footsteps on different materials is presented. The system is based on microphones which allow the user to interact with his own footwear. This solution distinguishes our system from previous efforts that require specific shoes enhanced with sensors...

  4. A systematic evaluation of protein kinase a-a-kinase anchoring protein interaction motifs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgers, Pepijn P|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341566551; van der Heyden, Marcel A G; Kok, Bart; Heck, Albert J R|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/105189332; Scholten, Arjen|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313939780

    2015-01-01

    Protein kinase A (PKA) in vertebrates is localized to specific locations in the cell via A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). The regulatory subunits of the four PKA isoforms (RIα, RIβ, RIIα, and RIIβ) each form a homodimer, and their dimerization domain interacts with a small helical region present

  5. A systematic evaluation of protein kinase A-A-kinase anchoring protein interaction motifs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgers, Pepijn P; van der Heyden, MAG; Kok, Bart; Heck, Albert J R; Scholten, Arjen

    2015-01-01

    Protein kinase A (PKA) in vertebrates is localized to specific locations in the cell via A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). The regulatory subunits of the four PKA isoforms (RIα, RIβ, RIIα, and RIIβ) each form a homodimer, and their dimerization domain interacts with a small helical region present

  6. Development and Evaluation of a Chinese Version of the Questionnaire on Teacher Interaction (QTI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaojing; Mainhard, Tim; Wubbels, Theo

    2018-01-01

    Teacher-student interpersonal relationships play an important role in education. The Questionnaire on Teacher Interaction (QTI) was designed to measure students' interpersonal perceptions of their teachers. There are two Chinese versions of the QTI for student use, and that inherited the weaknesses of the previous English versions, such as items…

  7. Compilations and evaluations of data on the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, A.

    1978-05-01

    The material contained in this report deals with data on the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter, listing major compilations of X-ray, photon and gamma-ray cross sections and attentuation coefficients, as well as selected reports featuring data on compton scattering, photoelectric absorption and pair production

  8. Applying the Kirkpatrick Model: Evaluating an "Interaction for Learning Framework" Curriculum Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paull, Megan; Whitsed, Craig; Girardi, Antonia

    2016-01-01

    Global perspectives and interpersonal and intercultural communication competencies are viewed as a priority within higher education. For management educators, globalisation, student mobility and widening pathways present numerous challenges, but afford opportunities for curriculum innovation. The "Interaction for Learning Framework"…

  9. Evaluating the Quality of Interaction in Asynchronous Discussion Forums in Fully Online Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Dip; Hamilton, Margaret; Harland, James

    2012-01-01

    Fully online courses are becoming progressively more popular because of their "anytime anywhere" learning flexibility. One of the ways students interact with each other and with the instructors within fully online learning environments is via asynchronous discussion forums. However, student engagement in online discussion forums does not…

  10. A microscopic evaluation of collagen-bilirubin interactions: in vitro surface phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usharani, N; Jayakumar, G C; Rao, J R; Chandrasekaran, B; Nair, B U

    2014-02-01

    This study is carried out to understand the morphology variations of collagen I matrices influenced by bilirubin. The characteristics of bilirubin interaction with collagen ascertained using various techniques like XRD, CLSM, fluorescence, SEM and AFM. These techniques are used to understand the distribution, expression and colocalization patterns of collagen-bilirubin complexes. The present investigation mimic the in vivo mechanisms created during the disorder condition like jaundice. Fluorescence technique elucidates the crucial role played by bilirubin deposition and interaction during collagen organization. Influence of bilirubin during collagen fibrillogenesis and banding patterns are clearly visualize using SEM. As a result, collagen-bilirubin complex provides different reconstructed patterns because of the influence of bilirubin concentration. Selectivity, specificity and spatial organization of collagen-bilirubin are determined through AFM imaging. Consequently, it is observed that the morphology and quantity of the bilirubin binding to collagen varied by the concentrations and the adsorption rate in protein solutions. Microscopic studies of collagen-bilirubin interaction confirms that bilirubin influence the fibrillogenesis and alter the rate of collagen organization depending on the bilirubin concentration. This knowledge helps to develop a novel drug to inhibit the interface point of interaction between collagen and bilirubin. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2013 Royal Microscopical Society.

  11. Monitoring and evaluating citizen-agency interactions: a framework developed for adaptive management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce Shindler; Kristin Aldred Cheek; George H. Stankey

    1999-01-01

    As the Forest Service and the Bureau of Land Management turn toward ecosystem and adaptive models of forest stewardship, they are being called on to develop meaningful and lasting relations with citizens. These new management styles require not only improved strategies for public involvement but also methods to examine the interactions between citizens and agencies in...

  12. Evaluating Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Interactions with Computational Models in Supporting Cumulative Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yu-Mei; Clewell, Harvey; Campbell, Jerry; Andersen, Melvin

    2011-01-01

    Simultaneous or sequential exposure to multiple chemicals may cause interactions in the pharmacokinetics (PK) and/or pharmacodynamics (PD) of the individual chemicals. Such interactions can cause modification of the internal or target dose/response of one chemical in the mixture by other chemical(s), resulting in a change in the toxicity from that predicted from the summation of the effects of the single chemicals using dose additivity. In such cases, conducting quantitative cumulative risk assessment for chemicals present as a mixture is difficult. The uncertainties that arise from PK interactions can be addressed by developing physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models to describe the disposition of chemical mixtures. Further, PK models can be developed to describe mechanisms of action and tissue responses. In this article, PBPK/PD modeling efforts conducted to investigate chemical interactions at the PK and PD levels are reviewed to demonstrate the use of this predictive modeling framework in assessing health risks associated with exposures to complex chemical mixtures. PMID:21655141

  13. Design and evaluation of RaPIDO, a platform for rapid prototyping of interactive outdoor games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soute, I.; Vacaretu, T.; de Wit, J.; Markopoulos, P.

    Outdoor, multi-player games involving social interaction and physical activity are an emerging class of applications particularly interesting for children, for whom the attraction and the health and developmental benefits are clear cut. Implementing and prototyping such games present non-trivial

  14. Colloidal systems with attractive interaction: Evaluation of scattering data using the generalized indirect fourier transformation method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Innerlohinger, J.; Wyss, H.M.; Glatter, O.

    2004-01-01

    Different attractive interacting colloidal systems are characterized by means of static light scattering. As most of these samples are rather concentrated, multiple scattering is suppressed by partial contrast match and the use of very a thin sample cell (13 mum). This is possible with the

  15. THE SIMULATED SOCIAL-INTERACTION TEST - A PSYCHOMETRIC EVALUATION WITH DUTCH SOCIAL PHOBIC PATIENTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MERSCH, PPA; BREUKERS, P; EMMELKAMP, PMG

    1992-01-01

    The Simulated Social Interaction Test (SSIT) was translated and adjusted for use on a population of Dutch males and females. Seventy-four social phobic patients were assessed with the SSIT, a conversation test, and an interview with an independent observer. Results show that the SSIT is a relatively

  16. Brain Interaction during Cooperation: Evaluating Local Properties of Multiple-Brain Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciaraffa, Nicolina; Borghini, Gianluca; Aricò, Pietro; Di Flumeri, Gianluca; Colosimo, Alfredo; Bezerianos, Anastasios; Thakor, Nitish V; Babiloni, Fabio

    2017-07-21

    Subjects' interaction is the core of most human activities. This is the reason why a lack of coordination is often the cause of missing goals, more than individual failure. While there are different subjective and objective measures to assess the level of mental effort required by subjects while facing a situation that is getting harder, that is, mental workload, to define an objective measure based on how and if team members are interacting is not so straightforward. In this study, behavioral, subjective and synchronized electroencephalographic data were collected from couples involved in a cooperative task to describe the relationship between task difficulty and team coordination, in the sense of interaction aimed at cooperatively performing the assignment. Multiple-brain connectivity analysis provided information about the whole interacting system. The results showed that averaged local properties of a brain network were affected by task difficulty. In particular, strength changed significantly with task difficulty and clustering coefficients strongly correlated with the workload itself. In particular, a higher workload corresponded to lower clustering values over the central and parietal brain areas. Such results has been interpreted as less efficient organization of the network when the subjects' activities, due to high workload tendencies, were less coordinated.

  17. An Evaluation of Multimodal Interactions with Technology while Learning Science Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastopoulou, Stamatina; Sharples, Mike; Baber, Chris

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the value of employing multiple modalities to facilitate science learning with technology. In particular, it is argued that when multiple modalities are employed, learners construct strong relations between physical movement and visual representations of motion. Body interactions with visual representations, enabled by…

  18. An Evaluation of Independent Learning of the Japanese Hiragana System Using an Interactive CD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraghty, Barbara; Quinn, Ann Marcus

    2009-01-01

    As Japanese uses three writing systems (hiragana, katakana, and the ideograms known as kanji), and as materials in the target language include all three, it is a major challenge to learn to read and write quickly. This paper focuses on interactive multi-media methods of teaching Japanese reading which foster learner autonomy. As little has been…

  19. Perceptions of Relationships and Evaluations of Satisfaction: An Exploration of Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruning, Stephen D.; Ledingham, John A.

    2000-01-01

    Examines key public members' perceptions of the personal, professional, and community relationships they have with a bank and relates those perceptions to evaluations of satisfaction. Finds members' perceptions of their personal and professional relationships significantly influence evaluations of overall satisfaction. Discusses implications for…

  20. Using Publicly Available Data to Quantify Plant-Pollinator Interactions and Evaluate Conservation Seeding Mixes in the Northern Great Plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, C R V; O'Dell, S; Bryant, R B; Euliss, N H; Bush, R M; Smart, M D

    2017-06-01

    Concern over declining pollinators has led to multiple conservation initiatives for improving forage for bees in agroecosystems. Using data available through the Pollinator Library (npwrc.usgs.gov/pollinator/), we summarize plant-pollinator interaction data collected from 2012-2015 on lands managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and private lands enrolled in U.S. Department of Agriculture conservation programs in eastern North Dakota (ND). Furthermore, we demonstrate how plant-pollinator interaction data from the Pollinator Library and seed cost information can be used to evaluate hypothetical seeding mixes for pollinator habitat enhancements. We summarize records of 314 wild bee and 849 honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) interactions detected on 63 different plant species. The wild bee observations consisted of 46 species, 15 genera, and 5 families. Over 54% of all wild bee observations were represented by three genera-Bombus, Lassioglossum, and Melissodes. The most commonly visited forbs by wild bees were Monarda fistulosa, Sonchus arvensis, and Zizia aurea. The most commonly visited forbs by A. mellifera were Cirsium arvense, Melilotus officinalis, and Medicago sativa. Among all interactions, 13% of A. mellifera and 77% of wild bee observations were made on plants native to ND. Our seed mix evaluation shows that mixes may often need to be tailored to meet the unique needs of wild bees and managed honey bees in agricultural landscapes. Our evaluation also demonstrates the importance of incorporating both biologic and economic information when attempting to design cost-effective seeding mixes for supporting pollinators in a critically important part of the United States. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  1. Using publicly available data to quantify plant–pollinator interactions and evaluate conservation seeding mixes in the Northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Clint R.; O'Dell, Samuel; Bryant, R. B.; Euliss, Ned H. Jr.; Bush, Rachel; Smart, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Concern over declining pollinators has led to multiple conservation initiatives for improving forage for bees in agroecosystems. Using data available through the Pollinator Library (npwrc.usgs.gov/pollinator/), we summarize plant–pollinator interaction data collected from 2012–2015 on lands managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and private lands enrolled in U.S. Department of Agriculture conservation programs in eastern North Dakota (ND). Furthermore, we demonstrate how plant–pollinator interaction data from the Pollinator Library and seed cost information can be used to evaluate hypothetical seeding mixes for pollinator habitat enhancements. We summarize records of 314 wild bee and 849 honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) interactions detected on 63 different plant species. The wild bee observations consisted of 46 species, 15 genera, and 5 families. Over 54% of all wild bee observations were represented by three genera―Bombus, Lassioglossum, and Melissodes. The most commonly visited forbs by wild bees were Monarda fistulosa, Sonchus arvensis, and Zizia aurea. The most commonly visited forbs by A. mellifera were Cirsium arvense, Melilotus officinalis, and Medicago sativa. Among all interactions, 13% of A. mellifera and 77% of wild bee observations were made on plants native to ND. Our seed mix evaluation shows that mixes may often need to be tailored to meet the unique needs of wild bees and managed honey bees in agricultural landscapes. Our evaluation also demonstrates the importance of incorporating both biologic and economic information when attempting to design cost-effective seeding mixes for supporting pollinators in a critically important part of the United States.

  2. Team interaction skills evaluation criteria for nuclear power plant control room operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, J.; Gaddy, C.; Toquam, J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on previous research which has shown the value of good team interaction skills to group performance, yet little progress has been made in measuring such skills. Dimensions of team interaction skills developed in an earlier study were extensively revised and cast into a Behaviorally anchored Rating scales (BARS) and a Behavioral Frequency scale format. Rating data were collected using training instructors at a nuclear plant, who rated videotape scenarios of control room performance and later rated control room crews during requalification training. High levels of interrater agreement on both rating scales was, although the hypothesized factor structure did not emerge. Analysis of ratings of the videotapes using Cronbach's components of accuracy indicted that BARS ratings generally exhibited less error than did the Behavioral Frequency ratings. This paper discusses results in terms of both field and research implications

  3. Development and evaluation of an interactive dental video game to teach dentin bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Rafat S; Denehy, Gerald E; Cobb, Deborah S; Dawson, Deborah V; Cunningham-Ford, Marsha A; Bergeron, Cathia

    2011-06-01

    Written and clinical tests compared the change in clinical knowledge and practical clinical skill of first-year dental students watching a clinical video recording of the three-step etch-and-rinse resin bonding system to those using an interactive dental video game teaching the same procedure. The research design was a randomized controlled trial with eighty first-year dental students enrolled in the preclinical operative dentistry course. Students' change in knowledge was measured through written examination using a pre-test and a post-test, as well as clinical tests in the form of a benchtop shear bond strength test. There was no statistically significant difference between teaching methods in regards to change in either knowledge or clinical skills, with one minor exception relating to the wetness of dentin following etching. Students expressed their preference for an interactive self-paced method of teaching.

  4. Interaction between droplets in a ternary microemulsion evaluated by the relative form factor method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagao, Michihiro; Seto, Hideki; Yamada, Norifumi L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the concentration dependence of the interaction between water droplets coated by a surfactant monolayer using the contrast variation small-angle neutron scattering technique. In the first part, we explain the idea of how to extract a relatively model free structure factor from the scattering data, which is called the relative form factor method. In the second part, the experimental results for the shape of the droplets (form factor) are described. In the third part the relatively model free structure factor is shown, and finally the concentration dependence of the interaction potential between droplets is discussed. The result indicates the validity of the relative form factor method, and the importance of the estimation of the model free structure factor to discuss the nature of structure formation in microemulsion systems

  5. INTERACTIONS: DESIGN, IMPLEMENTATION AND EVALUATION OF A COMPUTATIONAL TOOL FOR TEACHING INTERMOLECULAR FORCES IN HIGHER EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Geraldo Barbosa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Intermolecular forces are a useful concept that can explain the attraction between particulate matter as well as numerous phenomena in our lives such as viscosity, solubility, drug interactions, and dyeing of fibers. However, studies show that students have difficulty understanding this important concept, which has led us to develop a free educational software in English and Portuguese. The software can be used interactively by teachers and students, thus facilitating better understanding. Professors and students, both graduate and undergraduate, were questioned about the software quality and its intuitiveness of use, facility of navigation, and pedagogical application using a Likert scale. The results led to the conclusion that the developed computer application can be characterized as an auxiliary tool to assist teachers in their lectures and students in their learning process of intermolecular forces.

  6. Evaluating Educational Technologies: Interactive White Boards and Tablet Computers in the EFL Classroom

    OpenAIRE

    NFOR, Samuel

    2018-01-01

    One of the objectives outlined in "Trends and Development in Education, Science and Technology Policies": MEXT 2011 by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan is for all elementary and junior high students to use electronic versions of printed textbooks in the coming years. Students will use digital textbooks on tablet personal computers in classrooms with interactive whiteboards (IWB). This paper considers IWB and tablet computers (tablets) technologies fo...

  7. Evaluation of R-curves in ceramic materials based on bridging interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fett, T.; Munz, D.

    1991-10-01

    In coarse-grained alumina the crack growth resistance increases with increasing crack extension due to crack-border interactions. The crack shielding stress intensity factor can be calculated from the relation between the bridging stresses and the crack opening displacement. The parameters of this relation can be obtained from experimental results on stable or subcritical crack extension. Finally the effected of the R-curve on the behaviour of components with small cracks is discussed. (orig.) [de

  8. Evaluation of Pseudo-Haptic Interactions with Soft Objects in Virtual Environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Li

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a pseudo-haptic feedback method conveying simulated soft surface stiffness information through a visual interface. The method exploits a combination of two feedback techniques, namely visual feedback of soft surface deformation and control of the indenter avatar speed, to convey stiffness information of a simulated surface of a soft object in virtual environments. The proposed method was effective in distinguishing different sizes of virtual hard nodules integrated into the simulated soft bodies. To further improve the interactive experience, the approach was extended creating a multi-point pseudo-haptic feedback system. A comparison with regards to (a nodule detection sensitivity and (b elapsed time as performance indicators in hard nodule detection experiments to a tablet computer incorporating vibration feedback was conducted. The multi-point pseudo-haptic interaction is shown to be more time-efficient than the single-point pseudo-haptic interaction. It is noted that multi-point pseudo-haptic feedback performs similarly well when compared to a vibration-based feedback method based on both performance measures elapsed time and nodule detection sensitivity. This proves that the proposed method can be used to convey detailed haptic information for virtual environmental tasks, even subtle ones, using either a computer mouse or a pressure sensitive device as an input device. This pseudo-haptic feedback method provides an opportunity for low-cost simulation of objects with soft surfaces and hard inclusions, as, for example, occurring in ever more realistic video games with increasing emphasis on interaction with the physical environment and minimally invasive surgery in the form of soft tissue organs with embedded cancer nodules. Hence, the method can be used in many low-budget applications where haptic sensation is required, such as surgeon training or video games, either using desktop computers or portable devices, showing

  9. Towards a Context Oriented Approach to Ethical Evaluation of Interactive Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hansen, Sandra Burri; Schärfe, Henrik; Dinesen, Jens Vilhelm

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores and develops the notion of applying the ethical perspective of Danish philosopher and theologian K.E. Løgstrup, when designing and developing interactive technologies. The ethical reflections presented in this paper are currently considered in the development of Persuasive...... Learning Designs within the EU funded PLOT project, thus enabling this paper to support the argumentation with a practical example of integrating ethical considerations into the different stages of a design process....

  10. Evaluate the interactive and reusable service in adaptive on demand applications

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang , Chyi-Wen

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the researcher based on the open platforms and tools for personalized learning idea, with the “ Interactive & reusable” function in UI design model, directly dealing with Knowledge on demand (KOD) service from the aspect-oriented and object-oriented issue. Moreover, to propose the KOD combine with VOD (Video on Demand); AOD (Audio on Demand); COD (Course on Demand) and IOD (Information on Demand in Global index searching) in diversity of hypermedia metadata.

  11. Evaluation of a Tool for Producing and Presenting Interactive Videodisc Job Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    effective as traditional classroom presentations ( Whittington , 1987). However, most television presentations do not allow the student to interact with...presentation of the visual material. He indicated that he had come to rely on viewing the motion video and felt deprived when it was not provided. Subject 2...media in instruction (NPRDC-TR-93-4). San Diego, CA: Navy Personnel Research and Development Center. (AD-A264 228) Whittington , N. (1987). Is

  12. Evaluation of Binocular Eye Trackers and Algorithms for 3D Gaze Interaction in Virtual Reality Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Thies Pfeiffer; Ipke Wachsmuth; Marc E. Latoschik

    2009-01-01

    Tracking user's visual attention is a fundamental aspect in novel human-computer interaction paradigms found in Virtual Reality. For example, multimodal interfaces or dialogue-based communications with virtual and real agents greatly benefit from the analysis of the user's visual attention as a vital source for deictic references or turn-taking signals. Current approaches to determine visual attention rely primarily on monocular eye trackers. Hence they are restricted to the interpretation of...

  13. Evaluation of the Coulomb logarithm using cutoff and screened Coulomb interaction potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordonez, C.A.; Molina, M.I.

    1994-01-01

    The Coulomb logarithm is a fundamental plasma parameter which is commonly derived within the framework of the binary collision approximation. The conventional formula for the Coulomb logarithm, λ=ln Λ, takes into account a pure Coulomb interaction potential for binary collisions and is not accurate at small values (λ D in place of λ D (the Debye length) in the conventional formula for the Coulomb logarithm

  14. NNAlign: a platform to construct and evaluate artificial neural network models of receptor-ligand interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten; Andreatta, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Peptides are extensively used to characterize functional or (linear) structural aspects of receptor-ligand interactions in biological systems, e.g. SH2, SH3, PDZ peptide-recognition domains, the MHC membrane receptors and enzymes such as kinases and phosphatases. NNAlign is a method for the ident...... with insertions and deletions, encoding of receptor pseudo-sequences, and custom alphabets for the training sequences. The server is available at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/NNAlign-2.0....

  15. Threshold and channel interaction in cochlear implant users: evaluation of the tripolar electrode configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierer, Julie Arenberg

    2007-03-01

    The efficacy of cochlear implants is limited by spatial and temporal interactions among channels. This study explores the spatially restricted tripolar electrode configuration and compares it to bipolar and monopolar stimulation. Measures of threshold and channel interaction were obtained from nine subjects implanted with the Clarion HiFocus-I electrode array. Stimuli were biphasic pulses delivered at 1020 pulses/s. Threshold increased from monopolar to bipolar to tripolar stimulation and was most variable across channels with the tripolar configuration. Channel interaction, quantified by the shift in threshold between single- and two-channel stimulation, occurred for all three configurations but was largest for the monopolar and simultaneous conditions. The threshold shifts with simultaneous tripolar stimulation were slightly smaller than with bipolar and were not as strongly affected by the timing of the two channel stimulation as was monopolar. The subjects' performances on clinical speech tests were correlated with channel-to-channel variability in tripolar threshold, such that greater variability was related to poorer performance. The data suggest that tripolar channels with high thresholds may reveal cochlear regions of low neuron survival or poor electrode placement.

  16. Evaluating Remapped Physical Reach for Hand Interactions with Passive Haptics in Virtual Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dustin T; Suhail, Mohamed; Ragan, Eric D

    2018-04-01

    Virtual reality often uses motion tracking to incorporate physical hand movements into interaction techniques for selection and manipulation of virtual objects. To increase realism and allow direct hand interaction, real-world physical objects can be aligned with virtual objects to provide tactile feedback and physical grasping. However, unless a physical space is custom configured to match a specific virtual reality experience, the ability to perfectly match the physical and virtual objects is limited. Our research addresses this challenge by studying methods that allow one physical object to be mapped to multiple virtual objects that can exist at different virtual locations in an egocentric reference frame. We study two such techniques: one that introduces a static translational offset between the virtual and physical hand before a reaching action, and one that dynamically interpolates the position of the virtual hand during a reaching motion. We conducted two experiments to assess how the two methods affect reaching effectiveness, comfort, and ability to adapt to the remapping techniques when reaching for objects with different types of mismatches between physical and virtual locations. We also present a case study to demonstrate how the hand remapping techniques could be used in an immersive game application to support realistic hand interaction while optimizing usability. Overall, the translational technique performed better than the interpolated reach technique and was more robust for situations with larger mismatches between virtual and physical objects.

  17. Evaluating web-based static, animated and interactive maps for injury prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Cinnamon

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Public health planning can benefit from visual exploration and analysis of geospatial data. Maps and geovisualization tools must be developed with the user-group in mind. User-needs assessment and usability testing are crucial elements in the iterative process of map design and implementation. This study presents the results of a usability test of static, animated and interactive maps of injury rates and socio-demographic determinants of injury by a sample of potential end-users in Toronto, Canada. The results of the user-testing suggest that different map types are useful for different purposes and for satisfying the varying skill level of the individual user. The static maps were deemed to be easy to use and versatile, while the animated maps could be made more useful if animation controls were provided. The split-screen concept of the interactive maps was highlighted as particularly effective for map comparison. Overall, interactive maps were identified as the preferred map type for comparing patterns of injury and related socio-demographic risk factors. Information collected from the user-tests is being used to expand and refine the injury web maps for Toronto, and could inform other public health-related geo-visualization projects.

  18. Supramolecular interactions between triphenylphosphine oxide and benzamide evaluated by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, F. C.; Denadai, A. M. L.; Fulgêncio, F.; Oliveira, A. M.; Andrade, A. C. A.; Melo, A. C. A.; Yoshida, M. I.; Windmöller, D.; Magalhães, W. F.

    2017-04-01

    In the present work, intermolecular interactions between triphenylphosphine oxide (TPPO) and benzamide (BZM) has been studied in solid state by Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS) and supported by several analytical techniques (in solid state and in solution) and by computational modeling (in gaseous phase). Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC) in ethyl acetate solvent showed that complexation is a stepwise process, with 2:1 and 1:1 TPPO/BZM stoichiometries, both driven by entropy. HPLC analysis of isolated single crystal confirmed the existence of a 2:1 TPPO/BZM crystalline complex in solid state. The results of thermal analysis (TGA, DTA and DSC) and FTIR spectroscopy showed that the interactions in the complexes are relatively weaker than those found in pure precursors. Finally, PALS showed higher positronium formation probability (I3) at [TPPO0.62·BZM0.38] and [TPPO0.25·BZM0.75] molar fractions, corroborating the existence of two stoichiometries for the TPPO/BZM system and suggesting greater electronic availability of n- and π-electrons in heterosynton complexes, as resulting of interactions, bring forward new evidences of the participation of electronic excited states on the positronium formation mechanism.

  19. Seismic Performance Evaluation of Concrete Gravity Dams with Penetrated Cracks Considering Fluid–Structure Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Behshad

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a comprehensive study on the seismic behavior of fractured concrete gravity dams during ground shakings is carried out considering dam–reservoir interaction effects. To gain the seismic behavior of the whole system, finite and boundary elements are employed to model the liquid region and the cracked structure, respectively. Formulation and different computational aspects of the suggested staggered hybrid approach are thoroughly argued. A computer code was developed in order to discuss the presented hybrid BE–DE technique and comparisons are made between the obtained results and those reported in the literature. To gain this goal, several problems of seismic excitations in frequency- and time-domains are presented employing the proposed approach, showing that the present results agree well with the results from other numerical procedures. The cracked Koyna Dam is scrutinized, considering the dynamic interaction between dam and reservoir with focus on the nonlinear behavior due to its top profile crack. The developed numerical model is rigorously validated by extensive comparisons with available results in the literature in which the dam–reservoir interaction were simplified by added masses. It can be concluded that there is significant disparity between the overturning and sliding response schemes of the nonlinear analysis and those of added mass technique.

  20. Fundamental evaluation of the interaction between RAS/RAP and virgin asphalt binders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    A comprehensive laboratory testing program was conducted in this research project to examine the blending between reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP)/recycled asphalt shingles (RAS) and virgin asphalt binders and to evaluate the factors that may affect ...

  1. An evaluation of touchscreen versus keyboard/mouse interaction for large screen process control displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noah, Benjamin; Li, Jingwen; Rothrock, Ling

    2017-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to test the effect of interaction device on performance in a process control task (managing a tank farm). The study compared the following two conditions: a) 4K-resolution 55" screen with a 21" touchscreen versus b) 4K-resolution 55″ screen with keyboard/mouse. The touchscreen acted both as an interaction device for data entry and navigation and as an additional source of information. A within-subject experiment was conducted among 20 college engineering students. A primary task of preventing tanks from overfilling as well as a secondary task of manual logging with situation awareness questions were designed for the study. Primary Task performance (including tank level at discharge, number of tank discharged and performance score), Secondary Task Performance (including Tank log count, performance score), system interaction times, subjective workload, situation awareness questionnaire, user experience survey regarding usability and condition comparison were used as the measures. Parametric data resulted in two metrics statistically different means between the two conditions: The 4K-keyboard condition resulted in faster Detection + Navigation time compared to the 4K-touchscreen condition, by about 2 s, while participants within the 4K-touchscreen condition were about 2 s faster in data entry than in the 4K-keyboard condition. No significant results were found for: performance on the secondary task, situation awareness, and workload. Additionally, no clear significant differences were found in the non-parametric data analysis. However, participants showed a slight preference for the 4K-touchscreen condition compared to the 4K-keyboard condition in subjective responses in comparing the conditions. Introducing the touchscreen as an additional/alternative input device showed to have an effect in interaction times, which suggests that proper design considerations need to be made. While having values shown on the interaction device

  2. Perturbative evaluation of the zero-point function for self-interacting scalar field on a manifold with boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsoupros, George

    2002-01-01

    The character of quantum corrections to the gravitational action of a conformally invariant field theory for a self-interacting scalar field on a manifold with boundary is considered at third loop-order in the perturbative expansion of the zero-point function. Diagramatic evaluations and higher loop-order renormalization can be best accomplished on a Riemannian manifold of positive constant curvature accommodating a boundary of constant extrinsic curvature. The associated spherical formulation for diagramatic evaluations reveals a non-trivial effect which the topology of the manifold has on the vacuum processes and which ultimately dissociates the dynamical behaviour of the quantized field from its behaviour in the absence of a boundary. The first surface divergence is evaluated and the necessity for simultaneous renormalization of volume and surface divergences is shown

  3. Evaluation of Restoration and Flow Interactions on River Structure and Function: Channel Widening of the Thur River, Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo J. Martín

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Removal of lateral constraints to restore rivers has become increasingly common in river resource management, but little is known how the interaction of de-channelization with flow influences ecosystem structure and function. We evaluated the ecosystem effects of river widening to improve sediment relations in the Thur River, Switzerland, 12 years after implementation. We tested if restored and non-restored reaches differed in water physico-chemistry, hyporheic function, primary production, and macroinvertebrate density and composition in relation to the flow regime. Our results showed that (i spatio-temporal variation in sediment respiration and macroinvertebrate taxonomic richness were driven by interactions between restoration and flow; (ii riverbed conditions including substrate size, organic matter content, and groundwater–surface water exchange changed due to restoration, but (iii physico-chemistry, hydraulic conditions, and primary production were not altered by restoration. Importantly, our study revealed that abiotic conditions, except channel morphology, changed only marginally, whereas other ecosystem attributes responded markedly to changes in flow-restoration interactions. These results highlight integrating a more holistic ecosystem perspective in the design and monitoring of restoration projects such as river widening in resource management, preferably in relation to flow-sediment regimes and interactions with the biotic components of the ecosystem.

  4. Cation-π interactions: computational analyses of the aromatic box motif and the fluorination strategy for experimental evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Matthew R; Dougherty, Dennis A

    2015-11-21

    Cation-π interactions are common in biological systems, and many structural studies have revealed the aromatic box as a common motif. With the aim of understanding the nature of the aromatic box, several computational methods were evaluated for their ability to reproduce experimental cation-π binding energies. We find the DFT method M06 with the 6-31G(d,p) basis set performs best of several methods tested. The binding of benzene to a number of different cations (sodium, potassium, ammonium, tetramethylammonium, and guanidinium) was studied. In addition, the binding of the organic cations NH4(+) and NMe4(+) to ab initio generated aromatic boxes as well as examples of aromatic boxes from protein crystal structures were investigated. These data, along with a study of the distance dependence of the cation-π interaction, indicate that multiple aromatic residues can meaningfully contribute to cation binding, even with displacements of more than an angstrom from the optimal cation-π interaction. Progressive fluorination of benzene and indole was studied as well, and binding energies obtained were used to reaffirm the validity of the "fluorination strategy" to study cation-π interactions in vivo.

  5. Evaluation of Big Data and Innovation Interaction in Increase Supply Chain Competencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zumrut Ecevit Sati

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In business today, it means a great deal to uncover meaningful relationships, patterns and trends from the huge stacks of data that are often now available. The explosion in data diversity and volume coming from enterprise content and application data, data from social media, sensor data and also data including streams from third parties is significantly changing the ways and methods of interaction for both companies and their customers. This pressure is felt considerably more in the management of innovation through trying to develop the capability to integrate the supply chain to match the correct methods with the right information. This situation has directed companies into using “big data” in managing both their structured and unstructured data. Big data, which is information, held on a vast scale, can reveal significant potential in its transparency and convenience. To bring about a balanced approach to the use of internal and external information, supporting improved capabilities to better predict future competence, and provide that all important “big picture” through business analytics can improve the vision of businesses through the provision of more in-depth information about how to best access their customers. Improved communication and information links between partners of the supply chain may create major sources of information by bringing together both internal and external resources for customers, partners, stakeholders and suppliers in managing innovation. In this study, it is aimed to provide an extensive literature review on the interaction of innovation and big data in order to increase supply chain competencies and to study the problem, obstacles and driving forces for such interactions, and to consider projections for the future through the application of technology-based methods.

  6. Evaluation by Expert Dancers of a Robot That Performs Partnered Stepping via Haptic Interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany L Chen

    Full Text Available Our long-term goal is to enable a robot to engage in partner dance for use in rehabilitation therapy, assessment, diagnosis, and scientific investigations of two-person whole-body motor coordination. Partner dance has been shown to improve balance and gait in people with Parkinson's disease and in older adults, which motivates our work. During partner dance, dance couples rely heavily on haptic interaction to convey motor intent such as speed and direction. In this paper, we investigate the potential for a wheeled mobile robot with a human-like upper-body to perform partnered stepping with people based on the forces applied to its end effectors. Blindfolded expert dancers (N=10 performed a forward/backward walking step to a recorded drum beat while holding the robot's end effectors. We varied the admittance gain of the robot's mobile base controller and the stiffness of the robot's arms. The robot followed the participants with low lag (M=224, SD=194 ms across all trials. High admittance gain and high arm stiffness conditions resulted in significantly improved performance with respect to subjective and objective measures. Biomechanical measures such as the human hand to human sternum distance, center-of-mass of leader to center-of-mass of follower (CoM-CoM distance, and interaction forces correlated with the expert dancers' subjective ratings of their interactions with the robot, which were internally consistent (Cronbach's α=0.92. In response to a final questionnaire, 1/10 expert dancers strongly agreed, 5/10 agreed, and 1/10 disagreed with the statement "The robot was a good follower." 2/10 strongly agreed, 3/10 agreed, and 2/10 disagreed with the statement "The robot was fun to dance with." The remaining participants were neutral with respect to these two questions.

  7. Evaluation by Expert Dancers of a Robot That Performs Partnered Stepping via Haptic Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tiffany L.; Bhattacharjee, Tapomayukh; McKay, J. Lucas; Borinski, Jacquelyn E.; Hackney, Madeleine E.; Ting, Lena H.; Kemp, Charles C.

    2015-01-01

    Our long-term goal is to enable a robot to engage in partner dance for use in rehabilitation therapy, assessment, diagnosis, and scientific investigations of two-person whole-body motor coordination. Partner dance has been shown to improve balance and gait in people with Parkinson's disease and in older adults, which motivates our work. During partner dance, dance couples rely heavily on haptic interaction to convey motor intent such as speed and direction. In this paper, we investigate the potential for a wheeled mobile robot with a human-like upper-body to perform partnered stepping with people based on the forces applied to its end effectors. Blindfolded expert dancers (N=10) performed a forward/backward walking step to a recorded drum beat while holding the robot's end effectors. We varied the admittance gain of the robot's mobile base controller and the stiffness of the robot's arms. The robot followed the participants with low lag (M=224, SD=194 ms) across all trials. High admittance gain and high arm stiffness conditions resulted in significantly improved performance with respect to subjective and objective measures. Biomechanical measures such as the human hand to human sternum distance, center-of-mass of leader to center-of-mass of follower (CoM-CoM) distance, and interaction forces correlated with the expert dancers' subjective ratings of their interactions with the robot, which were internally consistent (Cronbach's α=0.92). In response to a final questionnaire, 1/10 expert dancers strongly agreed, 5/10 agreed, and 1/10 disagreed with the statement "The robot was a good follower." 2/10 strongly agreed, 3/10 agreed, and 2/10 disagreed with the statement "The robot was fun to dance with." The remaining participants were neutral with respect to these two questions. PMID:25993099

  8. Evaluation of salivary flow and drug interactions in patients with a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noboru Kuroiwa, D; Ruiz Da Cunha Melo, M A; Balducci, I; Bortolin Lodi, K; Ghislaine Oliveira Alves, M; Dias Almeida, J

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most common chronic diseases responsible for substantial loss on the quality of life in elderly. Oral manifestations in these patients include xerostomia and alterations in salivary flow and salivary pH. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between salivary flow, pH and medication. The sample consisted of 53 subjects aged 60 years and older, including 30 patients with a diagnosis of type 2 DM and 23 controls. Salivary flow was 1.066±0.814 mL/min in the control group and 0.955±0.606 mL/min in the DM group, with no significant difference between groups (P=0.588). There was a significant difference (P=0.045) in mean salivary pH (DM: 5.267±0.828; control: 5.783±0.951). Only 32.07% of the patients reported to remove their denture while sleeping. Three of 53 subjects using medications presented severe drug interactions. In summary, dentists must be able to make the diagnosis, to recognize all factors related to salivary alterations in DM, and to prescribe adequate treatment related to oral condition. Patients with DM presented salivary pH below normal reference values. It is important to advice patients to remove their denture while sleeping in order to prevent traumatic irritations and infections with Candida albicans. Potentially harmful cases of drug interactions have to be observed in elderly patient. Further studies focusing on the nature of drug interactions as the cause of adverse events such as xerostomia and increased salivary pH are needed.

  9. Evaluating the Cognitive Aspects of User Interaction with 2D Visual Tagging Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Olugbenga King

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available There has been significant interest in thedevelopment and deployment of visual taggingapplications in recent times. But user perceptions aboutthe purpose and function of visual tagging systems havenot received much attention. This paper presents a userexperience study that investigates the cognitive modelsthat novice users have about interacting with visualtagging applications. The results of the study show thatalthough most users are unfamiliar with visual taggingtechnologies, they could accurately predict the purposeand mode of retrieval of data stored in visual tags. Thestudy concludes with suggestions on how to improve therecognition, ease of recall and design of visual tags.

  10. Recursive evaluation of interaction forces of unbounded soil in time domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motosaka, M.

    1987-01-01

    Recursive formulations have hardly been used in the analysis of soil-structure interaction. A notable exception is described in Verbic 1973, which corresponds to the impulse-invariant way discussed in Section 2. Section 3 describes another possibility to derive a recursive relation based on a segment approach using z-transforms. An illustrative example is examined in Section 4, and in Section 5 the number of operations is addressed. This compact paper is based on Wolf and Motosaka 1988. (orig./HP)

  11. Electron trajectory evaluation in laser-plasma interaction for effective output beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobdeh, P.; Sadighi-Bonabi, R.; Afarideh, H.

    2010-06-01

    Using the ellipsoidal cavity model, the quasi-monoenergetic electron output beam in laser-plasma interaction is described. By the cavity regime the quality of electron beam is improved in comparison with those generated from other methods such as periodic plasma wave field, spheroidal cavity regime and plasma channel guided acceleration. Trajectory of electron motion is described as hyperbolic, parabolic or elliptic paths. We find that the self-generated electron bunch has a smaller energy width and more effective gain in energy spectrum. Initial condition for the ellipsoidal cavity is determined by laser-plasma parameters. The electron trajectory is influenced by its position, energy and cavity electrostatic potential.

  12. Evaluation of the Stillinger-Weber classical interaction potential for tetragonal semiconductors in nonideal atomic configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodson, B.W.

    1986-01-01

    A classical potential incorporating two- and three-body interaction terms has recently been introduced by Stillinger and Weber (SW) for simulation of the liquefaction transition of silicon. The equilibrium mechanical properties of this potential are determined and found to agree well with experimental values. The potential also seems to be adequate for problems involving computation of defect energies, such as the stability of strained-layer superlattice interfaces. However, inadequate treatment of configurations with low coordination number makes modeling of the epitaxial growth of (111) silicon impossible. Simple modifications of the SW potential form do allow for (111) epitaxial growth, but the earliest stages of growth then become unphysical

  13. FENDL/E-2.0. Evaluated nuclear data library of neutron-nucleus interaction cross sections and photon production cross sections and photon-atom interaction cross sections for fusion applications. Version 1, March 1997. Summary documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pashchenko, A.B.; Wienke, H.

    1998-01-01

    This document presents the description of a physical tape containing the basic evaluated nuclear data library of neutron-nucleus interaction cross sections, photon production cross sections and photon-atom interaction cross sections for fusion applications. It is part of the evaluated nuclear data library for fusion applications FENDL-2. The data are available cost-free from the Nuclear Data Section upon request. The data can also be retrieved by the user via online access through international computer networks. (author)

  14. Seismic evaluation of a cooling water reservoir facility including fluid-structure and soil-structure interaction effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabir, A.F.; Maryak, M.E.

    1991-01-01

    Seismic analyses and structural evaluations were performed for a cooling water reservoir of a nuclear reactor facility. The horizontal input seismic motion was the NRC Reg. guide 1.60 spectrum shape anchored at 0.20g zero period acceleration. Vertical input was taken as two-thirds of the horizontal input. Soil structure interaction and hydrodynamic effects were addressed in the seismic analyses. Uncertainties in the soil properties were accounted for by considering three soil profiles. Two 2-dimensional SSI models and a 3-dimensional static model. Representing different areas of the reservoir structures were developed and analyzed to obtain seismic forces and moments, and accelerations at various locations. The results included in this paper indicated that both hydrodynamic and soil-structure interaction effects are significant contributors to the seismic responses of the water-retaining walls of the reservoir

  15. Training of goal directed arm movements with motion interactive video games in children with cerebral palsy - a kinematic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandlund, Marlene; Domellöf, Erik; Grip, Helena; Rönnqvist, Louise; Häger, Charlotte K

    2014-10-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of goal-directed arm movements in 15 children with cerebral palsy (CP) following four weeks of home-based training with motion interactive video games. A further aim was to investigate the applicability and characteristics of kinematic parameters in a virtual context in comparison to a physical context. Kinematics and kinetics were captured while the children performed arm movements directed towards both virtual and physical targets. The children's movement precision improved, their centre of pressure paths decreased, as did the variability in maximal shoulder angles when reaching for virtual objects. Transfer to a situation with physical targets was mainly indicated by increased movement smoothness. Training with motion interactive games seems to improve arm motor control in children with CP. The results highlight the importance of considering both the context and the task itself when investigating kinematic parameters.

  16. Evaluating the Effects of Interactivity in a Post-Editing Workbench

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Underwood, Nancy; Mesa-Lao, Bartolomé; Martinez, Mercedes Garcia

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the field trial and subsequent evaluation of a post-editing workbench which is currently under development in the EU-funded CasMaCat project. Based on user evaluations of the initial prototype of the workbench, this second prototype of the workbench includes a number of inter...... on productivity, quality, user satisfaction and cognitive load as reflected in the post-editors’ gaze activity. These quantitative results are combined with the qualitative results derived from user questionnaires and interviews conducted with all the participants....

  17. Design, development, and evaluation of an interactive simulator for engineering ethics education (SEEE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Christopher A; Alfred, Michael

    2009-06-01

    Societal pressures, accreditation organizations, and licensing agencies are emphasizing the importance of ethics in the engineering curriculum. Traditionally, this subject has been taught using dogma, heuristics, and case study approaches. Most recently a number of organizations have sought to increase the utility of these approaches by utilizing the Internet. Resources from these organizations include on-line courses and tests, videos, and DVDs. While these individual approaches provide a foundation on which to base engineering ethics, they may be limited in developing a student's ability to identify, analyze, and respond to engineering ethics situations outside of the classroom environment. More effective approaches utilize a combination of these types of approaches. This paper describes the design and development of an internet based interactive Simulator for Engineering Ethics Education. The simulator places students in first person perspective scenarios involving different types of ethical situations. Students must gather data, assess the situation, and make decisions. This requires students to develop their own ability to identify and respond to ethical engineering situations. A limited comparison between the internet based interactive simulator and conventional internet web based instruction indicates a statistically significant improvement of 32% in instructional effectiveness. The simulator is currently being used at the University of Houston to help fulfill ABET requirements.

  18. Team interaction skills evaluation criteria for nuclear power plant control room operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, J.C.; Hauth, J.T.

    1991-01-01

    Team interaction skills are an essential aspect of safe nuclear power plant control room operations. Previous research has shown that, when a group works together, rather than as individuals, more effective operations are possible. However, little research has addressed how such team interaction skills can be measured. In this study rating scales were developed specifically for such a measurement purpose. Dimensions of team skill performance were identified from previous research and experience in the area, incorporating the input of Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) contract operator licensing examiners. Rating scales were developed on the basis of these dimensions, incorporating a modified Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale (BARS) as well as Behavioral Frequency formats. After a pilot-testing/revision process, rating data were collected using 11 control room crews responding to simulator scenarios at a boiling water and a pressurized water reactor. Statistical analyses of the resulting data revealed moderate inter-rater reliability using the Behavioral Frequency scales, relatively low inter-rater reliability using the BARS, and moderate support for convergent and discriminant validity of the scales. It was concluded that the scales show promise psychometrically and in terms of user acceptability, but that additional scale revision is needed before field implementation. Recommendations for scale revision and directions for future research were presented

  19. Can social support work virtually? Evaluation of rheumatoid arthritis patients' experiences with an interactive online tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostova, Zlatina; Caiata-Zufferey, Maria; Schulz, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    There is strong empirical evidence that the support that chronic patients receive from their environment is fundamental for the way they cope with physical and psychological suffering. Nevertheless, in the case of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), providing the appropriate social support is still a challenge, and such support has often proven to be elusive and unreliable in helping patients to manage the disease. To explore whether and how social support for RA patients can be provided online, and to assess the conditions under which such support is effective. An online support tool was designed to provide patients with both tailored information and opportunities to interact online with health professionals and fellow sufferers. The general purpose was to identify where the support provided did - or did not - help patients, and to judge whether the determinants of success lay more within patients - their engagement and willingness to participate - or within the design of the website itself. The present study reports qualitative interviews with 19 users of the tool. A more specific purpose was to elaborate qualitatively on results from a quantitative survey of users, which indicated that any positive impact was confined to practical matters of pain management rather than extending to more fundamental psychological outcomes such as acceptance. Overall, online learning and interaction can do much to help patients with the everyday stresses of their disease; however, its potential for more durable positive impact depends on various individual characteristics such as personality traits, existing social networks, and the severity and longevity of the disease.

  20. Evaluation of two novel leptospiral proteins for their interaction with human host components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Lucas P; Fernandes, Luis G V; Vieira, Monica L; de Souza, Gisele O; Heinemann, Marcos B; Vasconcellos, Silvio A; Romero, Eliete C; Nascimento, Ana L T O

    2016-07-01

    Pathogenic species of the genus Leptospira are the etiological agents of leptospirosis, the most widespread zoonosis. Mechanisms involved in leptospiral pathogenesis are not well understood. By data mining the genome sequences of Leptospira interrogans we have identified two proteins predicted to be surface exposed, LIC10821 and LIC10064. Immunofluorescence and proteinase K assays confirmed that the proteins are exposed. Reactivity of the recombinant proteins with human sera has shown that rLIC10821, but not rLIC10064, is recognized by antibodies in confirmed leptospirosis serum samples, suggesting its expression during infection. The rLIC10821 was able to bind laminin, in a dose-dependent fashion, and was called Lsa37 (leptospiral surface adhesin of 37 kDa). Studies with human plasma components demonstrated that rLIC10821 interacts with plasminogen (PLG) and fibrinogen (Fg). The binding of Lsa37 with PLG generates plasmin when PLG activator was added. Fibrin clotting reduction was observed in a thrombin-catalyzed reaction, when Fg was incubated with Lsa37, suggesting that this protein may interfere in the coagulation cascade during the disease. Although LIC10064 protein is more abundant than the corresponding Lsa37, binding activity with all the components tested was not detected. Thus, Lsa37 is a novel versatile adhesin that may mediate Leptospira-host interactions. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Pharmacokinetic evaluation of the interaction between oral kaempferol and ethanol in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhaoxiang; Wang, Meng; Guo, Zengjun; Zhang, Xiaoying

    2016-12-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the effect of ethanol on oral bioavailability of kaempferol in rats, namely, at disclosing their possible interaction. Kaempferol (100 or 250 mg kg-1 bm) was administered to the rats by oral gavage with or without ethanol (600 mg kg-1 bm) co-administration. Intravenous administration (10 and 25 mg kg-1 bm) of kaempferol was used to determine the bioavailability. The concentration of kaempferol in plasma was estimated by ultra high performance liquid chromatography. During coadministration, a significant increase of the area under the plasma concentration-time curve as well as the peak concentration were observed, along with a dramatic decrease in total body clearance. Consequently, the bioavailability of kaempferol in oral control groups was 3.1 % (100 mg kg-1 bm) and 2.1 % (250 mg kg-1 bm). The first was increased by 4.3 % and the other by 2.8 % during ethanol co-administration. Increased permeability of cell membrane and ethanolkaempferol interactions on CYP450 enzymes may enhance the oral bioavailability of kaempferol in rats.

  2. Hepatic transporter drug-drug interactions: an evaluation of approaches and methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Beth; Riley, Robert J

    2017-12-01

    Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) continue to account for 5% of hospital admissions and therefore remain a major regulatory concern. Effective, quantitative prediction of DDIs will reduce unexpected clinical findings and encourage projects to frontload DDI investigations rather than concentrating on risk management ('manage the baggage') later in drug development. A key challenge in DDI prediction is the discrepancies between reported models. Areas covered: The current synopsis focuses on four recent influential publications on hepatic drug transporter DDIs using static models that tackle interactions with individual transporters and in combination with other drug transporters and metabolising enzymes. These models vary in their assumptions (including input parameters), transparency, reproducibility and complexity. In this review, these facets are compared and contrasted with recommendations made as to their application. Expert opinion: Over the past decade, static models have evolved from simple [I]/k i models to incorporate victim and perpetrator disposition mechanisms including the absorption rate constant, the fraction of the drug metabolised/eliminated and/or clearance concepts. Nonetheless, models that comprise additional parameters and complexity do not necessarily out-perform simpler models with fewer inputs. Further, consideration of the property space to exploit some drug target classes has also highlighted the fine balance required between frontloading and back-loading studies to design out or 'manage the baggage'.

  3. A discussion of techniques used in defining the Interactive Measurement Evaluation and Control System at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greer, B.K.; Hunt, V.; Schweitzer, M.F.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes both the general methodology used to study the current needs for a measurement control and evaluation system at Rocky Flats Plant and the recommendations for implementation into the Interactive Measurement Evaluation and Control System (IMECS). The study resulted in a clear assessment of the current system and recommendations for the system which will be its replacement. To arrive at the recommendations, the authors used a formal analysis approach that is based on an in-depth study of the measurement evaluation and control problems and user needs. The problems and needs were defined by interviews with present and potential users of this kind of system throughout the nuclear industry. Some of the recommendations are to provide: timely sample measurement feedback; representative measurement error estimates; a history data base of sample measurements To meet the user needs, the new system will: be interactive with user selection menus; use standards which cover the range of application; facilitate historical analysis of sample data and bookkeeping. The implementation of this program is projected to be more cost effective than the current program. Also included are the authors' recommendations to those involved in the design of a system of similar large magnitude

  4. WIPP [Waste Isolation Pilot Plant] panel entryway seal: Numerical simulation of seal composite interaction for preliminary design evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argueello, J.G.

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the results of a series of structural analyses performed to evaluate the structural interaction of the components of a potential two-component panel entryway seal configuration with each other and with the rock salt formation at the repository horizon of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. A two-dimensional axisymmetric geomechanical model is used to numerically simulate the interaction of the components of a 30.48 m (100 ft) long seal, consisting of concrete end caps and a crushed salt core, with each other and with the surrounding formation. Issues addressed in this report pertain to the consolidation of the crushed salt in terms of how much of the seal core reaches effective consolidation in the presence of the stiff concrete end caps since these could conceivably cause bridging (retardation of closure around the core) to occur. In addition, the stress field in the end caps is evaluated to determine if the concrete component maintains its integrity. The stresses induced in the surrounding formation are also evaluated to determine if the presence of the concrete component in the seal system results in a ''tightening'' of the formation around the seal. 20 refs., 43 figs., 2 tabs

  5. [Evaluate drug interaction of multi-components in Morus alba leaves based on α-glucosidase inhibitory activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Tao; Su, Shu-Lan; Guo, Sheng; Qian, Da-Wei; Ouyang, Zhen; Duan, Jin-Ao

    2016-06-01

    Column chromatography was used for enrichment and separation of flavonoids, alkaloids and polysaccharides from the extracts of Morus alba leaves; glucose oxidase method was used with sucrose as the substrate to evaluate the multi-components of M. alba leaves in α-glucosidase inhibitory models; isobole method, Chou-Talalay combination index analysis and isobolographic analysis were used to evaluate the interaction effects and dose-effect characteristics of two components, providing scientific basis for revealing the hpyerglycemic mechanism of M. alba leaves. The components analysis showed that flavonoid content was 5.3%; organic phenolic acids content was 10.8%; DNJ content was 39.4%; and polysaccharide content was 18.9%. Activity evaluation results demonstrated that flavonoids, alkaloids and polysaccharides of M. alba leaves had significant inhibitory effects on α-glucosidase, and the inhibitory rate was increased with the increasing concentration. Alkaloids showed most significant inhibitory effects among these three components. Both compatibility of alkaloids and flavonoids, and the compatibility of alkaloids and polysaccharides demonstrated synergistic effects, but the compatibility of flavonoids and polysaccharides showed no obvious synergistic effects. The results have confirmed the interaction of multi-components from M. alba leaves to regulate blood sugar, and provided scientific basis for revealing hpyerglycemic effectiveness and mechanism of the multi-components from M. alba leaves. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  6. Use of Interactive Electronic Audience Response Tools (Clickers) to Evaluate Knowledge Gained in Extension Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Patrick; Loy, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Effectively measuring short-term impact, particularly a change in knowledge resulting from Extension programming, can prove to be challenging. Clicker-based technology, when used properly, is one alternative that may allow educators to better evaluate this aspect of the logic model. While the potential interface between clicker technology and…

  7. Organizational Compliance : An agent-based model for designing and evaluating organizational interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, J.

    2015-01-01

    The motivation of this research comes from the need of devising and evaluating solutions to achieving organizational compliance, which is an important factor in ensuring the success of business operations and the safety of business environments. Using normative multi-agent systems as the basis of

  8. Evaluation of unimodal and multimodal communication cues for attracting attention in human–robot interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torta, E.; van Heumen, J.; Piunti, F.; Romeo, L.; Cuijpers, R.H.

    2015-01-01

    One of the most common tasks of a robot companion in the home is communication. In order to initiate an information exchange with its human partner, the robot needs to attract the attention of the human. This paper presents results of two user studies ( N=12 ) to evaluate the effectiveness of

  9. Evaluation of an Online Three-Dimensional Interactive Resource for Undergraduate Neuroanatomy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Lauren K.; Eagleson, Roy; de Ribaupierre, Sandrine

    2016-01-01

    Neuroanatomy is one of the most challenging subjects in anatomy, and novice students often experience difficulty grasping the complex three-dimensional (3D) spatial relationships. This study evaluated a 3D neuroanatomy e-learning module, as well as the relationship between spatial abilities and students' knowledge in neuroanatomy. The study's…

  10. Evaluation of possible interaction among drugs contemplated for use during manned space flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Possible interactions among drugs contemplated for use during manned spaceflights have been studied in several animal species. The following seven drugs were investigated: nitrofurantoin, chloral hydrate, hexobarbital, phenobarbital, flurazepam, diphenoxylate, and phenazopyridine. Particular combinations included: chloral hydrate, hexabarbital or flurazepam with nitrofurantoin; phenobarbital or flurazepam with phenazopyridine; and diphenoxylate with two does formulations of nitrofurantoin. Studies were carried out in several species to determine whether induction of liver microsomal enzymes would increase the tendency of phenazopyridine to produce methemoglobin in vivo. Animals were premedicated with phenobarbital, a known inducer of azoreductase, and in a separate experiment with flurazepam, before administration of phenazopyridine. Methemoglobin production was determined in each animal after receiving phenazopyridine. No evidence was found for increased production of methemoglobin in the rat, dog, or rabbit that could be attributed to increased amounts of microsomal enzymes.

  11. Less is more: development and evaluation of an interactive e-atlas to support anatomy learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Richard; Pisani, Heather R; Rich, Peter; Leahy, Cathy; Mandarano, Giovanni; Molyneux, Tom

    2015-01-01

    An Interactive electronic Atlas (IeA) was developed to assist first-year nursing students with interpretation of laboratory-based prosected cadaveric material. It was designed, using pedagogically sound principles, as a student-centered resource accessible to students from a wide range of learning backgrounds. It consisted of a highly simplified interactive interface limited to essential anatomical structures and was intended for use in a blended learning situation. The IeA's nine modules mirrored the body systems covered in a Nursing Biosciences course, with each module comprising a maximum of 10 pages using the same template: an image displaying a cadaveric specimen and, in most cases, a corresponding anatomical model with navigation panes (menus) on one side. Cursor movement over the image or clicking the menu highlighted the structure with a transparent overlay and revealed a succinct functional description. The atlas was complemented by a multiple-choice database of nearly 1,000 questions using IeA images. Students' perceptions of usability and utility were measured by survey (n = 115; 57% of the class) revealing mean access of 2.3 times per week during the 12-week semester and a median time of three hours of use. Ratings for usability and utility were high, with means ranging between 4.24 and 4.54 (five-point Likert scale; 5 = strongly agree). Written responses told a similar story for both usability and utility. The role of providing basic computer-assisted learning support for a large first-year class is discussed in the context of current research into student-centered resources and blended learning in human anatomy. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.

  12. Statins and daptomycin: safety assessment of concurrent use and evaluation of drug interaction liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golightly, Larry K; Barber, Gerard R; Barron, Michelle A; Page, Robert L

    2013-01-01

    Acute muscle injury and potentially fatal rhabdomyolysis may occur with use of statins and certain interacting medications. This investigation assessed risk for myopathy in patients receiving treatment with a statin in combination with daptomycin, a medication also associated with muscle injury. Patients hospitalized from July 1, 2005, through June 30, 2010, who received simvastatin or rosuvastatin concurrently with daptomycin were identified and their medical records were examined. Patients were judged to have treatment-related muscle injury if their records contained evidence of myalgia with or without weakness and secondarily impaired mobility together with elevated creatine kinase (CK) levels. These assessments were compared with similar data from hospitalized patients who received a statin alone. A total of 52 patients received 66 courses of concurrent treatment with simvastatin or rosuvastatin and daptomycin. Of these, no patient (0%) met evidentiary requirements for diagnosis of myopathy or related complications. No patient (0%) developed muscle pain or discomfort and none developed markedly elevated CK levels. The incidence of asymptomatic elevations of CK in these simvastatin or rosuvastatin plus daptomycin recipients (9%) was statistically indistinguishable from the incidence of CK elevations found in a cohort of 105 inpatients who received simvastatin or rosuvastatin alone (21%; p=0.135). In patients receiving treatment with simvastatin or rosuvastatin and daptomycin, no symptoms or objective evidence of muscle injury attributable to a drug interaction were identified. These findings are consistent with data indicating that the myopathic effects of statins and daptomycin are incited by disparate and perhaps unique pharmacological mechanisms. Risk of muscle injury therefore appears to be no greater when a statin is administered with daptomycin than when either medication is used alone.

  13. Evaluation of the Potential Pharmacokinetic Interaction between Atomoxetine and Fluvoxamine in Healthy Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todor, Ioana; Popa, Adina; Neag, Maria; Muntean, Dana; Bocsan, Corina; Buzoianu, Anca; Vlase, Laurian; Gheldiu, Ana-Maria; Briciu, Corina

    2017-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is frequently associated with other psychiatric pathologies. Therefore, the present study investigated a possible pharmacokinetic interaction between atomoxetine (ATX), a treatment option for ADHD, and an antidepressant, namely, fluvoxamine (FVX). Designed as an open-label, non-randomized clinical trial, the study included 2 periods. In period 1 (reference), each subject received ATX 25 mg (single-dose), whereas in period 2 (test), all subjects were given a combination of ATX 25 mg + FVX 100 mg, following a 6-day pretreatment regimen with the enzymatic inhibitor. Non-compartmental methods were employed to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of ATX and its main active metabolite (glucuronidated form), 4-hydroxyatomoxetine-O-glucuronide. The results revealed significant differences between the study periods for Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-∞ values corresponding to ATX and its metabolite. Small, but statistically significant increases in AUC values were reported for both parent drug (1,583.05 ± 1,040.29 vs. 2,111.55 ± 1,411.59 ng*h/ml) and 4-hydroxyatomoxetine-O-glucuronide (5,754.71 ± 1,235.5 vs. 6,293.17 ± 1,219.34 ng*h/ml) after combined treatment of ATX and the enzymatic inhibitor. FVX had a modest effect on the pharmacokinetics of ATX and 4-hydroxyatomoxetine-O-glucuronide. The presence or absence of any clinical consequences associated with this pharmacokinetic drug-drug interaction needs to be established in future studies. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Interactive Block Games for Assessing Children's Cognitive Skills: Design and Preliminary Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiju Lee

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper presents design and results from preliminary evaluation of Tangible Geometric Games (TAG-Games for cognitive assessment in young children. The TAG-Games technology employs a set of sensor-integrated cube blocks, called SIG-Blocks, and graphical user interfaces for test administration and real-time performance monitoring. TAG-Games were administered to children from 4 to 8 years of age for evaluating preliminary efficacy of this new technology-based approach.Methods: Five different sets of SIG-Blocks comprised of geometric shapes, segmented human faces, segmented animal faces, emoticons, and colors, were used for three types of TAG-Games, including Assembly, Shape Matching, and Sequence Memory. Computational task difficulty measures were defined for each game and used to generate items with varying difficulty. For preliminary evaluation, TAG-Games were tested on 40 children. To explore the clinical utility of the information assessed by TAG-Games, three subtests of the age-appropriate Wechsler tests (i.e., Block Design, Matrix Reasoning, and Picture Concept were also administered.Results: Internal consistency of TAG-Games was evaluated by the split-half reliability test. Weak to moderate correlations between Assembly and Block Design, Shape Matching and Matrix Reasoning, and Sequence Memory and Picture Concept were found. The computational measure of task complexity for each TAG-Game showed a significant correlation with participants' performance. In addition, age-correlations on TAG-Game scores were found, implying its potential use for assessing children's cognitive skills autonomously.

  15. High-throughput evaluation of interactions between biomaterials, proteins and cells using patterned superhydrophobic substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Neto, Ana I.; Custódio, Catarina A.; Wenlong Song; Mano, J. F.

    2011-01-01

    We propose a new low cost platform for high-throughput analysis that permits screening the biological performance of independent combinations of biomaterials, cells and culture media. Patterned superhydrophobic flat substrates with controlled wettable spots are used to produce microarray chips for accelerated multiplexing evaluation. This work was partially supported by Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (FCT) under project PTDC/FIS/68517/2006.

  16. Evaluation of tritium production cross-section for neutron-interaction with 7Li

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Baosheng; Cai Dunjiu

    1987-01-01

    The 7 Li(n, n't) α reaction cross-section has been evaluated and recommended. These experimental data were selected up to the end of 1986, in which main microscopic nuclear data and benchmark measurements were included. These data are retrieved from EXFOR master files of International Atomic Energy Agency, and new information is added in which IAE (the Chinese Institute of Atomic Energy) experimental results is considered

  17. Preparation of modified clay with benzethonium or cetylpyridinium chloride and evaluation of their interactions with PVC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resende, Daniel K.; Dornelas, Camila B.; Moreira, Leonardo A.; Gomes, Ailton S.; Tavares, Maria I.B.; Cabral, Lucio M.; Simeoni, Luiz A.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work was the preparation of modified clays with benzethonium or cetylpyridinium to obtain organophilic silicates with good stability and evaluate the possible use of them for the preparation of nanocomposites of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC). The reactions of modification of clays and the PVC were prepared by solution intercalation. The new clays were evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Low field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The reactions of clays with PVC were assessed by Low-field NMR, through the determination of proton spin lattice relaxation time. The stability of new organophilic clays and their reactions with PVC were evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). High stability was observed for organophilic clays prepared. The degradation of PVC materials obtained with the organophilic clay began at temperatures above 200 deg C. If it is considered that the temperatures normally used in the processing of PVC are between 140 deg C to 180 deg C, the observed results may indicate the possibility of the use of clays for preparation of nanomaterials with PVC. (author)

  18. A novel interaction fingerprint derived from per atom score contributions: exhaustive evaluation of interaction fingerprint performance in docking based virtual screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, Julia B; Humbeck, Lina; Brinkjost, Tobias; Koch, Oliver

    2018-03-16

    Protein ligand interaction fingerprints are a powerful approach for the analysis and assessment of docking poses to improve docking performance in virtual screening. In this study, a novel interaction fingerprint approach (PADIF, protein per atom score contributions derived interaction fingerprint) is presented which was specifically designed for utilising the GOLD scoring functions' atom contributions together with a specific scoring scheme. This allows the incorporation of known protein-ligand complex structures for a target-specific scoring. Unlike many other methods, this approach uses weighting factors reflecting the relative frequency of a specific interaction in the references and penalizes destabilizing interactions. In addition, and for the first time, an exhaustive validation study was performed that assesses the performance of PADIF and two other interaction fingerprints in virtual screening. Here, PADIF shows superior results, and some rules of thumb for a successful use of interaction fingerprints could be identified.

  19. Patient-centred communication intervention study to evaluate nurse-patient interactions in complex continuing care

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Communication impairment is a frequent consequence of stroke. Patients who cannot articulate their needs respond with frustration and agitation, resulting in poor optimization of post-stroke functions. A key component of patient-centred care is the ability of staff to communicate in a way that allows them to understand the patient’s needs. We developed a patient-centred communication intervention targeting registered and unregulated nursing staff caring for complex continuing care patients with communication impairments post stroke. Research objectives include 1) examining the effects of the intervention on patients’ quality of life, depression, satisfaction with care, and agitation; and (2) examining the extent to which the intervention improves staff’s attitudes and knowledge in caring for patients with communication impairments. The intervention builds on a previous pilot study. Methods/design A quasi-experimental repeated measures non-equivalent control group design in a complex continuing care facility is being used. Patients with a communication impairment post-stroke admitted to the facility are eligible to participate. All staff nurses are eligible. Baseline data are collected from staff and patients. Follow-up will occur at 1 and 3 months post-intervention. Subject recruitment and data collection from 60 patients and 30 staff will take approximately 36 months. The Patient-Centred Communication Intervention consists of three components: (1) development of an individualized patient communication care plan; (2) a one-day workshop focused on communication and behavioural management strategies for nursing staff; and (3) a staff support system. The intervention takes comprehensive patient assessments into account to inform the development of communication and behavioural strategies specifically tailored to each patient. Discussion The Patient-Centred Communication Intervention will provide staff with strategies to facilitate interactions with

  20. Patient-centred communication intervention study to evaluate nurse-patient interactions in complex continuing care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGilton Katherine S

    2012-10-01

    facilitate interactions with patients and to minimize agitation associated with considerable stress. The improvement of these interactions will lead to a reduction of agitation, which has the additional significance of increasing patients’ well-being, quality of life, and satisfaction with care. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01654029

  1. Evaluation of an interactive web-based nursing course with streaming videos for medication administration skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowan, Azizeh K; Idhail, Jamila Abu

    2014-08-01

    Nursing students should exhibit competence in nursing skills in order to provide safe and quality patient care. This study describes the design and students' response to an interactive web-based course using streaming video technology tailored to students' needs and the course objectives of the fundamentals of nursing skills clinical course. A mixed-methodology design was used to describe the experience of 102 first-year undergraduate nursing students at a school of nursing in Jordan who were enrolled in the course. A virtual course with streaming videos was designed to demonstrate medication administration fundamental skills. The videos recorded the ideal lab demonstration of the skills, and real-world practice performed by registered nurses for patients in a hospital setting. After course completion, students completed a 30-item satisfaction questionnaire, 8 self-efficacy scales, and a 4-item scale solicited their preferences of using the virtual course as a substitute or a replacement of the lab demonstration. Students' grades in the skill examination of the procedures were measured. Relationships between the main variables and predictors of satisfaction and self-efficacy were examined. Students were satisfied with the virtual course (3.9 ± 0.56, out of a 5-point scale) with a high-perceived overall self-efficacy (4.38 ± 0.42, out of a 5-point scale). Data showed a significant correlation between student satisfaction, self-efficacy and achievement in the virtual course (r = 0.45-0.49, p students accessed the course from home and some faced technical difficulties. Significant predictors of satisfaction were ease of access the course and gender (B = 0.35, 0.25, CI = 0.12-0.57, 0.02-0.48 respectively). The mean achievement score of students in the virtual class (7.5 ± 0.34) was significantly higher than that of a previous comparable cohort who was taught in the traditional method (6.0 ± 0.23) (p students believed that the virtual course is a sufficient

  2. Uranium mobility in mine areas: evaluation of the water-rock interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuddas, P. [UFR Sciences de la Terre. PEPS. Universite Claude Bernard. Lyon (France); Rocha Scislewski, A.; Faivre, D.; Lopez, O. [Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (France)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Toxicity and natural radioactivity of uranium are among the main environmental concerns for exploitation and processing of uranium ore. Weathering processes and potential contamination paths of these areas have to be identified to preserve the water resources. In this work, leaching experiments were carried out in flow-through reactors. Approximately 750 g of crushed rock of selected grain size between 0.35 and 0.80 mm were introduced into a Pyrex column. Distilled and deionized water, saturated with 5% CO{sub 2}/95% air mixture, was introduced through a glass inlet fitted at the base of the column. Input solution pH was constantly equal to 4.2 while the low flow rate was obtained from a peristaltic pump. The output solution was sampled periodically for about 1 year. Three different rock samples were used: an untreated granite rock with high levels of uranium minerals, a rock with low uranium content and a rock rejected after the lixiviation process for uranium industrial extraction. For untreated rocks pH and silica decrease by 1-2 orders of magnitude while sodium decreases by 2-3 orders of magnitude. This indicates the strong albitite dissolution. Total dissolved uranium has a rather constant level indicating the constant dissolution rate of the uranium mineral assemblage. Thermodynamic modelling of the interacting output solutions indicates that 80% of the dissolved uranium content is under the form of two main carbonate complexes (i.e. UO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}{sup 2-} and UO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3}{sup 4-}), while solutions are saturated on chalcedony, kaolinite and calcium clay minerals. Solutions are under saturated with respect to uraninite and low-temperature albite. In experiments where material was treated with sulphuric acid in the plant, pH is constantly equal to 4 indicating the lack of rock buffering properties. Na, Ca, and SO{sub 4} decrease by several orders of magnitude (from some initial mmol/kg) reaching

  3. Evaluating public education messages aimed at monitoring and responding to social interactive technology on smartphones among young drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauld, Cassandra S; Lewis, Ioni; White, Katherine M; Fleiter, Judy J; Watson, Barry

    2017-07-01

    Young drivers are more likely than any other age group to access social interactive technology (e.g., Facebook, E-mail) on a smartphone while driving. The current study formed part of a larger investigation and was guided by The Step Approach to Message Design and Testing (SatMDT) to evaluate the relative effectiveness of three different public education messages aimed at reducing smartphone use among young drivers. The messages were each adapted to the specific behaviours of monitoring/reading and responding to social interactive technology on smartphones. Participants (n=288; 199F, 89M) were drivers aged 17-25 years who resided in the Australian state of Queensland. Message acceptance (i.e., intention and effectiveness) and message rejection were both assessed using a self-report survey. Multivariate analyses found that, overall, the messages targeting monitoring/reading behaviour were considered more effective than those targeting responding behaviour. The message that challenged the underlying motivation that believing you are a good driver makes it easier to monitor/read social interactive technology while driving was considered particularly effective by young male drivers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluating the Intraspecific Interactions of Indian Rosewood (Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. Trees in Indian Rosewood Reserveof Khuzestan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Erfanifard

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Positive and negative (facilitative and competitive interactions of plants are important issues in autecology and can be evaluated by the spatial pattern analysis in plant ecosystems. This study investigates the intraspecific interactions of Indian rosewood (Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. trees in Indian rosewood Reserve of Khuzestan province. Three 150 m × 200 m plots were selected and the spatial locations of all Indian rosewoods (239 trees were specified. Structurally different summary statistics (nearest neighbour distribution function D(r, K2-index K2(r, pair correlation function g(r, and O-ring O(r were also implemented to analyze the spatial pattern of the trees. The distribution of Indian rosewood trees significantly followed inhomogeneous Poisson process (α=0.05. The results of D(r and K2(r showed that the maximum distance to nearest tree was 12 m and density was decreased to this scale. The results of g(r and O(r also revealed the significant aggregation of Indian rosewood trees at scales of 1.5 to 4 m (α=0.05. In general, it was concluded that Indian rosewood trees had positive intraspecific interactions in Indian rosewood Reserve of Khuzestan province and their aggregation showed their facilitative effects on one another.

  5. Evaluation of a treatment manual and workshops for disseminating, parent-child interaction therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herschell, Amy D; McNeil, Cheryl B; Urquiza, Anthony J; McGrath, Jean M; Zebell, Nancy M; Timmer, Susan G; Porter, Alissa

    2009-01-01

    This study's main purposes were to: (a) evaluate a treatment manual as a dissemination strategy, (b) compare two workshop formats for evidence-based treatment (EBT) training, and (c) provide preliminary data on therapist characteristics potentially associated with successful EBT adoption. Forty-two community-based clinicians were assigned to one of two training groups (didactic or experiential). Behavior observation and self-report data were collected at four time points. Results suggest that reading a treatment manual is useful, but not sufficient. Experiential and didactic training were equally effective in increasing knowledge, skill, and satisfaction; however, after a 2-day training, few participants demonstrated mastery of skills.

  6. Evaluation of the exchange interaction and crystal fields in a prototype Dy2 SMM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing; Sarachik, Myriam; Baker, Michael; Chen, Yizhang; Kent, Andrew; Pineda, Eufemio; McInnes, Eric

    In order to gain an understanding of the INS and magnetization data obtained for Dy2, the simplest member of a newly synthesized family of dysprosium-based molecular magnets, we report on calculations of the magnetic behavior of a Dy2 cluster with the formula [hqH2][Dy2(hq)4(NO3)3].MeOH. The molecular complex contains one high symmetry Dy(III) ion and one low symmetry Dy(III) ion. Our calculations suggest that exchange coupling between the two ions controls the behavior of the magnetization at low temperature, while the crystal field of the low symmetry Dy(III) ion controls the behavior at higher temperature. A point charge electrostatic model, based on crystallographic coordinates, provides a starting point for the determination of the crystal field. Parameters in these calculations are adjusted to provide best fits to inelastic neutron scattering data (INS) and low temperature magnetometry: the INS measurements access crystal field energies and low temperature magnetization probes the Dy-Dy exchange interaction. Work supported by ARO W911NF-13-1-1025 (CCNY) and NSF-DMR-1309202 (NYU).

  7. mCLEV-R: Design and Evaluation of an Interactive and Collaborative M-Learning Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Monahan

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Continuous enhancements in computer technology and the current widespread computer literacy among the public have resulted in a new generation of students that expect increasingly more from their e-learning experiences. To keep up with such expectations, e-learning systems have gone through a radical change from the initial text-based environments to more stimulating multimedia systems. E-learning functionalities are now also being extended to mobile platforms in order to be more available and convenient for users. Many mobile learning applications have now been developed and they too are becoming more advanced. However, providing truly collaborative and interactive mobile learning tools still remains a challenge. In this paper, we present a desktop e-learning system called CLEV-R and in particular a component of the system that we have developed for mobile devices. This mobile component explores the possibility of providing collaboration tools for mobile learners while also presenting the learning experience through an engaging 3D environment.

  8. Development and evaluation of a tracer-injection hydrothermal technique for studies of waste package interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, T.E.; Coles, D.G.; Britton, R.C.; Burnell, J.R.

    1986-11-01

    A tracer-injection system has been developed for use in characterizing reactions of waste package materials under hydrothermal conditions. High-pressure liquid chromatographic instrumentation has been coupled with Dickson-type rocking autoclaves to allow injection of selected components into the hydrothermal fluid while maintaining run temperature and pressure. Hydrothermal experiments conducted using this system included the interactions of depleted uranium oxide and Zircaloy-4 metal alloy discs with trace levels of 99 Tc and non-radioactive Cs and I in a simulated groundwater matrix. After waste-package components and simulated waste forms were pre-conditioned in the autoclave systems (usually 4 to 6 weeks), known quantities of tracer-doped fluids were injected into the autoclaves' gold reaction bag at run conditions. Time-sequenced sampling of the hydrothermal fluid providing kinetic data on the reactions of tracers with waste package materials. The injection system facilitates the design of experiments that will better define ''steady-state'' fluid compositions in hydrothermal reactions. The injection system will also allow for the formation of tracer-bearing solid phases in detectable quantities

  9. Evaluating the interactions of vertebrate receptors with persistent pollutants and antifouling pesticides using recombinant yeast assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noguerol, Tania-Noelia; Boronat, Susanna; Casado, Marta; Pina, Benjamin [Institut de Biologia Molecular de Barcelona, CSIC, Department of Molecular Biology, Barcelona (Spain); Raldua, Demetrio [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, INTEXTER -UP, Terrassa (Spain); Barcelo, Damia [IIQAB-CSIC, Department of Environmental Chemistry, Barcelona (Spain)

    2006-07-15

    The development of in vitro methods for screening potentially harmful biological activities of new compounds is an extremely important way to increase not only their intrinsic environmental safety, but also the public perception of the safety standards associated with them. In this work we use two yeast systems to test the ability of different chemicals to bind and activate two vertebrate receptors which are intimately related to adverse biological effects of pollution in exposed fauna: the estrogen receptor (ER) and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). The panel of compounds analysed here includes well-known pollutants, like PCBs, pp'-DDT and hexachlorobenzene, together with the less-known, emerging putative pollutants, such as Sea-Nine, Irgarol and diuron. Results show the ability of some of these compounds to interact with one or both receptors, provide hints about the relationship between structure and activity, and suggest mechanistic explanations for the biological activities already described in whole-animal experiments. In addition, we show that AhR may have an intrinsic ligand promiscuity comparable to that of ER, a feature not fully appreciated in the past due to the technical difficulties involved with testing highly lipophilic substances in yeast-based assays. (orig.)

  10. Laser light interaction for texture evaluation of native woods and Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, M.R.; Mori, F.A.; Rabelo, G.F.; Braga Junior, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    This work had the objective of study in patterns of the ''speckle'' as function of the wood texture of Bowdichia virgilioides check for this species in other resources (sucupira), Swietenia macrophylla check for this species in other resources (mogno), Balfourodendron riedelianum check for this species in other resources (paumarfim) and Eucalyptus grandis wood. The He-Ne laser 10 mW was used to illuminate the wood samples and a digital camera captured the result of the interaction of the wood with the laser light. The results obtained from image analysis were compared with the pattern obtained by microscopic methodology. The captured images show the intensities of each pixel, varying between 0 and 255 in the gray scale. From the images, a central area of 16x16 pixels was removed and analyzed by the application of the convolution function and its Fourier Transform, resulting in the power density spectrum. The results showed that the information obtained by the power density spectrum of the ''speckle'' space variation allow classing samples of woods with different texture [pt

  11. Design, development, and evaluation of a second generation interactive Simulator for Engineering Ethics Education (SEEE2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfred, Michael; Chung, Christopher A

    2012-12-01

    This paper describes a second generation Simulator for Engineering Ethics Education. Details describing the first generation activities of this overall effort are published in Chung and Alfred (Sci Eng Ethics 15:189-199, 2009). The second generation research effort represents a major development in the interactive simulator educational approach. As with the first generation effort, the simulator places students in first person perspective scenarios involving different types of ethical situations. Students must still gather data, assess the situation, and make decisions. The approach still requires students to develop their own ability to identify and respond to ethical engineering situations. However, were as, the generation one effort involved the use of a dogmatic model based on National Society of Professional Engineers' Code of Ethics, the new generation two model is based on a mathematical model of the actual experiences of engineers involved in ethical situations. This approach also allows the use of feedback in the form of decision effectiveness and professional career impact. Statistical comparisons indicate a 59 percent increase in overall knowledge and a 19 percent improvement in teaching effectiveness over an Internet Engineering Ethics resource based approach.

  12. Distinguishing differential susceptibility from diathesis-stress: recommendations for evaluating interaction effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roisman, Glenn I; Newman, Daniel A; Fraley, R Chris; Haltigan, John D; Groh, Ashley M; Haydon, Katherine C

    2012-05-01

    This report describes the state of the art in distinguishing data generated by differential susceptibility from diathesis-stress models. We discuss several limitations of existing practices for probing interaction effects and offer solutions that are designed to better differentiate differential susceptibility from diathesis-stress models and quantify their corresponding implications. In addition, we demonstrate the utility of these methods by revisiting published evidence suggesting that temperamental difficulty serves as a marker of enhanced susceptibility to early maternal caregiving across a range of outcome domains in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. We find that, with the exception of mother reports of psychopathology, there is consistent evidence in the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development that the predictive significance of early sensitivity is moderated by difficult temperament over time. However, differential susceptibility effects emerged primarily for teacher reports of academic skills, social competence, and symptomatology. In contrast, effects more consistent with the diathesis-stress model were obtained for mother reports of social skills and objective tests of academic skills. We conclude by discussing the value of the application of this work to the next wave of Gene × Environment studies focused on early caregiving experiences.

  13. Design, synthesis and evaluation of a new fluorescent probe for measuring polymyxin-lipopolysaccharide binding interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soon, Rachel L.; Velkov, Tony; Chiu, Francis; Thompson, Philip E.; Kancharla, Rashmi; Roberts, Kade; Larson, Ian; Nation, Roger L.; Li, Jian

    2011-01-01

    Fluorescence assays employing semi-synthetic or commercial dansyl-polymyxin B, have been widely employed to assess the affinity of polycations, including polymyxins, for bacterial cells and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The five primary γ-amines on diaminobutyric-acid residues of polymyxin B are potentially derivatized with dansyl-cholride. Mass spectrometric analysis of the commercial product revealed a complex mixture of di- or tetra- dansyl-substituted polymyxin B. We synthesized a mono-substituted fluorescent derivative, dansyl[Lys]1polymyxinB3. The affinity of polymyxin for purified Gram-negative LPS, and whole bacterial cells was investigated. The affinity of dansyl[Lys]1polymyxinB3 for LPS was comparable to polymyxin B and colistin, and considerably greater (kd dansyl[Lys]1polymyxinB3 to LPS, attributed to electrostatic interactions. The hydrophobic dansyl moiety imparted a greater entropic contribution to the dansyl[Lys]1polymyxinB3-LPS reaction. Molecular modeling revealed a loss of electrostatic contact within the dansyl[Lys]1polymyxinB3-LPS complex due to steric hindrance from the dansyl[Lys]1 fluorophore; this corresponded with diminished antibacterial activity (MIC ≥ 16 μg/mL). Dansyl[Lys]1polymyxinB3 may prove useful as a screening tool for drug development. PMID:21050838

  14. Seismic response and fragility evaluation for an Eastern US NPP including soil-structure interaction effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghiocel, Dan M.; Wilson, Paul R.; Thomas, Gary G.; Stevenson, John D.

    1998-01-01

    The paper discusses methodological aspects involved in a probabilistic seismic soil-structure interaction (SSI) analysis for a Seismic Probabilistic Risk Assessment (SPRA) review. An example of an Eastern US nuclear power plant (NPP) is presented. The approach presented herein follows the current practice of the Individual Plant Examination for External Events (IPEEE) program in the US. The NPP is founded on a relatively soft soil deposit, and thus the SSI effects on seismic responses are significant. Probabilistic models used for the idealization of the seismic excitation and the surrounding soil deposit are described. Using a lognormal format, computed random variability effects were combined with those proposed in the SPRA methodology guidelines. Probabilistic floor response spectra and structural fragilities for different NPP buildings were computed. Structural capacities were determined following the current practice which assumes independent median safety factors for strength and inelastic absorption. Limitations of the IPEEE practice for performing SPRA are discussed and alternate procedures, more rigorous and simple to implement, are suggested

  15. Using video-based observation research methods in primary care health encounters to evaluate complex interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asan, Onur; Montague, Enid

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the use of video-based observation research methods in primary care environment and highlight important methodological considerations and provide practical guidance for primary care and human factors researchers conducting video studies to understand patient-clinician interaction in primary care settings. We reviewed studies in the literature which used video methods in health care research, and we also used our own experience based on the video studies we conducted in primary care settings. This paper highlighted the benefits of using video techniques, such as multi-channel recording and video coding, and compared "unmanned" video recording with the traditional observation method in primary care research. We proposed a list that can be followed step by step to conduct an effective video study in a primary care setting for a given problem. This paper also described obstacles, researchers should anticipate when using video recording methods in future studies. With the new technological improvements, video-based observation research is becoming a promising method in primary care and HFE research. Video recording has been under-utilised as a data collection tool because of confidentiality and privacy issues. However, it has many benefits as opposed to traditional observations, and recent studies using video recording methods have introduced new research areas and approaches.

  16. Evaluation of hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography stationary phases for analysis of opium alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Mohsen; Taheri, Mohammadreza; Farhadpour, Mohsen; Rezadoost, Hassan; Ghassempour, Alireza; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y

    2017-08-18

    The separation of a mixture containing five major opium alkaloids, namely morphine, codeine, thebaine, noscapine and papaverine has been investigated in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) mode using five different stationary phases: bare silica, zwitterion, aminopropyl, diol and cyanopropyl. In order to propose the appropriate column for separation and purification, retention behaviors of the five natural opioids have been studied on mentioned HILIC stationary phases. The mechanism of separation in diverse HILIC media, based on the formation of water-rich layer on surface of the HILIC stationary phases and the physicochemical properties of opium alkaloids, such as pKa (acidic pK) and the octanol-water distribution coefficient (log Do/w) are discussed. Chromatographic responses including modified limit of detection LOD m , signal to noise ratio (S/N) m , and defined modified R Sm have considered for suggestion of the suitable column for quantitative/qualitative and preparative purposes. According to the obtained results, diol stationary phase is best suited for analytical chromatography, whereas bare silica and zwitterionic stationary phases are appropriate for preparative applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Designing and Evaluating Tutoring Feedback Strategies for digital learning environments on the basis of the Interactive Tutoring Feedback Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Narciss

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the interactive tutoring feedback model (ITF-model; Narciss, 2006; 2008, and how it can be applied to the design and evaluation of feedback strategies for digital learning environments. The ITF-model conceptualizes formative tutoring feedback as a multidimensional instructional activity that aims at contributing to the regulation of a learning process in order to help learners acquire or improve the competencies needed to master learning tasks. It integrates findings from systems theory with recommendations of prior research on interactive instruction and elaborated feedback, on task analyses, on error analyses, and on tutoring techniques. Based on this multi-dimensional view of formative tutoring feedback methodological implications for designing and investigating multiple effects of feedback under multiple individual and situational conditions are described. Furthermore, the paper outlines how the implications of the ITF-model have been applied in several studies to the design and evaluation of tutoring feedback strategies for digital learning environments (e.g., Narciss, 2004; Narciss & Huth, 2006; Narciss, Schnaubert, Andres, Eichelmann, Goguadze, & Sosnovsky, 2013.

  18. Plasticity effect of rider-horse interaction on genetic evaluations for Show Jumping discipline in sport horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolomé, E; Menéndez-Buxadera, A; Molina, A; Valera, M

    2018-04-01

    To obtain a sport horse that excels in the highest levels of competition, breeders must take into account certain genetic and environmental factors that could influence the sport horse's performance, such as the rider-horse interaction (RHI). The main aim of this study was to describe this interaction in a genetic model by modelling it in relation to the horse's age. A total of 31,129 sport results from Spanish Sport Horses were used from a total of 1,101 animals evaluated, and these were grouped in three age levels and had been ridden by 606 different riders. Only riders who had ridden more than one horse (and vice-versa) were considered for the analyses. Five linear models with different random effects were analysed according to the covariates, the homogeneity/heterogeneity of the RHI and the relevant residual random effects. The model of best fit was then selected for the genetic evaluation of the animal. In general, models including the RHI effect (M2, M4 and M5) fitted better than the other models, and the best fit was obtained for M4 (with heterogeneous residual variance). The genetic variance increased constantly with age, whereas heritability showed a response on three intervals. This study revealed the varied evolution of the RHI with age, showing the different "plastic abilities" of this relationship. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Sex Differences in Emotional Evaluation of Film Clips: Interaction with Five High Arousal Emotional Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffei, Antonio; Vencato, Valentina; Angrilli, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate gender differences in the emotional evaluation of 18 film clips divided into six categories: Erotic, Scenery, Neutral, Sadness, Compassion, and Fear. 41 female and 40 male students rated all clips for valence-pleasantness, arousal, level of elicited distress, anxiety, jittery feelings, excitation, and embarrassment. Analysis of positive films revealed higher levels of arousal, pleasantness, and excitation to the Scenery clips in both genders, but lower pleasantness and greater embarrassment in women compared to men to Erotic clips. Concerning unpleasant stimuli, unlike men, women reported more unpleasantness to the Compassion, Sadness, and Fear compared to the Neutral clips and rated them also as more arousing than did men. They further differentiated the films by perceiving greater arousal to Fear than to Compassion clips. Women rated the Sadness and Fear clips with greater Distress and Jittery feelings than men did. Correlation analysis between arousal and the other emotional scales revealed that, although men looked less aroused than women to all unpleasant clips, they also showed a larger variance in their emotional responses as indicated by the high number of correlations and their relatively greater extent, an outcome pointing to a masked larger sensitivity of part of male sample to emotional clips. We propose a new perspective in which gender difference in emotional responses can be better evidenced by means of film clips selected and clustered in more homogeneous categories, controlled for arousal levels, as well as evaluated through a number of emotion focused adjectives. PMID:26717488

  20. Sex Differences in Emotional Evaluation of Film Clips: Interaction with Five High Arousal Emotional Categories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Maffei

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate gender differences in the emotional evaluation of 18 film clips divided into six categories: Erotic, Scenery, Neutral, Sadness, Compassion, and Fear. 41 female and 40 male students rated all clips for valence-pleasantness, arousal, level of elicited distress, anxiety, jittery feelings, excitation, and embarrassment. Analysis of positive films revealed higher levels of arousal, pleasantness, and excitation to the Scenery clips in both genders, but lower pleasantness and greater embarrassment in women compared to men to Erotic clips. Concerning unpleasant stimuli, unlike men, women reported more unpleasantness to the Compassion, Sadness, and Fear compared to the Neutral clips and rated them also as more arousing than did men. They further differentiated the films by perceiving greater arousal to Fear than to Compassion clips. Women rated the Sadness and Fear clips with greater Distress and Jittery feelings than men did. Correlation analysis between arousal and the other emotional scales revealed that, although men looked less aroused than women to all unpleasant clips, they also showed a larger variance in their emotional responses as indicated by the high number of correlations and their relatively greater extent, an outcome pointing to a masked larger sensitivity of part of male sample to emotional clips. We propose a new perspective in which gender difference in emotional responses can be better evidenced by means of film clips selected and clustered in more homogeneous categories, controlled for arousal levels, as well as evaluated through a number of emotion focused adjectives.

  1. Evaluation of a high visibility enforcement project focused on passenger vehicles interacting with commercial vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, F Dennis; Blomberg, Richard D; Peck, Raymond C; Cosgrove, Linda A; Salzberg, Philip M

    2008-01-01

    In 2004, Washington State applied NHTSA's High Visibility Enforcement model used in the Click It or Ticket seat belt campaign in an attempt to reduce unsafe driving behaviors around commercial motor vehicles (CMVs). The program was called Ticketing Aggressive Cars and Trucks (TACT). This paper details the methods used to evaluate the program's effectiveness and the results of the evaluation. Four high-crash interstate highway corridors, each approximately 25 miles in length, were selected. Two of these corridors received TACT media messages and increased enforcement over an 18-month period while two comparison corridors did not receive any increased media or enforcement. A total of 4,737 contacts were made with drivers during the two enforcement waves, and 72% of these contacts led to a citation. Drivers at the intervention sites who said they saw or heard any of the TACT messages increased from 17.7% in the pre period to a high of 67.3% in the post periods. Drivers at the intervention sites also reported increased exposure to the core message of leaving more space when passing trucks (14% pre to 40% post period). The percentage of drivers who said they leave more room when passing trucks than when passing cars rose from 16% in the pre period to 24% in the post period at the intervention sites, while comparison sites showed no change. Over 150 hours of video recorded by law enforcement officers in unmarked vehicles were utilized to examine violation rates and severity of violations before and after the intervention campaigns. Statistical analyses showed that violation rates were reduced significantly at the intervention sites (between 23% and 46%), while remaining constant at the comparison sites. Analyses of the video data also showed that the seriousness of the residual violations at the intervention sites decreased. Overall, the evaluation results provide a consistent picture of the effectiveness of the TACT pilot project. Success was demonstrated at every step

  2. Evaluation of the Interaction between the Poincianella pyramidalis (Tul. LP Queiroz Extract and Antimicrobials Using Biological and Analytical Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago P Chaves

    Full Text Available Poincianella pyramidalis (Tul. LP Queiroz (Fabaceae is an endemic tree of northeastern Brazil, occurring mainly in the Caatinga. Its medicinal use is widespread and is an important therapeutic option against diarrhea, dysentery, and respiratory and urinary infections, among other diseases. In this study we determined the chemical marker and evaluated the interaction between P. pyramidalis extract and a commercial antimicrobial through the use of biological and analytical models. To obtain the extract, an ethanol-water mixture (50:50 v/v was used as solvent. It was nebulized in a spray dryer using colloidal silicon dioxide as a drying adjuvant. The extract (ENPp was subjected to HPLC analysis to verify the presence of certain secondary metabolites. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC of the extract against Gram-negative bacteria was determined by broth microdilution and the MIC of synthetic antimicrobial drugs in the presence and absence of the extract. The antioxidant activity of ENPp was evaluated by the DPPH method. The compatibility between the antimicrobial and the extract was evaluated by thermal analysis (TG/DTA. The acute toxicity of the extract was evaluated in vivo in rodents. The results indicate significant additive action of the extract on synthetic antibiotics, considerable antioxidant activity and absence of toxicity. This extract shows high potential for the development of formulations for antimicrobial therapy when used with a vegetable-active ingredient.

  3. Evaluation of the Interaction between NMDA Receptors of Nucleus Accumbens and Muscarinic Receptors in Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Taheri

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Whereas studies have indicated the interaction between NMDA and cholinergic systems, this study was performed with the aim of determining the role of NMDA receptors in the nucleus accumbens (NAc in scopolamine-induced amnesia.Methods: In this study, at first rats were anesthetized with intra-peritoneal injection of ketamine hydrochloride plus xylazine, and then placed in a stereotaxic apparatus. Two stainless-steel cannulas were placed 2mm above nucleus accumbens shell. All animals were allowed to recover for one week, before beginning the behavioral testing. Then, animals were trained in a step-through type inhibitory avoidance task. The drugs were injected after successful training and before testing. The animals were tested 24h after training, and the step-through latency time was measured as the memory criterion in male Wistar rats. One-way analysis of variance and Tukey’s test were used for analysis of the data. p<0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results: Intra-nucleus accumbens (intra-NAc injection of scopolamine or NMDA caused impairment in memory in rats. Although, co-administration of an ineffective dose of NMDA with an ineffective dose of scopolamine had no significant effect on memory performance, effective doses of NMDA prevented the amnesic effect of scopolamine on inhibitory avoidance memory. On the other hand, intra-NAc injection of NMDA receptor antagonist, i.e., MK-801 caused no change in memory performance by itself, and its co-administration with an effective dose of scopolamine could not prevent the impairing effect of the latter drug. Conclusion: The finding of this study indicated that NMDA receptors in the nucleus accumbens are involved in the modulation of scopolamine-induced amnesia.

  4. Percutaneous delivery of econazole using microemulsion as vehicle: formulation, evaluation and vesicle-skin interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Shumin; Lin, Yuanyuan; Lu, Haoyang; Li, Qi; He, Jian; Chen, Bao; Wu, Chuanbin; Xu, Yuehong

    2014-04-25

    This project was carried out to exploit the feasibility of using microemulsion (ME) as an alternative carrier for percutaneous delivery econazole nitrate (ECN) and elucidate the underlying mechanism of permeation enhancement. The ME was developed based on Labrafil M 1944 Cs as oil phase, Solutol HS15 and Span 80 as surfactants, Transcutol P as cosurfactant and water as aqueous phase. The solubility of ECN was firstly determined for screening the ingredients of the system. Pseudo-ternary phase diagrams were constructed to formulate ME and select surfactant and cosurfactant. Central composite design-response surface methodology (CCD-RSM) was utilized to optimize the formulation of ME. The ECN loaded ME was characterized in terms of morphology, particle size and size distribution, pH value, refractive index, viscosity and conductivity, and storage stability of the ECN loaded ME was assayed. Percutaneous permeation of ECN from ME in vitro through rat skin was investigated in comparison with PBS aqueous suspension (1%, w/w), and results showed that ME enhanced drug retention in the skin and permeation through the skin, the enhancement of ME on skin deposition was further visualized through fluorescent-labeled ME by confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). The action mechanism of ME on improving percutaneous delivery was studied by performing a pretreatment test. It can speculate that ME does not simply behave as enhancer but it also acts as drug carrier. Furthermore, ME-skin interaction was elucidated through transmission electron microscope (TEM), and attenuated total reflectance fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR). TEM was performed to visualize the micro morphological change of skin. ATR-FTIR was carried out to investigate the molecular vibrations of the components of stratum corneum (SC). The results indicate that the ME system may be a promising vehicle for percutaneous delivery of ECN. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluating a technology supported interactive response system during the laboratory section of a histology course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Vera D; Lorr, Nancy A; Williams, Kimberly

    2017-07-01

    Monitoring of student learning through systematic formative assessment is important for adjusting pedagogical strategies. However, traditional formative assessments, such as quizzes and written assignments, may not be sufficiently timely for making adjustments to a learning process. Technology supported formative assessment tools assess student knowledge, allow for immediate feedback, facilitate classroom dialogues, and have the potential to modify student learning strategies. As an attempt to integrate technology supported formative assessment in the laboratory section of an upper-level histology course, the interactive application Learning Catalytics TM , a cloud-based assessment system, was used. This study conducted during the 2015 Histology courses at Cornell University concluded that this application is helpful for identifying student misconceptions "on-the-go," engaging otherwise marginalized students, and forming a new communication venue between students and instructors. There was no overall difference between grades from topics that used the application and grades from those that did not, and students reported that it only slightly helped improve their understanding of the topic (3.8 ± 0.99 on a five-point Likert scale). However, they highly recommended using it (4.2 ± 0.71). The major limitation was regarding the image display and graphical resolution of this application. Even though students embrace the use of technology, 39% reported benefits of having the traditional light microscope available. This cohort of students led instructors to conclude that the newest tools are not always better, but rather can complement traditional instruction methods. Anat Sci Educ 10: 328-338. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  6. Evaluation on the microbial interactions of anaerobic ammonium oxidizers and heterotrophs in Anammox biofilm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ni, Bing-Jie; Ruscalleda, Mael; Smets, Barth F.

    2012-01-01

    and the affecting factors were evaluated with both experimental and modeling approaches. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis illustrated that Anammox bacteria and heterotrophs accounted for 77% and 23% of the total bacteria, respectively, even without addition of an external carbon source....... Experimental results showed the heterotrophs could grow both on SMP and decay released substrate from the metabolism of the Anammox bacteria. However, heterotrophic growth in Anammox biofilm (23%) was significantly lower than that of nitrifying biofilm (30–50%). The model predictions matched well...... with the experimental observations of the bacterial distribution, as well as the nitrogenous transformations in batch and continuous experiments. The modeling results showed that low nitrogen surface loading resulted in a lower availability of SMP leading to low heterotrophic growth in Anammox biofilm, but high...

  7. Evaluation of spatial pressure distribution during ice-structure interaction using pressure indicating film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Hyunwook

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding of ‘spatial’ pressure distribution is required to determine design loads on local structures, such as plating and framing. However, obtaining a practical ‘spatial’ pressure distribution is a hard task due to the sensitivity of the data acquisition frequency and resolution. High-resolution Pessure-Idicating Flm (PIF was applied to obtain pressure distribution and pressure magnitude using stepped crushing method. Different types of PIF were stacked at each test to creating a pressure distribution plot at specific time steps. Two different concepts of plotting ‘spatial’ pressure-area curve was introduced and evaluated. Diverse unit pixel size was chosen to investigate the effect of the resolution in data analysis. Activated area was not significantly affected by unit pixel size; however, total force was highly sensitive

  8. [Evaluation of digital educational student-technology interaction in neonatal nursing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Fernanda Salim Ferreira de; Dias, Danielle Monteiro Vilela; Higarashi, Ieda Harumi; Scochi, Carmen Gracinda Silvan; Fonseca, Luciana Mara Monti

    2015-02-01

    To assess the digital educational technology interface Caring for the sensory environment in the neonatal unit: noise, lighting and handling based on ergonomic criteria. Descriptive study, in which we used the guidelines and ergonomic criteria established by ISO 9241-11 and an online Likert scale instrument to identify problems and interface qualities. The instrument was built based on Ergolist, which follows the criteria of ISO 9141-11. There were 58 undergraduate study participants from the School of Nursing of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, who attended the classes about neonatal nursing content. All items were positively evaluated by more than 70% of the sample. Educational technology is appropriate according to the ergonomic criteria and can be made available for teaching nursing students.

  9. Man/terminal interaction evaluation of computer operating system command and control service concepts. [in Spacelab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, D. W.; Shields, N. L., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The Experiment Computer Operating System (ECOS) of the Spacelab will allow the onboard Payload Specialist to command experiment devices and display information relative to the performance of experiments. Three candidate ECOS command and control service concepts were reviewed and laboratory data on operator performance was taken for each concept. The command and control service concepts evaluated included a dedicated operator's menu display from which all command inputs were issued, a dedicated command key concept with which command inputs could be issued from any display, and a multi-display concept in which command inputs were issued from several dedicated function displays. Advantages and disadvantages are discussed in terms of training, operational errors, task performance time, and subjective comments of system operators.

  10. Web‐based interactive learning programs for dentistry concept and its evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Feberová

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The change in pedagogy relates partly to the development of electronic media and communication possibilities that are available in networked environments. This new technology dominates and supports the international educational content and learning. The aim of our study was to evaluate this progress in dental edu­cation. The education was compared parallel in two groups of Czech and international students. Groups and teaching hours were in the fourth year of the MD curriculum. Stomatology course materials were prepared and published on the portals of the individual dental study programs (http://dl.cuni.cz. The lectures had different access levels, ranging from materials that were freely available to all International WEB dental faculties’ sources to materials that were accessible only after receiving permission from the authors. A number of software tools were used for the creation of ­e-learning courses, such as, e.g., WebCT, Blackboard, Adobe Connect or Microsoft Class Server. The 291 students who were included in our study were divided into two groups according to the ­e-learning program. The goal of our study was to check student activities during the educational process, namely online work – lessons, articles, videos, lite­rature, quizzes and direct Internet access. The statisticaly significant differences were found in the results of the questionnaire based on five-point Likert scale. The Mann Whitney non-parametric test was used to evaluate students’ activities during the edu­cation process. The ­e-learning course had a direct influence on learning experiences, dental information, opinions and comments. Our results verified that satisfaction is an important and influential factor in determining whether a student decides to choose a dentistry and maxillofacial surgery course. Students prefer to have more time for practical therapy in the clinic. It was demonstrated that examination results did not correspond to the type of

  11. Estimates of epistatic and pleiotropic effects of casein alpha s1 (CSN1S1) and thyroglobulin (TG) genetic markers on beef heifer performance traits enhanced by selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic marker effects and type of inheritance are estimated with poor precision when minor marker allele frequencies are low. A stable composite population (MARC II) was subjected to marker assisted selection for two years to equalize CSN1S1 and TG genetic marker frequencies to evaluate the epista...

  12. The development and evaluation of an interactive videodisc system to train radiation therapy technology students on the use of the linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, C.M.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold. The first part was to describe the development and evaluation of an interactive videodisc system to train radiation therapy technology students how to treat malignancies using a Linear Accelerator. The second part of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the interactive videodisc system as a simulation. The Gagne-Briggs instructional model was adapted to develop the interactive videodisc system. A model emerged as part of the project to conduct the formative evaluation of the prototype. A quasiexperimental research design was used to conduct the summative evaluation with two groups of first-year Radiation Therapy Technology students who entered the program in consecutive years. All testing and evaluation instruments were developed for the study with the exception of the clinical evaluation form. This latter form was already being used at the clinical sites. T-tests were used to analyze all data. A significant difference in cognitive achievement was evidenced between students exposed to the interactive videodisc system and students who were not exposed to the system. There was no significant difference found in clinical performance achievement and in attitude toward the clinical experience between both sets of participants. Instructor time was reduced by 1 and 1/2 hours for students on the interactive videodisc system. In conclusion, the interactive videodisc system was found to be more effective as an instructional method for cognitive achievement and as equally an effective method preparing students for clinical performance

  13. ToF-SIMS observation for evaluating the interaction between amyloid β and lipid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyagi, Satoka; Shimanouchi, Toshinori; Kawashima, Tomoko; Iwai, Hideo

    2015-04-01

    The adsorption behaviour of amyloid beta (Aβ), thought to be a key peptide for understanding Alzheimer's disease, was investigated by means of time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). Aβ aggregates depending on the lipid membrane condition though it has not been fully understood yet. In this study, Aβ samples on different lipid membranes, 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC), 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) and 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC), were observed with ToF-SIMS and the complex ToF-SIMS data of the Aβ samples was interpreted using data analysis techniques such as principal component analysis (PCA), gentle-SIMS (G-SIMS) and g-ogram. DOPC and DMPC are liquid crystal at room temperature, while DPPC is gel at room temperature. As primary ion beams, Bi3(+) and Ar cluster ion beams were used and the effect of an Ar cluster ion for evaluating biomolecules was also studied. The secondary ion images of the peptide fragment ions indicated by G-SIMS and g-ogram were consistent with the PCA results. It is suggested that Aβ is adsorbed homogeneously on the liquid-crystalline-phase lipid membranes, while it aggregates along the lipid on the gel-phase lipid membrane. Moreover, in the results using the Ar cluster, the influence of contamination was reduced.

  14. Anthraquinone-chalcone hybrids: synthesis, preliminary antiproliferative evaluation and DNA-interaction studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, Violeta; Debeljak, Nevena; Stanojković, Tatjana; Kolundžija, Branka; Sladić, Dušan; Vujčić, Miroslava; Janović, Barbara; Tanić, Nikola; Perović, Milka; Tešić, Vesna; Antić, Jadranka; Joksović, Milan D

    2015-01-07

    Novel anthraquinone based chalcone compounds were synthesized starting from 1-acetylanthraquinone in a Claisen-Schmidt reaction and evaluated for their anticancer potential against three human cancer cell lines. Compounds 4a, 4b and 4j showed promising activity in inhibition of HeLa cells with IC50 values ranging from 2.36 to 2.73 μM and low cytotoxicity against healthy MRC-5 cell lines. The effects that compounds produces on the cell cycle were investigated by flow cytometry. It was found that 4a, 4b and 4j cause the accumulation of cells in the S and G2/M phases in a dose-dependent manner and induce caspase-dependent apoptosis. All of three compounds exhibit calf thymus DNA-binding activity. The determined binding constants by absorption titrations (2.65 × 10(3) M(-1), 1.36 × 10(3) M(-1)and 2.51 × 10(3) M(-1) of 4a/CT-DNA, 4b/CT-DNA and 4j/CT-DNA, respectively) together with fluorescence displacement analysis designate 4a, 4b and 4j as strong minor groove binders, but no cleavage of plasmid DNA was observed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Performance evaluation of an interactive teleradiology system for real-time teleconsultation in different network environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lian Ping; Gong Jun; Zhuang Jun; Sun Jianyong; Yang Yuanyuan; Zhang Jianguo; Meng Lili

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Measure the performance of self-developed Interoperable teleradiology system at various communication conditions. Methods: Through three different network media ( satellite network, Asymmetrical Digital Subscriber Loop (ADSL), and Shanghai health system's private broadband WAN), Digital images in radiology were transmitted and experiments on teleradiology consultation were applied. Results such as transmission time were recorded, effects of real-time consultation were evaluated subjectively, and experimental data were analyzed. Results: In satellite network, time spent on the transmission of images is long and effects of consultation is normal; in broadband network, time spent is short and no delay is observed in interoperation. Conclusion: teleconsultation can be hold on image sets composed of small matrix size images and compressed large matrix size images in satellite narrowband network, optimum transmission bandwidth is 192 kbps; original large matrix size images such as CR can be transmitted through broadband network and be used in teleconsultation. Real-time interoperation of the system doesn't require very high bandwidth. It can be implemented at various communication conditions

  16. Genotype by environment interaction effects in genetic evaluation of preweaning gain for Line 1 Hereford cattle from Miles City, Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeil, M D; Cardoso, F F; Hay, E

    2017-09-01

    It has long been recognized that genotype × environment interaction potentially influences genetic evaluation of beef cattle. However, this recognition has largely been ignored in systems for national cattle evaluation. The objective of this investigation was to determine if direct and maternal genetic effects on preweaning gain would be reranked depending on an environmental gradient as determined by year effects. Data used were from the 76-yr selection experiment with the Line 1 Hereford cattle raised at Miles City, MT. The data comprised recorded phenotypes from 7,566 animals and an additional 1,862 ancestral records included in the pedigree. The presence of genotype × environment interaction was examined using reaction norms wherein year effects on preweaning gain were hypothesized to linearly influence the EBV. Estimates of heritability for direct and maternal effects, given the average environment, were 10 ± 2 and 26 ± 3%, respectively. In an environment that is characterized by the 5th (95th) percentile of the distribution of year effects, the corresponding estimates of heritability were 18 ± 3 (22 ± 3%) and 30 ± 3% (30 ± 3%), respectively. Rank correlations of direct and maternal EBV appropriate to the 5th and 95th percentiles of the year effects were 0.67 and 0.92, respectively. In the average environment, the genetic trends were 255 ± 1 g/yr for direct effects and 557 ± 3 g/yr for maternal effects. In the fifth percentile environment, the corresponding estimates of genetic trend were 271 ± 1 and 540 ± 3 g/yr, respectively, and in the 95th percentile environment, they were 236 ± 1 and 578 ± 3 g/yr, respectively. Linear genetic trends in environmental sensitivity were observed for both the direct (-8.06 × 10 ± 0.49 × 10) and maternal (8.72 × 10 ± 0.43 × 10) effects. Therefore, changing systems of national cattle evaluation to more fully account for potential genotype × environment interaction would improve the assessment of breeding

  17. Evaluating the usability of an interactive, bi-lingual, touchscreen-enabled breastfeeding educational programme: application of Nielson's heuristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Ashish; Perin, Douglas M Puricelli; Amadi, Chioma; Trout, Kate

    2015-03-05

    The study purpose was to conduct heuristic evaluation of an interactive, bilingual touchscreen-enabled breastfeeding educational programme for Hispanic women living in rural settings in Nebraska. Three raters conducted the evaluation during May 2013 using principles of Nielson's heuristics. A total of 271 screens were evaluated and included: interface (n = 5), programme sections (n = 223) and educational content (n = 43). A total of 97 heuristic violations were identified and were mostly related to interface (8 violations/5 screens) and programme components (89 violations/266 screens). The most common heuristic violations reported were recognition rather than recall (62%, n = 60), consistency and standards (14%, n = 14) and match between the system and real world (9%, n = 9). Majority of the heuristic violations had minor usability issues (73%, n = 71). The only grade 4 heuristic violation reported was due to the visibility of system status in the assessment modules. The results demonstrated that the system was more consistent with Nielsen's usability heuristics. With Nielsen's usability heuristics, it is possible to identify problems in a timely manner, and help facilitate the identification and prioritisation of problems needing urgent attention at an earlier stage before the final deployment of the system.

  18. Filling potholes on the implementation highway: Evaluating the implementation of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy in Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmer, Susan G; Urquiza, Anthony J; Boys, Deanna K; Forte, Lindsay A; Quick-Abdullah, Daphne; Chan, Sam; Gould, William

    2016-03-01

    In October 2012, first 5 LA funded a unique collaboration between Los Angeles County Department of Mental Health (DMH) and UC Davis PCIT Training Center (UCD PCIT) to train county-contracted agencies to provide Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT). This $20 million dollar, 5-year grant represented the largest implementation effort of an empirically based treatment to date. The purpose of this paper was to describe the first 2 years of the implementation process of this project, beginning with project start up and pre-implementation phases, and to present agency training and client performance outcomes from our first year of training. Results presented in this evaluation suggest that it is possible to train LA County providers in PCIT, and that PCIT is an effective intervention for DMH-contracted providers in LA County. This evaluation also discusses challenges to successful implementation. Barriers to progress included unanticipated delays building county infrastructure, trainee attrition, and insufficient client referrals. We discuss the results of the current implementation with respect to theory, research, and others' training models, with the aim of evaluating and prioritizing different implementation drivers, noting the ongoing competition between knowing what to do and the need for action. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Estimation of genetic effects in the presence of multicollinearity in multibreed beef cattle evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roso, V M; Schenkel, F S; Miller, S P; Schaeffer, L R

    2005-08-01

    Breed additive, dominance, and epistatic loss effects are of concern in the genetic evaluation of a multibreed population. Multiple regression equations used for fitting these effects may show a high degree of multicollinearity among predictor variables. Typically, when strong linear relationships exist, the regression coefficients have large SE and are sensitive to changes in the data file and to the addition or deletion of variables in the model. Generalized ridge regression methods were applied to obtain stable estimates of direct and maternal breed additive, dominance, and epistatic loss effects in the presence of multicollinearity among predictor variables. Preweaning weight gains of beef calves in Ontario, Canada, from 1986 to 1999 were analyzed. The genetic model included fixed direct and maternal breed additive, dominance, and epistatic loss effects, fixed environmental effects of age of the calf, contemporary group, and age of the dam x sex of the calf, random additive direct and maternal genetic effects, and random maternal permanent environment effect. The degree and the nature of the multicollinearity were identified and ridge regression methods were used as an alternative to ordinary least squares (LS). Ridge parameters were obtained using two different objective methods: 1) generalized ridge estimator of Hoerl and Kennard (R1); and 2) bootstrap in combination with cross-validation (R2). Both ridge regression methods outperformed the LS estimator with respect to mean squared error of predictions (MSEP) and variance inflation factors (VIF) computed over 100 bootstrap samples. The MSEP of R1 and R2 were similar, and they were 3% less than the MSEP of LS. The average VIF of LS, R1, and R2 were equal to 26.81, 6.10, and 4.18, respectively. Ridge regression methods were particularly effective in decreasing the multicollinearity involving predictor variables of breed additive effects. Because of a high degree of confounding between estimates of maternal

  20. An Efficient Method to Evaluate Intermolecular Interaction Energies in Large Systems Using Overlapping Multicenter ONIOM and the Fragment Molecular Orbital Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Naoya; Fedorov, Dmitri G.; Kitaura, Kazuo; Nakanishi, Isao; Merz, Kenneth M.

    2012-01-01

    We propose an approach based on the overlapping multicenter ONIOM to evaluate intermolecular interaction energies in large systems and demonstrate its accuracy on several representative systems in the complete basis set limit at the MP2 and CCSD(T) level of theory. In the application to the intermolecular interaction energy between insulin dimer and 4′-hydroxyacetanilide at the MP2/CBS level, we use the fragment molecular orbital method for the calculation of the entire complex assigned to the lowest layer in three-layer ONIOM. The developed method is shown to be efficient and accurate in the evaluation of the protein-ligand interaction energies. PMID:23050059

  1. Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of the Interactions of Amenamevir (ASP2151) with Ketoconazole, Rifampicin, Midazolam, and Warfarin in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusawake, Tomohiro; den Adel, Martin; Groenendaal-van de Meent, Dorien; Garcia-Hernandez, Alberto; Takada, Akitsugu; Kato, Kota; Ohtsu, Yoshiaki; Katashima, Masataka

    2017-11-01

    Amenamevir is a nonnucleoside antiherpes virus compound available for treating herpes zoster infections. Four studies aimed to determine any potential interactions between amenamevir and ketoconazole, rifampicin, midazolam, or warfarin in healthy male participants. Two studies were open-label studies that evaluated the effects of multiple doses of ketoconazole (400 mg) and rifampicin (600 mg) on the pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of amenamevir. The other two studies were randomized, double-blind, parallel-group studies that evaluated the effects of multiple doses of amenamevir on the pharmacokinetics of a single dose of midazolam (7.5 mg) and warfarin (25 mg). A drug interaction was considered to occur if the 90% confidence interval (CI) of the least squares geometric mean ratio (GMR) of amenamevir to the comparator was outside the prespecified interval of 0.80-1.25. Interactions were observed between amenamevir and ketoconazole, rifampicin, and midazolam, but not between amenamevir and warfarin. After a single 400-mg dose of amenamevir, the GMRs of amenamevir plus ketoconazole or rifampicin versus amenamevir alone for C max and the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity (AUC inf ) were 1.30 (90% CI 1.17-1.45) and 2.58 (90% CI 2.32-2.87), respectively, for ketoconazole and 0.42 (90% CI 0.37-0.49) and 0.17 (90% CI 0.15-0.19), respectively, for rifampicin. Following multiple doses of amenamevir (400 mg), the GMRs of midazolam plus amenamevir versus midazolam alone for AUC inf and C max were 0.53 (90% CI 0.47-0.61) and 0.63 (90% CI 0.50-0.80), respectively. After a single dose of warfarin, the (S)-warfarin and (R)-warfarin mean C max increased and mean AUC inf decreased in the presence of amenamevir; however, the 90% CIs of the GMRs for these parameters remained within the predefined limits. These findings confirm that amenamevir (as a cytochrome P450 3A4 substrate) can interact with ketoconazole or rifampicin, and (as a

  2. Evaluation of long-term interaction between cement and bentonite for geological disposal (1) - Project Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owada, Hitoshi; Hayashi, Daisuke; Yahagi, Ryoji; Ishii, Tomoko

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Bentonitic and cementitious materials are both planned for use as engineered barrier materials in the geological disposal of high level vitrified waste and TRU (transuranic) waste in Japan. As shown in Figure 1, bentonitic material will be placed around the waste packages as buffer material and a large amount of cementitious material is specified for use as filler, structure, support and grout. Cementitious material supplies an alkaline solution with high calcium concentration through reaction with groundwater. However, the alkaline solution will cause chemical and physical alteration of the bentonitic material. Since many important functions of an engineered barrier system (EBS), such as watertightness, chemical buffering, and sorption of radioactive nuclides, will be maintained by the properties of the buffer material, evaluation of long-term chemical or mechanical alteration of the buffer material is necessary to demonstrate the robustness of the EBS. Although many researches on chemical and mechanical alteration of bentonitic material, there was large uncertainty because the chemical alteration of bentonitic material is very slow and the altered region is very limited. In this project, the dissolution rate of montmorillonite under compaction and the spatial distribution of secondary C-S-H precipitation were obtained and mechanical and hydrological changes caused by the mineralogical change of bentonite material were modeled to reduce the uncertainty in the safety assessment of EBS performance. To improve the accuracy of the long term evaluation of the EBS performance, coupled analyses between hydraulic/mechanical calculations and geochemical-mass transport coupled calculations were performed. Alteration of mechanical properties caused by chemical degradation should be modeled for the coupled calculations. Because the mechanical properties of bentonitic material depend strongly on the montmorillonite content and

  3. Experimental and analytical studies for a BWR nuclear reactor building. Evaluation of soil-structure interaction behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, N.; Tsushima, Y.

    1975-01-01

    This paper evaluates the spatial characteristics of dynamic properties, especially soil-structure interaction behaviour, of the BWR nuclear building by experimental and analytical studies. It is well known that the damping effects in soil-structure interaction are remarkable on the building with short periods by the dissipation of vibrational energy to the soil. The authors have previously reported an analytical method for estimating the damping effects the properties of which are characterized as follows: 1) The complex damping is used, because the so-called structural damping may be more suitable for estimating the damping effects of an elastic structure. 2) H. Tajimi's theory is used for estimating the dynamical soil-foundation stiffness with the dissipation of vibrational energy on the elastic half-space soil. In this paper, an approximate explanation is presented in regard to the more developmental mathematical method for estimating the damping effects than the above-mentioned previous method, which is 'Modes Superposition Method for Multi-Degrees of Freedom System' with the constant complex stiffness showing the structural damping effects and the dynamical soil-foundation stiffness approximated by the linear or quadratic functions of the eigenvalues. An approximate explanation is presented in regard to the experimental results of the No. 1 reactor building (BWR) of Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station, The Chubu Electric Power Co., Ltd. (Auth.)

  4. Impact evaluation of green-grey infrastructure interaction on built-space integrity: an emerging perspective to urban ecosystem service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwary, Abhishek; Kumar, Prashant

    2014-07-15

    This paper evaluates the role of urban green infrastructure (GI) in maintaining integrity of built-space. The latter is considered as a lateral ecosystem function, worth including in future assessments of integrated ecosystem services. The basic tenet is that integrated green-grey infrastructures (GGIs) would have three influences on built-spaces: (i) reduced wind withering from flow deviation; (ii) reduced material corrosion/degeneration from pollution removal; and (iii) act as a biophysical buffer in altering the micro-climate. A case study is presented, combining the features of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in micro-environmental modelling with the emerging science on interactions of GGIs. The coupled seasonal dynamics of the above three effects are assessed for two building materials (limestone and steel) using the following three scenarios: (i) business as usual (BAU), (ii) summer (REGEN-S), and (iii) winter (REGEN-W). Apparently, integrated ecosystem service from green-grey interaction, as scoped in this paper, has strong seasonal dependence. Compared to BAU our results suggest that REGEN-S leads to slight increment in limestone recession (<10%), mainly from exacerbation in ozone damage, while large reduction in steel recession (up to 37%) is observed. The selection of vegetation species, especially their bVOC emission potential and seasonal foliage profile, appears to play a vital role in determining the impact GI has on the integrity of the neighbouring built-up environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of social interaction, task management, and trust among dental hygiene students in a collaborative learning environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saylor, Catherine D; Keselyak, Nancy T; Simmer-Beck, Melanie; Tira, Daniel

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of collaborative learning on the development of social interaction, task management, and trust in dental hygiene students. These three traits were assessed with the Teamwork Assessment Scale in two different learning environments (traditional lecture/lab and collaborative learning environment). A convenience sample of fifty-six entry-level dental hygiene students taking an introductory/preclinic course at two metropolitan area dental hygiene programs provided comparable experimental and control groups. Factor scores were computed for the three traits, and comparisons were conducted using the Ryan-Einot-Gabriel-Welsh multiple comparison procedure among specific cell comparisons generated from a two-factor repeated measures ANOVA. The results indicate that the collaborative learning environment influenced dental hygiene students positively regarding the traits of social interaction, task management, and trust. However, comparing dental hygiene students to undergraduate students overall indicates that dental hygiene students already possess somewhat higher levels of these traits. Future studies on active learning strategies should examine factors such as student achievement and explore other possible active learning methodologies.

  6. Irinotecan and Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Interactions in Rat Liver: A Preliminary Evaluation Using Biochemical and Genotoxicity Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lucić Vrdoljak

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available There is growing interest regarding the use of herbal preparations based on Cannabis sativa for medicinal purposes, despite the poorly understood interactions of their main constituent Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC with conventional drugs, especially cytostatics. The objective of this pilot study was to prove whether the concomitant intake of THC impaired liver function in male Wistar rats treated with the anticancer drug irinotecan (IRI, and evaluate the toxic effects associated with this exposure. IRI was administered once intraperitoneally (at 100 mg/kg of the body weight (b.w., while THC was administered per os repeatedly for 1, 3, and 7 days (at 7 mg/kg b.w.. Functional liver impairments were studied using biochemical markers of liver function (aspartate aminotransferase—AST, alanine aminotransferase—ALP, alkaline phosphatase—AP, and bilirubin in rats given a combined treatment, single IRI, single THC, and control groups. Using common oxidative stress biomarkers, along with measurement of primary DNA damage in hepatocytes, the degree of impairments caused at the cellular level was also evaluated. THC caused a time-dependent enhancement of acute toxicity in IRI-treated rats, which was confirmed by body and liver weight reduction. Although single THC affected ALP and AP levels more than single IRI, the levels of liver function markers measured after the administration of a combined treatment mostly did not significantly differ from control. Combined exposure led to increased oxidative stress responses in 3- and 7-day treatments, compared to single IRI. Single IRI caused the highest DNA damage at all timepoints. Continuous 7-day oral exposure to single THC caused an increased mean value of comet tail length compared to its shorter treatments. Concomitant intake of THC slightly affected the levels of IRI genotoxicity at all timepoints, but not in a consistent manner. Further studies are needed to prove our preliminary observations

  7. Quality evaluation and in vitro interaction studies between levofloxacin 250mg and diclofenac sodium 50mg tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayyaz, Muhammad; Yousuf, Rabia Ismail; Shoaib, Muhammad Harris; Ali, Tariq; Nasiri, Iqbal; Ashraf, Nida

    2015-01-01

    Fluoroquinolones are broad-spectrum antibiotics, work against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and are a clinically proven option for many resistant infections. Among fluoroquinolones Levofloxacin works best against acute sinusitis, inflammation of the lower airways, acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis, community acquired pneumonia, complicated urinary tract infection including Pyelonephritis, chronic bacterial prostatitis and skin and soft tissue infection. Levofloxacin is a frequently prescribed antibacterial agent with Diclofenac Sodium for pain management in infectious conditions. The objective of the present work is to evaluate the level of interaction between Levofloxacin and Diclofenac Sodium. In this work market available brands of both drugs were also evaluated for quality.The physiochemical parameters like weight variation, thickness variation, and mechanical strength were determined. Similarly the percentage drug release and content uniformity test were also analyzed; the tested quality attributes were found within the recommended pharmacopeia ranges except brand L(6) that had high drug content 124.629±3.614 while brand L(4) and L(5) were not found similar in pH 1.2. When subjected to model dependent analysis Levofloxacin showed compliance with (first order, Higuchi, Hixson Crowell and Weibull) at pH (1.2, 4.5 and 6.8). However Diclofenac Sodium showed adherence with (first order, Hixson Crowell and Weibull) at pH (1.2, 4.5 and 6.8) but following Higuchi at pH 1.2 and 4.5 only. The interaction studies were also performed spectrophotometrically and simultaneous equation was used to estimate the percentage availability of both the drugs at pH 4.5, 6.8, FaSSGF and FaSSIF. The studies showed that the percent availability of Levofloxacin was increased significantly in FaSSIF i.e. 129.173±0.323 at 45 minutes in the presence of Diclofenac Sodium.

  8. Quantum Mechanical Calculation of Noncovalent Interactions: A Large-Scale Evaluation of PMx, DFT, and SAPT Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Amanda; Muddana, Hari S; Gilson, Michael K

    2014-04-08

    Quantum mechanical (QM) calculations of noncovalent interactions are uniquely useful as tools to test and improve molecular mechanics force fields and to model the forces involved in biomolecular binding and folding. Because the more computationally tractable QM methods necessarily include approximations, which risk degrading accuracy, it is essential to evaluate such methods by comparison with high-level reference calculations. Here, we use the extensive Benchmark Energy and Geometry Database (BEGDB) of CCSD(T)/CBS reference results to evaluate the accuracy and speed of widely used QM methods for over 1200 chemically varied gas-phase dimers. In particular, we study the semiempirical PM6 and PM7 methods; density functional theory (DFT) approaches B3LYP, B97-D, M062X, and ωB97X-D; and symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) approach. For the PM6 and DFT methods, we also examine the effects of post hoc corrections for hydrogen bonding (PM6-DH+, PM6-DH2), halogen atoms (PM6-DH2X), and dispersion (DFT-D3 with zero and Becke-Johnson damping). Several orders of the SAPT expansion are also compared, ranging from SAPT0 up to SAPT2+3, where computationally feasible. We find that all DFT methods with dispersion corrections, as well as SAPT at orders above SAPT2, consistently provide dimer interaction energies within 1.0 kcal/mol RMSE across all systems. We also show that a linear scaling of the perturbative energy terms provided by the fast SAPT0 method yields similar high accuracy, at particularly low computational cost. The energies of all the dimer systems from the various QM approaches are included in the Supporting Information, as are the full SAPT2+(3) energy decomposition for a subset of over 1000 systems. The latter can be used to guide the parametrization of molecular mechanics force fields on a term-by-term basis.

  9. Orthodontic brackets in high field MR imaging: experimental evaluation of magnetic field interactions at 3.0 tesla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemper, J.; Adam, G.; Klocke, A.; Kahl-Nieke, B.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate static magnetic field interactions for 32 commonly used orthodontic brackets in a 3.0 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system. Materials and methods: 32 orthodontic brackets consisting of a steel alloy (n=27), a cobalt-chromium alloy (n=2), ceramic (n=1), ceramic with a steel slot (n=1), and titanium (n=1) from 13 different manufacturers were tested for magnetic field interactions in a static magnetic field at 3.0 T (Gyroscan Intera 3.0 T, Philips Medical Systems, Best, Netherlands). The magnetic deflection force F Z [mN] was evaluated by determining the deflection angle β[ ] using the established deflection angle test according to the ASTM guidelines. The magnetic-field-induced rotational force F rot or torque was qualitatively determined using a 5-point grading scale (0: no torque; +4: very strong torque). Results: In 18 of the 32 brackets, the deflection angle β was found to be > 45 and the translational force exceeded the gravitational force F G on the particular bracket (F Z : 1.2-45.7 mN). The translational force F Z was found to be up to 68.5 times greater than the gravitational force F G (F Z /F G : 1.4-68.5). The rotational force F rot was correspondingly high (+3/+4) for those brackets. For the remaining 14 objects, the deflection angles were < 45 and the torque measurements ranged from 0 to +2. The static magnetic field did not affect the titanium bracket and the ceramic bracket. No measurable translational and rotational forces were found. (orig.)

  10. Comparative Human and Automatic Evaluation of Glass-Box and Black-Box Approaches to Interactive Translation Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torregrosa Daniel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Interactive translation prediction (ITP is a modality of computer-aided translation that assists professional translators by offering context-based computer-generated continuation suggestions as they type. While most state-of-the-art ITP systems follow a glass-box approach, meaning that they are tightly coupled to an adapted machine translation system, a black-box approach which does not need access to the inner workings of the bilingual resources used to generate the suggestions has been recently proposed in the literature: this new approach allows new sources of bilingual information to be included almost seamlessly. In this paper, we compare for the first time the glass-box and the black-box approaches by means of an automatic evaluation of translation tasks between related languages such as English–Spanish and unrelated ones such as Arabic–English and English–Chinese, showing that, with our setup, 20%–50% of keystrokes could be saved using either method and that the black-box approach outperformed the glass-box one in five out of six scenarios operating under similar conditions. We also performed a preliminary human evaluation of English to Spanish translation for both approaches. On average, the evaluators saved 10% keystrokes and were 4% faster with the black-box approach, and saved 15% keystrokes and were 12% slower with the glass-box one; but they could have saved 51% and 69% keystrokes respectively if they had used all the compatible suggestions. Users felt the suggestions helped them to translate faster and easier. All the tools used to perform the evaluation are available as free/open–source software.

  11. Evaluation of Selected CYP51A1 Polymorphisms in View of Interactions with Substrate and Redox Partner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeja Režen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol is essential for development, growth, and maintenance of organisms. Mutations in cholesterol biosynthetic genes are embryonic lethal and few polymorphisms have been so far associated with pathologies in humans. Previous analyses show that lanosterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51A1 from the late part of cholesterol biosynthesis has only a few missense mutations with low minor allele frequencies and low association with pathologies in humans. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of amino acid changes in the natural missense mutations of the hCYP51A1 protein. We searched SNP databases for existing polymorphisms of CYP51A1 and evaluated their effect on protein function. We found rare variants causing detrimental missense mutations of CYP51A1. Some missense variants were also associated with a phenotype in humans. Two missense variants have been prepared for testing enzymatic activity in vitro but failed to produce a P450 spectrum. We performed molecular modeling of three selected missense variants to evaluate the effect of the amino acid substitution on potential interaction with its substrate and the obligatory redox partner POR. We show that two of the variants, R277L and especially D152G, have possibly lower binding potential toward obligatory redox partner POR. D152G and R431H have also potentially lower affinity toward the substrate lanosterol. We evaluated the potential effect of damaging variants also using data from other in vitro CYP51A1 mutants. In conclusion, we propose to include damaging CYP51A1 variants into personalized diagnostics to improve genetic counseling for certain rare disease phenotypes.

  12. Yakima River Species Interactions Studies; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearsons, Todd N.; Temple, Gabriel M.; Fritts, Anthony L. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    2005-05-01

    This report is intended to satisfy two concurrent needs: (1) provide a contract deliverable from the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) to the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), with emphasis on identification of salient results of value to ongoing Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project (YKFP) planning, and (2) summarize results of research that have broader scientific relevance. This is the thirteenth of a series of progress reports that address species interactions research and supplementation monitoring of fishes in response to supplementation of salmon and steelhead in the upper Yakima River basin (Hindman et al. 1991; McMichael et al. 1992; Pearsons et al. 1993; Pearsons et al. 1994; Pearsons et al. 1996; Pearsons et al. 1998, Pearsons et al. 1999, Pearsons et al. 2001a, Pearsons et al. 2001b, Pearsons et al. 2002, Pearsons et al. 2003, Pearsons et al. 2004). Journal articles and book chapters have also been published from our work (McMichael 1993; Martin et al. 1995; McMichael et al. 1997; McMichael and Pearsons 1998; McMichael et al. 1998; Pearsons and Fritts 1999; McMichael et al. 1999; McMichael et al. 1999; Pearsons and Hopley 1999; Ham and Pearsons 2000; Ham and Pearsons 2001; Amaral et al. 2001; McMichael and Pearsons 2001; Pearsons 2002, Fritts and Pearsons 2004, Pearsons et al. in press, Major et al. in press). This progress report summarizes data collected between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2004. These data were compared to findings from previous years to identify general trends and make preliminary comparisons. Interactions between fish produced as part of the YKFP, termed target species or stocks, and other species or stocks (non-target taxa) may alter the population status of non-target species or stocks. This may occur through a variety of mechanisms, such as competition, predation, and interbreeding (Pearsons et al. 1994; Busack et al. 1997; Pearsons and Hopley 1999). Furthermore, the success of a supplementation program may

  13. FENDL/E. Evaluated nuclear data library of neutron nuclear interaction cross-sections and photon production cross-sections and photon-atom interaction cross sections for fusion applications. Version 1.1 of November 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pashchenko, A.B.; Wienke, H.; Ganesan, S.; McLaughlin, P.K.

    1996-01-01

    This document presents the description of a physical tape containing the basic evaluated nuclear data library of neutron nuclear interaction cross-sections and photon production cross-sections and photon-atom interaction cross-sections for fusion applications. It is part of FENDL, the evaluated nuclear data library for fusion applications. The nuclear data are available cost-free for distribution to interested scientists upon request. The data can also be retrieved by the user via online access through international computer networks. (author). 11 refs, 1 tab

  14. Evaluation of limited sampling models for prediction of oral midazolam AUC for CYP3A phenotyping and drug interaction studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Silke C; Drewelow, Bernd

    2013-05-01

    The area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) after oral midazolam administration is commonly used for cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A phenotyping studies. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate a limited sampling strategy for the prediction of AUC with oral midazolam. A total of 288 concentration-time profiles from 123 healthy volunteers who participated in four previously performed drug interaction studies with intense sampling after a single oral dose of 7.5 mg midazolam were available for evaluation. Of these, 45 profiles served for model building, which was performed by stepwise multiple linear regression, and the remaining 243 datasets served for validation. Mean prediction error (MPE), mean absolute error (MAE) and root mean squared error (RMSE) were calculated to determine bias and precision The one- to four-sampling point models with the best coefficient of correlation were the one-sampling point model (8 h; r (2) = 0.84), the two-sampling point model (0.5 and 8 h; r (2) = 0.93), the three-sampling point model (0.5, 2, and 8 h; r (2) = 0.96), and the four-sampling point model (0.5,1, 2, and 8 h; r (2) = 0.97). However, the one- and two-sampling point models were unable to predict the midazolam AUC due to unacceptable bias and precision. Only the four-sampling point model predicted the very low and very high midazolam AUC of the validation dataset with acceptable precision and bias. The four-sampling point model was also able to predict the geometric mean ratio of the treatment phase over the baseline (with 90 % confidence interval) results of three drug interaction studies in the categories of strong, moderate, and mild induction, as well as no interaction. A four-sampling point limited sampling strategy to predict the oral midazolam AUC for CYP3A phenotyping is proposed. The one-, two- and three-sampling point models were not able to predict midazolam AUC accurately.

  15. Evaluation of toxic and interactive toxic effects of three agrochemicals and copper using a battery of microbiotests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kungolos, A; Emmanouil, C; Tsiridis, V; Tsiropoulos, N

    2009-08-01

    Three commonly used test organisms of different trophic levels (Vibrio fischeri, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Daphnia magna) were exposed to selected agrochemicals (fosthiazate, metalaxyl-M, imidacloprid) and copper, in single doses or in binary mixtures. The toxicity of each single compound varied up to two orders of magnitude, depending on the test species examined. V. fischeri was the most sensitive test organism regarding fosthiazate and metalaxyl-M, indicating an IC(50) value of 0.20 mg/L (0.17-0.25 mg/L) and 0.88 mg/L (0.35-1.57 mg/L), respectively. Imidacloprid was the least toxic compound, indicating an EC(50) value on D. magna of 64.6 mg/L (43.3-122.5 mg/L) and an IC(50) value on V. fischeri of 226 mg/L (159-322 mg/L), while for imidacloprid at a concentration of 1000 mg/L the effect on P. subcapitata was lower than 50%. Copper was the most toxic compound towards all test organisms exhibiting the highest toxic effect on P. subcapitata, with an IC(50) value of 0.05 mg/L (0.003-0.008 mg/L). The toxic effects of the binary mixtures have been compared to the theoretically expected effect, resulting from a simple mathematical model based on the theory of probabilities. The independent action model was used in order to predict the theoretically expected effect. The interactive effects were mostly antagonistic or additive, while in few cases (interactive effects of metalaxyl-M and copper on V. fischeri) a synergistic mode of action was observed for some concentration combinations. Experiments showed that interactive effects of chemicals may vary depending on the test species used as well as on the chemicals and their respective concentrations. Although most of the concentrations of chemicals tested in this study are higher than the ones usually found in natural environment, the evaluation of their interactive toxic effects using a battery of bioassays may comprise a useful tool for the estimation of the environmental hazard of chemicals.

  16. Evaluation of the interactions between human serum albumin (HSA and warfarin or diflunisal by using molecular fluorescence using two approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Amézqueta

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Serum albumin is the main drug transporter of the bloodstream and contains two main binding sites:  Sudlow I or acidic drug binding site, and Sudlow II or benzodiazepine binding site. Warfarin, a well-known anticoagulant drug commonly used in the prevention of thrombosis and thromboembolism, binds to Sudlow I site, whereas non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs such as diflunisal bind preferentially to Sudlow II site.  Albumin is a fluorophore that modifies its fluorescence (quenching or enhancement effect when it is bound to a drug. The application of the double logarithm Stern-Volmer equation allows the calculation of the stoichiometry and the binding constant of the process. This procedure does not consider the possible interferences coming from the fluorescence of the drug though. Another strategy to evaluate the binding constants is to consider the whole spectrum, taking into account all the possible species in equilibrium; in this case we have used an extended version of the STAR program, which can deal with 300 spectra, each containing up to 300 data points. The aim of this work is to compare both approaches to evaluate the interaction between warfarin (Sudlow I and diflunisal (Sudlow II and HSA: the double logarithm Stern-Volmer equation and the STAR program.

  17. Gene × Environment Interactions in Schizophrenia: Evidence from Genetic Mouse Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Moran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of gene × environment, as well as epistatic interactions in schizophrenia, has provided important insight into the complex etiopathologic basis of schizophrenia. It has also increased our understanding of the role of susceptibility genes in the disorder and is an important consideration as we seek to translate genetic advances into novel antipsychotic treatment targets. This review summarises data arising from research involving the modelling of gene × environment interactions in schizophrenia using preclinical genetic models. Evidence for synergistic effects on the expression of schizophrenia-relevant endophenotypes will be discussed. It is proposed that valid and multifactorial preclinical models are important tools for identifying critical areas, as well as underlying mechanisms, of convergence of genetic and environmental risk factors, and their interaction in schizophrenia.

  18. Gene × Environment Interactions in Schizophrenia: Evidence from Genetic Mouse Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Paula; Stokes, Jennifer; Marr, Julia; Bock, Gavin; Desbonnet, Lieve; Waddington, John; O'Tuathaigh, Colm

    2016-01-01

    The study of gene × environment, as well as epistatic interactions in schizophrenia, has provided important insight into the complex etiopathologic basis of schizophrenia. It has also increased our understanding of the role of susceptibility genes in the disorder and is an important consideration as we seek to translate genetic advances into novel antipsychotic treatment targets. This review summarises data arising from research involving the modelling of gene × environment interactions in schizophrenia using preclinical genetic models. Evidence for synergistic effects on the expression of schizophrenia-relevant endophenotypes will be discussed. It is proposed that valid and multifactorial preclinical models are important tools for identifying critical areas, as well as underlying mechanisms, of convergence of genetic and environmental risk factors, and their interaction in schizophrenia.

  19. Gene × Environment Interactions in Schizophrenia: Evidence from Genetic Mouse Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, Julia; Bock, Gavin; Desbonnet, Lieve; Waddington, John

    2016-01-01

    The study of gene × environment, as well as epistatic interactions in schizophrenia, has provided important insight into the complex etiopathologic basis of schizophrenia. It has also increased our understanding of the role of susceptibility genes in the disorder and is an important consideration as we seek to translate genetic advances into novel antipsychotic treatment targets. This review summarises data arising from research involving the modelling of gene × environment interactions in schizophrenia using preclinical genetic models. Evidence for synergistic effects on the expression of schizophrenia-relevant endophenotypes will be discussed. It is proposed that valid and multifactorial preclinical models are important tools for identifying critical areas, as well as underlying mechanisms, of convergence of genetic and environmental risk factors, and their interaction in schizophrenia. PMID:27725886

  20. Evaluation of Synergistic Interactions Between Cell-Free Supernatant of Lactobacillus Strains and Amikacin and Genetamicin Against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminnezhad, Sargol; Kermanshahi, Rouha Kasra; Ranjbar, Reza

    2015-04-01

    The indiscriminate use of antibiotics in the treatment of infectious diseases can increase the development of antibiotic resistance. Therefore, there is a big demand for new sources of antimicrobial agents and alternative treatments for reduction of antibiotic dosage required to decrease the associated side effects. In this study, the synergistic action of aminoglycoside antibiotics and cell-free supernatant (CFS) of probiotic (Lactobacillus rahmnosus and L. casei) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa PTCC 1430 was evaluated. A growth medium for culturing of probiotic bacteria was separated by centrifugation. The antimicrobial effects of CFS of probiotic bacteria were evaluated using the agar well diffusion assay. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were evaluated using the micro dilution method. Finally, an interaction between CFS and amikacin or gentamicin against P. aeruginosa PTCC 1430 was examined through the checkerboard method and fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC). Furthermore, CFSs from Lactobacillus strains were analyzed by reversed phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) for antimicrobial compounds. The results showed a significant effect of CFS on the growth of P. aeruginosa. The MIC and MBC of CFS from L. casei were 62.5 µL⁄mL while the MIC and MBC of CFS from L. rhamnosus were 62.5 μL⁄mL and 125 μL⁄mL, respectively. Using the FIC indices, synergistic interactions were observed in combination of CFS and antibiotics. Fractional Inhibitory Concentration indices of CFS from L. casei and aminoglycoside antibiotics were 0.124 and 0.312 while FIC indices of CFS from L. rhamnosus and aminoglycoside antibiotics were 0.124 and 0.56, respectively showing a synergism effect. The results of RP-HPLC showed that CFS of Lactobacillus strains contained acetic acid, lactic acid and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Our findings indicate that probiotic bacterial strains of Lactobacillus have a significant inhibitory effect on the

  1. Incorporating stakeholders' preferences for ex ante evaluation of energy and climate policy interactions. Development of a Multi Criteria Analysis weighting methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grafakos, S.; Zevgolis, D.; Oikonomou, V.

    2008-03-01

    Evaluation of energy and climate policy interactions is a complex issue which has not been addressed systematically. Multi Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) evaluation processes have been applied widely to different policy and decision cases as they have the ability to cope with high complexity, by structuring and analyzing the policy problem in a transparent and systematic way. Criteria weights elicitation techniques are developed within the framework of MCDA to integrate stakeholders' preferential information in the decision making and evaluation process. There are variant methods to determine criteria weights which can be used in various ways for different policy evaluation purposes. During decision making, policy makers and relevant stakeholders implicitly or explicitly express their relative importance between the evaluation criteria by assigning weighting factors to them. More particular, climate change policy problems lack a simple, transparent and structured way to incorporate stakeholders' views and values. In order to incorporate stakeholders' weighting preferences into an ex ante evaluation of climate change and energy policy instruments interaction, an integrative constructive weighting methodology has been developed. This paper presents the main characteristics of evaluation of energy and climate policy interactions, the reasoning behind the development of the weighting tool, its main theoretical and functional characteristics and the results of its application to obtain and incorporate stakeholders' preferences on energy and climate change policy evaluation criteria. The weighting method that has been elaborated and applied to derive stakeholders' preferences for criteria weights is a combination of pair wise comparisons and ratio importance weighting methods. Initially introduces the stakeholders to the evaluation process through a warming up holistic approach for ranking the criteria and then requires them to express their ratio relative importance

  2. QTL analysis of citrus tristeza virus-citradia interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asins, M J; Bernet, G P; Ruiz, C; Cambra, M; Guerri, J; Carbonell, E A

    2004-02-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) has caused the death of millions of trees grafted on sour orange ( Citrus aurantium). However, this rootstock is very well adapted to the Mediterranean, semi-arid conditions. The aim of the present research is to genetically analyze the accumulation of CTV in a progeny derived from the cross between C. aurantium and Poncirus trifoliata, both resistant to CTV isolate T-346. Graft propagation of 104 hybrids was done on healthy sweet orange as a rootstock. Three months later, each rootstock was graft inoculated with two patches of infected tissue (isolate T-346). One, 2, and sometimes, 3 and 4 years after inoculation, hybrids and infected patches were tested for CTV by tissue-blot immuno-assay. Additionally, CTV multiplication was evaluated every year as the optical density of double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay reactions. Linkage maps for P. trifoliata based on 63 markers, and for C. aurantium based on 157 markers, were used. Most molecular markers were microsatellites and IRAP (inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphisms). Some analogues of resistance and expressed sequences were also included for candidate gene analysis. Resistance against CTV was analyzed as a quantitative trait (CTV accumulation) by QTL (quantitative trait loci) analysis to avoid the assumption of monogenic control. Three major resistance QTLs were detected where the P. trifoliata resistance gene, Ctv-R, had been previously located in other progenies. Up to five minor QTLs were detected ( Ctv-A(1) to Ctv-A(5)). A significant epistatic interaction involving Ctv-R(1) and Ctv-A(1) was also found. An analogue of a resistance gene is a candidate for Ctv-A(3), and two expressed sequences are candidates for Ctv-A(1) and Ctv-A(5). Single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis of CTV genes QTL P20 and P25 (coat protein) in susceptible hybrids, was carried out to test whether or not any QTL accumulation was a defeated resistance gene. Since the

  3. Landscape-scale evaluation of asymmetric interactions between Brown Trout and Brook Trout using two-species occupancy models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Tyler; Jefferson T. Deweber,; Jason Detar,; John A. Sweka,

    2013-01-01

    Predicting the distribution of native stream fishes is fundamental to the management and conservation of many species. Modeling species distributions often consists of quantifying relationships between species occurrence and abundance data at known locations with environmental data at those locations. However, it is well documented that native stream fish distributions can be altered as a result of asymmetric interactions between dominant exotic and subordinate native species. For example, the naturalized exotic Brown Trout Salmo trutta has been identified as a threat to native Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis in the eastern United States. To evaluate large-scale patterns of co-occurrence and to quantify the potential effects of Brown Trout presence on Brook Trout occupancy, we used data from 624 stream sites to fit two-species occupancy models. These models assumed that asymmetric interactions occurred between the two species. In addition, we examined natural and anthropogenic landscape characteristics we hypothesized would be important predictors of occurrence of both species. Estimated occupancy for Brook Trout, from a co-occurrence model with no landscape covariates, at sites with Brown Trout present was substantially lower than sites where Brown Trout were absent. We also observed opposing patterns for Brook and Brown Trout occurrence in relation to percentage forest, impervious surface, and agriculture within the network catchment. Our results are consistent with other studies and suggest that alterations to the landscape, and specifically the transition from a forested catchment to one that contains impervious surface or agriculture, reduces the occurrence probability of wild Brook Trout. Our results, however, also suggest that the presence of Brown Trout results in lower occurrence probability of Brook Trout over a range of anthropogenic landscape characteristics, compared with streams where Brown Trout were absent.

  4. Interactions of checkpoint-genes RAD9, RAD17, RAD24 and RAD53 determining radioresistance of Yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koltovaya, N.A.; Nikulushkina, Yu.V.; Roshchina, M.P.; Devin, A.B.

    2007-01-01

    The mechanisms of genetic control of progress through the division cell cycle (checkpoint-control) in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been studied intensively. To investigate the role of checkpoint-genes RAD9, RAD17, RAD24, RAD53 in cell radioresistance we have investigated cell sensitivity of double mutants to γ-ray. Double mutants involving various combinations with rad9Δ show epistatic interactions, i.e. the sensitivity of the double mutants to γ-ray was no greater than that of more sensitive of the two single mutants. This suggests that all these genes govern the same pathway. This group of genes was named RAD9-epistasis group. It is interesting to note that the genes RAD9 and RAD53 have positive effect but RAD17 and RAD24 have negative effect on radiosensitivity of yeast cells. Interactions between mutations may differ depending on the agent γ-ray or UV-light, for example mutations rad9Δ and rad24Δ show additive effect for γ-ray and epistatic effect for UV-light

  5. Interaction between holo transferrin and HSA-PPIX complex in the presence of lomefloxacin: An evaluation of PPIX aggregation in protein-protein interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattar, Zohreh; Iranfar, Hediye; Asoodeh, Ahmad; Saberi, Mohammad Reza; Mazhari, Mahboobeh; Chamani, Jamshidkhan

    2012-11-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA) and holo transferrin (TF) are two serum carrier proteins that are able to interact with each other, thereby altering their binding behavior toward their ligands. During the course of this study, the interaction between HSA-PPIX and TF, in the presence and absence of lomefloxacin (LMF), was for the first time investigated using different spectroscopic and molecular modeling techniques. Fluorescence spectroscopy experiments were performed in order to study conformational changes of proteins. The RLS technique was utilized to investigate the effect of LMF on J-aggregation of PPIX, which is the first report of its kind. Our findings present clear-cut evidence for the alteration of interactions between HSA and TF in the presence of PPIX and changes in drug-binding to HSA and HSA-PPIX complex upon interaction with TF. Moreover, molecular modeling studies suggested that the binding site for LMF became switched in the presence of PPIX, and that LMF bound to the site IIA of HSA. The obtained results should give new insight into research in this field and may cast some light on the dynamics of drugs in biological systems.

  6. Friendship Interactions in Children with and without Depressive Symptoms: Observation of Emotion during Game-Playing Interactions and Post-Game Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockhill, Carol M.; Fan, Ming-Yu; Katon, Wayne J.; McCauley, Elizabeth; Crick, Nicki R.; Pleck, Joseph H.

    2007-01-01

    This observational study supplements the strong and consistent link found between childhood depression and deficits in interpersonal functioning by examining the relationship between a high versus low score on the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) and children's emotions when interacting with their best friends. High-CDI and low-CDI target…

  7. AprioriGWAS, a new pattern mining strategy for detecting genetic variants associated with disease through interaction effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingrun; Long, Quan; Ott, Jurg

    2014-06-01

    Identifying gene-gene interaction is a hot topic in genome wide association studies. Two fundamental challenges are: (1) how to smartly identify combinations of variants that may be associated with the trait from astronomical number of all possible combinations; and (2) how to test epistatic interaction when all potential combinations are available. We developed AprioriGWAS, which brings two innovations. (1) Based on Apriori, a successful method in field of Frequent Itemset Mining (FIM) in which a pattern growth strategy is leveraged to effectively and accurately reduce search space, AprioriGWAS can efficiently identify genetically associated genotype patterns. (2) To test the hypotheses of epistasis, we adopt a new conditional permutation procedure to obtain reliable statistical inference of Pearson's chi-square test for the [Formula: see text] contingency table generated by associated variants. By applying AprioriGWAS to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) data, we found that: (1) angiopoietin 1 (ANGPT1) and four retinal genes interact with Complement Factor H (CFH). (2) GO term "glycosaminoglycan biosynthetic process" was enriched in AMD interacting genes. The epistatic interactions newly found by AprioriGWAS on AMD data are likely true interactions, since genes interacting with CFH are retinal genes, and GO term enrichment also verified that interaction between glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and CFH plays an important role in disease pathology of AMD. By applying AprioriGWAS on Bipolar disorder in WTCCC data, we found variants without marginal effect show significant interactions. For example, multiple-SNP genotype patterns inside gene GABRB2 and GRIA1 (AMPA subunit 1 receptor gene). AMPARs are found in many parts of the brain and are the most commonly found receptor in the nervous system. The GABRB2 mediates the fastest inhibitory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. GRIA1 and GABRB2 are relevant to mental disorders supported by multiple

  8. Evaluation of potential novel variations and their interactions related to bipolar disorders: analysis of genome-wide association study data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acikel, Cengizhan; Aydin Son, Yesim; Celik, Cemil; Gul, Husamettin

    2016-01-01

    Multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) is a nonparametric approach that can be used to detect relevant interactions between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The aim of this study was to build the best genomic model based on SNP associations and to identify candidate polymorphisms that are the underlying molecular basis of the bipolar disorders. This study was performed on Whole-Genome Association Study of Bipolar Disorder (dbGaP [database of Genotypes and Phenotypes] study accession number: phs000017.v3.p1) data. After preprocessing of the genotyping data, three classification-based data mining methods (ie, random forest, naïve Bayes, and k-nearest neighbor) were performed. Additionally, as a nonparametric, model-free approach, the MDR method was used to evaluate the SNP profiles. The validity of these methods was evaluated using true classification rate, recall (sensitivity), precision (positive predictive value), and F-measure. Random forests, naïve Bayes, and k-nearest neighbors identified 16, 13, and ten candidate SNPs, respectively. Surprisingly, the top six SNPs were reported by all three methods. Random forests and k-nearest neighbors were more successful than naïve Bayes, with recall values >0.95. On the other hand, MDR generated a model with comparable predictive performance based on five SNPs. Although different SNP profiles were identified in MDR compared to the classification-based models, all models mapped SNPs to the DOCK10 gene. Three classification-based data mining approaches, random forests, naïve Bayes, and k-nearest neighbors, have prioritized similar SNP profiles as predictors of bipolar disorders, in contrast to MDR, which has found different SNPs through analysis of two-way and three-way interactions. The reduced number of associated SNPs discovered by MDR, without loss in the classification performance, would facilitate validation studies and decision support models, and would reduce the cost to develop predictive and

  9. Evaluating the usability of an interactive, bi-lingual, touchscreen-enabled breastfeeding educational programme: application of Nielson’s heuristics

    OpenAIRE

    Ashish Joshi; Douglas M Puricelli Perin; Chioma Amadi; Kate Trout

    2015-01-01

    Background: Usability challenges have to be met in an interactive computer program development and should meet all users’ needs. Objective: The study purpose was to conduct heuristic evaluation of an interactive, bilingual touch screen enabled breastfeeding educational program for Hispanic women living in rural settings.Methods: Two usability experts used Nielsen’s heuristics while reviewing the user interface in May 2013 using principles of Nielson’s Heuristics. Nielson’s heuristics are a se...

  10. An ancestry-based approach for detecting interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Danny S; Eskin, Itamar; Kang, Eun Yong; Gamazon, Eric R; Eng, Celeste; Gignoux, Christopher R; Galanter, Joshua M; Burchard, Esteban; Ye, Chun J; Aschard, Hugues; Eskin, Eleazar; Halperin, Eran; Zaitlen, Noah

    2018-02-01

    Epistasis and gene-environment interactions are known to contribute significantly to variation of complex phenotypes in model organisms. However, their identification in human association studies remains challenging for myriad reasons. In the case of epistatic interactions, the large number of potential interacting sets of genes presents computational, multiple hypothesis correction, and other statistical power issues. In the case of gene-environment interactions, the lack of consistently measured environmental covariates in most disease studies precludes searching for interactions and creates difficulties for replicating studies. In this work, we develop a new statistical approach to address these issues that leverages genetic ancestry, defined as the proportion of ancestry derived from each ancestral population (e.g., the fraction of European/African ancestry in African Americans), in admixed populations. We applied our method to gene expression and methylation data from African American and Latino admixed individuals, respectively, identifying nine interactions that were significant at Pancestry can be a useful proxy for unknown and unmeasured covariates in the search for interaction effects. These results have important implications for our understanding of the genetic architecture of complex traits. © 2017 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  11. Interactive benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawson, Lartey; Nielsen, Kurt

    2005-01-01

    We discuss individual learning by interactive benchmarking using stochastic frontier models. The interactions allow the user to tailor the performance evaluation to preferences and explore alternative improvement strategies by selecting and searching the different frontiers using directional...... in the suggested benchmarking tool. The study investigates how different characteristics on dairy farms influences the technical efficiency....

  12. Development and evaluation of a new simulation model for interactive training of the medical response to major incidents and disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennquist Montán, K; Hreckovski, B; Dobson, B; Örtenwall, P; Montán, C; Khorram-Manesh, A; Lennquist, S

    2014-08-01

    The need for and benefit of simulation models for interactive training of the response to major incidents and disasters has been increasingly recognized during recent years. One of the advantages with such models is that all components of the chain of response can be trained simultaneously. This includes the important communication/coordination between different units, which has been reported as the most common cause of failure. Very few of the presently available simulation models have been suitable for the simultaneous training of decision-making on all levels of the response. In this study, a new simulation model, originally developed for the scientific evaluation of methodology, was adapted to and developed for the postgraduate courses in Medical Response to Major Incidents (MRMI) organized under the auspices of the European Society for Trauma and Emergency Surgery (ESTES). The aim of the present study was to describe this development process, the model it resulted in, and the evaluation of this model. The simulation model was based on casualty cards giving all information normally available for the triage and primary management of traumatized patients. The condition of the patients could be changed by the instructor according to the time passed since the time of injury and treatments performed. Priority of the casualties as well as given treatments could be indicated on the cards by movable markers, which also gave the time required for every treatment. The exercises were run with real consumption of time and resources for all measures performed. The magnetized cards were moved by the trainees through the scene, through the transport lines, and through the hospitals where all functions were trained. For every patient was given the definitive diagnosis and the times within certain treatments had to be done to avoid preventable mortality and complications, which could be related to trauma-scores. The methodology was tested in nine MRMI courses with a total of

  13. Evaluation of Processes of Interaction between the Enterprise and Potential Contractors in the Context of Ensuring Economic Security of Foreign Economic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havlovska Nataliia I.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The author’s approach to evaluating appropriateness of interaction of domestic enterprises-subjects of foreign economic activity with foreign partners taking into account balancing benefits and safety has been presented. To solve the problems set in the study, there were used means of economic and mathematical simulation, namely, conceptual provisions of the theory of games. Preconditions for simulating scenarios of interaction between contractors and evaluation of effects of this interaction have been determined. A dyadic game model, in which each player will only have two pure strategies, has been proposed, and possibility of using a three-player game with development of a corresponding matrix of wins of each player has been considered. On the basis of the calculation of possible options of interaction between the major players possible options for this interaction have been found and a questionnaire for expert evaluation of the matrix elements of each player’s decisions has been developed. There suggested solutions of the game by relevant matrices, where two Nash equilibrium situations and 10 Pareto efficient situations are defined. The optimal solution of the game for all participants in the interaction, which allows to achieve a sufficient level of efficiency and safety of each player has been found

  14. Evaluation of a Panel of Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms in miR-146a and miR-196a2 Genomic Regions in Patients with Chronic Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, Priyanka; Lavu, Vamsi; RangaRao, Suresh; Venkatesan, Vettriselvi

    2017-04-01

    Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease caused by bacterial triggering of the host immune-inflammatory response, which in turn is regulated by microRNAs (miRNA). Polymorphisms in the miRNA pathways affect the expression of several target genes such as tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukins, which are associated with progression of disease. The objective of this study was to identify the association between the MiR-146a single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs2910164, rs57095329, and rs73318382), the MiR-196a2 (rs11614913) SNP and chronic periodontitis. Genotyping was performed for the MiR-146a (rs2910164, rs57095329, and rs73318382) and the MiR-196a2 (rs11614913) polymorphisms in 180 healthy controls and 190 cases of chronic periodontitis by the direct Sanger sequencing technique. The strength of the association between the polymorphisms and chronic periodontitis was evaluated using logistic regression analysis. Haplotype and linkage analyses among the polymorphisms was performed. Multifactorial dimensionality reduction was performed to determine epistatic interaction among the polymorphisms. The MiR-196a2 polymorphism revealed a significant inverse association with chronic periodontitis. Haplotype analysis of MiR-146a and MiR-196a2 polymorphisms revealed 13 different combinations, of which 5 were found to have an inverse association with chronic periodontitis. The present study has demonstrated a significant inverse association of MiR-196a2 polymorphism with chronic periodontitis.

  15. Evaluation of bundle duct interaction by out of pile compressive test of FBR bundles. FFTF type bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Kosuke; Yamamoto, Yuji; Nagamine, Tsuyoshi; Maeda, Koji [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    2000-10-01

    Bundle duct interaction (BDI) caused by expansion of fuel pin bundle becomes one of the main limiting factors for fuel life times. Then, it is important for the design of fast reactor fuel assembly to understand the BDI behavior in detail. In order to understand the BDI behavior, out of pile compressive tests were conducted for FFTF type bundle by use of X-ray CT equipment. In these compressive tests, two type bundles with different accuracy of initial wire position were conducted. The objective of this test is to evaluate the influence of the initial error from standard position of wire at the same axial position. The locations of the pins and the duct flats are analyzed from CT image data. Quantitative evaluation was performed at the CT image data and discussed the bundle deformation status under BDI condition. Following results are obtained. 1) The accuracy of initial wire position is strongly depends on the pin-to-duct contact behavior. In the case of bundle with large error from standard position, pin-to-duct contact is delayed. 2) The BDI mitigation of the bundle with small error from standard wire position is following: The elastic ovality is the dominant deformation in mild BDI condition, then the wire dispersion and pin dispersion are occurred in severe BDI condition. 3) The BDI mitigation of the bundle with large error from standard wire position is following: The elastic ovality and local bowing of pins with large error from standard wire position are occurred in mild BDI condition, then pin dispersion is occurred around pins with large error from standard wire position, finally wire dispersion is occurred in severe BDI condition. 4) The existence of pins with large error from standard wire position is effective to delay the pin-to-duct contact, but the existence of these pins is possible to contact of pin- to- pin. (author)

  16. Interaction of demographic factors with the results of the surgery for degenerative disease of the cervical spine: a retrospective evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Garreta Prats Dias

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: Degenerative disease of the cervical spine is a frequent source of intermittent neck pain, where the predominant symptom is axial neck pain. The indications for surgical treatment are reserved for the cases where the conservative treatment has not relieved the symptoms or the patient presents progressive neurological impairment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prognostic factors involved in patients submitted to surgical treatment of the cervical spine, Methods: The study analyzed data from patients submitted to cervical spine surgery between July 2011 and November 2015 (n= 58. The evaluated data included smoking habits, hypertension, diabetes, overweight, surgical technique, and number of levels of fusion. The primary outcome was defined as pain and the secondary outcomes were quality of life and disability., Results: A statistically significant difference was found between baseline and the 12-month post-operative results regarding pain in favor of non-hypertensive patients (p= 0.009 and discectomy plus instrumentation (, p= 0.004. There was also significant difference between the results of neck disability in favor of non-hypertensive patients (p= 0.028 and patients with body mass index lower than 25, kg/m2 (p= 0.005. There was no significant interaction between any analyzed data and the quality of life score results. Conclusions: Non-hypertensive patients, those with body mass index lower than 25 kg/m2, and those submitted to discectomy combined with arthrodesis of the cervical spine are the most benefited by cervical degenerative disease surgery.

  17. Interaction of demographic factors with the results of the surgery for degenerative disease of the cervical spine: a retrospective evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Celso Garreta Prats; Roberto, Bruno Braga; Basaglia, Lucas; Lenza, Mario; Nicolau, Rodrigo Junqueira; Ferretti, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Degenerative disease of the cervical spine is a frequent source of intermittent neck pain, where the predominant symptom is axial neck pain. The indications for surgical treatment are reserved for the cases where the conservative treatment has not relieved the symptoms or the patient presents progressive neurological impairment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prognostic factors involved in patients submitted to surgical treatment of the cervical spine. The study analyzed data from patients submitted to cervical spine surgery between July 2011 and November 2015 ( n  = 58). The evaluated data included smoking habits, hypertension, diabetes, overweight, surgical technique, and number of levels of fusion. The primary outcome was defined as pain and the secondary outcomes were quality of life and disability. A statistically significant difference was found between baseline and the 12-month post-operative results regarding pain in favor of non-hypertensive patients ( p  = 0.009) and discectomy plus instrumentation ( p  = 0.004). There was also significant difference between the results of neck disability in favor of non-hypertensive patients ( p  = 0.028) and patients with body mass index lower than 25 kg/m 2 ( p  = 0.005). There was no significant interaction between any analyzed data and the quality of life score results. Non-hypertensive patients, those with body mass index lower than 25 kg/m 2 , and those submitted to discectomy combined with arthrodesis of the cervical spine are the most benefited by cervical degenerative disease surgery.

  18. Evaluation of a Potential Metabolism-Mediated Drug-Drug Interaction Between Atomoxetine and Bupropion in Healthy Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todor, Ioana; Popa, Adina; Neag, Maria; Muntean, Dana; Bocsan, Corina; Buzoianu, Anca; Vlase, Laurian; Gheldiu, Ana-Maria; Briciu, Corina

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of bupropion on the pharmacokinetic profile of atomoxetine and its main active metabolite (glucuronidated form), 4-hydroxyatomoxetine-O-glucuronide, in healthy volunteers. An open-label, non-randomized, two-period, sequential clinical trial was conducted as follows: during Period I (Reference), each volunteer received a single oral dose of 25 mg atomoxetine, whilst during Period II (Test), a combination of 25 mg atomoxetine and 300 mg bupropion was administered to all volunteers, after a pretreatment regimen with bupropion for 7 days. Next, after determining atomoxetine and 4-hydroxyatomoxetine-O-glucuronide plasma concentrations, their pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using a noncompartmental method and subsequently compared to determine any statistically significant differences between the two periods. Bupropion intake influenced all the pharmacokinetic parameters of both atomoxetine and its metabolite. For atomoxetine, Cmax increased from 226±96.1 to 386±137 ng/mL and more importantly, AUC0-∞ was significantly increasedfrom 1580±1040 to 8060±4160 ng*h/mL, while the mean t1/2 was prolonged after bupropion pretreatment. For 4-hydroxyatomoxetine-O-glucuronide, Cmax and AUC0-∞  were decreased from 707±269 to 212±145 ng/mL and from 5750±1240 to 3860±1220 ng*h/mL, respectively. These results demonstrated that the effect of bupropion on CYP2D6 activity was responsible for an increased systemic exposure to atomoxetine (5.1-fold) and also for a decreased exposure to its main metabolite (1.5-fold). Additional studies are required in order to evaluate the clinical relevance of this pharmacokinetic drug interaction.This article is open to POST-PUBLICATION REVIEW. Registered readers (see "For Readers") may comment by clicking on ABSTRACT on the issue's contents page.

  19. Evaluation of Seismic Response Trends from Long-Term Monitoring of Two Instrumented RC Buildings Including Soil-Structure Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faheem Butt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents analyses of the seismic responses of two reinforced concrete buildings monitored for a period of more than two years. One of the structures was a three-storey reinforced concrete (RC frame building with a shear core, while the other was a three-storey RC frame building without a core. Both buildings are part of the same large complex but are seismically separated from the rest of it. Statistical analysis of the relationships between maximum free field accelerations and responses at different points on the buildings was conducted and demonstrated strong correlation between those. System identification studies using recorded accelerations were undertaken and revealed that natural frequencies and damping ratios of the building structures vary during different earthquake excitations. This variation was statistically examined and relationships between identified natural frequencies and damping ratios, and the peak response acceleration at the roof level were developed. A general trend of decreasing modal frequencies and increasing damping ratios was observed with increased level of shaking and response. Moreover, the influence of soil structure interaction (SSI on the modal characteristics was evaluated. SSI effects decreased the modal frequencies and increased some of the damping ratios.

  20. In-orbit evaluation of the control system/structural mode interactions of the OSO-8 spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slafer, L. I.

    1979-01-01

    The Orbiting Solar Observatory-8 experienced severe structural mode/control loop interaction problems during the spacecraft development. Extensive analytical studies, using the hybrid coordinate modeling approach, and comprehensive ground testing were carried out in order to achieve the system's precision pointing performance requirements. A recent series of flight tests were conducted with the spacecraft in which a wide bandwidth, high resolution telemetry system was utilized to evaluate the on-orbit flexible dynamics characteristics of the vehicle along with the control system performance. The paper describes the results of these tests, reviewing the basic design problem, analytical approach taken, ground test philosophy, and on-orbit testing. Data from the tests was used to determine the primary mode frequency, damping, and servo coupling dynamics for the on-orbit condition. Additionally, the test results have verified analytically predicted differences between the on-orbit and ground test environments, and have led to a validation of both the analytical modeling and servo design techniques used during the development of the control system.

  1. Launch Vehicle Manual Steering with Adaptive Augmenting Control:In-Flight Evaluations of Adverse Interactions Using a Piloted Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Curt; Miller, Chris; Wall, John H.; VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Gilligan, Eric T.; Orr, Jeb S.

    2015-01-01

    An Adaptive Augmenting Control (AAC) algorithm for the Space Launch System (SLS) has been developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) as part of the launch vehicle's baseline flight control system. A prototype version of the SLS flight control software was hosted on a piloted aircraft at the Armstrong Flight Research Center to demonstrate the adaptive controller on a full-scale realistic application in a relevant flight environment. Concerns regarding adverse interactions between the adaptive controller and a potential manual steering mode were also investigated by giving the pilot trajectory deviation cues and pitch rate command authority, which is the subject of this paper. Two NASA research pilots flew a total of 25 constant pitch rate trajectories using a prototype manual steering mode with and without adaptive control, evaluating six different nominal and off-nominal test case scenarios. Pilot comments and PIO ratings were given following each trajectory and correlated with aircraft state data and internal controller signals post-flight.

  2. Interaction between an Eco-Spiral Bolt and Crushed Rock in a Borehole Evaluated by Pull-Out Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Seung Kang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The interactions between an eco-spiral bolt and crushed rocks in a borehole were evaluated by pull-out testing in a laboratory and numerical analysis. The porosity of the crushed rock surrounding the bolt depended on the size of the eco-spiral bolt and affected the eco-spiral bolt’s axial resistance force. The axial resistance force and the porosity of the crushed rocks in the borehole showed an inverse relationship. The porosity was also related to the size of the eco-spiral bolt. The maximum principal stress between the bolt and the rock was related to the porosity of the crushed rock and the size difference between the eco-spiral bolt and the borehole. At low porosity the experimental and numerical analyses show similar relationships between the axial resistance force and the displacement. However, at high porosity, the numerical results deviated greatly from the experimental observation. The initial agreement is attributed to the state of residual resistance after the maximum axial resistance force, and the latter divergence was due to the decreasing axial resistance force owing to slippage.

  3. Evaluation of GO-based functional similarity measures using S. cerevisiae protein interaction and expression profile data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du LinFang

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Researchers interested in analysing the expression patterns of functionally related genes usually hope to improve the accuracy of their results beyond the boundaries of currently available experimental data. Gene ontology (GO data provides a novel way to measure the functional relationship between gene products. Many approaches have been reported for calculating the similarities between two GO terms, known as semantic similarities. However, biologists are more interested in the relationship between gene products than in the scores linking the GO terms. To highlight the relationships among genes, recent studies have focused on functional similarities. Results In this study, we evaluated five functional similarity methods using both protein-protein interaction (PPI and expression data of S. cerevisiae. The receiver operating characteristics (ROC and correlation coefficient analysis of these methods showed that the maximum method outperformed the other methods. Statistical comparison of multiple- and single-term annotated proteins in biological process ontology indicated that genes with multiple GO terms may be more reliable for separating true positives from noise. Conclusion This study demonstrated the reliability of current approaches that elevate the similarity of GO terms to the similarity of proteins. Suggestions for further improvements in functional similarity analysis are also provided.

  4. Interactive Two-Way mHealth Interventions for Improving Medication Adherence: An Evaluation Using The Behaviour Change Wheel Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Nicole; Guo, Michael; Amico, K Rivet; Atkins, Lou; Lester, Richard T

    2018-04-12

    Medication adherence is an important but highly complex set of behaviors, which for life-threatening and infectious diseases such as HIV carry critical consequences for individual and public health. There is growing evidence that mobile phone text messaging interventions (mHealth) connecting providers with patients positively impact medication adherence, particularly two-way engagement platforms that require bidirectional communication versus one-way in which responses are not mandatory. However, mechanisms of action have not been well defined. The Behavior Change Wheel is a comprehensive framework for behavior change that includes an all-encompassing model of behavior known as Capability Opportunity Motivation-Behavior and is complemented by a taxonomy of behavior change techniques. Evaluating mHealth interventions for medication adherence using these tools could provide useful insights that may contribute to optimizing their integration into the healthcare system and successful scaling-up. This study aimed to help address the current knowledge gap regarding how two-way mHealth interventions for medication adherence may work by applying the Behavior Change Wheel to characterize WelTel: an interactive digital health outreach platform with robust evidence for improving adherence to antiretroviral therapy. To characterize how WelTel may promote medication adherence, we applied the Behavior Change Wheel to systematically (1) generate a behavioral diagnosis through mapping known antiretroviral therapy adherence barriers onto the Capability Opportunity Motivation-Behavior model of behavior, (2) specify the behavior change techniques that WelTel delivers, (3) link identified behavior change techniques to corresponding intervention functions of the Behavior Change Wheel, and (4) connect these behavior change techniques and intervention functions to respective Capability Opportunity Motivation-Behavior influences on behavior to determine potential mechanisms of action. Our

  5. Interactive Two-Way mHealth Interventions for Improving Medication Adherence: An Evaluation Using The Behaviour Change Wheel Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amico, K Rivet; Atkins, Lou; Lester, Richard T

    2018-01-01

    Background Medication adherence is an important but highly complex set of behaviors, which for life-threatening and infectious diseases such as HIV carry critical consequences for individual and public health. There is growing evidence that mobile phone text messaging interventions (mHealth) connecting providers with patients positively impact medication adherence, particularly two-way engagement platforms that require bidirectional communication versus one-way in which responses are not mandatory. However, mechanisms of action have not been well defined. The Behavior Change Wheel is a comprehensive framework for behavior change that includes an all-encompassing model of behavior known as Capability Opportunity Motivation-Behavior and is complemented by a taxonomy of behavior change techniques. Evaluating mHealth interventions for medication adherence using these tools could provide useful insights that may contribute to optimizing their integration into the healthcare system and successful scaling-up. Objective This study aimed to help address the current knowledge gap regarding how two-way mHealth interventions for medication adherence may work by applying the Behavior Change Wheel to characterize WelTel: an interactive digital health outreach platform with robust evidence for improving adherence to antiretroviral therapy. Methods To characterize how WelTel may promote medication adherence, we applied the Behavior Change Wheel to systematically (1) generate a behavioral diagnosis through mapping known antiretroviral therapy adherence barriers onto the Capability Opportunity Motivation-Behavior model of behavior, (2) specify the behavior change techniques that WelTel delivers, (3) link identified behavior change techniques to corresponding intervention functions of the Behavior Change Wheel, and (4) connect these behavior change techniques and intervention functions to respective Capability Opportunity Motivation-Behavior influences on behavior to determine

  6. Research on Credit Evaluation of Mobile Medical APP Interactive Online Consultation Service-Take Haodaifu APP Online Payment Service as an Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Dandan; Zhao, Lei

    2017-10-01

    Mobile medical industry is developing rapidly, but the relevant credit evaluation system is still in the exploratory stage. Haodaifu in the interactive online consulting services more representatives and has a credit evaluation system, but the system is not perfect. There are many problems in the system, such as credits indicators cannot better reflect the results of user’s evaluation, the lack of user qualification supervision, evaluation index system and assessment channels are not perfect. On the basis of drawing on the advantages of E-commerce evaluation system and combining with the characteristics of mobile medical itself, two suggestions are put forward: Improve the credit evaluation model (Generate physician static credit index, Change the doctor 's dynamic credit index algorithm, Update the dynamic credit index), Improve the basic mechanism of credit evaluation.

  7. Universality Classes of Interaction Structures for NK Fitness Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sungmin; Schmiegelt, Benjamin; Ferretti, Luca; Krug, Joachim

    2018-02-01

    Kauffman's NK-model is a paradigmatic example of a class of stochastic models of genotypic fitness landscapes that aim to capture generic features of epistatic interactions in multilocus systems. Genotypes are represented as sequences of L binary loci. The fitness assigned to a genotype is a sum of contributions, each of which is a random function defined on a subset of k ≤ L loci. These subsets or neighborhoods determine the genetic interactions of the model. Whereas earlier work on the NK model suggested that most of its properties are robust with regard to the choice of neighborhoods, recent work has revealed an important and sometimes counter-intuitive influence of the interaction structure on the properties of NK fitness landscapes. Here we review these developments and present new results concerning the number of local fitness maxima and the statistics of selectively accessible (that is, fitness-monotonic) mutational pathways. In particular, we develop a unified framework for computing the exponential growth rate of the expected number of local fitness maxima as a function of L, and identify two different universality classes of interaction structures that display different asymptotics of this quantity for large k. Moreover, we show that the probability that the fitness landscape can be traversed along an accessible path decreases exponentially in L for a large class of interaction structures that we characterize as locally bounded. Finally, we discuss the impact of the NK interaction structures on the dynamics of evolution using adaptive walk models.

  8. Data Evaluation and the Establishment of a Standard Library of Atomic, Molecular and Plasma-Material Interaction Data for Fusion. Summary Report of an IAEA Consultants' Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braams, B.J.

    2012-08-01

    Seven experts in the field of atomic, molecular and plasma-material interaction (A+M+PMI) data and data evaluation for fusion plasma physics met with IAEA A+M Data Unit staff at IAEA Headquarters to provide advice towards the establishment of an evaluated and recommended library of A+M+PMI data for fusion. The proceedings and conclusions of the meeting are summarized here. (author)

  9. Procedures for Evaluation of Atomic, Molecular and Plasma-Material Interaction Data for Fusion. Summary Report of an IAEA Consultants' Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Hyun-Kyung

    2012-05-01

    This report summarizes the proceedings of the IAEA Consultants' Meeting on 'Procedures for Evaluation of Atomic, Molecular and Plasma-Material Interaction Data for Fusion' on 7-9 February 2012. Fourteen participants from 8 Institutes of 3 Member States attended the three-day meeting held at the National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki in Japan. The report includes discussions on data evaluation activities, meeting conclusions and recommendations and the abstracts of presentations presented in the meeting. (author)

  10. An interactive, bilingual, culturally targeted website about living kidney donation and transplantation for hispanics: development and formative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Elisa J; Feinglass, Joe; Carney, Paula; Ramirez, Daney; Olivero, Maria; O'Connor, Kate; MacLean, Jessica; Brucker, James; Caicedo, Juan Carlos

    2015-04-20

    ". Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory and Gagne's Conditions of Learning Theory guided website design to facilitate adult learning. The website, "Infórmate: Living Kidney Donation for Hispanics/Latinos" (Infórmate Acerca de la Donación de Riñón en Vida), includes six sections: Treatment Options, Donation: Step-by-Step, Benefits and Risks, Financial Issues, Immigrant Issues, and Cultural Beliefs and Myths. Sections host 5-10 interactive messages that summarize important points and link to detailed explanations for users interested in learning more about specific issues. The website hosts interactive videos, multimedia testimonials, telenovelas, games, and quizzes. Photographs and videos of Hispanic living donors are shown to promote pride and ownership. Our success in developing a website was driven by a development team with expertise in transplantation, social science, evaluation, instructional design, and Hispanic perspectives, and by a patient-centered approach toward content and design. Based on feedback from usability testing and our CAB, the website is sensitive to Hispanic cultural sensibilities. We have nearly completed a formal evaluation of the website's impact on increasing Hispanics' knowledge about LKD and will disseminate the website thereafter.

  11. Evaluating the Impact of the "Teaching as a Chemistry Laboratory Graduate Teaching Assistant" Program on Cognitive and Psychomotor Verbal Interactions in the Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, A.; O'Dwyer, A.; Mannix-McNamara, P.; Leahy, J. J.

    2017-01-01

    Designing and evaluating teacher development programs for graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) who teach in the laboratory is a prominent feature of chemistry education research. However, few studies have investigated the impact of a GTA teacher development program on the verbal interactions between participating GTAs and students in the…

  12. Finite-field evaluation of the Lennard-Jones atom-wall interaction constant C3 for alkali-metal atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, W.R.; Dzuba, V.A.; Safronova, U.I.; Safronova, M.S.

    2004-01-01

    A finite-field scaling method is applied to evaluate the Lennard-Jones interaction constant C 3 for alkali-metal atoms. The calculations are based on the relativistic single-double approximation in which single and double excitations of Dirac-Hartree-Fock wave functions are included to all orders in perturbation theory

  13. New bases for the evaluation of interaction energies: An ab initio study of the CO-Ne van der Waals complex intermolecular potential and ro-vibrational spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouzon Capelo, Silvia; Baranowska-Laczkowska, Angelika; Fernandez, Berta

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: CO-Ne IPES. Highlights: → From the LPol, MLPol, and aug-pc-2 bases we obtained new bases for the evaluation of CO-Ne interaction energies. → We checked the bases on the evaluation of the rovibrational spectrum. → The results were satisfactory, being the new bases more efficient than those previously available. - Abstract: Recently we have derived new efficient basis sets for the evaluation of interaction energies in the X-Y (X, Y = He, Ne, Ar) van der Waals complexes. Here we extend the study to the CO-Ne complex. For this, we start with a systematic basis set study, where the LPol, MLPol and Jensen's aug-pc-2 basis sets are considered as starting point (for the Ne atom LPol bases are developed). As reference we take interaction energy results obtained with Dunning's augmented correlation consistent polarized valence basis sets. In all cases we test extensions with different sets of midbond functions. With the selected bases we evaluate CCSD(T) interaction potentials, and to check the potentials further, we obtain the ro-vibrational spectrum of the complex. The results are compared to the available experimental data.

  14. Evaluating a staff training program on the interaction between staff and people with intellectual disability and challenging behaviour : An observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Embregts, P.J.C.M.; Zijlmans, L.; Gerits, L.; Bosman, A.M.T.

    2018-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a training program focusing on improvement of emotional intelligence (EI) and support staffs’ awareness of their behaviour towards people with an intellectual disability based on interactional patterns. The support provided regarding

  15. Are automated molecular dynamics simulations and binding free energy calculations realistic tools in lead optimization? An evaluation of the linear interaction energy (LIE) method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stjernschantz, E.M.; Marelius, J.; Medina, C.; Jacobsson, M.; Vermeulen, N.P.E.; Oostenbrink, C.

    2006-01-01

    An extensive evaluation of the linear interaction energy (LIE) method for the prediction of binding affinity of docked compounds has been performed, with an emphasis on its applicability in lead optimization. An automated setup is presented, which allows for the use of the method in an industrial

  16. Performance evaluation of Maxwell and Cercignani-Lampis gas-wall interaction models in the modeling of thermally driven rarefied gas transport

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Tengfei; Li, Qi; Ye, Wenjing

    2013-01-01

    A systematic study on the performance of two empirical gas-wall interaction models, the Maxwell model and the Cercignani-Lampis (CL) model, in the entire Knudsen range is conducted. The models are evaluated by examining the accuracy of key

  17. Evaluation of an online interactive Diabetes Needs Assessment Tool (DNAT versus online self-directed learning: a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kellner Thomas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methods for the dissemination, understanding and implementation of clinical guidelines need to be examined for their effectiveness to help doctors integrate guidelines into practice. The objective of this randomised controlled trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of an interactive online Diabetes Needs Assessment Tool (DNAT (which constructs an e-learning curriculum based on individually identified knowledge gaps, compared with self-directed e-learning of diabetes guidelines. Methods Health professionals were randomised to a 4-month learning period and either given access to diabetes learning modules alone (control group or DNAT plus learning modules (intervention group. Participants completed knowledge tests before and after learning (primary outcome, and surveys to assess the acceptability of the learning and changes to clinical practice (secondary outcomes. Results Sixty four percent (677/1054 of participants completed both knowledge tests. The proportion of nurses (5.4% was too small for meaningful analysis so they were excluded. For the 650 doctors completing both tests, mean (SD knowledge scores increased from 47.4% (12.6 to 66.8% (11.5 [intervention group (n = 321, 64%] and 47.3% (12.9 to 67.8% (10.8 [control group (n = 329, 66%], (ANCOVA p = 0.186. Both groups were satisfied with the usability and usefulness of the learning materials. Seventy seven percent (218/284 of the intervention group reported combining the DNAT with the recommended reading materials was "very useful"/"useful". The majority in both groups (184/287, 64.1% intervention group and 206/299, 68.9% control group [95% CI for the difference (-2.8 to 12.4] reported integrating the learning into their clinical practice. Conclusions Both groups experienced a similar and significant improvement in knowledge. The learning materials were acceptable and participants incorporated the acquired knowledge into practice. Trial registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN67215088

  18. Carbon dots: Synthesis from renewable sources via hydrothermal carbonization, characterization and evaluation of their interaction with biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, Liz Specian de; Alves, Oswaldo Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Carbon dots (CDs) constitute a new class of carbon-based nanomaterials with interesting photoluminescent properties that enable their potential use in bioimaging, sensing and drug delivery applications. They consist of quasi spherical nanoparticles with size below 10 nm. As a consequence of their low toxicity and biocompatibility, CDs have been considered as a promising alternative to traditional semiconductor-based quantum dots. In addition, they can be synthesized from accessible renewable sources in an environmentally friendly perspective. In this work, we report the use of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and bovine plasma (BP) as precursors to synthesis of CDs applying hydrothermal carbonization method. The study also includes the physical chemical characterization and the evaluation of interaction between these nanomaterials and biosystems, using hemolytic assay. The morphology and size of the carbon nanoparticles were analyzed by Transmission Electronic Microscopy. CDs obtained from BSA (BSA-CDs) and BP (BP-CDs) had spherical shape with an average size of 5.6 and 3.7 nm, respectively. The fluorescence quantum yield was calculated using quinine sulfate as reference. BSA-CDs and BP-CDs exhibited quantum yields of 4.9% and 4.0%, when they were excited at wavelength of 315 and 300 nm, respectively. Furthermore, the red-shift phenomenon was observed in the emission spectra of both synthesized CDs, indicating the formation of particles with different sizes or the presence of surface energy traps distribution. The composition of CDs was determined by Elemental Analysis and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. Both nanomaterials contained C, N, O and S elements. The hemolytic assay demonstrated the synthesized CDs did not cause damage to red blood cell membrane at concentrations between 5 and 250 μg mL -1 . (author)

  19. Experimental and analytical studies for a BWR nuclear reactor building evaluation of soil-structure interaction behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, N.; Tsushima, Y.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the spatial characteristics of dynamic properties, especially soil-structure interaction behavior, or the BWR nuclear reactor building by experimental and analytical studies. An analytical method (SMIRT-1 Paper K 2/4) for estimating the damping effects is reported. The complex damping is used, because the so-called structural damping may be more suitable for estimating the damping effects of an elastic structure. H. Tajimi's theory is used for estimating the dynamical soil-foundation stiffness with the dissipation of vibrational energy on the elastic half-space soil. An approximate explanation is presented in regard to the more developmental mathematical method for estimating the damping effects than the above-mentioned previous method, which is 'Modes Superposition Method for Multi-Degrees of Freedom System' with the constant complex stiffness showing the structural damping effects and the dynamical soil-foundation stiffness approximated by the linear or quadratic functions of the eigenvalues. Next, an approximate explanation is presented in regard to the experimental results of the No.1 reactor building (BWR) of Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station, The Chubu Electric Power Co., Ltd. The regression analyses of the experimental resonance curves by one degree system show that the critical damping ratio is larger than the 0.10 used in the design for the fundamental natural period. It is attempted to simulate the experimental results by the above-mentioned method. The simulated model is a fourty-eight degrees of freedom spring mass system because of the eight masses for the eight floors including the base foundation and the six degrees of freedom for a mass

  20. Carbon dots: Synthesis from renewable sources via hydrothermal carbonization, characterization and evaluation of their interaction with biological systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, Liz Specian de; Alves, Oswaldo Luiz, E-mail: liz.specian@hotmail.com.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Carbon dots (CDs) constitute a new class of carbon-based nanomaterials with interesting photoluminescent properties that enable their potential use in bioimaging, sensing and drug delivery applications. They consist of quasi spherical nanoparticles with size below 10 nm. As a consequence of their low toxicity and biocompatibility, CDs have been considered as a promising alternative to traditional semiconductor-based quantum dots. In addition, they can be synthesized from accessible renewable sources in an environmentally friendly perspective. In this work, we report the use of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and bovine plasma (BP) as precursors to synthesis of CDs applying hydrothermal carbonization method. The study also includes the physical chemical characterization and the evaluation of interaction between these nanomaterials and biosystems, using hemolytic assay. The morphology and size of the carbon nanoparticles were analyzed by Transmission Electronic Microscopy. CDs obtained from BSA (BSA-CDs) and BP (BP-CDs) had spherical shape with an average size of 5.6 and 3.7 nm, respectively. The fluorescence quantum yield was calculated using quinine sulfate as reference. BSA-CDs and BP-CDs exhibited quantum yields of 4.9% and 4.0%, when they were excited at wavelength of 315 and 300 nm, respectively. Furthermore, the red-shift phenomenon was observed in the emission spectra of both synthesized CDs, indicating the formation of particles with different sizes or the presence of surface energy traps distribution. The composition of CDs was determined by Elemental Analysis and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. Both nanomaterials contained C, N, O and S elements. The hemolytic assay demonstrated the synthesized CDs did not cause damage to red blood cell membrane at concentrations between 5 and 250 μg mL{sup -1}. (author)

  1. Touch versus In-Air Hand Gestures: Evaluating the Acceptance by Seniors of Human-Robot Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Znagui Hassani, Anouar; van Dijk, Elisabeth M.A.G.; Ludden, Geke Dina Simone; Eertink, Henk

    2011-01-01

    Do elderly people have a preference between performing inair gestures or pressing screen buttons to interact with an assistive robot? This study attempts to provide answers to this question by measuring the level of acceptance, performance as well as knowledge of both interaction modalities during a

  2. Evaluation of herb-drug interaction of a polyherbal Ayurvedic formulation through high throughput cytochrome P450 enzyme inhibition assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Subrata; Kanjilal, Satyajyoti; Awasthi, Anshumali; Chaudhary, Anika; Banerjee, Dipankar; Bhatt, B N; Narwaria, Avinash; Singh, Rahul; Dutta, Kakoli; Jaggi, Manu; Singh, Anu T; Sharma, Neena; Katiyar, Chandra Kant

    2017-02-02

    Arishtas are Ayurvedic formulation made with decoction of herbs. Arjunarishta formulation is being used in Ayurveda for cardio-protective activity. Ashwagandharishta formulation possesses antioxidant, anti-atherosclerotic and anti-stress properties. Ridayarishta, a novel empirical formulation was prepared using combination of selected ingredients from these two formulations to support healthy heart functions and to reduce stress. Aim of the Study was to investigate herb-drug interaction (HDI) of Ridayarishta formulation through human hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzyme inhibition assay. Ridayarishta formulation was phyto-chemically standardized against arjunolic acid, arjunetin, berberine, piperine, resveratrol and withaferin-A using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) analysis. The formulation was standardized with respect to ethanol by gas chromatographic (GC) analysis. HDI was evaluated with Ridayarishta formulation and amlodipine besilate, atenolol, atorvastatin, metformin, glipizide glimepiride cocktail using high throughput CYP450 enzyme inhibition assay; against CYP1A2, 2C19, 2D6 and 3A4 isozymes. Contents of arjunolic acid, arjunetin, berberine, piperine, resveratrol and withaferin-A in Ridayarishta formulation were found to be 1.76±0.12, 1.51±0.09, 1.85±0.05, 3.2±0.12, 1.21±0.08, and 2.16±0.09ppm, respectively. Quantity of ethanol in Ridayarishta was found to be 7.95±0.023% (V/V). Ridayarishta showed significantly higher (Pdrugs showed significantly (P<0.001and P<0.01) less or negligible HDI. Ridayarishta formulation alone and cocktail with amlodipine besilate, atenolol, atorvastatin, metformin, glipizide, glimepiride had negligible or insignificant effect on CYP450 inhibition. It may be concluded that consumption of Ridayarishta along with selective cardio protective, antihypertensive and anti-diabetic conventional medicine is safe with negligible or without any significant CYP450 (CYP1A2, 2C19, 2D6 and 3A4) inhibition mediated

  3. Systematic evaluation of matrix effects in hydrophilic interaction chromatography versus reversed phase liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periat, Aurélie; Kohler, Isabelle; Thomas, Aurélien; Nicoli, Raul; Boccard, Julien; Veuthey, Jean-Luc; Schappler, Julie; Guillarme, Davy

    2016-03-25

    Reversed phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) is the gold standard technique in bioanalysis. However, hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) could represent a viable alternative to RPLC for the analysis of polar and/or ionizable compounds, as it often provides higher MS sensitivity and alternative selectivity. Nevertheless, this technique can be also prone to matrix effects (ME). ME are one of the major issues in quantitative LC-MS bioanalysis. To ensure acceptable method performance (i.e., trueness and precision), a careful evaluation and minimization of ME is required. In the present study, the incidence of ME in HILIC-MS/MS and RPLC-MS/MS was compared for plasma and urine samples using two representative sets of 38 pharmaceutical compounds and 40 doping agents, respectively. The optimal generic chromatographic conditions in terms of selectivity with respect to interfering compounds were established in both chromatographic modes by testing three different stationary phases in each mode with different mobile phase pH. A second step involved the assessment of ME in RPLC and HILIC under the best generic conditions, using the post-extraction addition method. Biological samples were prepared using two different sample pre-treatments, i.e., a non-selective sample clean-up procedure (protein precipitation and simple dilution for plasma and urine samples, respectively) and a selective sample preparation, i.e., solid phase extraction for both matrices. The non-selective pretreatments led to significantly less ME in RPLC vs. HILIC conditions regardless of the matrix. On the contrary, HILIC appeared as a valuable alternative to RPLC for plasma and urine samples treated by a selective sample preparation. Indeed, in the case of selective sample preparation, the compounds influenced by ME were different in HILIC and RPLC, and lower and similar ME occurrence was generally observed in RPLC vs. HILIC for urine and plasma samples

  4. Observer variation in target volume delineation of lung cancer related to radiation oncologist-computer interaction: A 'Big Brother' evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steenbakkers, Roel J.H.M.; Duppen, Joop C.; Fitton, Isabelle; Deurloo, Kirsten E.I.; Zijp, Lambert; Uitterhoeve, Apollonia L.J.; Rodrigus, Patrick T.R.; Kramer, Gijsbert W.P.; Bussink, Johan; Jaeger, Katrien De; Belderbos, Jose S.A.; Hart, Augustinus A.M.; Nowak, Peter J.C.M.; Herk, Marcel van; Rasch, Coen R.N.

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: To evaluate the process of target volume delineation in lung cancer for optimization of imaging, delineation protocol and delineation software. Patients and methods: Eleven radiation oncologists (observers) from five different institutions delineated the Gross Tumor Volume (GTV) including positive lymph nodes of 22 lung cancer patients (stages I-IIIB) on CT only. All radiation oncologist-computer interactions were recorded with a tool called 'Big Brother'. For each radiation oncologist and patient the following issues were analyzed: delineation time, number of delineated points and corrections, zoom levels, level and window (L/W) settings, CT slice changes, use of side windows (coronal and sagittal) and software button use. Results: The mean delineation time per GTV was 16 min (SD 10 min). The mean delineation time for lymph node positive patients was on average 3 min larger (P=0.02) than for lymph node negative patients. Many corrections (55%) were due to L/W change (e.g. delineating in mediastinum L/W and then correcting in lung L/W). For the lymph node region, a relatively large number of corrections was found (3.7 corr/cm 2 ), indicating that it was difficult to delineate lymph nodes. For the tumor-atelectasis region, a relative small number of corrections was found (1.0 corr/cm 2 ), indicating that including or excluding atelectasis into the GTV was a clinical decision. Inappropriate use of L/W settings was frequently found (e.g. 46% of all delineated points in the tumor-lung region were delineated in mediastinum L/W settings). Despite a large observer variation in cranial and caudal direction of 0.72 cm (1 SD), the coronal and sagittal side windows were not used in 45 and 60% of the cases, respectively. For the more difficult cases, observer variation was smaller when the coronal and sagittal side windows were used. Conclusions: With the 'Big Brother' tool a method was developed to trace the delineation process. The differences between

  5. Fuzzy set implementation for controlling and evaluation of factors affecting melting, crystallinity and interaction in polymer blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Rawajfeh, Aiman Eid; Mamlook, Rustom

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the factors (i.e. weight fractions, crystallization temperatures and interaction such as hydrogen bonding) affecting melting, crystallinity, interaction parameters and miscibility of polymer blends (PB) have been studied by implementation of a fuzzy set. The interaction parameters were calculated using the Nishi-Wang equation, which is based on the Flory-Huggins theory. The values of interaction parameters χ 12 were negative for all blend compositions suggesting that χ 12 depends on the volume fraction (Φ) of the polymer. The various characteristics for the case study was synthesized and converted into relative weights w.r.t fuzzy set method. The fuzzy set analysis for the case study reveal increase as confirmed by the experimental data. The application of the fuzzy set methodology offers reasonable prediction and assessment for detecting yield in polymer blends

  6. Evaluating an Interactive, Multimedia Education and Decision Program for Early-Stage Prostate Cancer Patients in a Randomized Controlled Trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Diefenbach, Michael A

    2005-01-01

    ...). To educate patients about prostate cancer and its treatment and to ease their decisional burden, we have developed an innovative CD-ROM based multimedia prostate cancer interactive education system...

  7. The Design and Pilot Evaluation of an Interactive Learning Environment for Introductory Programming Influenced by Cognitive Load Theory and Constructivism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moons, Jan; De Backer, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the architecture and evaluation of a novel environment for programming education. The design of this programming environment, and the way it is used in class, is based on the findings of constructivist and cognitivist learning paradigms. The environment is evaluated based on qualitative student and teacher evaluations and…

  8. Learning Predictive Interactions Using Information Gain and Bayesian Network Scoring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Jiang

    Full Text Available The problems of correlation and classification are long-standing in the fields of statistics and machine learning, and techniques have been developed to address these problems. We are now in the era of high-dimensional data, which is data that can concern billions of variables. These data present new challenges. In particular, it is difficult to discover predictive variables, when each variable has little marginal effect. An example concerns Genome-wide Association Studies (GWAS datasets, which involve millions of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs, where some of the SNPs interact epistatically to affect disease status. Towards determining these interacting SNPs, researchers developed techniques that addressed this specific problem. However, the problem is more general, and so these techniques are applicable to other problems concerning interactions. A difficulty with many of these techniques is that they do not distinguish whether a learned interaction is actually an interaction or whether it involves several variables with strong marginal effects.We address this problem using information gain and Bayesian network scoring. First, we identify candidate interactions by determining whether together variables provide more information than they do separately. Then we use Bayesian network scoring to see if a candidate interaction really is a likely model. Our strategy is called MBS-IGain. Using 100 simulated datasets and a real GWAS Alzheimer's dataset, we investigated the performance of MBS-IGain.When analyzing the simulated datasets, MBS-IGain substantially out-performed nine previous methods at locating interacting predictors, and at identifying interactions exactly. When analyzing the real Alzheimer's dataset, we obtained new results and results that substantiated previous findings. We conclude that MBS-IGain is highly effective at finding interactions in high-dimensional datasets. This result is significant because we have increasingly

  9. Evaluation of the effect of polymorphism on G-quadruplex-ligand interaction by means of spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, S.; Ferrer, A.; Benabou, S.; Aviñó, A.; Eritja, R.; Gargallo, R.

    2018-05-01

    Guanine-rich sequences may fold into highly ordered structures known as G-quadruplexes. Apart from the monomeric G-quadruplex, these sequences may form multimeric structures that are not usually considered when studying interaction with ligands. This work studies the interaction of a ligand, crystal violet, with three guanine-rich DNA sequences with the capacity to form multimeric structures. These sequences correspond to short stretches found near the promoter regions of c-kit and SMARCA4 genes. Instrumental techniques (circular dichroism, molecular fluorescence, size-exclusion chromatography and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry) and multivariate data analysis were used for this purpose. The polymorphism of G-quadruplexes was characterized prior to the interaction studies. The ligand was shown to interact preferentially with the monomeric G-quadruplex; the binding stoichiometry was 1:1 and the binding constant was in the order of 105 M-1 for all three sequences. The results highlight the importance of DNA treatment prior to interaction studies.

  10. Evaluation of DFT methods for computing the interaction energies of homomolecular and heteromolecular dimers of monosubstituted benzene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey-Kittle, Andrew; Cafiero, Mauricio

    We present density functional theory (DFT) interaction energies for the sandwich and T-shaped conformers of substituted benzene dimers. The DFT functionals studied include TPSS, HCTH407, B3LYP, and X3LYP. We also include Hartree-Fock (HF) and second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory calculations (MP2), as well as calculations using a new functional, P3LYP, which includes PBE and HF exchange and LYP correlation. Although DFT methods do not explicitly account for the dispersion interactions important in the benzene-dimer interactions, we find that our new method, P3LYP, as well as HCTH407 and TPSS, match MP2 and CCSD(T) calculations much better than the hybrid methods B3LYP and X3LYP methods do.

  11. Evaluation of intensity and energy interaction parameters for the complexation of Pr(III) with selected nucleoside and nucleotide through absorption spectral studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendangsenla, N.; Moaienla, T.; David Singh, Th.; Sumitra, Ch.; Rajmuhon Singh, N.; Indira Devi, M.

    2013-02-01

    The interactions of Pr(III) with nucleosides and nucleotides have been studied in different organic solvents employing absorption difference and comparative absorption spectrophotometry. The magnitudes of the variations in both energy and intensity interaction parameters were used to explore the degree of outer and inner sphere co-ordination, incidence of covalency and the extent of metal 4f-orbital involvement in chemical bonding. Various electronic spectral parameters like Slater-Condon (Fk), Racah (Ek), Lande parameter (ξ4f), Nephelauxatic ratio (β), bonding (b1/2), percentage covalency (δ) and intensity parameters like oscillator strength (P) and Judd Ofelt electronic dipole intensity parameter (Tλ, λ = 2, 4, 6) have been evaluated. The variation of these evaluated parameters were employed to interpret the nature of binding of Pr(III) with different ligands i.e. Adenosine/ATP in presence and absence of Ca2+.

  12. Train-Network Interactions and Stability Evaluation in High-Speed Railways--Part II: Influential Factors and Verifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Haitao; Tao, Haidong; Wang, Xiongfei

    2018-01-01

    Low-frequency oscillation (LFO), harmonic resonance and resonance instability phenomena happened in high speed railways (HSRs) are resulted from the interactions between multiple electric trains and traction network. A train-network interaction system and a unified impedance-based model......, catenary lines and autotransformers (ATs); 3) different numbers and positions of trains and railway lines will also be considered and discussed. In order to validate the theoretical results, the time-domain simulation and experiment system have been conducted. Finally, the differences and the relations...

  13. Rice-arsenate interactions in hydroponics: a three-gene model for tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Gareth J; Nigar, Meher; Williams, Paul N; Dasgupta, Tapash; Meharg, Andrew A; Price, Adam H

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the genetic mapping of the tolerance of root growth to 13.3 muM arsenate [As(V)] using the BalaxAzucena population is improved, and candidate genes for further study are identified. A remarkable three-gene model of tolerance is advanced, which appears to involve epistatic interaction between three major genes, two on chromosome 6 and one on chromosome 10. Any combination of two of these genes inherited from the tolerant parent leads to the plant having tolerance. Lists of potential positional candidate genes are presented. These are then refined using whole genome transcriptomics data and bioinformatics. Physiological evidence is also provided that genes related to phosphate transport are unlikely to be behind the genetic loci conferring tolerance. These results offer testable hypotheses for genes related to As(V) tolerance that might offer strategies for mitigating arsenic (As) accumulation in consumed rice.

  14. Rice–arsenate interactions in hydroponics: a three-gene model for tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Gareth J.; Nigar, Meher; Dasgupta, Tapash; Meharg, Andrew A.; Price, Adam H.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the genetic mapping of the tolerance of root growth to 13.3 μM arsenate [As(V)] using the Bala×Azucena population is improved, and candidate genes for further study are identified. A remarkable three-gene model of tolerance is advanced, which appears to involve epistatic interaction between three major genes, two on chromosome 6 and one on chromosome 10. Any combination of two of these genes inherited from the tolerant parent leads to the plant having tolerance. Lists of potential positional candidate genes are presented. These are then refined using whole genome transcriptomics data and bioinformatics. Physiological evidence is also provided that genes related to phosphate transport are unlikely to be behind the genetic loci conferring tolerance. These results offer testable hypotheses for genes related to As(V) tolerance that might offer strategies for mitigating arsenic (As) accumulation in consumed rice. PMID:18453529

  15. Natural selection interacts with recombination to shape the evolution of hybrid genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumer, Molly; Xu, Chenling; Powell, Daniel L; Durvasula, Arun; Skov, Laurits; Holland, Chris; Blazier, John C; Sankararaman, Sriram; Andolfatto, Peter; Rosenthal, Gil G; Przeworski, Molly

    2018-05-11

    To investigate the consequences of hybridization between species, we studied three replicate hybrid populations that formed naturally between two swordtail fish species, estimating their fine-scale genetic map and inferring ancestry along the genomes of 690 individuals. In all three populations, ancestry from the "minor" parental species is more common in regions of high recombination and where there is linkage to fewer putative targets of selection. The same patterns are apparent in a reanalysis of human and archaic admixture. These results support models in which ancestry from the minor parental species is more likely to persist when rapidly uncoupled from alleles that are deleterious in hybrids. Our analyses further indicate that selection on swordtail hybrids stems predominantly from deleterious combinations of epistatically interacting alleles. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  16. Mapping Haplotype-haplotype Interactions with Adaptive LASSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ming

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genetic etiology of complex diseases in human has been commonly viewed as a complex process involving both genetic and environmental factors functioning in a complicated manner. Quite often the interactions among genetic variants play major roles in determining the susceptibility of an individual to a particular disease. Statistical methods for modeling interactions underlying complex diseases between single genetic variants (e.g. single nucleotide polymorphisms or SNPs have been extensively studied. Recently, haplotype-based analysis has gained its popularity among genetic association studies. When multiple sequence or haplotype interactions are involved in determining an individual's susceptibility to a disease, it presents daunting challenges in statistical modeling and testing of the interaction effects, largely due to the complicated higher order epistatic complexity. Results In this article, we propose a new strategy in modeling haplotype-haplotype interactions under the penalized logistic regression framework with adaptive L1-penalty. We consider interactions of sequence variants between haplotype blocks. The adaptive L1-penalty allows simultaneous effect estimation and variable selection in a single model. We propose a new parameter estimation method which estimates and selects parameters by the modified Gauss-Seidel method nested within the EM algorithm. Simulation studies show that it has low false positive rate and reasonable power in detecting haplotype interactions. The method is applied to test haplotype interactions involved in mother and offspring genome in a small for gestational age (SGA neonates data set, and significant interactions between different genomes are detected. Conclusions As demonstrated by the simulation studies and real data analysis, the approach developed provides an efficient tool for the modeling and testing of haplotype interactions. The implementation of the method in R codes can be

  17. Evaluation of inelastic constitutive models under plasticity-creep interaction for 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel: Results of joint work (A)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, T.; Ohno, N.; Suzuki, A.; Igari, T.

    1987-01-01

    The authorization of constitutive models under plasticity-creep condition and life estimation methods in fatigue-creep regime is expected to be achieved from the viewpoint of design purposes of high temperature components of reactor structures. The present Subcommittee has performed the cooperative project consisting of the following two parts: (A) To review and evaluate inelastic constitutive models relevant to the material response under plasticity-creep interaction and (B) to recommend some adequate methods to estimate material life under fatigue-creep interaction by taking account of the effect of plasticity-creep interaction on the stress-strain hysteresis loops. The material treated is normalized and tempered 2 1/4 Cr-1Mo steel at 600 0 C. The part (A) plays a preliminary role for the part (B), since the constitutive models examined in the part (A) were used to describe the stress-strain hysteresis loops necessary to predict analytically the lives under fatigue-creep interaction. In the part (A), thererfore, it is important to check how accurately the constitutive models simulate the stress-strain hysteresis loops especially by taking account of the effect of plasticity-creep interaction. (orig./GL)

  18. Evaluating the usability of an interactive, bi-lingual, touchscreen-enabled breastfeeding educational programme: application of Nielson’s heuristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Joshi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Usability challenges have to be met in an interactive computer program development and should meet all users’ needs. Objective: The study purpose was to conduct heuristic evaluation of an interactive, bilingual touch screen enabled breastfeeding educational program for Hispanic women living in rural settings.Methods: Two usability experts used Nielsen’s heuristics while reviewing the user interface in May 2013 using principles of Nielson’s Heuristics. Nielson’s heuristics are a set of usability engineering principles developed to identify issues in user interface design and involves analysis of the interface. The heuristic evaluations were carried out in the interface, program sections, and interactive educational modules. A total of 271 screens were evaluated and included: interface (n=5, program sections (n=223 and educational content (n=43.Results: A total of 97 violations were identified and were mostly related to interface (8violations/5screens and program components (89violations/266screens. The most common violations reported were recognition rather than recall (62%, n=60, consistency and standards (14%, n=14, and match between the system and real world (9%, n= 9. Majority of the violations had minor usability issues (73%, n=71. The only catastrophic violation reported was due to the visibility of system status in the assessment modules.Conclusion: The results demonstrated that the system was more consistent with Nielsen’s usability heuristics. 

  19. Evaluation of drug-carrier interactions in quaternary powder mixtures containing perindopril tert-butylamine and indapamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelkel, Adam; Milczewska, Kasylda; Teżyk, Michał; Milanowski, Bartłomiej; Lulek, Janina

    2016-04-30

    Interactions occurring between components in the quaternary powder mixtures consisting of perindopril tert-butylamine, indapamide (active pharmaceutical ingredients), carrier substance and hydrophobic colloidal silica were examined. Two grades of lactose monohydrate: Spherolac(®) 100 and Granulac(®) 200 and two types of microcrystalline cellulose: M101D+ and Vivapur(®) 102 were used as carriers. We determined the size distribution (laser diffraction method), morphology (scanning electron microscopy) and a specific surface area of the powder particles (by nitrogen adsorption-desorption). For the determination of the surface energy of powder mixtures the method of inverse gas chromatography was applied. Investigated mixtures were characterized by surface parameters (dispersive component of surface energy, specific interactions parameters, specific surface area), work of adhesion and cohesion as well as Flory-Huggins parameter χ23('). Results obtained for all quaternary powder mixtures indicate existence of interactions between components. The strongest interactions occur for both blends with different types of microcrystalline cellulose (PM-1 and PM-4) while much weaker ones for powder mixtures with various types of lactose (PM-2 and PM-3). Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Evaluation of systems interactions in nuclear power plants: Technical findings related to Unresolved Safety Issue A-17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thatcher, D.

    1989-05-01

    This report presents a summary of the activities related to Unresolved Safety Issue (USI)A-17, ''Systems Interactions in Nuclear Power Plants,'' and also includes the NRC staff's conclusions based on those activities. The staff's technical findings provide the framework for the final resolution of this unresolved safety issue. The final resolution will be published later as NUREG-1229. 52 refs., 4 tabs

  1. Evaluation of the binding interaction between bovine serum albumin and dimethyl fumarate, an anti-inflammatory drug by multispectroscopic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jattinagoudar, Laxmi; Meti, Manjunath; Nandibewoor, Sharanappa; Chimatadar, Shivamurti

    2016-03-01

    The information of the quenching reaction of bovine serum albumin with dimethyl fumarate is obtained by multi-spectroscopic methods. The number of binding sites, n and binding constants, KA were determined at different temperatures. The effect of increasing temperature on Stern-Volmer quenching constants (KD) indicates that a dynamic quenching mechanism is involved in the interaction. The analysis of thermodynamic quantities namely, ∆H° and ∆S° suggested hydrophobic forces playing a major role in the interaction between dimethyl fumarate and bovine serum albumin. The binding site of dimethyl fumarate on bovine serum albumin was determined by displacement studies, using the site probes viz., warfarin, ibuprofen and digitoxin. The determination of magnitude of the distance of approach for molecular interactions between dimethyl fumarate and bovine serum albumin is calculated according to the theory of Förster energy transfer. The CD, 3D fluorescence spectra, synchronous fluorescence measurements and FT-IR spectral results were indicative of the change in secondary structure of the protein. The influence of some of the metal ions on the binding interaction was also studied.

  2. Monitoring Student Interaction during Collaborative Learning: Design and Evaluation of a Training Program for Pre-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaendler, Celia; Wiedmann, Michael; Leuders, Timo; Rummel, Nikol; Spada, Hans

    2016-01-01

    The monitoring by teachers of collaborative, cognitive, and meta-cognitive student activities in collaborative learning is crucial for fostering beneficial student interaction. In a quasi-experimental study, we trained pre-service teachers (N = 74) to notice behavioral indicators for these three dimensions of student activities. Video clips of…

  3. The Design, Implementation, and Evaluation of a Digital Interactive Globe System Integrated into an Earth Science Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Wei-Kai; Bhagat, Kaushal Kumar; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to design and implement a digital interactive globe system (DIGS), by integrating low-cost equipment to make DIGS cost-effective. DIGS includes a data processing unit, a wireless control unit, an image-capturing unit, a laser emission unit, and a three-dimensional hemispheric body-imaging screen. A quasi-experimental study…

  4. Evaluation of interactive computerized training to teach parents to implement photographic activity schedules with children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerencser, Kristina R; Higbee, Thomas S; Akers, Jessica S; Contreras, Bethany P

    2017-07-01

    Training parents of children with autism spectrum disorder can be a challenge due to limited resources, time, and money. Interactive computerized training (ICT)-a self-paced program that incorporates instructions, videos, and interactive questions-is one method professionals can use to disseminate trainings to broader populations. This study extends previous research on ICT by assessing the effect of ICT to teach three parents how to implement a photographic activity schedule using a systematic prompting procedure with their child. Following ICT, all parents increased their fidelity to implementation of an activity schedule during role-play sessions with an adult. Fidelity remained high during implementation with their child and maintained during a 2-week follow-up. © 2017 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  5. Status Report on Irradiation Capsules Designed to Evaluate FeCrAl-UO2 Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, Kevin G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Howard, Richard H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-06-24

    This status report provides the background and current status of a series of irradiation capsules that were designed and are being built to test the interactions between candidate FeCrAl cladding for enhanced accident tolerant applications and prototypical enriched commercial UO2 fuel in a neutron radiation environment. These capsules will test the degree, if any, of fuel cladding chemical interactions (FCCI) between FeCrAl and UO2. The capsules are to be irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Laboratory to burn-ups of 10, 30, and 50 GWd/MT with a nominal target temperature at the interfaces between the pellets and clad of 350°C.

  6. Synthesis of N-(Methoxycarbonylthienylmethylthioureas and Evaluation of Their Interaction with Inducible and Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Threadgill

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Two isomeric N-(methoxycarbonylthienylmethylthioureas were synthesised by a sequence of radical bromination of methylthiophenecarboxylic esters, substitution with trifluoroacetamide anion, deprotection, formation of the corresponding isothiocyanates and addition of ammonia. The interaction of these new thiophene-based thioureas with inducible and neuronal nitric oxide synthase was evaluauted. These novel thienylmethylthioureas stimulated the activity of inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS.

  7. Scale interactions in economics: application to the evaluation of the economic damages of climatic change and of extreme events; Interactions d'echelles en economie: application a l'evaluation des dommages economiques du changement climatique et des evenements extremes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallegatte, S

    2005-06-15

    Growth models, which neglect economic disequilibria, considered as temporary, are in general used to evaluate the damaging effects generated by climatic change. This work shows, through a series of modeling experiences, the importance of disequilibria and of endogenous variability of economy in the evaluation of damages due to extreme events and climatic change. It demonstrates the impossibility to separate the evaluation of damages from the representation of growth and of economic dynamics: the comfort losses will depend on both the nature and intensity of impacts and on the dynamics and situation of the economy to which they will apply. Thus, the uncertainties about the damaging effects of future climatic changes come from both scientific uncertainties and from uncertainties about the future organization of our economies. (J.S.)

  8. Evaluating the Role of Drone-Produced Chemical Signals in Mediating Social Interactions in Honey Bees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, Gabriel; Wolfson, Megan D; Hefetz, Abraham; Grozinger, Christina M

    2018-01-01

    Pheromones play a critical role in shaping societies of social insects, including honey bees, Apis mellifera. While diverse functions have been ascribed to queen- and worker-produced compounds, few studies have explored the identity and function of male-produced (drone) compounds. However, several lines of evidence suggest that drones engage in a variety of social interactions inside and outside of the colony. Here we elucidate the chemical composition of extracts of the drone mandibular gland, and test the hypothesis that compounds produced in these glands, or a synthetic blend consisting of the six main compounds, mediate drone social interactions in and out of the colony. Drone mandibular glands primarily produce a blend of saturated, unsaturated and methyl branched fatty acids ranging in chain length from nonanoic to docosanoic acids, and both gland extracts and synthetic blends of these chemicals serve to attract drones outside of the hive, but do not attract workers inside the hive. These studies shed light on the role drones and drone-produced chemicals have on mediating social interactions with other drones and highlight their potential importance in communicating with other castes.

  9. Hemigrapsus sanguineus in Long Island salt marshes: experimental evaluation of the interactions between an invasive crab and resident ecosystem engineers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley J. Peterson

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The invasive Asian shore crab, Hemigrapsus sanguineus, has recently been observed occupying salt marshes, a novel environment for this crab species. As it invades this new habitat, it is likely to interact with a number of important salt marsh species. To understand the potential effects of H. sanguineus on this ecosystem, interactions between this invasive crab and important salt marsh ecosystem engineers were examined. Laboratory experiments demonstrated competition for burrows between H. sanguineus and the native fiddler crab, Uca pugilator. Results indicate that H. sanguineus is able to displace an established fiddler crab from its burrow. Feeding experiments revealed that the presence of H. sanguineus has a significantly negative impact on the number as well as the biomass of ribbed mussels (Geukensia demissa consumed by the green crab, Carcinus maenas, although this only occurred at high predator densities. In addition, when both crabs foraged together, there was a significant shift in the size of mussels consumed. These interactions suggests that H. sanguineus may have long-term impacts and wide-ranging negative effects on the saltmarsh ecosystem.

  10. Hemigrapsus sanguineus in Long Island salt marshes: experimental evaluation of the interactions between an invasive crab and resident ecosystem engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Bradley J; Fournier, Alexa M; Furman, Bradley T; Carroll, John M

    2014-01-01

    The invasive Asian shore crab, Hemigrapsus sanguineus, has recently been observed occupying salt marshes, a novel environment for this crab species. As it invades this new habitat, it is likely to interact with a number of important salt marsh species. To understand the potential effects of H. sanguineus on this ecosystem, interactions between this invasive crab and important salt marsh ecosystem engineers were examined. Laboratory experiments demonstrated competition for burrows between H. sanguineus and the native fiddler crab, Uca pugilator. Results indicate that H. sanguineus is able to displace an established fiddler crab from its burrow. Feeding experiments revealed that the presence of H. sanguineus has a significantly negative impact on the number as well as the biomass of ribbed mussels (Geukensia demissa) consumed by the green crab, Carcinus maenas, although this only occurred at high predator densities. In addition, when both crabs foraged together, there was a significant shift in the size of mussels consumed. These interactions suggests that H. sanguineus may have long-term impacts and wide-ranging negative effects on the saltmarsh ecosystem.

  11. Evaluation of soil-structure interaction for structures subjected to earthquake loading with different types of foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elwi Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available However though the structures are supported on soil, most of the designers do not consider the soil structure interaction and its subsequent effect on structure during an earthquake. Different soil properties can affect seismic waves as they pass through a soil layer. When a structure is subjected to an earthquake excitation, it interacts the foundation and soil, and thus changes the motion of the ground. It means that the movement of the whole ground structure system is influenced by type of soil as well as by the type of structure. Tall buildings are supposed to be of engineered construction in sense that they might have been analyzed and designed to meet the provision of relevant codes of practice and building bye-laws. IS 1893: 2002 “Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures” gives response spectrum for different types of soil such as hard, medium and soft. An attempt has been made in this paper to study the effect of Soil-structure interaction on multi storeyed buildings with various foundation systems. Also to study the response of buildings subjected to seismic forces with Rigid and Flexible foundations. Multi storeyed buildings with fixed and flexible support subjected to seismic forces were analyzed under different soil conditions like hard, medium and soft. The buildings were analyzed by Response spectrum method using software SAP2000. The response of building frames such as Lateral deflection, Story drift, Base shear, Axial force and Column moment values for all building frames were presented in this paper.

  12. Evaluation of Porin Interaction with Adenine Nucleotide Translocase and Cyclophilin-D Proteins after Brain Ischemia and Reperfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Atlasi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective (s Porin is a mitochondrial outer membrane channel, which usually functions as the pathway for the movement of various substances in and out of the mitochondria and is considered to be a component of the permeability transition (PT pore complex that plays a role in the PT. We addressed the hypothesis that porin interacts with other mitochondrial proteins after ischemic injury.Materials and MethodsFor this purpose, we used in vivo 4-vessel occlusion model of rat brain and porin purification method by hydroxyapatite column. After SDS gel electrophoresis and silver nitrate staining, Western blotting was done for porin, adenine nucleotide translocase and cyclophilin-D proteins.Results Porin was purified from mitochondrial mixture in ischemic brain and control groups. Investigation of interaction of adenine nucleotide transposes (ANT and cyclophilin-D with porin by Western blotting showed no proteins co-purified with porin from injured tissues.Conclusion The present study implies that there may not be interaction between porin, and ANT or cyclophilin-D, and if there is any, it is not maintained during the purification procedure.

  13. Evaluation of a Bead-Free Coimmunoprecipitation Technique for Identification of Virus-Host Protein Interactions Using High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBlasio, Stacy L; Bereman, Michael S; Mahoney, Jaclyn; Thannhauser, Theodore W; Gray, Stewart M; MacCoss, Michael J; Cilia Heck, Michelle

    2017-09-01

    Protein interactions between virus and host are essential for viral propagation and movement, as viruses lack most of the proteins required to thrive on their own. Precision methods aimed at disrupting virus-host interactions represent new approaches to disease management but require in-depth knowledge of the identity and binding specificity of host proteins within these interaction networks. Protein coimmunoprecipitation (co-IP) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) provides a high-throughput way to characterize virus-host interactomes in a single experiment. Common co-IP methods use antibodies immobilized on agarose or magnetic beads to isolate virus-host complexes in solutions of host tissue homogenate. Although these workflows are well established, they can be fairly laborious and expensive. Therefore, we evaluated the feasibility of using antibody-coated microtiter plates coupled with MS analysis as an easy, less expensive way to identify host proteins that interact with Potato leafroll virus (PLRV), an insect-borne RNA virus that infects potatoes. With the use of the bead-free platform, we were able to detect 36 plant and 1 nonstructural viral protein significantly coimmunoprecipitating with PLRV. Two of these proteins, a 14-3-3 signal transduction protein and malate dehydrogenase 2 (mMDH2), were detected as having a weakened or lost association with a structural mutant of the virus, demonstrating that the bead-free method is sensitive enough to detect quantitative differences that can be used to pin-point domains of interaction. Collectively, our analysis shows that the bead-free platform is a low-cost alternative that can be used by core facilities and other investigators to identify plant and viral proteins interacting with virions and/or the viral structural proteins.

  14. Evaluation of the magnitude and effects of bundle duct interaction in fuel assemblies at developmental plant conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serell, D.C.; Kaplan, S.

    1980-09-01

    Purpose of this evaluation is to estimate the magnitude and effects of irradiation and creep induced fuel bundle deformations in the developmental plant. This report focuses on the trends of the results and the ability of present models to evaluate the assembly temperatures in the presence of bundle deformation. Although this analysis focuses on the developmental plant, the conclusions are applicable to LMFBR fuel assemblies in general if they have wire spacers

  15. The experimental charge-density approach in the evaluation of intermolecular interactions. Application of a new module of the XD programming package to several solids including a pentapeptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, Y A; Volkov, A; Wu, G; Coppens, P

    2000-11-01

    A new module interfaced to the XD programming package has been used in the evaluation of intermolecular interactions and lattice energies of the crystals of p-nitroaniline, L-asparagine monohydrate and the pentapeptide Boc-Gln-D-Iva-Hyp-Ala-Phol (Boc = butoxycarbonyl, Iva = isovaline = ethylalanine, Phol = phenylalaninol). The electrostatic interactions are evaluated with the atom-centered distributed multipoles from KRMM (kappa'-restricted multipole model) refinements, using the Buckingham expression for non-overlapping charge densities. Results for p-nitroaniline are compared with Hartree-Fock (HF), density functional (DFT) and Moller-Plesset (MP2) supermolecular calculations and with HF and DFT periodic calculations. The HF and DFT methods fail to predict the stability of the p-nitroaniline crystal but the results of the experimental charge-density approach (ECDA) are in good agreement with both MP2 interaction energies and the experimental lattice energy. ECDA results for L-asparagine monohydrate compare well with those from DFT supermolecular and periodic HF calculations. The disorder of the terminal group in the pentapeptide, which persists at the experimental temperature of 20 K, corresponds to an energy difference of only 0.35 kJ mol(-1), which is too small to be reproduced with current methods.

  16. Evaluation of Drug-Drug Interaction Potential Between Sacubitril/Valsartan (LCZ696) and Statins Using a Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen; Ji, Tao; Einolf, Heidi; Ayalasomayajula, Surya; Lin, Tsu-Han; Hanna, Imad; Heimbach, Tycho; Breen, Christopher; Jarugula, Venkateswar; He, Handan

    2017-05-01

    Sacubitril/valsartan (LCZ696) has been approved for the treatment of heart failure. Sacubitril is an in vitro inhibitor of organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATPs). In clinical studies, LCZ696 increased atorvastatin C max by 1.7-fold and area under the plasma concentration-time curve by 1.3-fold, but had little or no effect on simvastatin or simvastatin acid exposure. A physiologically based pharmacokinetics modeling approach was applied to explore the underlying mechanisms behind the statin-specific LCZ696 drug interaction observations. The model incorporated OATP-mediated clearance (CL int,T ) for simvastatin and simvastatin acid to successfully describe the pharmacokinetic profiles of either analyte in the absence or presence of LCZ696. Moreover, the model successfully described the clinically observed drug effect with atorvastatin. The simulations clarified the critical parameters responsible for the observation of a low, yet clinically relevant, drug-drug interaction DDI between sacubitril and atorvastatin and the lack of effect with simvastatin acid. Atorvastatin is administered in its active form and rapidly achieves C max that coincide with the low C max of sacubitril. In contrast, simvastatin requires a hydrolysis step to the acid form and therefore is not present at the site of interactions at sacubitril concentrations that are inhibitory. Similar models were used to evaluate the drug-drug interaction risk for additional OATP-transported statins which predicted to maximally result in a 1.5-fold exposure increase. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Views from Within a Narrative: Evaluating Long-Term Human-Robot Interaction in a Naturalistic Environment Using Open-Ended Scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrdal, Dag Sverre; Dautenhahn, Kerstin; Koay, Kheng Lee; Ho, Wan Ching

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the prototyping of human-robot interactions in the University of Hertfordshire (UH) Robot House. Twelve participants took part in a long-term study in which they interacted with robots in the UH Robot House once a week for a period of 10 weeks. A prototyping method using the narrative framing technique allowed participants to engage with the robots in episodic interactions that were framed using narrative to convey the impression of a continuous long-term interaction. The goal was to examine how participants responded to the scenarios and the robots as well as specific robot behaviours, such as agent migration and expressive behaviours. Evaluation of the robots and the s