Sample records for evaluating chlorinated hydrocarbon

  1. Process for Photochemical Chlorination of Hydrocarbons (United States)

    Beanblossom, W S


    A process for chlorination of a major portion of the hydrogen atoms of paraffinic hydrocarbons of five or more carbon atoms may be replaced by subjecting the hydrocarbon to the action of chlorine under active light. The initial chlorination is begun at 25 to 30 deg C with the chlorine diluted with HCl. The later stages may be carried out with undiluted chlorine and the temperature gradually raised to about 129 deg C.

  2. Direct immunofluorescence and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for evaluating chlorinated hydrocarbon degrading bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, R.L.; Franck, M.M.; Brey, J.; Fliermans, C.B. [Westinghouse Savannah River, Aiken, SC (United States). Environmental Biotechnology Section; Scott, D.; Lanclos, K. [Medical Coll. of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States)


    Immunological procedures were developed to enumerate chlorinated hydrocarbon degrading bacteria. Polyclonal antibodies (Pabs) were produced by immunizing New Zealand white rabbits against 18 contaminant-degrading bacteria. These included methanotrophic and chlorobenzene (CB) degrading species. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to test for specificity and sensitivity of the Pabs. Direct fluorescent antibodies (DFAs) were developed with these Pabs against select methanotrophic bacteria isolated from a trichloroethylene (TCE) contaminated landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and cultures from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). Analysis of cross reactivity testing data showed some of the Pabs to be group specific while others were species specific. The threshold of sensitivity for the ELISA is 105 bacteria cells/ml. The DFA can detect as few as one bacterium per ml after concentration. Results from the DFA and ELISA techniques for enumeration of methanotrophic bacteria in groundwater were higher but not significantly different (P < 0.05) compared to indirect microbiological techniques such as MPN. These methods provide useful information on in situ community structure and function for bioremediation applications within 1--4 hours of sampling.

  3. Hydrochloric acid recycling from chlorinated hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowieja, D. [Sulzer Escher Wyss GmbH, Ravensburg (Germany); Schaub, M. [Sulzer Chemtech Ltd., Winterthur (Switzerland)


    Chlorinated hydrocarbons present a major ecological hazard since most of them are only poorly biodegradable. Incineration is an economical process for their destruction, however the usually recovered sodium or calcium chlorides do not present a value and their disposal may even be very costly. Recovery of hydrochloric acid may therefore present an economical solution, mainly were large quantities of highly chlorinated compounds can be processed (author) 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Microbiological aspects of the removal of chlorinated hydrocarbons from air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolfing, Jan; Wijngaard, Arjan J. van den; Janssen, Dick B.


    Chlorinated hydrocarbons are widely used synthetic chemicals that are frequently present in industrial emissions. Bacterial degradation has been demonstrated for several components of this class of compounds. Structural features that affect the degradability include the number of chlorine atoms and

  5. Riverine input of chlorinated hydrocarbons in the coastal pollution

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.; Everaarts, J.M.

    of various chlorinated hydrocarbons. It deals with an in-depth analysis of pollution of the coastal ecosystem around the Netherlands, U.K. and Germany due to inputs of contaminants from the rivers namely, Elbe, Weser, Ems Ijssel, Rhine, Meuse, Scheldt, Thames...

  6. Chlorinated hydrocarbons: oxidation in the biosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, J.M.


    The review explores the limitations imposed on the biological oxidation of some synthetic compounds, as determined from recent studies with enzymes which catalyze the oxidation of aromatic compounds. Examples are furnished of ways in which existing metabolic pathways can adapt to degrade, or partially degrade, a number of widely used synthetic chemicals. Special emphasis is given to the problems confronting microorganisms in the oxidative degradation of the most persistant chlorinated aromatic compounds such as PCBs. In addition, the potential application of genetic engineering to the selection of mutants for the purpose of degrading specific pollutants in industrial effluents is discussed. (JMT)

  7. Supported metal nanoparticles for the remediation of chlorinated hydrocarbons (United States)

    Schrick, Bettina

    Zero valent iron filings are currently being used in pilot scale field studies to dehalogenate toxic chlorinated hydrocarbons from contaminated surface- and groundwater. Iron filings reduce trichloroethylene (TCE), a model contaminant, via two interconnected degradation pathways: (a) reductive beta-elimination and (b) sequential hydrogenolysis, in which each chlorine atom is sequentially replaced by hydrogen. For the latter pathway, problems arise because the dehalogenation rate decreases as the number of chlorine atoms in the molecule decreases. Therefore, some of the products formed, such as vinyl chloride (VC), are more toxic than the parent compound (TCE), and are only slowly reduced by iron. To improve the rate, cost and technique of remediation for chlorinated hydrocarbons, zero valent nickel-iron (Ni-Fe) nanoparticles have been developed. To elucidate the dehalogenation reaction and particularly the product distributions from a mechanistic standpoint, the roles that nickel and iron play in the dehalogenation of TCE were studied. On the bimetallic particles, the reaction occurs by nickel-catalyzed hydrodechlorination. As the iron actively corrodes, the cathodically protected nickel surface chemisorbs hydrogen ions, and TCE adsorbed to the Ni surface is thus hydrogenated. This reaction competes kinetically with the evolution of molecular hydrogen. Hydrogenolysis of the C-Cl bond results in the formation of linear, as well as branched saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons. Dispersing the nanometals onto high surface area supports, such as hydrophilic carbon or polyacrylic acid (PAA), provides a delivery vehicle for the reactive nanoparticles. The support acts as a nanometal carrier, and may also help preconcentrate the toxins, and provide a conductive pathway for electron transfer. In general, supports are expected to stabilize the nanoparticles and give an increased surface to volume ratio. The carbon- and PAA-supported nanometals form a permanent suspension

  8. Iron-carbon composites for the remediation of chlorinated hydrocarbons (United States)

    Sunkara, Bhanu Kiran

    This research is focused on engineering submicron spherical carbon particles as effective carriers/supports for nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) particles to address the in situ remediation of soil and groundwater chlorinated contaminants. Chlorinated hydrocarbons such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) form a class of dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) toxic contaminants in soil and groundwater. The in situ injection of NZVI particles to reduce DNAPLs is a potentially simple, cost-effective, and environmentally benign technology that has become a preferred method in the remediation of these compounds. However, unsupported NZVI particles exhibit ferromagnetism leading to particle aggregation and loss in mobility through the subsurface. This work demonstrates two approaches to prepare carbon supported NZVI (iron-carbon composites) particles. The objective is to establish these iron-carbon composites as extremely useful materials for the environmental remediation of chlorinated hydrocarbons and suitable materials for the in situ injection technology. This research also demonstrates that it is possible to vary the placement of iron nanoparticles either on the external surface or within the interior of carbon microspheres using a one-step aerosol-based process. The simple process of modifying iron placement has significant potential applications in heterogeneous catalysis as both the iron and carbon are widely used catalysts and catalyst supports. Furthermore, the aerosol-based process is applied to prepare new class of supported catalytic materials such as carbon-supported palladium nanoparticles for ex situ remediation of contaminated water. The iron-carbon composites developed in this research have multiple functionalities (a) they are reactive and function effectively in reductive dehalogenation (b) they are highly adsorptive thereby bringing the chlorinated compound to the proximity of the reactive sites and also serving as adsorption

  9. Determinants of the microbial community structure of eutrophic, hyporheic river sediments polluted with chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamonts, K.; Ryngaert, A.; Smidt, H.; Springael, D.; Dejonghe, W.


    Chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) often discharge into rivers as contaminated groundwater baseflow. As biotransformation of CAHs in the impacted river sediments might be an effective remediation strategy, we investigated the determinants of the microbial community structure of eutrophic,

  10. Reactions of chlorine atoms with a series of aromatic hydrocarbons. (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Arey, Janet; Atkinson, Roger


    Aromatic hydrocarbons, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), are present in urban and rural atmospheres. Reactions of PAHs with Cl atoms may occur in the marine boundary layer and in coastal regions. To assess the importance of these reactions and to investigate whether any unique chlorine-containing products are formed from these reactions, we have measured the rate constants for the gas-phase reactions of Cl atoms with toluene-d8, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (1,3,5-TMB), naphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene-d10 (1-MN-d10), 1- and 2-methylnaphthalene (1- and 2-MN), 1- and 2-ethylnaphthalene (1- and 2-EN), and the dimethylnaphthalenes (DMNs) at 296 +/- 2 K. A relative rate technique was used, and, using our measured rate constant forthe reaction of Cl atoms with 1,3,5-TMB of 2.42 x 10(-10) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1), the rate constants (in units of 10(-10) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1)) are as follows: naphthalene, isotope effects for the toluene-d8 and 1-MN-d10 reactions indicate that the reactions proceed by initial H- (or D-) atom abstraction. The products identified and quantified from the toluene and 1-MN reactions using gas chromatography and in situ direct air sampling atmospheric pressure ionization tandem mass spectrometry were benzaldehyde (84% +/- 7% yield) and benzyl alcohol (11% +/- 2% yield) from toluene and 1-naphthaldehyde (approximately 36%, lower limit to yield) and 1-naphthyl alcohol (approximately 12%, lower limit to yield) from 1-MN. These products confirm that H-atom abstraction is the dominant, if not sole, reaction pathway for the alkylbenzenes and alkylnaphthalenes, consistent with the 100-fold lower rate constant measured for naphthalene compared to the alkylnaphthalenes and with the measured deuterium isotope effects.

  11. Biogenic nanopalladium based remediation of chlorinated hydrocarbons in marine environments. (United States)

    Hosseinkhani, Baharak; Hennebel, Tom; Van Nevel, Sam; Verschuere, Stephanie; Yakimov, Michail M; Cappello, Simone; Blaghen, Mohamed; Boon, Nico


    Biogenic catalysts have been studied over the last 10 years in freshwater and soil environments, but neither their formation nor their application has been explored in marine ecosystems. The objective of this study was to develop a biogenic nanopalladium-based remediation method for reducing chlorinated hydrocarbons from marine environments by employing indigenous marine bacteria. Thirty facultative aerobic marine strains were isolated from two contaminated sites, the Lagoon of Mar Chica, Morocco, and Priolo Gargallo Syracuse, Italy. Eight strains showed concurrent palladium precipitation and biohydrogen production. X-ray diffraction and thin section transmission electron microscopy analysis indicated the presence of metallic Pd nanoparticles of various sizes (5-20 nm) formed either in the cytoplasm, in the periplasmic space, or extracellularly. These biogenic catalysts were used to dechlorinate trichloroethylene in simulated marine environments. Complete dehalogenation of 20 mg L(-1) trichloroethylene was achieved within 1 h using 50 mg L(-1) biogenic nanopalladium. These biogenic nanoparticles are promising developments for future marine bioremediation applications.

  12. Microbial and molecular techniques to evaluate and to implement in-situ biodegradation potential and activity at sites contaminated with aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karg, F. [HPC Envirotec / France and HPC AG (Germany); Henkler, Ch. [Planreal (Switzerland)


    (Biochemical Laboratory of the Medical Faculty) the first PBG-SP : 'Pole Biotechnologique et Genetique - Sites Pollues' in France. The modern tools and approaches have been applied successfully at several field sites for the evaluation, implementation and on-going monitoring of the bio-restoration/ attenuation of various aromatic and chlorinated compounds. (authors)

  13. Assimilation of chlorinated alkanes by hydrocarbon-utilizing fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, G.L.; Perry, J.J.


    The fatty acid compositions of two filamentous fungi (Cunninghamella elegans and Penicillium zonatum) and a yeast (Candida lipolytica) were determined after the organisms were grown on 1-chlorohexadecane or 1-chlorooctadecane. These organisms utilized the chlorinated alkanes as sole sources of carbon and energy. Analyses of the fatty acids present after growth on the chlorinated alkanes indicated that 60 to 70% of the total fatty acids in C. elegans were chlorinated. Approximately 50% of the fatty acids in C. lipolytica were also chlorinated. P. zonatum contained 20% 1-chlorohexadecanoic acid after growth on either substrate but did not incorporate C/sub 18/ chlorinated fatty acids.

  14. Heavy metal and chlorinated hydrocarbon residues in California sea loins (Zalophus californianus californianus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buhler, D.R.; Claeys, R.R.; Mate, B.R.


    Samples of various tissues and organs from healthy California sea lions (Zalophus californianus californianus) and sick animals (apparently with leptospirosis) collected along the central Oregon coast in 1970, 1971, and 1973 were analyzed for total mercury, methylmercury, cadmium, and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Maximum mercury concentrations of 74 to 170 ppM occurred in sea lion liver, but only 1.6 to 3.7 percent of this was present as methylmercury. Cadmium was concentrated primarily in the kidney which contained 7.2 to 12.0 ppM of the metal. Chlorinated hydrocarbon residues in sea lion fat ranged between 253 to 475 ppM DDE, and 21.2 and 34.1 ppM PCB. Although mercury, cadmium, and chlorinated hydrocarbon residues in some of the sick sea lions were significantly higher than those present in healthy animals, it is not possible to relate these differences to the onset of leptospirosis.

  15. Reactions of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons with chlorine and chlorine dioxide in coal tar lined pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkel, T.; Maier, M.; Sacher, F.; Maier, D. [University of Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (Germany). Engler Bunte Institut


    In the presence of disinfectants, PAH are remobilised from the coal tar lining of water distribution mains. Reactions of the PAH with chlorine and chlorine dioxide can lead to chlorinated PAH that might show higher mutagenic effects that the parent PAH. Detection limits in the lower nanogram-per-litre level for the determination of PAH and chlorinated PAH were achieved by using solid phase micro extraction and a gas chromatographic mass spectrometric device. Thus, the reactions of four PAH (anthracene, fluoranthene, fluorene and phenanthrene) with chlorine and chlorine dioxide under conditions and at concentrations of common practice in the drinking water distribution system could be investigated. In batch experiments with demineralised and drinking water at pH 7, the concentrations of fluoranthene, fluorene and phenanthrene remained constant, whereas anthracene reacted quantitatively with both disinfectants. The reaction of anthracene followed by pseudo-first order kinetics. In these reactions no chlorinated products could be detected, only monohydroxyanthracene and anthraquinone were identified. The toxic effect of a set of chlorinated and oxidised PAH was also examined.

  16. Kinetics of Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Degradation by Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b and Toxicity of Trichloroethylene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenhuis, Roelof; Oedzes, Johannes Y.; Waarde, Jacob J. van der; Janssen, Dick B.

    The kinetics of the degradation of trichloroethylene (TCE) and seven other chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons by Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b were studied. All experiments were performed with cells grown under copper stress and thus expressing soluble methane monooxygenase. Compounds that were

  17. Application of Pseudomonas sp. strain DCA1 for the removal of chlorinated hydrocarbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hage, J.C.


    The large-scale application of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) has resulted in many cases of groundwater contamination. Contaminated groundwater can be remediated by pump-and-treat: the groundwater is pumped to the surface and treated. The groundwater can be treated in bioreactors, in

  18. Photodegradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons in the presence and absence of dissolved oxygen in water. (United States)

    Shirayama, H; Tohezo, Y; Taguchi, S


    The photodegradation rates of seven chlorinated hydrocarbons; C2Cl4, C2HCl3, C2H4Cl2, 1,1,1-C2H3Cl3, 1,1,2-C2H3Cl3, CHCl3, CCl4 were investigated under the UV bandwidths of 185 and 254 nm in the presence and absence of dissolved oxygen (DO) in water. These hydrocarbons are possible contaminants of groundwater. This study confirms that the degradation rates of all chlorinated hydrocarbons are elevated in the absence of DO. This was especially apparent for chlorinated methane and ethane. Tetrachloroethylene's rate was the highest among the seven hydrocarbons regardless of the DO levels. It was clear that the concentration of intermediate trichloroethylene produced by photodegradation of tetrachloroethylene in the absence of DO was 1/50th of that in the presence of DO. Photodegradation in the presence of DO resulted in the formation of O3 and hydroxyl radicals. Alternatively, the photodegradation in the absence of DO resulted in the formation of organic radicals and a dissociation of the bond. It is discussed that DO acts as an "inner filter" or "scavenger" that reduces the UV light intensity in the photoreactor. Molecular O2 has absorption bands at 185 and 254 nm, the former being stronger. The processes of degradation depend on the degradation rate relative to the presence and absence of DO.

  19. Persistent pollutants: a brief history of the discovery of the widespread toxicity of chlorinated hydrocarbons. (United States)

    Rosner, David; Markowitz, Gerald


    Rachel Carson's Silent Spring is often depicted as the beginning of a broad societal concern about the dangers of DDT and other pesticides. Attention to the other chlorinated hydrocarbons, specifically PCBs, is seen as an outgrowth of the late 1960s environmental movement. Carson's work was clearly critical in broadening the history to include the environmental impact and set the stage for the path breaking work decades later by Theo Colburn and others on endocrine disruptions associated with other synthetic chemicals. This article reviews the development of the understanding the dangers of the chlorinated hydrocarbons in the decades preceding Carson's book. Although little noticed, Rachel Carson makes this observation herself. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of hydrocarbon potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cashman, P.H.; Trexler, J.H. Jr. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)


    Task 8 is responsible for assessing the hydrocarbon potential of the Yucca Mountain vincinity. Our main focus is source rock stratigraphy in the NTS area in southern Nevada. (In addition, Trexler continues to work on a parallel study of source rock stratigraphy in the oil-producing region of east central Nevada, but this work is not funded by Task 8.) As a supplement to the stratigraphic studies, we are studying the geometry and kinematics of deformation at NTS, particularly as these pertain to reconstructing Paleozoic stratigraphy and to predicting the nature of the Late Paleozoic rocks under Yucca Mountain. Our stratigraphic studies continue to support the interpretation that rocks mapped as the {open_quotes}Eleana Formation{close_quotes} are in fact parts of two different Mississippian units. We have made significant progress in determining the basin histories of both units. These place important constraints on regional paleogeographic and tectonic reconstructions. In addition to continued work on the Eleana, we plan to look at the overlying Tippipah Limestone. Preliminary TOC and maturation data indicate that this may be another potential source rock.

  1. Analytical method development using functionalized polysulfone membranes for the determination of chlorinated hydrocarbons in water. (United States)

    Nuhu, Abdulmumin A; Basheer, Chanbasha; Abu-Thabit, Nedal Y; Alhooshani, Khalid; Al-Arfaj, Abdul Rahman


    In this study, functionalized polysulfone membrane has been utilized as a sorbent for the extraction of chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHCs) in water samples. Two different functionalized polysulfones (i) phosphonic acid functionalized polysulfone (PPSU-A) with different forms (cross-linked and non cross-linked) membranes and (ii) phosphonic ester functionalized polysulfone (PPSU-E) with different forms (cross-linked and non cross-linked) were evaluated for the extraction of CHCs in water. A 10 ml of spiked water sample was extracted with 50mg piece of the functionalized membrane. After extraction, the membrane was desorbed by organic solvent and the extract was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Eight CHCs, 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene (1,3,5-TCB), 1,2,3-trichlorobenzene (1,2,3-TCB), 1,1,2,3,4,4-hexachloro-1,3-butadiene (HCBD), 1,2,4-trichloro-3-methylbenzene (TCMB), 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene (1,2,3,4-TeCB), 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene (1,2,4,5-TeCB), pentachlorobenzene (PeCB) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were used as model compounds. Experimental parameters such as extraction time, desorption time, types of polymer membrane as well the nature of desorption solvent were optimized. Using optimum extraction conditions calibration curves were linear with coefficients of determination between 0.9954 and 0.9999 over wide range of concentrations (0.05-100 μgl(-1)). The method detection limits (at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3) were in the range of 0.4-3.9 ng l(-1). The proposed method was evaluated for the determination of CHCs in drinking water samples. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Determination of chlorinated hydrocarbons in water using highly sensitive mid-infrared sensor technology. (United States)

    Lu, Rui; Mizaikoff, Boris; Li, Wen-Wei; Qian, Chen; Katzir, Abraham; Raichlin, Yosef; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Yu, Han-Qing


    Chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons and chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons (CHCs) are toxic and carcinogenic contaminants commonly found in environmental samples, and efficient online detection of these contaminants is still challenging at the present stage. Here, we report an advanced Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) sensor for in-situ and simultaneous detection of multiple CHCs, including monochlorobenzene, 1,2-dichlorobenzene, 1,3-dichlorobenzene, trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, and chloroform. The polycrystalline silver halide sensor fiber had a unique integrated planar-cylindric geometry, and was coated with an ethylene/propylene copolymer membrane to act as a solid phase extractor, which greatly amplified the analytical signal and contributed to a higher detection sensitivity compared to the previously reported sensors. This system exhibited a high detection sensitivity towards the CHCs mixture at a wide concentration range of 5~700 ppb. The FTIR-ATR sensor described in this study has a high potential to be utilized as a trace-sensitive on-line device for water contamination monitoring.

  3. A biogeochemical transport model to simulate the attenuation of chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminant fluxes across the groundwater-surface water interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malaguerra, Flavio; Binning, Philip John; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen


    Chlorinated hydrocarbons originating from point sources are amongst the most prevalent contaminants of ground water and surface water resources. Riparian zones may play an important role in the attenuation of contaminant concentrations when contaminant plumes flow from groundwater to surface water...... because of the occurrence of redox gradients, strongly reductive conditions and high biological activity. In order to meet the expectations of the EU Water Framework Directive, an evaluation of the impact of such plumes on surface water is needed. The aim of this work is to develop a groundwater transport...... number of geochemical processes, allows the simulation of soil geochemical transformations when microbial by-products are released to surface water, and the consideration of non-linear feedbacks on bacterial growth and pollutant transformations. Sensitivity analysis is performed through Monte Carlo...

  4. Evidence for Perchlorates and the Origin of Chlorinated Hydrocarbons Detected by SAM at the Rocknest Aeolian Deposit in Gale Crater (United States)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Freissinet, Caroline; Miller, Kristen E.; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Brunner, Anna E.; Buch, Arnaud; Sutter, Brad; Archer, P. Douglas, Jr.; Atreya, Sushil K.; Brinckerhoff, William B.; hide


    A single scoop of the Rocknest aeolian deposit was sieved (less than 150 micrometers), and four separate sample portions, each with a mass of approximately 50 mg, were delivered to individual cups inside the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument by the Mars Science Laboratory rover's sample acquisition system. The samples were analyzed separately by the SAM pyrolysis evolved gas and gas chromatograph mass spectrometer analysis modes. Several chlorinated hydrocarbons including chloromethane, dichloromethane, trichloromethane, a chloromethylpropene, and chlorobenzene were identified by SAM above background levels with abundances of approximately 0.01 to 2.3 nmol. The evolution of the chloromethanes observed during pyrolysis is coincident with the increase in O2 released from the Rocknest sample and the decomposition of a product of N-methyl-N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA), a chemical whose vapors were released from a derivatization cup inside SAM. The best candidate for the oxychlorine compounds in Rocknest is a hydrated calcium perchlorate (Ca(ClO4)2·nH2O), based on the temperature release of O2 that correlates with the release of the chlorinated hydrocarbons measured by SAM, although other chlorine-bearing phases are being considered. Laboratory analog experiments suggest that the reaction of Martian chlorine from perchlorate decomposition with terrestrial organic carbon from MTBSTFA during pyrolysis can explain the presence of three chloromethanes and a chloromethylpropene detected by SAM. Chlorobenzene may be attributed to reactions of Martian chlorine released during pyrolysis with terrestrial benzene or toluene derived from 2,6-diphenylphenylene oxide (Tenax) on the SAM hydrocarbon trap. At this time we do not have definitive evidence to support a nonterrestrial carbon source for these chlorinated hydrocarbons, nor do we exclude the possibility that future SAM analyses will reveal the presence of organic compounds native to the

  5. Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Degradation in Plants: Mechanisms and Enhancement of Phytoremediation of Groundwater Contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, Stuart E.


    Several varieties of transgenic poplar containing cytochrome P-450 2E1 have been constructed and are undergoing tests. Strategies for improving public acceptance and safety of transgenic poplar for chlorinated hydrocarbon phytoremediation are being developed. We have discovered a unique rhizobium species that lives within the stems of poplar and we are investigating whether this bacterium contributes nitrogen fixed from the air to the plant and whether this endophyte could be used to introduce genes into poplar. Studies of the production of chloride ion from TCE have shown that our present P-450 constructs did not produce chloride more rapidly than wild type plants. Follow-up studies will determine if there are other rate limiting downstream steps in TCE metabolism in plants. Studies of the metabolism of carbon tetrachloride in poplar cells have provided evidence that the native plant metabolism is due to the activity of oxidative enzymes similar to the mammalian cytochrome P-450 2E1.

  6. Role of temperature and hydrochloric acid on the formation of chlorinated hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during combustion of paraffin powder, polymers, and newspaper. (United States)

    Takasuga, Takumi; Umetsu, Norihito; Makino, Tetsuya; Tsubota, Katsuya; Sajwan, Kenneth S; Kumar, Kurunthachalam Senthil


    Formation of chlorinated hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined using a laboratory-scale incinerator when combusting materials at different temperatures, different concentrations of hydrochloric acid (HCl), and when combusting various types of polymers/newspaper. Polychlorobenzenes (PCBz), polychlorophenols (PCPhs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) and their toxic equivalency (TEQ) and PAHs were highlighted and reported. Our results imply maximum formation of chlorinated hydrocarbons at 400 degrees C in the following order; PCBz>or=PCPhs>PCDFs>PCDDs>TEQ on a parts-per-billion level. Similarly, a maximum concentration of chlorinated hydrocarbons was noticed with an HCl concentration at 1000 ppm with the presence of paraffin powder in the following order; PAHs>PCBz>or=PCPhs>PCDFs>PCDDs>TEQ an a parts-per-billion level. PAHs were not measured at different temperatures. Elevated PAHs were noticed with different HCl concentrations and paraffin powder combustion (range: 27-32 microg/g). While, different polymers and newspaper combusted, nylon and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) produced the maximum hydrogen cyanide (HCN) concentration, concentrations of PCDD/FS, dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs), and TEQ were in a decreasing order: polyvinylchloride (PVC)ABS = blank. Precursors of PCBs were in a decreasing order: PPABSABSABSABS< PET

  7. Volatile Short-chain Chlorinated Hydrocarbons in the Groundwater of the City of Zagreb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijanović-Rajčić, M.


    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the quality of the groundwater sampled from private wells and the public water-supply system in terms of estimating the contamination caused by short-chain chlorinated hydrocarbons, as well as to estimate the exposure of the citizens dwelling in different suburbs to these pollutants of their drinking water (Fig. 1. The aim of the study was also to determine which suburb is supplied through the public water-supply system with water originating from the Sašnak spring that is contaminated with volatile chlorinated short-chain hydrocarbons.Drinking water samples were taken from 3 private wells and 1 public water-supply system situated in 3 Zagreb suburbs - Pešćenica, Trnje, and Trešnjevka. The sampling was carried out during 2003 and was undertaken on a seasonal basis. Short-chain chlorinated hydrocarbons - 1,1,1-trichloroethane, carbon tetrachloride, 1,1,2-trichloroethene and 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethene - were determined by gas chromatography, following "liquid-liquid extraction" in pentane. For that purpose, we applied the gas chromatograph equipped with an electron-capture detector, thermo-programmable operations, and a suitable capillary column. The technique applied was that of split-injection.The groundwater of the City of Zagreb was found to be contaminated with volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons. The concentration level of 1,1,1-trichloroethane, determined in most of the samples, was found to be low (Fig. 2. On the other hand, 1,1,2-trichloroethene was present in all samples in concentrations of about 1 µg l-1- (Fig. 3. Only the drinking water samples taken from private wells in the suburb of Trnje contained somewhat higher mass concentrations of 1,1,1-trichloroethane, with the peak value of 19.03 µg l-1, measured in the winter season. In the samples taken from private wells in Trnje, the mass concentrations of 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethene rangedfrom 15.30 µg l-1 to 18.65 µg l-1, as measured in autumn

  8. Chlorine (United States)

    ... phosphorus List by Category Chemical-Specific Fact Sheets Toxicology FAQs Case Definitions Toxic Syndrome Descriptions Toxicological Profiles ... cloth, but it is also used to make pesticides (insect killers), rubber, and solvents. Chlorine is used ...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vangelas, K; Brian02 Looney, B; Michael J. Truex; Charles J. Newell


    Over the past three decades, much progress has been made in the remediation of chlorinated solvents from the subsurface. Yet these pervasive contaminants continue to present a significant challenge to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), other federal agencies, and other public and private organizations. The physical and chemical properties of chlorinated solvents make it difficult to rapidly reach the low concentrations typically set as regulatory limits. These technical challenges often result in high costs and long remediation time frames. In 2003, the DOE through the Office of Environmental Management funded a science-based technical project that uses the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's technical protocol (EPA, 1998) and directives (EPA, 1999) on Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) as the foundation on which to introduce supporting concepts and new scientific developments that will support remediation of chlorinated solvents based on natural attenuation processes. This project supports the direction in which many site owners want to move to complete the remediation of their site(s), that being to complete the active treatment portion of the remedial effort and transition into MNA. The overarching objective of the effort was to examine environmental remedies that are based on natural processes--remedies such as Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) or Enhanced Attenuation (EA). The research program did identify several specific opportunities for advances based on: (1) mass balance as the central framework for attenuation based remedies, (2) scientific advancements and achievements during the past ten years, (3) regulatory and policy development and real-world experience using MNA, and (4) exploration of various ideas for integrating attenuation remedies into a systematic set of ''combined remedies'' for contaminated sites. These opportunities are summarized herein and are addressed in more detail in referenced project documents and

  10. Monitoring of Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Pollution of Meat and Fish in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Vukušić


    Full Text Available Four hundred and sixty-six fatty tissue samples of beef, pork, poultry and fish were assayed by the gas and liquid chromatography between 1992 and 1996 for chlorinated hydrocarbons: hexachlorobenzene (HCB, α-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH, γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (lindane, DDT and metabolites, and total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs. Samples were divided into two groups, meat and fish imported to Croatia, and meat from Croatian farms and fish from the Adriatic Sea. In domestic meat, the levels of pollution with the compounds studied were considerably lower than in imported meats. The differences were most noticeable in lindane and DDT levels in beef, and those of DDT in pork. The average level of lindane in domestic and imported beef was 0.004 and 0.020 mg/kg, respectively. Domestic beef contained on the average 0.013 mg/kg and the imported beef 0.059 mg/kg DDT, respectively. While the average amount of DDT in local pork was 0.014 mg/kg, the average for imported pork was 0.041 mg/kg. Poultry lindane also showed significant differences, an average of 0.012 mg/kg in domestic and 0.034 mg/kg in imported poultry. HCB and α-HCH displayed a statistically significant difference in beef. There was an average level of 0.001 mg/kg of HCB and 0.001 mg/kg of α-HCH. However, imported beef had an average of 0.004 mg/kg of HCB and 0.002 mg/kg of α-HCH. A significant difference was also found in HCB content in poultry; domestic and imported poultry contained an average of 0.001 and 0.003 mg/kg, respectively. As regards the pollution of fish with polychlorinated biphenyls, this was considerably higher in the fish of domestic origin (average of 0.046 mg/kg than in imported fish (average level of 0.006 mg/kg. Conversely, in both sample groups the pollution of fish with chlorinated pesticides was similar. Compared with meat and fish of the same origin and standing that were analyzed by our laboratory 10 years ago, the pollution of domestic meat and fish with

  11. Chlorine (United States)

    Young, Jay A.


    A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) of the chemical chlorine, produced in small quantities in the laboratory, is presented. The profile summarizes physical and harmful properties, exposure limits, reactivity risks, and symptoms of major exposure for the benefit of teachers and students using the chemical in the laboratory.

  12. Microbial diversity in a hydrocarbon- and chlorinated-solvent- contaminated aquifer undergoing intrinsic bioremediation (United States)

    Dojka, M.A.; Hugenholtz, P.; Haack, S.K.; Pace, N.R.


    A culture-independent molecular phylogenetic approach was used to survey constituents of microbial communities associated with an aquifer contaminated with hydrocarbons (mainly jet fuel) and chlorinated solvents undergoing intrinsic bioremediation. Samples were obtained from three redox zones: methanogenic, methanogenic-sulfate reducing, and iron or sulfate reducing. Small-subunit rRNA genes were amplified directly from aquifer material DNA by PCR with universally conserved or Bacteria- or Archaea-specific primers and were cloned. A total of 812 clones were screened by restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP), approximately 50% of which were unique. All RFLP types that occurred more than once in the libraries, as well as many of the unique types, were sequenced. A total of 104 (94 bacterial and 10 archaeal) sequence types were determined. Of the 94 bacterial sequence types, 10 have no phylogenetic association with known taxonomic divisions and are phylogenetically grouped in six novel division level groups (candidate divisions WS1 to WS6); 21 belong to four recently described candidate divisions with no cultivated representatives (OPS, OP8, OP10, and OP11); and 63 are phylogenetically associated with 10 well-recognized divisions. The physiology of two particularly abundant sequence types obtained from the methanogenic zone could be inferred from their phylogenetic association with groups of microorganisms with a consistent phenotype. One of these sequence types is associated with the genus Syntrophus; Syntrophus spp. produce energy from the anaerobic oxidation of organic acids, with the production of acetate and hydrogen. The organism represented by the other sequence type is closely related to Methanosaeta spp., which are known to be capable of energy generation only through aceticlastic methanogenesis. We hypothesize, therefore, that the terminal step of hydrocarbon degradation in the methanogenic zone of the aquifer is aceticlastic methanogenesis and

  13. Natural attenuation of chlorinated-hydrocarbon contamination at Fort Wainwright, Alaska; a hydrogeochemical and microbiological investigation workplan (United States)

    McCarthy, Kathleen A.; Lilly, Michael R.; Braddock, Joan F.; Hinzman, Larry D.


    Natural attenuation processes include biological degradation, by which microorganisms break down contaminants into simpler product compounds; adsorption of contaminants to soil particles, which decreases the mass of contaminants dissolved in ground water; and dispersion, which decreases dissolved contaminant concentrations through dilution. The primary objectives of this study are to (1) assess the degree to which such natural processes are attenuating chlorinated-hydrocarbon contamination in ground water, and (2) evaluate the effects of ground-water/surface-water interactions on natural-attenuation processes in the area of the former East and West Quartermasters Fueling Systems for Fort Wainwright, Alaska. The study will include investigations of the hydrologic, geochemical, and microbiological processes occurring at this site that influence the transport and fate of chlorinated hydrocarbons in ground water. To accomplish these objectives, a data-collection program has been initiated that includes measurements of water-table elevations and the stage of the Chena River; measurements of vertical temperature profiles within the subsurface; characterization of moisture distribution and movement in the unsaturated zone; collection of ground-water samples for determination of both organic and inorganic chemical constituents; and collection of ground-water samples for enumeration of microorganisms and determination of their potential to mineralize contaminants. We will use results from the data-collection program described above to refine our conceptual model of hydrology and contaminant attenuation at this site. Measurements of water-table elevations and river stage will help us to understand the magnitude and direction of ground-water flow and how changes in the stage of the Chena River affect ground-water flow. Because ambient ground water and surface water typically have different temperature characteristics, temperature monitoring will likely provide further insight

  14. Microbiota associated with the migration and transformation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons in groundwater. (United States)

    Guan, Xiangyu; Liu, Fei; Xie, Yuxuan; Zhu, Lingling; Han, Bin


    Pollution of groundwater with chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) is a serious environmental problem which is threatening human health. Microorganisms are the major participants in degrading these contaminants. Here, groundwater contaminated for a decade with CAHs was investigated. Numerical simulation and field measurements were used to track and forecast the migration and transformation of the pollutants. The diversity, abundance, and possible activity of groundwater microbial communities at CAH-polluted sites were characterized by molecular approaches. The number of microorganisms was between 5.65E+05 and 1.49E+08 16S rRNA gene clone numbers per liter according to quantitative real-time PCR analysis. In 16S rRNA gene clone libraries constructed from samples along the groundwater flow, eight phyla were detected, and Proteobacteria were dominant (72.8 %). The microbial communities varied with the composition and concentration of pollutants. Meanwhile, toluene monooxygenases and methane monooxygenases capable of degradation of PCE and TCE were detected, demonstrating the major mechanism for PCE and TCE degradation and possibility for in situ remediation by addition of oxygen in this study.

  15. Speciation of volatile aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons in an urban atmosphere using TCT-GC/MS. (United States)

    Baroja, O; Rodríguez, E; de Balugera, Z Gomez; Goicolea, A; Unceta, N; Sampedro, C; Alonso, A; Barrio, R J


    Several aromatic and chlorinated volatile hydrocarbons (VOCs) were measured in Vitoria-Gasteiz City (Spain) throughout the years 1999 and 2002 in order to find out the concentration of these pollutants in urban air. These VOCs were retained in Tenax TA, subsequently desorpted by using a thermal desorption cold trap injector (TCT), and thereafter analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). This analytical methodology permits the determination of 42 VOCs at very low concentrations, although only 32 of them were found in the urban air of the city (ranging from 205.51 to 0.01 microg m(-3)), with high reproducibility (%RSD lower than 10%). Twenty-four-hour samples were taken each sampling day to ascertain their total daily concentration, and rigorous quality controls were carried out to check the representativeness of sampling. Results of this exhaustive study show that toluene (T), xylenes (X), ethylbenzene (E), and benzene (B) were, respectively, the most abundant of these VOCs in the urban area during that period. The total concentration of BTEX represented, on average, more than 72.6% of the VOC total concentration, with the highest concentrations being reached in autumn, except for benzene and derived compounds (in winter). Benzene was the minority BTEX pollutant, its yearly mean concentration being less than the maximum established by the European Directive 2000/69/CE (5 microg m(-3)).

  16. Alterations of phytoplankton assemblages treated with chlorinated hydrocarbons: effects of dominant species sensitivity and initial diversity. (United States)

    Bácsi, István; Gonda, Sándor; B-Béres, Viktória; Novák, Zoltán; Nagy, Sándor Alex; Vasas, Gábor


    Changes in composition of phytoplankton assemblages due to short-chained chlorinated hydrocarbons (tetrachloroethane, tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene) were studied in microcosm experiments with different initial diversities. Diversity decreased further during treatments in the less diverse 2011 summer assemblages, dominated by the euglenid Trachelomonas volvocinopsis (its relative abundance was nearly 70 %). Diversity did not change significantly during treatments in the more diverse 2012 summer assemblages, dominated by cryptomonads (their relative abundance was 40 %). The dominant Trachelomonas volvocinopsis in 2011, due to its insensitivity to the treatment and presumably high competition skills, filled released habitats occurring when sensitive species were not detectable any more. In contrast, cryptomonads were extremely sensitive to the treatments, their abundance decreased under detection limit in the treated assemblages, regardless of diversity conditions. Our results showed that population dynamics of dominant species determine the response to the contamination of the entire community, if these species display high resistance or resilience. If the dominant species was highly sensitive and recovered slowly, compensatory growth of rare species maintained high levels of ecosystem performance.

  17. Source apportionment of chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons associated with ambient particles in a Japanese megacity (United States)

    Kamiya, Yuta; Iijima, Akihiro; Ikemori, Fumikazu; Okuda, Tomoaki; Ohura, Takeshi


    Chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (ClPAHs) are novel species of environmental contaminants whose possible sources remain unclear. The occurrence of ClPAHs within total suspended particles (TSP) is compared with weekly air samples at two sites of differing characteristics (industrial and residential) in the megacity of Nagoya, Japan. Samples were collected over 12 months during 2011-2012. All 24 species of targeted ClPAHs were detected at both industrial and residential sites, where mean concentrations of total ClPAHs in TSP were 20.7 and 14.1 pg/m3, respectively. High concentrations at the industrial site were frequently observed during winter, suggesting potent seasonal ClPAH sources there. Positive matrix factorization modeling of particulate ClPAH source identification and apportioning were conducted for datasets including ClPAHs, PAHs, elements and ions, plus elemental carbons in TSP. Eight factors were identified as possible ClPAH sources, with estimates that the dominant one was a specific source of ClPAH emission (31%), followed by traffic (23%), photodegradable and semi-volatile species (18%), long-range transport (11%), and industry and oil combustion (10%). Source contributions of ClPAHs differed substantially from those of PAHs. This suggests specific and/or potent ClPAH sources in the local area, and that the production mechanisms between ClPAHs and PAHs are substantially different.

  18. Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Degradation in Plants: Mechanisms and Enhancement of Phytoremediation of Groundwater Contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart Strand


    The research objectives for this report are: (1) Transform poplar and other tree species to extend and optimize chlorinated hydrocarbon (CHC) oxidative activities. (2) Determine the mechanisms of CHC oxidation in plants. (3) Isolate the genes responsible for CHC oxidation in plants. We have made significant progress toward an understanding of the biochemical mechanism of CHC transformation native to wild-type poplar. We have identified chloral, trichloroethanol, trichloroacetic acid, and dichloroacetic acid as products of TCE metabolism in poplar plants and in tissue cultures of poplar cells.(Newman et al. 1997; Newman et al. 1999) Use of radioactively labeled TCE showed that once taken up and transformed, most of the TCE was incorporated into plant tissue as a non-volatile, unextractable residue.(Shang et al. 2001; Shang and Gordon 2002) An assay for this transformation was developed and validated using TCE transformation by poplar suspension cells. Using this assay, it was shown that two different activities contribute to the fixation of TCE by poplar cells: one associated with cell walls and insoluble residues, the other associated with a high molecular weight, heat labile fraction of the cell extract, a fixation that was apparently catalyzed by plant enzymes.

  19. Chlorine hazard evaluation for the zinc-chlorine electric vehicle battery. Final technical report. [50 kWh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalosh, R. G.; Bajpai, S. N.; Short, T. P.; Tsui, R. K.


    Hazards associated with conceivable accidental chlorine releases from zinc-chlorine electric vehicle batteries are evaluated. Since commercial batteries are not yet available, this hazard assessment is based on both theoretical chlorine dispersion models and small-scale and large-scale spill tests with chlorine hydrate (which is the form of chlorine storage in the charged battery). Six spill tests involving the chlorine hydrate equivalent of a 50-kWh battery indicate that the danger zone in which chlorine vapor concentrations intermittently exceed 100 ppM extends at least 23 m directly downwind of a spill onto a warm (30 to 38/sup 0/C) road surface. Other accidental chlorine release scenarios may also cause some distress, but are not expected to produce the type of life-threatening chlorine exposures that can result from large hydrate spills. Chlorine concentration data from the hydrate spill tests compare favorably with calculations based on a quasi-steady area source dispersion model and empirical estimates of the hydrate decomposition rate. The theoretical dispersion model was combined with assumed hydrate spill probabilities and current motor vehicle accident statistics in order to project expected chlorine-induced fatality rates. These calculations indicate that expected chlorine fataility rates are several times higher in a city such as Los Angeles with a warm and calm climate than in a colder and windier city such as Boston. Calculated chlorine-induced fatality rate projections for various climates are presented as a function of hydrate spill probability in order to illustrate the degree of vehicle/battery crashworthiness required to maintain chlorine-induced fatality rates below current vehicle fatality rates due to fires and asphyxiations. 37 figures, 19 tables.

  20. Scenarios Evaluation Tool for Chlorinated Solvent MNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vangelas, Karen; Michael J. Truex; Charles J. Newell; Brian Looney


    Over the past three decades, much progress has been made in the remediation of chlorinated solvents from the subsurface. Yet these pervasive contaminants continue to present a significant challenge to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), other federal agencies, and other public and private organizations. The physical and chemical properties of chlorinated solvents make it difficult to rapidly reach the low concentrations typically set as regulatory limits. These technical challenges often result in high costs and long remediation time frames. In 2003, the DOE through the Office of Environmental Management funded a science-based technical project that uses the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's technical protocol (EPA, 1998) and directives (EPA, 1999) on Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) as the foundation on which to introduce supporting concepts and new scientific developments that will support remediation of chlorinated solvents based on natural attenuation processes. This project supports the direction in which many site owners want to move to complete the remediation of their site(s), that being to complete the active treatment portion of the remedial effort and transition into MNA. The overarching objective of the effort was to examine environmental remedies that are based on natural processes--remedies such as Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) or Enhanced Attenuation (EA). The research program did identify several specific opportunities for advances based on: (1) mass balance as the central framework for attenuation based remedies, (2) scientific advancements and achievements during the past ten years, (3) regulatory and policy development and real-world experience using MNA, and (4) exploration of various ideas for integrating attenuation remedies into a systematic set of ''combined remedies'' for contaminated sites. These opportunities are summarized herein and are addressed in more detail in referenced project documents and

  1. Concentrations of chlorinated hydrocarbons and trace elements in marine mammal tissues archived in the U.S. National Biomonitoring Specimen Bank. (United States)

    Becker, P R; Mackey, E A; Demiralp, R; Schantz, M M; Koster, B J; Wise, S A


    The U.S. National Biomonitoring Specimen Bank (NBSB) provides for the long term storage of well documented and preserved specimens representing several types of environmental matrices. A major part of this inventory consists of marine mammal tissues (e.g., blubber, liver, kidney, and muscle). Within the NBSB selected specimens are periodically analyzed for chlorinated hydrocarbons and trace elements. Although only 20% of the 560 marine mammal specimens in the NBSB have been analyzed, the database is of value in evaluating the stability of analytes and sample degradation during storage, for comparing with results from samples collected in the future for long-term monitoring, and for comparing with analytical results from other laboratories on samples collected at the same time for monitoring purposes. The NBSB analytical database contains results for 37 elements, many of which are not analyzed routinely by conventional analytical techniques used in monitoring programs, and the following organic compounds: selected PCB congeners. DDT compounds, alpha- and gamma-HCH, HCB, heptachlor epoxide, oxychlordane, cis-chlordane, trans-chlordane, cis-nonachlor, trans-nonachlor, and dieldrin in 9 marine mammal species: northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus), ringed seal (Phoca hispida), spotted seal (P. largha), bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus), pilot whale (Globicephala melas), harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus), beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas), and bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus). Analyses of beluga whale blubber for toxaphene and additional chlorinated hydrocarbons are obtained through collaboration with the Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada.

  2. Site-specific probabilistic ecological risk assessment of a volatile chlorinated hydrocarbon-contaminated tidal estuary. (United States)

    Hunt, James; Birch, Gavin; Warne, Michael St J


    Groundwater contaminated with volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons (VCHs) was identified as discharging to Penrhyn Estuary, an intertidal embayment of Botany Bay, New South Wales, Australia. A screening-level hazard assessment of surface water in Penrhyn Estuary identified an unacceptable hazard to marine organisms posed by VCHs. Given the limitations of hazard assessments, the present study conducted a higher-tier, quantitative probabilistic risk assessment using the joint probability curve (JPC) method that accounted for variability in exposure and toxicity profiles to quantify risk (delta). Risk was assessed for 24 scenarios, including four areas of the estuary based on three exposure scenarios (low tide, high tide, and both low and high tides) and two toxicity scenarios (chronic no-observed-effect concentrations [NOEC] and 50% effect concentrations [EC50]). Risk (delta) was greater at low tide than at high tide and varied throughout the tidal cycle. Spatial distributions of risk in the estuary were similar using both NOEC and EC50 data. The exposure scenario including data combined from both tides was considered the most accurate representation of the ecological risk in the estuary. When assessing risk using data across both tides, the greatest risk was identified in the Springvale tributary (delta=25%)-closest to the source area-followed by the inner estuary (delta=4%) and the Floodvale tributary (delta=2%), with the lowest risk in the outer estuary (delta=0.1%), farthest from the source area. Going from the screening level ecological risk assessment (ERA) to the probabilistic ERA changed the risk from unacceptable to acceptable in 50% of exposure scenarios in two of the four areas within the estuary. The probabilistic ERA provided a more realistic assessment of risk than the screening-level hazard assessment. Copyright (c) 2010 SETAC.

  3. Assessment of the chlorinated hydrocarbons residues contamination in edible mushrooms from the North-Eastern part of Poland. (United States)

    Gałgowska, Michalina; Pietrzak-Fiećko, Renata; Felkner-Poźniakowska, Barbara


    The aim of the study was to determine the content of chlorinated hydrocarbon residues in edible mushrooms from the north-eastern part of Poland. Material consisted of two species of fungi: Xerocomus mushrooms (Xerocomus badius), Boletus mushrooms (Boletus edulis). The dried samples (cups and cut-up material) were extracted with Soxhlet method in order to obtain lipid substances. In the fat chlorinated hydrocarbons were determined by Ludwicki et al. (1996) method. The separation and quantitative determination of DDT, DDE, DDD and γ-HCH were conducted with the method of gas chromatography using an electron capture detector - ECD. In all tested samples the presence of γ-HCH, DDT and its metabolites (DDE, DDD) was detected. The higher content of γ-HCH was found in Xerocomus mushrooms (average 0.125 μg/kg of mushrooms); in the Boletus mushrooms -0.11 μg/kg of mushrooms. The content of ΣDDT in cups of Xerocomus mushrooms was more than 2-fold higher than in those of Boletus mushrooms (3.78:1.71 mg/kg of mushrooms). The opposite relationship was observed for cut-up material. The higher concentration of ΣDDT was found in Boletus mushrooms (2.26 mg/kg of mushrooms) while in Xerocomus mushrooms this content was 0.91 mg/kg of mushrooms. Despite the fact that chlorinated hydrocarbons were determined in all samples under study, their contents do not exceed acceptable levels indicating that the consumption of mushrooms does not pose a health risk to consumers from the organochlorine compounds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Preliminary evaluation of a water soluble chlorin photosensitizer (United States)

    Zou, Jian; Huang, Qiuyan; Li, Weijun; Zou, Shulin; Han, Zhen; Huang, Zheng


    Some of the key optical properties of a new water soluble chlorine (YLG-1) were evaluated. The sensitizer has a strong absorption at 398 nm and 655 nm in DMSO. A strong red fluorescence is detected under the excitation of 398 nm. The fluorescence life time is approximately 5 ns and fluorescence quantum yield 20%. The sensitizer does not accumulate in normal skin after topical use or IV injection. Preliminary in vivo results suggest that this novel chlorine causes little cutaneous phototoxicity. Its potentials in photodynamic therapy (PDT) deserve further study.

  5. Structures and Nuclear Quadrupole Coupling Tensors of a Series of Chlorine-Containing Hydrocarbons (United States)

    Dikkumbura, Asela S.; Webster, Erica R.; Dorris, Rachel E.; Peebles, Rebecca A.; Peebles, Sean A.; Seifert, Nathan A.; Pate, Brooks


    Rotational spectra for gauche-1,2-dichloroethane (12DCE), gauche-1-chloro-2-fluoroethane (1C2FE) and both anti- and gauche-2,3-dichloropropene (23DCP) have been observed using chirped-pulse Fourier-transform microwave (FTMW) spectroscopy in the 6-18 GHz region. Although the anti conformers for all three species are predicted to be more stable than the gauche forms, they are nonpolar (12DCE) or nearly nonpolar (predicted dipole components for anti-1C2FE: μ_a = 0.11 D, μ_b = 0.02 D and for anti-23DCP: μ_a = 0.25 D, μ_b = 0.02 D); nevertheless, it was also possible to observe and assign the spectrum of anti-23DCP. Assignments of parent spectra and 37Cl and 13C substituted isotopologues utilized predictions at the MP2/6-311++G(2d,2p) level and Pickett's SPCAT/SPFIT programs. For the weak anti-23DCP spectra, additional measurements also utilized a resonant-cavity FTMW spectrometer. Full chlorine nuclear quadrupole coupling tensors for gauche-12DCE and both anti- and gauche-23DCP have been diagonalized to allow comparison of coupling constants. Kraitchman's equations were used to determine r_s coordinates of isotopically substituted atoms and r_0 structures were also deduced for gauche conformers of 12DCE and 1C2FE. Structural details and chlorine nuclear quadrupole coupling constants of all three molecules will be compared, and effects of differing halogen substitution and carbon chain length on molecular properties will be evaluated.

  6. Accidental chlorine gas intoxication: evaluation of 39 patients. (United States)

    Sever, Mustafa; Mordeniz, Cengiz; Sever, Fidan; Dokur, Mehmet


    Chlorine is a known pulmonary irritant gas that may cause acute damage in the respiratory system. In this paper, the socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of 39 accidentally exposed patients to chlorine gas are reported and different emergency treatment modalities are also discussed. Two emergency departments applications were retrospectively analyzed for evaluation of accidental chlorine gas exposure for year 2007. Patients were classified into 3 groups according to severity of clinical and laboratory findings based on the literature and duration of land of stay in the emergency department. The first group was slightly exposed (discharged within 6 hours), second group moderately exposed (treated and observed for 24 hours), and third group was severely exposed (hospitalized). Most of the patients were initially treated with a combination of humidified oxygen, corticosteroids, and bronchodilators. The average age was 17.03 ± 16.01 years (95% CI). Seven (17.9%) of them were female and 29 (74.4%) were children. Twenty-four patients (61.5%) were included in the first, nine (23.1%) were in second and six (15.4%) were in the third group. The presenting symptoms were cough, nausea, and vomiting and conjunctiva hyperemia for the first group, first groups symptoms plus dyspnea for the second group. Second groups symptoms plus palpitation, weakness and chest tightness were for the third group. Cough and dyspnea were seen in 64.1% and 30.8% of the patients respectively. No patients died. The authors recommend that non symptomatic or slightly exposed patients do not need any specific treatment or symptomatic treatment is sufficient. Accidental; Chlorine exposure; Chlorine gas; Chlorine intoxication; Emergency department.

  7. Reproductive and morphological condition of wild mink (Mustela vison) and river otters (Lutra canadensis) in relation to chlorinated hydrocarbon contamination. (United States)

    Harding, L E; Harris, M L; Stephen, C R; Elliott, J E


    We assessed chlorinated hydrocarbon contamination of mink and river otters on the Columbia and Fraser River systems of northwestern North America, in relation to morphological measures of condition. We obtained carcasses of mink and river otters from commercial trappers during the winters 1994-1995 and 1995-1996. Necropsies included evaluation of the following biological parameters: sex, body mass and length, age, thymus, heart, liver, lung, spleen, pancreas, kidney, gonad, omentum, adrenal gland and baculum masses, baculum length, and stomach contents. Livers were analyzed, individually or in pools, for residues of organochlorine (OC) pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzo-p-dioxins, and dibenzofurans. Contaminant levels were relatively low compared to those documented in other North American populations, although they ranged higher than those detected during an earlier survey (1990-1992) of these regional populations. Body condition varied slightly among collection regions, but showed no relationship with contaminant burden. Mink from the upper Fraser River had less fat stores and also had some of the lowest OC contamination levels observed. Similarly, a few individuals with enlarged livers and kidneys had low contaminant levels. Although a few individual animals with gross abnormalities of reproductive systems did not show high levels of contamination, there was a significant negative correlation between total PCB concentrations (as Aroclor 1260) and baculum length in juvenile mink (r = 0.707; p = 0.033; n = 8). The association of juvenile baculum length with eventual reproductive success is unknown, but further characterization of reproductive organ morphology and relationship to contaminants should be undertaken in a larger subset of these populations. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9924010

  8. Evaluating chlorine isotope effects from isotope ratios and mass spectra of polychlorinated molecules. (United States)

    Elsner, Martin; Hunkeler, Daniel


    Compound-specific chlorine isotope analysis receives much interest to assess the fate of chlorinated hydrocarbons in contaminated environments. This paper provides a theoretical basis to calculate isotope ratios and quantify isotope fractionation from ion-current ratios of molecular- and fragment-ion multiplets. Because both (35)Cl and (37)Cl are of high abundance, polychlorinated hydrocarbons consist of molecules containing different numbers of (37)Cl denoted as isotopologues. We show that, during reactions, the changes in isotopologue ratios are proportional to changes in the isotope ratio assuming a nonselective isotope distribution in the initial compound. This proportionality extents even to fragments formed in the ion source of a mass spectrometer such as C 2Cl 2 (double dechlorinated fragment of perchloroethylene, PCE). Fractionation factors and kinetic isotope effects (KIE) may, therefore, be evaluated from isotope, isotopologue or even fragment ratios according to conventional simple equations. The proportionality is exact with symmetric molecules such as dichloroethylene (DCE) and PCE, whereas it is approximately true with molecules containing nonreactive positions such as trichloroethylene (TCE). If in the latter case isotope ratios are derived from dechlorinated fragments, e.g., C 2HCl 2, it is important that fragmentation in the ion source affect all molecular positions alike, as otherwise isotopic changes in reactive positions may be underrepresented.


    The paper discusses simulation of the performance of chlorine-free fluorinated ethers and fluorinated hydrocarbons as potential long-term replacements for CFC-11 and -114. Modeling has been done with in-house refrigeration models based on the Carnahan-Starling-DeSantis Equation o...

  10. Efficacy and Safety Evaluation of a Chlorine Dioxide Solution. (United States)

    Ma, Jui-Wen; Huang, Bin-Syuan; Hsu, Chu-Wei; Peng, Chun-Wei; Cheng, Ming-Long; Kao, Jung-Yie; Way, Tzong-Der; Yin, Hao-Chang; Wang, Shan-Shue


    In this study, a chlorine dioxide solution (UC-1) composed of chlorine dioxide was produced using an electrolytic method and subsequently purified using a membrane. UC-1 was determined to contain 2000 ppm of gaseous chlorine dioxide in water. The efficacy and safety of UC-1 were evaluated. The antimicrobial activity was more than 98.2% reduction when UC-1 concentrations were 5 and 20 ppm for bacteria and fungi, respectively. The half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of H1N1, influenza virus B/TW/71718/04, and EV71 were 84.65 ± 0.64, 95.91 ± 11.61, and 46.39 ± 1.97 ppm, respectively. A 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) test revealed that the cell viability of mouse lung fibroblast L929 cells was 93.7% at a 200 ppm UC-1 concentration that is over that anticipated in routine use. Moreover, 50 ppm UC-1 showed no significant symptoms in a rabbit ocular irritation test. In an inhalation toxicity test, treatment with 20 ppm UC-1 for 24 h showed no abnormality and no mortality in clinical symptoms and normal functioning of the lung and other organs. A ClO₂ concentration of up to 40 ppm in drinking water did not show any toxicity in a subchronic oral toxicity test. Herein, UC-1 showed favorable disinfection activity and a higher safety profile tendency than in previous reports.

  11. Evaluation of chlorine dioxide gas residues on selected food produce. (United States)

    Trinetta, Valentina; Vaidya, Nirupama; Linton, Richard; Morgan, Mark


    In recent years, the consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables has greatly increased, and so has its association with contamination of several foodborne pathogens (Listeria, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli). Hence, there is a need to investigate effective sanitizer systems for produce decontamination. Chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)), a strong oxidizing gas with broad spectrum and sanitizing properties, has previously been studied for use on selected fruits and vegetables. ClO(2) gas treatments show great potential for surface pathogen reduction; however its use from a residue safety standpoint has yet to be assessed. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate residues of ClO(2), chlorite, chlorate, and chloride on selected fresh produce surfaces after treatment with ClO(2) gas. A rinse procedure was used and water samples were analyzed by N, N-diethyl-p-phenylenediamine and ion chromatography method (300.0). Seven different foods--tomatoes, oranges, apples, strawberries, lettuce, alfalfa sprouts, and cantaloupe--were analyzed after ClO(2) treatment for surface residues. Very low residues were detectable for all the food products except lettuce and alfalfa sprouts, where the measured concentrations were significantly higher. Chlorine dioxide technology leaves minimal to no detectable chemical residues in several food products, thus result in no significant risks to consumers. Practical Application: Potential for chlorine dioxide gas treatments as an effective pathogen inactivation technology to produce with minimal risk for consumers.

  12. Occurrence, profiles, and toxic equivalents of chlorinated and brominated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in E-waste open burning soils. (United States)

    Nishimura, Chiya; Horii, Yuichi; Tanaka, Shuhei; Asante, Kwadwo Ansong; Ballesteros, Florencio; Viet, Pham Hung; Itai, Takaaki; Takigami, Hidetaka; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Fujimori, Takashi


    We conducted this study to assess the occurrence, profiles, and toxicity of chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Cl-PAHs) and brominated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Br-PAHs) in e-waste open burning soils (EOBS). In this study, concentrations of 15 PAHs, 26 Cl-PAHs and 14 Br-PAHs were analyzed in EOBS samples. We found that e-waste open burning is an important emission source of Cl-PAHs and Br-PAHs as well as PAHs. Concentrations of total Cl-PAHs and Br-PAHs in e-waste open burning soil samples ranged from 21 to 2800 ng/g and from 5.8 to 520 ng/g, respectively. Compared with previous studies, the mean of total Cl-PAH concentrations of the EOBS samples in this study was higher than that of electronic shredder waste, that of bottom ash, and comparable to fly ash from waste incinerators in Korea and Japan. The mean of total Br-PAH concentrations of the EOBS samples was generally three to four orders of magnitude higher than those in incinerator bottom ash and comparable to incinerator fly ash, although the number of Br-PAH congeners measured differed among studies. We also found that the Cl-PAH and Br-PAH profiles were similar among all e-waste open burning soil samples but differed from those in waste incinerator fly ash. The profiles and principal component analysis results suggested a unique mechanism of Cl-PAH and Br-PAH formation in EOBS. In addition, the Cl-PAHs and Br-PAHs showed high toxicities equivalent to PCDD/Fs measured in same EOBS samples when calculated based on their relative potencies to benzo[a]pyrene. Along with chlorinated and brominated dioxins and PAHs, Cl-PAHs and Br-PAHs are important environmental pollutants to investigate in EOBS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Microbiological investigations on the elimination of volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons. Final report. Mikrobiologische Untersuchungen zur Elimination leichtfluechtiger Chlorkohlenwasserstoffe durch Biofilme. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholz-Muramatsu, H.


    The anaerobic elimination of 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA), trichloroethene (TCE) and tetrachlorethene (PCE) was studied under batch conditions and in a fixed bed reactor (concentrations of the chlorinated compounds 50 to 200 {mu}mol/l). Co-substrates for the anaerobic elimination of the chlorinated hydrocarbons were hydrogen, glucose, and benzoate. With glucose (2 mmol/l) PCE was dehalogenated to DCE (25 {mu}mol/m{sup 2}xh). PCE was eliminated to unchlorinated compounds under batch conditions with hydrogen as co-substrate (5 {mu}mol/lxd). In continuous culture with benzoate (2 to 4 mmol/l) PCE was dechlorinated to low concentrations of DCE or even totally as long as there was active methanogenesis. Under batch conditions TCA was dechlorinated completely with glucose as well as with benzoate (1,5 to 5 {mu}mol/lxd). PCE could be eliminated to DCE by fermenting bacteria without methanogenesis. The inhibiting factors for the elimination of dichloromethane (DCM) by groundwater contaminated with leachate of a laquer sludge landfill were studied. About 50% of the inhibiting substances belonged to the volatile fraction of the ground-water. Selected compounds out of this fraction were examined in regard to there inhibiting effect on the DCM elimination rate. A distinct inhibition was caused by 1,2-dichloroethane, ethylbenzene, and xylene. The DCM elimination was most sensitive against 1,2-dichloroethane. Besides this the leachate contained nonvolatile inhibitors which could not be identified. (orig.) With 42 refs., 12 tabs., 11 figs.

  14. California sea lions (Zalophus californianus californianus) have lower chlorinated hydrocarbon contents in northern Baja California, Mexico, than in California, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Toro, Ligeia [Universidad Autonoma de Baja California (UABC), Facultad de Ciencias Marinas, Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico); Investigacion y Conservacion de Mamiferos Marinos de Ensenada, A.C., Placido Mata 2309 Depto. D-5, Condominio Las Fincas, Ensenada, Baja California 22810 (Mexico); Heckel, Gisela [Investigacion y Conservacion de Mamiferos Marinos de Ensenada, A.C., Placido Mata 2309 Depto. D-5, Condominio Las Fincas, Ensenada, Baja California 22810 (Mexico) and Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada, B.C. Km 107 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, Ensenada, Baja California 22860 (Mexico)]. E-mail:; Camacho-Ibar, Victor F. [Instituto de Investigaciones Oceanologicas, UABC, Apdo. Postal 453, Ensenada, Baja California 22860 (Mexico); Schramm, Yolanda [Universidad Autonoma de Baja California (UABC), Facultad de Ciencias Marinas, Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico); Investigacion y Conservacion de Mamiferos Marinos de Ensenada, A.C., Placido Mata 2309 Depto. D-5, Condominio Las Fincas, Ensenada, Baja California 22810 (Mexico)


    Chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHs) were determined in blubber samples of 18 California sea lions (Zalophus californianus californianus) that stranded dead along Todos Santos Bay, Ensenada, Baja California, Mexico, January 2000-November 2001. {sigma}DDTs were the dominant group (geometric mean 3.8 {mu}g/g lipid weight), followed by polychlorinated biphenyls ({sigma}PCBs, 2.96 {mu}g/g), chlordanes (0.12 {mu}g/g) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (0.06 {mu}g/g). The {sigma}DDTs/{sigma}PCBs ratio was 1.3. We found CH levels more than one order of magnitude lower than those reported for California sea lion samples collected along the California coast, USA, during the same period as our study. This sharp north-south gradient suggests that Z. californianus stranded in Ensenada (most of them males) would probably have foraged during the summer near rookeries 500-1000 km south of Ensenada and the rest of the year migrate northwards, foraging along the Baja California peninsula, including Ensenada, and probably farther north. - Results suggest that sea lion prey must also have lower hydrocarbons in Baja California than in California in the USA.

  15. Occurrence and source of chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Cl-PAHs) in tidal flats of the Ariake Bay, Japan. (United States)

    Sankoda, Kenshi; Kuribayashi, Tomonori; Nomiyama, Kei; Shinohara, Ryota


    In this study, we hypothesize that natural photochemical reactions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in tidal flats are responsible for the occurrence of chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Cl-PAHs). This study aims to survey the impact of photochemical reactions using a combination of field surveys and lab-scale experiments. Concentrations and profiles of PAHs and Cl-PAHs in road dust and sediments collected from seven tunnels and two watersheds, respectively, were determined. In the lab-scale experiments, anthracene was irradiated with ultraviolet (UV) light under various salinity conditions. No detectable Cl-PAHs were found in the road dust. However, Cl-PAHs were detected in the sediments from 700 to 6.1 × 10(3) pg g(-1) and specifically from downstream sites. 2-Monochloroanthracene (2-Cl-ANT) and 9,10-dichloroanthracene (9,10-di-Cl-ANT) were dominant in the sediments. In the Domen River watershed, the ∑Cl-PAHs and the salinity showed a significant positive correlation (p PAHs. 2-Cl-ANT, 9-monochloroanthracene, and 9,10-di-Cl-ANT were identified as transformation products in the UV irradiation experiments. Production of these Cl-PAHs was dependent on the solution salinity. These results support our hypothesis, and we conclude that photochemical reactions significantly contribute to the occurrence of Cl-PAHs in the studied tidal flats.

  16. Efficacy and Safety Evaluation of a Chlorine Dioxide Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Wen Ma


    Full Text Available In this study, a chlorine dioxide solution (UC-1 composed of chlorine dioxide was produced using an electrolytic method and subsequently purified using a membrane. UC-1 was determined to contain 2000 ppm of gaseous chlorine dioxide in water. The efficacy and safety of UC-1 were evaluated. The antimicrobial activity was more than 98.2% reduction when UC-1 concentrations were 5 and 20 ppm for bacteria and fungi, respectively. The half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50 of H1N1, influenza virus B/TW/71718/04, and EV71 were 84.65 ± 0.64, 95.91 ± 11.61, and 46.39 ± 1.97 ppm, respectively. A 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT test revealed that the cell viability of mouse lung fibroblast L929 cells was 93.7% at a 200 ppm UC-1 concentration that is over that anticipated in routine use. Moreover, 50 ppm UC-1 showed no significant symptoms in a rabbit ocular irritation test. In an inhalation toxicity test, treatment with 20 ppm UC-1 for 24 h showed no abnormality and no mortality in clinical symptoms and normal functioning of the lung and other organs. A ClO2 concentration of up to 40 ppm in drinking water did not show any toxicity in a subchronic oral toxicity test. Herein, UC-1 showed favorable disinfection activity and a higher safety profile tendency than in previous reports.

  17. Evidence for in situ production of chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on tidal flats: environmental monitoring and laboratory scale experiment. (United States)

    Sankoda, Kenshi; Nomiyama, Kei; Yonehara, Takayuki; Kuribayashi, Tomonori; Shinohara, Ryota


    This study investigated environmental distributions and production mechanisms of chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Cl-PAHs) in the sediments from some tidal flats located in Asia. Cl-PAHs were found in sediments taken from Arao tidal flat, Kikuchigawa River and Shirakawa River. The range of ∑Cl-PAHs was from 25.5 to 483 pg g(-1) for Kikuchigawa River and Arao tidal flat, respectively. Concentrations of PAHs and Cl-PAHs showed no significant correlations (r=0.134). This result suggests that the origins of these compounds differ. In the identified Cl-PAH isomers, the most abundant Cl-PAH isomer was 9,10-dichloroanthracene (9,10-di-Cl-ANT) in the three sites. In general, concentrations of Cl-ANTs in the coastal environment are about 3-5 orders of magnitude lower than those of anthracene (ANT). However, concentration ratios between Cl-ANTs and ANT (Cl-ANTs/ANT) in the sediments ranged from 4.1% to 24.6%. This result indicated that Cl-PAHs were not generated under industrial processes but the high concentration ratios have resulted from the contribution of photochemical production of Cl-ANTs in the sediments because ANT is known to have high photochemical reactivity. For examining this phenomenon, ANT adsorbed onto glass beads was irradiated with UV under the mimicked field conditions of tidal flats. As a result, it was noticed that, while chlorinated derivatives were negligible in a light-controlled group, production of 2-Cl-ANT, 9-Cl-ANT and 9,10-diCl-ANT on the irradiated surface were found in this study. These results suggest that photochemical reaction of PAHs can be a potential source of the occurrence of Cl-PAHs in the coastal environment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Simulation of ground-water flow and transport of chlorinated hydrocarbons at Graces Quarters, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland (United States)

    Tenbus, Frederick J.; Fleck, William B.


    Military activity at Graces Quarters, a former open-air chemical-agent facility at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, has resulted in ground-water contamination by chlorinated hydrocarbons. As part of a ground-water remediation feasibility study, a three-dimensional model was constructed to simulate transport of four chlorinated hydrocarbons (1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, trichloroethene, carbon tetrachloride, and chloroform) that are components of a contaminant plume in the surficial and middle aquifers underlying the east-central part of Graces Quarters. The model was calibrated to steady-state hydraulic head at 58 observation wells and to the concentration of 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane in 58 observation wells and 101direct-push probe samples from the mid-1990s. Simulations using the same basic model with minor adjustments were then run for each of the other plume constituents. The error statistics between the simulated and measured concentrations of each of the constituents compared favorably to the error statisticst,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane calibration. Model simulations were used in conjunction with contaminant concentration data to examine the sources and degradation of the plume constituents. It was determined from this that mixed contaminant sources with no ambient degradation was the best approach for simulating multi-species solute transport at the site. Forward simulations were run to show potential solute transport 30 years and 100 years into the future with and without source removal. Although forward simulations are subject to uncertainty, they can be useful for illustrating various aspects of the conceptual model and its implementation. The forward simulation with no source removal indicates that contaminants would spread throughout various parts of the surficial and middle aquifers, with the100-year simulation showing potential discharge areas in either the marshes at the end of the Graces Quarters peninsula or just offshore in the estuaries. The

  19. Effect of vegetation in pilot-scale horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands treating sulphate rich groundwater contaminated with a low and high chlorinated hydrocarbon. (United States)

    Chen, Zhongbing; Wu, Shubiao; Braeckevelt, Mareike; Paschke, Heidrun; Kästner, Matthias; Köser, Heinz; Kuschk, Peter


    In order to characterize the effect of vegetation on performance of constructed wetlands (CWs) treating low and high chlorinated hydrocarbon, two pilot-scale horizontal subsurface flow (HSSF) CWs (planted with Phragmites australis and unplanted) treating sulphate rich groundwater contaminated with MCB (monochlorobenzene, as a low chlorinated hydrocarbon), (about 10 mg L(-1)), and PCE (perchloroethylene, as a high chlorinated hydrocarbon), (about 2 mg L(-1)), were examined. With mean MCB inflow load of 299 mg m(-2) d(-1), the removal rate was 58 and 208 mg m(-2) d(-1) in the unplanted and planted wetland, respectively, after 4 m from the inlet. PCE was almost completely removed in both wetlands with mean inflow load of 49 mg m(-2) d(-1). However, toxic metabolites cis-1,2-DCE (dichloroethene) and VC (vinyl chloride) accumulated in the unplanted wetland; up to 70% and 25% of PCE was dechlorinated to cis-1,2-DCE and VC after 4 m from the inlet, respectively. Because of high sulphate concentration (around 850 mg L(-1)) in the groundwater, the plant derived organic carbon caused sulphide formation (up to 15 mg L(-1)) in the planted wetland, which impaired the MCB removal but not statistically significant. The results showed significant enhancement of vegetation on the removal of the low chlorinated hydrocarbon MCB, which is probably due to the fact that aerobic MCB degraders are benefited from the oxygen released by plant roots. Vegetation also stimulated completely dechlorination of PCE due to plant derived organic carbon, which is potentially to provide electron donor for dechlorination process. The plant derived organic carbon also stimulated dissimilatory sulphate reduction, which subsequently have negative effect on MCB removal. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Comment on 'inflow, levels and the fate of some persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons in the Rijeka Bay area of the Adriatic Sea by N. Picer and M. Picer'

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.

    in their methodology pertaining to the extraction of pollutant from the aquatic medium since they have contradicted themselves by reporting that several seawater samples were also analysed by concentrating the pollutant with Amberlite XAD-2 resin. However, they have... the extent of contamination of the region under investigation. (3) Another ambiguity in their methodology is that the retained chlorinated hydrocarbons were eluted with methanol only and re-extracted with pentane which has obviously resulted in significant...

  1. Gas-particle phase partitioning and particle size distribution of chlorinated and brominated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in haze. (United States)

    Jin, Rong; Zheng, Minghui; Yang, Hongbo; Yang, Lili; Wu, Xiaolin; Xu, Yang; Liu, Guorui


    Chlorinated and brominated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Cl/Br-PAHs) are emerging semi-volatile organic pollutants in haze-associated particulate matter (PM). Their gas-particle phase partitioning and distribution among PM fractions have not been clarified. Clarification would increase understanding of atmospheric behavior and health risks of Cl/Br-PAHs. In this study, samples of the gas phase and 4 PM phases (aerodynamic diameters (dae) > 10 μm, 2.5-10 μm, 1.0-2.5 μm, and distribution indicated that the Cl/Br-PAHs tended to adhere to fine particles. Over 80% of the Cl-PAHs and 70% of the Br-PAHs were associated with fine PM (dae particle phase partitioning and PM distribution of Cl/Br-PAHs when heating of buildings was required, which was associated with haze events, were obviously different from those when heating was not required. The relationship between the logarithmic geometric mean diameters of the Cl/Br-PAH congeners and reciprocal of the temperature (1/T) suggested that low air temperatures during the heating period could lead to high proportions of Cl/Br-PAHs in the fine particles. Increased coal burning during the heating period also contributed to high Cl/Br-PAH loads in the fine particles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Local and seasonal variations in concentrations of chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons associated with particles in a Japanese megacity. (United States)

    Ohura, Takeshi; Kamiya, Yuta; Ikemori, Fumikazu


    Concentrations of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and chlorinated PAHs (ClPAHs) were measured in different seasons at five sampling stations in Nagoya, a Japanese megacity. The annual mean total ClPAH and total PAH concentrations were 43.3-92.6pg/m(3) and 5200-8570pg/m(3), respectively. The concentrations of total ClPAHs were significantly variable than those of total PAHs, and both total concentrations through the seasons did not significantly correlate at any of the stations. Principal component analysis was used to characterize the ClPAH sources, resulted that ClPAHs were found to be associated with the sources of high-molecular-weight PAHs in the warmer seasons and of low-molecular-weight PAHs in the colder seasons. These findings suggest that principal sources of particle-bound ClPAHs are present in the local area, and change in the seasons. Toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentrations were estimated to assess the risks associated with exposure to ClPAHs in air. The TEQ concentrations in the samples were 0.05-0.32pg-TEQ/m(3). The TEQ concentrations in summer were approximately half the TEQ concentrations in the other seasons at all of the stations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of a standard reference material containing 22 chlorinated hydrocarbon gases at 1 μmol/mol in nitrogen. (United States)

    Li, Ning; Du, Jian; Yang, Jing; Fan, Qiang; Tian, Wen


    A gas standard mixture containing 22 chlorinated hydrocarbons in high purity nitrogen was prepared using a two-step weighing method and a gasifying apparatus developed in-house. The concentration of each component was determined using a gas chromatograph with flame ionization detection (GC/FID). Linear regression analysis of every component was performed using the gas standard mixture with concentrations ranging from 1 to 10 μmol/mol, showing the complete gasification of volatile organic compound (VOCs) species in a selected cylinder. Repeatability was also examined to ensure the reliability of the preparation method. In addition, no significant difference was observed between domestic treated and imported treated cylinders, which were conducive to reduction of the cost of raw materials. Moreover, the results of stability testing at different pressures and long-term stability tests indicated that the gas standard at 1 μmol/mol level with relative expanded uncertainties of 5% was stable above 2 MPa for a minimum of 12 months. Finally, a quantity comparison was conducted between the gas standard and a commercial gas standard from Scott Specialty Gases (now Air Liquide America Specialty Gases). The excellent agreement of every species suggested the favorable accuracy of our gas standard. Therefore, this reference material can be applied to routine observation of VOCs and for other purposes.

  4. Thermal decomposition of selected chlorinated hydrocarbons during gas combustion in fluidized bed (United States)


    Background The process of thermal decomposition of dichloromethane (DCM) and chlorobenzene (MCB) during the combustion in an inert, bubbling fluidized bed, supported by LPG as auxiliary fuel, have been studied. The concentration profiles of C6H5CI, CH2Cl2, CO2, CO, NOx, COCl2, CHCl3, CH3Cl, C2H2, C6H6, CH4 in the flue gases were specified versus mean bed temperature. Results The role of preheating of gaseous mixture in fluidized bed prior to its ignition inside bubbles was identified as important factor for increase the degree of conversion of DCM and MCB in low bed temperature, in comparison to similar process in the tubular reactor. Conclusions Taking into account possible combustion mechanisms, it was identified that autoignition in bubbles rather than flame propagation between bubbles is needed to achieve complete destruction of DCM and MCB. These condition occurs above 900°C causing the degree of conversion of chlorine compounds of 92-100%. PMID:23289764

  5. Thermal decomposition of selected chlorinated hydrocarbons during gas combustion in fluidized bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olek Malgorzata


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The process of thermal decomposition of dichloromethane (DCM and chlorobenzene (MCB during the combustion in an inert, bubbling fluidized bed, supported by LPG as auxiliary fuel, have been studied. The concentration profiles of C6H5CI, CH2Cl2, CO2, CO, NOx, COCl2, CHCl3, CH3Cl, C2H2, C6H6, CH4 in the flue gases were specified versus mean bed temperature. Results The role of preheating of gaseous mixture in fluidized bed prior to its ignition inside bubbles was identified as important factor for increase the degree of conversion of DCM and MCB in low bed temperature, in comparison to similar process in the tubular reactor. Conclusions Taking into account possible combustion mechanisms, it was identified that autoignition in bubbles rather than flame propagation between bubbles is needed to achieve complete destruction of DCM and MCB. These condition occurs above 900°C causing the degree of conversion of chlorine compounds of 92-100%.

  6. Treatability of volatile chlorinated hydrocarbon-contaminated soils of different textures along a vertical profile by mechanical soil aeration: A laboratory test. (United States)

    Ma, Yan; Shi, Yi; Hou, Deyi; Zhang, Xi; Chen, Jiaqi; Wang, Zhifen; Xu, Zhu; Li, Fasheng; Du, Xiaoming


    Mechanical soil aeration is a simple, effective, and low-cost soil remediation technology that is suitable for sites contaminated with volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons (VCHs). Conventionally, this technique is used to treat the mixed soil of a site without considering the diversity and treatability of different soils within the site. A laboratory test was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of mechanical soil aeration for remediating soils of different textures (silty, clayey, and sandy soils) along a vertical profile at an abandoned chloro-alkali chemical site in China. The collected soils were artificially contaminated with chloroform (TCM) and trichloroethylene (TCE). Mechanical soil aeration was effective for remediating VCHs (removal efficiency >98%). The volatilization process was described by an exponential kinetic function. In the early stage of treatment (0-7hr), rapid contaminant volatilization followed a pseudo-first order kinetic model. VCH concentrations decreased to low levels and showed a tailing phenomenon with very slow contaminant release after 8hr. Compared with silty and sandy soils, clayey soil has high organic-matter content, a large specific surface area, a high clay fraction, and a complex pore structure. These characteristics substantially influenced the removal process, making it less efficient, more time consuming, and consequently more expensive. Our findings provide a potential basis for optimizing soil remediation strategy in a cost-effective manner. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Evaluation of hydrocarbon potential, Task 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cashman, P.H.; Trexler, J.H. Jr. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno (United States)


    Task 8 is responsible for assessing the hydrocarbon potential of the Yucca Mountain vicinity. Our main focus is source rock stratigraphy in the Nevada Test Site (NTS) area in southern Nevada. In order to reconstruct the Paleozoic stratigraphy, we are also studying the geometry and kinematics of deformation at NTS. A thorough understanding of the structure will also be essential to predicting the nature of the Late Paleozoic rocks under Yucca Mountain. Our stratigraphic studies continue to support the interpretation that rocks mapped as the {open_quotes}Eleana Formation{close_quotes} are in fact parts of two different Mississippian units. We are now provisionally limiting the name {open_quotes}Eleana Formation{close_quotes} to the rocks that make up the Eleana Range - i.e., the rocks that we have been calling {open_quotes}western Eleana{close_quotes}. The mudstone section (which we have until now called {open_quotes}eastern Eleana{close_quotes}) we are provisionally calling the {open_quotes}Chainman Shale{close_quotes}, in keeping with regional lithostratigraphic nomenclature. We continue to work out the internal stratigraphies and basin histories of both units; XRD (r-ray diffraction) determinations of clay mineralogy are an addition to our understanding of the Chainman. The basin histories place important constraints on regional paleogeographic and tectonic reconstructions. This year we have hired a consulting petroleum geologist for two jobs: (1) to review drillhole data from southern Nevada on file at NBMG and make recommendations about more detailed study of any interesting drillholes; and (2) to log the UE17e core (in the Chainman) and evaluate source rock potential. The results of these studies have been incorporated into this report, and the consultant`s reports.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Piekutin


    Full Text Available The paper presents studies on oil removal from soil by means of water elution with a help of shaking out the contaminants from the soil. The tests were performed on simulated soil samples contaminated with a mixture of petroleum hydrocarbons. The study consisted in recording the time influence and the number of elution cycles to remove contaminants from the soil. The samples were then subject to the determination of petroleum hydrocarbons, aliphatic hydrocarbons, and BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene. Due to adding various concentrations of petroleum into particular soil samples and applying different shaking times, it was possible to find out the impact of petroleum content and sample shaking duration on the course and possibility of petroleum substances removal by means of elution process.

  9. Site profiles of low-volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons - cause-oriented monitoring in aquatic media. Vol.2. Low-volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons in surface water, sediments, suspended matter and fish of the Elbe river and its tributaries; Standortprofile schwerfluechtiger chlorierter Kohlenwasserstoffe (SCKW) - ursachenorientiertes Monitoring in aquatischen Medien. Bd. 2. SCKW in Oberflaechenwasser, Sediment, Schwebstoffen und Fischen aus der Elbe und Nebenfluessen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinisch, E.; Kettrup, A.; Gebefuegi, I.; Martens, D.; Bergheim, W.; Wenzel, S.


    Evaluating the primary data from ARGE ELBE, LAU Halle/Saale and the Environmental Specimen Banking (Umweltprobenbank) as well from publications from the Czech Republic (CHMU) the concentrations of the following low volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons were established for surface water, sediment, breams and eels from the rivers Elbe, Schwarze Elster, Mulde and Saale partly from 1989 till 1999: DDT and its metabolites DDE and DDD, partly as 2,4'- and 4,4' isomers; HCH ({alpha}-, {beta}-, {gamma}- and {delta} isomers); chlorinated benzenes with 1-6 Cl atoms and octachlorostyrene. The data evaluated were drawn up into tables - comprehensive in a separate supplement, in short versions within the text - and consolidated into graphs. Aim of the paper was a cause-oriented monitoring. The by far most important emission sources, found from the distance and time profiles as well as from special assessments of the substance patterns, were chemical plants. (orig.) [German] Durch Auswertung von Primaerdaten der ARGE ELBE, des LAU Halle/Saale und der Umweltprobenbank sowie von Publikationen aus Tschechien (CHMU) wurden fuer Oberflaechenwasser, Sediment, Brassen/Bleien und Aale aus der Elbe, Schwarzen Elster, Mulde und Saale fuer die Jahre von z.T. 1989 bis 1999 die Konzentrationen der folgenden schwerfluechtigen Kohlenwasserstoffe (SCKW) ermittelt: DDT und seine Metabolite DDE und DDD, z.T. als 2,4'- und 4,4'-Isomere; HCH ({alpha}-, {beta}-, {gamma}- und {delta}-Isomere); chlorierte Benzole mit 1-6 Cl-Atomen und Octachlorstyrol. Die ausgewerteten Daten wurden zu Tabellen - ausfuehrlich in einem gesonderten Tabellenanhang und verkuerzt im Textteil - zusammengestellt sowie zu Grafiken verdichtet. Ziel der Arbeit war ein ursachenorientiertes Monitoring. Als mit Abstand wesentlichste Emissionsquellen konnten anhand von Streckenprofilen und Zeitrastern sowie durch spezielle Auswertungen der Stoffmusterverteilungen Chemibetriebe ermittelt werden. (orig.)

  10. Task 8: Evaluation of hydrocarbon potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cashman, P.H.; Trexler, J.H. Jr.


    Our studies focus on the stratigraphy of Late Devonian to early Pennsylvanian rocks at the NTS, because these are the best potential hydrocarbon source rocks in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain. In the last year, our stratigraphic studies have broadened to include the regional context for both the Chainman and the Eleana formations. New age data based on biostratigraphy constrain the age ranges of both Chainman and Eleana; accurate and reliable ages are essential for regional correlation and for regional paleogeographic reconstructions. Source rock analyses throughout the Chainman establish whether these rocks contained adequate organic material to generate hydrocarbons. Maturation analyses of samples from the Chainman determine whether the temperature history has been suitable for the generation of liquid hydrocarbons. Structural studies are aimed at defining the deformation histories and present position of the different packages of Devonian - Pennsylvanian rocks. This report summarizes new results of our structural, stratigraphic and hydrocarbon source rock potential studies at the Nevada Test Site and vicinity. Stratigraphy is considered first, with the Chainman Shale and Eleana Formation discussed separately. New biostratigraphic results are included in this section. New results from our structural studies are summarized next, followed by source rock and maturation analyses of the Chainman Shale. Directions for future work are included where appropriate.

  11. Comparative evaluation of effects of ozonated and chlorinated thermal discharges on estuarine and freshwater organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra, C.R.; Sugam, R.; Meldrim, J.W.; Holmstrom, E.R.; Balog, G.E.


    As a part of a program at PSE and G designed to examine the feasibility of ozonation as an alternative to chlorination for control of biofouling in once-through cooling systems, the biological effects of ozonated and chlorinated thermal discharges were evaluated with estuarine and freshwater organisms. Mortality at salinities between 0.5 to 2.5 ppt with mummichog and white perch indicated greater toxicity for chlorine while the alewife, spottail shiner, rainbow trout and white perch in freshwater were more sensitive to ozone. Behavioral and physograhic results were consistent with those observed in toxicity studies. Initial cough response and avoidance concentrations of mummicog and white perch in estuarine waters were lower when exposed to chlorine than to ozone. In freshwater, blueback herring, alewife, rainbow trout, spottail shiner, banded killifish, and white perch avoided lower concentrations of ozone than chlorine.

  12. In Vitro Transformation of Chlorinated Parabens by the Liver S9 Fraction: Kinetics, Metabolite Identification, and Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Agonist Activity. (United States)

    Terasaki, Masanori; Wada, Takeshi; Nagashima, Satoshi; Makino, Masakazu; Yasukawa, Hiro


    We investigated the kinetics of in vitro transformation of a dichlorinated propyl paraben (2-propyl 3,5-dichloro-4-hydroxybenzoate; Cl2PP) by the rat liver S9 fraction and assessed the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist activity of the metabolite products identified in HPLC and GC/MS analysis and by metabolite syntheses. The results indicated that the chlorination of Cl2PP reduced its degradation rate by approximately 40-fold. Two hydroxylated metabolite products showed AhR agonist activity of up to 39% of that of the parent Cl2PP when assessed in a yeast (YCM3) reporter gene assay. The determination of the metabolic properties of paraben bioaccumulation presented here provides further information on the value of risk assessments of chlorinated parabens as a means to ensure human health and environmental safety.

  13. Genetic Engineering of Plants to Improve Phytoremediation of Chlorinated Hydrocarbons in Groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, Stuart E.


    I. Mechanism of halogenated hydrocarbon oxidation We are using poplar culture cells to determine the pathway of TCE metabolism. In our earlier work, we found that trichloroethanol (TCEOH) is a major early intermediate. Our studies this year have focused on the steps that follow this toxic intermediate. We did several experiments to track the disappearance of TCEOH after the cells were removed from TCE. We could conclude that TCEOH is not an end-product but is rapidly degraded. Six flasks of poplar liquid suspension cells were exposed to a level of 50 {micro}g/ml TCE for three days. Three of the cultures were subjected to MTBE extractions to quantify the levels of TCEOH produced. The cells of the remaining three cultures were then pelleted and resuspended in fresh medium. After three more days, these were also subjected to MTBE extractions. The samples were analyzed by GC-ECD. After the three days of further metabolism, an average of 91% of the trichloroethanol was gone. When similar experiments were done with intact plants and both free and conjugated TCEOH were quantified, a similar rapid decline in both forms was seen (Shang, 2001). Therefore, it seems probable that similar mechanisms are taking place in both poplar suspension cells and whole poplar plants, so we continued to do our studies with the suspension cells. Metabolism of trichloroethanol may go through trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) prior to dehalogenation. To test this possibility, we exposed cells to TCE and analyzed for TCAA over time. The cultures were analyzed after 4, 5, 6, and 14 days from TCE exposure. We did not detect any significant amount of TCAA above the background in undosed cells. To determine if trichloroethanol itself is directly dehalogenated, we analyzed TCE-exposed cells for the presence of dichloroethanol. Undosed cells did not have any of the DCEOH peak but TCE-dosed cells that produced the highest levels of trichloroethanol did have a small DCEOH peak. Cultures that did not produce

  14. Occurrence and distribution of persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons in the seas around India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.

    Article deals with an evaluation of the levels of contamination of various organochlorine pesticides such as DDTs, HCHs, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, and different congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls in different compartment of the ocean (water...

  15. Evaluation of chlorine dioxide based product as a hatchery sanitizer. (United States)

    Maharjan, P; Cox, S; Gadde, U; Clark, F D; Bramwell, K; Watkins, S E


    Formaldehyde is commonly used to overcome contaminants introduced by hatching eggs or water supply in the hatcher cabinets. However, health risks associated with its use make economical alternatives important. This project evaluated a chlorine dioxide based product (CDBP) (0.3% concentrate) as a hatchery sanitizer in decontaminating microbial populations on the shell surface of hatching eggs (>18 d old), as well as its impact on hatchability and chick performance. Hatchers (0.20 m2) designed to hold approximately 50 eggs and equipped with circulation fans, heaters, and thermostats were used for the evaluation. For each of the 2 trials conducted, 450 hatching eggs were obtained and incubated in a common setter. Eggs used in trial 1 were floor eggs whereas in trial 2 nest eggs were used. On d 18 of incubation, eggs were removed from the setter, and viable eggs were randomly allocated to 9 hatchers. Pre-treatment egg rinse samples (10 eggs per hatcher) were collected for initial microbial analysis. Three hatchers were treated with CDBP and 3 hatchers with a formaldehyde based product (FBP). Three untreated hatchers served as control (C). Prior to hatch, 10 eggs/incubator, not previously rinsed, were used for post treatment microbial counts. The hatched chicks were reared until d 21 in floor pens with a common starter diet. For the CDBP treated eggs, hatchability and chick performance (weight gains, mortality, and FCR on d 7 and d 21) were similar to the other treatments. The application rate of CDBP evaluated in this study was not an effective antimicrobial alternative to formaldehyde for sanitizing hatching eggs in hatcher cabinets prior to hatch. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  16. Chlorination of tramadol: Reaction kinetics, mechanism and genotoxicity evaluation. (United States)

    Cheng, Hanyang; Song, Dean; Chang, Yangyang; Liu, Huijuan; Qu, Jiuhui


    Tramadol (TRA) is one of the most detected analgesics in environmental matrices, and it is of high significance to study the reactivity of TRA during chlorination considering its potential toxicity to the environment. The chlorine/TRA reaction is first order with respect to the TRA concentration, and a combination of first-order and second-order with respect to chlorine concentration. The pH dependence of the observed rate constants (kobs) showed that the TRA oxidation reactivity increased with increasing pH. kobs can be quantitatively described by considering all active species including Cl2, Cl2O and HOCl, and the individual rate constants of HOCl/TRA(0), HOCl/TRAH(+), Cl2/TRA and Cl2O/TRA reactions were calculated to be (2.61±0.29)×10(3)M(-1)s(-1), 14.73±4.17M(-1)s(-1), (3.93±0.34)×10(5)M(-1)s(-1) and (5.66±1.83)×10(6)M(-1)s(-1), respectively. Eleven degradation products were detected with UPLC-Q-TOF-MS, and the corresponding structures of eight products found under various pH conditions were proposed. The amine group was proposed to be the initial attack site under alkaline pH conditions, where reaction of the deprotonated amine group with HOCl is favorable. Under acidic and neutral pH conditions, however, two possible reaction pathways were proposed. One is an electrophilic substitution on the aromatic ring, and another is an electrophilic substitution on the nitrogen, leading to an N-chlorinated intermediate, which can be further oxidized. Finally, the SOS/umu test showed that the genotoxicity of TRA chlorination products increased with increasing dosage of chlorine, which was mostly attributed to the formation of some chlorine substitution products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of chlorine dioxide gas treatment to inactivate Salmonella enterica on mungbean sprouts. (United States)

    Prodduk, Vara; Annous, Bassam A; Liu, Linshu; Yam, Kit L


    Although freshly sprouted beans and grains are considered to be a source of nutrients, they have been associated with foodborne outbreaks. Sprouts provide good matrices for microbial localization and growth due to optimal conditions of temperature and humidity while sprouting. Also, the lack of a kill step postsprouting is a major safety concern. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of chlorine dioxide gas treatment to reduce Salmonella on artificially inoculated mungbean sprouts. The effectiveness of gaseous chlorine dioxide (0.5 mg/liter of air) with or without tumbling (mechanical mixing) was compared with an aqueous chlorine (200 ppm) wash treatment. Tumbling the inoculated sprouts during the chlorine dioxide gas application for 15, 30, and 60 min reduced Salmonella populations by 3.0, 4.0, and 5.5 log CFU/g, respectively, as compared with 3.0, 3.0, and 4.0 log CFU/g reductions obtained without tumbling, respectively. A 2.0 log CFU/g reduction in Salmonella was achieved with an aqueous chlorine wash. The difference in microbial reduction between chlorine dioxide gas versus aqueous chlorine wash points to the important role of surface topography, pore structure, bacterial attachment, and/or biofilm formation on sprouts. These data suggested that chlorine dioxide gas was capable of penetrating and inactivating cells that are attached to inaccessible sites and/or are within biofilms on the sprout surface as compared with an aqueous chlorine wash. Consequently, scanning electron microscopy imaging indicated that chlorine dioxide gas treatment was capable of penetrating and inactivating cells attached to inaccessible sites and within biofilms on the sprout surfaces.

  18. Penetrometer compatible, fiber-optic sensor for continuous monitoring of chlorinated hydrocarbons -- field test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milanovich, F.P.; Brown, S.B.; Colston, B.W. Jr.


    We have developed and field tested a fiber optic chemical sensor for use in environmental monitoring and remediation. The principle of detection is colorimetric and is based on an irreversible chemical reaction between a specific reagent and the target compound. The formation of reaction products are monitored remotely with optical fibers. Successive or on-demand measurements are made possible with a reagent reservoir and a miniature pumping system. The sensor has been evaluated against gas chromatography standards and has demonstrated accuracy and sensitivity (>5ppb w/w) sufficient for the environmental monitoring of the contaminants triceoroethlyene (TCE) and chloroform. The sensor system can be used for bench-top analyses or for in-situ measurements such as groundwater and vadose monitoring wells or in Penetrometry mediated placements.

  19. Biochar as a sorbent for chlorinated hydrocarbons - sorption and extraction experiments in single and bi-solute systems (United States)

    Schreiter, Inga J.; Wefer-Roehl, Annette; Graber, Ellen R.; Schüth, Christoph


    Biochar (BC) is increasingly deemed a potential sorbent for contaminants in soil and water remediation, and brownfield restoration. In this study, sorption and extraction experiments were performed to assess the potential of three different BCs to sorb and retain the chlorinated hydrocarbons trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE). BCs studied were produced from wood chips, grain husk, and cattle manure at 450 °C. A commercially available activated carbon (AC) served as a reference. The sorption behaviour was studied in batch experiments in single solute and bi-solute systems. Resulting isotherms were fitted to the Freundlich model. To assess the desorption behaviour, a five-step extraction scheme (water at 40°C, water at 80°C, methanol at 50°C, toluene at 50°C, and n-hexane at 50°) was developed, utilizing Accelerated Solvent Extraction. Isotherms revealed distinct differences in sorption behaviour depending on BC feedstock. Sorption capacity ranked as follows: wood chip BC > grain husk BC > cattle manure BC for both contaminants. This sequence could be attributable to an increasing specific surface area, an increasing amount of carbon, and a decreasing ash content of the sorbents. It is noteworthy that all three BCs were more effective in adsorbing TCE, which is surprising, given the higher logKow of PCE. The reverse was observed for the AC. Here, sorption is purely driven by the hydrophobicity of the compound rather than sorbent properties. In bi-solute experiments, PCE sorbed as good as or stronger than TCE, yet the total mass of sorbed compounds increased slightly. In contrast, AC showed a significant decrease of TCE sorption and no significant changes in the total mass sorbed. Extraction experiments revealed that for all BCs a large fraction of the contaminants could not be readily desorbed. In all cases, water remobilized < 5 % of the total contaminant mass and up to 70 % could not be extracted by any of the solvents. The findings suggest

  20. Evaluation of chlorinated by-products in drinking waters of Central Friuli (Italy). (United States)

    Goi, Daniele; Tubaro, Franco; Barbone, Fabio; Dolcetti, Giuliano; Bontempelli, Gino


    Drinkable water supplied by aqueducts undergoes preliminar potabilization which, in Italy, is mainly accomplished by chlorine addition. The bactericidal action involved in this process is always accompanied by chlorination and oxidation of organic species (mainly humic and fulvic acids) naturally present in treated waters, so that many disinfection by-products (DBPs) are formed, such as trihalomethanes (THMs) and halo-acetic acids (HAA), which can represent a chemical risk for public health. The aim of this study was the monitoring of DBPs in drinking water disinfected by chlorination, supplied by four different aqueducts of Central Friuli (Italy). DBP evaluations were performed in water samples consisting of both input and output of disinfection plants. The results of analytical determinations were worked out to provide the THM and HAA parameters for disinfected waters, while in feeding waters the following different conventional parameters were adopted: (i) trihalomethanes formation potential (THMFP), (ii) halo-acetic acids formation potential (HAAFP) and (iii) UV absorbance at 254 nm (UV254). The quite moderate content of chlorinated products found in all samples considered highlighted the excellent quality of potabilized waters available in Central Friuli. Moreover, our results confirmed that the majority of DBPs formed when chlorine is used for water disinfection consists of THMs, while chlorites and chlorates prevailed when potabilization is accomplished by using chlorine dioxide. Finally, simple UV254 monitoring turned out to be a profitable approach for the determination of chlorinated by-products only when THMs prevail among DBPs.

  1. Evaluation of Chlorine Dioxide Irrigation Solution on the Microhardness and Surface Roughness of Root Canal Dentin. (United States)

    Ballal, Nidambur Vasudev; Khandewal, Deepika; Karthikeyan, Saravana; Somayaji, Krishnaraj; Foschi, Federico


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of chlorine dioxide and various other more common irrigation solutions on the microhardness and surface roughness of root canal dentin. Fifty human maxillary central incisors were sectioned longitudinally and treated for 1 minute with 5 ml of the following aqueous solutions (v/v%): Group 1: 13.8% chlorine dioxide, Group 2: 17% ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA). Group 3: 7% maleic acid, Group 4: 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (5 ml/min), Group 5: Saline (control). Specimens were subjected to microhardness and surface roughness testing. Chlorine dioxide and sodium hypochlorite reduced the microhardness more than other test agents. The highest surface roughness was produced with maleic acid. Chlorine dioxide should be used cautiously during chemomechanical preparation of the root canal system in order to prevent untoward damage to the teeth.

  2. Evaluation on joint toxicity of chlorinated anilines and cadmium to Photobacterium phosphoreum and QSAR analysis. (United States)

    Jin, Hao; Wang, Chao; Shi, Jiaqi; Chen, Lei


    The individual IC50 (the concentrations causing a 50% inhibition of bioluminescence after 15min exposure) of cadmium ion (Cd) and nine chlorinated anilines to Photobacterium phosphoreum (P. phosphoreum) were determined. In order to evaluate the combined effects of the nine chlorinated anilines and Cd, the toxicities of chlorinated anilines combined with different concentrations of Cd were determined, respectively. The results showed that the number of chlorinated anilines manifesting synergy with Cd decreased with the increasing Cd concentration, and the number manifesting antagonism decreased firstly and then increased. The joint toxicity of mixtures at low Cd concentration was weaker than that of most binary mixtures when combined with Cd at medium and high concentrations as indicated by TUTotal. QSAR analysis showed that the single toxicity of chlorinated anilines was related to the energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (ELUMO). When combined with different concentrations of Cd, the toxicity was related to the energy difference (EHOMO-ELUMO) with different coefficients. Van der Waals' force or the complexation between chlorinated anilines and Cd had an impact on the toxicity of combined systems, which could account for QSAR models with different physico-chemical descriptors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Hydrocarbon source rock potential evaluation of the Late Paleocene ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Hydrocarbon source rock potential evaluation of the Late Paleocene. Patala Formation, Salt Range, Pakistan: Organic geochemical and palynofacies approach. NASAR KHAN1 & *, NAVEED ANJUM1, MANSOOR AHMAD1, MUHAMMAD AWAIS2,. NAQIB ULLAH3. 1Department of Geology, University of Malakand, Pakistan.

  4. An Evaluation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Hemichromis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analysed in Hemichromis fasciatus netted from the Ikpoba reservoir in Benin City, Nigeria, using Gas chromatographic technique, in order to evaluate the potential ecological risk of these organic pollutants on the investigated ecosystem. The mean ...

  5. Kinetic Studies of the Cometabolism of 1,4-DIOXANE and Chlorinated Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Mixtures by Rhodococcus Rhodochrous Grown on Isobutane (United States)

    Rolston, H. M.; Semprini, L.; Thankitkul, S.; Azizian, M.; Hyman, M. R.


    1,4-dioxane (1,4-D) is a frequently observed groundwater contaminant due to its use as a stabilizer in commercial solvent formulations. In situ bioremediation could potentially provide a large cost savings for treatment of mixtures of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) that include 1,4-D. Aerobic cometabolism is a particularly attractive option, as microorganisms can be stimulated in situ using specific primary substrates. Results will be presented that show the model isobutane-metabolizing bacteria, Rhodococcus rhodochrous (ATCC 21198), has the ability to transform 14-D at high rates and transformation capacities to concentrations below the drinking water screening level of 0.67 µg L-1. Resting cell transformation tests showed 1,4-D and a broad range of CAHs can be cometabolized by ATCC 21198. The maximum transformation rate (kmax) and the half-substrate coefficient (Ks) were determined for isobutane (the growth substrate), 1,4-D, 1,1,1-trichloroethane (1,1,1-TCA), 1,1,2-trichloroethane (1,1,2-TCA), 1,1-dichloroethane (1,1-DCA); 1,2-dichloroethane ((1,2-DCA) and 1,1-dichloroethene (1,1-DCE). Of the CAHs tested, 1,1-DCA had the highest kmax, approximately 25% of that for isobutane utilization, while 1,1,1-TCA had the lowest kmax, approximately 2% of isobutane's. 1,4-D was rapidly transformed and had a kmax 25% of that of isobutane. ATCC 21198 effectively transformed mixtures of 1,4-D, 1,1-DCE, 1,2-DCA and 1,1,1-TCA, both in the presence and absence isobutane. Model simulations were performed for the simultaneous cometabolism of 1,4-D and CAH mixtures by ATCC 21198, that included inhibition among the contaminants and isobutane , and terms for a limited transformation capacity. A good match to experimental observations was obtaining using the independently measured rate parameters. Results of model simulations will also be presented using a reactive transport model to evaluate conditions of in situ bioremediation using strain ATCC 21198.

  6. Seismic Evaluation of Hydrocarbon Saturation in Deep-Water Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Batzle; D-h Han; R. Gibson; Huw James


    During this last quarter of the ''Seismic Evaluation of Hydrocarbon Saturation in Deep-Water Reservoirs'' project (Grant/Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT15342), our efforts have become focused on technology transfer. To this end, we completing our theoretical developments, generating recommended processing flows, and perfecting our rock and fluid properties interpretation techniques. Some minor additional data analysis and modeling will complete our case studies. During this quarter we have: Presented findings for the year at the DHI/FLUIDS meeting at UH in Houston; Presented and published eight papers to promote technology transfer; Shown how Rock and fluid properties are systematic and can be predicted; Shown Correct values must be used to properly calibrate deep-water seismic data; Quantified and examined the influence of deep water geometries in outcrop; Compared and evaluated hydrocarbon indicators for fluid sensitivity; Identified and documented inappropriate processing procedures; Developed inversion techniques to better distinguish hydrocarbons; Developed new processing work flows for frequency-dependent anomalies; and Evaluated and applied the effects of attenuation as an indicator. We have demonstrated that with careful calibration, direct hydrocarbon indicators can better distinguish between uneconomic ''Fizz'' gas and economic hydrocarbon reservoirs. Some of this progress comes from better characterization of fluid and rock properties. Other aspects include alternative techniques to invert surface seismic data for fluid types and saturations. We have also developed improved work flows for accurately measuring frequency dependent changes in seismic data that are predicted by seismic models, procedures that will help to more reliably identify anomalies associated with hydrocarbons. We have been prolific in publishing expanded abstracts and presenting results, particularly at the SEG. This year, we had eight such

  7. Evaluation on joint toxicity of chlorinated anilines and cadmium to Photobacterium phosphoreum and QSAR analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Hao, E-mail: [School of Life and Chemistry, Jiangsu Second Normal University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210013 (China); Wang, Chao; Shi, Jiaqi [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210023 (China); Chen, Lei [School of Life and Chemistry, Jiangsu Second Normal University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210013 (China)


    Highlights: • Cd has different effects on joint toxicity when in different concentrations. • The toxicity of most binary mixtures decreases when Cd concentration rises. • Different QSAR models are developed to predict the joint toxicity. • Descriptors in QSARs can help to elucidate the joint toxicity mechanism. • Van der Waals’ force or complexation may reduce the toxicity of mixtures. - Abstract: The individual IC{sub 50} (the concentrations causing a 50% inhibition of bioluminescence after 15 min exposure) of cadmium ion (Cd) and nine chlorinated anilines to Photobacterium phosphoreum (P. phosphoreum) were determined. In order to evaluate the combined effects of the nine chlorinated anilines and Cd, the toxicities of chlorinated anilines combined with different concentrations of Cd were determined, respectively. The results showed that the number of chlorinated anilines manifesting synergy with Cd decreased with the increasing Cd concentration, and the number manifesting antagonism decreased firstly and then increased. The joint toxicity of mixtures at low Cd concentration was weaker than that of most binary mixtures when combined with Cd at medium and high concentrations as indicated by TU{sub Total}. QSAR analysis showed that the single toxicity of chlorinated anilines was related to the energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (E{sub LUMO}). When combined with different concentrations of Cd, the toxicity was related to the energy difference (E{sub HOMO} − E{sub LUMO}) with different coefficients. Van der Waals’ force or the complexation between chlorinated anilines and Cd had an impact on the toxicity of combined systems, which could account for QSAR models with different physico-chemical descriptors.

  8. Evaluation of possible use of disinfectant based on chlorine dioxide in dairy plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakić-Martinez Mira


    Full Text Available Poor sanitation of food contact surfaces has been a contributing factor in food borne disease outbreaks, especially those involving Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus etc. The objectives of this study were therefore to: 1. Determine the efficiency of a disinfectant based on chlorine dioxide in suspension in a closed system in a dairy plant. 2. Evaluate the possibility of disinfection of working surfaces with a disinfectant based on chlorine dioxide. In order to determine the germicidal effect of the disinfectant based on chlorine dioxide by suspension test (BSEN 1276:1997; the following test organisms were used: Listeria monocytogenes, Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolate. The corrosive properties of the disinfectant based on chlorine dioxide were tested by IDF 077:1977 standard. The efficacy of this disinfectant was investigated in a closed system in a dairy plant. Results indicated a 100% reduction of >108 cfu/ml L. monocytogenes, E. coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, S. aureus, viable count after 1 minute of exposure to 100 ppm of the disinfectant based on chlorine dioxide and 400 ppm for Bacillus cereus. In the presence of 2% skim milk and 4 % skim milk concentrations of 200 and 250 ppm resulted in 100% reduction in numbers of the five of six test microorganisms, respectively. The spore former, Bacillus cereus is less susceptible to the disinfectant. Therefore, the efficient concentration for 100% reduction in viable count after 1 minute exposure was 500 ppm. The corrosive properties of the disinfectant were not determined. In the case of closed system disinfection in a dairy plant, reduction in viable count after 15 minute exposure to 100 ppm of disinfectant based on chlorine dioxide ranged from 80 to 100%.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Batzle; D-h Han; R. Gibson; O. Djordjevic


    The ''Seismic Evaluation of Hydrocarbon Saturation in Deep-Water Reservoirs'' (Grant/Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT15342) began September 1, 2002. During this second quarter: A Direct Hydrocarbon Indicator (DHI) symposium was held at UH; Current DHI methods were presented and forecasts made on future techniques; Dr. Han moved his laboratory from HARC to the University of Houston; Subcontracts were re-initiated with UH and TAMU; Theoretical and numerical modeling work began at TAMU; Geophysical Development Corp. agreed to provide petrophysical data; Negotiations were begun with Veritas GDC to obtain limited seismic data; Software licensing and training schedules were arranged with Paradigm; and Data selection and acquisition continues. The broad industry symposium on Direct Hydrocarbon Indicators was held at the University of Houston as part of this project. This meeting was well attended and well received. A large amount of information was presented, not only on application of the current state of the art, but also on expected future trends. Although acquisition of appropriate seismic data was expected to be a significant problem, progress has been made. A 3-D seismic data set from the shelf has been installed at Texas A&M University and analysis begun. Veritas GDC has expressed a willingness to provide data in the deep Gulf of Mexico. Data may also be available from TGS.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Batzle; D-h Han; R. Gibson; Huw James


    During this last quarter of the ''Seismic Evaluation of Hydrocarbon Saturation in Deep-Water Reservoirs'' project (Grant/Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT15342), we have moved forward on several fronts, including data acquisition as well as analysis and application. During this quarter we have: (1) Completed our site selection (finally); (2) Measured fluid effects in Troika deep water sand sample; (3) Applied the result to Ursa ''fizz gas'' zone; (4) Compared thin layer property averaging on AVO response; (5) Developed target oriented NMO stretch correction; (6) Examined thin bed effects on A-B crossplots; and (7) Begun incorporating outcrop descriptive models in seismic forward models. Several factors can contribute to limit our ability to extract accurate hydrocarbon saturations in deep water environments. Rock and fluid properties are one factor, since, for example, hydrocarbon properties will be considerably different with great depths (high pressure) when compared to shallow properties. Significant over pressure, on the other hand will make the rocks behave as if they were shallower. In addition to the physical properties, the scale and tuning will alter our hydrocarbon indicators. Reservoirs composed of thin bed effects will broaden the reflection amplitude distribution with incident angle. Normal move out (NMO) stretch corrections based on frequency shifts can be applied to offset this effect. Tuning will also disturb the location of extracted amplitudes on AVO intercept and gradient (A-B) plots. Many deep water reservoirs fall this tuning thickness range. Our goal for the remaining project period is to systematically combine and document these various effects for use in deep water exploration.

  11. Chlorinated hydrocarbons in livers of American mink (Mustela vison) and river otter (Lutra canadensis) from the Columbia and Fraser River Basins, 1990-1992 (United States)

    Elliott, J.E.; Henny, Charles J.; Harris, M.L.; Wilson, L.K.; Norstrom, R.J.


    We investigated chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants in aquatic mustelid species on the Fraser and Columbia Rivers of northwestern North America. Carcasses of river otter (Lutra canadensis) (N=24) and mink (Mustela vison) (N=34) were obtained from commercial trappers during the winters of 1990-91 and 1991a??92. Pooled liver samples were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), including non-ortho congeners, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Most samples contained detectable concentrations of DDE, PCBs, although there was substantial variability in patterns and trends among neighboring samples. Concentrations of DDE were in some mink and several otter samples from the lower Columbia River elevated (to 4700 g/kg wet weight); excluding one mink sample from the Wenatchee area, mean DDE levels generally decreased between 1978a??79 and 1990a??92. PCBs were present in all samples. PCB concentrations in otter livers collected from the lower Columbia were ten-fold lower than measured a decade previously; nevertheless, a sample taken near Portland had a mean concentration of 1500 g/kg, within a range of concentrations associated with reproductive effects in captive mink. Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-TCDD and TCDF were generally below detection limits, except for one otter collected near a pulp mill at Castlegar, on the upper Columbia, with 11 ng TCDD/kg in liver. Elevated concentrations of higher chlorinated PCDD/Fs, probably resulting from use of chlorophenolic wood preservatives, were found in both species; one otter sample from the lower Columbia had 2200 ng OCDD/kg. International TCDD toxic equivalent levels in mink (31 ng/kg) and otter (93 ng/kg) from the lower Columbia River approached toxicity thresholds for effects on reproduction in ranch mink.

  12. Seismic Evaluation of Hydrocarbon Saturation in Deep-Water Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Batzle


    During this last period of the ''Seismic Evaluation of Hydrocarbon Saturation in Deep-Water Reservoirs'' project (Grant/Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT15342), we finalized integration of rock physics, well log analysis, seismic processing, and forward modeling techniques. Most of the last quarter was spent combining the results from the principal investigators and come to some final conclusions about the project. Also much of the effort was directed towards technology transfer through the Direct Hydrocarbon Indicators mini-symposium at UH and through publications. As a result we have: (1) Tested a new method to directly invert reservoir properties, water saturation, Sw, and porosity from seismic AVO attributes; (2) Constrained the seismic response based on fluid and rock property correlations; (3) Reprocessed seismic data from Ursa field; (4) Compared thin layer property distributions and averaging on AVO response; (5) Related pressures and sorting effects on porosity and their influence on DHI's; (6) Examined and compared gas saturation effects for deep and shallow reservoirs; (7) Performed forward modeling using geobodies from deepwater outcrops; (8) Documented velocities for deepwater sediments; (9) Continued incorporating outcrop descriptive models in seismic forward models; (10) Held an open DHI symposium to present the final results of the project; (11) Relations between Sw, porosity, and AVO attributes; (12) Models of Complex, Layered Reservoirs; and (14) Technology transfer Several factors can contribute to limit our ability to extract accurate hydrocarbon saturations in deep water environments. Rock and fluid properties are one factor, since, for example, hydrocarbon properties will be considerably different with great depths (high pressure) when compared to shallow properties. Significant over pressure, on the other hand will make the rocks behave as if they were shallower. In addition to the physical properties, the scale and


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Batzle; D-h Han; R. Gibson; Huw James


    We are now entering the final stages of our ''Seismic Evaluation of Hydrocarbon Saturation in Deep-Water Reservoirs'' project (Grant/Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT15342). We have now developed several techniques to help distinguish economic hydrocarbon deposits from false ''Fizz'' gas signatures. These methods include using the proper in situ rock and fluid properties, evaluating interference effects on data, and doing better constrained inversions for saturations. We are testing these techniques now on seismic data from several locations in the Gulf of Mexico. In addition, we are examining the use of seismic attenuation as indicated by frequency shifts below potential reservoirs. During this quarter we have: Began our evaluation of our latest data set over the Neptune Field; Developed software for computing composite reflection coefficients; Designed and implemented stochastic turbidite reservoir models; Produced software & work flow to improve frequency-dependent AVO analysis; Developed improved AVO analysis for data with low signal-to-noise ratio; and Examined feasibility of detecting fizz gas using frequency attenuation. Our focus on technology transfer continues, both by generating numerous presentations for the upcoming SEG annual meeting, and by beginning our planning for our next DHI minisymposium next spring.

  14. Low-concentration tailing and subsequent quicklime-enhanced remediation of volatile chlorinated hydrocarbon-contaminated soils by mechanical soil aeration. (United States)

    Ma, Yan; Du, Xiaoming; Shi, Yi; Xu, Zhu; Fang, Jidun; Li, Zheng; Li, Fasheng


    Mechanical soil aeration has long been regarded as an effective ex-situ remediation technique and as suitable for remediation of large-scale sites contaminated by volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at low cost. However, it has been reported that the removal efficiency of VOCs from soil is relatively low in the late stages of remediation, in association with tailing. Tailing may extend the remediation time required; moreover, it typically results in the presence of contaminants residues at levels far exceeding regulations. In this context, the present study aimed to discuss the tailing that occurs during the process of remediation of soils contaminated artificially with volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons (VCHs) and to assess possible quicklime-enhanced removal mechanisms. The results revealed the following conclusions. First, temperature and aeration rate can be important controls on both the timing of appearance of tailing and the levels of residual contaminants. Furthermore, the addition of quicklime to soil during tailing can reduce the residual concentrations rapidly to below the remedial target values required for site remediation. Finally, mechanical soil aeration can be enhanced using quicklime, which can improve the volatilization of VCHs via increasing soil temperature, reducing soil moisture, and enhancing soil permeability. Our findings give a basic understanding to the elimination of the tailing in the application of mechanical soil aeration, particularly for VOCs-contaminated soils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Quicklime-induced changes of soil properties: Implications for enhanced remediation of volatile chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminated soils via mechanical soil aeration. (United States)

    Ma, Yan; Dong, Binbin; He, Xiaosong; Shi, Yi; Xu, Mingyue; He, Xuwen; Du, Xiaoming; Li, Fasheng


    Mechanical soil aeration is used for soil remediation at sites contaminated by volatile organic compounds. However, the effectiveness of the method is limited by low soil temperature, high soil moisture, and high soil viscosity. Combined with mechanical soil aeration, quicklime has a practical application value related to reinforcement remediation and to its action in the remediation of soil contaminated with volatile organic compounds. In this study, the target pollutant was trichloroethylene, which is a volatile chlorinated hydrocarbon pollutant commonly found in contaminated soils. A restoration experiment was carried out, using a set of mechanical soil-aeration simulation tests, by adding quicklime (mass ratios of 3, 10, and 20%) to the contaminated soil. The results clearly indicate that quicklime changed the physical properties of the soil, which affected the environmental behaviour of trichloroethylene in the soil. The addition of CaO increased soil temperature and reduced soil moisture to improve the mass transfer of trichloroethylene. In addition, it improved the macroporous cumulative pore volume and average pore size, which increased soil permeability. As soil pH increased, the clay mineral content in the soils decreased, the cation exchange capacity and the redox potential decreased, and the removal of trichloroethylene from the soil was enhanced to a certain extent. After the addition of quicklime, the functional group COO of soil organic matter could interact with calcium ions, which increased soil polarity and promoted the removal of trichloroethylene. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of Chlorine Treatment Levels for Inactivation of Human Norovirus and MS2 Bacteriophage during Sewage Treatment. (United States)

    Kingsley, David H; Fay, Johnna P; Calci, Kevin; Pouillot, Régis; Woods, Jacquelina; Chen, Haiqiang; Niemira, Brendan A; Van Doren, Jane M


    This study examined the inactivation of human norovirus (HuNoV) GI.1 and GII.4 by chlorine under conditions mimicking sewage treatment. Using a porcine gastric mucin-magnetic bead (PGM-MB) assay, no statistically significant loss in HuNoV binding (inactivation) was observed for secondary effluent treatments of ≤25 ppm total chlorine; for both strains, 50 and 100 ppm treatments resulted in ≤0.8-log 10 unit and ≥3.9-log 10 unit reductions, respectively. Treatments of 10, 25, 50, and 100 ppm chlorine inactivated 0.31, 1.35, >5, and >5 log 10 units, respectively, of the norovirus indicator MS2 bacteriophage. Evaluation of treatment time indicated that the vast majority of MS2 and HuNoV inactivation occurred in the first 5 min for 0.2-μm-filtered, prechlorinated secondary effluent. Free chlorine measurements of secondary effluent seeded with MS2 and HuNoV demonstrated substantial oxidative burdens. With 25, 50, and 100 ppm treatments, free chlorine levels after 5 min of exposure ranged from 0.21 to 0.58 ppm, from 0.28 to 16.7 ppm, and from 11.6 to 53 ppm, respectively. At chlorine treatment levels of >50 ppm, statistically significant differences were observed between reductions for PGM-MB-bound HuNoV (potentially infectious) particles and those for unbound (noninfectious) HuNoV particles or total norovirus particles. While results suggested that MS2 and HuNoV (measured as PGM-MB binding) behave similarly, although not identically, both have limited susceptibility to chlorine treatments of ≤25 ppm total chlorine. Since sewage treatment is performed at ≤25 ppm total chlorine, targeting free chlorine levels of 0.5 to 1.0 ppm, these results suggest that traditional chlorine-based sewage treatment does not inactivate HuNoV efficiently. IMPORTANCE HuNoV is ubiquitous in sewage. A receptor binding assay was used to assess inactivation of HuNoV by chlorine-based sewage treatment, given that the virus cannot be routinely propagated in vitro Results reported here

  17. Hydrocarbonization process evaluation report. Volume II. Evaluation of process feasibility. [49 refs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, J.M.; Dyslin, D.A.; Edwards, M.S.; Joy, D.S.; Peterson, G.R.


    Volume II of a two-volume study concerning the preliminary design and economic evaluation of a Hydrocarbonization Facility includes: (1) a review of the current status of the major processing units, (2) an assessment of operating problems, (3) considerations of possible process alternatives, (4) an evaluation of the overall process feasibility, and (5) recommendations for future process development. Results of the study emphasize the need for testing the evaluated process, which is based on the Clean Coke Process, in a continuous pilot plant using a wide variety of highly caking bituminous coals as feed material. A program suggested for the pilot plant would encompass: (1) development of improved methods for the prevention of agglomeration of highly caking coals during hydrocarbonization, (2) optimization of the yields of coal liquids, (3) investigation of a single-stage high-temperature hydrocarbonizer optimized for char production, and (4) optimization of beneficiation ratios employed during coal preparation.

  18. Aqueous chlorination of resorcinol (United States)

    Heasley, V.L.; Burns, M.D.; Kemalyan, N.A.; Mckee, T.C.; Schroeter, H.; Teegarden, B.R.; Whitney, S.E.; Wershaw, R. L.


    An investigation of the aqueous chlorination (NaOCl) of resorcinol is reported. The following intermediates were detected in moderate to high yield at different pH values and varying percentages of chlorination: 2-chloro-, 4-chloro-, 2,4-dichloro-, 4,6-dichloro- and 2,4,6-trichlororesorcinol. Only trace amounts of the intermediates were detected when the chlorination was conducted in the presence of phosphate buffer. This result has significant implications since resorcinol in phosphate buffer has been used as a model compound in several recent studies on the formation of chlorinated hydrocarbons during chlorination of drinking water. Relative rates of chlorination were determined for resorcinol and several of the chlorinated resorcinols. Resorcinol was found to chlorinate only three times faster than 2,4,6-trichlororesorcinol. The structure 2,4,6-trichlororesorcinol was established as a monohydrate even after sublimation. A tetrachloro or pentachloro intermediate was not detected, suggesting that the ring-opening step of such an intermediate must be rapid. ?? 1989.

  19. Mercury and persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons in owls Strigiformes and birds of prey Falconiformes collected in Norway during the period 1965-1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froeslie, A.; Holt, G.; Norheim, G.


    Levels of mercury and persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons were determined in the liver of dead birds of prey (N = 568) and owls (n = 310) collected in Norway in 1965-1983. The highest levels of mercury were found in osprey and white-tailed eagle, with median concentrations of 4.7 and 2.4 Hg g/sup -1/ liver respectively. The levels of DDE and PCB varied considerably, the highest levels of DDE being detected in white-tailed eagle and goshawk which had a median concentration of 2.0 and 1.9 DDEg/sup -1/ liver respectively. Highest levels of PCB were detected in osprey, gyr falcon and white-tailed eagle (5.0 PCBg/sup -1/). With a few exceptions the levels of HCB, ..gamma..-BHC and dieldrin detected were low. Mercury and organochlorine levels were also determined in unhatched eggs (n = 159) of raptorial birds collected in the same period. The levels of mercury were, with a few exceptions, low. The highest levels of DDE were found in eggs of merlin and sparrow hawk with median concentrations of 30 and 19 g/sup -1/ respectively, while the highest levels of PCB were found in eggs of white-tailed eagle and goshawk, with median concentrations of 13.9 and 12.3 PCB/sup -1/, respectively. It was not possible, from the present material, to demonstrate significant changes in contaminant levels over time. Nor was it possible to detect significant geographical differences. Although a very few samples of liver and eggs contained levels of mercury or organochlorines that might be considered toxic, the greater proportion of samples contained levels far below accepted critical limits.

  20. Chlorine poisoning (United States)

    Chlorine is a chemical that prevents bacteria from growing. Chlorine poisoning occurs when someone swallows or breathes in (inhales) chlorine. This article is for information only. Do NOT use it to ...

  1. Culture-Independent Evaluation of Nonenveloped-Virus Infectivity Reduced by Free-Chlorine Disinfection (United States)

    Ohta, Takatomo; Nakamura, Arata; Nakagomi, Toyoko; Nakagomi, Osamu; Okabe, Satoshi


    The inability of molecular detection methods to distinguish disinfected virions from infectious ones has hampered the assessment of infectivity for enteric viruses caused by disinfection practices. In the present study, the reduction of infectivity of murine norovirus S7-PP3 and mengovirus vMC0, surrogates of human noroviruses and enteroviruses, respectively, caused by free-chlorine treatment was characterized culture independently by detecting carbonyl groups on viral capsid protein. The amount of carbonyls on viral capsid protein was evaluated by the proportion of biotinylated virions trapped by avidin-immobilized gel (percent adsorbed). This culture-independent approach demonstrated that the percent adsorbed was significantly correlated with the logarithm of the infectious titer of tested viruses. Taken together with the results of previous reports, the result obtained in this study indicates that the amount of carbonyls on viral capsid protein of four important families of waterborne pathogenic viruses, Astroviridae, Reoviridae, Caliciviridae, and Picornaviridae, is increased in proportion to the received oxidative stress of free chlorine. There was also a significant correlation between the percent adsorbed and the logarithm of the ratio of genome copy number to PFU, which enables estimation of the infectious titer of a subject virus by measuring values of the total genome copy number and the percent adsorbed. The proposed method is applicable when the validation of a 4-log reduction of viruses, a requirement in U.S. EPA guidelines for virus removal from water, is needed along with clear evidence of the oxidation of virus particles with chlorine-based disinfectants. PMID:25681178

  2. Evaluation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and some heavy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scomber scombrus), suya beef and plantain (Musa paradiasca) sold and consumed in Amassoma town were screened for the presence of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Concentration of chromium, lead and cadmium were also ...

  3. Simultaneous determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their chlorination by-products in drinking water and the coatings of water pipes by automated solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Tillner, Jocelyn; Hollard, Caroline; Bach, Cristina; Rosin, Christophe; Munoz, Jean-François; Dauchy, Xavier


    In this study, an automated method for the simultaneous determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their chlorination by-products in drinking water was developed based on online solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main focus was the optimisation of the solid-phase microextraction step. The influence of the agitation rate, type of fibre, desorption time, extraction time, extraction temperature, desorption temperature, and solvent addition was examined. The method was developed and validated using a mixture of 17 PAHs, 11 potential chlorination by-products (chlorinated and oxidised PAHs) and 6 deuterated standards. The limit of quantification was 10 ng/L for all target compounds. The validated method was used to analyse drinking water samples from three different drinking water distribution networks and the presumably coal tar-based pipe coatings of two pipe sections. A number of PAHs were detected in all three networks although individual compositions varied. Several PAH chlorination by-products (anthraquinone, fluorenone, cyclopenta[d,e,f]phenanthrenone, 3-chlorofluoranthene, and 1-chloropyrene) were also found, their presence correlating closely with that of their respective parent compounds. Their concentrations were always below 100 ng/L. In the coatings, all PAHs targeted were detected although concentrations varied between the two coatings (76-12,635 mg/kg and 12-6295 mg/kg, respectively). A number of chlorination by-products (anthraquinone, fluorenone, cyclopenta[d,e,f]phenanthrenone, 3-chlorofluoranthene, and 1-chloropyrene) were also detected (from 40 to 985 mg/kg), suggesting that the reaction of PAHs with disinfectant agents takes place in the coatings and not in the water phase after migration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Push-Pull Tests for Evaluating the Aerobic Cometabolism of Chlorinated Aliphatic Hydrocarbons: Cost & Performance Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Semprini, Lew


    .... Tests were performed at McClellan Air Force Base (McAFB), California, using propane as the cometabolic substrate, and at Fort Lewis Logistics Center, Washington, using toluene as the cometabolic...

  5. Evaluation of functional groups responsible for chloroform formation during water chlorination using compound specific isotope analysis. (United States)

    Arnold, William A; Bolotin, Jakov; Von Gunten, Urs; Hofstetter, Thomas B


    Compound-specific isotope analysis was used to monitor the delta(13)C signature of chloroform produced upon the chlorination of model compounds representing natural organic matter functional groups (resorcinol, acetylacetone, acetophenone, phenol, and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol) and a natural water sample. For each model compound, a different apparent kinetic isotope effect was found for chloroform formation. Normal isotope effects were found for resorcinol, acetylacetone, and acetophenone, and ranged from 1.009 +/- 0.002 to 1.024 +/- 0.004. For the two phenols, an inverse effect was found (0.980 +/- 0.004). Lake Zürich water also had a inverse effect (0.997 +/- NOM, but that other functional groups may also participate. The apparent 13C kinetic isotope effect for the addition/ elimination reaction of 1,1,1-trichloropropanone mediated by OH- to yield chloroform is 1.014 +/- 0.002. A comparison of this value to those found for the chlorination of the model precursors and an evaluation of the differences in chloroform production kinetics for the different model precursors argue against a mechanism in which all NOM precursors react via a common intermediate. Compound specific isotope analysis may give additional insights into chloroform formation mechanisms beyond those allowed by current techniques.

  6. Comparative evaluation of effects of ozonated and chlorinated thermal discharges on estuarine and fresh water organisms. First quarterly progress report, April 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra, C.R.; DelMonaco, J.L.; Singletary, J.H.; Sugam, R.J.; Meldrim, J.W.; Holmstrom, E.R.; Balog, G.F.


    The biological evaluation program incorporates three types of experimental tests: acute (96 hour) toxicity studies; behavioral (avoidance) response studies; and physiological (cough) response studies. In addition, specimens used in testing are examined for physical damage resulting from exposure to chlorine or ozoen. The objective of the acute (96 hour) toxicity study is to determine the respective lethal levels (LC/sub 50/) of chlorinated and ozonated waters. The objective of the behavioral (avoidance) response study is to determine what (if any) concentrations of ozone and of chlorine will be avoided. The objective of physiological (cough) response study is to determine what concentrations of ozone and of chlorine are physiologically detected. Ozonated and chlorinated waters were evaluated in all studies for both the addition of increased temperature and without it. Results indicate that ozone is less toxic than chlorine under the test conditions used. The lethal levels vary according to species of water quality measurements at Bergen Generating Station, New York are tabulated. (JBG)

  7. Gamma radiolysis of chlorinated hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbon, R.E.; Mincher, B.J.; Meikrantz, D.H.


    This program is the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) component of a joint collarborative effort with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The purpose of this effort is to demonstrate a viable process for breaking down hazardous halogenated organic wastes to simpler, non-hazardous waste using high energy ionizing radiation. The INEL effort focuses on the use of spent reactor fuel gamma radiation sources to decompose complex wastes such as PCBs. At LLNL, halogenated solvents such as carbon tetrachloride and trichloroethylene are being studied using accelerator radiation sources. The INEL irradiation experiments concentrated on a single PCB congener so that a limited set of decomposition reactions could be studied. The congener 2,2{prime}, 3,3{prime},4,5{prime},6,6{prime} - octachlorobiphenyl was examined following exposure to various gamma doses at the Advanced Test Reactor (AIR) spent fuel pool. The decomposition rates and products in several solvents are discussed. 3 refs.

  8. Gamma radiolysis of chlorinated hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbon, R.E.; Mincher, B.J.; Meikrantz, D.H.


    This program is the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) component of a joint collarborative effort with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The purpose of this effort is to demonstrate a viable process for breaking down hazardous halogenated organic wastes to simpler, non-hazardous waste using high energy ionizing radiation. The INEL effort focuses on the use of spent reactor fuel gamma radiation sources to decompose complex wastes such as PCBs. At LLNL, halogenated solvents such as carbon tetrachloride and trichloroethylene are being studied using accelerator radiation sources. The INEL irradiation experiments concentrated on a single PCB congener so that a limited set of decomposition reactions could be studied. The congener 2,2{prime}, 3,3{prime},4,5{prime},6,6{prime} - octachlorobiphenyl was examined following exposure to various gamma doses at the Advanced Test Reactor (AIR) spent fuel pool. The decomposition rates and products in several solvents are discussed. 3 refs.

  9. Evaluation of chlorine, chlorine dioxide, and a peroxyacetic acid-based sanitizer for effectiveness in killing Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis spores in suspensions, on the surface of stainless steel, and on apples. (United States)

    Kreske, Audrey C; Ryu, Jee-Hoon; Beuchat, Larry R


    Chlorine (10 to 200 microg/ml), chlorine dioxide (10 to 200 microg/ml), and a peroxyacetic acid-based sanitizer (40 and 80 microg/ ml) were evaluated for effectiveness in killing spores of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis in suspensions and on the surface of stainless steel and apples. Water and 5% horse serum were used as carriers for spore inoculum applied to the surface of stainless steel coupons, and 5% horse serum was used as a carrier for inoculum applied to apples. Inocula were dried on stainless steel for 5 h and on apples for 22 to 24 h before treating with sanitizers. At the concentrations of sanitizers tested, sensitivities of planktonic B. cereus and B. thuringiensis spores were similar. A portion of the spores surviving treatment with chlorine and, more markedly, chlorine dioxide had decreased tolerance to heat. Planktonic spores of both species were more sensitive to sanitizers than were spores on the surface of stainless steel or apples. At the same concentrations, chlorine was more effective than chlorine dioxide in killing spores in suspension and on stainless steel. The lethality of chlorine dioxide was markedly reduced when inoculum on stainless steel coupons was suspended in 5% horse serum as a carrier rather than water. Chlorine and chlorine dioxide at concentrations of 10 to 100 microg/ml were equally effective in killing spores on apples. Significant reductions of > or = 3.8 to 4.5 log CFU per apple were achieved by treatment with 100 microg/ml of either of the two sanitizers. The peroxyacetic acid sanitizer (40 and 80 microg/ml) was ineffective in killing Bacillus spores in the test systems investigated. Results provide information on the effectiveness of sanitizers commonly used in the food processing industry in killing Bacillus spores in suspension, on a food-contact surface, and on a ready-to-eat food.

  10. Evaluation of hydrocarbons level and identification of indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil samples collected from Ikokwu auto-mechanic village Mile 3, Port Harcourt, Nigeria were analyzed for the microbiological and hydrocarbon content using standard culture dependent and physiochemical methods. Five sets of soil designated A, B, C, D and E were collected using composite technique at depth 0 - 15 cm ...

  11. Evaluation of the Hydrocarbon Maturity Level of Oil Well in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    G. Memoir 60: Tulsa, 599 – 614. Emujakporue, O G (2009). Subsidence and geothermal history in the eastern Niger delta with implications for hydrocarbons. Unpublished. Ph. D. Thesis, University of PortHarcourt,. PortHarcourt. Klett, T R; Ahlbrandt, T S; Schmoker, J W; Dolton, J. L (1997). Ranking of the Worlds oil and Gas.

  12. Evaluation of Hydrocarbons Level and Identification of Indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT: Soil samples collected from Ikokwu auto-mechanic village Mile 3, Port Harcourt, Nigeria were analyzed for the microbiological and hydrocarbon content using standard culture dependent and physiochemical methods. Five sets of soil designated A, B, C, D and E were collected using composite technique at ...

  13. Evaluation of disinfection efficiency in pet's hospital by using chlorine dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Shan Hsu


    Full Text Available Microbial aerosols could cause various human and animal health problems and their control is becoming a significant scientific and technological topic for consideration. The main objectives of this study were to monitor bioaerosol levels of the pet's hospital and then to perform disinfection efficiency by applying chlorine dioxide. The air quality within these pet's hospitals should satisfy the guidelines specified by the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration (TEPA. Accordingly, this study performed an experimental investigation into the efficiency of two different gaseous chlorine dioxide (0.3 mg m−3 treatments in disinfecting a local pet's hospital, namely a single, one-off application and a multiple-daily application. In both cases, the ClO2 was applied using strategically-placed aerosol devices. The air quality before and after disinfection was evaluated by measuring the bioaerosol levels of bacteria and fungi. The experimental results found that the average background levels of bacteria and fungi prior to ClO2 disinfection were found to be 2014 ± 1350 and 1002 ± 669 CFU m−3, respectively. A single ClO2 application was found to total disinfected bacteria and fungi concentration levels by as much as 57.3 and 57.6%. By contrast, a multiple-daily ClO2 application was found to total disinfected bacteria and fungi concentration levels by as much as 65.1 and 57.6%. Among the two disinfection methods, the multiple-daily ClO2 application method was found to yield a higher disinfection efficiency for bacteria, i.e., 16.28 ± 0.92%. Thus, using a ClO2 disinfectant to maintain the air quality is of great importance to reduce infectious diseases in the pet's hospital. Therefore, the results suggest that the air quality guidelines prescribed by the TEPA for pet's hospital and other animal facilities can best be achieved by applying chlorine dioxide at regular intervals. The ClO2 aerosol devices can effectively restrain or

  14. Microbial transformation of chlorinated aromatics in sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beurskens, J.E.M.


    Numerous contaminants like heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), chlorinated benzenes (CBs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo- p -dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated furans (PCDFs) are detected in the major rivers in the

  15. Identification and determination of chlorinated paraffins using multivariate evaluation of gas chromatographic data. (United States)

    Nilsson, Marie-Louise; Bengtsson, Staffan; Kylin, Henrik


    Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) were found in the biodegradable fraction of source separated waste from Uppsala, Sweden. We identified and quantified the CPs by multivariate evaluation of gas chromatography-electron capture detection chromatograms. Using principal component analyses (PCA) we identified different types of CP-formulations and also obtain quantitative data. PCA yielded better identifications of individual CP-formulations than visual comparison of chromatograms. Partial least squares regression gave good calibration curves of the standards, but did not work for the waste samples. No source of CPs could be identified in the waste collection chain, and as the waste samples seemed to contain at least two different CP-formulations the source was probably to be found in the waste material itself. The method was used to determine CPs in additional environmental samples, demonstrating that multivariate methods may be developed into a powerful tool for identification and quantification of complex mixture. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of DBPs formation from SMPs exposed to chlorine, chloramine and ozone. (United States)

    Zhang, Beibei; Xian, Qiming; Lu, Jian; Gong, Tingting; Li, Aimin; Feng, Jianfang


    Soluble microbial products (SMPs) are an important group of components in wastewater effluents. In this study, the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs), including trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs), chlorinated solvents (CSs), haloketones (HKs), haloacetonitriles (HANs) and trichloronitromethane (TCNM) (chloropicrin), from SMPs during chlorination, chloramination and ozonation was investigated. More carbonaceous DBPs (C-DBPs: THMs, HAAs, CSs and HKs) and nitrogenous DBPs (N-DBPs: HANs and TCNM) were formed in chlorination than chloramination. More dichloroacetic and N-DBPs, and higher DBP formation potential were generated by SMPs than by natural organic matter. The results also show that disinfection factors, including temperature, pH, disinfectant dose, reaction time and bromide level significantly affected the formation of DBPs from SMPs. Additionally, the bromine incorporation factor indicates that chloramination may be a good alternative to chlorination in reducing the formation of Br-DBPs from SMPs. Bromide level and pH were the key factors affecting the formation of DBPs in both chlorination and chloramination.

  17. Evaluating the effects of granular and membrane filtrations on chlorine demand in drinking water. (United States)

    Jegatheesan, Veeriah; Kim, Seung Hyun; Joo, C K; Gao, Baoyu


    In this study, chlorine decay experiments were conducted for the raw water from Nakdong River that is treated by Chilseo Water Treatment Plant (CWTP) situated in Haman, Korea as well as the effluents from sand and granular activated carbon (GAC) filters of CWTP and fitted using a chlorine decay model. The model estimated the fast and slow reacting nitrogenous as well as organic/inorganic compounds that were present in the water. It was found that the chlorine demand due to fast and slow reacting (FRA and SRA) organic/inorganic substances was not reduced significantly by sand as well as GAC filters. However, the treated effluents from those filters contained FRA and SRA that are less reactive and had small reaction rate constants. For the effluents from microfiltration, ultrafiltration, and nanofiltration the chlorine demand because FRA and SRA were further reduced but the reaction rate constants were larger compared to those of sand and GAC filter effluents. This has implications in the formation of disinfection by products (DBPs). If DBPs are assumed to form due to the interactions between chlorine and SRA, then it is possible that the DBP formation potential in the effluents from membrane filtrations could be higher than that in the effluents from granular media filters.

  18. Quantification and evaluation of safety risks related to the use of ammonia and hydrocarbons as refrigerants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Gerwen, R.J.M.; Verwoerd, M. [Department of Refrigeration and Heat Pump Technology, Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research TNO, Apeldoorn (Netherlands)


    Models and techniques for the quantification and evaluation of safety aspects related to the use of ammonia and hydrocarbons as working fluids are discussed. TNO has been working with Quantitative Risk Analysis (QRA) for a number of years, and have applied the advanced models in many case studies. 9 refs.

  19. Applying of modern approach to evaluation of initial hydrocarbon reserves at the edge of saturation pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Віталій Ігорович Коваль


    Full Text Available The article deals the features for evaluation of initial saturated hydrocarbon reserves, which developed as the depletion of reservoir energy and the maintenance of reservoir pressure. A new method of material balance is used with accounting of the gravity distribution of reservoir system components, extraction of each component of reservoir fluids, change of their physical properties in the development of deposits

  20. [Combined use of active chlorine and coagulants for drinking water purification and disinfection]. (United States)

    Rakhmanin, Iu A; Zholdakova, Z I; Poliakova, E E; Kir'ianova, L F; Miasnikov, I N; Tul'skaia, E A; Artemova, T Z; Ivanova, L V; Dmitrieva, R A; Doskina, T V


    The authors made an experimental study of the efficiency of water purification procedures based on the combined use of active chlorine and coagulants and hygienically evaluated the procedures. The study included the evaluation of water disinfection with various coagulants and active chlorine; the investigation of the processes of production of deleterious organic chlorine compounds; the assessment of the quality of water after its treatment. The coagulants representing aluminum polyoxychloride: RAX-10 (AQUA-AURATE 10) and RAX-18 (AQUA-AURATE 18), and aluminum sulfate, technically pure grade were tested. The treatment of river water with the coagulants RAX-10 and RAX-18, followed by precipitation, filtration, and chlorination under laboratory conditions, was shown to result in water disinfection to the levels complying with the requirements described in SanPiN RAX-18 showed the best disinfecting activity against total and heat-tolerant coliform bacteria, but also to the highly chlorine-resistant microrganisms--the spores of sulfite-reducing Clostridia, phages, and viruses. Since the coagulants have an increased sorptive capacity relative to humus and other organic substances, substitution of primary chlorination for coagulant treatment may induce a reduction in the risk of formation of oncogenically and mutagenically hazardous chlorinated hydrocarbons.

  1. Surface water disinfection by chlorination and advanced oxidation processes: Inactivation of an antibiotic resistant E. coli strain and cytotoxicity evaluation. (United States)

    Miranda, Andreza Costa; Lepretti, Marilena; Rizzo, Luigi; Caputo, Ivana; Vaiano, Vincenzo; Sacco, Olga; Lopes, Wilton Silva; Sannino, Diana


    The release of antibiotics into the environment can result in antibiotic resistance (AR) spread, which in turn can seriously affect human health. Antibiotic resistant bacteria have been detected in different aquatic environments used as drinking water source. Water disinfection may be a possible solution to minimize AR spread but conventional processes, such as chlorination, result in the formation of dangerous disinfection by-products. In this study advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), namely H2O2/UV, TiO2/UV and N-TiO2/UV, have been compared with chlorination in the inactivation of an AR Escherichia coli (E. coli) strain in surface water. TiO2 P25 and nitrogen doped TiO2 (N-TiO2), prepared by sol-gel method at two different synthesis temperatures (0 and -20°C), were investigated in heterogeneous photocatalysis experiments. Under the investigated conditions, chlorination (1.0 mg L(-1)) was the faster process (2.5 min) to achieve total inactivation (6 Log). Among AOPs, H2O2/UV resulted in the best inactivation rate: total inactivation (6 Log) was achieved in 45 min treatment. Total inactivation was not observed (4.5 Log), also after 120 min treatment, only for N-doped TiO2 synthesized at 0°C. Moreover, H2O2/UV and chlorination processes were evaluated in terms of cytotoxicity potential by means of 3-(4,5-dime-thylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenylte-trazolium colorimetric test on a human-derived cell line and they similarly affected HepG2 cells viability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Chlorine inactivation of Salmonella Kentucky isolated from chicken carcasses: Evaluation of strain variation (United States)

    The inactivation behavior of antibiotic resistant and non-resistant Salmonella Kentucky recovered from pre- and post-chill whole broiler carcasses in a large poultry plant was investigated by the exposure to 30 ppm chlorine for selected time intervals. The antibiotic resistance profiles were non-res...

  3. Evaluation of anthropogenic secondary organic aerosol tracers from aromatic hydrocarbons

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ibrahim M Al-Naiema; Elizabeth A Stone


    ...) - 2,3-dihydroxy-4-oxopentanoic acid, dicarboxylic acids, nitromonoaromatics, and furandiones - were evaluated for their potential to serve as anthropogenic SOA tracers with respect to their (1...

  4. Characterization of Preferential Ground-Water Seepage From a Chlorinated Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Aquifer to West Branch Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, 2002-04 (United States)

    Majcher, Emily H.; Phelan, Daniel J.; Lorah, Michelle M.; McGinty, Angela L.


    Wetlands act as natural transition zones between ground water and surface water, characterized by the complex interdependency of hydrology, chemical and physical properties, and biotic effects. Although field and laboratory demonstrations have shown efficient natural attenuation processes in the non-seep wetland areas and stream bottom sediments of West Branch Canal Creek, chlorinated volatile organic compounds are present in a freshwater tidal creek at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Volatile organic compound concentrations in surface water indicate that in some areas of the wetland, preferential flow paths or seeps allow transport of organic compounds from the contaminated sand aquifer to the overlying surface water without undergoing natural attenuation. From 2002 through 2004, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Environmental Conservation and Restoration Division of the U.S. Army Garrison, Aberdeen Proving Ground, characterized preferential ground-water seepage as part of an ongoing investigation of contaminant distribution and natural attenuation processes in wetlands at this site. Seep areas were discrete and spatially consistent during thermal infrared surveys in 2002, 2003, and 2004 throughout West Branch Canal Creek wetlands. In these seep areas, temperature measurements in shallow pore water and sediment more closely resembled those in ground water than those in nearby surface water. Generally, pore water in seep areas contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds had lower methane and greater volatile organic compound concentrations than pore water in non-seep wetland sediments. The volatile organic compounds detected in shallow pore water in seeps were spatially similar to the dominant volatile organic compounds in the underlying Canal Creek aquifer, with both parent and anaerobic daughter compounds detected. Seep locations characterized as focused seeps contained the highest concentrations of chlorinated parent compounds

  5. On the efficiency of the hybrid and the exact second-order sampling formulations of the EnKF: a reality-inspired 3-D test case for estimating biodegradation rates of chlorinated hydrocarbons at the port of Rotterdam

    KAUST Repository

    El Gharamti, Mohamad


    This study considers the assimilation problem of subsurface contaminants at the port of Rotterdam in the Netherlands. It involves the estimation of solute concentrations and biodegradation rates of four different chlorinated solvents. We focus on assessing the efficiency of an adaptive hybrid ensemble Kalman filter and optimal interpolation (EnKF-OI) and the exact second-order sampling formulation (EnKFESOS) for mitigating the undersampling of the estimation and observation errors covariances, respectively. A multi-dimensional and multi-species reactive transport model is coupled to simulate the migration of contaminants within a Pleistocene aquifer layer located around 25 m below mean sea level. The biodegradation chain of chlorinated hydrocarbons starting from tetrachloroethene and ending with vinyl chloride is modeled under anaerobic environmental conditions for 5 decades. Yearly pseudo-concentration data are used to condition the forecast concentration and degradation rates in the presence of model and observational errors. Assimilation results demonstrate the robustness of the hybrid EnKF-OI, for accurately calibrating the uncertain biodegradation rates. When implemented serially, the adaptive hybrid EnKF-OI scheme efficiently adjusts the weights of the involved covariances for each individual measurement. The EnKFESOS is shown to maintain the parameter ensemble spread much better leading to more robust estimates of the states and parameters. On average, a well tuned hybrid EnKF-OI and the EnKFESOS respectively suggest around 48 and 21 % improved concentration estimates, as well as around 70 and 23 % improved anaerobic degradation rates, over the standard EnKF. Incorporating large uncertainties in the flow model degrades the accuracy of the estimates of all schemes. Given that the performance of the hybrid EnKF-OI depends on the quality of the background statistics, satisfactory results were obtained only when the uncertainty imposed on the background

  6. On the efficiency of the hybrid and the exact second-order sampling formulations of the EnKF: a reality-inspired 3-D test case for estimating biodegradation rates of chlorinated hydrocarbons at the port of Rotterdam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Gharamti


    Full Text Available This study considers the assimilation problem of subsurface contaminants at the port of Rotterdam in the Netherlands. It involves the estimation of solute concentrations and biodegradation rates of four different chlorinated solvents. We focus on assessing the efficiency of an adaptive hybrid ensemble Kalman filter and optimal interpolation (EnKF-OI and the exact second-order sampling formulation (EnKFESOS for mitigating the undersampling of the estimation and observation errors covariances, respectively. A multi-dimensional and multi-species reactive transport model is coupled to simulate the migration of contaminants within a Pleistocene aquifer layer located around 25 m below mean sea level. The biodegradation chain of chlorinated hydrocarbons starting from tetrachloroethene and ending with vinyl chloride is modeled under anaerobic environmental conditions for 5 decades. Yearly pseudo-concentration data are used to condition the forecast concentration and degradation rates in the presence of model and observational errors. Assimilation results demonstrate the robustness of the hybrid EnKF-OI, for accurately calibrating the uncertain biodegradation rates. When implemented serially, the adaptive hybrid EnKF-OI scheme efficiently adjusts the weights of the involved covariances for each individual measurement. The EnKFESOS is shown to maintain the parameter ensemble spread much better leading to more robust estimates of the states and parameters. On average, a well tuned hybrid EnKF-OI and the EnKFESOS respectively suggest around 48 and 21 % improved concentration estimates, as well as around 70 and 23 % improved anaerobic degradation rates, over the standard EnKF. Incorporating large uncertainties in the flow model degrades the accuracy of the estimates of all schemes. Given that the performance of the hybrid EnKF-OI depends on the quality of the background statistics, satisfactory results were obtained only when the uncertainty imposed on

  7. Evaluating potential chlorinated methanes degradation mechanisms and treatments in interception trenches filled with concrete-based construction wastes (United States)

    Rodríguez-Fernandez, Diana; Torrentó, Clara; Rosell, Mònica; Audí-Miró, Carme; Soler, Albert


    conditions in the trenches with in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO), which would be able to remove the rest of the accompanying pollutants, is proposed and merits evaluation. Preliminary batch experiments were performed to evaluate the feasibility of different chemical oxidation reactions (permanganate, persulphate, hydrogen peroxide and Fenton) on the complex contaminated recharge water which were, in general, more effective for degrading the chlorinated ethenes than for the chlorinated methanes (Torrentó et al. EGU 2012). Therefore, this study seeks to improve the understanding of CF and CT degradation mechanisms/processes that are going on in the interception trenches as well as to select between the two most effective chemical oxidation remediation treatments (persulphate and permanganate) taking into account their efficiency respect the chlorinated methanes removal, the generated acute toxicity and the applicability of the carbon isotopic fractionation as an indicator of the effectiveness of the future in situ remediation. Additionally, ongoing batch experiments are expected to elucidate if CT is undergoing abiotic reductive dechlorination by Fe-bearing minerals such as hydrophobic green rust (Ayala-Luis et al., 2012) which transform CT into non-chlorinated substances such as formic acid and carbon monoxide. This unstable iron compound might be formed in the interception trenches during chloride induced corrosion of iron mineral phases present in the concrete-based construction wastes (Sagoe-Crentsil and Glasser, 1993). The role of other minerals like iron oxy-hydroxides, carbonates or sulphides cannot be discarded at all. The potential of δ13C values to assess the efficiency of this abiotic CT degradation reaction will be also evaluated. References Ayala-Luis, K.; Cooper, N.; Bender C. and Hansen. H. (2012) Efficient dechlorination of carbon tetrachloride by hydrophobic green rust intercaled with dodecanoate anions. Environmental Science & Technology 46, 3390

  8. Evaluation of methods for determination free available chlorine in public water supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samara Silva Soares


    Full Text Available To assurance the drinking water quality, the disinfecting has to be guaranteed. In this sense, chlorination is the most widely used method, which promotes the inactivation and/or destruction of pathogenic microorganisms. The analytic methods more common for free available chlorine in drinking water are based on the DPD colorimetric method. In this way, the main core of this research is to compare the results obtained between two devices that can use two types reagents: visual and digital equipments; and powder and tablet reagents. Moreover, was analyzed whatever correlation between the others measured parameters: pH, turbidity, electric conductivity, fluoride, total coliforms and Escherichia coli. Were collected 40 samples in particular homes, which were distributed in six districts of three different areas of the city of Goiânia (Goiás, Brazil. The results were that the powder reagent had higher values than tablet ones, and that the measures of the digital equipment were lower than the visual disk. By other hand, was found one linear correlation between turbidity and the free available chlorine, and one soft inverse relationship between the fluorine and the electric conductivity.

  9. Evaluating the Role of Hydrocarbon Seepage in Carbonate Mound Formation (Offshore Ireland) using Basin Modelling (United States)

    Naeth, J.; di Primio, R.; Horsfield, B.; Shannon, P.; Bailey, W. R.; Henriet, J. P.


    The goal of this project was to assess whether deep water coral mound growth on the continental slope of the north Atlantic could be related to active hydrocarbon leakage. The objects of interest are numerous buried and non-buried carbonate mounds, consisting mainly of corals, carbonate crusts and fine grained clastic sediments in the Porcupine Basin, which is located on the eastern Atlantic continental slope 200 km offshore Ireland and contains the sub-commercial Connemara oil field. To evaluate the possible link between hydrocarbon leakage and mound growth we used 2D and 3D basin modelling in combination with geochemical analysis of sediments from gravity cores. A total of 5 intersecting seismic lines were used as a basis for 2D modelling of basin evolution, hydrocarbon generation and migration. Data from six exploration wells were used for calibration of the basin burial and thermal history using vitrinite reflectance, bottom hole temperatures and apatite fission track data. 3D basin modelling was performed using data provided by UCD in the northern part of the Porcupine Basin. The results of this study indicate that a link between modelled hydrocarbon leakage and carbonate mound growth is possible both in the Belgica mound province on the eastern flank of the basin where stratigraphic pinch outs of carrier beds can lead to the localised leakage of hydrocarbons to the seafloor, as well as in the Hovland Magellan mound area in the northern half of the Porcupine Basin, where small-scale structural closures mapped on the main Miocene surfaces correlate roughly to observed mound locations. This study demonstrates the applicability of basin modelling in testing and identifying geologic processes related to geosphere/biosphere interactions.

  10. Evaluation of anthropogenic secondary organic aerosol tracers from aromatic hydrocarbons (United States)

    Al-Naiema, Ibrahim M.; Stone, Elizabeth A.


    Products of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) - 2,3-dihydroxy-4-oxopentanoic acid, dicarboxylic acids, nitromonoaromatics, and furandiones - were evaluated for their potential to serve as anthropogenic SOA tracers with respect to their (1) ambient concentrations and detectability in PM2.5 in Iowa City, IA, USA; (2) gas-particle partitioning behaviour; and (3) source specificity by way of correlations with primary and secondary source tracers and literature review. A widely used tracer for toluene-derived SOA, 2,3-dihydroxy-4-oxopentanoic acid was only detected in the particle phase (Fp = 1) at low but consistently measurable ambient concentrations (averaging 0.3 ng m-3). Four aromatic dicarboxylic acids were detected at relatively higher concentrations (9.1-34.5 ng m-3), of which phthalic acid was the most abundant. Phthalic acid had a low particle-phase fraction (Fp = 0.26) likely due to quantitation interferences from phthalic anhydride, while 4-methylphthalic acid was predominantly in the particle phase (Fp = 0.82). Phthalic acid and 4-methylphthalic acid were both highly correlated with 2,3-dihydroxy-4-oxopentanoic acid (rs = 0.73, p = 0.003; rs = 0.80, p phthalic acid, 4-methylphthalic acid, and 4-hydroxy-3-nitrobenzyl alcohol are good candidates for tracing SOA from aromatic VOCs.

  11. [Synthesis of novel terpenophenol-chlorin conjugates and evaluation of their membranotropic and membrane protective properties]. (United States)

    Belykh, D V; Buravlev, E V; Chukicheva, I Iu; Tarabukina, I S; Shevchenko, O G; Pliusnina, S N; Kuchin, A V


    A series of terpenophenol-chlorin conjugates where terpenophenolic fragment has amide bond with macrocycle of methylpheophorbide a, formed by amidation of 13(2)-ester group were obtained by interaction of methylpheophorbide a and ortho-aminomethyl derivatives of 2-isobornyl-4-methylphenol. The substances investigated ability to interact with the cell membrane was shown in blood erythrocytes surface structure with scanning electron microscope. The conjugates studied were established to have antioxidant and membrane protective properties resulted from inhibiting H2O2-induced erythrocytes hemolysis and decrease of lipid peroxidation secondary product accumulation.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Microbial adhesion to hydrocarbons (MATH) is generally considered to be a measure of the organisms cell surface hydrophobicity. As microbial adhesion is a complicated interplay of long-range van der Waals and electrostatic forces and various short-range interactions, the above statement only holds

  13. ATR-FTIR sensor development for continuous on-line monitoring of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons in a fixed-bed bioreactor. (United States)

    Acha, V; Meurens, M; Naveau, H; Agathos, S N


    This article describes the continuous on-line monitoring of a dechlorination process by a novel attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) sensor. This optical sensor was developed to measure noninvasively part-per-million (ppm) concentrations of trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene (PCE), and carbon tetrachloride (CT) in the aqueous effluent of a fixed-bed dechlorinating bioreactor, without any prior sample preparation. The sensor was based on an ATR internal reflection element (IRE) coated with an extracting hydrophobic polymer, which prevented water molecules from interacting with the infrared (IR) radiation. The selective diffusion of chlorinated compound molecules from aqueous solution into the polymer made possible their detection by the IR beam. With the exclusion of water the detection limits were lowered, and measurements in the low ppm level became possible. The best extracting polymer was polyisobutylene (PIB) in the form of a 5.8-microm thick film, which afforded a detection limit of 2, 3, and 2. 5 mg/L (ppm) for TCE, PCE, and CT, respectively. Values of the enrichment factors between the polymer coating and the water matrix of these chloro-organics were determined experimentally and were compared individually with predictions obtained from the slopes of absorbance/concentration curves for the three analytes. Before coupling the ATR-FTIR sensor to the dechlorinating bioreactor, preliminary spectra of the chlorinated compounds were acquired on a laboratory scale configuration in stop-flow and flow-through closed-loop modes. In this way, it was possible to study the behavior and direct response of the optical sensor to any arbitrary concentration change of the analytes. Subsequently, the bioreactor was monitored with the infrared sensor coupled permanently to it. The sensor tracked the progression of the analytes' spectra over time without perturbing the dechlorinating process. To calibrate the ATR-FTIR sensor, a total of 13


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. R. Pires


    Full Text Available AbstractThis paper investigates the simultaneous removal of arsenic [As(V or As(III] and manganese [Mn(II] from natural waters of low and high turbidity by clarification (with polyaluminum chloride and aluminum sulfate as primary coagulants associated or not with chlorine pre-oxidation. The results showed that the clarification process exhibited low Mn(II removal, that varied from 6% to 18% and from 19% to 27% for natural waters of low and high turbidity, respectively. The use of chlorine as pre-oxidant increased Mn(II removal up to 77% and was associated with the formation of birnessite. Regarding As(V removal by clarification, particularly for high turbidity water, a concentration lower than that established by the National Drinking Water Quality Standards (10 μg.L-1 was achieved in almost all tests. Oxidation preceding the clarification led to AsIII removal efficiencies from 80% to 90% for both coagulants and types of water.

  15. Chlorinated, brominated, and perfluorinated compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and trace elements in livers of sea otters from California, Washington, and Alaska (USA), and Kamchatka (Russia). (United States)

    Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Yun, Se Hun; Agusa, Tetsuro; Thomas, Nancy J; Tanabe, Shinsuke


    Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (DDTs, HCHs, and chlordanes), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), and 20 trace elements were determined in livers of 3- to 5-year old stranded sea otters collected from the coastal waters of California, Washington, and Alaska (USA) and from Kamchatka (Russia). Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and PBDEs were high in sea otters collected from the California coast. Concentrations of DDTs were 10-fold higher in California sea otters than in otters from other locations; PCB concentrations were 5-fold higher, and PBDE concentrations were 2-fold higher, in California sea otters than in otters from other locations. Concentrations of PAHs were higher in sea otters from Prince William Sound than in sea otters from other locations. Concentrations of several trace elements were elevated in sea otters collected from California and Prince William Sound. Elevated concentrations of Mn and Zn in sea otters from California and Prince William Sound were indicative of oxidative stress-related injuries in these two populations. Concentrations of all of the target compounds, including trace elements, that were analyzed in sea otters from Kamchatka were lower than those found from the US coastal locations.

  16. Chlorinated hydrocarbon concentrations in plasma of the Lake Erie water snake (Nerodia sipedon insularum) and northern water snake (Nerodia sipedon sipedon) from the Great Lakes basin in 1998. (United States)

    Bishop, C A; Rouse, J D


    From the Great Lakes basin, concentrations of 59 congener-specific polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 14 organochlorine pesticides were measured in blood plasma of northern water snake (Nerodia sipedon sipedon) and Lake Erie water snake (Nerodia sipedon insularum), which is endangered in Canada. In 1998, four male adult Lake Erie water snakes were sampled from Pelee Island, western Lake Erie; four male northern water snakes were sampled at Little Lake, about 20 km north of Parry Sound in central Ontario; and four adult gravid female northern water snakes were sampled from Garden Island, eastern Lake Ontario. The blood plasma was pooled by site for a total of three samples analyzed. The Pelee Island sample from male Lake Erie water snakes contained less than half the lipid concentration (0.349%) than samples from the other sites, but it was the most contaminated with PCBs, even on a wet weight basis. Summed concentration of individual PCBs in the Pelee Island sample was 167 ng/g (wet weight), which was 14-fold higher than the next most contaminated sample, which was from Little Lake. The plasma sample from Little Lake contained 12 ng/g (WW) and was four times more contaminated with PCBs than the sample from female snakes from Garden Island, Lake Ontario. Organochlorine pesticide concentrations in plasma were relatively similar among sites. None of the pesticides was found above trace concentrations (0.1-0.9 ng/g) except pp'-DDE, which occurred at 2-5 ng/g among sites. PCB congener patterns in the Lake Erie water snakes were compared to PCB patterns in plasma of common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina serpentina) from Lake Ontario, herring gull eggs (Larus argentatus) from western Lake Erie, and mudpuppy eggs (Necturus maculosus) from the Detroit River. The PCB patterns in water snake and herring gull sample were most similar, followed by the pattern in snapping turtle plasma. The presence of more lower-chlorinated chlorobiphenyls in the mudpuppy eggs relative

  17. Synthesis and biological evaluation of new water-soluble photoactive chlorin conjugate for targeted delivery. (United States)

    Otvagin, Vasilii F; Nyuchev, Alexander V; Kuzmina, Natalia S; Grishin, Ivan D; Gavryushin, Andrei E; Romanenko, Yuliya V; Koifman, Oscar I; Belykh, Dmitrii V; Peskova, Nina N; Shilyagina, Natalia Yu; Balalaeva, Irina V; Fedorov, Alexey Yu


    A new water-soluble conjugate, consisting of a chlorin-based photosensitizing part, and a 4-arylaminoquinazoline moiety with high potential affinity to an epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFR), suitable for photodynamic therapy (PDT), was synthesized starting from methylpheophorbide-a in seven steps. An increased accumulation of this compound in A431 cells with high level of EGFR expression, in comparison with CHO and HeLa cells with low EGFR expression was observed. The prepared conjugate exhibits dark and photoinduced cytotoxicity at micromolar concentrations with IC 50dark /IC 50light ratio of 11-18. In tumor-bearing mice, the conjugate preferentially accumulates in the tumor tissue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Ready-to-eat vegetables production with low-level water chlorination: an evaluation of water quality and of its impact on end products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca D'Acunzo


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: We evaluated the microbiological impact of low-level chlorination (1 ppm free chlorine on the production of ready-to-eat (RTE vegetables by monitoring the microbiological quality of irrigation and processing water in two production plants over a 4-season period, as well as the microbiological quality of unprocessed vegetables and RTE product. Water samples were also characterized in terms of some chemical and physico-chemical parameters of relevance in chlorination management. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Both producers use water with maximum 1 ppm free chlorine for vegetables rinsing, while the two processes differ by the number of washing cycles. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Salmonella spp and Campylobacter spp were detected once in two different irrigation water samples out of nine from one producer. No pathogens were found in the vegetable samples. As expected, the procedure encompassing more washing cycles performed slightly better in terms of total mesophilic count (TCM when comparing unprocessed and RTE vegetables of the same batch. However, data suggest that low-level chlorination may be insufficient in preventing microbial build-up in the washing equipment and/or batch-to batch cross-contamination.

  19. Diagnostic Tools for Performance Evaluation of Innovative In-Situ Remediation Technologies at Chlorinated Solvent-Contaminated Sites (United States)


    chlorinated solvent contamination. Cheese whey was chosen as the electron donor compound to enhance the anaerobic degradation of the target compounds...chlorinated solvent contamination. Cheese whey was chosen as the electron donor compound to enhance the anaerobic degradation of the chlorinated compounds...increase in mass transfer due to implementation of in-situ bioremediation using cheese whey as the electron donor (North Wind, 2010). Mass flux was

  20. Bacterial oxidation of low-chlorinated compounds under anoxic conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, J.A.


    Chlorinated hydrocarbons belong to the most frequently encountered contaminants in soil and groundwater. Many of them were found to be toxic and recalcitrant, which causes a potential threat to the environment. Therefore, it is of great importance that sites contaminated with chlorinated

  1. Enhanced Attenuation of Unsaturated Chlorinated Solvent Source Zones using Direct Hydrogen Delivery (United States)


    Heffner, 1988. Process for in situ biodegradation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil . United States Patent Office, Patent Number 4,765,902, August 28...solvents. This approach for bioremediation of unsaturated soils containing chlorinated solvents was originally proposed in a patent by Hughes et al...requires some type of treatment of chlorinated solvents. This approach for bioremediation of unsaturated soils containing chlorinated solvents was

  2. An Evaluation of Formate as an Electron Donor to Facilitate Palladium (PD) - Catalyzed Destruction of Chlorinated Aliphatic Hydrocarbons (United States)


    of Figures Page Figure 1.1 Horizontal flow treatment well system (from Stoppel , 2001)................... 6 Figure 3.1 Experimental more effectively remediate CAH-contaminated groundwater. An innovative approach that has recently been proposed ( Stoppel and Goltz, 2003; Lowry...CAH destruction is to install a Pd reactor as a component of a horizontal flow treatment well (HFTW) system ( Stoppel and Goltz, 2003). Figure 1.1

  3. Anticonvulsant and Toxicological Evaluation of Parafluorinated/Chlorinated Derivatives of 3-Hydroxy-3-ethyl-3-phenylpropionamide (United States)

    Garrido-Acosta, Osvaldo; Meza-Toledo, Sergio E.; Anguiano-Robledo, Liliana; Soriano-Ursúa, Marvin A.; Correa-Basurto, José; Davood, Asghar; Chamorro-Cevallos, Germán


    Although the anticonvulsant activity of 3-hydroxy-3-ethyl-3-phenylproionamide (HEPP) is well-known, its use is limited by the pharmacotoxicological profile. We herein tested its fluorinated and chlorinated derivatives (F-HEPP and Cl-HEPP) with two seizure models, maximal electroshock seizures (MES), and intraperitoneal pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) administration. Neurotoxicity was examined via the rotarod test. With in silico methods, binding was probed on possible protein targets—GABAA receptors and the sodium channel Nav1.2. The median effective doses (ED50) of HEPP, F-HEPP, and Cl-HEPP in the MES seizure model were 129.6, 87.1, and 62.0 mg/kg, respectively, and 66.4, 43.5, and in the PTZ seizure model 43.5 mg/kg. The HEPP-induced neurotoxic effect, which occurred at twice the ED50 against MES (p < 0.05), did not occur with F-HEPP or Cl-HEPP. Docking studies revealed that all tested ligands bound to GABAA receptors on a site near to the benzodiazepine binding site. However, on the sodium channel open pore Nav1.2, R-HEPP had interactions similar to those reported for phenytoin, while its enantiomer and the ligands F-HEPP and Cl-HEPP reached a site that could disrupt the passage of sodium. Our results show that, as anticonvulsant agents, parahalogen substituted compounds have an advantageous pharmacotoxicological profile compared to their precursor. PMID:27006945

  4. Evaluation of chlorine dioxide as a supplementary pretreatment reagent for lignocellulosic biomass. (United States)

    Acharjee, Tapas C; Jiang, Zhihua; Haynes, Robert Daniel; Lee, Yoon Y


    Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) is a bleaching reagent used in paper industry. Two different types of pretreatment methods were investigated incorporating ClO2 as a secondary reagent: (a) alkaline followed by ClO2 treatment; (b) dilute-sulfuric acid followed ClO2 treatment. In these methods, ClO2 treatment has shown little effect on delignification. Scheme-a has shown a significant improvement in enzymatic digestibility of glucan far above that treated by ammonia alone. On the contrary, dilute-acid followed by ClO2 treatment has shown negative effect on the enzymatic hydrolysis. The main factors affecting the enzymatic hydrolysis are the changes of the chemical structure of lignin and its distribution on the biomass surface. ClO2 treatment significantly increases the carboxylic acid content and reduces phenolic groups of lignin, affecting hydrophobicity of lignin and the H-bond induced association between the enzyme and lignin. This collectively led to reduction of unproductive binding of enzyme with lignin, consequently increasing the digestibility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of environmental levels of aromatic hydrocarbons in gasoline service stations by gas chromatography. (United States)

    Periago, J F; Zambudio, A; Prado, C


    The volume of gasoline sold in refuelling operations and the ambient temperature, can increase significantly the environmental levels of aromatic hydrocarbon vapours and subsequently, the occupational risk of gasoline service station attendants, specially in the case of benzene. We have evaluated the occupational exposure to aromatic hydrocarbons by means of personal-breathing-zone samples of gasoline vapours in a service station attendant population. This evaluation was carried out using diffusive samplers, in two periods at quite different temperatures (March and July). A significant relationship between the volume of gasoline sold during the shift and the ambient concentration of benzene, toluene, and xylenes was found for each worker sampled. Furthermore a significant difference was found between the time-weighted average concentration of aromatic compounds measured in March, with ambient temperatures of 14-15 degrees C and July, with temperatures of 28-30 degrees C. In addition, 20% of the population sampled in the last period were exposed to a time-weighted average concentration of benzene above the proposed Threshold Limit Value of 960 micrograms/m(3) of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH).

  6. Chlorine Clues (United States)


    This plot shows that levels of the element chlorine rise dramatically in the deeper rocks lining the walls of the crater dubbed 'Endurance.' The data shown here were taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer at Endurance and 'Eagle Crater,' the site where Opportunity first landed at Meridiani Planum. Opportunity has been inching down the walls of Endurance Crater, investigating distinct layers of rock as it goes for clues to Mars' buried past. The various Endurance layers have been informally labeled 'A' through 'F.' Targets within these layers are listed on the graph along with previous targets from Eagle Crater. All the rocks listed here were observed after they had been drilled by the rover's rock abrasion tool. The observations indicate that the elements making up the shallow rock layers of Endurance Crater resemble those of Eagle, while the deeper layers of Endurance possess increasingly higher concentrations of the element chlorine. Opportunity will continue to roll deeper into Endurance to see if this puzzling trend continues. Scientists hope the new data will help them figure out how the presence of chlorine fits into the history of water at Endurance Crater.

  7. The hydrogen concentration as parameter to identify natural attenuation processes of volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons in ground water; Die Wasserstoffkonzentration als Parameter zur Identifizierung des natuerlichen Abbaus von leichtfluechtigen Chlorkohlenwasserstoffen (LCKW) im Grundwasser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alter, M.D.


    In this study, the hydrogen concentration as parameter to identify natural attenuation processes of volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons was investigated. The currently accepted and recommended bubble strip method for hydrogen sampling was optimized, and a storage method for hydrogen samples was developed. Furthermore batch experiments with a dechlorinating mixed culture and pure cultures were carried out to study H{sub 2}-concentrations of competing redox processes. The extraction of hydrogen from ground water was optimized by a reduced inlet diameter of the usually applied gas sampling bulbs, allowing a maximal turbulent ow and gas transfer. With a gas volume of 10 ml and flow rates of 50 to 140 ml/min, the course of extraction almost followed the theoretical course of equilibration. At flow rates > 100 ml/min a equilibrium of 98% was achieved within 20 min. Until recently it was generally accepted that hydrogen samples can be stored only for 2 hours and therefore have to be analyzed immediately in the eld. Here, it was shown that eld samples can be stored for 1-3 days until analysis. For the dechlorination of tetrachloroethene (PCE), a hydrogen threshold concentration of 1-2 nM was found with the dechlorinating mixed culture as well as with a pure culture of Sulfurospirillum multivorans in combination with another pure culture Methanosarcina mazei. No dechlorination was detectable below this concentration. With the dechlorinating mixed culture, this finding is valid for all successive dechlorination steps until ethene. The hydrogen threshold concentration for denitrification were below the detection limit of 0,2 nM with the dechlorinating mixed culture. A threshold concentration of 3,1-3,5 nM was found for sulphate reduction and a threshold of 7-9 nM H{sub 2} for hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. This implies that the natural dechlorination at contaminated sites is preferred to competing processes like sulphate reduction and methanogenesis. The threshold

  8. Use of multiple regression models to evaluate the formation of halonitromethane via chlorination/chloramination of water from Tai Lake and the Qiantang River, China. (United States)

    Hong, Huachang; Qian, Lingya; Xiong, Yujing; Xiao, Zhuoqun; Lin, Hongjun; Yu, Haiying


    The deterioration of water quality, especially organic pollution in Tai Lake and the Qiantang River, have recently received attention in China. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the formation of halonitromethanes (HNMs) using multiple regression models for chlorination and chloramination and to identify the key factors that influence the formation of HNMs in Tai Lake and the Qiantang River. The results showed that the total formation of HNMs (T-HNMs) during chlorination and chloramination could be described using the following models: (1) [Formula: see text] =(10)(5.267)(DON)(6.645)(Br(-))(0.737)(DOC)(-)(5.537)(Cl2)(0.333)(t)(0.165) (R(2)=0.974, p<0.01, n=33), and (2) T-HNMNH2Cl=(10)(-)(2.481)(Cl2)(0.451)(NO2(-))(0.382)(Br(-))(0.630)(t)(0.640)(Temp)(0.581) (R(2)=0.961, p<0.05, n=33), respectively. The key factors that influenced the T-HNM yields during chlorination were dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), bromide and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The nitrite and bromide concentrations and the reaction time mainly affected the T-HNM yields during chloramination. Additional analysis indicated that the bromine incorporation factors (BIFs) for trihalogenated HNMs generally decreased as the chlorine/chloramine dose, temperature and reaction time decreased and increased as the bromide concentration increased. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Occupational Exposure to Chlorinated and Petroleum Solvents and Mycosis Fungoides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales-Suárez-Varela, Maria M; Olsen, Jorn; Villeneuve, Sara


    To evaluate the potential association between occupational exposure to chlorinated and petroleum solvents and mycosis fungoides (MF).......To evaluate the potential association between occupational exposure to chlorinated and petroleum solvents and mycosis fungoides (MF)....

  10. Evaluation of a Chlorinated Compounds Plume in a Fractured Sandstone Aquifer in Mid- West, US (United States)

    Miao, Z.; Aravena, R.; Parker, B. L.; Cherry, J. A.; Meyer, J. R.; Hunkeler, D.


    A study was carried out in the sedimentary fractured rock site located in Mid West, US, which was impacted by a DNAPL spill estimated to occur in the 1950's and 1960's. The majority of the DNAPL has accumulated in the upper portion of the Lone Rock Formation (referred to as Layer 5) and a VOC plume of more than 3km long has formed. The DNAPL is mainly composed of 1,1,1-TCA, PCE, TCE and BTEX, while large amounts of degradation products such as cis-DCE and 1,1-DCA have been found in the plume. Detailed geochemical and carbon isotope analysis in September 2007 showed that complete degradation of PCE and TCE to cis-DCE in Layer 5 had been achieved from the source to the middle of the plume and the dechlorination reaction stalled at cis-DCE, which is in agreement with the redox condition in this part of the plume. On the other hand, degradation of 1,1,1-TCA to 1,1-DCA was incomplete. The fringes of the plume are characterized by the presence of PCE and TCE in agreement with aerobic conditions in this part of the plume. A historical data review from 1992 to 2006 revealed two phases of degradation in Layer 5. The first phase corresponded with the period before 2001, when there was no significant degradation, while the second phase corresponded with the period after 2001, when significant degradation occurred. The occurrence of the second phase was related to a large scale DNAPL pumping in the source zone during 1999 to 2002, which caused a great increase of contaminant concentrations in the plume including large amounts of ketones and BTEX serving as electron donors and substrates for microbial dechlorination. Thus, subsequent degradation of chlorinated compounds occurred extensively in the plume. The contaminant concentration and the shape of the plume has been modified since 2003 by a hydraulic barrier system. This case study shows that the long term degradation pattern and contaminant distribution at the site has been controlled by plume management practices including

  11. Evaluation of the effectiveness of non-irradiated and chlorine-free packaging for fresh beef preservation. (United States)

    Rodrigues, José B M; Sarantópoulos, Claire I G L; Bromberg, Renata; Andrade, Juliana C; Brunelli, Kleber; Miyagusku, Luciana; Marquezini, Miriam G; Yamada, Eunice A


    This study evaluates the potential of using non-irradiated barrier-shrink bags containing ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH), polyamide (PA) and ethylene ionomer in their structures to preserve vacuum-packaged fresh beef as an alternative to traditional gamma-ray cross-linked bags containing polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC). Boneless beef rib eye roll cuts were vacuum-packed in an industrial processing plant using EVOH 44% mol, EVOH 32% mol and a control PVDC barrier shrink bags. The cuts were evaluated during storage at 0.5°C. The EVOH films presented similar performance compared to control PVDC barrier shrink bags related to bacteria growth and purge loss. Packages with EVOH 32% mol film presented better performance than control bag with respect to the meat sensorial attributes, including fewer bubbles and better adhesion. EVOH 44% mol bags presented the highest rate of colour loss. The EVOH 32% mol non-irradiated and chlorine-free film is as effective for the preservation of fresh beef as traditional PVDC-irradiated shrink bags. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Comprehensive Evaluation of Biological Growth Control by Chlorine-Based Biocides in Power Plant Cooling Systems Using Tertiary Effluent (United States)

    Chien, Shih-Hsiang; Dzombak, David A.; Vidic, Radisav D.


    Abstract Recent studies have shown that treated municipal wastewater can be a reliable cooling water alternative to fresh water. However, elevated nutrient concentration and microbial population in wastewater lead to aggressive biological proliferation in the cooling system. Three chlorine-based biocides were evaluated for the control of biological growth in cooling systems using tertiary treated wastewater as makeup, based on their biocidal efficiency and cost-effectiveness. Optimal chemical regimens for achieving successful biological growth control were elucidated based on batch-, bench-, and pilot-scale experiments. Biocide usage and biological activity in planktonic and sessile phases were carefully monitored to understand biological growth potential and biocidal efficiency of the three disinfectants in this particular environment. Water parameters, such as temperature, cycles of concentration, and ammonia concentration in recirculating water, critically affected the biocide performance in recirculating cooling systems. Bench-scale recirculating tests were shown to adequately predict the biocide residual required for a pilot-scale cooling system. Optimal residuals needed for proper biological growth control were 1, 2–3, and 0.5–1 mg/L as Cl2 for NaOCl, preformed NH2Cl, and ClO2, respectively. Pilot-scale tests also revealed that Legionella pneumophila was absent from these cooling systems when using the disinfectants evaluated in this study. Cost analysis showed that NaOCl is the most cost-effective for controlling biological growth in power plant recirculating cooling systems using tertiary-treated wastewater as makeup. PMID:23781129

  13. Products of methotrexate during chlorination. (United States)

    Yin, Jie; Niu, Yumin; Shao, Bing


    Methotrexate (MTX) is a cytotoxic drug widely used in the treatment of tumors, autoimmune diseases and severe asthma. jen00883This drug has been frequently detected in the aquatic environment with concentrations up to μg/L levels. The MTX present in environmental water might be transformed and removed during chlorination disinfection treatment. In this work, the fate of MTX during aqueous chlorination was investigated in laboratory batch experiments, and the transformation products of MTX were identified. Aqueous solutions of MTX (1mg/L) were chlorinated by sodium hypochlorite solution at room temperature under neutral pH conditions. Chlorinated products were pre-concentrated with solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges and determined by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). The reaction of MTX chlorination exhibited pseudo-first-order kinetics and the half-life time of MTX degradation was calculated to be 1.65min, when the initial chlorine concentration was 2mg/L. Two chlorinated MTX congeners, 4-amino-3-chlorinated-N10-methylpteroylglutamic (monochloro-MTX) and 4-amino-3,5-dichloro-N10-methylpteroylglutamic (dichloro-MTX) were found in the chlorinated solution. Monochloro-MTX was successfully fractionated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and its structure was further identified using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. The presence of the two products in real hospital wastewater was then examined and both compounds were detected. Finally, the effects of MTX and monochloro-MTX on the cell cycle progression in vitro were evaluated using zebrafish liver cell line. It was found that both compounds could inhibit the proliferation of zebrafish liver cells through S phase arrest and their effects on the cell cycle profile had no significant difference. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Comparative antimicrobial activities of aerosolized sodium hypochlorite, chlorine dioxide, and electrochemically activated solutions evaluated using a novel standardized assay. (United States)

    Thorn, R M S; Robinson, G M; Reynolds, D M


    The main aim of this study was to develop a standardized experimental assay to enable differential antimicrobial comparisons of test biocidal aerosols. This study represents the first chlorine-matched comparative assessment of the antimicrobial activities of aerosolized sodium hypochlorite, chlorine dioxide, and electrochemically activated solution (ECAS) to determine their relative abilities to decontaminate various surface-associated health care-relevant microbial challenges. Standard microbiological challenges were developed by surface-associating typed Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis spores, or a clinical methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strain on stainless steel, polypropylene, or fabric. All test coupons were subjected to 20-min biocidal aerosols of chlorine-matched (100 ppm) sodium hypochlorite, chlorine dioxide, or ECAS within a standard aerosolization chamber using a commercial humidifier under defined conditions. Biocidal treatment type and material surface had a significant effect on the number of microorganisms recovered from various material surfaces following treatment exposure. Under the conditions of the assay, the order of antimicrobial efficacy of biocidal aerosol treatment was as follows: ECAS > chlorine dioxide > sodium hypochlorite. For all biocides, greater antimicrobial reductions were seen when treating stainless steel and fabric than when treating plastic-associated microorganisms. The experimental fogging system and assay protocol designed within this study were shown capable of differentiating the comparative efficacies of multiple chlorine-matched biocidal aerosols against a spectrum of target organisms on a range of test surface materials and would be appropriate for testing other biocidal aerosol treatments or material surfaces.

  15. On chlorinated hydrocarbons in the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.; SenGupta, R.

    The data available on the distribution of organochlorine compounds such as DDT and its metabolites, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, isomers of HCH and the PCBs in the sediments, water, zooplankton, fish and seals from the Indian Ocean is reviewed. High...

  16. Model studies for evaluating the acute neurobehavioral effects of complex hydrocarbon solvents. I. Validation of methods with ethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKee, R.H.; Lammers, J.H.C.M.; Hoogendijk, E.M.G.; Emmen, H.H.; Muijser, H.; Barsotti, D.A.; Owen, D.E.; Kulig, B.M.


    As a preliminary step to evaluating the acute neurobehavioral effects of hydrocarbon solvents and to establish a working model for extrapolating animal test data to humans, joint neurobehavioral/toxicokinetic studies were conducted which involved administering ethanol to rats and volunteers. The

  17. Evaluation of phytoremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon and heavy metals with using Catharanthus roseus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehri Askary Mehrabadi


    Full Text Available Crude oil pollution is an inevitable worldwide phenomenon in oil producing and consuming areas that stems from human error, accidental discharge and other sources. The aim of this study was to evaluate the phytoremediation potential of vinca in petroleum-polluted soil. The experiment was laid out as a completely randomized design in 3 replications with different concentrations of crude oil (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 4 % V/W in pot planting stage. At the end of the 70-day period, soil samples were analyzed for total hydrocarbons removal. Contents of pb, zn and Ni were measured by atomic absorption from the soils and the leaves. Statistical analysis of data were performed on the basis of duncan’s test and by using of SPSS16 software. In concentrations higher than 3 % no growth was observed. The growth parameters such as stem length, stem fresh and dry matter decreased progressively from 0.5-3 % crude oil in soil. The results showed heavy metal accumulation in plant leaves and reduction of them in the soil. Heavy metals containing zinc, lead and nickel in plant increased in different concentration of crude oil. Total hydrocarbons and heavy metals containing zinc, lead and nickel reduced were in planted contaminated soil. This study showed that Periwinkle was able to grow and survive in low concentrations of oil and reduced pollutants in the soil. Based upon these results, Catharanthus roseus can be used as phytoremediator of petroleum-contaminated soil in low concentrations.

  18. Calcium Hypochlorite Solutions: Evaluation of Surface Tension and Effect of Different Storage Conditions and Time Periods over pH and Available Chlorine Content. (United States)

    Leonardo, Natália Gomes e Silva; Carlotto, Israel Bangel; Luisi, Simone Bonato; Kopper, Patrícia Maria Poli; Grecca, Fabiana Soares; Montagner, Francisco


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the pH and the available chlorine content from sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and calcium hypochlorite (Ca[OCl]2) solutions stored in different conditions and time periods and the surface tension of Ca(OCl)2 solutions in comparison with NaOCl. Solutions at 0.5%, 1%, 2.5%, and 5.25% concentrations were prepared. The pH level and the available chlorine content of freshly prepared solutions and solutions stored for 30, 60, and 90 days at 25°C, 4°C, or 37°C were evaluated in a digital pH meter and by titration, respectively. Surface tension was tested using a Du Nouy tensiometer (Sigma 702, Force Tensiometer; Attension, Espoo, Finland). Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were performed. A precipitate formed by 2.5% and 5.25% Ca(OCl)2 solutions was observed. Ca(OCl)2 showed a higher concentration of available chlorine than NaOCl. Both 2.5% and 5.25% NaOCl and Ca(OCl)2 had a decrease in the available chlorine content when compared with freshly prepared solutions; 0.5% and 1% NaOCl tend to have a lower pH compared with 0.5% and 1% Ca(OCl)2. NaOCl, 5.25%, showed higher pH compared with 5.25% Ca(OCl)2. NaOCl and Ca(OCl)2 in 0.5% and 1% concentrations tend to show a reduced pH level, whereas 2.5% and 5.25% solutions showed an increase in pH. The heat contributed to the instability of the solutions. NaOCl showed lower surface tension values than Ca(OCl)2. Ca(OCl)2 solutions are extremely alkaline and tend to have more available chlorine content than NaOCl but have a higher surface tension than NaOCl. Regarding the available chlorine content, these solutions tend to be stable to 30 days of storage when kept at 4°C or at 25°C. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of chlorine dispersion from storage unit in a petrochemical complex to providing an emergency response program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Parsarad


    Full Text Available Background and aims  Chlorine gas is a dangerous material that is used in chemical industries. In spite of the attempts for chlorine gas release control, sudden releases still occur in the related installations. Not taking proper emergency measures after chlorine gas dispersion may result in serious harm to health of the personnel and the people residing around the industrial area. The present study considers chlorine gas dispersion scenarios, determines emergency levels and presents an optimized pattern for more effective and faster response with the least required measures for emergency conditions control.   Methods   In the present paper by using Hazard and Operability Study (HAZOP and risk matrix the possible scenarios of chlorine gas dispersion in storage tanks unit of a petrochemical complex were considered. Then the intervals of these scenarios were determined with a view to Emergency Response Planning Guideline 1-2-3. With a view to the intensity of pollution extension and the population exposed to risk the scenarios were classified in the four emergency levels defined by Center for Chemical Process Safety (CCPS. Finally for each class of scenarios with a view to the related emergency level an optimum pattern of response plan in emergency conditions was presented.   Results  On the basis of the results of this study, chlorine gas dispersion scenario of the catastrophic explosion of the tank and scrubber system failure in the summer was classified in emergency level 4, in the winter in emergency level 3, chlorine gas dispersion due to chlorine lines rupture in the summer and winter in emergency level 3 and chlorine gas dispersion due to leakage of flanges and gaskets in emergency level 2 according to emergency levels of CCPS.  Conclusion The results of this study showed that systematic process risks analysis by use of risks recognition methods such as HAZOP and consequence analysis may have an effective role in recognition of the

  20. Risk-Based Evaluation of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Vapor Intrusion Studies (United States)

    Brewer, Roger; Nagashima, Josh; Kelley, Michael; Heskett, Marvin; Rigby, Mark


    This paper presents a quantitative method for the risk-based evaluation of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) in vapor intrusion investigations. Vapors from petroleum fuels are characterized by a complex mixture of aliphatic and, to a lesser extent, aromatic compounds. These compounds can be measured and described in terms of TPH carbon ranges. Toxicity factors published by USEPA and other parties allow development of risk-based, air and soil vapor screening levels for each carbon range in the same manner as done for individual compounds such as benzene. The relative, carbon range makeup of petroleum vapors can be used to develop weighted, site-specific or generic screening levels for TPH. At some critical ratio of TPH to a targeted, individual compound, the overwhelming proportion of TPH will drive vapor intrusion risk over the individual compound. This is particularly true for vapors associated with diesel and other middle distillate fuels, but can also be the case for low-benzene gasolines or even for high-benzene gasolines if an adequately conservative, target risk is not applied to individually targeted chemicals. This necessitates a re-evaluation of the reliance on benzene and other individual compounds as a stand-alone tool to evaluate vapor intrusion risk associated with petroleum. PMID:23765191


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Microbial adhesion to hydrocarbons (MATH) is generally considered to be a measure of the organisms cell surface hydrophobicity. Recent observations that the zeta potentials of hydrocarbons can be highly negative in the various solutions commonly used in MATH, have suggested that MATH may measure a

  2. Evaluation of current operating standards for chlorine dioxide in disinfection of dump tank and flume for fresh tomatoes. (United States)

    Tomás-Callejas, Alejandro; López-Velasco, Gabriela; Valadez, Angela M; Sbodio, Adrian; Artés-Hernández, Francisco; Danyluk, Michelle D; Suslow, Trevor V


    Standard postharvest unit operations that rely on copious water contact, such as fruit unloading and washing, approach the criteria for a true critical control point in fresh tomato production. Performance data for approved sanitizers that reflect commercial systems are needed to set standards for audit compliance. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)) for water disinfection as an objective assessment of recent industry-adopted standards for dump tank and flume management in fresh tomato packing operations. On-site assessments were conducted during eight temporally distinct shifts in two Florida packinghouses and one California packinghouse. Microbiological analyses of incoming and washed fruit and dump and flume system water were evaluated. Water temperature, pH, turbidity, conductivity, and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) were monitored. Reduction in populations of mesophilic and coliform bacteria on fruit was not significant, and populations were significantly higher (P Water temperature varied during daily operations, but pH and ORP mostly remained constant. The industry standard positive temperature differential of 5.5°C between water and fruit pulp was not maintained in tanks during the full daily operation. ORP values were significantly higher in the flume than in the dump tank. A positive correlation was found between ORP and temperature, and negative correlations were found between ORP and turbidity, total mesophilic bacteria, and coliforms. This study provides in-plant data indicating that ClO(2) can be an effective sanitizer in flume and spray-wash systems, but current operational limitations restrict its performance in dump tanks. Under current conditions, ClO(2) alone is unlikely to allow the fresh tomato industry to meet its microbiological quality goals under typical commercial conditions.

  3. Toxicity evaluation of chlorinated organic compounds using immortalized rat hepatocytes; Fushika rat kansaibo wo mochiita yuki enso kagobutsu no dokusei hyoka no kokoromi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sone, H.; Nakajima, M.; Yonemoto, J. [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan)


    Chlorinated organic compounds has high priority for toxicity screening among environmental hazardous chemicals. In the present study, we used immortalized rat hepatocytes as a liver model in vitro to evaluate the toxicity of nine chlorinated organic compounds. Toxicity of nine chlorinated organic compounds were evaluated to cellular viability of immortalized rat hapatocytes. The potency of the toxicity based on 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) value was in the following order: triclocalban>triclosan>3,4-dichloroaniline>2,5-diclorophenol> 2,5-dichloroanisole>p-dichlorobenzene> p-chloroaniline>o-dichlorobenzene=tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate. The rank order of cytotoxic potency of nine chemicals was compared with toxicity information using animals. The rank order of cytotoxic potency did not relative to the order referenced mean lethal dose (LD50) as an index of acute toxicity of rats or mice. However, the rank order of cytotoxic potency relatively correlated non-observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) under the exposure duration adjusted for chronic toxicity in vivo. These data suggests that the origin of testing cell had better to make match target organ of toxic chemicals for extrapolation from data of bioassay in vitro to in vivo. 16 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Effects of ozone, chlorine dioxide, chlorine, and monochloramine on Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst viability. (United States)

    Korich, D G; Mead, J R; Madore, M S; Sinclair, N A; Sterling, C R


    Purified Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts were exposed to ozone, chlorine dioxide, chlorine, and monochloramine. Excystation and mouse infectivity were comparatively evaluated to assess oocyst viability. Ozone and chlorine dioxide more effectively inactivated oocysts than chlorine and monochloramine did. Greater than 90% inactivation as measured by infectivity was achieved by treating oocysts with 1 ppm of ozone (1 mg/liter) for 5 min. Exposure to 1.3 ppm of chlorine dioxide yielded 90% inactivation after 1 h, while 80 ppm of chlorine and 80 ppm of monochloramine required approximately 90 min for 90% inactivation. The data indicate that C. parvum oocysts are 30 times more resistant to ozone and 14 times more resistant to chlorine dioxide than Giardia cysts exposed to these disinfectants under the same conditions. With the possible exception of ozone, the use of disinfectants alone should not be expected to inactivate C. parvum oocysts in drinking water. PMID:2339894

  5. Durability and degradation analysis of hydrocarbon ionomer membranes in polymer electrolyte fuel cells accelerated stress evaluation (United States)

    Shimizu, Ryo; Tsuji, Junichi; Sato, Nobuyuki; Takano, Jun; Itami, Shunsuke; Kusakabe, Masato; Miyatake, Kenji; Iiyama, Akihiro; Uchida, Makoto


    The chemical durabilities of two proton-conducting hydrocarbon polymer electrolyte membranes, sulfonated benzophenone poly(arylene ether ketone) (SPK) semiblock copolymer and sulfonated phenylene poly(arylene ether ketone) (SPP) semiblock copolymer are evaluated under accelerated open circuit voltage (OCV) conditions in a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC). Post-test characterization of the membrane electrodes assemblies (MEAs) is carried out via gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. These results are compared with those of the initial MEAs. The SPP cell shows the highest OCV at 1000 h, and, in the post-test analysis, the SPP membrane retains up to 80% of the original molecular weight, based on the GPC results, and 90% of the hydrophilic structure, based on the NMR results. The hydrophilic structure of the SPP membrane is more stable after the durability evaluation than that of the SPK. From these results, the SPP membrane, with its simple hydrophilic structure, which does not include ketone groups, is seen to be significantly more resistant to radical attack. This structure leads to high chemical durability and thus impedes the chemical decomposition of the membrane.

  6. Evaluation of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH in urban soil from Maicao, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha L. Castellanos


    Full Text Available The presence of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH and their effects on soil properties in urban area of Maicao, Colombia, was evaluated. 18 sites were selected: nine contaminated and nine non-contaminated and two depths (0-30 cm and 30-60 cm were evaluated. The medium TPH fraction (Soxhlet reflux method, EPA 3540C and heavy TPH fraction (Soxhlet reflux method, EPA 3550C were extracted. TPH were identified by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID. Soil parameters related potential adsorption were determined: pH, electrical conductivity (EC, organic carbon (OC, cation exchange capacity (CEC, texture; soil moisture retention, aggregate stability. High contents of TPH was found in all fractions. No significant changes were found for texture and (EC. There was an increase in the content of OC (500%, soil aggregation and aggregate stability (200%; slight decrease pH, CEC and soil moisture retention (23.5% soil surface. These results show the vulnerability of the urban soils to the TPH contamination and exposure of the human population to these contaminants.

  7. Evaluation of disinfection by-product formation potential (DBPFP) during chlorination of two algae species--Blue-green Microcystis aeruginosa and diatom Cyclotella meneghiniana. (United States)

    Liao, Xiaobin; Liu, Jinjin; Yang, Mingli; Ma, Hongfang; Yuan, Baoling; Huang, Ching-Hua


    Microcystis aeruginosa (blue-green alga) commonly blooms in summer and Cyclotella meneghiniana (diatom) outbreaks in fall in the reservoirs that serve as drinking water sources in Southeast China. Herein, an evaluation of disinfection by-product formation potential (DBPFP) from them during chlorination should be conducted. Five DBPs including trichloromethane (TCM), trichloronitromethane (TCNM), dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN), 1,1-dichloropropanone (1,1-DCP) and 1,1,1-trichloropropanone (1,1,1-TCP) were monitored. The formation potential of TCM and TCNM was enhanced with the increase of reaction time and chlorine dosage, whereas that of DCAN, 1,1-DCP and 1,1,1-TCP increased first and then fell with continuing reaction time. M. aeruginosa showed higher DBPFP than C. meneghiniana, the yield of DBPs varied with components of algal cells. The DBPFP order from components of M. aeruginosa was cell suspension (CS) ≈ intracellular organic matter (IOM) > extracellular organic matter (EOM) > cell debris (CD), which indicated that IOM was the main DBP precursors for M. aeruginosa. The yields of DBPs from components of C. meneghiniana were in the order of CS>IOM≈ CD ≈ EOM, suggesting that three components made similar contributions to the total DBP formation. The amount of IOM with higher DBPFP leaked from both algae species increased with the chlorine dosage, indicating that chlorine dosage should be considered carefully in the treatment of eutrophic water for less destroying of the cell integrity. Though fluorescence substances contained in both algae species varied significantly, the soluble microbial products (SMPs) and aromatic protein-like substances were the main cellular components that contributed to DBP formation for both algae. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A pilot plant scale evaluation of a new process aid for enhancing chlorine efficacy against pathogen survival and cross-contamination during produce wash. (United States)

    Luo, Yaguang; Nou, Xiangwu; Millner, Patricia; Zhou, Bin; Shen, Cangliang; Yang, Yang; Wu, Yunpeng; Wang, Qin; Feng, Hao; Shelton, Dan


    Developing food safety intervention technology that can be readily adopted by the industry often requires test conditions that match as closely as possible to those of commercial food processing operations; yet biosafety risks inherent in pathogen studies constrain most experiments to laboratory settings. In this study, we report the first semi-commercial pilot-scale evaluation of a new process aid, T128, for its impact on enhancing the antimicrobial efficacy of chlorinated wash water against pathogen survival and cross-contamination. A non-pathogenic, BSL-1, strain of Escherichia coli O157:H7 was inoculated onto freshly harvested baby spinach leaves and washed with large amounts of freshly cut un-inoculated iceberg lettuce shreds in wash water with free chlorine periodically replenished, in the presence or absence of T128. Changes in water quality and pathogen survival and cross-contamination were monitored at every 2 min intervals for up to 36 min for each treatment during the wash operation. Results indicated that the use of T128 did not significantly (P>0.05) influence the rate of wash water deterioration, nor the pathogen populations remaining on the inoculated spinach leaves. However, in the absence of T128 (control), survival of E. coli O157:H7 in wash water and cross-contamination of un-inoculated lettuce frequently occurred when free chlorine in solution dropped below 1mg/l during the wash process. In contrast, the use of T128 significantly reduced the occurrence of E. coli O157:H7 surviving in wash water and of cross-contamination to un-inoculated shredded iceberg lettuce under the same operational conditions, suggesting that the application of T128 in a chlorine-based fresh produce sanitization system could increase the safety margin of process control on fresh-cut operations. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Evaluation of perchlorate sources in the Rialto-Colton and Chino California subbasins using chlorine and oxygen isotope ratio analysis (United States)

    Hatzinger, Paul B.; Böhlke, John Karl; Izbicki, John; Teague, Nicholas F.; Sturchio, Neil C.


    Perchlorate (ClO4-) in groundwater can be from synthetic or natural sources, the latter of which include both historical application of imported nitrate fertilizers from the Atacama Desert of Chile and naturally deposited ClO4- that forms atmospherically and accumulates in arid regions such as the southwestern US. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of isotopic data to distinguish sources of ClO4- in groundwater in a specific region of the Rialto-Colton and Chino, CA groundwater subbasins (Study Area). This region includes two groundwater ClO4- plumes emanating from known military/industrial source areas, and a larger area outside of these plumes having measurable ClO4-. Perchlorate extracted from wells in this region was analyzed for chlorine and oxygen stable isotope ratios (δ37Cl, δ18O, δ17O) and radioactive chlorine-36 (36Cl) isotopic abundance, along with other geochemical, isotopic, and hydrogeologic data. Isotope data indicate synthetic, Atacama, and indigenous natural ClO4- were present in the Study Area. Stable isotope data from nearly all sampled wells within the contours of the two characterized plumes, including those located in a perched zone and within the regional groundwater aquifer, were consistent with a dominant synthetic ClO4- source. In wells downgradient from the synthetic plumes and in the Chino subbasin to the southwest, isotopic data indicate the dominant source of ClO4- largely was Atacama, presumably from historical application of nitrate fertilizer in this region. Past agricultural land use and historical records are consistent with this source being present in groundwater. The 36Cl and δ18O data indicate that wells having predominantly synthetic or Atacama ClO4- also commonly contained small fractions of indigenous natural ClO4-. The indigenous ClO4- was most evident isotopically in wells having the lowest overall ClO4- concentrations (< 1 μg/L), consistent with its occurrence as a low-level background constituent

  10. Evaluation of the Pollution of surface waters in the basin of west Algeria by Organo chlorine and Organophosphorus pesticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadjel, M.; Berkok, N.


    The pollutants are pesticides which cover a whole range of chemicals designed to protect plants from pests and destroy unwanted plants. There are a very large number of pesticides and we do here that some of the major families (organo chlorine insecticides, organophosphates, carbamates, pyrethroids, phenylcyclohexyl, herbicides. (Author)

  11. Evaluation of chlorine treatment levels on inactivation of human norovirus and MS2 bacteriophage during sewage treatment (United States)

    This study examined the inactivation of human norovirus (HuNoV) GI.1 and GII.4 by chlorine under conditions that mimic sewage treatment. Using a porcine gastric mucin-magnetic bead (PGM-MB) assay, no statistically significant loss in HuNoV binding (inactivation) was observed for secondary effluent ...

  12. Development of an analysis method for determining chlorinated hydrocarbons in marine sediments and suspended matter giving particular consideration to supercritical fluid extraction; Entwicklung eines Analysenverfahrens zur Bestimmung von chlorierten Kohlenwasserstoffen in marinen Sedimenten und Schwebstoffen unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung der ueberkritischen Fluidextraktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterzenbach, D.


    The purpose of the present study was to develop an analysis method for chlorinate hydrocarbons in marine environments using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) instead of conventional approaches. In order to apply this extraction method the available SFE device had to be extended and all the individual steps of the analysis method had to be optimised and adapted. As chlorinated hydrocarbons only occur at very low concentrations in marine environments (ppm to ppt range) the analysis method had to be extremely sensitive. High sensitivity, in town, is generally associated with a high susceptibility of an analysis method to faults through contamination or losses. This meant that the entire method and all its individual steps had to scrutinised for such weak points and improved where necessary. A method for sampling suspended matter in marine environments had to be developed which permits efficient separation of the smallest possible particles from seawater. The designated purpose of the developed analysis method is to deal with topical aspects of marine chemistry relating to sources, transport, distribution, and the fate of chlorinated hydrocarbons in marine environments. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit ist, ein Analysenverfahren fuer chlorierte Kohlenwasserstoffe in der marinen Umwelt zu entwickeln. Dabei soll die ueberkritische Fluidextraktion (SFE) anstelle herkoemmlicher Verfahren eingesetzt werden. Fuer die Anwendung dieser Extraktionsmethode ist es erforderlich, das zur Verfuegung stehende SFE-Geraet zu erweitern und saemtliche Teilschritte des Analysenverfahrens zu optimieren und auf diese Methode abzustimmen. Der Umstand, dass die chlorierten Kohlenwasserstoffe nur in sehr geringen Konzentrationen in der marinen Umwelt vorkommen (ppm- bis ppt-Bereich), erfordert eine sehr hohe Empfindlichkeit des Analysenverfahrens. Eine hohe Empfindlichkeit bedingt eine grosse Stoeranfaelligkeit des Analysenverfahrens durch Kontaminationen oder Verluste. Aus

  13. Remediation trials for hydrocarbon-contaminated sludge from a soil washing process: evaluation of bioremediation technologies. (United States)

    Frutos, F J García; Pérez, R; Escolano, O; Rubio, A; Gimeno, A; Fernandez, M D; Carbonell, G; Perucha, C; Laguna, J


    The usual fate of highly contaminated fine products (silt-clay fractions) from soil washing plants is disposal in a dump or thermal destruction (organic contaminants), with consequent environmental impacts. Alternative treatments for these fractions with the aim of on-site reuse are needed. Therefore, the feasibility of two technologies, slurry bioremediation and landfarming, has been studied for the treatment of sludge samples with a total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content of 2243 mg/kg collected from a soil washing plant. The treatability studies were performed at the laboratory and pilot-real scales. The bioslurry assays yielded a TPH reduction efficiency of 57% and 65% in 28 days at the laboratory and pilot scale, respectively. In the landfarming assays, a TPH reduction of 85% in six months was obtained at laboratory scale and 42% in three months for the bioremediation performed in the full-scale. The efficiency of these processes was evaluated by ecotoxicity assessments. The toxic effects in the initial sludge sample were very low for most measured parameters. After the remediation treatments, a decrease in toxic effects was observed in earthworm survival and in carbon mineralisation. The results showed the applicability of two well known bioremediation technologies on these residues, this being a novelty. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluating the utility of hydrocarbons for Re-Os geochronology : establishing the timing of processes in petroleum ore systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selby, D.; Creaser, R.A. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences


    Oil from 6 Alberta oil sands deposits were analyzed with a rhenium-osmium (Re-Os) isotope chronometer, an emerging tool for determining valuable age information on the timing of petroleum generation and migration. The tool uses molybdenite and other sulphide minerals to establish the timing and duration of mineralization. However, establishing the timing events of petroleum systems can be problematic because viable sulphides for the Re-Os chronometer are often not available. Therefore, the known presence of Re and Os associated with organic matter in black shale, a common source of hydrocarbons, may suggest that bitumen and petroleum common to petroleum systems may be utilised for Re-Os geochronology. This study evaluated the potential of the Re-Os isotopic system for geochronology and as an isotopic tracer for hydrocarbon systems. The evaluation was based on Re-Os isotopic analyses of bitumen and oil sands. Hydrocarbons formed from migrated oil in both Alberta oil sand deposits and a Paleozoic Mississippi Valley-type lead-zinc deposit contain significant Re and Os contents with high {sup 187}Re/{sup 188}Os and radiogenic {sup 187}Os/{sup 188}Os ratios suitable for geochronology. The oil from the 6 Alberta oil sand deposits yields Re-Os analyses with very high Re/{sup 188}Os ratios, and radiogenic Os isotopic compositions. Regression of the Re-Os data yields a date of 116 {+-} 27 Ma. This date plausibly represents the period of in situ radiogenic growth of {sup 187}Os following hydrocarbon migration and reservoir filling. Therefore, directly dating these processes, and this formation age corresponds with recent burial history models for parts of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. The very high initial {sup 187}Os/{sup 188}Os for this regression requires rocks much older than Cretaceous for the hydrocarbon source.

  15. Effectiveness of Chlorinated Water, Sodium Hypochlorite, Sodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the efficacy of chlorinated water, sodium hypochlorite solution, sodium chloride solution and sterile distilled water in eliminating pathogenic bacteria on the surfaces of raw vegetables. Lettuce vegetables were dipped in different concentrations of chlorinated water, sodium hypochlorite solution, sodium ...

  16. Coupling spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques for evaluation of the depositional history of hydrocarbons in a subtropical estuary. (United States)

    Martins, César C; Doumer, Marta E; Gallice, Wellington C; Dauner, Ana Lúcia L; Cabral, Ana Caroline; Cardoso, Fernanda D; Dolci, Natiely N; Camargo, Luana M; Ferreira, Paulo A L; Figueira, Rubens C L; Mangrich, Antonio S


    Spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques can be used together to evaluate hydrocarbon inputs to coastal environments such as the Paranaguá estuarine system (PES), located in the SW Atlantic, Brazil. Historical inputs of aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed using two sediment cores from the PES. The AHs were related to the presence of biogenic organic matter and degraded oil residues. The PAHs were associated with mixed sources. The highest hydrocarbon concentrations were related to oil spills, while relatively low levels could be attributed to the decrease in oil usage during the global oil crisis. The results of electron paramagnetic resonance were in agreement with the absolute AHs and PAHs concentrations measured by chromatographic techniques, while near-infrared spectroscopy results were consistent with unresolved complex mixture (UCM)/total n-alkanes ratios. These findings suggest that the use of a combination of techniques can increase the accuracy of assessment of contamination in sediments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Third-Party Evaluation of Petro Tex Hydrocarbons, LLC, ReGen Lubricating Oil Re-refining Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compere, A L [ORNL; Griffith, William {Bill} L [ORNL


    This report presents an assessment of market, energy impact, and utility of the PetroTex Hydrocarbons, LLC., ReGen process for re-refining used lubricating oil to produce Group I, II, and III base oils, diesel fuel, and asphalt. PetroTex Hydrocarbons, LLC., has performed extensive pilot scale evaluations, computer simulations, and market studies of this process and is presently evaluating construction of a 23 million gallon per year industrial-scale plant. PetroTex has obtained a 30 acre site in the Texas Industries RailPark in Midlothian Texas. The environmental and civil engineering assessments of the site are completed, and the company has been granted a special use permit from the City of Midlothian and air emissions permits for the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality.

  18. Evaluation of sediment toxicity in different Portuguese estuaries: Ecological impact of metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (United States)

    Serafim, A.; Company, R.; Lopes, B.; Pereira, C.; Cravo, A.; Fonseca, V. F.; França, S.; Bebianno, M. J.; Cabral, H. N.


    Estuaries are exposed to multiple sources of different pollutants which tend to be trapped in sediments. Estuarine sediments can become reservoirs of contaminants that under certain circumstances may be released back to the water column, increasing their availability to the biota. Therefore, assessing sediment quality, of which toxicity testing is one of the lines-of-evidence, is a key element in ecological risk assessment strategies for these ecosystems. The use of Vibrio fischeri as luminescence bacteria is particularly effective in evaluating contaminated sediment. In this study, the ecotoxicity of sediments from five Portuguese estuaries (Aveiro, Tejo, Sado, Mira and Guadiana), was evaluated with a bioassay considering the 50% bioluminescence reduction of V. fischeri bacterium (EC50). Also, the levels of metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contaminants (PAHs) were determined in the same sites. Moreover the Sediment Quality Guideline Quotient index (SQG-Q) was assessed for all sediments. The EC50 values varied significantly between estuaries but were strongly correlated with the metal concentrations in the different sites. In general Tejo estuary show higher toxicity levels compared to the other estuaries (5-min EC50 values of 5.6 mg mL-1). The integration of sediment contamination data shows that regarding the metallic contamination all sites are moderately impacted, with a higher SQG-Q in the Tejo estuary. On the other hand, when this index is applied to the PAHs levels, all sites are considered unimpacted. This suggests that metal contaminants are the most significant cause of toxicity in these sediments. Nevertheless, other factors can be relevant for this outcome due to the geochemical complexity of estuarine sediments (which affects contaminant speciation and bioavailability) and probably the presence of multiple xenobiotics in these sediments.

  19. Comparative analysis of concentrations of lead, cadmium and mercury in cord blood, maternal blood, and breast milk, as well as persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons in maternal milk samples from Germany and Iran; Vergleichende Untersuchungen ueber die Blei-, Cadmium- und Quecksilberkonzentrationen im Nabelschnurblut, im muetterlichen Blut und in der Frauenmilch sowie ueber einige persistente Organochlorverbindungen in der Milch deutscher und iranischer Muetter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javanmardi, F.


    The concentration of the heavy metals lead, cadmium and mercury in cord blood, maternal blood and breast milk has been studied. Lead and cadmium were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. Mercury was determined using the flow-injection hydride technique. According to the concentrations of heavy metals and chlorinated hydrocarbons we ascertained for the region of Rendsburg, the toxic risk for infants relative to the consumption of contaminated maternal milk can be viewed as very slight. (orig.) [German] Ziel der Arbeit war es, die aktuelle Schwermetallbelastung des Nabelschnurblutes, des muetterlichen Blutes und der Muttermilch zu untersuchen. Die Bestimmung von Blei und Cadmium erfolgte mit Hilfe der Atomabsorptionsspektrometrie. Quecksilber wurde mittels der Fliessinjektions-Hydridtechnik bestimmt. Nach den von uns ermittelten Schwermetall- bzw. Chlorkohlenwasserstoffkonzentrationen fuer die Region Rendsburg kann das mit dem Verzehr kontaminierter Muttermilch verbundene toxische Risiko fuer den Saeugling als sehr gering eingeschaetzt werden. (orig.)

  20. Evaluation of Membrane Ultrafiltration and Residual Chlorination as a Decentralized Water Treatment Strategy for Ten Rural Healthcare Facilities in Rwanda (United States)

    Huttinger, Alexandra; Dreibelbis, Robert; Roha, Kristin; Ngabo, Fidel; Kayigamba, Felix; Mfura, Leodomir; Moe, Christine


    There is a critical need for safe water in healthcare facilities (HCF) in low-income countries. HCF rely on water supplies that may require additional on-site treatment, and need sustainable technologies that can deliver sufficient quantities of water. Water treatment systems (WTS) that utilize ultrafiltration membranes for water treatment can be a useful technology in low-income countries, but studies have not systematically examined the feasibility of this technology in low-income settings. We monitored 22 months of operation of 10 WTS, including pre-filtration, membrane ultrafiltration, and chlorine residual disinfection that were donated to and operated by rural HCF in Rwanda. The systems were fully operational for 74% of the observation period. The most frequent reasons for interruption were water shortage (8%) and failure of the chlorination mechanism (7%). When systems were operational, 98% of water samples collected from the HCF taps met World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for microbiological water quality. Water quality deteriorated during treatment interruptions and when water was stored in containers. Sustained performance of the systems depended primarily on organizational factors: the ability of the HCF technician to perform routine servicing and repairs, and environmental factors: water and power availability and procurement of materials, including chlorine and replacement parts in Rwanda. PMID:26516883

  1. Evaluation of Membrane Ultrafiltration and Residual Chlorination as a Decentralized Water Treatment Strategy for Ten Rural Healthcare Facilities in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Huttinger


    Full Text Available There is a critical need for safe water in healthcare facilities (HCF in low-income countries. HCF rely on water supplies that may require additional on-site treatment, and need sustainable technologies that can deliver sufficient quantities of water. Water treatment systems (WTS that utilize ultrafiltration membranes for water treatment can be a useful technology in low-income countries, but studies have not systematically examined the feasibility of this technology in low-income settings. We monitored 22 months of operation of 10 WTS, including pre-filtration, membrane ultrafiltration, and chlorine residual disinfection that were donated to and operated by rural HCF in Rwanda. The systems were fully operational for 74% of the observation period. The most frequent reasons for interruption were water shortage (8% and failure of the chlorination mechanism (7%. When systems were operational, 98% of water samples collected from the HCF taps met World Health Organization (WHO guidelines for microbiological water quality. Water quality deteriorated during treatment interruptions and when water was stored in containers. Sustained performance of the systems depended primarily on organizational factors: the ability of the HCF technician to perform routine servicing and repairs, and environmental factors: water and power availability and procurement of materials, including chlorine and replacement parts in Rwanda.

  2. Evaluation of Membrane Ultrafiltration and Residual Chlorination as a Decentralized Water Treatment Strategy for Ten Rural Healthcare Facilities in Rwanda. (United States)

    Huttinger, Alexandra; Dreibelbis, Robert; Roha, Kristin; Ngabo, Fidel; Kayigamba, Felix; Mfura, Leodomir; Moe, Christine


    There is a critical need for safe water in healthcare facilities (HCF) in low-income countries. HCF rely on water supplies that may require additional on-site treatment, and need sustainable technologies that can deliver sufficient quantities of water. Water treatment systems (WTS) that utilize ultrafiltration membranes for water treatment can be a useful technology in low-income countries, but studies have not systematically examined the feasibility of this technology in low-income settings. We monitored 22 months of operation of 10 WTS, including pre-filtration, membrane ultrafiltration, and chlorine residual disinfection that were donated to and operated by rural HCF in Rwanda. The systems were fully operational for 74% of the observation period. The most frequent reasons for interruption were water shortage (8%) and failure of the chlorination mechanism (7%). When systems were operational, 98% of water samples collected from the HCF taps met World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for microbiological water quality. Water quality deteriorated during treatment interruptions and when water was stored in containers. Sustained performance of the systems depended primarily on organizational factors: the ability of the HCF technician to perform routine servicing and repairs, and environmental factors: water and power availability and procurement of materials, including chlorine and replacement parts in Rwanda.

  3. The Chlorination Quandary (United States)

    Josephson, Julian


    Current use of chlorination technology to disinfect water supplies can cause the production of undesirable products, among them chloroform and chlorobenzene. Alternatives to this methodology include the use of ozone, chlorine dioxide, and bromine chloride in place of chlorine. Presently, the methods are feasible in developed countries only. (MA)

  4. Evaluation of hydrocarbon plants suitable for cultivation in Florida. [Euphorbia tirucalli, E. lathyris, and Asclepias curassavica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehgan, B.; Wang, S.C.


    Most of the hydrocarbon plants reported in the literature are not suitable for cultivation under Florida conditions. Preliminary results of field and greenhouse trials have indicated two species; Euphorbia tirucalli, which is suitable only for south Florida and Asclepias curassavica which has shown promise for the entire state. The hydrocarbon content of E. tirucalli increases with age of the plants (8.19-11.90%), whereas, that of A. curassavica is influenced positively by fertilization (3.62%) and negatively by supplemental irrigation (2.75%). A comparison between the results of field trials with A. curassavica in Florida and E. lathyris in California shows similar biomass yields under unirrigated conditions, despite 3.6 to 7.8 times greater nitrogen application for E. lathyris. Because of environmental conditions in Florida, E. lathyris is not capable of good growth. It is suggested that future research on hydrocarbon plants should concentrate on selection of individuals or species with vigorous, upright growth habits, low fertilizer-irrigation requirements and high hydrocarbon contents. 18 references.

  5. Evaluation of thirteen haloacetic acids and ten trihalomethanes formation by peracetic acid and chlorine drinking water disinfection. (United States)

    Xue, Runmiao; Shi, Honglan; Ma, Yinfa; Yang, John; Hua, Bin; Inniss, Enos C; Adams, Craig D; Eichholz, Todd


    Free chlorine is a commonly used disinfectant in drinking water treatment. However, disinfection by-products (DBPs) are formed during water disinfection. Haloacetic acids (HAAs) and trihalomethanes (THMs) are two major groups of DBPs. Iodo-HAAs and iodo-THMs (I-HAAs and I-THMs) are formed during the disinfection of the water containing high levels of iodide and are much more toxic than their chlorinated and brominated analogs. Peracetic acid (PAA) is a strong antimicrobial disinfectant that is expected to reduce the formation of HAAs and THMs during disinfection. In this study, the formations of thirteen HAAs and ten THMs, including the iodinated forms, have been investigated during PAA disinfection and chlorination as the comparison. The DBP formations under different iodide concentrations, pHs, and contact times were systematically investigated. Two types of commercial PAAs containing different concentrations of PAA and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) were studied. A solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method was upgraded for THM analysis including I-THMs. HAAs were analyzed by following a recently developed high performance ion chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. Results show that the ratio of PAA and H 2 O 2 concentration significantly affect the formation of I-THMs and I-HAAs. During PAA disinfection with lower PAA than H 2 O 2 , no detectable levels of THMs and HAAs were observed. During PAA disinfection with higher PAA than H 2 O 2 , low levels of monoiodoacetic acid, diiodoacetic acid, and iodoform were formed, and these levels were enhanced with the increase of iodide concentration. No significant quantities of chloro- or bromo-THMs and HAAs were formed during PAA disinfection treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) and mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH) in pure mineral hydrocarbon-based cosmetics and cosmetic raw materials using (1)H NMR spectroscopy. (United States)

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Mildau, Gerd; Rullmann, Anke; Marx, Gerhard; Walch, Stephan G; Hartwig, Andrea; Kuballa, Thomas


    Mineral hydrocarbons consist of two fractions, mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) and mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH). MOAH is a potential public health hazard because it may include carcinogenic polycyclic compounds. In the present study, 400 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was introduced, in the context of official controls, to measure MOSH and MOAH in raw materials or pure mineral hydrocarbon final products (cosmetics and medicinal products). Quantitative determination (qNMR) has been established using the ERETIC methodology (electronic reference to access in vivo concentrations) based on the PULCON principle (pulse length based concentration determination). Various mineral hydrocarbons (e.g., white oils, paraffins or petroleum jelly) were dissolved in deuterated chloroform. The ERETIC factor was established using a quantification reference sample containing ethylbenzene and tetrachloronitrobenzene. The following spectral regions were integrated: MOSH δ 3.0 - 0.2 ppm and MOAH δ 9.2 - 6.5, excluding solvent signals. Validation showed a sufficient precision of the method with a coefficient of variation hydrocarbon raw materials or pure mineral hydrocarbon-based cosmetic products, NMR delivers higher specificity without any sample preparation besides dilution. Our sample survey shows that previous methods may have overestimated the MOAH amount in mineral oil products and opens new paths to characterize this fraction. Therefore, the developed method can be applied for routine monitoring of consumer products aiming to minimize public health risks.

  7. Evaluation of the effectiveness of different methods for the remediation of contaminated groundwater by determining the petroleum hydrocarbon content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyevoda, Maryna; Geyer, Wolfgang; Mothes, Sibylle [Department of Analytical Chemistry, UFZ, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Leipzig (Germany); Mosig, Peter [Centre for Environmental Biotechnology, UFZ, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Leipzig (Germany); Seeger, Eva M. [Department of Environmental Biotechnology, UFZ, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Leipzig (Germany)


    The effectiveness of different remediation procedures for decreasing the amount of TPH (total petroleum hydrocarbons) in contaminated groundwater was evaluated at the site of a former refinery. The investigations were carried out on samples taken from several gravel based HSSF (horizontal subsurface flow) constructed wetlands (CW) which differed in relation to their filter material additives (no additive, charcoal, and ferric oxides additives) and examined the potential effect of these additives on the overall treatment efficiency. Samples of the following gravel based HSSF CW were investigated. No filter additive (system A), 0.1% activated carbon (system B), 0.5% iron(III) hydroxide (system C), and the reference (system D). Systems A-C were planted with common reed (Phragmites australis), whereas system D remained unplanted. In addition, the influence of seasonal conditions on the reduction of these hydrocarbons and the correlation between the amounts of TPH and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene isomers), on the one hand, and methyl tert-butyl ether, on the other, was investigated. The study was carried out by using a modified GC-FID approach and multivariate methods. The investigations carried out in the first year of operation demonstrated that the effectiveness of the petroleum hydrocarbon removal was highest and reached a level of 93 {+-} 3.5% when HSSF filters with activated carbon as a filter additive were used. This remediation method allowed the petroleum hydrocarbon content to be reduced independently of seasonal conditions. The correlation between the reduction of TPH and BTEX was found to be R = 0.8824. Using this correlation coefficient, the time-consuming determination of the BTEX content was no longer necessary. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. ATSDR evaluation of health effects of chemicals. IV. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): understanding a complex problem. (United States)

    Mumtaz, M M; George, J D; Gold, K W; Cibulas, W; DeRosa, C T


    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of chemicals that are formed during the incomplete burning of coal, oil, gas, wood, garbage, or other organic substances, such as tobacco and charbroiled meat. There are more than 100 PAHs. PAHs generally occur as complex mixtures (for example, as part of products such as soot), not as single compounds. PAHs are found throughout the environment in the air, water, and soil. As part of its mandate, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) prepares toxicological profiles on hazardous chemicals, including PAHs (ATSDR, 1995), found at facilities on the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) National Priorities List (NPL) and which pose the most significant potential threat to human health, as determined by ATSDR and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). These profiles include information on health effects of chemicals from different routes and durations of exposure, their potential for exposure, regulations and advisories, and the adequacy of the existing database. Assessing the health effects of PAHs is a major challenge because environmental exposures to these chemicals are usually to complex mixtures of PAHs with other chemicals. The biological consequences of human exposure to mixtures of PAHs depend on the toxicity, carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic, of the individual components of the mixture, the types of interactions among them, and confounding factors that are not thoroughly understood. Also identified are components of exposure and health effects research needed on PAHs that will allow estimation of realistic human health risks posed by exposures to PAHs. The exposure assessment component of research should focus on (1) development of reliable analytical methods for the determination of bioavailable PAHs following ingestion, (2) estimation of bioavailable PAHs from environmental media, particularly the determination of particle-bound PAHs, (3

  9. Chlorinated drinking water for lightweight laying hens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schneider, A.F; Almeida, D.S; Moraes, A.N; Picinin, L.C.A; Oliveira, V; Gewehr, C.E


    ABSTRACT The study aimed to evaluate the effect of different levels of chlorine in drinking water of laying hens on zootechnical performance, eggs shell quality, hemogasometry levels and calcium content in tibia...

  10. Evaluation of mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH and mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH in pure mineral hydrocarbon-based cosmetics and cosmetic raw materials using 1H NMR spectroscopy [version 2; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk W. Lachenmeier


    Full Text Available Mineral hydrocarbons consist of two fractions, mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH and mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH. MOAH is a potential public health hazard because it may include carcinogenic polycyclic compounds. In the present study, 400 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy was introduced, in the context of official controls, to measure MOSH and MOAH in raw materials or pure mineral hydrocarbon final products (cosmetics and medicinal products. Quantitative determination (qNMR has been established using the ERETIC methodology (electronic reference to access in vivo concentrations based on the PULCON principle (pulse length based concentration determination. Various mineral hydrocarbons (e.g., white oils, paraffins or petroleum jelly were dissolved in deuterated chloroform. The ERETIC factor was established using a quantification reference sample containing ethylbenzene and tetrachloronitrobenzene. The following spectral regions were integrated: MOSH δ 3.0 – 0.2 ppm and MOAH δ 9.2 - 6.5, excluding solvent signals. Validation showed a sufficient precision of the method with a coefficient of variation <6% and a limit of detection <0.1 g/100 g. The applicability of the method was proven by analysing 27 authentic samples with MOSH and MOAH contents in the range of 90-109 g/100 g and 0.02-1.10 g/100 g, respectively. It is important to distinguish this new NMR-approach from the hyphenated liquid chromatography-gas chromatography methodology previously used to characterize MOSH/MOAH amounts in cosmetic products. For mineral hydrocarbon raw materials or pure mineral hydrocarbon-based cosmetic products, NMR delivers higher specificity without any sample preparation besides dilution. Our sample survey shows that previous methods may have overestimated the MOAH amount in mineral oil products and opens new paths to characterize this fraction. Therefore, the developed method can be applied for routine monitoring of consumer

  11. Evaluation of mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH and mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH in pure mineral hydrocarbon-based cosmetics and cosmetic raw materials using 1H NMR spectroscopy [version 1; referees: 2 approved, 1 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk W. Lachenmeier


    Full Text Available Mineral hydrocarbons consist of two fractions, mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH and mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH. MOAH is a potential public health hazard because it may include carcinogenic polycyclic compounds. In the present study, 400 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy was introduced, in the context of official controls, to measure MOSH and MOAH in raw materials or pure mineral hydrocarbon final products (cosmetics and medicinal products. Quantitative determination (qNMR has been established using the ERETIC methodology (electronic reference to access in vivo concentrations based on the PULCON principle (pulse length based concentration determination. Various mineral hydrocarbons (e.g., white oils, paraffins or petroleum jelly were dissolved in deuterated chloroform. The ERETIC factor was established using a quantification reference sample containing ethylbenzene and tetrachloronitrobenzene. The following spectral regions were integrated: MOSH δ 3.0 – 0.2 ppm and MOAH δ 9.2 - 6.5, excluding solvent signals. Validation showed a sufficient precision of the method with a coefficient of variation <6% and a limit of detection <0.1 g/100 g. The applicability of the method was proven by analysing 27 authentic samples with MOSH and MOAH contents in the range of 90-109 g/100 g and 0.02-1.10 g/100 g, respectively. It is important to distinguish this new NMR-approach from the hyphenated liquid chromatography-gas chromatography methodology previously used to characterize MOSH/MOAH amounts in cosmetic products. For mineral hydrocarbon raw materials or pure mineral hydrocarbon-based cosmetic products, NMR delivers higher specificity without any sample preparation besides dilution. Our sample survey shows that previous methods may have overestimated the MOAH amount in mineral oil products and opens new paths to characterize this fraction. Therefore, the developed method can be applied for routine monitoring of consumer

  12. Toxicity of chlorine to zebrafish embryos (United States)

    Kent, Michael L.; Buchner, Cari; Barton, Carrie; Tanguay, Robert L.


    Surface disinfection of fertilized fish eggs is widely used in aquaculture to reduce extraovum pathogens that may be released from brood fish during spawning, and this is routinely used in zebrafish (Danio rerio) research laboratories. Most laboratories use approximately 25 – 50 ppm unbuffered chlorine solution for 5 – 10 min. Treatment of embryos with chlorine has significant germicidal effects for many Gram-negative bacteria, viruses, and trophozoite stages of protozoa, it has reduced efficacy against cyst or spore stages of protozoa and certain Mycobacterium spp. Therefore, we evaluated the toxicity of unbufferred and buffered chlorine solution to embryos exposed at 6 or 24 hours post-fertilization (hpf) to determine if higher concentrations can be used for treating zebrafish embryos. Most of our experiments entailed using an outbred line (5D), with both mortality and malformations as endpoints. We found that 6 hpf embryos consistently were more resistant than 24 hpf embryos to the toxic effects of chlorine. Chlorine is more toxic and germicidal at lower pHs, and chlorine causes elevated pH. Consistent with this, we found that unbufferred chlorine solutions (pH ca 8–9) were less toxic at corresponding concentrations than solutions buffered to pH 7. Based on our findings here, we recommend treating 6 hpf embryos for 10 min and 24 hpf for 5 min with unbuffered chlorine solution at 100 ppm. One trial indicated that AB fish, a popular outbred line, are more susceptible to toxicity than 5Ds. This suggests that variability between zebrafish lines occurs, and researchers should evaluate each line or strain under their particular laboratory conditions for selection of the optimum chlorine treatment procedure. PMID:24429474

  13. An accurate evaluation of the potential hazardous impact of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in biochars (United States)

    María De la Rosa, José; Sánchez-Martín, Águeda; Villaverde-Capellán, Jaime; Madrid, Fernando; Paneque, Marina; Knicker, Heike


    Biochar may act as a soil conditioner, enhancing plant growth by supplying and retaining nutrients and by providing other services such as improving soil physical, chemical and biological properties. Feedstock properties and production conditions drive the nature of produced biochars [1]. Special attention have to be paid to their content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are persistent organic pollutants formed during biochar production due to incomplete combustion (pyrolysis step) [2]. These PAHs may enter the environment when the biochar is applied as soil conditioner. Therefore, the intention of this study was to test a potential hazardous impact of biochar amendment due to the presence of PAHs. In order to find a relationship between pyrolysis conditions, feedstock and abundance of PAHs, four biochars produced from different feedstock were analyzed. Three biochars were produced by technical pyrolysis (500-600 °C; 20 min) from wood, paper sludge and sewage sludge respectively (samples B1, B2 and B3). The fourth biochar sample derived from old grapevine wood by using the traditional carbonization method in kilns (kiln-stack wood biochar; B4). A detailed characterization of physical and chemical properties of these samples can be found in De la Rosa et al, [3]. Two different PAHs extraction techniques were applied to evaluate the total and available PAHs content of the biochars. They consisted in an extraction with toluene using a Soxhlet extractor and a non-exhaustive extraction with Cyclodextrins (CDs). Chromatographic and mass spectrometric conditions applied are described in [1]. Total PAHs yielded between 3 ppm (B3) and 7 (B4) ppm. The production of biochar by using traditional kilns instead of controlled pyrolysis, increased significantly the total PAHs levels. No direct relationship was found between the total PAHs and the PAHs extracted by CDs, which can be considered as the bioavailable fraction. This parameter should replace the total

  14. An In Silico Approach for Evaluating a Fraction-Based, Risk Assessment Method for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Ching Y. Wang


    Full Text Available Both the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection (MADEP and the Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Criteria Working Group (TPHCWG developed fraction-based approaches for assessing human health risks posed by total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH mixtures in the environment. Both organizations defined TPH fractions based on their expected environmental fate and by analytical chemical methods. They derived toxicity values for selected compounds within each fraction and used these as surrogates to assess hazard or risk of exposure to the whole fractions. Membership in a TPH fraction is generally defined by the number of carbon atoms in a compound and by a compound's equivalent carbon (EC number index, which can predict its environmental fate. Here, we systematically and objectively re-evaluate the assignment of TPH to specific fractions using comparative molecular field analysis and hierarchical clustering. The approach is transparent and reproducible, reducing inherent reliance on judgment when toxicity information is limited. Our evaluation of membership in these fractions is highly consistent (̃80% on average across various fractions with the empirical approach of MADEP and TPHCWG. Furthermore, the results support the general methodology of mixture risk assessment to assess both cancer and noncancer risk values after the application of fractionation.

  15. Synthesis and biological evaluation of new boron-containing chlorin derivatives as agents for both photodynamic therapy and boron neutron capture therapy of cancer. (United States)

    Asano, Ryuji; Nagami, Amon; Fukumoto, Yuki; Miura, Kaori; Yazama, Futoshi; Ito, Hideyuki; Sakata, Isao; Tai, Akihiro


    New boron-containing chlorin derivatives 9 and 13 as agents for both photodynamic therapy (PDT) and boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) of cancer were synthesized from photoprotoporphyrin IX dimethyl ester (2) and L-4-boronophenylalanine-related compounds. The in vivo biodistribution and clearance of 9 and 13 were investigated in tumor-bearing mice. The time to maximum accumulation of compound 13 in tumor tissue was one-fourth of that of compound 9, and compound 13 showed rapid clearance from normal tissues within 24h after injection. The in vivo therapeutic efficacy of PDT using 13 was evaluated by measuring tumor growth rates in tumor-bearing mice with 660 nm light-emitting diode irradiation at 3h after injection of 13. Tumor growth was significantly inhibited by PDT using 13. These results suggested that 13 might be a good candidate for both PDT and BNCT of cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) standard for JP-4 jet fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenna, E.A.; Youngren, S.H.; Baker, S.R.; Schroeder, J.R.; Piccin, T.B.


    The potential for use of alternatives to total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) for remediation purposes was examined specifically for JP-4 fuel. The study objective was to determine the scientific basis for use of fuel constituents other than TPH in establishing soil cleanup standards at JP-4-contaminated sites. The general bases for TPH soil cleanup standards or goals were characterized. Problems with the use of TPH for cleanup included its lack of specificity (e.g., method-, medium-, and time-from-spill-dependency) as well as the lack of toxicological relevance. JP-4 fuel constituents (alkanes, BTEX (i.e., benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (i.e., chrysene), and naphthalenes) were identified as potential TPH alternatives. A series of criteria were applied to assess the viability of the use of specific JP-4 constituents as TPH alternatives, and to select the most appropriate alternative. Criteria included chemical fate and transport, toxicity, and regulatory standards for relevant media of concern. Consideration of these criteria ultimately resulted in selection of benzene as the JP-4 indicator of choice. The potential for altering risk-based benzene soil cleanup concentrations (preliminary remediation goals, PRGs) was examined, and encompassed the basis for the existing benzene cancer slope factor (SF) as well as the role of distributional analysis of exposure parameters (Monte Carlo) that might be employed at JP-4 spill sites.

  17. Evaluation of methods for predicting the toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, W.; Barhoumi, R.; Burghardt, R.C. [and others] [Texas A & M University, College Station, TX (USA). Dept. of Veterinary Anatomy and Public Health and Department of Civil Engineering


    Risk assessments of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mixtures are hindered by a lack of reliable information on the potency of both mixtures and their individual components. This paper examines methods for approximating the toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) mixtures. PAHs were isolated from a coal tar and then separated by ring number using HPLC. Five fractions (A-E) were generated, each possessing a unique composition and expected potency. The toxicity of each fraction was measured in the Salmonella/mutagenicity assay and the Chick Embryo Screening Test (CHEST). Their abilities to induce ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase and to inhibit gap junction intercellular communication in rat liver Clone 9 cells were also measured. In the Salmonella/mutagenicity assay, fractions were predicted to have potencies in the order C {gt} E {gt} B {gt} A. Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for fractions A-E were in the order E {ge} D {gt} C {gt} B {gt} A. TEF values were 20 652, 20 929, 441, 306 and 74.1 {mu}g of BaP equiv/g, respectively. A lack of agreement between assay-predicted potencies and chemical analysis-predicted potencies was observed with other assays and other methods of calculation. The results demonstrate the limitations of using a single method to predict the toxicity of a complex PAH mixture. 41 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. SAM Chlorine Observations at Gale Crater (United States)

    Conrad, P. G.; Farley, K. A.; Vasconcelos, P. M.; Malespin, C.; Franz, H.; McAdam, A.; Sutter, B.; Stern, J. C.; Clark, B. C.; Atreya, S. K.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Martín-Torres, J.; Zorzano, M. P.


    The Sample Analysis at Mars investigation has detected Cl-bearing phases of various oxidation states in its thermally evolved gas measurements of both a wind drift deposit of fines and three different rock samples delivered as sieved drill powders to the instrument suite. In addition to HCl (Leshin et al, 2013; Ming et al, 2013) and chlorinated hydrocarbon detections (Glavin et al, 2013; Freissinet et al, in review), oxygen releases consistent with the decomposition of perchlorate salts are also observed. We have also measured chlorine isotope ratios of the four different solid samples, which yielded variable and more negative δ37Cl than typically observed in SNC meteorite analyses. We summarize our chlorine observations in the context of other gases observed in the SAM solid sample analyses, including water, sulfur- and nitrogen-bearing compounds, and REMS observations of Relative Humidity and Temperature, and compare with knowledge of martian chlorine obtained from the SNC meteorites. Finally, we examine the implications of surface/atmosphere Cl interactions and isotopic ratios for the rise and decline of habitable surface environments on Mars. This research was supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Mars Science Laboratory mission.

  19. Water Treatment Technology - Chlorination. (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on chlorination provides instructional materials for nine competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: purpose and process of chlorination, chlorine…

  20. Model studies for evaluating the neurobehavioral effects of complex hydrocarbon solvents. II. Neurobehavioral effects of white spirit in rat and human

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, J.H.C.M.; Emmen, H.H.; Muijser, H.; Hoogendijk, E.M.G.; McKee, R.H.; Owen, D.E.; Kulig, B.M.


    To evaluate the neurobehavioral effects of hydrocarbon solvents and to establish a working model for extrapolating animal test data to humans, studies were conducted which involved inhalation exposure of rats and humans to white spirit (WS). The specific objectives of these studies were to evaluate

  1. Ozone depletion and chlorine loading potentials (United States)

    Pyle, John A.; Wuebbles, Donald J.; Solomon, Susan; Zvenigorodsky, Sergei; Connell, Peter; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Fisher, Donald A.; Stordal, Frode; Weisenstein, Debra


    The recognition of the roles of chlorine and bromine compounds in ozone depletion has led to the regulation or their source gases. Some source gases are expected to be more damaging to the ozone layer than others, so that scientific guidance regarding their relative impacts is needed for regulatory purposes. Parameters used for this purpose include the steady-state and time-dependent chlorine loading potential (CLP) and the ozone depletion potential (ODP). Chlorine loading potentials depend upon the estimated value and accuracy of atmospheric lifetimes and are subject to significant (approximately 20-50 percent) uncertainties for many gases. Ozone depletion potentials depend on the same factors, as well as the evaluation of the release of reactive chlorine and bromine from each source gas and corresponding ozone destruction within the stratosphere.

  2. Behavior of chlorine during coal pyrolysis (United States)

    Shao, D.; Hutchinson, E.J.; Cao, H.; Pan, W.-P.; Chou, C.-L.


    The behavior of chlorine in Illinois coals during pyrolysis was evaluated by combined thermo-gravimetry-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-ion chromatography (TG-FTIR-IC) techniques. It was found that more than 90% of chlorine in Illinois coals (IBC-103, 105, 106, and 109) was liberated as HCl gas during pyrolysis from 300 to 600??C, with the rate reaching a maximum at 440 ??C. Similarity of the HCl and NH3 release profiles during pyrolysis of IBC-109 supports the hypothesis that the chlorine in coal may be associated with nitrogen and the chlorine is probably bonded to the basic nitrogen sites on the inner walls of coal micropores. ?? 1994 American Chemical Society.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Jehár Oliveira Quintão

    Full Text Available Due to its low cost, its capability for disinfection and oxidation, chlorination using gaseous chlorine or hypochlorite salts, has also been commonly applied in water treatment plants for oxidation and disinfection purposes. Little is known about the identity and toxicity of by-products resulting from the chlorination of pharmaceutical micropollutants, such as enalapril (ENA and ranitidine (RAN. ENA and RAN chlorination by-products were characterized in this study by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC/HRMS and their toxicity were assessed by MTT assay. Chlorination experiments with ENA and RAN solutions (10 mg L-1 indicate degradation efficiencies of 100% for both compounds after only 5 min of exposure to chlorine at concentration of 9.53 mg Cl2 L-1. On the other hand mineralization rates were lower than 3%, thereby indicating there was accumulation of degradation by-products in all experiments. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed, at all times of reaction after the addition of hypochlorite, the presence of 1-(2-((4-(chlorophenyl-1-ethoxy-1-oxobutan-2-ylaminopropanoylpyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid (enalapril by-product and N-chloro-N-(2-(((chloro-5-((dimethylaminomethylfuran-2-ylmethylsulfinylethyl-N-methyl-2-nitroethene 1,1-diamine (ranitidine by-product. Despite the formation of oxidized chlorinated by-products in all chlorination assays, the treated solutions were nontoxic to HepG2 cells by the MTT assay. It has been observed that chlorination (10 mg L-1, 5 min of ENA and RAN solutions exhibited high degradation efficiencies of the target compounds and low mineralization rates. Based on the mass spectrometry data, the routes for ENA and RAN successive oxidation by chlorine has been proposed.

  4. Chlorinated drinking water for lightweight laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Schneider

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The study aimed to evaluate the effect of different levels of chlorine in drinking water of laying hens on zootechnical performance, eggs shell quality, hemogasometry levels and calcium content in tibia. 144 Hy-Line laying hens, 61 weeks old, were used distributed in 24 metabolism cages. They were subjected to water diets, for a period of 28 days, using sodium hypochlorite as a chlorine source in order to obtain the following concentrations: 5ppm (control, 20ppm, 50ppm, and 100ppm. Their performance was evaluated through water consumption, feed intake, egg production and weight, egg mass, feed conversion. Shell quality was measured by specific gravity. At the end of the experiment, arterial blood was collected for blood gas level assessment and a poultry of each replicate was sacrificed to obtain tibia and calcium content measurement. There was a water consumption reduction from 20ppm of chlorine and feed intake reduction in poultry receiving water with 100ppm of chlorine. The regression analysis showed that the higher the level of chlorine in water, the higher the reduction in consumption. There were no differences in egg production and weight, egg mass, feed conversion, specific gravity, tibia calcium content, and hemogasometry levels (hydrogenionic potential, carbon dioxide partial pressure, oxygen partial pressure, sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, carbon dioxide total concentration, anion gap and oxygen saturation. The use of levels above 5ppm of chlorine is not recommended in the water of lightweight laying hens.

  5. UV/chlorine as an advanced oxidation process for the degradation of benzalkonium chloride: Synergistic effect, transformation products and toxicity evaluation. (United States)

    Huang, Nan; Wang, Ting; Wang, Wen-Long; Wu, Qian-Yuan; Li, Ang; Hu, Hong-Ying


    Benzalkonium chlorides (BACs), as typical cationic surfactants and biocides widely applied in household and industrial products, have been frequently detected as micropollutants in many aquatic environments. In this study, the combination of UV irradiation and chlorine (UV/chlorine), a newly interested advanced oxidation process, was used to degrade dodecylbenzyldimethylammonium chloride (DDBAC). UV/chlorine showed synergistic effects on DDBAC degradation comparing to UV irradiation or chlorination alone. Radical quenching experiments indicated that degradation of DDBAC by UV/chlorine involved both UV photolysis and radical species oxidation, which accounted for 48.4% and 51.6%, respectively. Chlorine dosage and pH are essential parameters affecting the treatment efficiency of UV/chlorine. The pseudo first order rate constant (kobs, DDBAC) increased from 0.046 min-1 to 0.123 min-1 in response to chlorine dosage at 0-150 mg/L, and the degradation percentage of DDBAC within 12 min decreased from 81.4% to 56.6% at pH 3.6-9.5. Five main intermediates were identified and semi-quantified using HPLC-MS/MS and a possible degradation pathway was proposed. The degradation mechanisms of DDBAC by UV/chlorine included cleavage of the benzyl-nitrogen bond and hydrogen abstraction of the alkyl chain. Trichloromethane (TCM), chloral hydrate (CH), trichloropropanone (TCP), dichloropropanone (DCP) and dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN) were detected using GC-ECD. The formation of chlorinated products increased rapidly initially, then decreased (TCM, TCP, DCP and DCAN) or remained stable (CH) with extended treatment. The actual formation of TCM peaked at 30 min (50.3 μg/L), while other chlorinated products did not exceed 10 μg/L throughout the process. Based on the luminescent bacterial assay, DDBAC solution underwent almost complete detoxification subjected to UV/chlorine treatment for 120 min, which is more effective than UV irradiation or chlorination alone. Copyright © 2017

  6. Stability and effectiveness of chlorine disinfectants in water distribution systems. (United States)

    Olivieri, V P; Snead, M C; Krusé, C W; Kawata, K


    A test system for water distribution was used to evaluate the stability and effectiveness of three residual disinfectants--free chlorine, combined chlorine, and chlorine dioxide--when challenged with a sewage contaminant. The test distribution system consisted of the street main and internal plumbing for two barracks at Fort George G. Meade, MD. To the existing pipe network, 152 m (500 ft) of 13-mm (0.5 in.) copper pipe were added for sampling, and 60 m (200 ft) of 2.54-cm (1.0 in.) plastic pipe were added for circulation. The levels of residual disinfectants tested were 0.2 mg/L and 1.0 mg/L as available chlorine. In the absence of a disinfectant residual, microorganisms in the sewage contaminant were consistently recovered at high levels. The presence of any disinfectant residual reduced the microorganism level and frequency of occurrence at the consumer's tap. Free chlorine was the most effective residual disinfectant and may serve as a marker or flag in the distribution network. Free chlorine and chlorine dioxide were the least stable in the pipe network. The loss of disinfectant in the pipe network followed first-order kinetics. The half-life determined in static tests for free chlorine, chlorine dioxide, and combined chlorine was 140, 93, and 1680 min.

  7. Evaluating the Detection of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacteria in 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Berry


    Full Text Available Hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria (HCB play a key role in the biodegradation of oil hydrocarbons in marine and other environments. A small number of taxa have been identified as obligate HCB, notably the Gammaproteobacterial genera Alcanivorax, Cycloclasticus, Marinobacter, Neptumonas, Oleiphilus, Oleispira, and Thalassolituus, as well as the Alphaproteobacterial genus Thalassospira. Detection of HCB in amplicon-based sequencing surveys relies on high coverage by PCR primers and accurate taxonomic classification. In this study, we performed a phylogenetic analysis to identify 16S rRNA gene sequence regions that represent the breadth of sequence diversity within these taxa. Using validated sequences, we evaluated 449 universal 16S rRNA gene-targeted bacterial PCR primer pairs for their coverage of these taxa. The results of this analysis provide a practical framework for selection of suitable primer sets for optimal detection of HCB in sequencing surveys.

  8. Global atmospheric emissions and transport of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Evaluation of modeling and transboundary pollution (United States)

    Shen, Huizhong; Tao, Shu


    Global atmospheric emissions of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from 69 major sources were estimated for a period from 1960 to 2030. Regression models and a technology split method were used to estimated country and time specific emission factors, resulting in a new estimate of PAH emission factor variation among different countries and over time. PAH emissions in 2007 were spatially resolved to 0.1° × 0.1° grids based on a newly developed global high-resolution fuel combustion inventory (PKU-FUEL-2007). MOZART-4 (The Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers, version 4) was applied to simulate the global tropospheric transport of Benzo(a)pyrene, one of the high molecular weight carcinogenic PAHs, at a horizontal resolution of 1.875° (longitude) × 1.8947° (latitude). The reaction with OH radical, gas/particle partitioning, wet deposition, dry deposition, and dynamic soil/ocean-air exchange of PAHs were considered. The simulation was validated by observations at both background and non-background sites, including Alert site in Canadian High Arctic, EMEP sites in Europe, and other 254 urban/rural sites reported from literatures. Key factors effecting long-range transport of BaP were addressed, and transboundary pollution was discussed.

  9. Reaction products of chlorine dioxide.


    Stevens, A. A.


    Inspection of the available literature reveals that a detailed investigation of the aqueous organic chemistry of chlorine dioxide and systematic identification of products formed during water disinfection has not been considered. This must be done before an informed assessment can be made of the relative safety of using chlorine dioxide as a disinfectant alternative to chlorine. Although trihalomethanes are generally not formed by the action of chlorine dioxide, the products of chlorine dioxi...

  10. Bioremediation of soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons using bioslurry reactors. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerji, S.K.; Zappi, M.E.; Teeter, C.L.; Gunnison, D.; Cullinane, M.J.


    The Department of Defense has over 12,000 sites contaminated from military activities. This report presents data from two bench-scale and two pilot-scale studies that evaluated the suitability of the bioslurry process to bioremediate soils contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons. Soils from two contaminated sites were studied. The first soil contained polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene) compounds, ketones, and chlorinated ethanes; the second soil contained gasoline and associated compounds. Conceptual designs and costs of bioslurry processes for field applications are also presented. Bench-scale studies were performed in 5-L batch reactors, equipped with aeration and mixing equipment. Various nutrient amendments, surfactants, and selected microbial consortia were evaluated during the bench-scale studies. Several reactors were also operated using only native microbes.

  11. Using regression models to evaluate the formation of trihalomethanes and haloacetonitriles via chlorination of source water with low SUVA values in the Yangtze River Delta region, China. (United States)

    Hong, Huachang; Song, Qianyun; Mazumder, Asit; Luo, Qian; Chen, Jianrong; Lin, Hongjun; Yu, Haiying; Shen, Liguo; Liang, Yan


    The purpose of this study was to develop the multiple regression models to evaluate the formation of trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetonitriles (HANs) during chlorination of source water with low specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA) in Yangtze River Delta, China. The results showed that the regression models of THMs exhibited good accuracy and precision, and 86-97 % of the calculated values fell within ±25 % of the measured values. While the HANs models showed relatively weak evaluation ability, as only 75-83 % of the calculated values were within ±25 % of the measured values. The organic matter [dissolved organic carbon (DOC) or UV absorbance at 254 nm] and bromide exerted the most important influence on the formation of HANs. While for THMs, besides the organic matter and bromide, reaction time was also a key factor. Comparing the models for total THMs (T-THMs) in this study with others revealed that the regression models from the low SUVA waters may have low DOC coefficients, but high bromide coefficients as compared with those from the high SUVA waters.

  12. Evaluation of airborne respirable particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure of asphalt workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cirillo


    Full Text Available

    Introduction: Assessment of exposure to the airborne respirable particles (PM10 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs of asphalt manufacturing and road paving workers in the Campania region (Italy.

    Materials and Methods: A study was carried out during 2006 and involved 5 firms producing and employing bitumen in road paving activities. The workers studied were categorized on the basis of their job as workers in bitumen manufacturing, in road paving and in workers not exposed at bitumen fume considered like controls.

    Results: In the manufacturing plants the average concentrations of airborne PM10 were 1125±445 ìg/m3 in the HMA manufacturing workers’ areas; 314±81 ìg/m3 in the process surveyors’ cabins and 92±27 ìg/m3 in the controls’ areas (administrative offices. Within the breathing zones of the worker, the average PAHs levels in air were as follows: 367±198 ng/m3 for HMA manufacturing workers; 348±172 ng/m3 for process surveyors; 21±2 ng/m3 for the controls. At the road paving sites the average airborne PM10 levels were 1435±325 ìg/m3 for roller operators; 1610±356 ìg/m3 for paver operators; 319±108 ìg/m for the controls (traffic controllers. PAHs in the breathing zones were 1220±694 ng/m3 for the paver operators; 1360±575 ng/m3 for the roller operators’ and 139±135 ng/m3 for the traffic controllers’. The results show that the more consistent hazard for asphalt workers’ health is derived from exposure to airborne PM10 both in exposed and in non-exposed (controls workers.

  13. Evaluation of bacterial strategies to promote the bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnsen, A.R.; Karlson, U. [Dept. of Environmental Chemistry and Microbiology, National Environmental Research Inst., Roskilde (Denmark)


    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs)-degrading bacteria may enhance the bioavailability of PAHs by excreting biosurfactants, by production of extracellular polymeric substances, or by forming biofilms. We tested these hypotheses in pure cultures of PAHs-degrading bacterial strains. Most of the strains did not substantially reduce the surface tension when grown on PAHs in liquid shaken cultures. Thus, pseudo-solubilization of PAHs in biosurfactant micelles seems not to be a general strategy for these isolates to enhance PAHs-bioavailability. Three semi-colloid Sphingomonas polysaccharides all increased the solubility of PAHs (Gellan 1.3- to 5.4-fold, Welan 1.8- to 6.0-fold and Rhamsan 2.4- to 9.0-fold). The increases were most pronounced for the more hydrophobic PAHs. The polysaccharide-sorbed PAHs were bioavailable. Mineralization rates of 9-[{sup 14}C]-phenanthrene and 3-[{sup 14}C]-fluoranthene by Sphingobium EPA505, were similar with and without sphingans, indicating that mass-transfer rates from PAHs crystals to the bulk liquid were unaffected by the polysaccharides. Biofilm formation on PAHs crystals may favor the diffusive mass transfer of PAHs from crystals to the bacterial cells. A majority of the PAHs-degraders tested formed biofilms in microtiter wells coated with PAHs crystals. For strains capable of growing on different PAHs; the more soluble the PAHs, the lower the percentage of cells attached. Biofilm formation on PAHs-sources was the predominant mechanism among the tested bacteria to overcome mass transfer limitations when growing on poorly soluble PAHs. (orig.)

  14. Chlorine dioxide as phenol and H2S scavenger - formation of halogenated phenols and subsequent environmental risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melbye, Alf G.; Faksness, Liv-Guri; Knudsen, Boerre Leif


    Formation of halogenated phenols as side products from treatment of produced water with aqueous chlorine dioxide has been investigated. The literature describes formation of halogenated hydrocarbons in effluent treatment using chlorine, hypochlorite and chlorine dioxide. A new chlorine dioxide product, originally intended as a H2S scavenger in the oil and gas industry, has been tested both as a phenol scavenger and H2S-scavenger for produced water applications. The concern about the possible formation of halogenated by-products initiated laboratory testing of chlorine dioxide as phenol and H2S scavenger for produced water applications. The tests also included synthetic matrixes containing phenols, and the tests show that halogenated phenols, mainly brominated species, are found in produced water after treatment with chlorine dioxide. Due to potential environmental risk from halogenated organic contaminants, the use of chlorine dioxide as phenol and H2S scavenger is not recommended. (Author)

  15. Final Report: Evaluation of Alternative Technologies for Ethylene, Caustic-Chlorine, Ethylene Oxide, Ammonia, and Terephthalic Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report evaluates alternative technologies for chemicals manufacturing which may present energy efficiency improvements compared to existing technologies. It is an extension of the Chemical Bandwidth Study, which evaluates energy and exergy losses in the U.S. chemicals industry.

  16. Integrated evaluation of the performance of a more than seven year old permeable reactive barrier at a site contaminated with chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muchitsch, Nanna; Nooten, Thomas Van; Bastiaens, Leen


    An important issue of concern for permeable reactive iron barriers is the long-term efficiency of the barriers due to the long operational periods required. Mineral precipitation resulting from the anaerobic corrosion of the iron filings and bacteria present in the barrier may play an important...... indicated the presence of a microbial consortium in the barrier. A wide range of species were identified including sulfate and iron reducing bacteria, together with Dehalococcoides and Desulfuromonas species indicating microbial reductive dehalogenation potential. The microbes had a profound effect...

  17. Reaction of hydrocarbons on fly ash with special consideration of the formation of aromatic chlorinated compounds; Umsetzung von Kohlenwasserstoffen an Flugaschen unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung der Bildung von aromatischen Chlorverbindungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez Leal, P.


    This paper deals with the formation of chlorinated organic compounds, especially of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDD) and dibenzofurans (PCDF), in catalytic reactions on fly ash in incineration plants. The formation of these toxic compounds via de-novo-synthesis (formation from residual carbon, inorganic chloride and oxygen) and from several precursors (n-hexane, naphthaline, benzene, toluene, benzaldehyde, 2-chlorophenol and fluorene) on fly ash and model fly ash was investigated. The results show that in incineration plants PCDD/F can be formed de-novo as well as from precursors. The most efficient precursors of PCDD were benzaldehyde and 2-chlorophenol. The highest yield of PCDF were found for fluorene. The pathways of the formation of PCDD and PCDF are different. Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins are partly formed by reactions between C{sub 6}-precursors, especially by condensation of chlorophenols. Such reactions between C{sub 6}-precursors do not play an important role in the formation of PCDF. These compounds are formed from structures of the residual carbon of the fly ash or from precursors which have two benzene rings bounded. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die vorliegende Arbeit beschaeftigt sich mit der Bildung chlorierter organischer Verbindungen, insbesondere polychlorierter Dibenzodioxine (PCDD) und Dibenzofurane (PCDF) bei katalytischen Reaktionen auf Flugaschen in Muellverbrennungsanlagen. Untersucht wurde die Bildung dieser Schadstoffe bei der de-novo-Synthese (Neubildung aus Restkohlenstoff, anorganischem Chlorid und Sauerstoff), sowie aus verschiedenen Vorlaeuferverbindungen (n-Hexan, Naphthalin, Benzol, Toluol, Benzaldehyd, 2-Chlorphenol und Fluoren) auf Flugaschen und Modellflugaschen. Die Ergebnisse haben gezeigt, dass in Muellverbrennungsanlagen PCDD/F sowohl aus dem Restkohlenstoff als auch aus Vorlaeuferverbindungen gebildet werden koennen. Unter den untersuchten Vorlaeuferverbindungen zeigten Benzaldehyd und 2-Chlorphenol die hoechste Umsetzung in

  18. Modeling chlorine isotope trends during sequential transformation of chlorinated ethenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunkeler, D.; van Breukelen, B.M.; Elsner, M.


    There is increasing interest in combined carbon-chlorine compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) to differentiate between contaminant sources and to assess transformation processes. However, the significant abundance of polychlorinated molecules with several heavy chlorine isotopes complicates the

  19. Copaiba oleoresin: evaluation of the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Gomes da Silva


    Full Text Available The copaiba oleoresin extracted by perforating the tree-trunk found in the Amazonian forest has been used by the native indigenous communities to treat several diseases and also as fuel for lighting and for the motorboats plying the region's rivers. Currently, the oleoresin is mostly employed as a traditional remedy, mainly for the treatment of tonsillitis and as an anti-inflammatory and healing agent in oil and capsule forms, and is also used in several industry sectors. Due to its use in oral form, especially as a traditional remedy, an analysis of the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs as contaminants in the oleoresin was performed. PAHs are substances formed by two or more benzoic rings and found in the atmosphere as a residue from incomplete combustion of petroleum derivatives and industrial activities. These substances are found everywhere on land and water, and as a consequence can also be found in vegetables and foodstuffs in general. The use of products contaminated with these substances can compromise human and animal life. This study was performed on oleoresin from different areas or regions in the Amazon, using the HPLC methodology with fluorescence detection. The samples analyzed revealed different concentrations of these compounds.O óleo-resina de copaíba que é extraído mediante a perfuração do tronco da árvore que se encontra em forma nativa na floresta amazônica já era empregado pelas comunidades indígenas para a cura de várias doenças e, também, como combustível em iluminação e para o funcionamento de motores de barcos que trafegavam pelos rios da região. Hoje, é largamente empregado na medicina popular, principalmente para o tratamento de amigdalite e como antiinflamatório e cicatrizante na forma de óleo e em cápsulas, sendo utilizado, também, em vários setores da indústria. Devido ao seu uso na forma oral, principalmente na medicina popular, realizou-se um trabalho para avaliar a presen

  20. Comparative evaluation of 15% ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid plus cetavlon and 5% chlorine dioxide in removal of smear layer: A scanning electron microscope study. (United States)

    Singh, Sandeep; Arora, Vimal; Majithia, Inderpal; Dhiman, Rakesh Kumar; Kumar, Dinesh; Ather, Amber


    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of smear layer removal by 5% chlorine dioxide and 15% Ethylenediamine Tetra-Acetic Acid plus Cetavlon (EDTAC) from the human root canal dentin. Fifty single rooted human mandibular anterior teeth were divided into two groups of 20 teeth each and control group of 10 teeth. The root canals were prepared till F3 protaper and initially irrigated with 2% Sodium hypochlorite followed by 1 min irrigation with 15% EDTAC or 5% Chlorine dioxide respectively. The control group was irrigated with saline. The teeth were longitudinally split and observed under Scanning electron microscope SEM (×2000). The statistical analysis was done using General Linear Mixed Model. At the coronal thirds, no statistically significant difference was found between 15% EDTAC and 5% Chlorine dioxide in removing smear layer. In the middle and apical third region 15% EDTAC showed better smear layer removal ability than 5% Chlorine dioxide. Final irrigation with 15% EDTAC is superior to 5% chlorine dioxide in removing smear layer in the middle and apical third of radicular dentin.

  1. Comparative evaluation of 15% ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid plus cetavlon and 5% chlorine dioxide in removal of smear layer: A scanning electron microscope study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Singh


    Full Text Available Aims: The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of smear layer removal by 5% chlorine dioxide and 15% Ethylenediamine Tetra-Acetic Acid plus Cetavlon (EDTAC from the human root canal dentin. Materials >and Methods : Fifty single rooted human mandibular anterior teeth were divided into two groups of 20 teeth each and control group of 10 teeth. The root canals were prepared till F3 protaper and initially irrigated with 2% Sodium hypochlorite followed by 1 min irrigation with 15% EDTAC or 5% Chlorine dioxide respectively. The control group was irrigated with saline. The teeth were longitudinally split and observed under Scanning electron microscope SEM (×2000. Statistical Analysis Used: The statistical analysis was done using General Linear Mixed Model. Results : At the coronal thirds, no statistically significant difference was found between 15% EDTAC and 5% Chlorine dioxide in removing smear layer. In the middle and apical third region 15% EDTAC showed better smear layer removal ability than 5% Chlorine dioxide. Conclusion : Final irrigation with 15% EDTAC is superior to 5% chlorine dioxide in removing smear layer in the middle and apical third of radicular dentin.

  2. Use of Fixed-Film Bioreactors, in Situ Microcosms, and Molecular Biological Analyses to Evaluate Bioremediation of Chlorinated Benzenes By Indigenous Bacteria and a Bioaugmented Dechlorinating Consortium (United States)

    Lorah, M. M.; Teunis, J. A.


    Evaluation of bioremediation is complicated by contaminant mixtures, high concentrations, variable site conditions, and multiple possible degradation pathways. In this study, fixed-film bioreactor experiments, in situ microcosms, and microbial analyses were utilized to evaluate both anaerobic and aerobic biodegradation processes for tri- and dichlorobenzene isomers, monochlorobenzene, and benzene in a wetland. Biofilm-based bioreactors provide a robust assessment tool because of their typically high degree of stability, even with major and repeated perturbations. Two bioreactor units seeded with an anaerobic dechlorinating consortium (WBC-2) and one unit seeded only with bacteria indigenous to the site were operated under flow-through conditions to compare biougmentation and natural attenuation. Electron donor levels were varied to fluctuate between anaerobic and aerobic conditions, and inflow concentrations of total chlorobenzenes were transitioned from 1-10 mg/L to 50-100 mg/L. Biodegradation resulted in removal efficiencies of 80 to 99 percent for the different compounds and inflow concentrations. Degradation efficiency in the native bioreactor was not impacted by cycling between anaerobic and aerobic conditions, although removal rates for monochlorobenzene and benzene increased under aerobic conditions. In situ microcosms were incubated below the wetland surface in sets of 3 treatments—unamended, biostimulated (lactate addition), and bioaugmented (WBC-2 and lactate). Additional treatment sets contained 13C-labeled contaminants to monitor for production of 13C-containing carbon dioxide and cellular material. Microcosm results verified that WBC-2 bioaugmentation can enhance biodegradation, with complete mineralization of chlorobenzene and benzene in bioaugmented and native treatments. Microbial analyses using QuantArrayTM for functional and taxonomic genes indicated potential for co-occurrence of anaerobic and aerobic biodegradation. Compared to the unamended

  3. Evaluation of some Australian plant species for potential as hydrocarbon-producing crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, L.R.; Casali, J.; Home, V.


    Calotropis procera, Calotropis gigantea, Cryptostegia grandiflora, and Asclepias fruticosa were evaluated for their potential to be cultivated to provide a renewable source of fuel and energy. The cyclohexane extracts of the dried plants gave thick dark oils which were not mobile at less than 70-80 degrees. From elemental analysis, a proportion of O was always present in the extract.

  4. Evaluation of the quasi correlated tight-binding (QCTB) model for describing polyradical character in polycyclic hydrocarbons (United States)

    Luzanov, Anatoliy V.; Plasser, Felix; Das, Anita; Lischka, Hans


    We present a verification and significant algorithmic improvement of the quasi-correlation tight-binding (QCTB) scheme (a Hückel-Hubbard-type model mimicking electron correlation) for describing effectively unpaired electrons in the spirit of Head-Gordon's approach [M. Head-Gordon, Chem. Phys. Lett. 380, 488 (2003)]. For comparison purposes, results based on the high-level ab initio multireference averaged quadratic coupled cluster method previously computed in our works are invoked. In doing so, typical polyaromatic hydrocarbons (polyacenes, periacenes, zethrenes, and the Clar goblet) are studied. The evaluation shows that the QCTB Hückel-like scheme extended for electron correlation effects provides a qualitatively and in several cases also quantitatively good picture of the unpairing electrons in formally closed-shell electronic systems. Additionally, fairly large nanographene systems of triangulene structure (C426) and a perforated nanoribbon (C8860) have been treated at QCTB level. Two analytical model problems in the framework of QCTB prove the ability of this approximation to give a correct description of natural orbital occupancy spectra. For the studied QCTB scheme, an efficient algorithm is elaborated, and large-scale calculations of radical characteristics for nanographene networks with thousands of carbon atoms are possible.

  5. Desulfurization activity evaluation of native strains of pseudomonas spp. in the presence of hydrocarbon


    Alméciga-Díaz, Carlos Javier; Sánchez Medina, Óscar Fernando; Silva Gómez, Edelberto


    The main difficulty with fossil fuel combustión lies in sulphur and nitrogen becoming converted to their respective oxides, forming part of the acid rain which deteriorates the environment and infrastructure. Removing sulphur from organo-sulfur compounds by using micro-organisms has become an alternative to hydrodesulphurisation (HDS). Twenty-three Pseudomonas spp. native strains' desulphurisation activity on dibenzothiophene (DBT) was evaluated by using a fermentation system having equal pro...

  6. Reaction products of chlorine dioxide. (United States)

    Stevens, A A


    Inspection of the available literature reveals that a detailed investigation of the aqueous organic chemistry of chlorine dioxide and systematic identification of products formed during water disinfection has not been considered. This must be done before an informed assessment can be made of the relative safety of using chlorine dioxide as a disinfectant alternative to chlorine. Although trihalomethanes are generally not formed by the action of chlorine dioxide, the products of chlorine dioxide treatment of organic materials are oxidized species, some of which also contain chlorine. The relative amounts of species types may depend on the amount of chlorine dioxide residual maintained and the concentration and nature of the organic material present in the source water. The trend toward lower concentrations of chlorinated by-products with increasing ClO2 concentration, which was observed with phenols, has not been observed with natural humic materials as measured by the organic halogen parameter. Organic halogen concentrations have been shown to increase with increasing chlorine dioxide dose, but are much lower than those observed when chlorine is applied. Aldehydes have been detected as apparent by-products of chlorine dioxide oxidation reactions in a surface water that is a drinking water source. Some other nonchlorinated products of chlorine dioxide treatment may be quinones and epoxides. The extent of formation of these moieties within the macromolecular humic structure is also still unknown. PMID:7151750

  7. Reactions of tetracycline antibiotics with chlorine dioxide and free chlorine. (United States)

    Wang, Pei; He, Yi-Liang; Huang, Ching-Hua


    Tetracyclines (TCs) are a group of widely used antibiotics that have been frequently found in the aquatic environment. The potential reactions of TCs with common water disinfection oxidants such as chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)) and free available chlorine (FAC) have not been studied in depth and are the focus of this study. The oxidation kinetics of tetracycline, oxytetracycline, chlorotetracycline and iso-chlorotetracycline by ClO(2) and FAC are very rapid (with large apparent second-order rate constants k(app) = 2.24 × 10(5)-1.26 × 10(6) M(-1) s(-1) with ClO(2) and k(app) = 1.12 × 10(4)-1.78 × 10(6) M(-1) s(-1) with FAC at pH 7.0) and highly dependent on pH. Species-specific rate constants are obtained by kinetic modeling that incorporates pH-speciation of TCs and the oxidants (for FAC), and reveal that TCs primarily react with ClO(2) and FAC by their unprotonated dimethylamino group and deprotonated phenolic-diketone group. The modest difference in reactivity among the four TCs toward the oxidants is consistent with expectation and can be explained by structural influences on the two reactive moieties. Product evaluation shows that oxidation of TCs by ClO(2) leads to (hydr)oxylation and breakage of TC molecules, while oxidation of TCs by FAC leads to chlorinated and (hydr)oxylated products without any substantial ring breakage. Results of this study indicate that rapid transformation of TCs by oxidants such as ClO(2) and FAC under water and wastewater treatment conditions can be expected. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Surface geochemical data evaluation and integration with geophysical observations for hydrocarbon prospecting, Tapti graben, Deccan Syneclise, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Satish Kumar


    Full Text Available The Deccan Syneclise is considered to have significant hydrocarbon potential. However, significant hydrocarbon discoveries, particularly for Mesozoic sequences, have not been established through conventional exploration due to the thick basalt cover over Mesozoic sedimentary rocks. In this study, near-surface geochemical data are used to understand the petroleum system and also investigate type of source for hydrocarbons generation of the study area. Soil samples were collected from favorable areas identified by integrated geophysical studies. The compositional and isotopic signatures of adsorbed gaseous hydrocarbons (methane through butane were used as surface indicators of petroleum micro-seepages. An analysis of 75 near-surface soil-gas samples was carried out for light hydrocarbons (C1–C4 and their carbon isotopes from the western part of Tapti graben, Deccan Syneclise, India. The geochemical results reveal sites or clusters of sites containing anomalously high concentrations of light hydrocarbon gases. High concentrations of adsorbed thermogenic methane (C1 = 518 ppb and ethane plus higher hydrocarbons (ΣC2+ = 977 ppb were observed. Statistical analysis shows that samples from 13% of the samples contain anomalously high concentrations of light hydrocarbons in the soil-gas constituents. This seepage suggests largest magnitude of soil gas anomalies might be generated/source from Mesozoic sedimentary rocks, beneath Deccan Traps. The carbon isotopic composition of methane, ethane and propane ranges are from −22.5‰ to −30.2‰ PDB, −18.0‰ to 27.1‰ PDB and 16.9‰–32.1‰ PDB respectively, which are in thermogenic source. Surface soil sample represents the intersection of a migration conduit from the deep subsurface to the surface connected to sub-trappean Mesozoic sedimentary rocks. Prominent hydrocarbon concentrations were associated with dykes, lineaments and presented on thinner basaltic cover in the study area

  9. Apparatus for hydrocarbon extraction (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.


    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  10. Evaluation of ground-penetrating radar to detect free-phase hydrocarbons in fractured rocks - Results of numerical modeling and physical experiments (United States)

    Lane, J.W.; Buursink, M.L.; Haeni, F.P.; Versteeg, R.J.


    The suitability of common-offset ground-penetrating radar (GPR) to detect free-phase hydrocarbons in bedrock fractures was evaluated using numerical modeling and physical experiments. The results of one- and two-dimensional numerical modeling at 100 megahertz indicate that GPR reflection amplitudes are relatively insensitive to fracture apertures ranging from 1 to 4 mm. The numerical modeling and physical experiments indicate that differences in the fluids that fill fractures significantly affect the amplitude and the polarity of electromagnetic waves reflected by subhorizontal fractures. Air-filled and hydrocarbon-filled fractures generate low-amplitude reflections that are in-phase with the transmitted pulse. Water-filled fractures create reflections with greater amplitude and opposite polarity than those reflections created by air-filled or hydrocarbon-filled fractures. The results from the numerical modeling and physical experiments demonstrate it is possible to distinguish water-filled fracture reflections from air- or hydrocarbon-filled fracture reflections, nevertheless subsurface heterogeneity, antenna coupling changes, and other sources of noise will likely make it difficult to observe these changes in GPR field data. This indicates that the routine application of common-offset GPR reflection methods for detection of hydrocarbon-filled fractures will be problematic. Ideal cases will require appropriately processed, high-quality GPR data, ground-truth information, and detailed knowledge of subsurface physical properties. Conversely, the sensitivity of GPR methods to changes in subsurface physical properties as demonstrated by the numerical and experimental results suggests the potential of using GPR methods as a monitoring tool. GPR methods may be suited for monitoring pumping and tracer tests, changes in site hydrologic conditions, and remediation activities.The suitability of common-offset ground-penetrating radar (GPR) to detect free-phase hydrocarbons

  11. Effect of chlorination condition and permeability of chlorine species on the chlorination of a polyamide membrane. (United States)

    Gu, Joung-Eun; Jun, Byung-Moon; Kwon, Young-Nam


    Most studies on membrane chlorination have been investigated in an unpressurized chlorination mode, even if the polyamide membrane was continuously exposed to chlorine under high operating pressure in real water/wastewater treatment plants. In this study, performance changes due to polyamide membrane chlorination were investigated in both pressurized and unpressurized chlorination modes. Chlorination in an unpressurized mode showed a flux increase at high pH and a flux decline at low pH due to the compaction and swelling of the polyamide chains, respectively. On the other hand, chlorination performed in a pressurized mode decreased the water flux in both acidic and alkaline conditions, showing that compaction is overwhelming compared to swelling. The permeability of HOCl, a dominant species at low pH, through the polyamide membrane was pH independent and almost similar to the system recovery, but the permeability of OCl(-), which is dominant at high pH, was maxima at a neutral pH. The different performance behaviors of membranes chlorinated at various pH conditions in the presence or absence of applied pressure could be explained by the permeability of chlorine species and compaction/swelling of polymer chains after chlorination. The effect of membrane chlorination on the chemical property changes at the two different modes was confirmed using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared analysis, and a conceptual model of performance change was proposed to explain the performance discrepancy between the two chlorination modes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Chlorinated lime poisoning (United States)

    Chlorinated lime poisoning can cause symptoms in many parts of the body. BLOOD Severe change in the acid level in the blood (pH balance), which leads to damage in all of the body organs EYES, EARS, NOSE, AND THROAT Loss of vision Severe pain ...

  13. Impacts of Water Chlorination (United States)

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1976


    To learn the consequences of one aspect of technology on man and his surroundings, scientists meeting at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory discussed what is known about the impacts of water chlorination. The conference produced state-of-the-art information about the technology and attempted to summarize all the information on the subject. (BT)

  14. Low-Cost Graphite-Based Free Chlorine Sensor. (United States)

    Pan, Si; Deen, M Jamal; Ghosh, Raja


    Pencil lead was used to fabricate a graphite-based electrode for sensing applications. Its surface was electrochemically modified using ammonium carbamate to make it suitable for sensing free chlorine in water samples. Chlorine is widely used as a disinfectant in the water industry, and the residual free chlorine concentration in water distributed to the consumers must be lower than that stipulated by regulatory bodies. The graphite-based amperometric sensor gave a selective and linear response to free chlorine in the relevant concentration range and no response to commonly interfering ions. It was evaluated further for storage stability, response time, and hysteresis. This sensor is being proposed as a low-cost device for determining free chlorine in water samples. Its ease-of-use, limitations, and feasibility for mass-production and application is discussed.

  15. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the settled dust of automobile workshops, health and carcinogenic risk evaluation. (United States)

    Ali, Nadeem; Ismail, Iqbal Mohammad Ibrahim; Khoder, Mamdouh; Shamy, Magdy; Alghamdi, Mansour; Al Khalaf, Abdulrahman; Costa, Max


    There are studies available on the occurrence of PAHs in indoor settled dust from residential and different occupational settings in literature but limited data is available on their occurrence and potential health risk assessment in automobile workshops. In recent decades Saudi Arabia has experienced tremendous growth in the petroleum industry and as a result, the automobile industry is booming. People working in automobile workshops are at a greater risk of exposure to chemicals releasing from the petroleum products. The main objective of this study was to report PAHs in settled dust from different automobile workshops of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, and evaluate health risk for workers through dust exposure. Pyrene (1585-13500ng/g), Benz[a]anthracene (automobile workshops in the studied area are getting expose to high levels of PAHs via dust ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact. This is the first study reporting PAHs in automobile workshops settings from Middle East. The incremental lifetime cancer risk to workers via dust exposure exceeded set limits of USEPA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Chlorine in Lunar Basalts (United States)

    Barnes, J. J.; Anand, M.; Franchi, I. A.


    In the context of the lunar magma ocean (LMO) model, it is anticipated that chlorine (and other volatiles) should have been concentrated in the late-stage LMO residual melts (i.e., the dregs enriched in incompatible elements such as K, REEs, and P, collectively called KREEP, and in its primitive form - urKREEP, [1]), given its incompatibility in mafic minerals like olivine and pyroxene, which were the dominant phases that crystallized early in the cumulate pile of the LMO (e.g., [2]). When compared to chondritic meteorites and terrestrial rocks (e.g., [3-4]), lunar samples often display heavy chlorine isotope compositions [5-9]. Boyce et al. [8] found a correlation between delta Cl-37 (sub Ap) and bulk-rock incompatible trace elements (ITEs) in lunar basalts, and used this to propose that early degassing of Cl (likely as metal chlorides) from the LMO led to progressive enrichment in remaining LMO melt in Cl-37over Cl-35- the early degassing model. Barnes et al. [9] suggested that relatively late degassing of chlorine from urKREEP (to yield delta Cl-37 (sub urKREEP greater than +25 per mille) followed by variable mixing between KREEPy melts and mantle cumulates (characterized by delta Cl-370 per mille) could explain the majority of Cl isotope data from igneous lunar samples. In order to better understand the processes involved in giving rise to the heavy chlorine isotope compositions of lunar samples, we have performed an in situ study of chlorine isotopes and abundances of volatiles in lunar apatite from a diverse suite of lunar basalts spanning a range of geochemical types.

  17. An epifluorescence-based evaluation of the effects of short-term particle association on the chlorination of surface water bacteria. (United States)

    Lynch, Fiona; Tomlinson, Steven; Palombo, Enzo A; Harding, Ian H


    Investigations into particle-mediated chlorination resistance were undertaken for three different bacteria (Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and environmental isolates of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Serratia marcescens) and three different surfaces (goethite, environmental particles and surface-modified environmental particles). P. fluorescens demonstrated greater hydrophobicity than both other strains and proved the most adherent bacterium over all substrata investigated. Particle-mediated resistance to chlorination was investigated using short bacteria-particle association times and activity assays that employed sensitive epifluorescent detection. Consistent with adhesive behaviours, the bacterial strain that demonstrated the greatest particle-mediated chlorination resistance was the environmental strain of P. fluorescens. Resistance was observed to vary with both bacteria and particle type, and demonstrated a moderate correlation with adhesion (r(2) ≥ 0.65). The short-term approach employed in our study demonstrates particle-mediated protection without the commonly assumed requirements of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) or a large particle-based chlorine demand. Consequently, we have linked resistance with adhesion capacities and demonstrated a limit to resistance in the presence of additional particle protective sites (through increased turbidity) which appears to be driven by intra-population variance in bacterial surface characteristics. Finally, we observed important differences between behaviours of environmental versus laboratory-derived bacterial strains and particles, which highlight the importance of employing both approaches in characterising "real world" systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Three-step effluent chlorination increases disinfection efficiency and reduces DBP formation and toxicity. (United States)

    Li, Yu; Zhang, Xiangru; Yang, Mengting; Liu, Jiaqi; Li, Wanxin; Graham, Nigel J D; Li, Xiaoyan; Yang, Bo


    Chlorination is extensively applied for disinfecting sewage effluents, but it unintentionally generates disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Using seawater for toilet flushing introduces a high level of bromide into domestic sewage. Chlorination of sewage effluent rich in bromide causes the formation of brominated DBPs. The objectives of achieving a disinfection goal, reducing disinfectant consumption and operational costs, as well as diminishing adverse effects to aquatic organisms in receiving water body remain a challenge in sewage treatment. In this study, we have demonstrated that, with the same total chlorine dosage, a three-step chlorination (dosing chlorine by splitting it into three equal portions with a 5-min time interval for each portion) was significantly more efficient in disinfecting a primary saline sewage effluent than a one-step chlorination (dosing chlorine at one time). Compared to one-step chlorination, three-step chlorination enhanced the disinfection efficiency by up to 0.73-log reduction of Escherichia coli. The overall DBP formation resulting from one-step and three-step chlorination was quantified by total organic halogen measurement. Compared to one-step chlorination, the DBP formation in three-step chlorination was decreased by up to 23.4%. The comparative toxicity of one-step and three-step chlorination was evaluated in terms of the development of embryo-larva of a marine polychaete Platynereis dumerilii. The results revealed that the primary sewage effluent with three-step chlorination was less toxic than that with one-step chlorination, indicating that three-step chlorination could reduce the potential adverse effects of disinfected sewage effluents to aquatic organisms in the receiving marine water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Chlorine inactivation of Tubifex tubifex in drinking water and the synergistic effect of sequential inactivation with UV irradiation and chlorine. (United States)

    Nie, Xiao-Bao; Li, Zhi-Hong; Long, Yuan-Nan; He, Pan-Pan; Xu, Chao


    The inactivation of Tubifex tubifex is important to prevent contamination of drinking water. Chlorine is a widely-used disinfectant and the key factor in the inactivation of T. tubifex. This study investigated the inactivation kinetics of chlorine on T. tubifex and the synergistic effect of the sequential use of chlorine and UV irradiation. The experimental results indicated that the Ct (concentration × timereaction) concept could be used to evaluate the inactivation kinetics of T. tubifex with chlorine, thus allowing for the use of a simpler Ct approach for the assessment of T. tubifex chlorine inactivation requirements. The inactivation kinetics of T. tubifex by chlorine was found to be well-fitted to a delayed pseudo first-order Chick-Watson expression. Sequential experiments revealed that UV irradiation and chlorine worked synergistically to effectively inactivate T. tubifex as a result of the decreased activation energy, Ea, induced by primary UV irradiation. Furthermore, the inactivation effectiveness of T. tubifex by chlorine was found to be affected by several drinking water quality parameters including pH, turbidity, and chemical oxygen demand with potassium permanganate (CODMn) concentration. High pH exhibited pronounced inactivation effectiveness and the decrease in turbidity and CODMn concentrations contributed to the inactivation of T. tubifex. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluating the MoA/human relevance framework for F-344 rat liver epithelioid granulomas with mineral oil hydrocarbons. (United States)

    Adenuga, David; Goyak, Katy; Lewis, R Jeffrey


    Toxicology feeding studies of mineral oil hydrocarbons (MOHs), within the carbon number range C22-C28, results in species-specific epithelioid granulomas in the liver of F-344 rats but not in other rat strains, or species. While MOH has been detected, and some pathological effects have been shown to occur in other organs/tissues of F-344 rats and other rat strains/species, it is generally accepted that the effect of toxicological concern is species-specific inflammatory liver granuloma. As oil retention and other MOH-related nontoxic pathological changes in the liver are observed in humans, some have hypothesized that the potential for oil accumulation over a lifetime, through dietary sources, may predispose humans to similar liver effects as observed in F-344 rats. To address this concern, a mode of action/human relevance framework (MoA/HRF) analysis for MOH-induced epithelioid granuloma in the F-344 rat model was developed. The key events for the development of liver epithelioid granulomas were identified as increased MOH intestinal absorption, preferential tissue retention and ultimately formation of necrotic granulomas encased by infiltrating inflammatory lymphocytes. The hypothesized MoA was evaluated using the modified Bradford Hill considerations for causality and was considered to be established in the F-344 rodent model. However, key strain/species differences in the rate of intestinal absorption, tissue retention of MOH and inflammatory response to MOH in the liver were identified. Overall, the F-344 rat MoA was not considered to be relevant to humans, consistent with data showing no evidence for the formation of epithelioid granulomas with humans even in cases of massive ingestion of MOHs.

  1. Polychlorinated biphenyl toxicity to Japanese quail as related to degree of chlorination (United States)

    Hill, E.F.; Heath, R.G.; Spann, J.W.; Williams, J.D.


    To learn if the percentage of chlorine in a mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) alone determines toxicity, Japanese quail were fed diets containing Aroelor 1248, 1254, or 1260 at levels that added equal amounts of chlorine to the feed. The experiment comprised two consecutive 5-day periods; three sublethal concentrations of chlorine were evaluated during the first period and three lethal concentrations during the second period. Evaluations utilized comparisons of mortality, time to death, weight change, and food consumption. Sublethal concentrations produced no detectable effects. Lethal concentrations with equal Chlorine showed Aroelor 1248 to be less toxic at the highest chlorine concentrations, but at lower concentrations Aroelor 1254 was more toxic than Aroclor 1260. Although chlorine percentage of a PCB is positively correlated with its avian toxicity, PCB toxicity is apparently not simply a function of chlorination.

  2. Chlorine signal attenuation in concrete. (United States)

    Naqvi, A A; Maslehuddin, M; ur-Rehman, Khateeb; Al-Amoudi, O S B


    The intensity of prompt gamma-ray was measured at various depths from chlorine-contaminated silica fume (SF) concrete slab concrete specimens using portable neutron generator-based prompt gamma-ray setup. The intensity of 6.11MeV chloride gamma-rays was measured from the chloride contaminated slab at distance of 15.25, 20.25, 25.25, 30.25 and 35.25cm from neutron target in a SF cement concrete slab specimens. Due to attenuation of thermal neutron flux and emitted gamma-ray intensity in SF cement concrete at various depths, the measured intensity of chlorine gamma-rays decreases non-linearly with increasing depth in concrete. A good agreement was noted between the experimental results and the results of Monte Carlo simulation. This study has provided useful experimental data for evaluating the chloride contamination in the SF concrete utilizing gamma-ray attenuation method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Chlorine Gas Inhalation (United States)

    White, Carl W.; Martin, James G.


    Humans can come into contact with chlorine gas during short-term, high-level exposures due to traffic or rail accidents, spills, or other disasters. By contrast, workplace and public (swimming pools, etc.) exposures are more frequently long-term, low-level exposures, occasionally punctuated by unintentional transient increases. Acute exposures can result in symptoms of acute airway obstruction including wheezing, cough, chest tightness, and/or dyspnea. These findings are fairly nonspecific, and might be present after exposures to a number of inhaled chemical irritants. Clinical signs, including hypoxemia, wheezes, rales, and/or abnormal chest radiographs may be present. More severely affected individuals may suffer acute lung injury (ALI) and/or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Up to 1% of exposed individuals die. Humidified oxygen and inhaled β-adrenergic agents are appropriate therapies for victims with respiratory symptoms while assessments are underway. Inhaled bicarbonate and systemic or inhaled glucocorticoids also have been reported anecdotally to be beneficial. Chronic sequelae may include increased airways reactivity, which tends to diminish over time. Airways hyperreactivity may be more of a problem among those survivors that are older, have smoked, and/or have pre-existing chronic lung disease. Individuals suffering from irritant-induced asthma (IIA) due to workplace exposures to chlorine also tend to have similar characteristics, such as airways hyperresponsiveness to methacholine, and to be older and to have smoked. Other workplace studies, however, have indicated that workers exposed to chlorine dioxide/sulfur dioxide have tended to have increased risk for chronic bronchitis and/or recurrent wheezing attacks (one or more episodes) but not asthma, while those exposed to ozone have a greater incidence of asthma. Specific biomarkers for acute and chronic exposures to chlorine gas are currently lacking. Animal models for chlorine gas

  4. Reaction kinetics and transformation of antipyrine chlorination with free chlorine. (United States)

    Cai, Mei-Quan; Feng, Li; Jiang, Jin; Qi, Fei; Zhang, Li-Qiu


    Chlorine has been documented that it can effectively remove some pharmaceuticals. Recently, new active oxidants chlorine monoxide and molecular chlorine, which exist as free active chlorine in solution, were reported during pharmaceuticals chlorination. In this study, reaction kinetics, active oxidants, and transformation products during antipyrine chlorination were investigated with batch experiments. The reaction orders in [chlorine] were determined at various pH (6.53-7.62) and ranged from 1.13 ± 0.15 to 1.59 ± 0.08, which indicated that antipyrine chlorination is the concurrent existence of reactions appearing first-order and second-order in [chlorine]. The results by varying solution conditions (solution pH, chloride, ionic strength, and buffer concentration) show that chlorine monoxide and molecular chlorine play significant roles during the process of antipyrine chlorination. With kinetics modeling, the second-order rate constants for hypochlorous acid, chlorine monoxide, and molecular chlorine were obtained at 25 ± 2 °C (units: M(-1) s(-1)): kHOCl = 3.23 × 10(3), kCL2 = 2.86 × 10(7), kCL2O= 8.38 × 10(9) (R(2) = 0.9801). At pH 7, hypochlorous acid and chlorine monoxide are the main contributors to the degradation of antipyrine, about 80% and 20%, respectively (calculated by kHOCl, kCL2 and kCL2O. By applying these rate constants to predict the antipyrine elimination in real water matrixes (surface water, ground water), a good agreement was obtained, particularly in ground water. Moreover, liquid chromatography-tandems mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used for products identification. Two main intermediate products and three stable products were observed during the process of antipyrine chlorination. The possible routes for antipyrine chlorination were proposed, which mainly consisted of halogenations, dealkylations and hydroxylations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Bromine-Chlorine Coupling in the Antarctic Ozone Hole (United States)

    Danilin, Michael Y.; Sze, Nien-Dak; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Rodriquez, Jose M.; Prather, Michael J.


    The contribution from the chlorine and bromine species in the formation of the Antarctic ozone hole is evaluated. Since chlorine and bromine compounds are of different industrial origin, it is desirable, from a policy point of view, to be able to attribute chlorine-catalyzed loss of ozone with those reactions directly involving chlorine species, and likewise for bromine-catalyzed loss. In the stratosphere, however, most of the chemical families are highly coupled, and, for example, changes in the chlorine abundance will alter the partitioninig in other families and thus the rate of ozone loss. This modeling study examines formation of the Antarctic ozone hole for a wide range of bromine concentrations (5 - 25 pptv) and for chlorine concentrations typical of the last two decades (1.5, 2.5 and 3.5 ppbv). We follow the photochemical evolution of a single parcel of air, typical of the inner Antarctic vortex (50 mbar, 70 deg. S, NO(sub y) = 2 ppbv, with Polar Stratospheric Clouds(PSC)) from August 1 to November 1. For all of these ranges of chlorine and bromine loading, we would predict a substantial ozone hole (local depletion greater than 90%) within the de-nitrified, PSC- perturbed vortex. The contributions of the different catalytic cycles responsible for ozone loss are tabulated. The deep minimum in ozone is driven primarily by the chlorine abundance. As bromine levels decrease, the magnitude of the chlorine-catalyzed ozone loss increases to take up the slack. This is because bromine suppresses ClO by accelerating the conversion of ClO an Cl2O2 back to HCI. For this range of conditions, the local relative efficiency of ozone destruction per bromine atom to that per chlorine atom (alpha-factor) ranges from 33 to 55, decreasing with increase of bromine.

  6. The Influence of Nitrogen Oxides on Chlorine Chemistry in Barrow, Alaska (United States)

    McNamara, S. M.; Raso, A. R. W.; Wang, S.; Thanekar, S.; Fuentes, J. D.; Shepson, P. B.; Pratt, K.


    Active chlorine chemistry in the springtime Arctic boundary layer impacts the fate of atmospheric pollutants and greenhouse gases. Recent field studies have reported high amounts of molecular chlorine (Cl2), up to 400 parts per trillion (ppt), as well as the presence of chlorinated hydrocarbon oxidation products. However, our knowledge of Arctic chlorine chemistry is limited by a paucity of observations. The presence of nitrogen oxides (NOx) may influence the chlorine chemistry in this region. Here, we report chemical ionization mass spectrometry measurements of Cl2, chlorine monoxide (ClO), nitryl chloride (ClNO2), and dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5), and NOx measurements at Barrow, AK during March-May 2016. To our knowledge, these data represent the first observations of ClNO2 in the Arctic. While the main source of NOx in a pristine Arctic environment is irradiated snow surfaces, anthropogenic sources can significantly enhance local NOx concentrations. The role of NOx in the activation and temporal trends of the reactive chlorine species are examined using a 0-D photochemical model. The prevalence of chlorine chemistry under elevated nitrogen oxide conditions may have significant impacts on the atmospheric composition in an increasingly polluted Arctic.

  7. Formation and speciation of haloacetamides and haloacetonitriles for chlorination, chloramination, and chlorination followed by chloramination. (United States)

    Huang, Huang; Chen, Bo-Yi; Zhu, Zi-Ru


    The formation of haloacetamides (HAcAms) and haloacetonitriles (HANs) from a solution containing natural organic matter and a secondary effluent sample was evaluated for disinfection by chlorination, chloramination, and chlorination followed by chloramination (Cl2NH2Cl process). The use of preformed monochloramine (NH2Cl) produced higher concentrations of HAcAms and lower concentrations of HANs than chlorination, while the Cl2NH2Cl process produced the highest concentrations of HAcAms and HANs. These results indicate that the Cl2NH2Cl process, which inhibited the formation of regulated trihalomethanes compared with chlorination, enhanced the formation of HAcAms and HANs. For disinfection in the presence of bromide, brominated dihaloacetamides and dihaloacetonitriles were formed, and the trends were similar to those observed for chlorinated species in the absence of bromide. The degrees of bromine substitution of dihaloacetamides and dihaloacetonitriles were highest for chlorination, followed by the Cl2NH2Cl process and then by the NH2Cl process. For the Cl2NH2Cl process, HAN formation kept gradually increasing with prechlorination time increasing from 0 to 120 min, while HAcAm formation increased only until it reached a maximum at around 10-30 min. These results suggest that the prechlorination time could be reduced to control the formation of HAcAms and HANs. During chloramination, the formation of HAcAms and HANs was lower when using preformed NH2Cl than when chloramines were formed in situ, with higher formation of HAcAms and HANs when chlorine was added before ammonia than vice versa for the secondary effluent; this finding suggests that preformed NH2Cl could be used to inhibit the formation of HAcAms and HANs during chloramination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Enhanced Attenuation: Chlorinated Organics (United States)


    permeability of soils overlying a source zone or favorably manipulate the soil water balance so as to limit percolation through a source zone...designs rely on the low permeability of a compacted soil layer to limit percolation (EPA 1989). Alternative covers meanwhile are designed to accommodate...plumes that include chlorinated organics. The flux of organic-rich leachate to underlying aquifers can create favorable conditions for the natural

  9. Thermal degradation of sucralose: a combination of analytical methods to determine stability and chlorinated byproducts (United States)

    de Oliveira, Diogo N.; de Menezes, Maico; Catharino, Rodrigo R.


    In the late years, much attention has been brought to the scientific community regarding the safety of sucralose and its industrial applications. Although it is the most used artificial sweetener in foods and pharmaceuticals, many questions still arise on its potential to form chlorinated byproducts in high temperatures, as demonstrated by several recent studies. In the present contribution, we use a combination of differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis coupled with infrared spectroscopy (DSC/TGA/IR), Hot-stage microscopy (HSM) and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) on samples submitted to water bath at mild temperatures to evaluate a broad spectrum of hazardous compounds formed in the degradation of this product. TGA/IR has revealed that there is effective decomposition in form of CO2 along with the formation of hydrogen chloride and other minor compounds. HSM results have provided accurate information, where the melting of the crystals was observed, followed by decomposition. Chlorinated derivatives, including polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons (PCAHs) were also confirmed by HRMS. These findings not only corroborate the suspected instability of sucralose to high temperatures, but also indicate that even exposed to mild conditions the formation of hazardous polychlorinated compounds is observed.

  10. Stability and effectiveness of chlorine disinfectants in water distribution systems.


    Olivieri, V P; Snead, M C; Krusé, C W; Kawata, K


    A test system for water distribution was used to evaluate the stability and effectiveness of three residual disinfectants--free chlorine, combined chlorine, and chlorine dioxide--when challenged with a sewage contaminant. The test distribution system consisted of the street main and internal plumbing for two barracks at Fort George G. Meade, MD. To the existing pipe network, 152 m (500 ft) of 13-mm (0.5 in.) copper pipe were added for sampling, and 60 m (200 ft) of 2.54-cm (1.0 in.) plastic p...

  11. Evaluation of a New Disinfection Approach: Efficacy of Chlorine and Bromine Halogenated Contact Disinfection for Reduction of Viruses and Microcystin Toxin (United States)

    Coulliette, Angela D.; Peterson, Lauren A.; Mosberg, Joshua A. W.; Rose, Joan B.


    Contaminated drinking water is responsible for causing diarrheal diseases that kill millions of people a year. Additionally, toxin-producing blue-green algae associated with diarrhea and neurologic effects continues to be an issue for many drinking water supplies. Disinfection has been used to reduce these risks. A novel gravity-fed household drinking water system with canisters containing N-halamine bromine or chlorine media was challenged with MS2 bacteriophage and microcystin. Chlorine and bromine systems were effective against this virus, with an mean ± SE reduction of 2.98 ± 0.26 log10 and 5.02 ± 0.19 log10, respectively. Microcystin toxin was reduced by 27.5% and 88.5% to overall mean ± SE concentrations of 1,600 ± 98 ng/L and 259 ± 50 ng/L for the chlorine and bromine canisters, respectively. Only the bromine units consistently produced microcystin effluent < 1,000 ng/L (the World Health Organization recommended level) when challenged with 2,500 ng/L and consistently surpassed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency virus reduction goal of 99.99%. PMID:20134006

  12. Environmentally acceptable incineration of chlorinated chemical waste : Review of theory and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Zeeuw, M.A.; Lemkowitz, S.M.


    Chlorinated hydrocarbons in the form of chemical waste, represent a threat to the environment and public health of the world. Their proper handling, removal and destruction is critical to long term safety. Increasingly strict government legislation is leading to an increase in the quantity of

  13. Direct chlorination process for geothermal power plant off-gas - hydrogen sulfide abatement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sims, A.V.


    The Direct Chlorination Process removes hydrogen sulfide from geothermal off-gases by reacting hydrogen sulfide with chlorine in the gas phase. Hydrogen chloride and elemental sulfur are formed by this reaction. The Direct Chlorination Process has been successfully demonstrated by an on-site operation of a pilot plant at the 3 M We HPG-A geothermal power plant in the Puna District on the island of Hawaii. Over 99.5 percent hydrogen sulfide removal was achieved in a single reaction state. Chlorine gas did not escape the pilot plant, even when 90 percent excess chlorine gas was used. A preliminary economic evaluation of the Direct Chlorination Process indicates that it is very competitive with the Stretford Process. Compared to the Stretford Process, the Direct Chlorination Process requires about one-third the initial capital investment and about one-fourth the net daily expenditure.

  14. Evaluation of hydrocarbons and organochlorine pesticides and their tolerant microorganisms from an agricultural soil to define its bioremediation feasibility. (United States)

    Islas-García, Alejandro; Vega-Loyo, Libia; Aguilar-López, Ricardo; Xoconostle-Cázares, Beatriz; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Refugio


    The concentrations of hydrocarbons and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), nutrients and tolerant microorganisms in an agricultural soil from a locality in Tepeaca, Puebla, Mexico, were determined to define its feasibility for bioremediation. The OCPs detected were heptachlor, aldrin, trans-chlordane, endosulfán I, endosulfán II, 1,1,1-bis-(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2-trichloroethane (4,4'-DDT), 1,1-bis-(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2-dichloroethene (4,4'-DDE) and endrin aldehyde, with values of 0.69-30.81 ng g(-1). The concentration of hydrocarbons in the soil of Middle Hydrocarbons Fraction (MHF), C10 to C28, was 4608-27,748 mg kg(-1) and 1117-19,610 mg kg(-1) for Heavy Hydrocarbons Fraction (HHF), C28 to C35, due to an oil spill from the rupture of a pipeline. The soil was deficient in nitrogen (0.03-0.07%) and phosphorus (0 ppm), and therefore it was advisable to fertilize to bio-stimulate the native microorganisms of soil. In the soil samples, hydrocarbonoclast fungi 3.72 × 10(2) to 44.6 × 10(2) CFU g(-1) d.s. and hydrocarbonoclast bacteria (0.17 × 10(5) to 8.60 × 10(5) CFU g(-1) d.s.) were detected, with a tolerance of 30,000 mg kg(-1) of diesel. Moreover, pesticideclast fungi (5.13 × 10(2) to 42.2 × 10(2) CFU g(-1) d.s.) and pesticideclast bacteria (0.15 × 10(5) to 9.68 × 10(5) CFU g(-1) d.s.) were determined with tolerance to 20 mg kg(-1) of OCPs. Fungi and bacteria tolerant to both pollutants were also quantified. Therefore, native microorganisms had potential to be stimulated to degrade hydrocarbons and pesticides or both pollutants. The concentration of pollutants and the microbial activity analyzed indicated that bioremediation of the soil contaminated with hydrocarbons and pesticides using bio-stimulation of native microorganisms was feasible.

  15. Ultrafast Third-Order Nonlinear Optical Spectroscopy of Chlorinated Hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napoleon Thantu; Robert S. Schley


    Time-resolved Raman induced Kerr effect spectroscopy in the optical heterodyne detection configuration has been employed to investigate intermolecular, intramolecular, and reorientational dynamics in neat trichloroethylene (TCE). The reorientation time constant is directly measured from the time-resolved data, while Fourier transformation of the time-resolved data yields the intermolecular and intramolecular vibrational spectrum. Use of ultrashort, femtosecond pulses enables excitation of depolarized Raman-active transitions between 1 and 500 cm-1. The intramolecular vibrations have been identified using a previous assignment. The limitations imposed by the laser and detector noise, and other nonlinear optical processes that are manifest at high pulse intensities, on the use of this time-domain technique for performing chemical species detection are discussed using carbon tetrachloride as an example.

  16. Studies on degradation of chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbon by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jun 4, 2007 ... to develop specific intracellular enzymes which will decompose chlorobenzene to non-toxic substances. Crude cell extracts produced ... ironment with wastewater and exhaust, great numbers are benzene derivatives and other ... Although acute toxicity is uncommon, these substances cause sublethal ...

  17. Efficacy of chlorine dioxide tablets on inactivation of cryptosporidium oocysts. (United States)

    Murphy, Jennifer L; Haas, Charles N; Arrowood, Michael J; Hlavsa, Michele C; Beach, Michael J; Hill, Vincent R


    The ability of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) to achieve 2-log inactivation of Cryptosporidium in drinking water has been documented. No studies have specifically addressed the effects of ClO2 on C. parvum oocyst infectivity in chlorinated recreational water venues (e.g., pools). The aim of this research was to determine the efficacy of ClO2 as an alternative to existing hyperchlorination protocols that are used to achieve a 3-log inactivation of Cryptosporidium in such venues. To obtain a 3-log inactivation of C. parvum Iowa oocysts, contact times of 105 and 128 min for a solution containing 5 mg/L ClO2 with and without the addition of 2.6 mg/L free chlorine, respectively, were required. Contact times of 294 and 857 min for a solution containing 1.4 mg/L ClO2 with and without the addition of 3.6 mg/L free chlorine, respectively, were required. The hyperchlorination control (21 mg/L free chlorine only) required 455 min for a 3-log inactivation. Use of a solution containing 5 mg/L ClO2 and solutions containing 5 or 1.4 mg/L ClO2 with the addition of free chlorine appears to be a promising alternative to hyperchlorination for inactivating Cryptosporidium in chlorinated recreational water venues, but further studies are required to evaluate safety constraints on use.

  18. Evaluation of the phototoxicity of unsubstituted and alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to mysid shrimp (Americamysis bahia): Validation of predictive models. (United States)

    Finch, Bryson E; Marzooghi, Solmaz; Di Toro, Dominic M; Stubblefield, William A


    Crude oils are composed of an assortment of hydrocarbons, some of which are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are of particular interest due to their narcotic and potential phototoxic effects. Several studies have examined the phototoxicity of individual PAHs and fresh and weathered crude oils, and several models have been developed to predict PAH toxicity. Fingerprint analyses of oils have shown that PAHs in crude oils are predominantly alkylated. However, current models for estimating PAH phototoxicity assume toxic equivalence between unsubstituted (i.e., parent) and alkyl-substituted compounds. This approach may be incorrect if substantial differences in toxic potency exist between unsubstituted and substituted PAHs. The objective of the present study was to examine the narcotic and photo-enhanced toxicity of commercially available unsubstituted and alkylated PAHs to mysid shrimp (Americamysis bahia). Data were used to validate predictive models of phototoxicity based on the highest occupied molecular orbital-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (HOMO-LUMO) gap approach and to develop relative effect potencies. Results demonstrated that photo-enhanced toxicity increased with increasing methylation and that phototoxic PAH potencies vary significantly among unsubstituted compounds. Overall, predictive models based on the HOMO-LUMO gap were relatively accurate in predicting phototoxicity for unsubstituted PAHs but are limited to qualitative assessments. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2043-2049. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  19. Chlorine, Chloramine, Chlorine Dioxide, and Ozone Susceptibility of Mycobacterium avium (United States)

    Taylor, Robert H.; Falkinham, Joseph O.; Norton, Cheryl D.; LeChevallier, Mark W.


    Environmental and patient isolates of Mycobacterium avium were resistant to chlorine, monochloramine, chlorine dioxide, and ozone. For chlorine, the product of the disinfectant concentration (in parts per million) and the time (in minutes) to 99.9% inactivation for five M. avium strains ranged from 51 to 204. Chlorine susceptibility of cells was the same in washed cultures containing aggregates and in reduced aggregate fractions lacking aggregates. Cells of the more slowly growing strains were more resistant to chlorine than were cells of the more rapidly growing strains. Water-grown cells were 10-fold more resistant than medium-grown cells. Disinfectant resistance may be one factor promoting the persistence of M. avium in drinking water. PMID:10742264

  20. Evaluation of genotoxic responses of Chaetoceros tenuissimus and Skeletonema costatum to water accommodated fraction of petroleum hydrocarbons as biomarker of exposure

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, S.R.; Verlecar, X.N; Ansari, Z.A; Jagtap, T.G.; Sarkar, A; Vashistha, D.; Dalal, S.G.

    Res., vol.44(7); 2010; 2235-2244 Evaluation of Genotoxic Responses of Chaetoceros tenuissimus and Skeletonema costatum to Water Accommodated Fraction of Petroleum Hydrocarbons as Biomarker of Exposure S.R. Desai 1 , X. N. Verlecar 1 , Z. A... flask on every fourth day and centrifuging at 2500 rpm to get the cell pellet. The pellet was then homogenized in 1N NH 4 OH in 0.2% Triton X-100. The homogenate is transferred to a centrifuge tube containing 2ml water, 6ml of Chloroform / Phenol...

  1. Basic Gas Chlorination Workshop Manual. (United States)

    Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto.

    This manual was developed for use at workshops designed to introduce treatment plant operators to the safe operation and maintenance of gas chlorination systems employing the variable vacuum gas chlorinator. Each of the lessons in this document has clearly stated behavioral objectives to tell the trainee what he should know or do after completing…

  2. The evaluation of the pyrochemistry for the treatment of Gen IV nuclear fuels - Inert matrix chlorination studies in the gas phase or molten chloride salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourg, S. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, DEN/VRH/DRCP/SCPS/LPP, Bat 399, CEA Marcoule, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols/Ceze cedex (France)]. E-mail:; Peron, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, DEN/VRH/DRCP/SCPS/LPP, Bat 399, CEA Marcoule, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols/Ceze cedex (France); Lacquement, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, DEN/VRH/DRCP/SCPS/LPP, Bat 399, CEA Marcoule, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols/Ceze cedex (France)


    The structure of the fuels for the future Gen IV nuclear reactors will be totally different from those of PWR, especially for the GFR concept including a closed cycle. In these reactors, fissile materials (carbides or nitrides of actinides) should be surrounded by an inert matrix. In order to build a reprocessing process scheme, the behavior of the potential inert matrices (silicon carbide, titanium nitride, and zirconium carbide and nitride) was studied by hydro- and pyrometallurgy. This paper deals with the chlorination results at high temperature by pyrometallurgy. For the first time, the reactivity of the matrix towards chlorine gas was assessed in the gas phase. TiN, ZrN and ZrC are very reactive from 400 deg. C whereas it is necessary to be over 900 deg. C for SiC to be as fast. In molten chloride melts, the bubbling of chlorine gas is less efficient than in gas phase but it is possible to attack the matrices. Electrochemical methods were also used to dissolve the refractory materials, leading to promising results with TiN, ZrN and ZrC. The massive SiC samples used were not conductive enough to be studied and in this case specific SiC-coated carbon electrodes were used. The key point of these studies was to find a method to separate the matrix compounds from the fissile material in order to link the head to the core of the process (electrochemical separation or liquid-liquid reductive extraction in the case of a pyrochemical reprocessing)

  3. Disinfection kinetics of murine norovirus using chlorine and chlorine dioxide. (United States)

    Lim, Mi Young; Kim, Ju-Mi; Ko, Gwangpyo


    We determined the disinfection efficiency of chlorine and chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)) using murine norovirus (MNV) and coliphage MS2 as surrogates for human norovirus. Experiments were performed in oxidant demand-free buffer (pH 7.2) at 5 degrees C and 20 degrees C. The extent of virus inactivation by a disinfectant was quantified using three different analytical methods: plaque, short template real-time TaqMan reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and long template RT-PCR assays. Rapid inactivation of MNV by both chlorine and chlorine dioxide was observed by the plaque assay. According to the efficiency factor Hom model, Ct values of 0.314mg/Lmin and 0.247mg/Lmin were required for a 4-log reduction of MNV at 5 degrees C by chlorine and chlorine dioxide, respectively. Lower Ct values were required at 20 degrees C. Both long template and short template RT-PCR assays significantly underestimated the virus inactivation compared to the plaque assay. Our study demonstrates that adequate treatment of water with either chlorine or ClO(2) is likely to effectively control the waterborne transmission of human norovirus.

  4. Germination of Lepidium sativum as a method to evaluate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) removal from contaminated soil

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maila, MP


    Full Text Available 32, 2317?2324. Huang, X.D., Zeiler, L.F., Dixon, D.G., Greenberg, B.M., 1996. Photoinduced toxicity ofPAHs to the f region of Brassica napus (canola) and Cucumis sativus (cucumber) in simulated solar radiation. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety....F., Dixon, G., Greenberg, B.M., 1996. Photoinduced eVTects ofpolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on Brassica napus (Canola) during germination and early seedling development. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 33, 73?80. Siciliano, S.D., Germida, J.J., 1999...

  5. Comparing hydrogen and hydrocarbon booster fuels (United States)

    Martin, James A.


    The present evaluation of the consequences of hydrogen and hydrocarbon fuels as the basis of launch vehicle booster rocket-stage performance notes that hydrocarbon fuels lead to lower vehicle dry mass, for low-velocity requirements, while hydrogen fuel furnishes lower dry mass. Vehicles employing both types of fuel attempt to take advantage of the low intercept and slope of hydrocarbon fuel at low velocity, and subsequently, of the slope of the hydrogen curves at higher velocities.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent M. Ervin, Principal Investigator


    Gas phase negative ion chemistry methods are employed to determine enthalpies of formation of hydrocarbon radicals that are important in combustion processes and to investigate the dynamics of ion-molecule reactions. Using guided ion beam tandem mass spectrometry, we measure collisional threshold energies of endoergic proton transfer and hydrogen atom transfer reactions of hydrocarbon molecules with negative reagent ions. The measured reaction threshold energies for proton transfer yield the relative gas phase acidities. In an alternative methodology, competitive collision-induced dissociation of proton-bound ion-molecule complexes provides accurate gas phase acidities relative to a reference acid. Combined with the electron affinity of the R {center_dot} radical, the gas phase acidity yields the RH bond dissociation energy of the corresponding neutral molecule, or equivalently the enthalpy of formation of the R{center_dot} organic radical, using equation: D(R-H) = {Delta}{sub acid}H(RH) + EA(R) - IE(H). The threshold energy for hydrogen abstraction from a hydrocarbon molecule yields its hydrogen atom affinity relative to the reagent anion, providing the RH bond dissociation energy directly. Electronic structure calculations are used to evaluate the possibility of potential energy barriers or dynamical constrictions along the reaction path, and as input for RRKM and phase space theory calculations. In newer experiments, we have measured the product velocity distributions to obtain additional information on the energetics and dynamics of the reactions.

  7. Inactivation of Aspergillus flavus in drinking water after treatment with UV irradiation followed by chlorination. (United States)

    Al-Gabr, Hamid Mohammad; Zheng, Tianling; Yu, Xin


    The disinfection process for inactivating microorganisms at drinking water treatment plants is aimed for safety of drinking water for humans from a microorganism, such as bacteria, viruses, algae, fungi by using chlorination, ozonation, UV irradiation, etc. In the present study, a combination of two disinfectants, UV irradiation followed by chlorination, was evaluated for inactivating Aspergillus flavus under low contact time and low dosage of UV irradiation. The results indicated an inverse correlation between the inactivation of A. flavus by using UV irradiation only or chlorination alone. By using UV radiation, the 2 log10 control of A. flavus was achieved after 30 s of irradiation, while chlorination was observed to be more effective than UV, where the 2 log was achieved at chlorine concentration of 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 mg/l, in contact time of 60, 5, 1 and 1 min, respectively. However, combined use (UV irradiation followed by chlorination) was more effective than using either UV or chlorination alone; 5 s UV irradiation followed by chlorination produced 4 log10 reduction of A. flavus at chlorine concentrations of 2 and 3 mg/l under a contact time of 15 min. The results indicated that efficiency of UV irradiation improves when followed by chlorination at low concentrations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Direct Push Optical Screening Tool for High Resolution, Real-Time Mapping of Chlorinated Solvent DNAPL Architecture (United States)


    is historically used in subsurface environmental assessments it i the natural fluorescence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) found in the...sites impacted by petroleum hydrocarbon fuels, creosotes, and MGP tars. The rapid, high-resolution, real-time nature of LIF technologies described...ER-201121) Direct Push Optical Screening Tool for High- Resolution, Real-Time Mapping of Chlorinated Solvent DNAPL Architecture July 2016 This

  9. Using Ramped Pyrolysis - Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry to Evaluate Petroleum Hydrocarbons Following the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill (United States)

    Evans, M.; Rosenheim, B. E.; Bacosa, H. P.; Liu, J.; Liu, Z.


    In summer of 2010, the Deepwater Horizon oil spill polluted hundreds of miles of coastline along the Gulf of Mexico. A combination of human-mediated and natural weathering processes then altered the chemical composition (i.e. toxicity) of this spilled crude oil over time and space. One of the most important, yet challenging, aspects of oil spill science is to quantify these chemical changes in natural environments. In this study, we develop ramped pyrolysis - gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) to address this challenge. In this technique, 0.1mg of freeze-dried sample is pyrolyzed over a gradual temperature ramp (50-650°C). The eluded gas is cold-trapped over different thermal ranges (a.k.a. thermal slicing) and each range is individually analyzed via GC-MS, yielding quantifiable, compound-specific results. Py-GC-MS with thermal slicing has never been used for petroleum hydrocarbon analysis, but it has many advantages - it uses minimal sample, is time efficient and does not require sample preparation (minimizing compound loss and increasing the analytical window). During development of this method, we analyzed oiled sediments and tar collected on Grand Isle, Louisiana from 2010-2012. We quantified n-alkane (C10-C38), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and hopane content and confirmed these results with traditional solvent extraction, silica gel fractionation and mass spectrometry. Overall, we found rapid depletion of n-alkanes and PAHs (>90% depletion) in all samples within one year of Deepwater Horizon. After this, n-alkanes were almost 100% depleted by 2012, while PAH degradation continued to a maximum total degradation of 99% and 98% in sediment and tar, respectively. This not only describes the fate of petroleum compounds in salt marshes and beach deposits over time, but also complements previous radiocarbon studies of the same samples showing different rates of degradation in different micro-environments. In addition, the results presented

  10. Effect of chlorination on the development of marine biofilms dominated by diatoms. (United States)

    Patil, Jagadish S; Jagadeesan, V


    This study addressed the antifouling efficiency of commercially available chlorine at different concentrations (0.5%, 1%, and 2%) and exposure times (0.5 min, 1 min, 5 min, and 15 min). The rapid and non-destructive FIRe (fluorescence induction and relaxation) technique was used to evaluate the effects of the biocide on diatom dominated biofilms. The efficiency of chlorine in removing diatoms from the developed biofilms increased with an increase in concentration and exposure time. The fluorescence measurements revealed low F(v)/F(m) and high σ(PSII) values for chlorine-treated Navicula and Amphora biofilms indicating that chlorination was efficient in damaging the photosystem-II reaction centers. Chlorination also caused mortality of diatom cells by damaging the cell body. In natural biofilms, the biocidal effect of chlorine was species specific; species of Amphiphrora, Navicula, Cylindrotheca, and Coscinodiscus showed an increase in the density of the population, but species of Pleurosigma, Amphora, and Thalassionema did not increase in density after chlorine treatment. It was also demonstrated that diatoms can colonize, grow and photosynthesize on chlorine-treated surfaces. Under pulse chlorination (treatment every 6 h), irrespective of chlorine concentration, the development of biofouling decreased with an increase in exposure time. Differences between exposure times of 1 to 15 min were not significant. Additionally, transmission levels of the control (non-chlorine-treated) fouled coupons reduced significantly (∼20%) compared to the chlorine-treated fouled coupons (<2%). These results suggest that chlorine can be used as a biocide to control the development of diatom biofilms.

  11. Carboranyl-Chlorin e6 as a Potent Antimicrobial Photosensitizer. (United States)

    Omarova, Elena O; Nazarov, Pavel A; Firsov, Alexander M; Strakhovskaya, Marina G; Arkhipova, Anastasia Yu; Moisenovich, Mikhail M; Agapov, Igor I; Ol'shevskaya, Valentina A; Zaitsev, Andrey V; Kalinin, Valery N; Kotova, Elena A; Antonenko, Yuri N


    Antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation is currently being widely considered as alternative to antibiotic chemotherapy of infective diseases, attracting much attention to design of novel effective photosensitizers. Carboranyl-chlorin-e6 (the conjugate of chlorin e6 with carborane), applied here for the first time for antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation, appeared to be much stronger than chlorin e6 against Gram-positive bacteria, such as Bacillus subtilis, Staphyllococcus aureus and Mycobacterium sp. Confocal fluorescence spectroscopy and membrane leakage experiments indicated that bacteria cell death upon photodynamic treatment with carboranyl-chlorin-e6 is caused by loss of cell membrane integrity. The enhanced photobactericidal activity was attributed to the increased accumulation of the conjugate by bacterial cells, as evaluated both by centrifugation and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. Gram-negative bacteria were rather resistant to antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation mediated by carboranyl-chlorin-e6. Unlike chlorin e6, the conjugate showed higher (compared to the wild-type strain) dark toxicity with Escherichia coli ΔtolC mutant, deficient in TolC-requiring multidrug efflux transporters.

  12. Carboranyl-Chlorin e6 as a Potent Antimicrobial Photosensitizer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena O Omarova

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation is currently being widely considered as alternative to antibiotic chemotherapy of infective diseases, attracting much attention to design of novel effective photosensitizers. Carboranyl-chlorin-e6 (the conjugate of chlorin e6 with carborane, applied here for the first time for antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation, appeared to be much stronger than chlorin e6 against Gram-positive bacteria, such as Bacillus subtilis, Staphyllococcus aureus and Mycobacterium sp. Confocal fluorescence spectroscopy and membrane leakage experiments indicated that bacteria cell death upon photodynamic treatment with carboranyl-chlorin-e6 is caused by loss of cell membrane integrity. The enhanced photobactericidal activity was attributed to the increased accumulation of the conjugate by bacterial cells, as evaluated both by centrifugation and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. Gram-negative bacteria were rather resistant to antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation mediated by carboranyl-chlorin-e6. Unlike chlorin e6, the conjugate showed higher (compared to the wild-type strain dark toxicity with Escherichia coli ΔtolC mutant, deficient in TolC-requiring multidrug efflux transporters.

  13. Chlorination of Betacyanins in Several Hypochlorous Acid Systems. (United States)

    Wybraniec, Sławomir; Starzak, Karolina; Pietrzkowski, Zbigniew


    This study presents a comparative evaluation of chlorination of betanin, betanidin, and neobetanin exposed to sodium hypochlorite and myeloperoxidase (MPO)/H2O2/Cl(-) systems. For betanin/betanidin, the chlorination takes place at the aglycone unit, but for neobetanin, no chlorinated products in the reaction mixtures can be detected. In the RP-HPLC system, monochloro-betanin/-betanidin were eluted earlier than their corresponding nonchlorinated substrates. An influence of Cl(-) concentration on betanin/betanidin chlorination efficiency in sodium hypochlorite and MPO systems was investigated. At pH 3-5, the yields of formed monochloro-betanin/-betanidin decrease dramatically at higher Cl(-) concentrations, indicating that generated Cl2 is not the chlorinating agent in the presence of sodium hypochlorite. The intriguing low activity of Cl2 in betanin/betanidin chlorination compared to HOCl and/or Cl2O can be explained by a special position of the attack by molecules of HOCl and/or Cl2O. In the MPO/H2O2/Cl(-) system, the highest efficiency of monochloro-betanin/-betanidin generation is observed at pH 5.

  14. Toxicity, pharmacokinetics, and photodynamic properties of chlorin e6 (United States)

    Kostenich, Gennady; Zhuravkin, Ivan N.; Gurinovich, G. P.; Zhavrid, Edvard A.


    Toxicity, pharmacokinetics, and the tumor damage effect of chlorin e6 after light irradiation were studied. The results show that chlorin e6 LD50 value in C57Bl mice was 189 +/- 10 mg/kg, in non-inbred white rats it was 99 +/- 14 mg/kg 14 days after the agent iv injection. The concentration of chlorin e6 in blood, liver, kidney, spleen, and tumors (sarcoma M-1 and sarcoma 45) of the rats was determined by the fluorescence method 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, 48, and 72 hours after the agent iv injection at the dose of 10 mg/kg. For this purpose chlorin e6 was extracted from tissues by detergent triton X-100. The depth of necrosis spreading in tumor tissue was evaluated after chlorin e6 injection at the doses of 1 - 10 mg/kg and subsequent irradiation by a krypton laser with light energy density of 90 J/cm2, using the method of vital staining with Evans blue. It was found that depending on the agent dose and time interval between chlorin e6 injection and photoradiation, the depth of tumor necrosis varied from 4.0 to 16.6 mm in sarcoma M-1 and from 5.0 to 15.0 in sarcoma 45.

  15. Immunogenic cell death due to a new photodynamic therapy (PDT) with glycoconjugated chlorin (G-chlorin). (United States)

    Tanaka, Mamoru; Kataoka, Hiromi; Yano, Shigenobu; Sawada, Takuya; Akashi, Haruo; Inoue, Masahiro; Suzuki, Shugo; Inagaki, Yusuke; Hayashi, Noriyuki; Nishie, Hirotada; Shimura, Takaya; Mizoshita, Tsutomu; Mori, Yoshinori; Kubota, Eiji; Tanida, Satoshi; Takahashi, Satoru; Joh, Takashi


    Both the pre-apoptotic exposure to calreticulin (CRT) and the post-apoptotic release of high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) are required for immunogenic cell death. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) uses non-toxic photosensitizers and visible light at a specific wavelength in combination with oxygen to produce cytotoxic reactive oxygen species that kill malignant cells by apoptosis and/or necrosis, shut down the tumor microvasculature, and stimulate the host immune system. We have previously shown that glycoconjugated chlorin (G-chlorin) has superior cancer cell selectivity and effectively suppresses the growth of xenograft tumors. In the present study, we evaluated the immunogenicity of PDT with G-chlorin treatment in colon cancer cells. PDT with G-chlorin suppressed CT26 (mouse colon cancer cells) tumor growth considerably more efficiently in immunocompetent mice (wild-type mice, allograft model) than in immune-deficient mice (nude mice, xenograft model), although control treatments were not different between the two. This treatment also induced CRT translocation and HMGB1 release in cells, as shown by western blot and immunofluorescence staining. To evaluate the use of PDT-treated cells as a tumor vaccine, we employed a syngeneic mouse tumor model (allograft model). Mice inoculated with PDT-treated CT26 cells were significantly protected against a subsequent challenge with live CT26 cells, and this protection was inhibited by siRNA for CRT or HMGB1. In conclusion, PDT with G-chlorin treatment induced immunogenic cell death in a mouse model, where the immunogenicity of this treatment was directed by CRT expression and HMGB1 release.

  16. An evaluation of the ability of chemical measurements to predict polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated sediment toxicity to Hyalella azteca. (United States)

    McDonough, Kathleen M; Azzolina, Nicholas A; Hawthorne, Steven B; Nakles, David V; Neuhauser, Edward F


    The present study examined the ability of three chemical estimation methods to predict toxicity and nontoxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) -contaminated sediment to the freshwater benthic amphipod Hyalella azteca for 192 sediment samples from 12 field sites. The first method used bulk sediment concentrations of 34 PAH compounds (PAH34), and fraction of total organic carbon, coupled with equilibrium partitioning theory to predict pore-water concentrations (KOC method). The second method used bulk sediment PAH34 concentrations and the fraction of anthropogenic (black carbon) and natural organic carbon coupled with literature-based black carbon-water and organic carbon-water partition coefficients to estimate pore-water concentrations (KOCKBC method). The final method directly measured pore-water concentrations (pore-water method). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's hydrocarbon narcosis model was used to predict sediment toxicity for all three methods using the modeled or measured pore-water concentration as input. The KOC method was unable to predict nontoxicity (83% of nontoxic samples were predicted to be toxic). The KOCKBC method was not able to predict toxicity (57% of toxic samples were predicted to be nontoxic) and, therefore, was not protective of the environment. The pore-water method was able to predict toxicity (correctly predicted 100% of the toxic samples were toxic) and nontoxicity (correctly predicted 71% of the nontoxic samples were nontoxic). This analysis clearly shows that direct pore-water measurement is the most accurate chemical method currently available to estimate PAH-contaminated sediment toxicity to H. azteca. Copyright (c) 2010 SETAC.

  17. Colorectal cancers and chlorinated water


    El-Tawil, Ahmed Mahmoud


    Published reports have revealed increased risk of colorectal cancers in people exposed to chlorinated drinking water or chemical derivatives of chlorination. Oestrogen plays a dual positive functions for diminishing the possibilities of such risk by reducing the entrance, and increasing the excretion, of these chemicals. In addition, there are supplementary measures that could be employed in order to reduce this risk further, such as boiling the drinking water, revising the standard concentra...

  18. Grundfoss: Chlorination of Swimming Pools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.; Hogan, John; Andreassen, Viggo


    Grundfos asked for a model, describing the problem of mixing chemicals, being dosed into water systems, to be developed. The application of the model should be dedicated to dosing aqueous solution of chlorine into swimming pools.......Grundfos asked for a model, describing the problem of mixing chemicals, being dosed into water systems, to be developed. The application of the model should be dedicated to dosing aqueous solution of chlorine into swimming pools....

  19. Chlorine requirement for Japanese laying quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Guilherme Perazzo Costa


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the chlorine nutritional requirement of Japanese Quails during the laying phase, based on performance and egg quality parameters. A total of 240 Japanese quails were distributed according to a randomized block design, with five treatments and six replicates, with 8 birds each. The experiment lasted 84 days, divided in four cycles of 21 days each. Treatments consisted of a basal diet formulated to meet the nutritional requirements, except for chlorine, and four supplementation levels with ammonium chloride, generating the levels 0.8; 1.6; 2.4; 3.2 and 4.0 g/kg. The parameters evaluated were: feed intake (g/bird/day, egg production (egg/bird/day, egg weight (g, egg mass (g, egg mass conversion (g/g, conversion per dozen eggs (kg/dz, weight of yolk (g/100 g of egg, albumen (g/100g of egg and shell (g/100 g of egg, specific gravity (g/cm³ and shell thickness (mm. As a result of this study, feed intake, egg weight, weights of albumen, yolk, shell and specific gravity were not affected by treatments. There was a quadratic behavior for egg production, egg mass, egg mass conversion, conversion per dozen eggs and shell thickness according to the chlorine levels in the diets, with the requirements for those parameters established at 1.54; 1.37; 1.39 and 2.78 g/kg, respectively. The recommendation is 1.39 g/kg of chlorine and 244.22 mEq/kg of electrolyte balance in diets for Japanese quails.

  20. Oak Ridge K-25 Site chlorinated solvent pollution prevention opportunity assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    A pollution prevention opportunity assessment (PPOA) was conducted at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site to identify opportunities to reduce and better manage the use of chlorinated solvents. At the K-25 Site, 67 control areas were examined for their potential use of chlorinated solvents. Of these areas, 27 were found to be using (1) chlorinated solvents for cleaning, degreasing, and lubricating; (2) laboratory standards and solvents; and (3) test medium. Current management practices encourage the identification and use of nonhazardous chemicals, including the use of chlorinated solvents. The main pollution prevention principles are source reduction and recycling, and a number of pollution prevention options based on these principles were identified and evaluated as part of this chlorinated solvent PPOA. Source reduction options evaluated for the K-25 Site include the substitution of chlorinated solvents with nonchlorinated solvents. Recycling was identified for those areas that would benefit most from the reuse of the chlorinated solvents in use. The pollution prevention options that offer the greatest opportunity for success at the K-25 Site are the implementation of substitutes at the 10 control areas using chlorinated solvents for cleaning, degreasing, and lubrication. A change in the process may be all that is needed to eliminate the use of a chlorinated solvent. Once a decision is made to implement a substitution, the information should be communicated to all shops and laboratories. Another option to consider is the installation of recycling units to recycle the large amounts of methylene chloride used in the analytical sampling procedure.

  1. Palynofacies characterization for hydrocarbon source rock ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper deals with the hydrocarbon source rock evaluation of the Subathu Formation exposed at Marhighat on Sarahan–Narag road in Sirmaur district of Himachal Pradesh. Hydrocarbon potential of these sediments is estimated on the basis of palynofacies analysis and thermal alteration index (TAI) values based on the ...

  2. Chlorine stabilizer T-128 enhances efficacy of chlorine against cross-contamination by E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella in fresh-cut lettuce processing. (United States)

    Nou, Xiangwu; Luo, Yaguang; Hollar, LaVonda; Yang, Yang; Feng, Hao; Millner, Patricia; Shelton, Daniel


    During fresh-cut produce processing, organic materials released from cut tissues can rapidly react with free chlorine in the wash solution, leading to the potential survival of foodborne bacterial pathogens, and cross-contamination when the free chlorine is depleted. A reported chlorine stabilizer, T-128, has been developed to address this problem. In this study, we evaluated the ability of T-128 to stabilize free chlorine in wash solutions in the presence of high organic loads generated by the addition of lettuce extract or soil. Under conditions used in this study, T-128 significantly (Plettuce extract in wash solution. Application of T-128 significantly reduced the survival of bacterial pathogens in wash solutions with high organic loads and significantly reduced the potential of cross-contamination, when contaminated and uncontaminated produce were washed together. However, T-128 did not enhance the efficacy of chlorinated wash solutions for microbial reduction on contaminated iceberg lettuce. Evaluation of several produce quality parameters, including overall visual appearance, package headspace O2 and CO2 composition, and lettuce electrolyte leakage, during 15 d of storage indicated that iceberg lettuce quality and shelf life were not negatively impacted by washing fresh-cut lettuce in chlorine solutions containing 0.1% T-128.   Reported chlorine stabilizer is shown to enhance chlorine efficacy against potential bacterial cross-contamination in the presence of high organic loads without compromising product quality and shelf life.

  3. Real-time drilling mud gas monitoring for qualitative evaluation of hydrocarbon gas composition during deep sea drilling in the Nankai Trough Kumano Basin. (United States)

    Hammerschmidt, Sebastian B; Wiersberg, Thomas; Heuer, Verena B; Wendt, Jenny; Erzinger, Jörg; Kopf, Achim


    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 338 was the second scientific expedition with D/V Chikyu during which riser drilling was conducted as part of the Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment. Riser drilling enabled sampling and real-time monitoring of drilling mud gas with an onboard scientific drilling mud gas monitoring system ("SciGas"). A second, independent system was provided by Geoservices, a commercial mud logging service. Both systems allowed the determination of (non-) hydrocarbon gas, while the SciGas system also monitored the methane carbon isotope ratio (δ(13)CCH4). The hydrocarbon gas composition was predominated by methane (> 1%), while ethane and propane were up to two orders of magnitude lower. δ(13)CCH4 values suggested an onset of thermogenic gas not earlier than 1600 meter below seafloor. This study aims on evaluating the onboard data and subsequent geological interpretations by conducting shorebased analyses of drilling mud gas samples. During shipboard monitoring of drilling mud gas the SciGas and Geoservices systems recorded up to 8.64% and 16.4% methane, respectively. Ethane and propane concentrations reached up to 0.03 and 0.013%, respectively, in the SciGas system, but 0.09% and 0.23% in the Geoservices data. Shorebased analyses of discrete samples by gas chromatography showed a gas composition with ~0.01 to 1.04% methane, 2 - 18 ppmv ethane, and 2 - 4 ppmv propane. Quadruple mass spectrometry yielded similar results for methane (0.04 to 4.98%). With δD values between -171‰ and -164‰, the stable hydrogen isotopic composition of methane showed little downhole variability. Although the two independent mud gas monitoring systems and shorebased analysis of discrete gas sample yielded different absolute concentrations they all agree well with respect to downhole variations of hydrocarbon gases. The data point to predominantly biogenic methane sources but suggest some contribution from thermogenic sources at depth, probably due

  4. Derivation of validated methods of sampling and analysis for intermediate and final products of the anaerobic material utilization of volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons (LCFC) in groundwater in the context of analyses of contaminated soils; Ableitung validierter Probenahme- und Analysenmethoden fuer Zwischen- und Endprodukte der anaeroben Stoffverwertungsprozesse von Leichtfluechtigen Chlorierten Kohlenwasserstoffen (LCKW) im Grundwasser im Rahmen von Altlastenuntersuchungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorgerloh, Ute; Becker, Roland; Win, Tin [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany); Theissen, Hubert [IMAGO GbR (Germany)


    The results of the project ''Methods of sampling and analysis of intermediate and final products of the anaerobic degradation of volatile halogenated hydrocarbons in groundwater in frame of analysis of contaminated sites'' of the German Federal States Program ''Water, Soil, Waste'' (Laenderfinanzierungsprogramm ''Wasser, Boden, Luft'') LFP B2.08 are presented in these report. Different methods of sampling and analysis for the determination of hydrogen, methane, ethene and vinyl chloride in groundwater are developed and validated: For the sampling are described and discussed: i. active sampling: purge and sample of water samples and purging of solvated gases in groundwater in gas sampling tubes ii. passive sampling: diffusion sampling in polyethylene diffusion bags (PDB) and plastic syringes as diffusion sampler for solvated gases The use of active (purge and sample, downhole sampler) and passive (diffusion sampling) sampling techniques for the quantification of VOC, ethene, and methane are evaluated from the viewpoint of public authorities and regarding the reproducibility of measurement results. Based on a groundwater contaminated with trichloroethene, 1,2-dichloroethene, and vinyl chloride it is shown that passive sampling is restricted by low groundwater flow and biological activity inside the well casing. Therefore, active sampling is to be preferred in case of unknown or insufficient flow conditions in the aquifer. The methods of chromatography for the determination of the compounds are validated and compared with other appropriate analytical methods: I. Headspace-GC-FID for the determination of methane, ethene and vinyl chloride in water of the purged sample (i) and the water of the PDB (ii) II. Direct injection - GC-PDD for the determination of hydrogen from the collected gas samples of the gas sampling tube (i) and the plastic syringes (ii) The gas chromatographic procedure for vinyl chloride using

  5. Petroleum Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated Hydrocarbons, and Metal in Soils and Sediments of Quivira National Wildlife Refuge, 1989 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Numerous oil production facilities were in place when Quivira NWR was purchased, and oil production has continued and some new production facilities have been...

  6. Evaluation of sediment contamination by monoaromatic hydrocarbons in the coastal lagoons of Gulf of Saros, NE Aegean Sea. (United States)

    Ünlü, Selma; Alpar, Bedri


    The concentrations and distribution of monoaromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and the sum of m-, p- and o-, xylenes) were determined in the sediments of coastal lagoons of the Gulf of Saros, using a static headspace GC-MS. The total concentrations of BTEX compounds ranged from 368.5 to below detection limit 0.6μgkg-1 dw, with a mean value of 61.5μgkg-1 dw. The light aromatic fraction of m-, p-xylene was the most abundant compound (57.1% in average), and followed by toluene (38.1%)>ethylbenzene (4.1%)>o-xylene (2.5%)>benzene (1.1%). The factor analysis indicated that the levels and distribution of BTEX compounds depend on the type of contaminant source (mobile/point), absorbance of compounds in sediment, and mobility of benzene compound and degradation processes. Point sources are mainly related to agricultural facilities and port activities while the dispersion of compounds are related with their solubility, volatility and effect of sea/saline waters on lagoons. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. FTIR analysis and evaluation of carcinogenic and mutagenic risks of nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in PM1.0. (United States)

    Schneider, Ismael Luís; Teixeira, Elba Calesso; Agudelo-Castañeda, Dayana Milena; Silva E Silva, Gabriel; Balzaretti, Naira; Braga, Marcel Ferreira; Oliveira, Luís Felipe Silva


    Nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) represent a group of organic compounds of significant interest due to their presence in airborne particulates of urban centers, wide distribution in the environment, and mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. These compounds, associated with atmospheric particles of size Carcinogenic and mutagenic risks of the studied NPAHs associated with PM1.0 samples were also determined for two sampling sites: Canoas and Sapucaia do Sul. The results showed that NPAH standard spectra can effectively identify NPAHs in PM1.0 samples. The transmittance and emissivity sample spectra showed broader bands and lower relative intensity than the standard NPAH spectra. The carcinogenic risk and the total mutagenic risk were calculated using the toxic equivalent factors and mutagenic potency factors, respectively. Canoas showed the highest total carcinogenic risk, while Sapucaia do Sul had the highest mutagenic risk. The seasonal analysis suggested that in the study area the ambient air is more toxic during the cold periods. These findings might of significant importance for the decision and policy making authorities.

  8. Evaluation of genotoxicity in automobile mechanics occupationally exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities. (United States)

    Khan, Mohammed Rafiq; Sudha, Sellappa


    Occupational and environmental exposures mostly represent mixtures of genotoxic agents, whereas the specificity of biomarker measurements varies widely. Exploration of correlations among biomarkers contributes to the further progress of molecular cancer epidemiology and to the selection of the optimal biomarkers for the investigation of human exposure to carcinogens. The aim of this study was to assess the potential cytogenetic damage associated with occupational exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) among automobile mechanics by using Micronuclei (MN) and other Nuclear Abnormalities (NA) as a biomarker. The study population composed of 110 occupationally exposed automobile mechanics and 100 unexposed controls. All the study participants were males. Both the exposed and control individuals were selected from automobile garages located in the urban area of Coimbatore City, South India. Exfoliated buccal cells were collected from 110 automobile mechanics and 100 age and sex matched controls. Further, cells were examined for MN frequency and Nuclear Abnormalities (NA) other than micronuclei, such as binucleates, broken eggs and karyolysis. Results showed a statistically significant difference between occupationally exposed automobile mechanics and control groups. MN and NA frequencies in automobile mechanics were significantly higher than those in control groups (p mechanics exposed to PAHs are under risk of significant cytogenetic damage. Therefore, it is important to provide and offer better awareness of occupational hazards among these workers to promote occupational safety.

  9. The evaluation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) biodegradation kinetics in soil amended with organic fertilizers and bulking agents. (United States)

    Włóka, Dariusz; Placek, Agnieszka; Rorat, Agnieszka; Smol, Marzena; Kacprzak, Małgorzata


    The aim of this study was to investigate the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) biodegradation kinetics in soils fertilized with organic amendments (sewage sludge, compost), bulking agents (mineral sorbent, silicon dioxide in form of nano powder), and novel compositions of those materials. The scope of conducted works includes a cyclic CO2 production measurements and the determinations of PAHs content in soil samples, before and after 3-months of incubation. Obtained results show that the use of both type of organic fertilizers have a positive effect on the PAHs removal from soil. However, the CO2 emission remains higher only in the first stage of the process. The best acquired means in terms of PAHs removal as well as most sustained CO2 production were noted in samples treated with the mixtures of organic fertilizers and bulking agents. In conclusion the addition of structural forming materials to the organic fertilizers was critical for the soil bioremediation efficiency. Therefore, the practical implementation of collected data could find a wide range of applications during the design of new, more effective solutions for the soil bioremediation purposes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Potential Use of Chlorine Dioxide to Control Diseases in Ornamental Plant Production Systems (United States)

    Research is being done to evaluate uses of chlorine dioxide in ornamental plant production systems. Chlorine dioxide has been shown to control spread of Fusarium oxysporum during the hot water treatment of daffodils and should provide replacement of formaldehyde which was used in the past. By dipp...

  11. Short-term organic carbon migration from polymeric materials in contact with chlorinated drinking water. (United States)

    Mao, Guannan; Wang, Yingying; Hammes, Frederik


    Polymeric materials are widely used in drinking water distribution systems. These materials could release organic carbon that supports bacterial growth. To date, the available migration assays for polymeric materials have not included the potential influence of chlorination on organic carbon migration behavior. Hence, we established a migration and growth potential protocol specifically for analysis of carbon migration from materials in contact with chlorinated drinking water. Four different materials were tested, including ethylene propylene dienemethylene (EPDM), poly-ethylene (PEX b and PEX c) and poly-butylene (PB). Chlorine consumption rates decreased gradually over time for EPDM, PEXc and PB. In contrast, no free chlorine was detected for PEXb at any time during the 7 migration cycles. Total organic carbon (TOC) and assimilable organic carbon (AOC) was evaluated in both chlorinated and non-chlorinated migrations. TOC concentrations for EPDM and PEXb in chlorinated migrations were significantly higher than non-chlorinated migrations. The AOC results showed pronounced differences among tested materials. AOC concentrations from chlorinated migration waters of EPDM and PB were higher compared to non-chlorinated migrations, whereas the opposite trend was observed for PEXb and PEXc. There was also a considerable difference between tested materials with regards to bacterial growth potential. The results revealed that the materials exposed to chlorine-influenced migration still exhibited a strong biofilm formation potential. The overall results suggested that the choice in material would make a considerable difference in chlorine consumption and carbon migration behavior in drinking water distribution systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Angra-1 chlorination system: chlorine gas versus sodium hypochlorite; Sistema de cloracao de Angra I: cloro gasoso versus hipoclorito de sodio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandao, Flavio E. do Rio; Leite, Nelri Ferreira [FURNAS Centrais Eletricas S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia e Combustivel Nuclear


    The objective of this paper is to present a study that was developed over the last two years at Angra I Nuclear Power Plant (Brazil). As a result we chose to change the chlorination system , replacing the actual process that utilizes chlorine gas, with on-site generation of sodium hypochlorite from seawater. The work presents the use of chlorine gas and its implications such as: industrial safety, handling, transportation, corrosion, operational and maintenance costs. It also demonstrates the sodium hypochlorite generation process from electrolysis of seawater and its aspects related to: safety operation, maintenance and costs. Also described are several tests done in Angra I utilizing chlorine gas and sodium hypochlorite, that evaluated the performance of the dosage of active chlorine in the intake canals, in the condensers and discharge, following the Brazilian environmental regulations. (author)

  13. Chemistry of combined residual chlorination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leao, S.F.; Selleck, R.E.


    The decay of the combined chlorine residual was investigated in this work. Recent concerns about the formation of undesirable compounds such as chloroform with free residual chlorination have focused attention on the alternative use of combined residual chlorination. This work investigates the applicability of reactions proposed to describe the transformations and decay of the combined residual with time. Sodium hypochlorite was added to buffered solutions of ammonia with the chlorine residual being monitored over periods extending up to 10 days. The reaction was studied at four initial concentrations of hypochlorite of 100, 50, 25 and 10 mg/L as Cl/sub 2/ with molar application ratios of chlorine to ammonia, defined herein as M ratios, of 0.90, 0.50, 0.25 and 0.05 at each hypochlorite dose. Sixty-eight experiments were conducted at the pH of 6.6 and 7.2. The conclusions are: (1) in the absence of free chlorine, the concentration of NH/sub 3/ does not seem to affect the rate of disappearance of the residual other than through the formation of NHCl/sub 2/ by NH/sub 2/Cl hydrolysis; (2) the reaction between NHCl/sub 2/ and NH/sub 4//sup +/ to form NH/sub 2/Cl is either much slower than reported by Gray et. al. or the mechanism is different with a rate limiting step not involving NH/sub 3/ or NH/sub 4//sup +/; (3) a redox reaction in addition to the first-order decomposition of NHCl/sub 2/ appears necessary. Model simulation results indicated that a reaction of the type NH/sub 2/Cl + NHCl/sub 2/ ..-->.. P added to the first-order NHCl/sub 2/ decomposition can explain the results observed except at the higher chlorine doses.

  14. Field-usable portable analyzer for chlorinated organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buttner, W.J.; Penrose, W.R.; Stetter, J.R. [Transducer Research, Inc., Naperville, IL (United States)


    Transducer Research, Inc. (TRI) has been working with the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center to develop a new chemical monitor based on a unique sensor which responds selectively to vapors of chlorinated solvents. We are also developing field applications for the monitor in actual DOE cleanup operations. During the initial phase, prototype instruments were built and field tested. Because of the high degree of selectivity that is obtained, no response was observed with common hydrocarbon organic compounds such as BTX (benzene, toluene, xylene) or POLs (petroleum, oil, lubricants), and in fact, no non-halogen-containing chemical has been identified which induces a measurable response. By the end of the Phase I effort, a finished instrument system was developed and test marketed. This instrument, called the RCL MONITOR, was designed to analyze individual samples or monitor an area with automated repetitive analyses. Vapor levels between 0 and 500 ppm can be determined in 90 s with a lower detection limit of 0.2 ppm using the handportable instrument. In addition to the development of the RCL MONITOR, advanced sampler systems are being developed to: (1) extend the dynamic range of the instrument through autodilution of the vapor and (2) allow chemical analyses to be performed on aqueous samples. When interfaced to the samplers, the RCL MONITOR is capable of measuring chlorinated solvent contamination in the vapor phase up to 5000 ppm and in water and other condensed media from 10 to over 10,000 ppb(wt)--without hydrocarbon and other organic interferences.

  15. Evaluation of GC-ICP-MS/MS as a New Strategy for Specific Heteroatom Detection of Phosphorus, Sulfur, and Chlorine Determination in Foods. (United States)

    Nelson, Jenny; Hopfer, Helene; Silva, Fabio; Wilbur, Steve; Chen, Jianmin; Shiota Ozawa, Kumi; Wylie, Philip L


    For the first time in the literature, application of a GC-ICP-MS/MS method for the selective and sensitive detection of specific heteroatoms of phosphorus, sulfur, and chlorine has been accomplished. As a proof of concept, organophosphorus, organosulfur, and organochlorine pesticides in various food matrices have been studied. For the detection of organophosphorus and organosulfur pesticides, oxygen was used in the collision reaction cell (CRC) to convert P (m/z 31) to PO(+) (m/z 47) and S (m/z 32) to SO(+) (m/z 48). Similarly, ClH2(+) (m/z 37) was monitored after the reaction of Cl (m/z 35) with hydrogen in the CRC for the determination of organochlorine pesticides. Real food samples (baby food purees, fresh vegetables, loose tea) were screened for their pesticide content, following preparation of triplicate extracts using QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe). Excellent linearity with correlation coefficients R ≥ 0.997 was achieved, and the lowest detection limits obtained for the organophosphorus, organosulfur, and organochlorine pesticides were 0.0005, 0.675, and 0.144 μg/kg, respectively.

  16. Estimating population exposure to ambient polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in the United States - Part I: Model development and evaluation. (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Li, Jingyi; Wang, Peng; Chen, Gang; Mendola, Pauline; Sherman, Seth; Ying, Qi


    PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in the environment are of significant concern due to their negative impact on human health. PAH measurements at the air toxics monitoring network stations alone are not sufficient to provide a complete picture of ambient PAH levels or to allow accurate assessment of public exposure in the United States. In this study, speciation profiles for PAHs were prepared using data assembled from existing emission profile data bases, and the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE) model was used to generate the gridded national emissions of 16 priority PAHs in the US. The estimated emissions were applied to simulate ambient concentration of PAHs for January, April, July and October 2011, using a modified Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model (v5.0.1) that treats the gas and particle phase partitioning of PAHs and their reactions in the gas phase and on particle surface. Predicted daily PAH concentrations at 61 air toxics monitoring sites generally agreed with observations, and averaging the predictions over a month reduced the overall error. The best model performance was obtained at rural sites, with an average mean fractional bias (MFB) of -0.03 and mean fractional error (MFE) of 0.70. Concentrations at suburban and urban sites were underestimated with overall MFB=-0.57 and MFE=0.89. Predicted PAH concentrations were highest in January with better model performance (MFB=0.12, MFE=0.69; including all sites), and lowest in July with worse model performance (MFB=-0.90, MFE=1.08). Including heterogeneous reactions of several PAHs with O3 on particle surface reduced the over-prediction bias in winter, although significant uncertainties were expected due to relative simple treatment of the heterogeneous reactions in the current model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of the noncovalent binding interactions between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites and human p53 cDNA. (United States)

    Wei, Yin; Lin, Yuan; Zhang, Ai-Qian; Guo, Liang-Hong; Cao, Jie


    The binding of reactive polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites, formed enzymatically, to DNA is a crucial step in PAH carcinogenesis in vivo. We investigated the noncovalent binding interactions between 11 PAH metabolites and human p53 complementary DNA (p53 cDNA) using the fluorescence displacement method and molecular docking analysis. All of the examined metabolites predominantly interacted with p53 cDNA by intercalation instead of groove binding. The dissociation constants ranged from 0.02 to 12.34μM. Of the metabolites tested, 1-hydroxypyrene and 3-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene showed the strongest binding affinities to DNA, while 2-naphthol was the weakest DNA intercalator. The intercalation of the metabolites was stabilized by stacking the PAH phenyl rings with the DNA base pairs and the formation of hydrogen bonds between the oxide or hydroxyl groups on the metabolites, and DNA bases or backbones. The binding of the metabolites to DNA showed some sequence selectivity. The binding affinities and hydrogen bonds for 3-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene-4,5-dihydroepoxide (BPE) and benzo[a]pyrene-r-7,t-8-dihydrodiol-t-9,10-epoxide (BPDE) differed. It seems that the functional groups on the periphery of the PAH aromatic ring play crucial roles in regulating its binding affinity with DNA. Although it was difficult to determine the correlation between DNA noncovalent binding affinity and carcinogenicity for some of the PAH metabolites, the present study improved our understanding of the formation of PAH metabolite-DNA adducts. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Reactions of aqueous chlorine and chlorine dioxide with model food compounds. (United States)

    Fukayama, M Y; Tan, H; Wheeler, W B; Wei, C I


    Chlorine and chlorine dioxide (ClO2), common disinfecting and bleaching chemicals used in the food industry, are potent oxidizing and chlorinating agents. Unfortunately, little is known about the nature of the reactions of chlorine with organic food constituents. This presentation reviews published information concerning the reactions of chlorine gas (Cl2[g]), aqueous chlorine, and ClO2 with model food compounds, the fate of chlorine during the chlorination of specific food products, and the potential toxicity of the reaction products. Fatty acids and their methyl esters react with chlorine with the degree of incorporation corresponding to their degree of unsaturation. Aqueous chlorine oxidizes and chlorinates lipids and amino acids much more readily than ClO2. Several amino acids are highly susceptible to oxidation and chlorination by chlorine compounds. Reactions of chlorine and ClO2 with several food products, including flour and shrimp, have also been characterized. In one model system, 99% of Cl2(g) either reacted with components of flour or was consumed by oxidation/chlorination reactions. The lipids extracted from the chlorinated flour contained significant amounts of chlorine. Exposure of shrimp to hypochlorous acid (HOCl) solution resulted in significant incorporation of chlorine into the edible portion. Although significant quantities of chlorine can be incorporated into specific model compounds and food products, the health risks associated with exposure to chlorinated organic products are unknown. Preliminary studies using the Ames Salmonella/microsome mutagenicity assay indicate that the reaction products from mixtures of aqueous chlorine and various lipids or tryptophan are nonmutagenic. Nevertheless, additional studies are warranted, so that the toxicological significance of these reaction products can be understood more fully. PMID:3545804

  19. Electrochemical treatment of penicillin, cephalosporin, and fluoroquinolone antibiotics via active chlorine: evaluation of antimicrobial activity, toxicity, matrix, and their correlation with the degradation pathways. (United States)

    Serna-Galvis, Efraím A; Berrio-Perlaza, Karen E; Torres-Palma, Ricardo A


    Antibiotics are pharmaceuticals widely consumed and frequently detected in environmental water, where they can induce toxic effects and development of resistant bacteria. Their structural variety makes the problem of antibiotics in natural water more complex. In this work, six highly used antibiotics (at 40 μmol L(-1)) belonging to three different classes (penicillins, cephalosporins, and fluoroquinolones) were treated using an electrochemical system with a Ti/IrO2 anode and a Zr cathode in the presence of NaCl (0.05 μmol L(-1)). The attack of electrogenerated active chlorine was found to be the main degradation route. After only 20 min of treatment, the process decreased more than 90% of the initial concentration of antibiotics, following the degradation order: fluoroquinolones > penicillins > cephalosporins. The primary interactions of the degrading agent with fluoroquinolones occurred at the cyclic amine (i.e., piperazyl ring) and the benzene ring. Meanwhile, the cephalosporins and penicillins were initially attacked on the β-lactam and sulfide groups. However, the tested penicillins presented an additional reaction on the central amide. In all cases, the transformations of antibiotics led to the antimicrobial activity decreasing. On the contrary, the toxicity level showed diverse results: increasing, decreasing, and no change, depending on the antibiotic type. In fact, due to the conservation of quinolone nucleus in the fluoroquinolone by-products, the toxicity of the treated solutions remained unchanged. With penicillins, the production of chloro-phenyl-isoxazole fragments increased the toxicity level of the resultant solution. However, the opening of β-lactam ring of cephalosporin antibiotics decreased the toxicity level of the treated solutions. Finally, the application of the treatment to synthetic hospital wastewater and seawater containing a representative antibiotic showed that the high amount of chloride ions in seawater accelerates the

  20. Formation of aryl-chlorinated aromatic acids and precursors for chloroform in chlorination of humic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Leer, E.W.B. de; Galan, L.


    The formation of chloroform when humic substances are chlorinated is well known. Other chlorinated products that may be formed are chloral, di- and trichloroacetic acid, chlorinated C-4 diacids, and α-chlorinated aliphatic acids. Several of these compounds are formed in molar yields comparable

  1. Evaluation of thermal infrared hyperspectral imagery for the detection of onshore methane plumes: Significance for hydrocarbon exploration and monitoring (United States)

    Scafutto, Rebecca DeĺPapa Moreira; de Souza Filho, Carlos Roberto; Riley, Dean N.; de Oliveira, Wilson Jose


    accurately. These results indicate that thermal infrared hyperspectral imaging can support the oil industry profusely, by revealing new petroleum plays through direct detection of gaseous hydrocarbon seepages, serving as tools to monitor leaks along pipelines and oil processing plants, while simultaneously refining estimates of CH4 emissions.

  2. Bacterial repopulation of drinking water pipe walls after chlorination. (United States)

    Mathieu, Laurence; Francius, Grégory; El Zein, Racha; Angel, Edith; Block, Jean-Claude


    The short-term kinetics of bacterial repopulation were evaluated after chlorination of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) colonized with drinking water biofilms and compared with bare HDPE surfaces. The effect of chlorination was partial as a residual biofilm persisted and was time-limited as repopulation occurred immediately after water resupply. The total number of bacteria reached the same levels on both the bare and chlorinated biofilm-fouled HDPE after a seven-day exposure to drinking water. Due to the presence of a residual biofilm, the hydrophobicity of chlorinated biofilm-fouled surface exhibited much lower adhesion forces (2.1 nN) compared to bare surfaces (8.9 nN). This could explain the rapid repopulation after chlorination, with a twofold faster bacterial accumulation rate on the bare HDPE surface. γ-Proteobacteria dominated the early stages of repopulation of both surfaces and a shift in the dominance occurred over the colonization time. Such observations define a timescale for cleaning frequency in industrial environments and guidelines for a rinsing procedure using drinking water.

  3. 49 CFR 179.102-2 - Chlorine. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chlorine. 179.102-2 Section 179.102-2... Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120) § 179.102-2 Chlorine. (a) Each tank car used to transport chlorine must comply with all of the following: (1) Tanks must be...

  4. Stable Chlorine Isotope Fractionation (United States)

    Sharp, Z.


    Chlorine isotope partitioning between different phases is not well understood. Pore fluids can have δ37Cl values as low as -8‰, with neoform sediments having strongly positive values. Most strikingly, volcanic gases have δ37Cl values that cover a range in excess of 14‰ (Barnes et al., this meeting). The large range is difficult to explain in terms of equilibrium fractionation, which, although calculated to be very large for Cl in different oxidation states, should be less than 2‰ between chloride species (Schauble et al., 2003, GCA). To address the discrepancy between Nature and theory, we have measured Cl isotope fractionation for selected equilibrium and disequilibrium experiments in order to identify mechanisms that might lead to large fractionations. 1) NaCl (s,l) NaCl (v): NaCl was sealed in an evacuated silica tube and heated at one end, causing vaporization and reprecipitation of NaCl (v) at the cool end of the tube. The fractionation is 0.2‰ at 700°C (halite-vapor) and 0.7‰ at 800°C (liquid-vapor), respectively. The larger fractionation at higher temperature may be related to equilibrium fractionation between liquid and gas vs. `stripping' of the solid in the lower T experiments. 2) Sodalite NaCl(l): Nepheline and excess NaCl were sealed in a Pt crucible at 825°C for 48 hrs producing sodalite. The measured newly-formed sodalite-NaCl fractionation is -0.2‰. 3) Volatilization of HCl: Dry inert gas was bubbled through HCl solutions and the vapor was collected in a downstream water trap. There was no fractionation for 12.4M HCl (HCl fuming) vapor at 25°C. For a 1 M boiling HCl solution, the HCl-vapor fractionation was ~9‰. The difference is probably related to the degree of dissociation in the acid, with HCl dissolved in water for the highly acidic solutions, and dissociated H3O+ and Cl- for lower concentrations. The HCl volatilization experiments are in contrast to earlier vapor-liquid experiments in NaCl-H2O system, where fractionation was

  5. Reductive dechlorination of chlorinated ethenes by iron metal and iron sulfide minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivavec, T.M.; Horney, D.P.; Baghel, S.S. [GE Corporate Research and Development, Schenectady, NY (United States)


    Reduced forms of iron and sulfur, such as Fe(II), iron(II) sulfide and hydrogen sulfide, are abundant natural reductants in anaerobic soils and sediments. Redox reactions between these reductants and organic pollutants are often greatly accelerated in natural systems because of microbial mediation or because the electron transfer is mediated by the cycling of Fe(II)/Fe(III). For example, recent studies have shown that surface-bound, reduced iron species play the important role of electron transfer mediator in reductions promoted by iron-reducing bacteria. It has been postulated that the reduction of chlorinated hydrocarbons by iron metal may occur by a reaction of surface-bound Fe(II) at the iron metal-water interface. The surface-bound Fe(II) species at the passive oxide-water interface may serve as mediator for the transfer of electrons from Fe{sup 0} to adsorbed chlorinated hydrocarbon. Fast reduction rates for chlorinated hydrocarbons observed in this system may be attributed to the facile regeneration of reducing surface Fe(II) species due to the close proximity of the bulk reductant (Fe{sup 0}) to the electron carrier, surface-bound Fe(II). Evidence in support of this proposed mechanism is presented.

  6. Degradation of chloramphenicol by UV/chlorine treatment: Kinetics, mechanism and enhanced formation of halonitromethanes. (United States)

    Dong, Huiyu; Qiang, Zhimin; Hu, Jun; Qu, Jiuhui


    Ultraviolet (UV)/chlorine process is considered as an emerging advanced oxidation process for the degradation of micropollutants. This study investigated the degradation of chloramphenicol (CAP) and formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) during the UV/chlorine treatment. It was found that CAP degradation was enhanced by combined UV/chlorine treatment compared to that of UV and chlorination treatment alone. The pseudo-first-order rate constant of the UV/chlorine process at pH 7.0 reached 0.016 s-1, which was 10.0 and 2.0 folds that observed from UV and chlorination alone, respectively. The enhancement can be attributed to the formation of diverse radicals (HO and reactive chlorine species (RCSs)), and the contribution of RCSs maintained more stable than that of HO at pH 5.5-8.5. Meanwhile, enhanced DBPs formation during the UV/chlorine treatment was observed. Both the simultaneous formation and 24-h halonitromethanes formation potential (HNMsFP) were positively correlated with the UV/chlorine treatment time. Although the simultaneous trichloronitromethane (TCNM) formation decreased with the prolonged UV irradiation, TCNM dominated the formation of HNMs after 24 h (>97.0%). According to structural analysis of transformation by-products, both the accelerated CAP degradation and enhanced HNMs formation steps were proposed. Overall, the formation of diverse radicals during the UV/chlorine treatment accelerated the degradation of CAP, while also enhanced the formation of DBPs simultaneously, indicating the need for DBPs evaluation before the application of combined UV/chlorine process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Characteristics of salt taste and free chlorine or chloramine in drinking water. (United States)

    Wiesenthal, K E; McGuire, M J; Suffet, I H


    Salty taste with or without chlorine or chloramine flavour is one of the major consumer complaints to water utilities. The flavour profile analysis (FPA) taste panel method determined the average taste threshold concentration for salt (NaCl) in Milli-Q water to be 640 +/- 3 mg/L at pH 8. Chlorine and chloramine disinfectants have no antagonistic or synergistic effects on the taste of NaCl, salt, in Milli-Q water. The flavour threshold concentrations for chlorine or chloramine in Milli-Q water alone or in the presence of NaCl could not be estimated by the Weber-Fechner curves due to the chlorine or chloramine flavour outliers in the 0.2-0.8 mg/L concentration range. Apparently, NaCl is not equilibrated with the concentration of ions in the saliva in the mouth and the concentration of free chlorine or chloramines cannot be tasted correctly. Therefore, dechlorinated tap water may be the best background water to use for a particular drinking water evaluation of chlorine and chloramine thresholds. Laboratory FPA studies of free chlorine found that a 67% dilution of Central Arizona Project (CAP) (Tucson, AZ) water with Milli-O water was required to reduce the free chlorine flavour to a threshold value instead of a theoretical value of 80% (Krasner and Barrett, 1980). No synergistic effect was found for chlorine flavour on the dilution of CAP water with Milli-Q water. When Central Avra Valley (AVRA) groundwater was used for the dilution of CAP water, a synergistic effect of the TDS present was observed for the chlorine flavour. Apparently, the actual mineral content of drinking water, and not just NaCl in Milli-Q water, is needed for comparative flavour tests for chlorine and chloramines.

  8. Chlorine Abundances in Martian Meteorites (United States)

    Bogard, D.D.; Garrison, D.H.; Park, J.


    Chlorine measurements made in martian surface rocks by robotic spacecraft typically give Chlorine (Cl) abundances of approximately 0.1-0.8%. In contrast, Cl abundances in martian meteorites appear lower, although data is limited, and martian nakhlites were also subjected to Cl contamination by Mars surface brines. Chlorine abundances reported by one lab for whole rock (WR) samples of Shergotty, ALH77005, and EET79001 range 108-14 ppm, whereas Cl in nakhlites range 73-1900 ppm. Measurements of Cl in various martian weathering phases of nakhlites varied 0.04-4.7% and reveal significant concentration of Cl by martian brines Martian meteorites contain much lower Chlorine than those measured in martian surface rocks and give further confirmation that Cl in these surface rocks was introduced by brines and weathering. It has been argued that Cl is twice as effective as water in lowering the melting point and promoting melting at shallower martian depths, and that significant Cl in the shergottite source region would negate any need for significant water. However, this conclusion was based on experiments that utilized Cl concentrations more analogous to martian surface rocks than to shergottite meteorites, and may not be applicable to shergottites.

  9. Chlorine/UV Process for Decomposition and Detoxification of Microcystin-LR. (United States)

    Zhang, Xinran; Li, Jing; Yang, Jer-Yen; Wood, Karl V; Rothwell, Arlene P; Li, Weiguang; Blatchley Iii, Ernest R


    Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) is a potent hepatotoxin that is often associated with blooms of cyanobacteria. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficiency of the chlorine/UV process for MC-LR decomposition and detoxification. Chlorinated MC-LR was observed to be more photoactive than MC-LR. LC/MS analyses confirmed that the arginine moiety represented an important reaction site within the MC-LR molecule for conditions of chlorination below the chlorine demand of the molecule. Prechlorination activated MC-LR toward UV254 exposure by increasing the product of the molar absorption coefficient and the quantum yield of chloro-MC-LR, relative to the unchlorinated molecule. This mechanism of decay is fundamentally different than the conventional view of chlorine/UV as an advanced oxidation process. A toxicity assay based on human liver cells indicated MC-LR degradation byproducts in the chlorine/UV process possessed less cytotoxicity than those that resulted from chlorination or UV254 irradiation applied separately. MC-LR decomposition and detoxification in this combined process were more effective at pH 8.5 than at pH 7.5 or 6.5. These results suggest that the chlorine/UV process could represent an effective strategy for control of microcystins and their associated toxicity in drinking water supplies.

  10. [Chlorine concentrations in the air of indoor swimming pools and their effects on swimming pool workers]. (United States)

    Fernández-Luna, Álvaro; Burillo, Pablo; Felipe, José Luis; Gallardo, Leonor; Tamaral, Francisco Manuel


    To describe chlorine levels in the air of indoor swimming pools in Castilla-La Mancha (Spain) and relate them to other chemical parameters in the installation and to the health problems perceived by swimming pool workers. We analyzed 21 pools with chlorine as chemical treatment in Castilla-La Mancha. The iodometry method was applied to measure chlorine concentrations in the air. The concentrations of free and combined chlorine in water, pH and temperature were also evaluated. Health problems were surveyed in 230 swimming pool workers in these facilities. The mean chlorine level in the air of swimming pools was 4.3 ± 2.3mg/m(3). The pH values were within the legal limits. The temperature parameters did not comply with regulations in 17 of the 21 pools analyzed. In the pools where chlorine values in the air were above the legal regulations, a significantly higher percentage of swimming pool workers perceived eye irritation, dryness and irritation of skin, and ear problems. Chlorine values in the air of indoor swimming pools were higher than those reported in similar studies. Most of the facilities (85%) exceeded the concentration of 1.5mg/m(3) established as the limit for the risk of irritating effects. The concentration of chlorine in indoor swimming pool air has a direct effect on the self-perceived health problems of swimming pool workers. Copyright © 2012 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Chlorination-induced cellular damage and recovery in marine microalga, Chlorella salina. (United States)

    Ebenezer, Vinitha; Nancharaiah, Y Venkata; Venugopalan, V P


    Power plants employ chlorination for controlling biofouling in the cooling water system. Phytoplankton drawn into the cooling water system could be impacted by chemical stress induced by the oxidizing biocide. It is likely that microalgae, being sensitive to chlorine, could suffer damage to their cellular structure and function. In this study, we present data on the effect of in-use concentrations of chlorine on the unicellular microalga, Chlorella salina. Chlorophyll autofluorescence was measured in terms of mean fluorescence intensity per cell for rapid assessment of toxicity. Viability of the cells exposed to chlorine was determined by fluorescein diacetate staining. Functionality of the photosynthetic machinery was assessed by gross primary productivity. Results from the study, which combined confocal laser scanning microscopy with image analysis, showed a significant dose-dependant reduction in chlorophyll autofluorescence, esterase activity and gross primary productivity in chlorine-treated cells. Interestingly, the cells injured by chlorination could not recover in terms of autofluorescence, esterase activity or productivity even after 18 h incubation in healthy media. Among the test points evaluated, esterase activity appeared to be sensitive for determining the chlorination-induced impact. Our results demonstrate that low-dose chlorination causes significant decrease in chlorophyll autofluorescence, intracellular esterase activity and primary productivity in Chlorella cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Recovery of Co, Ni, Mo, and V from unroasted spent hydrorefining catalysts by selective chlorination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaballah, I.; Djona, M. (Inst. National Polytechnique de Lorraine, Vandoeuvre (France))


    Spent hydrorefining catalysts may contain 4 to 6% of CoO and/or NiO, 8 to 16% of MoO[sub 3], and up to 10% of V[sub 2]O[sub 5], generally supported by alumina. They also contain up to 25% of carbon, hydrocarbons, and sulfur. Selective chlorination of raw, unroasted samples with Cl[sub 2] + air, Cl[sub 2] + N[sub 2], and Cl[sub 2] + CO + N[sub 2] gas mixtures have been investigated for the recovery of valuable elements. The fastest chlorination kinetics are obtained using the Cl[sub 2] + CO + N[sub 2] gas mixture, followed by Cl[sub 2] + N[sub 2]. The best selective chlorination of spent hydrorefining catalysts is obtained using a Cl[sub 2] + air gas mixture. At temperatures lower than 600 C, it is possible to recover more than 90% of the Ni and Co, about 99% of the Mo, and up to 75% of the V compounds. Cobalt and Nickel chlorides are extracted from the chlorination residues by their dissolution with water. Molybdenum and vanadium chlorides and/or oxychlorides are recovered by selective condensation from the vapor phase. The chlorination of the catalyst support, Al[sub 2]O[sub 3], can be limited to less than about 6%. A flow sheet is proposed.

  13. Thraustochytrid protists degrade hydrocarbons

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raikar, M.T.; Raghukumar, S.; Vani, V.; David, J.J.; Chandramohan, D.

    that thraustochytrids have the capability to utilize a wide range of organic nitrogen and carbon compounds for their nutrition. However, the capability of these protists to degrade hydrocarbons has not been examined so far. Hydrocarbons occur in seawater either... chromatography. (1) Gravimetry: Tarballs were extracted from experimental flasks with 10 ml of carbon tetrachloride, the extract transferred to pre- weighed Petri dish and the solvent allowed to RAIKAR et al.: THRAUSTOCHYTRID PROTISTS DEGRADE HYDROCARBONS...

  14. The Investigation of Chlorates as a Possible Source of Oxygen and Chlorine Detected by the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) Instrument in Gale Crater, Mars (United States)

    Sutter, B.; Archer, D. P.; Ming, D. W.; Niles, P. B.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Franz, H.; Glavin, D. P.; McAdam, A. C.; Mahaffy, P; Stern, J. C.; hide


    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument onboard the Curiosity rover detect-ed O2 and HCl gas releases from the Rocknest (RN) eolian bedform and the John Klein (JK) and Cumberland (CB) drill hole materials in Gale Crater. Chlorinated hydrocarbons have also been detected by the SAM quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GCMS). These detections along with the detection of perchlorate (ClO4-) by the Mars Phoenix Lander’s Wet Chemistry Laboratory (WCL) suggesting perchlorate is a possible candidate for evolved O2 and chlorine species. Laboratory thermal analysis of perchlorates has yet to provide an unequivocal temperature match to the SAM O2 and HCl release data. Iron mineralogy found in the Rocknest materials when mixed with Ca-perchlorate does cause O2 release temperatures to be closer match to the SAM O2 release data but more work is required in evaluating the catalytic effects of Fe mineralogy on perchlorate decomposition. Chlorates (ClO3-) are relevant Mars materials and potential O2 and Cl sources. The objective of this work is to evaluate the thermal decomposition of select chlorate (ClO3-) salts as possible sources of the O2 and HCl releases in the Gale Crater materials.

  15. Performance Evaluation and Quality Validation System for Optical Gas Imaging Cameras that Visualize Fugitive Hydrocarbon Gas Emissions (United States)

    A U.S. EPA team, consisting of the Office of Research and Development and Region 6 (Dallas) and Region 8 (Denver), deployed passive-diffusive sorbent tubes as part of a method evaluation study around one oil and natural gas production pad in both the Barnett Shale Basin in Texas ...

  16. Chlorine disinfection of dye wastewater: Implications for a commercial azo dye mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vacchi, Francine Inforcato; Albuquerque, Anjaina Fernandes; Vendemiatti, Josiane Aparecida; Morales, Daniel Alexandre [Faculdade de Tecnologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Limeira, SP, 13484-332 (Brazil); Ormond, Alexandra B.; Freeman, Harold S. [Department of Textile Engineering, Chemistry, and Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-8301 (United States); Zocolo, Guilherme Juliao; Zanoni, Maria Valnice Boldrin [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho, Instituto de Quimica de Araraquara, Araraquara, SP 14801-970 (Brazil); Umbuzeiro, Gisela, E-mail: [Faculdade de Tecnologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Limeira, SP, 13484-332 (Brazil)


    Azo dyes, the most widely used family of synthetic dyes, are often employed as colorants in areas such as textiles, plastics, foods/drugs/cosmetics, and electronics. Following their use in industrial applications, azo dyes have been found in effluents and various receiving waters. Chemical treatment of effluents containing azo dyes includes disinfection using chlorine, which can generate compounds of varying eco/genotoxicity. Among the widely known commercial azo dyes for synthetic fibers is C.I. Disperse Red 1. While this dye is known to exist as a complex mixture, reports of eco/genotoxicity involve the purified form. Bearing in mind the potential for adverse synergistic effects arising from exposures to chemical mixtures, the aim of the present study was to characterize the components of commercial Disperse Red 1 and its chlorine-mediated decoloration products and to evaluate their ecotoxicity and mutagenicity. In conducting the present study, Disperse Red 1 was treated with chlorine gas, and the solution obtained was analyzed with the aid of LC-ESI-MS/MS to identify the components present, and then evaluated for ecotoxicity and mutagenicity, using Daphnia similis and Salmonella/microsome assays, respectively. The results of this study indicated that chlorination of Disperse Red 1 produced four chlorinated aromatic compounds as the main products and that the degradation products were more ecotoxic than the parent dye. These results suggest that a disinfection process using chlorine should be avoided for effluents containing hydrophobic azo dyes such commercial Disperse Red 1. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aqueous solutions of Disperse Red 1 were treated with chlorine. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The chlorination products of Disperse Red 1 were identified using LC-ESI-MS/MS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Daphnia and Salmonella/microsome were employed for eco/genotoxicity testing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The chlorinated dye was more mutagenic

  17. Chlorination Revisited: Does Cl- Serve as a Catalyst in the Chlorination of Phenols? (United States)

    Lau, Stephanie S; Abraham, Sonali M; Roberts, A Lynn


    The aqueous chlorination of (chloro)phenols is one of the best-studied reactions in the environmental literature. Previous researchers have attributed these reactions to two chlorine species: HOCl (at circum-neutral and high pH) and H2OCl+ (at low pH). In this study, we seek to examine the roles that two largely overlooked chlorine species, Cl2 and Cl2O, may play in the chlorination of (chloro)phenols. Solution pH, chloride concentration, and chlorine dose were systematically varied in order to assess the importance of different chlorine species as chlorinating agents. Our findings indicate that chlorination rates at pH chlorine dose representative of drinking water treatment, Cl2O is predicted to have at best a minor impact on chlorination reactions, whereas Cl2 may contribute more than 80% to the overall chlorination rate depending on the (chloro)phenol identity and chloride concentration. While it is not possible to preclude H2OCl+ as a chlorinating agent, we were able to model our low-pH data by considering Cl2 only. Even traces of chloride can generate sufficient Cl2 to influence chlorination kinetics, highlighting the role of chloride as a catalyst in chlorination reactions.

  18. Using ground and intact coal Samples to evaluate hydrocarbon fate during supercritical CO2 injection into coal beds: effects of particle size and coal moisture (United States)

    Kolak, Jon; Hackley, Paul C.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Warwick, Peter D.; Burruss, Robert


    To investigate the potential for mobilizing organic compounds from coal beds during geologic carbon dioxide (CO2) storage (sequestration), a series of solvent extractions using dichloromethane (DCM) and using supercritical CO2 (40 °C and 10 MPa) were conducted on a set of coal samples collected from Louisiana and Ohio. The coal samples studied range in rank from lignite A to high volatile A bituminous, and were characterized using proximate, ultimate, organic petrography, and sorption isotherm analyses. Sorption isotherm analyses of gaseous CO2 and methane show a general increase in gas storage capacity with coal rank, consistent with findings from previous studies. In the solvent extractions, both dry, ground coal samples and moist, intact core plug samples were used to evaluate effects of variations in particle size and moisture content. Samples were spiked with perdeuterated surrogate compounds prior to extraction, and extracts were analyzed via gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The DCM extracts generally contained the highest concentrations of organic compounds, indicating the existence of additional hydrocarbons within the coal matrix that were not mobilized during supercritical CO2 extractions. Concentrations of aliphatic and aromatic compounds measured in supercritical CO2 extracts of core plug samples generally are lower than concentrations in corresponding extracts of dry, ground coal samples, due to differences in particle size and moisture content. Changes in the amount of extracted compounds and in surrogate recovery measured during consecutive supercritical CO2extractions of core plug samples appear to reflect the transition from a water-wet to a CO2-wet system. Changes in coal core plug mass during supercritical CO2 extraction range from 3.4% to 14%, indicating that a substantial portion of coal moisture is retained in the low-rank coal samples. Moisture retention within core plug samples, especially in low-rank coals, appears to inhibit

  19. Evaluation of exposure reduction to indoor air pollution in stove intervention projects in Peru by urinary biomonitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites. (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Sjödin, Andreas; Romanoff, Lovisa C; Horton, Kevin; Fitzgerald, Christopher L; Eppler, Adam; Aguilar-Villalobos, Manuel; Naeher, Luke P


    Burning biomass fuels such as wood on indoor open-pit stoves is common in developing regions. In such settings, exposure to harmful combustion products such as fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)), carbon monoxide (CO) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is of concern. We aimed to investigate if the replacement of open pit stoves by improved stoves equipped with a chimney would significantly reduce exposure to PAHs, PM(2.5) and CO. Two stove projects were evaluated in Peru. Program A was part of the Juntos National Program in which households built their own stoves using materials provided. In Program B, Barrick Gold Corporation hired a company to produce and install the stoves locally. A total of 30 and 27 homes participated in Program A and B, respectively. We collected personal and kitchen air samples, as well as morning urine samples from women tasked with cooking in the households before and after the installation of the improved stoves. Median levels of PM(2.5) and CO were significantly reduced in kitchen and personal air samples by 47-74% after the installation of the new stoves, while the median reduction of 10 urinary hydroxylate PAH metabolites (OH-PAHs) was 19%-52%. The observed OH-PAH concentration in this study was comparable or higher than the 95th percentile of the general U.S. population, even after the stove intervention, indicating a high overall exposure in this population. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Challenges During a Chlorine Gas Emergency Response. (United States)

    Christensen, Bryan E; Duncan, Mary Anne; King, Sallyann C; Hunter, Candis; Ruckart, Perri; Orr, Maureen F


    A chlorine gas release occurred at a poultry processing plant as a result of an accidental mixing of sodium hypochlorite and an acidic antimicrobial treatment. We evaluated the public health and emergency medical services response and developed and disseminated public health recommendations to limit the impact of future incidents. We conducted key informant interviews with the state health department; local fire, emergency medical services, and police departments; county emergency management; and representatives from area hospitals to understand the response mechanisms employed for this incident. After being exposed to an estimated 40-pound chlorine gas release, 170 workers were triaged on the scene and sent to 5 area hospitals. Each hospital redistributed staff or called in extra staff (eg, physicians, nurses, and respiratory therapists) in response to the event. Interviews with hospital staff emphasized the need for improved communication with responders at the scene of a chemical incident. While responding, hospitals handled the patient surge without outside assistance because of effective planning, training, and drilling. The investigation highlighted that greater interagency communication can play an important role in ensuring that chemical incident patients are managed and treated in a timely manner. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:553-556).

  1. Genotoxic effect of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, Brazil, evaluated by Helix aspersa (Mueller, 1774)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ianistcki, M. [Laboratorio de Genetica Toxicologica, Department of Biology, ULBRA, Av. Farroupilha 8001, Pr. 14/Sala 218, Bairro Sao Jose, CEP 92425-900 Canoas, RS (Brazil); Dallarosa, J. [Laboratorio de Ecologia, UFRGS (Brazil); Sauer, C.; Teixeira, C.E. [Fundacao Estadual de Protecao Ambiental Henrique Luis Roessler, FEPAM, RS (Brazil); Silva, J. da, E-mail: juliana.silva@ulbra.b [Laboratorio de Genetica Toxicologica, Department of Biology, ULBRA, Av. Farroupilha 8001, Pr. 14/Sala 218, Bairro Sao Jose, CEP 92425-900 Canoas, RS (Brazil)


    The purpose of this study was to biomonitor metropolitan areas of Porto Alegre (Brazil) for PAHs associated with atmospheric particles and check their effects on the DNA of the land mollusk Helix aspersa. The sampling sites are located in an urban area with heavy traffic: (i) Canoas, (ii) Sapucaia do Sul, and (iii) FIERGS/Porto Alegre. The samples were collected during a continuous period of 24 hours during 15 days using Stacked Filter Units (SFU) on polycarbonate filters (two separated size fractions: PM{sub 10-2.5} and PM{sub <2.5}). The concentrations of 16 major PAHs were determined according to EPA. Comet assay on H. aspersa hemolymph cells was chosen for genotoxicity evaluation. This evaluation shows that, in general, the smaller PM-size fractions (PM{sub <2.5}) have the highest genotoxicity and contain higher concentrations of extractable organic matter. In addition, associations between chemical characteristics and PM carcinogenicity tend to be stronger for the smaller PM-size fractions. - DNA damage in H. aspersa exposed to atmospheric particulate in Metropolitan Area of Porto Alegre demonstrated association with PAHs in the fine filter (PM{sub <2.5}).

  2. The utility of solid-phase microextraction in evaluating polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon bioavailability during habitat restoration with dredged material at moderately contaminated sites. (United States)

    Brennan, Amanda A; Johnson, Nathan W


    The over- or underprediction of risk in moderately contaminated sediments can have a large impact on the nature of applied management strategies given that concentrations border on being toxic or not toxic. Project managers should give significant consideration as to how moderate levels of contaminants in native sediments and dredged material used for restoration will impact recovery of habitat. Total solid-phase (Ctotal ) and porewater (Cfree ) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were quantified in native sediments and dredged material to determine if the predictions of risk from Ctotal are consistent with those based on Cfree . The sediment matrix phase in which PAHs were quantified resulted in disparate conclusions regarding the predicted reduction in contamination following restoration. Total solid-phase PAH concentrations suggested a significant decrease following restoration, whereas little to no change was observed in measured Cfree . Risk metrics based on Ctotal gave inconclusive estimates for toxicity, whereas measured Cfree suggested toxicity is unlikely, a conclusion consistent with toxicity testing. The incorporation of black carbon (BC) into model estimates for Cfree gave predictions more consistent with measured Cfree , suggesting that geochemical conditions (especially BC) play an important part in predicting toxicity at moderately contaminated sites. In addition to the use of Cfree in toxicity evaluation, in-situ Cfree measurements provided a constraint on diffusive PAH loads from sediment relative to ongoing stream loads. If passive sampling had been employed during the sampling designs and site evaluations, the costs of toxicity testing would not have been incurred, given that Cfree suggested little to no toxicity. The results from the project highlight the benefits to be gained by moving beyond inconclusive, screening-level Ctotal metrics and implementing more sensitive and accurate Cfree metrics in assessments of risk in moderately

  3. Inhibition of chlorine-induced pulmonary inflammation and edema by mometasone and budesonide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jing; Mo, Yiqun; Schlueter, Connie F.; Hoyle, Gary W., E-mail:


    Chlorine gas is a widely used industrial compound that is highly toxic by inhalation and is considered a chemical threat agent. Inhalation of high levels of chlorine results in acute lung injury characterized by pneumonitis, pulmonary edema, and decrements in lung function. Because inflammatory processes can promote damage in the injured lung, anti-inflammatory therapy may be of potential benefit for treating chemical-induced acute lung injury. We previously developed a chlorine inhalation model in which mice develop epithelial injury, neutrophilic inflammation, pulmonary edema, and impaired pulmonary function. This model was used to evaluate nine corticosteroids for the ability to inhibit chlorine-induced neutrophilic inflammation. Two of the most potent corticosteroids in this assay, mometasone and budesonide, were investigated further. Mometasone or budesonide administered intraperitoneally 1 h after chlorine inhalation caused a dose-dependent inhibition of neutrophil influx in lung tissue sections and in the number of neutrophils in lung lavage fluid. Budesonide, but not mometasone, reduced the levels of the neutrophil attractant CXCL1 in lavage fluid 6 h after exposure. Mometasone or budesonide also significantly inhibited pulmonary edema assessed 1 day after chlorine exposure. Chlorine inhalation resulted in airway hyperreactivity to inhaled methacholine, but neither mometasone nor budesonide significantly affected this parameter. The results suggest that mometasone and budesonide may represent potential treatments for chemical-induced lung injury. - Highlights: • Chlorine causes lung injury when inhaled and is considered a chemical threat agent. • Corticosteroids may inhibit lung injury through their anti-inflammatory actions. • Corticosteroids inhibited chlorine-induced pneumonitis and pulmonary edema. • Mometasone and budesonide are potential rescue treatments for chlorine lung injury.

  4. Formation of haloacetonitriles and haloacetamides during chlorination of pure culture bacteria. (United States)

    Huang, Huang; Wu, Qian-Yuan; Tang, Xin; Jiang, Rui; Hu, Hong-Ying


    The increasing reuse of organic nitrogen-rich wastewater raises concerns regarding the formation of nitrogenous disinfection by-products (N-DBPs), such as haloacetonitriles and haloacetamides. Previous research mainly focused on N-DBPs formation from dissolved organic matter in wastewater. In this study, dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN) and dichloroacetamide (DCAcAm) formation from particles in the secondary effluents of a domestic wastewater treatment plant during chlorination was assessed to account for 26-46% of the total formation. As part of particles in wastewater, bacterial cells enriched in organic nitrogen are considered a potential source for the formation of N-DBPs during chlorination. The formation of DCAN, DCAcAm and trichloroacetamide (TCAcAm) during the chlorination of a Gram-negative bacterium of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and a Gram-positive bacterium of Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) were then evaluated. Compared with dissolved organic matter in the secondary effluent, bacterial cells formed more DCAN, DCAcAm and TCAcAm during chlorination. E. faecalis formed more DCAN, but less DCAcAm and TCAcAm than E. coli did under most chlorination conditions. Moreover, the effects of contact time, chlorine dose, pH value and ammonia nitrogen concentration on the N-DBPs formation from the two bacterial suspensions were investigated. Under the chlorination conditions in this study, DCAN formation from the bacterial suspensions initially increased and then decreased, while TCAcAm formation increased with increasing contact time and chlorine dose. DCAcAm formation from the bacterial suspensions increased with the prolonged contact time, and increased and then decreased with increasing chlorine dose. DCAN, DCAcAm and TCAcAm formation was favored under neutral pH condition, but was reduced with the addition of ammonia during the chlorination of the two bacterial suspensions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The effect of chlorine and combined chlorine/UV treatment on coliphages in drinking water disinfection. (United States)

    Zyara, Alyaa M; Torvinen, Eila; Veijalainen, Anna-Maria; Heinonen-Tanski, Helvi


    Chlorine disinfection is a globally used method to ensure the safety of drinking water. However, it has not always been successful against viruses and, therefore, it is important to find new methods to disinfect water. Seventeen different coliphages were isolated from the treated municipal wastewater. These coliphages and MS2 were treated with different dosages of chlorine in drinking water, and a combined chlorine/ultraviolet irradiation treatment for the chlorine-resistant coliphages. Chlorine disinfection with 0.3-0.5 mg/L total chlorine (free Cl-dosage 0.12-0.21 mg/L) for 10 min achieved 2.5-5.7 Log10-reductions for 11 sensitive coliphages. The six most resistant coliphages showed no reduction with these chlorine concentrations. MS2 was intermediate in chlorine resistance, and thus it is not a good indicator for viruses in chlorine disinfection. In the combined treatment total chlorine of 0.05-0.25 mg/L (free Cl-dosage 0.02-0.08 mg/L) and ultraviolet irradiation (14-22 mWs/cm(2)) were more effective than chlorine alone, and 3-5 Log10-reductions were achieved for the chlorine-resistant strains. The chlorination efficiency could be increased by higher dosages and longer contact times, but this could increase the formation of disinfection by-products. Therefore, the combination treatment is a recommended disinfection method.

  6. UV/chlorine process for ammonia removal and disinfection by-product reduction: comparison with chlorination. (United States)

    Zhang, Xinran; Li, Weiguang; Blatchley, Ernest R; Wang, Xiaoju; Ren, Pengfei


    The combined application of UV irradiation at 254 nm and chlorination (UV/chlorine process) was investigated for ammonia removal in water treatment. The UV/chlorine process led to higher ammonia removal with less chlorine demand, as compared to breakpoint chlorination. Chlorination of NH₃ led to NH₂Cl formation in the first step. The photolysis of NH₂Cl and radical- mediated oxidation of ammonia appeared to represent the main pathways for ammonia removal. The trivalent nitrogen of ammonia was oxidized, presumably by reactions with aminyl radicals and chlorine radicals. Measured products included NO₃⁻and NO₂⁻; it is likely that N₂ and N₂O were also generated. In addition, UV irradiation appeared to have altered the reactivity of NOM toward free chlorine. The UV/chlorine process had lower chlorine demand, less C-DBPs (THMs and HAAs), but more HANs than chlorination. These results indicate that the UV/chlorine process could represent an alternative to conventional breakpoint chlorination for ammonia-containing water, with several advantages in terms of simplicity, short reaction time, and reduced chemical dosage.

  7. Hydrocarbon Spectral Database (United States)

    SRD 115 Hydrocarbon Spectral Database (Web, free access)   All of the rotational spectral lines observed and reported in the open literature for 91 hydrocarbon molecules have been tabulated. The isotopic molecular species, assigned quantum numbers, observed frequency, estimated measurement uncertainty and reference are given for each transition reported.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Se evaluó el proceso de bioestimulación por nutrientes utilizando fertilizantes inorgánicos compuestos (FIC N:P:K 28:12:7 y sales inorgánicas simples (SIS NH4NO3 y K2HPO4 en suelos contaminados con hidrocarburos utilizando respirometría. El suelo fue contaminado con lodos aceitosos a una concentración 40.000 mgTPH/kgps. Para cuantificar el consumo de oxígeno se utilizaron dos respirómetros de medición manométrica HACH® 2173b y OXITOP® PF600 durante ensayos de 13 días (n=3. Se evaluaron dos tratamientos (FIC y SIS y tres controles (abiótico, sustrato de referencia y sin nutrientes. Se analizaron parámetros físico-químicos (pH, nutrientes y TPH y microbiológicos (heterótrofos y degradadores al inicio y al final de cada ensayo. SIS y el control sin nutrientes presentaron las mayores tasas de respiración, en el equipo HACH se obtuvieron valores de 802,28 y 850,72 mgO2kgps-1d-1 respectivamente, y en OXITOP fueron de 936,65 y 502,05 mgO2kgps-1d-1, respectivamente, indicando que los nutrientes de SIS estimularon el metabolismo microbiano. Por otro lado, FIC presentó los recuentos y tasas de respiración más bajas (188,18 y 139,87 mgO2kgps-1d-1 en HACH y OXITOP, respectivamente, esto pudo estar relacionado a un efecto inhibitorio generado por la acumulación de amoniaco, limitando el crecimiento de la población degradadora.The biostimulation process was evaluated in a hydrocarbon contaminated soil by respirometry after amendment with inorganic compound fertilizer (ICF (N:P:K 28:12:7 and simple inorganic salts (SIS (NH4NO3 and K2HPO4. The soil was contaminated with oily sludge (40,000 mgTPH/kgdw. The oxygen uptake was measured using two respirometers (HACH® 2173b and OXITOP® PF600 during thirteen days (n=3. Two treatments (ICF and SIS and three controls (abiotic, reference substance and without nutrients were evaluated during the study. Physicochemical (pH, nutrients, and TPH and microbiological analysis (heterotrophic and

  9. Plant hydrocarbon recovery process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzadzic, P.M.; Price, M.C.; Shih, C.J.; Weil, T.A.


    A process for production and recovery of hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing whole plants in a form suitable for use as chemical feedstocks or as hydrocarbon energy sources which process comprises: (A) pulverizing by grinding or chopping hydrocarbon-containing whole plants selected from the group consisting of euphorbiaceae, apocynaceae, asclepiadaceae, compositae, cactaceae and pinaceae families to a suitable particle size, (B) drying and preheating said particles in a reducing atmosphere under positive pressure (C) passing said particles through a thermal conversion zone containing a reducing atmosphere and with a residence time of 1 second to about 30 minutes at a temperature within the range of from about 200* C. To about 1000* C., (D) separately recovering the condensable vapors as liquids and the noncondensable gases in a condition suitable for use as chemical feedstocks or as hydrocarbon fuels.

  10. Coal desulfurization by aqueous chlorination (United States)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Vasilakos, N.; Corcoran, W. H.; Grohmann, K.; Rohatgi, N. K. (Inventor)


    A method of desulfurizing coal is described in which chlorine gas is bubbled through an aqueous slurry of coal at low temperature below 130 degrees C., and at ambient pressure. Chlorinolysis converts both inorganic and organic sulfur components of coal into water soluble compounds which enter the aqueous suspending media. The media is separated after chlorinolysis and the coal dechlorinated at a temperature of from 300 C to 500 C to form a non-caking, low-sulfur coal product.

  11. Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min Suk


    Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation are provided. Methods of using the devices for hydrocarbon reformation are also provided. The devices can include a liquid container to receive a hydrocarbon source, and a plasma torch configured to be submerged in the liquid. The plasma plume from the plasma torch can cause reformation of the hydrocarbon. The device can use a variety of plasma torches that can be arranged in a variety of positions in the liquid container. The devices can be used for the reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons and/or liquid hydrocarbons. The reformation can produce methane, lower hydrocarbons, higher hydrocarbons, hydrogen gas, water, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, or a combination thereof.

  12. Modeling of chlorine effect on floc forming and filamentous micro-organisms of activated sludges. (United States)

    Caravelli, Alejandro; Contreras, Edgardo M; Giannuzzi, Leda; Zaritzky, Noemi


    Chlorination is the most economical, non-specific method to control the excessive growth of filamentous micro-organisms causing bulking in activated sludge systems in the treatment of food industrial wastewaters; it was one of the first methods used to control filamentous bulking and is still widely employed. Considering that chlorination affects both floc-forming and filamentous micro-organisms and leaves undesirable disinfection by-products, it is necessary to define the adequate doses to control bulking, minimizing the effect on floc-forming bacteria. In the present work the effect of biomass concentration and type of micro-organism on chlorine decay kinetics was evaluated; the inactivation of either a filamentous (Sphaerotilus natans) or a floc-forming (Acinetobacter anitratus) micro-organism due to chlorination was also analyzed. For chlorine decay assays, the samples were treated in a batch system with sodium hypochlorite ranging between 9.8 and 56.6 mg Cl(2) (gVSS)(-1). Respirometric assays were used to evaluate the effect of chlorine on micro-organisms respiratory activity; in these cases, sodium hypochlorite doses ranged between 2.5 and 18 mgCl(2) (gVSS)(-1).A model that allowed to predict simultaneously chlorine consumption and respiratory activity decay for both micro-organisms as a function of time was proposed. The model includes three coupled differential equations corresponding to respiratory inhibition, readily organic matter oxidation by chlorine and chlorine decay. The rate of chlorine decay depended on both, type and concentration of the micro-organisms in the system. Chlorine consumption rate due to S. natans was 2-4 times faster than A. anitratus. Using the proposed model initial critical chlorine doses (the lowest initial dose that leads to a total inhibition of the respiratory activity) were calculated for both micro-organisms and values of 11.9 mgCl(2) (gVSS)(-1) for S. natans and 4.5 mgCl(2) (gVSS)(-1) for A. anitratus were obtained. These

  13. Household Effectiveness vs. Laboratory Efficacy of Point-of-use Chlorination (United States)

    Levy, Karen; Anderson, Larissa; Robb, Katharine A.; Cevallos, William; Trueba, Gabriel; Eisenberg, Joseph N.S.


    Treatment of water at the household level offers a promising approach to combat the global burden of diarrheal diseases. In particular, chlorination of drinking water has been a widely promoted strategy due to persistence of residual chlorine after initial treatment. However, the degree to which chlorination can reduce microbial levels in a controlled setting (efficacy) or in a household setting (effectiveness) can vary as a function of chlorine characteristics, source water characteristics, and household conditions. To gain more understanding of these factors, we carried out an observational study within households in rural communities of northern coastal Ecuador. We found that the efficacy of chlorine treatment under controlled conditions was significantly better than its effectiveness when evaluated both by ability to meet microbiological safety standards and by log reductions. Water treated with chlorine achieved levels of microbial contamination considered safe for human consumption after 24 hours of storage in the household only 39 – 51% of the time, depending on chlorine treatment regimen. Chlorine treatment would not be considered protective against diarrheal disease according to WHO log reduction standards. Factors that explain the observed compromised effectiveness include: source water turbidity, source water baseline contamination levels, and in-home contamination. Water in 38% of the households that had low turbidity source water ( 10 NTU). A 10 MPN/100mL increase in baseline E. coli levels was associated with a 2.2% increase in failure to meet the E. colistandard. Higher mean microbial contamination levels in 54% of household samples in comparison to their matched controls, which is likely the result of in-home contamination during storage. Container characteristics (size of the container mouth) did not influence chlorine effectiveness. We found no significant differences between chlorine treatment regimens in ability to meet the safe water

  14. Household effectiveness vs. laboratory efficacy of point-of-use chlorination. (United States)

    Levy, Karen; Anderson, Larissa; Robb, Katharine A; Cevallos, William; Trueba, Gabriel; Eisenberg, Joseph N S


    Treatment of water at the household level offers a promising approach to combat the global burden of diarrheal diseases. In particular, chlorination of drinking water has been a widely promoted strategy due to persistence of residual chlorine after initial treatment. However, the degree to which chlorination can reduce microbial levels in a controlled setting (efficacy) or in a household setting (effectiveness) can vary as a function of chlorine characteristics, source water characteristics, and household conditions. To gain more understanding of these factors, we carried out an observational study within households in rural communities of northern coastal Ecuador. We found that the efficacy of chlorine treatment under controlled conditions was significantly better than its household effectiveness when evaluated both by ability to meet microbiological safety standards and by log reductions. Water treated with chlorine achieved levels of microbial contamination considered safe for human consumption after 24 h of storage in the household only 39-51% of the time, depending on chlorine treatment regimen. Chlorine treatment would not be considered protective against diarrheal disease according to WHO log reduction standards. Factors that explain the observed compromised effectiveness include: source water turbidity, source water baseline contamination levels, and in-home contamination. Water in 38% of the households that had low turbidity source water (10 NTU). A 10 MPN/100 mL increase in baseline Escherichia coli levels was associated with a 2.2% increase in failure to meet the E. coli standard. Higher mean microbial contamination levels were seen in 54% of household samples in comparison to their matched controls, which is likely the result of in-home contamination during storage. Container characteristics (size of the container mouth) did not influence chlorine effectiveness. We found no significant differences between chlorine treatment regimens in ability to

  15. Characterization Activities to Evaluate Chlorinated Solvent Discharges to Tims Branch from the A/M Area of the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, D.G.


    The objective of this investigation was to identify those regions of plume outcrop along Tims Branch southeast of A/M Area and to establish fixed monitoring points along the seepline to evaluate proposed remediation needs and to support long-term monitoring activities in the vicinity of the seepline. The characterization approach employed in completing these tasks was dynamic and graded. Three stages of characterization were used to evaluate the outcrop region, with the results from each of the previous activities used to direct subsequent characterization.

  16. Highly Efficient and Reproducible Nonfullerene Solar Cells from Hydrocarbon Solvents

    KAUST Repository

    Wadsworth, Andrew


    With chlorinated solvents unlikely to be permitted for use in solution-processed organic solar cells in industry, there must be a focus on developing nonchlorinated solvent systems. Here we report high-efficiency devices utilizing a low-bandgap donor polymer (PffBT4T-2DT) and a nonfullerene acceptor (EH-IDTBR) from hydrocarbon solvents and without using additives. When mesitylene was used as the solvent, rather than chlorobenzene, an improved power conversion efficiency (11.1%) was achieved without the need for pre- or post-treatments. Despite altering the processing conditions to environmentally friendly solvents and room-temperature coating, grazing incident X-ray measurements confirmed that active layers processed from hydrocarbon solvents retained the robust nanomorphology obtained with hot-processed chlorinated solvents. The main advantages of hydrocarbon solvent-processed devices, besides the improved efficiencies, were the reproducibility and storage lifetime of devices. Mesitylene devices showed better reproducibility and shelf life up to 4000 h with PCE dropping by only 8% of its initial value.

  17. Characterization of hydrocarbon utilizing fungi from hydrocarbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    Microorganisms play diverse roles in biotechnology; one of such roles is ... hydrocarbon polluted sites using vapour phase transfer technique with ... The purified fungal isolates were identified based on .... Cytochrome P450 monooxygenase systems which incorporate molecular .... substrate specificity on marine bacteria.

  18. Evaluation of the Impact of Chlorine on Mercury Oxidation in a Pilot-Scale Coal Combustor--The Effect of Coal Blending (United States)

    A study has been undertaken to investigate the effect of blending PRB coal with an Eastern bituminous coal on the speciation of Hg across an SCR catalyst. In this project, a pilot-scale (1.2 MWt) coal combustor equipped with an SCR reactor for NOx control was used for evaluating ...

  19. Efficacy of chlorine dioxide mouthwash against halitosis (United States)

    Bestari, M. D.; Sunarto, H.; Kemal, Y.


    To ascertain the effectiveness of using chlorine dioxide mouthwash in addressing halitosis. Forty people were divided equally into the test group (required to gargle with mouthwash containing chlorine dioxide) and the control group (required to gargle with aquadest). The volatile sulfur compound (VSC) and organoleptic scores were measured before gargling and 30 min, 2 h, 4 h, and 6 h after. The Wilcoxon test analysis showed a significant difference (pChlorine dioxide mouthwash is effective in addressing halitosis.

  20. Chlorine Inactivation of Spores of Encephalitozoon spp.


    Johnson, C. H.; Marshall, M. M.; DeMaria, L. A.; Moffet, J. M.; Korich, D. G.


    This report is an extension of a preliminary investigation on the use of chlorine to inactivate spores of Encephalitozoon intestinalis and to investigate the effect of chlorine on two other species, E cuniculi and E. hellem, associated with human infection. The 50% tissue culture infective doses of these three species were also determined. On the basis of the results obtained, it appears that chlorination of water is an effective means of controlling spores of these organisms in the aquatic e...

  1. Effect of selection of pH in swimming pool on formation of chlorination by-products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kamilla Marie Speht; Willach, Sarah; Mosbæk, Hans


    Chlorine is used as disinfection agent in public swimming pools, but also reacts with organic matter in the water forming chlorinat ed disinfection by-products. In order to evaluate the effect of choice of pHsetpoint in the pool we investigated the effect of chlorination of artificial body fluid ...

  2. Chlorination or monochloramination: Balancing the regulated trihalomethane formation and microbial inactivation in marine aquaculture waters

    KAUST Repository

    Sanawar, Huma


    Disinfection methods like chlorination are increasingly used to sanitize the water, equipment, tools and surfaces in aquaculture facilities. This is to improve water quality, and to maintain a hygienic environment for the well-being of aquatic organisms. However, chlorination can result in formation of regulated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) that can be carcinogenic and toxic. This study aims to evaluate if an optimal balance can be achieved between minimal regulated DBP formation and effective microbial inactivation with either chlorination or monochloramination for application in the Red Sea aquaculture waters. Upon chlorination, the concentration of total trihalomethanes (THMs), primarily bromoform, exceeded the regulatory limit of 80μg/L even at the lowest tested concentration of chlorine (1mg/L) and contact time (1h). Comparatively, regulated THMs concentration was only detectable at 30μg/L level in one of the three sets of monochloraminated marine aquaculture waters. The average log reduction of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) by chlorine ranged from 2.3-log to 3.2-log with different contact time. The average log reduction of ARB by monochloramine was comparatively lower at 1.9 to 2.9-log. Although viable Staphylococcus aureus was recovered from monochloraminated samples as opposed to chlorinated samples, the abundance of S. aureus was not high enough to result in any significant microbial risks. Both chlorination and monochloramination did not provide any significant improvement in the reduction of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). This study demonstrates that a systematic evaluation is needed to determine the optimal disinfectant required to balance both microbial and chemical risks. Compared to chlorine, monochloramine may be a more appropriate disinfection strategy for the treatment of aquaculture effluents prior to discharge or for recirculatory use in the aquaculture facility.

  3. The chlorination of cyclopentanone and cyclohexanone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maatman, Hendrik


    In this thesis the results of an investigation of the chlorination of cyclopentanone and cyclohexanone in the solvent carbontetrachloride and catalyzed by hydrogen chloride are described. ... Zie: Summary

  4. Potassium chloride production by microcline chlorination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orosco, Pablo, E-mail: [Instituto de Investigaciones en Tecnología Química (INTEQUI), Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina); Facultad de Química, Bioquímica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina); Ruiz, María del Carmen [Instituto de Investigaciones en Tecnología Química (INTEQUI), Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina)


    Highlights: • Use of chlorination for the KCl production. • The reagents used were microcline, hydromagnesite and chlorine. • Isothermal and non-isothermal assays were performed in Cl{sub 2}–N{sub 2} mixture. • The chlorination generated KCl at 700 °C. • The chlorination products promote KCl formation. - Abstract: The potassium chloride is one of the most important fertilizers used in agriculture. The current demand of this salt makes interesting the study of potassium chloride production from unconventional potassium resources. In this work the potassium chloride production by chlorination of microcline was investigated. The starting reagents were microcline, hydromagnesite and chlorine. Non-isothermal and isothermal chlorination assays were carried out in a thermogravimetric device adapted to work in corrosive atmospheres. The temperature effect on potassium extraction and the phase transformations produced during chlorination of microcline were studied. The reagents and reaction products were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The experimental results indicated that by chlorination of microcline an important extraction of potassium in the temperature range from 800 to 900 °C was produced. Moreover, at 800 °C the forsterite, enstatite and magnesium aluminate spinel phases were generated.

  5. Hydrocarbon toxicity: A review. (United States)

    Tormoehlen, L M; Tekulve, K J; Nañagas, K A


    Clinical effects of hydrocarbon exposure have been reported since 1897. These substances are ubiquitous, and their exposures are common. The specific hydrocarbon and route of exposure will determine the clinical effect, and an understanding of this is helpful in the care of the hydrocarbon-exposed patient. To complete a comprehensive review of the literature on hydrocarbon toxicity and summarize the findings. Relevant literature was identified through searches of Medline (PubMed/OVID) and Cochrane Library databases (inclusive of years 1975-2013), as well as from multiple toxicology textbooks. Bibliographies of the identified articles were also reviewed. Search terms included combinations of the following: hydrocarbons, inhalants, encephalopathy, coma, cognitive deficits, inhalant abuse, huffing, sudden sniffing death, toluene, renal tubular acidosis, metabolic acidosis, arrhythmia, dermatitis, and aspiration pneumonitis. All pertinent clinical trials, observational studies, and case reports relevant to hydrocarbon exposure and published in English were reviewed. Chronic, occupational hydrocarbon toxicity was not included. Exposure to hydrocarbons occurs through one of the following routes: inhalation, ingestion with or without aspiration, or dermal exposure. Inhalational abuse is associated with central nervous system depression, metabolic acidosis, and arrhythmia. The exact mechanism of the CNS depression is unknown, but experimental evidence suggests effects on NMDA, dopamine, and GABA receptors. Chronic toluene inhalation causes a non-anion gap metabolic acidosis associated with hypokalemia. Halogenated hydrocarbon abuse can cause a fatal malignant arrhythmia, termed "sudden sniffing death". Individuals who regularly abuse hydrocarbons are more likely to be polysubstance users, exhibit criminal or violent behavior, and develop memory and other cognitive deficits. Heavy, long-term use results in cerebellar dysfunction, encephalopathy, weakness, and dementia

  6. Inhibition of chlorine-induced pulmonary inflammation and edema by mometasone and budesonide (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Mo, Yiqun; Schlueter, Connie F.; Hoyle, Gary W.


    Chlorine gas is a widely used industrial compound that is highly toxic by inhalation and is considered a chemical threat agent. Inhalation of high levels of chlorine results in acute lung injury characterized by pneumonitis, pulmonary edema, and decrements in lung function. Because inflammatory processes can promote damage in the injured lung, anti-inflammatory therapy may be of potential benefit for treating chemical-induced acute lung injury. We previously developed a chlorine inhalation model in which mice develop epithelial injury, neutrophilic inflammation, pulmonary edema, and impaired pulmonary function. This model was used to evaluate nine corticosteroids for the ability to inhibit chlorine-induced neutrophilic inflammation. Two of the most potent corticosteroids in this assay, mometasone and budesonide, were investigated further. Mometasone or budesonide administered intraperitoneally 1 h after chlorine inhalation caused a dose-dependent inhibition of neutrophil influx in lung tissue sections and in the number of neutrophils in lung lavage fluid. Budesonide, but not mometasone, reduced the levels of the neutrophil attractant CXCL1 in lavage fluid 6 h after exposure. Mometasone or budesonide also significantly inhibited pulmonary edema assessed 1 day after chlorine exposure. Chlorine inhalation resulted in airway hyperreactivity to inhaled methacholine, but neither mometasone nor budesonide significantly affected this parameter. The results suggest that mometasone and budesonide may represent potential treatments for chemical-induced lung injury. PMID:23800689

  7. Associations between testicular hormones at adolescence and attendance at chlorinated swimming pools during childhood. (United States)

    Nickmilder, M; Bernard, A


    The goal was to evaluate the associations between testicular hormones at adolescence and the exposure to chlorination by-products when attending chlorinated swimming pools. We obtained serum samples from 361 school male adolescents (aged 14-18years) who had visited swimming pools disinfected with chlorine or by copper-silver ionization. We analysed serum concentrations of inhibin B (two different assays), total and free testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS). There were strong inverse associations between serum levels of inhibin B (both assays) or of total testosterone, adjusted or unadjusted for gonadotropins and the time adolescents had spent in indoor chlorinated pools, especially during their childhood. Adolescents having attended indoor chlorinated pools for more than 250h before the age of 10years or for more than 125h before the age of 7years were about three times more likely to have an abnormally low serum inhibin B and/or total testosterone (copper-silver pool. Swimming in indoor chlorinated pools during childhood is strongly associated with lower levels of serum inhibin B and total testosterone. The absorption of reprotoxic chlorination by-products across the highly permeable scrotum might explain these associations. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Andrology © 2011 European Academy of Andrology.

  8. Chlorination and chloramination of tetracycline antibiotics: disinfection by-products formation and influential factors. (United States)

    Zhou, Shiqing; Shao, Yisheng; Gao, Naiyun; Zhu, Shumin; Ma, Yan; Deng, Jing


    Formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) from chlorination and chloramination of tetracycline antibiotics (TCs) was comprehensively investigated. It was demonstrated that a connection existed between the transformation of TCs and the formation of chloroform (CHCl3), carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN) and dichloroacetone (DCAce). Factors evaluated included chlorine (Cl2) and chloramine(NH2Cl) dosage, reaction time, solution pH and disinfection modes. Increased Cl2/NH2Cl dosage and reaction time improved the formation of CHCl3 and DCAce. Formation of DCAN followed an increasing and then decreasing pattern with increasing Cl2 dosage and prolonged reaction time. pH affected DBPs formation differently, with CHCl3 and DCAN decreasing in chlorination, and having maximum concentrations at pH 7 in chloramination. The total concentrations of DBPs obeyed the following order: chlorination>chloramination>pre-chlorination (0.5h)>pre-chlorination (1h)>pre-chlorination (2h). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Bronchial damage and diffuse alveolar hemorrhage following chlorine gas inhalation: A case report. (United States)

    Uemura, Kosuke; Isono, Momoko; Kagohashi, Katsunori; Hasegawa, Ryuichi; Satoh, Hiroaki


    Chlorine is a toxic inhalant and sources of exposure for individuals include accidental releases of chlorine vapor due to industrial or chemical transportation accidents. Inhalation of a large quantity of gas may cause circulatory and respiratory disorders or even mortality; however, the effects of a small amount of chlorine gas may be asymptomatic. The present case study presents a successfully treated 55-year-old male patient exposed to chlorine gas, resulting in bronchial damage and diffuse alveolar hemorrhage. Endobronchial and alveolar injuries were evaluated by direct observation using fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FB) and analyzing bronchoalveolar lavage fluid obtained by FB. Taking a precise medical history from the patient is crucial to correctly diagnose toxic gas inhalation. In addition, a timely and proper evaluation with chest imaging as well as FB may provide useful clinical information. Therefore, clinicians should consider performing FB if the circumstances permit.

  10. Chlorine dioxide and by-products in water distribution systems


    Ferreira, Francisco Cardoso


    Chlorine dioxide is used as both a pre-oxidant and/or a post-disinfectant in several water treatment plants in the United States. Chlorine dioxide is associated with its byproducts chlorite and chlorate. Chlorine dioxide, chlorine, chlori te and chlorate were sampled in four distribution systems where chlorine dioxide is used for disinfection purposes: Charleston, WV, Columbus, GA, New Castle, PA, and Skagit, WA. The fate of chlorine dioxide and its by-products in dist...

  11. Anaerobic biodegradability and toxicity of wastewaters from chlorine and total chlorine-free bleaching of eucalyptus kraft pulps.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vidal, G.; Soto, M.; Field, J.; Mendez-Pampin, R.; Lema, J.M.


    Chlorine bleaching effluents are problematic for anaerobic wastewater treatment due to their high methanogenic toxicity and low biodegradability. Presently, alternative bleaching processes are being introduced, such as elemental chlorine-free (ECF) and total chlorine-free (TCF) bleaching. The

  12. Model studies for evaluating the neurobehavioral effects of complex hydrocarbon solvents. III. PBPK modeling of white spirit constituents as a tool for integrating animal and human test data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hissink, A.M.; Krüse, J.; Kulig, B.M.; Verwei, M.; Muijser, H.; Salmon, F.; Leenheers, L.H.; Owen, D.E.; Lammers, J.H.C.M.; Freidig, A.P.; McKee, R.H.


    As part of a project designed to develop a framework for extrapolating acute central nervous system (CNS) effects of hydrocarbon solvents in animals to humans, experimental studies were conducted in rats and human volunteers in which acute CNS effects were measured and toxicokinetic data were

  13. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) inducers and estrogen receptor (ER) activities in surface sediments of Three Gorges Reservoir, China evaluated with in vitro cell bioassays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.; Bovee, T.F.H.; Bi, Y.; Bernhöft, S.; Schramm, K.W.


    Two types of biological tests were employed for monitoring the toxicological profile of sediment cores in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR), China. In the present study, sediments collected in June 2010 from TGR were analyzed for estrogen receptor (ER)- and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated

  14. Shpol'skii spectroscopy as a tool in environmental analysis for amino- and nitro-substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: A critical evaluation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kozin, I.S.; Gooijer, C.; Velthorst, N.H.


    Aiming at the development of an alternative isomer-specific spectral method favourable for identification of mutagenic amino- and nitro-substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in environmental samples, the possibility to utilize Shpol'skii spectroscopy, a high-resolution cryogenic

  15. Atmospheric oxidation of hydrocarbons: Formation of hydroperoxides and peroxyacids (United States)

    Hanst, Philip L.; Gay, Bruch W.

    Hydrocarbons at ppm levels in air have been oxidized in the absence of nitrogen oxides. Chlorine atoms served as initiators of the oxidations. Infrared analysis showed alkyl hydroperoxides to be formed early in the oxidation sequences. Aldehydes and ketones were also formed, followed by the appearance of peroxyacids. Peroxyacetic acid was found to be an especially stable reaction product. Laboratory rate data and recent atmospheric measurements of NO, NO 2 and HO 2 indicate that hydroperoxides and peroxyacids are also formed in the real atmosphere.

  16. Bioaccumulation factors for chlorinated benzenes, chlorinated butadienes and hexachloroethane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkhard, L.P. [Environmental Protection Agency, Duluth, MN (United States). National Health and Environmental Effects Research Lab.; Sheedy, B.R. [AScI Corp., Duluth, MN (United States); McCauley, D.J.; DeGraeve, G.M. [Battelle-Great Lakes Environmental Center, Traverse City, MI (United States)


    A field study was performed that measured bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) for chlorinated benzenes, chlorinated butadienes, and hexachloroethane in four species, Fundulus heteroclitus (mummichog), Callinectes sapidus (blue crabs), Brevoortia patronus (gulf menhaden), and Micropoganias undulatus (Atlantic croaker). The measured BAFs were not significantly different among the fishes. The measured BAFs for the C. sapidus were in good agreement with those measured for the fishes except for hexachloroethane (HCE), E- and Z-1,1,2,3,4-pentachlorobuta-1,3-diene (E-and Z-PeCBD), and hexachlorobuta-1,3-diene (HCBD). Their measured BAFs were approximately an order of magnitude smaller than those measured for the fishes. The measured BAFs were also in good agreement with BAFs reported/derived from the literature and to BAFs predicted using two methods of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) except for HCE, E- and Z-PeCBD, and HCBD in the C. sapidus. These BAFs were much smaller than the reported/derived and predicted BAFs. The smaller BAFs for HCE, E- and Z-PeCBD, and HCBD were consistent with the metabolism abilities for the C. sapidus, and metabolism processes are believed to be the cause for the smaller BAFs. The predicted BAFs were within a factor of five of the measured BAFs for 90% (n = 48) and 94% (n = 32) using the two methods of the EPA.

  17. Impact of chlorine on the cell integrity and toxin release and degradation of colonial Microcystis. (United States)

    Fan, Jiajia; Rao, La; Chiu, Yi-Ting; Lin, Tsair-Fuh


    The occurrence of toxic cyanobacteria in drinking water sources is problematic for water authorities as they can impair drinking water quality. Chlorine as a commonly used oxidant in water treatment plants has shown the potential to lyse cyanobacterial cells, resulting in the release of secondary metabolites which are hard to be removed during conventional water treatment processes. The majority of cyanobacterial species such as Microcystis, often occur in colonial forms under natural conditions. However, previous studies have mainly focused on the influence of chlorination on individual cyanobacterial cells due to technique limitations. A syringe dispersion method combined with a fluorescence technique (SYTOX Green stain with flow cytometry), was successfully developed for the evaluation of cell integrity of colonial Microcystis. Chlorination of Microcystis-laden water was conducted at different chlorine dosages for different colonial sizes (chlorine oxidation than individual cells, which may be attributed to protection from the cell-bound mucilage. There was a lag phase before cell rupture occurred and a Delayed Chick Watson Model describes the experimental data very well for the kinetics of cyanobacterial cell rupture. The growing colonial size caused increases in the lag phases but decreases in the cell lysis rates. Chlorination also induced the release of microcystins (MCs) from colonial Microcystis cells. In particular, increased levels of dissolved MCs were observed in Cheng Kung Lake (CKL) water. In summary, the reaction of chlorine with colonial cyanobacteria is more complicated than with individual cells. The efficiency of chlorine oxidation could be reduced by the cell-bound mucilage and natural water matrix. These observations may provide insights for water authorities to assess the risk to drinking water quality posed by chlorination under natural conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Chlorinated Withanolides from Withania somnifera


    Tong, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Huaping; Timmermann, Barbara N.


    A chlorinated withanolide, 6α-chloro-5β,17α-dihydroxywithaferin A (1), and nine known withanolides, 6α-chloro-5β-hydroxywithaferin A (2), (22R)-5β-formyl-6β,27-dihydroxy-1-oxo-4-norwith-24-enolide, withaferin A, 2,3-dihydrowithaferin A, 3-methoxy-2,3-dihydrowithaferin A, 2,3-didehydrosomnifericin, withanone, withanoside IV and withanoside X, were isolated from Withania somnifera (Solanaceae). All structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods (IR, HRESIMS, 1D/2D NMR). X-ray ...

  19. Elements from chlorine to calcium nuclear reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Kunz, Wunibald


    Nuclear Tables: Part II Nuclear Reactions, Volume 3: The Elements from Chlorine to Calcium contains tabulations of the nuclear reaction values of elements chlorine, argon, potassium, and calcium. These tabulations provide the calculated Q-values of the elements and their isotopes. This book will be of value to general chemistry researchers.

  20. The Synthesis of Carbon Nanomaterials using Chlorinated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of chlorine on the morphology of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) prepared from a Fe-Co/CaCO3 catalyst was investigated using chlorobenzene (CB), dichlorobenzene (DCB), trichlorobenzene (TCB), dichloroethane (DCE), trichloroethane (TCE) and tetrachloroethane (TTCE) as chlorine sources using a catalytic ...

  1. Hydrocarbon divergence and reproductive isolation in Timema stick insects. (United States)

    Schwander, Tanja; Arbuthnott, Devin; Gries, Regine; Gries, Gerhard; Nosil, Patrik; Crespi, Bernard J


    Individuals commonly prefer certain trait values over others when choosing their mates. If such preferences diverge between populations, they can generate behavioral reproductive isolation and thereby contribute to speciation. Reproductive isolation in insects often involves chemical communication, and cuticular hydrocarbons, in particular, serve as mate recognition signals in many species. We combined data on female cuticular hydrocarbons, interspecific mating propensity, and phylogenetics to evaluate the role of cuticular hydrocarbons in diversification of Timema walking-sticks. Hydrocarbon profiles differed substantially among the nine analyzed species, as well as between partially reproductively-isolated T. cristinae populations adapted to different host plants. In no-choice trials, mating was more likely between species with similar than divergent hydrocarbon profiles, even after correcting for genetic divergences. The macroevolution of hydrocarbon profiles, along a Timema species phylogeny, fits best with a punctuated model of phenotypic change concentrated around speciation events, consistent with change driven by selection during the evolution of reproductive isolation. Altogether, our data indicate that cuticular hydrocarbon profiles vary among Timema species and populations, and that most evolutionary change in hydrocarbon profiles occurs in association with speciation events. Similarities in hydrocarbon profiles between species are correlated with interspecific mating propensities, suggesting a role for cuticular hydrocarbon profiles in mate choice and speciation in the genus Timema.

  2. Continuous monitoring of residual chlorine concentrations in response to controlled microbial intrusions in a laboratory-scale distribution system. (United States)

    Helbling, Damian E; Vanbriesen, Jeanne M


    The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of deploying free chlorine sensors as surrogate monitors for bacterial contamination events in drinking water distribution systems. An on-line sensor integral with a laboratory-scale distribution system (LDS) was shown to respond rapidly to changes in residual free chlorine concentrations induced by injected loads of Escherichia coli suspended in a chlorine demand free buffer. The magnitude of the residual response was proportional to the injected cell concentration, the background free chlorine concentration in the LDS, and the contact time between the chlorine residual and the injected suspension, consistent with previous results in batch reactors. The magnitude of the residual response was predicted when kinetic models developed from reaction kinetics between free chlorine and E. coli determined in batch systems were evaluated at contact times determined from LDS hydraulics. This result highlights the suitability of using batch kinetics when modeling contaminant-induced chlorine decay in the distribution system. Modeling the propagation of chlorine demand signals generated by specific pathogens could aid in the assessment of distribution system vulnerability.

  3. Internal chlorination of Ni-Cr alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berztiss, D.; Hennesen, K.; Grabke, H.J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany)


    In contrast to internal oxidation, sulfidation and carburization, very little information is available regarding internal chlorination, especially diffusion of chlorine in metallic alloys. This paper describes results of experiments on Ni-Cr alloys (<10 wt% Cr) exposed in an atmosphere containing radioactive HCl. The diffusion of chlorine in the alloy can be determined by measurement of residual {beta}-activity from the sample surface. Successively thin layers (0.5-10 {mu}m) of the alloy were removed by lapping and the surface activity was measured to obtain a depth profile. Both single and polycrystalline materials were tested. Through this work it should be determined if there is in fact solubility and diffusion of chlorine in Ni-based alloys as some authors have proposed or if the ingress of chlorine is mainly a grain boundary phenomenon. (orig.)

  4. Theoretical modeling of biodegradation and biotransformation of hydrocarbons in subsurface environments. (United States)

    Corapcioglu, M Y; Hossain, M A


    Hydrocarbons such as TCE, PCE, TCA, gasoline and kerosene which are widely used in the industry, enter soils and groundwater from chemical waste disposal sites and from accidents. These types of substances are the most commonly encountered groundwater contaminants nationwide. Biotransformation of dissolved chlorinated hydrocarbons can provide complete mineralization to harmless end products such as CO2. It is the objective of this work to investigate the biodegradation and biotransformation, and transport of hydrocarbons in groundwater. This will be achieved first by defining and identifying relevant physical and biological processes which contribute to the fate of hydrocarbon contaminants in unsaturated/saturated soils, and providing a conceptual framework for incorporating these processes into a mathematical formulation. The conservation principles expressed in terms of quantifications of the physical, chemical and microbial processes described above lead to a system governing the phenomenon which consists of nonlinear partial differential equations. Microbial transformation conducted by both anaerobic and aerobic bacteria are considered.

  5. Hydrocarbon Rocket Technology Impact Forecasting (United States)

    Stuber, Eric; Prasadh, Nishant; Edwards, Stephen; Mavris, Dimitri N.


    Ever since the Apollo program ended, the development of launch propulsion systems in the US has fallen drastically, with only two new booster engine developments, the SSME and the RS-68, occurring in the past few decades.1 In recent years, however, there has been an increased interest in pursuing more effective launch propulsion technologies in the U.S., exemplified by the NASA Office of the Chief Technologist s inclusion of Launch Propulsion Systems as the first technological area in the Space Technology Roadmaps2. One area of particular interest to both government agencies and commercial entities has been the development of hydrocarbon engines; NASA and the Air Force Research Lab3 have expressed interest in the use of hydrocarbon fuels for their respective SLS Booster and Reusable Booster System concepts, and two major commercially-developed launch vehicles SpaceX s Falcon 9 and Orbital Sciences Antares feature engines that use RP-1 kerosene fuel. Compared to engines powered by liquid hydrogen, hydrocarbon-fueled engines have a greater propellant density (usually resulting in a lighter overall engine), produce greater propulsive force, possess easier fuel handling and loading, and for reusable vehicle concepts can provide a shorter turnaround time between launches. These benefits suggest that a hydrocarbon-fueled launch vehicle would allow for a cheap and frequent means of access to space.1 However, the time and money required for the development of a new engine still presents a major challenge. Long and costly design, development, testing and evaluation (DDT&E) programs underscore the importance of identifying critical technologies and prioritizing investment efforts. Trade studies must be performed on engine concepts examining the affordability, operability, and reliability of each concept, and quantifying the impacts of proposed technologies. These studies can be performed through use of the Technology Impact Forecasting (TIF) method. The Technology Impact

  6. Dietary risk evaluation for 28 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in tea preparations made of teas available on the Polish retail market. (United States)

    Roszko, Marek; Kamińska, Marta; Szymczyk, Krystyna; Jędrzejczak, Renata


    The aim of this work was to assess dietary risk resulting from consumption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with tea infusions. To this end, levels of 28 PAHs in black, green, red and white teas available on the Polish retail market have been assessed. Profiles and correlation between concentrations of individual PAHs have been identified. A model study on transfer of PAHs from tea leaves into tea preparations has been conducted. Relatively high concentrations of 28 evaluated PAHs have been found in 58 tested samples of black, green, red and white teas sampled on the Polish retail market. Total concentration ∑28PAH ranged from 57 to 696 µg kg -1 with mean 258 µg kg -1 (dry tea leaves). The most mature tea leaves fermented to a small degree contained relatively the highest PAH levels among all four tested tea types. Relatively low PAH transfer rates into tea infusions and limited volumes of the consumed tea keep the risks associated with PAH dietary intake at a safely low level. The worst-case scenario dietary intake values were 7.62/0.82/0.097 ng kg -1 b.w. day -1 (estimated on the basis of the maximum found concentrations 696/113/23 µg kg -1 and maximum observed transfer rates 24/16/9%) for ∑28PAH/∑PAH4/B[a]P, respectively. MOE values calculated using the above worst case estimates exceeded 700,000 and 400,000 (BMDL 10 0.07 and 0.34 mg kg -1 b.w. day -1 ) for B[a]P and PAH4, respectively. Both B[a]P and PAH4 concentrations may be used as indicators of total PAH concentration in tea leaves; PAH4 slightly better fits low molecular weight PAHs. Several correlations between various PAHs/groups of PAHs have been identified, the strongest one (R 2 = 0.92) between PAH4 and EU PAH 15+1.

  7. Field evaluation and calibration of a small axial passive air sampler for gaseous and particle bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and oxygenated PAHs. (United States)

    Magnusson, Roger; Arnoldsson, Kristina; Lejon, Christian; Hägglund, Lars; Wingfors, Håkan


    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their oxygenated analogues (OPAHs) are ubiquitous air pollutants known to cause adverse health effects. PAH air levels are commonly monitored by active sampling but passive sampling has become popular because of its lower cost and simplicity, which facilitate long-term sampling and increased spatial coverage. However, passive samplers are less suitable for short-term sampling and are in general less accurate than active samplers because they require reliable sampling rate (Rs) measurements for individual analytes under diverse environmental conditions. In this study a small passive sampler designed to sample both particle-bound and gaseous compounds was evaluated and calibrated for PAHs and OPAHs in a traffic environment by co-deployment with active samplers for two weeks. Despite the relatively low average air concentrations of PM10 (20 μg/m(3)), PM2.5 (5 μg/m(3)), total PAHs (4.2 ng/m(3)), and OPAHs (2.3 ng/m(3)) at the site, detectable quantities (on average 24 times above blank values) of the full range of PAHs and OPAHs were captured, with low variability (average RSD of 16%). This was accomplished by using a Tenax(®) TA-modified glass fiber substrate that is compatible with highly sensitive thermal desorption GC-MS analysis, which made it possible to achieve detection limits per sample in the pg range. Experiments with inverted samplers revealed that the relative contribution of gravitational settling to the sampling of particles carrying PAHs and OPAHs was around 3.5 times larger than other deposition mechanisms. Average Rs values for individual OPAHs and PAHs were 0.046 ± 0.03 m(3)/day and 0.12 ± 0.07 m(3)/day, respectively, with no appreciable difference between the values for particle-associated and gaseous compounds. Furthermore, the Rs values were competitive with other currently used passive samplers if normalized for substrate area. Overall, the new sampler's performance, simplicity and

  8. Emissions minimization of chlorinated micropollutants in coal solid waste co-combustion by primary measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandelova, M.; Lenoir, D.; Schramm, K.W. [GSF-Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit GmbH, Neuherberg (Germany)


    This study addresses co-combustion of coal-solid waste mixtures in pilot and laboratory-scale combustors, with emphasis on monitoring of toxic chlorinated hydrocarbon emissions like: polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and polychlorinated benzenes (PCBz). The objectives of the work are stress on the so-called primary measures technique which cause reduction of the toxic emission prior formation the chlorinated micropollutants. Thermally resistant inorganic compounds were added directly to the fuel. The fuel-types used in this study are lignite coal from Puertollano (CIEMAT, Spain), pre-treated municipal solid waste (Rethmann Plano GmbH) and PVC (waste from ground floor). Two low cost and non- toxic nitrogen- and sulfur-compounds were considered as the most effective inhibitors for PCDD/F formation. That makes them applicable for use in a full scale combustion unit. (orig.)

  9. Acute toxicity formation potential of benzophenone-type UV filters in chlorination disinfection process. (United States)

    Liu, Qi; Chen, Zhenbin; Wei, Dongbin; Du, Yuguo


    Benzophenones (BPs) are a class of widely used UV filters, which have been frequently detected within multiple environmental matrices. Disinfection is a necessary process in water treatment processes. The transformation behaviors and toxicity changes of 14 BP-type UV filters during chlorination disinfection treatment were investigated in this study. A new index, the acute toxicity formation potential, was proposed to evaluate the toxicity changes and potential risks of BP-type UV filters during chlorination treatment. It was found that 13 of 14 BP-type UV filters exhibited toxicity decreases in the chlorination disinfection process, more or less, while one showed a toxicity increase. The toxicity changes were dependent on substitution effects, such that 2,4-di-hydroxylated or 3-hydroxylated BPs exhibited significant toxicity decreases after chlorination treatment due to the ready cleavage of the aromatic ring. Importantly, the acute toxicity changes could be duplicated in an ambient water matrix.

  10. Dominant Overall Chemical Reaction in a Chlorine Trifluoride Silicon Nitrogen System at Atmospheric Pressure (United States)

    Habuka, Hitoshi; Otsuka, Toru; Qu, Wei-Feng


    This study evaluates the overall chemical reaction in a chlorine trifluoride silicon nitrogen system at atmospheric pressure, based on the observation of the dominant chemical species in the gas phase using a quadrupole mass spectra analyzer coupled with a horizontal cold-wall single-wafer epitaxial reactor. Chlorine trifluoride gas etches the silicon surface, producing two major products, silicon tetrafluoride gas and chlorine gas, at room temperature and 530 K. The production of chlorosilanes was not observed in this study. The results obtained in this study indicate that the dominant overall chemical reaction in a chlorine trifluoride silicon nitrogen system is 3Si + 4ClF3 →3SiF4 ↑+ 2Cl2 ↑.

  11. PPCP degradation by UV/chlorine treatment and its impact on DBP formation potential in real waters. (United States)

    Yang, Xin; Sun, Jianliang; Fu, Wenjie; Shang, Chii; Li, Yin; Chen, Yiwei; Gan, Wenhui; Fang, Jingyun


    The ultraviolet/chlorine (UV/chlorine) water purification process was evaluated for its ability to degrade the residues of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) commonly found in drinking water sources. The disinfection byproducts (DBPs) formed after post-chlorination were documented. The performance of the UV/chlorine process was compared with that of the UV/hydrogen peroxide (UV/H2O2) process in treating three types of sand-filtered natural water. Except caffeine and carbamazepine residues, the UV/chlorine process was found to be 59-99% effective for feed water with a high level of dissolved organic carbon and alkalinity, and 27-92% effective for water with a high ammonia content. Both chlorine radicals and hydroxyl radicals were found to contribute to the observed PPCP degradation. The removal efficiencies of chlorine- and UV-resistant PPCPs such as carbamazepine and caffeine were 2-3 times greater than in the UV/H2O2 process in waters not enriched with ammonia. UV/chlorine treatment slightly enhanced the formation chloral hydrate (CH), haloketone (HK) and trichloronitromethane (TCNM). It reduced haloacetonitrile (HAN) formation during the post-chlorination in comparison with the UV/H2O2 process. In waters with high concentrations of ammonia, the UV/chlorine process was only 5-7% more effective than the UV/H2O2 process, and it formed slightly more THMs, HKs and TCNM along with reduced formation of CH and HAN. The UV/chlorine process is thus recommended as a good alternative to UV/H2O2 treatment for its superior PPCP removal without significantly enhancing DBP formation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Decontamination of Pangasius fish (Pangasius hypophthalmus) with chlorine or peracetic acid in the laboratory and in a Vietnamese processing company. (United States)

    Tong Thi, Anh Ngoc; Sampers, Imca; Van Haute, Sam; Samapundo, Simbarashe; Ly Nguyen, Binh; Heyndrickx, Marc; Devlieghere, Frank


    This study evaluated the decontamination of Pangasius fillets in chlorine or peracetic acid treated wash water. First, the decontamination efficacy of the washing step with chlorinated water applied by a Vietnamese processing company during trimming of Pangasius fillets was evaluated and used as the basis for the experiments performed on a laboratory scale. As chlorine was only added at the beginning of the batch and used continuously without renewal for 239min; a rapid increase of the bacterial counts and a fast decrease of chlorine in the wash water were found. This could be explained by the rapid accumulation of organic matter (ca. 400mg O2/L of COD after only 24min). Secondly, for the experiments performed on a laboratory scale, a single batch approach (one batch of wash water for treating a fillet) was used. Chlorine and PAA were evaluated at 10, 20, 50 and 150ppm at contact times of 10, 20 and 240s. Washing with chlorine and PAA wash water resulted in a reduction of Escherichia coli on Pangasius fish which ranged from 0-1.0 and 0.4-1.4logCFU/g, respectively while less to no reduction of total psychrotrophic counts, lactic acid bacteria and coliforms on Pangasius fish was observed. However, in comparison to PAA, chlorine was lost rapidly. As an example, 53-83% of chlorine and 15-17% of PAA were lost after washing for 40s (COD=238.2±66.3mg O2/L). Peracetic acid can therefore be an alternative sanitizer. However, its higher cost will have to be taken into consideration. Where (cheaper) chlorine is used, the processors have to pay close attention to the residual chlorine level, pH and COD level during treatment for optimal efficacy. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Formation of chlorinated lipids post-chlorine gas exposure. (United States)

    Ford, David A; Honavar, Jaideep; Albert, Carolyn J; Duerr, Mark A; Oh, Joo Yeun; Doran, Stephen; Matalon, Sadis; Patel, Rakesh P


    Exposure to chlorine (Cl2) gas can occur during accidents and intentional release scenarios. However, biomarkers that specifically indicate Cl2 exposure and Cl2-derived products that mediate postexposure toxicity remain unclear. We hypothesized that chlorinated lipids (Cl-lipids) formed by direct reactions between Cl2 gas and plasmalogens serve as both biomarkers and mediators of post-Cl2 gas exposure toxicities. The 2-chloropalmitaldehyde (2-Cl-Pald), 2-chlorostearaldehyde (2-Cl-Sald), and their oxidized products, free- and esterified 2-chloropalmitic acid (2-Cl-PA) and 2-chlorostearic acid were detected in the lungs and plasma of mouse and rat models of Cl2 gas exposure. Levels of Cl-lipids were highest immediately post-Cl2 gas exposure, and then declined over 72 h with levels remaining 20- to 30-fold higher at 24 h compared with baseline. Glutathione adducts of 2-Cl-Pald and 2-Cl-Sald also increased with levels peaking at 4 h in plasma. Notably, 3-chlorotyrosine also increased after Cl2 gas exposure, but returned to baseline within 24 h. Intranasal administration of 2-Cl-PA or 2-Cl-Pald at doses similar to those formed in the lung after Cl2 gas exposure led to increased distal lung permeability and inflammation and systemic endothelial dysfunction characterized by loss of eNOS-dependent vasodilation. These data suggest that Cl-lipids could serve as biomarkers and mediators for Cl2 gas exposure and toxicity. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Evaluation of gaseous chlorine dioxide as a sanitizer for killing Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and yeasts and molds on fresh and fresh-cut produce. (United States)

    Sy, Kaye V; Murray, Melinda B; Harrison, M David; Beuchat, Larry R


    Gaseous chlorine dioxide (ClO2) was evaluated for effectiveness in killing Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes on fresh-cut lettuce, cabbage, and carrot and Salmonella, yeasts, and molds on apples, peaches. tomatoes, and onions. Inoculum (100 microl, ca. 6.8 log CFU) containing five serotypes of Salmonella enterica, five strains of E. coli O157:H7, or five strains of L. monocytogenes was deposited on the skin and cut surfaces of fresh-cut vegetables, dried for 30 min at 22 degrees C, held for 20 h at 4 degrees C, and then incubated for 30 min at 22 degrees C before treatment. The skin surfaces of apples, peaches, tomatoes, and onions were inoculated with 100 microl of a cell suspension (ca. 8.0 log CFU) containing five serotypes of Salmonella, and inoculated produce was allowed to dry for 20 to 22 h at 22 degrees C before treatment. Treatment with ClO2 at 4.1 mg/liter significantly (alpha = 0.05) reduced the population of foodborne pathogens on all produce. Reductions resulting from this treatment were 3.13 to 4.42 log CFU/g for fresh-cut cabbage, 5.15 to 5.88 log CFU/g for fresh-cut carrots, 1.53 to 1.58 log CFU/g for fresh-cut lettuce, 4.21 log CFU per apple, 4.33 log CFU per tomato, 1.94 log CFU per onion, and 3.23 log CFU per peach. The highest reductions in yeast and mold populations resulting from the same treatment were 1.68 log CFU per apple and 2.65 log CFU per peach. Populations of yeasts and molds on tomatoes and onions were not significantly reduced by treatment with 4.1 mg/liter ClO2. Substantial reductions in populations of pathogens on apples, tomatoes, and onions but not peaches or fresh-cut cabbage, carrot, and lettuce were achieved by treatment with gaseous ClO2 without markedly adverse effects on sensory qualities.

  15. Enhanced reductive dechlorination in clay till contaminated with chlorinated solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Ida

    in high permeability aquifers and has also been applied at a number of low permeability clay till sites. This thesis presents the results of an investigation of chlorinated ethenes (and ethanes) degradation in clay till with the objective of obtaining knowledge of degradation processes in clay till...... and to evaluate ERD as remediation technology. The development of degradation in clay till was investigated at two sites: one where natural attenuation processes (transport, sorption, diffusion and degradation) had been on-going for four decades (Vadsbyvej) and another which had been undergoing ERD for four years...... (direct push delivery, Gl. Kongevej). Degradation of chlorinated ethenes (and ethanes) in the clay till matrix and in embedded high permeability features was investigated by high resolution sampling of intact cores combined with groundwater sampling. An integrated approach using chemical analysis...

  16. Influence of Chlorine Emissions on Ozone Levels in the Troposphere (United States)

    Chlorine emissions from cooling towers are emitted mainly as hypochlous acid, not as molecular chlorine. Chlorine emissions from cooling towers in electric utilities in the U.S. are estimated to be 4,400 tons per year. Molecular chlorine increases more tropospheric ozone than hyp...

  17. δ³⁷Cl : the geochemistry of chlorine isotopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggenkamp, H.G.M.


    In this thesis the geochemistry of the stable isotopes of chlorine will be examined. Chlorine is one of the halogens, the seventh group in the periodic system of elements. This group consists of five elements, fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine. This thesis presents the first chlorine

  18. Chlorination of Wastewater, Manual of Practice No. 4. (United States)

    Water Pollution Control Federation, Washington, DC.

    This manual reviews chlorination practices in the treatment and disposal of wastes from the earliest known applications. The application of chlorination for various purposes is described but no attempt has been made to compare chlorination with other methods. Included are chapters on the development and practice of wastewater chlorination,…

  19. Chlorination. Training Module 2.300.2.77. (United States)

    Kirkwood Community Coll., Cedar Rapids, IA.

    This document is an instructional module package prepared in objective form for use by an instructor familiar with chlorine, the reasons for chlorination and safe operation and maintenance of gas chlorine, dry calcium hypochlorite and liquid sodium hypochlorite chlorination systems for water supply and wastewater treatment facilities. Included are…

  20. Formation of halogenated organic byproducts during medium-pressure UV and chlorine coexposure of model compounds, NOM and bromide. (United States)

    Zhao, Quan; Shang, Chii; Zhang, Xiangru; Ding, Guoyu; Yang, Xin


    When chlorine is applied before or during UV disinfection of bromide-containing water, interactions between chlorine, bromide and UV light are inevitable. Formation of halogenated organic byproducts was studied during medium-pressure UV (MPUV) and chlorine coexposure of phenol, nitrobenzene and benzoic acid and maleic acid, chosen to represent electron-donating aromatics, electron-withdrawing aromatics, and aliphatic structures in natural organic matter (NOM), respectively. All were evaluated in the presence and absence of bromide. MPUV and chlorine coexposure of phenol produced less total organic halogen (TOX, a collective parameter for halogenated organic byproducts) than chlorination in the dark, and more haloacetic acids instead of halophenols. Increases in TOX were found in the coexposure of nitrobenzene and benzoic acid, but maleic acid was rather inert during coexposure. The presence of bromide increased the formation of brominated TOX but did not significantly affect total TOX formation, in spite of the fact that it reduced hydroxyl radical levels. MPUV and chlorine coexposure of NOM gave a higher differential UV absorbance of NOM and a larger shift to lower molecular weight compounds than chlorination in the dark. However, TOX formation with NOM remained similar to that observed from dark chlorination. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Mass casualties from acute inhalation of chlorine gas. (United States)

    Cevik, Yunsur; Onay, Meral; Akmaz, Ibrahim; Sezigen, Sermet


    Chlorine gas is a potent pulmonary irritant that affects the mucous membranes and induces severe disturbances of pulmonary gas exchange within minutes of inhalation. The present study evaluated an extraordinary type of mass inhalational exposure. Clinical reports of 25 soldiers who were admitted to the emergency department of Maresal Cakmak Military Hospital, Erzurum were retrospectively evaluated. All patients were exposed to chlorine gas as a result of mixing sodium hypochlorite with hydrochloric acid during cleaning activities. All patients were male and the mean age of patients was 22.04+/-2.98 years. The main symptoms were coughing and dyspnea in 18 patients (72%). Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and FEV1/forced volume capacity (FVC) ratio were found to be normal in all patients but FVC and peak expiratory flow (PEF) were below the normal range (80%) in 9 patients (36%). All patients received warmed humidified oxygen combined with nebulized salbutamol. Inhaled budesonide and nebulized sodium bicarbonate were ordered additionally for 19 patients (76%). Thirteen patients (52%) were discharged from the emergency department and 12 patients (48%) were hospitalized. No mortality was observed. Chlorine gas is a potent pulmonary irritant that causes acute damage in both the upper and lower respiratory tract. We suggest that inhaled steroids combined with nebulized sodium bicarbonate could be a safe and effective alternative for the treatment of symptomatic patients. Education of the public about the dangers of mixing of hypochlorite bleach with acidic cleaning agents is also very important.

  2. A comparison of the virucidal properties of chlorine, chlorine dioxide, bromine chloride and iodine.


    Taylor, G R; Butler, M.


    Chlorine dioxide, bromine chloride and iodine were compared with chlorine as virucidal agents. Under optimal conditions all disinfectants were effective at low concentrations, but each disinfectant responded differently to acidity and alkalinity. Disinfection by chlorine was impaired by the presence of ammonia, but the other disinfectants retained much of their potency. Disinfection of poliovirus by iodine resulted in structural changes in the virions as seen by electron micrroscopy, but the ...

  3. Post-Exposure Antioxidant Treatment in Rats Decreases Airway Hyperplasia and Hyperreactivity Due to Chlorine Inhalation (United States)

    Bracher, Andreas; Doran, Stephen F.; Squadrito, Giuseppe L.; Fernandez, Solana; Postlethwait, Edward M.; Bowen, Larry; Matalon, Sadis


    We assessed the safety and efficacy of combined intravenous and aerosolized antioxidant administration to attenuate chlorine gas–induced airway alterations when administered after exposure. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to air or 400 parts per million (ppm) chlorine (a concentration likely to be encountered in the vicinity of industrial accidents) in environmental chambers for 30 minutes, and returned to room air, and they then received a single intravenous injection of ascorbic acid and deferoxamine or saline. At 1 hour and 15 hours after chlorine exposure, the rats were treated with aerosolized ascorbate and deferoxamine or vehicle. Lung antioxidant profiles, plasma ascorbate concentrations, airway morphology, and airway reactivity were evaluated at 24 hours and 7 days after chlorine exposure. At 24 hours after exposure, chlorine-exposed rats had significantly lower pulmonary ascorbate and reduced glutathione concentrations. Treatment with antioxidants restored depleted ascorbate in lungs and plasma. At 7 days after exposure, in chlorine-exposed, vehicle-treated rats, the thickness of the proximal airways was 60% greater than in control rats, with twice the amount of mucosubstances. Airway resistance in response to methacholine challenge was also significantly elevated. Combined treatment with intravenous and aerosolized antioxidants restored airway morphology, the amount of airway mucosubstances, and airway reactivity to control levels by 7 days after chlorine exposure. Our results demonstrate for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, that severe injury to major airways in rats exposed to chlorine, as characterized by epithelial hyperplasia, mucus accumulation, and airway hyperreactivity, can be reversed in a safe and efficacious manner by the post-exposure administration of ascorbate and deferoxamine. PMID:22162906

  4. Influence of drinking water treatments on chlorine dioxide consumption and chlorite/chlorate formation. (United States)

    Sorlini, Sabrina; Gialdini, Francesca; Biasibetti, Michela; Collivignarelli, Carlo


    Disinfection is the last treatment stage of a Drinking Water Treatment Plant (DWTP) and is carried out to maintain a residual concentration of disinfectant in the water distribution system. Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) is a widely used chemical employed for this purpose. The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of several treatments on chlorine dioxide consumption and on chlorite and chlorate formation in the final oxidation/disinfection stage. A number of tests was performed at laboratory scale employing water samples collected from the DWTP of Cremona (Italy). The following processes were studied: oxidation with potassium permanganate, chlorine dioxide and sodium hypochlorite, coagulation/flocculation with ferric chloride and aluminum sulfate, filtration and adsorption onto activated carbon. The results showed that the chlorine dioxide demand is high if sodium hypochlorite or potassium permanganate are employed in pre-oxidation. On the other hand, chlorine dioxide leads to the highest production of chlorite and chlorate. The coagulation/flocculation process after pre-oxidation shows that chlorine dioxide demand decreases if potassium permanganate is employed as an oxidant, both with ferric chloride and aluminum sulfate. Therefore, the combination of these processes leads to a lower production of chlorite and chlorate. Aluminum sulfate is preferable in terms of the chlorine dioxide demand reduction and minimization of the chlorite and chlorate formation. Activated carbon is the most effective solution as it reduced the chlorine dioxide consumption by about 50% and the DBP formation by about 20-40%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Role of NOM molecular size on iodo-trihalomethane formation during chlorination and chloramination. (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Chen, Dan-Dan; Li, Lei; Li, Wen-Wei; Mu, Yang; Yu, Han-Qing


    Natural organic matter (NOM) is the major precursor for the generation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) during disinfection, but the role of the NOM molecular size on the formation of iodinated DBPs (I-DBPs) is still unclear. The objective of this study was to evaluate the function of the NOM molecular size on the formation of iodo-trihalomethane (I-THMs) during chlorination and chloramination. Humic acid was adopted as the NOM matrix and fractionated into four molecular weight (MW) groups. Various parameters, including iodide, bromide, NOM concentrations, pH, and pre-chlorination time, were investigated for each MW fraction. During chlorination, high MW fractions (i.e., MW > 100 K Da and 50 K NOM concentration, the formation of I-THMs increased for small MW fractions, while a slight reduction occurred for high MW fractions during chlorination. Higher pH resulted in more I-THM formation for small MW fractions, while the opposite was true for high MW fractions during chlorination. Compared to small MW fractions, bromide was relatively more reactive with high MW fractions in the formation of I-THMs during chlorination. During chloramination, the I-THM yields decreased with the increasing NOM concentration for high MW fractions. The concentration of bromine-containing I-THMs decreased with increasing pH for all MW fractions during chloramination. Additionally, with the prolongation of pre-chlorination time, the total amount of I-THMs decreased remarkably for MWs higher than 3 K Da, while a slight change for MW lower than 3 K Da occurred during chloramination. The results from this study suggest that the molecular weight of the NOM plays an important role in the formation of I-THMs during chlorination and chloramination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Risk-based framework for optimizing residual chlorine in large water distribution systems. (United States)

    Sharif, Muhammad Nadeem; Farahat, Ashraf; Haider, Husnain; Al-Zahrani, Muhammad A; Rodriguez, Manuel J; Sadiq, Rehan


    Managing residual chlorine in large water distribution systems (WDS) to minimize human health risk is a daunting task. In this research, a novel risk-based framework is developed and implemented in a distribution network spanning over 64 km2 for supplying water to the city of Al-Khobar (Saudi Arabia) through 473-km-long water mains. The framework integrates the planning of linear assets (i.e., pipes) and placement of booster stations to optimize residual chlorine in the WDS. Failure mode and effect analysis are integrated with the fuzzy set theory to perform risk analysis. A vulnerability regarding the probability of failure of pipes is estimated from historical records of water main breaks. The consequence regarding residual chlorine availability has been associated with the exposed population depending on the land use characteristics (i.e., defined through zoning). EPANET simulations have been conducted to predict residual chlorine at each node of the network. A water quality index is used to assess the effectiveness of chlorine practice. Scenario analysis is also performed to evaluate the impact of changing locations and number of booster stations, and rehabilitation and/or replacement of vulnerable water mains. The results revealed that the proposed methodology could facilitate the utility managers to optimize residual chlorine effectively in large WDS.

  7. The Multiple Role of Bromide Ion in PPCPs Degradation under UV/Chlorine Treatment. (United States)

    Cheng, Shuangshuang; Zhang, Xinran; Yang, Xin; Shang, Chii; Song, Weihua; Fang, Jingyun; Pan, Yanheng


    This study investigated the role of bromide ions in the degradation of nine pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) during the UV/chlorine treatment of simulated drinking water containing 2.5 mgC L-1 natural organic matter (NOM). The kinetics of contributions from UV irradiation and from oxidation by free chlorine, free bromine, hydroxyl radical and reactive halogen species were evaluated. The observed loss rate constants of PPCPs in the presence of 10 μM bromide were 1.6-23 times of those observed in the absence of bromide (except for iopromide and ibuprofen). Bromide was shown to play multiple roles in PPCP degradation. It reacts rapidly with free chlorine to produce a trace amount of free bromine, which then contributes to up to 55% of the degradation of some PPCPs during 15 min of UV/chlorine treatment. Bromide was also shown to reduce the level of HO• and to change the reactive chlorine species to bromine-containing species, which resulted in decreases in ibuprofen degradation and enhancement in carbamazepine and caffeine degradation, respectively. Reactive halogen species contributed to between 37 and 96% of the degradation of the studied PPCPs except ibuprofen in the presence of 10 μM bromide ion. The effect of bromide is non-negligible during the UV/chlorine treatment.

  8. Recovery of actinides from actinide-aluminium alloys by chlorination: Part I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassayre, L., E-mail: [Laboratoire de Genie Chimique (LGC), Departement Procedes Electrochimiques, CNRS-UMR 5503, Universite de Toulouse III - Paul Sabatier, 31062 Toulouse (France); Soucek, P.; Mendes, E.; Malmbeck, R.; Nourry, C.; Eloirdi, R.; Glatz, J.-P. [European Commission, JRC, Institute for Transuranium Elements, Postfach 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany)


    Pyrochemical processes in molten LiCl-KCl are being developed in ITU for recovery of actinides from spent nuclear fuel. The fuel is anodically dissolved to the molten salt electrolyte and actinides are electrochemically reduced on solid aluminium cathodes forming solid actinide-aluminium alloys. A chlorination route is being investigated for recovery of actinides from the alloys. This route consists in three steps: Vacuum distillation for removal of the salt adhered on the electrode, chlorination of the actinide-aluminium alloys by chlorine gas and sublimation of the formed AlCl{sub 3}. A thermochemical study showed thermodynamic feasibility of all three steps. On the basis of the conditions identified by the calculations, experiments using pure UAl{sub 3} alloy were carried out to evaluate and optimise the chlorination step. The work was focused on determination of the optimal temperature and Cl{sub 2}/UAl{sub 3} molar ratio, providing complete chlorination of the alloy without formation of volatile UCl{sub 5} and UCl{sub 6}. The results showed high efficient chlorination at a temperature of 150 deg. C.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, R.; Hunter, C.; Werth, D.; Chen, K.; Whiteside, M.; Mazzola, C.


    A train derailment occurred in Graniteville, South Carolina during the early morning of January 6, 2005, and resulted in the release of a large amount of cryogenic pressurized liquid chlorine to the environment in a short time period. A comprehensive evaluation of the transport and fate of the released chlorine was performed, accounting for dilution, diffusion, transport and deposition into the local environment. This involved the characterization of a three-phased chlorine release, a detailed determination of local atmospheric mechanisms acting on the released chlorine, the establishment of atmospheric-hydrological physical exchange mechanisms, and aquatic dilution and mixing. This presentation will provide an overview of the models used in determining the total air-to-water mass transfer estimated to have occurred as a result of the roughly 60 tons of chlorine released into the atmosphere from the train derailment. The assumptions used in the modeling effort will be addressed, along with a comparison with available observational data to validate the model results. Overall, model-estimated chlorine concentrations in the airborne plume compare well with human and animal exposure data collected in the days after the derailment.

  10. Industrial metabolism of chlorine: a case study of a chlor-alkali industrial chain. (United States)

    Han, Feng; Li, Wenfeng; Yu, Fei; Cui, Zhaojie


    Substance flow analysis (SFA) is applied to a case study of chlorine metabolism in a chlor-alkali industrial chain. A chain-level SFA model is constructed, and eight indices are proposed to analyze and evaluate the metabolic status of elemental chlorine. The primary objectives of this study are to identify low-efficiency links in production processes and to find ways to improve the operational performance of the industrial chain. Five-year in-depth data collection and analysis revealed that system production efficiency and source efficiency continued increasing since 2008, i.e., when the chain was first formed, at average annual growth rates of 21.01 % and 1.01 %, respectively. In 2011, 64.15 % of the total chlorine input was transformed into final products. That is, as high as 98.50 % of the chlorine inputs were utilized when other by-products were counted. Chlorine loss occurred mostly in the form of chloride ions in wastewater, and the system loss rate was 0.54 %. The metabolic efficiency of chlorine in this case was high, and the chain system had minimal impact on the environment. However, from the perspectives of processing depth and economic output, the case study of a chlor-alkali industrial chain still requires expansion.

  11. Exposure to chlorine dioxide gas for 4 hours renders Syphacia ova nonviable. (United States)

    Czarra, Jane A; Adams, Joleen K; Carter, Christopher L; Hill, William A; Coan, Patricia N


    The purpose of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of chlorine dioxide gas for environmental decontamination of Syphacia spp. ova. We collected Syphacia ova by perianal cellophane tape impression of pinworm-infected mice. Tapes with attached ova were exposed to chlorine dioxide gas for 1, 2, 3, or 4 h. After gas exposure, ova were incubated in hatching medium for 6 h to promote hatching. For controls, tapes with attached ova were maintained at room temperature for 1, 2, 3, and 4 h without exposure to chlorine dioxide gas and similarly incubated in hatch medium for 6 h. Ova viability after incubation was assessed by microscopic examination. Exposure to chlorine dioxide gas for 4 h rendered 100% of Syphacia spp. ova nonviable. Conversely, only 17% of ova on the 4-h control slide were nonviable. Other times of exposure to chlorine dioxide gas resulted in variable effectiveness. These data suggest that exposure to chlorine dioxide gas for at least 4 h is effective for surface decontamination of Syphacia spp. ova.

  12. Ecotoxicological screening of reclaimed disinfected wastewater by Vibrio fischeri bioassay after a chlorination-dechlorination process. (United States)

    Bayo, Javier; Angosto, José M; Gómez-López, M Dolores


    It is well known that different substances can react with chlorine in a water disinfection process to produce disinfection by-products (DBPs). Some of these substances have proven to be carcinogenic in humans and animals. Because it is not possible to detect all DBPs produced in chlorinated wastewater, toxicity tests have been proposed as a useful tool for screening toxic chemicals in treated wastewater. In this study, the Microtox bioassay with Vibrio fischeri was used to evaluate the formation of toxic by-products in wastewater, after a chlorination-dechlorination disinfection treatment. All the variables were found to be normally distributed, so analysis of variance could be directly applied without transformation of variables. Significant correlations were obtained between toxicity values and total carbon, total inorganic carbon, total nitrogen, chlorine, and pH. In contrast, total organic carbon, chemical oxygen demand, electrical conductivity and turbidity had no effect on toxicity formation. Toxicity increased with the Cl2:NH4+ ratio at a higher chlorine concentration released from combined chlorine. Regression models provided a good fit for effective concentration (EC50) as a function of total carbon and total nitrogen, after 5, 10, and 15 min of exposure. These models had greater multiple determination coefficients than previously reported for similar studies, without autocorrelation in the residuals as indicated by the Durbin-Watson statistic test. The measured and predicted ecotoxicity values were strongly correlated.

  13. Elimination of the reactivation process in the adhesion of chlorinated SBS rubber with polychloroprene adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Chlorination treatment of a thermoplastic styrene-butadiene-styrene rubber (SBS with a 3 wt% solution of trichloroisocyanuric acid (TCI in methyl ethyl ketone (MEK introduces chlorinated and oxidized moieties on the rubber surface which increase its surface energy and produces surface microroughness. Consequently adhesion properties, evaluated by T-peel strength measurements in chlorinated SBS/solvent based-polyurethane adhesive/leather joints, are enhanced. In this study, two solvent-based polychloroprene adhesives (PCP0 and PCP30R have been considered as an alternative to the commonly used solvent-based polyurethane adhesive (PU. A thermoreactive phenolic resin was added to one of the polychloroprene adhesive formulations (PCP30R. This tackifier resin favors chlorination of the adhesive and reinforces the interface between the chlorinated adhesive and the chlorinated rubber surface. Besides, PCP30R adhesive does not need adhesive reactivation and considerable high T-peel strength value (5.7±0.3 kN/m was obtained. Elimination of the reactivation process implies a considerable improvement of the manufacturing process in the footwear industry.

  14. Chlorine and carbon isotopes fractionation during volatilization and diffusive transport of trichloroethene in the unsaturated zone. (United States)

    Jeannottat, Simon; Hunkeler, Daniel


    To apply compound-specific isotope methods to the evaluation of the origin and fate of organic contaminants in the unsaturated subsurface, the effect of physicochemical processes on isotope ratios needs to be known. The main objective of this study is to quantify chlorine and carbon isotope fractionation during NAPL-vapor equilibration, air-water partitioning, and diffusion of trichloroethene (TCE) and combinations of these effects during vaporization in porous media. Isotope fractionation is larger during NAPL-vapor equilibration than air-water partitioning. During NAPL-vapor equilibration, carbon, and chlorine isotope ratios evolve in opposite directions although both elements are present in the same bond, with a normal isotope effect for chlorine (ε(Cl) = -0.39 ± 0.03‰) and an inverse effect for carbon (ε(C) = +0.75 ± 0.04‰). During diffusion-controlled vaporization in a sand column, no significant carbon isotope fractionation is observed (ε(C) = +0.10 ± 0.05‰), whereas fairly strong chlorine isotope fractionation occurs (ε(Cl) = -1.39 ± 0.06‰) considering the molecular weight of TCE. In case of carbon, the inverse isotope fractionation associated with NAPL-vapor equilibration and normal diffusion isotope fractionation cancel, whereas for chlorine both processes are accompanied by normal isotope fractionation and hence they cumulate. A source of contamination that aged might thus show a shift toward heavier chlorine isotope ratios.

  15. Chlorination induced damage and recovery in marine diatoms: Assay by SYTOX® Green staining. (United States)

    Venkatnarayanan, Srinivas; Sriyutha Murthy, P; Nancharaiah, Yarlagadda V; Kirubagaran, Ramalingam; Venugopalan, Vayalam P


    Phytoplankton entrained into cooling water systems of coastal power stations are subjected to acute chemical stress due to biocides (chlorine) used for biofouling control. They are subsequently released into the environment, where they may survive/recover or succumb. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the susceptibility of a centric (Chaetoceros lorenzianus) and pennate (Navicula sp.) diatom to in-plant administered concentrations of chlorine (0.2-0.5mg/L, TRO). Viability of cells exposed to chlorine was assessed by SYTOX® Green fluorimetry and was compared with other conventional end points like total cell counts, chlorophyll a content and cellular autofluorescence. Results showed a concentration-dependant reduction in viability, chlorophyll a and autofluorescence. C. lorenzianus cells were more susceptible to chlorine compared to Navicula sp. SYTOX® Green staining appears to be a sensitive method to assess chlorine-induced damages. The data show that in-use levels of chlorination can potentially impact entrained organisms; however, they can recover when returned to coastal waters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. SERDP/ESTCP Expert Panel Workshop on Research and Development Needs for Cleanup of Chlorinated Solvent Sites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    ...) perform its mission. These programs together conducted an expert panel workshop on August 6-7, 2001 to evaluate the needs for research and development in the general area of chlorinated solvent site cleanup...

  17. Palynofacies characterization for hydrocarbon source rock ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ter and its facies are considered very important while evaluating source rock potential. These types of organic matter must be identified and distin- guished, for different types of organic matter have different hydrocarbon potentials and products. The dispersed organic matter is classified in to various categories depending on ...

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) degradation by laccase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laccase enzyme was produced from an isolate of the white rot fungus, Ganoderma lucidum Chaaim-001 BCU. The enzyme was subsequently evaluated for its degradative ability towards sixteen types of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The G. lucidum laccase degraded antracene completely with or without a ...

  19. Intoxication of 76 children by chlorine gas. (United States)

    Fleta, J; Calvo, C; Zuñiga, J; Castellano, M; Bueno, M


    A collective intoxication with chlorine gas in 76 children (21 males, 55 females; the median age was 9.9 years) is reported. They were treated with a combination of oxygen gas (O2) and corticosteroids until the symptoms disappeared.

  20. 21 CFR 177.1610 - Polyethylene, chlorinated. (United States)


    ... percent in plastic articles prepared from polyvinyl chloride and/or from vinyl chloride copolymers... Chlorine in Vinyl Chloride Polymers and Copolymers,” which is incorporated by reference (Copies may be...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    e trapping configurations of the faults mbedding shale were presumed to be the creation of multiple reservoir of hydrocarbon bearing formations one horizon to the other and. (Figure 2). The vertical f the major and subsidiary growth t the amount of throw of both major s are small and varied from line to line survey but ...

  2. Kinetics of hematite chlorination with Cl2 and Cl2 + O2: Part I. Chlorination with Cl2


    KANARI, Ndue; Mishra, Devabrata; Filippov, Lev; Diot, Frédéric; Mochón, Javier; Allain, Eric


    International audience; Preliminary tests of the chlorination of two iron oxides (wüstite and hematite) in various chlorinating gas mixtures were performed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) under non-isothermal conditions. Wüstite started to react with chlorine from about 200 °C generating ferric chloride and hematite as the final reaction products. The presence of a reducing and oxidizing agent in the chlorinating gas mixtures influenced the chlorination reactions of both iron oxides, duri...

  3. Imidazole catalyzes chlorination by unreactive primary chloramines. (United States)

    Roemeling, Margo D; Williams, Jared; Beckman, Joseph S; Hurst, James K


    Hypochlorous acid and simple chloramines (RNHCl) are stable biologically derived chlorinating agents. In general, the chlorination potential of HOCl is much greater than that of RNHCl, allowing it to oxidize or chlorinate a much wider variety of reaction partners. However, in this study we demonstrate by kinetic analysis that the reactivity of RNHCl can be dramatically promoted by imidazole and histidyl model compounds via intermediary formation of the corresponding imidazole chloramines. Two biologically relevant reactions were investigated--loss of imidazole-catalyzed chlorinating capacity and phenolic ring chlorination using fluorescein and the tyrosine analog, 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (HPA). HOCl reacted stoichiometrically with imidazole, N-acetylhistidine (NAH), or imidazoleacetic acid to generate the corresponding imidazole chloramines which subsequently decomposed. Chloramine (NH2Cl) also underwent a markedly accelerated loss in chlorinating capacity when NAH was present, although in this case N-α-acetylhistidine chloramine (NAHCl) did not accumulate, indicating that the catalytic intermediate must be highly reactive. Mixing HOCl with 1-methylimidazole (MeIm) led to very rapid loss in chlorinating capacity via formation of a highly reactive chlorinium ion (MeImCl(+)) intermediate; this behavior suggests that the reactive forms of the analogous imidazole chloramines are their conjugate acids, e.g., the imidazolechlorinium ion (HImCl(+)). HOCl-generated imidazole chloramine (ImCl) reacted rapidly with fluorescein in a specific acid-catalyzed second-order reaction to give 3'-monochloro and 3',5'-dichloro products. Equilibrium constants for the transchlorination reactions HOCl + HIm = H2O + ImCl and NH2Cl + HIm = NH3 + ImCl were estimated from the dependence of the rate constants on [HIm]/[HOCl] and literature data. Acid catalysis again suggests that the actual chlorinating agent is HImCl(+); consistent with this interpretation, MeIm markedly catalyzed

  4. Inactivation of Salmonella on Eggshells by Chlorine Dioxide Gas. (United States)

    Kim, Hyobi; Yum, Bora; Yoon, Sung-Sik; Song, Kyoung-Ju; Kim, Jong-Rak; Myeong, Donghoon; Chang, Byungjoon; Choe, Nong-Hoon


    Microbiological contamination of eggs should be prevented in the poultry industry, as poultry is one of the major reservoirs of human Salmonella. ClO2 gas has been reported to be an effective disinfectant in various industry fields, particularly the food industry. The aims of this study were to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of chlorine dioxide gas on two strains of Salmonella inoculated onto eggshells under various experimental conditions including concentrations, contact time, humidity, and percentage organic matter. As a result, it was shown that chlorine dioxide gas under wet conditions was more effective in inactivating Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Gallinarum compared to that under dry conditions independently of the presence of organic matter (yeast extract). Under wet conditions, a greater than 4 log reduction in bacterial populations was achieved after 30 min of exposure to ClO2 each at 20 ppm, 40 ppm, and 80 ppm against S. Enteritidis; 40 ppm and 80 ppm against S. Gallinarum. These results suggest that chlorine dioxide gas is an effective agent for controlling Salmonella, the most prevalent contaminant in the egg industry.

  5. Biological Instability in a Chlorinated Drinking Water Distribution Network (United States)

    Nescerecka, Alina; Rubulis, Janis; Vital, Marius; Juhna, Talis; Hammes, Frederik


    The purpose of a drinking water distribution system is to deliver drinking water to the consumer, preferably with the same quality as when it left the treatment plant. In this context, the maintenance of good microbiological quality is often referred to as biological stability, and the addition of sufficient chlorine residuals is regarded as one way to achieve this. The full-scale drinking water distribution system of Riga (Latvia) was investigated with respect to biological stability in chlorinated drinking water. Flow cytometric (FCM) intact cell concentrations, intracellular adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP), heterotrophic plate counts and residual chlorine measurements were performed to evaluate the drinking water quality and stability at 49 sampling points throughout the distribution network. Cell viability methods were compared and the importance of extracellular ATP measurements was examined as well. FCM intact cell concentrations varied from 5×103 cells mL−1 to 4.66×105 cells mL−1 in the network. While this parameter did not exceed 2.1×104 cells mL−1 in the effluent from any water treatment plant, 50% of all the network samples contained more than 1.06×105 cells mL−1. This indisputably demonstrates biological instability in this particular drinking water distribution system, which was ascribed to a loss of disinfectant residuals and concomitant bacterial growth. The study highlights the potential of using cultivation-independent methods for the assessment of chlorinated water samples. In addition, it underlines the complexity of full-scale drinking water distribution systems, and the resulting challenges to establish the causes of biological instability. PMID:24796923

  6. Reaction mechanism for chlorination of urea. (United States)

    Blatchley, Ernest R; Cheng, Mingming


    Experiments were conducted to elucidate the mechanism of the reaction between free chlorine and urea. In combination with findings of previous investigations, the results of these experiments indicate a process by which urea undergoes multiple N-chlorination steps. The first of these steps results in the formation of N-chlorourea; this step appears to require Cl₂ to proceed and is the overall rate-limiting step in the reaction for conditions that correspond to most swimming pools. N-Chlorourea then appears to undergo further chlorine substitution; the fully N-chlorinated urea molecule is hypothesized to undergo hydrolysis and additional chlorination to yield NCl₃ as an intermediate. NCl₃ is hydrolyzed to yield NH₂Cl and NHCl₂, with subsequent decay to stable end products, including N₂ and NO₃⁻. Conversion of urea-N to nitrate is pH-dependent. The pattern of nitrate yield is believed to be attributable to the fact that when urea serves as the source of reduced-N, entry into the reactions that describe chlorination of ammoniacal nitrogen is through NCl₃, whereas when NH₃ is the source of reduced-N, entry to these reactions is through NH₂Cl.

  7. New model of chlorine-wall reaction for simulating chlorine concentration in drinking water distribution systems. (United States)

    Fisher, Ian; Kastl, George; Sathasivan, Arumugam


    Accurate modelling of chlorine concentrations throughout a drinking water system needs sound mathematical descriptions of decay mechanisms in bulk water and at pipe walls. Wall-reaction rates along pipelines in three different systems were calculated from differences between field chlorine profiles and accurately modelled bulk decay. Lined pipes with sufficiently large diameters (>500 mm) and higher chlorine concentrations (>0.5 mg/L) had negligible wall-decay rates, compared with bulk-decay rates. Further downstream, wall-reaction rate consistently increased (peaking around 0.15 mg/dm 2 /h) as chlorine concentration decreased, until mass-transport to the wall was controlling wall reaction. These results contradict wall-reaction models, including those incorporated in the EPANET software, which assume wall decay is of either zero-order (constant decay rate) or first-order (wall-decay rate reduces with chlorine concentration). Instead, results are consistent with facilitation of the wall reaction by biofilm activity, rather than surficial chemical reactions. A new model of wall reaction combines the effect of biofilm activity moderated by chlorine concentration and mass-transport limitation. This wall reaction model, with an accurate bulk chlorine decay model, is essential for sufficiently accurate prediction of chlorine residuals towards the end of distribution systems and therefore control of microbial contamination. Implementing this model in EPANET-MSX (or similar) software enables the accurate chlorine modelling required for improving disinfection strategies in drinking water networks. New insight into the effect of chlorine on biofilm can also assist in controlling biofilm to maintain chlorine residuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Atmospheric reactivity of alcohols, thiols and fluoroalcohols with chlorine atoms (United States)

    Garzon Ruiz, Andres

    Alcohols, thiols and fluoroalcohols are volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which are emitted to the atmosphere from both natural (vegetation, oceans, volcanoes, etc.) and anthropogenic sources (fuels, solvents, wastewater, incinerators, refrigerants, etc.). These pollutants can be eliminated from the troposphere by deposition on the terrestrial surface, direct photolysis or reaction with different tropospheric oxidants. Reactions of VOCs with tropospheric oxidants are involved in the well-known atmospheric phenomenon of photochemical smog or the production of tropospheric ozone. The oxidation of these VOCs in the troposphere is mainly initiated by reaction with OH radicals during the daytime and with NO radicals at night. However, in recent years, the oxidation by chlorine atoms (Cl) has gained great importance in the study of atmospheric reactions because they may exert some influence in the boundary layer, particularly in marine and coastal environments. In general, Cl atoms are much more reactive species than OH and NO; radicals and therefore low concentrations of Cl may compete with OH and NO3 in hydrocarbon oxidation processes. The main source of tropospheric Cl atoms is believed to be the photolysis of chlorine-containing molecules generated by heterogeneous reactions of sea salt aerosols. It has also been proposed that Cl atoms, produced in the photolysis of Cl2 emitted from industrial processes, may enhance hydrocarbon oxidation rates and ozone production in urban environments. In this work, a kinetic, theoretical and mechanistic study of the reaction of several alcohols, thiols, and fluoroalcohols with Cl atoms has been carried out. Pulsed laser photolysis-fluorescence resonance (PLP-RF) technique was used for the kinetic study as a function of temperature and pressure. An environmental chamber-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) system was also employed in the kinetic studies. Tropospheric lifetimes of these pollutants were estimated using obtained kinetic

  9. Chronic Low Dose Chlorine Exposure Aggravates Allergic Inflammation and Airway Hyperresponsiveness and Activates Inflammasome Pathway (United States)

    Kim, Sae-Hoon; Park, Da-Eun; Lee, Hyun-Seung; Kang, Hye-Ryun; Cho, Sang-Heon


    Background Epidemiologic clinical studies suggested that chronic exposure to chlorine products is associated with development of asthma and aggravation of asthmatic symptoms. However, its underlying mechanism was not clearly understood. Studies were undertaken to define the effects and mechanisms of chronic low-dose chlorine exposure in the pathogenesis of airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). Methods Six week-old female BALB/c mice were sensitized and challenged with OVA in the presence and absence of chronic low dose chlorine exposure of naturally vaporized gas of 5% sodium hypochlorite solution. Airway inflammation and AHR were evaluated by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cell recovery and non-invasive phlethysmography, respectively. Real-time qPCR, Western blot assay, and ELISA were used to evaluate the mRNA and protein expressions of cytokines and other inflammatory mediators. Human A549 and murine epithelial (A549 and MLE12) and macrophage (AMJ2-C11) cells were used to define the responses to low dose chlorine exposure in vitro. Results Chronic low dose chlorine exposure significantly augmented airway inflammation and AHR in OVA-sensitized and challenged mice. The expression of Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-5 and proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β and IL-33 were significantly increased in OVA/Cl group compared with OVA group. The chlorine exposure also activates the major molecules associated with inflammasome pathway in the macrophages with increased expression of epithelial alarmins IL-33 and TSLP in vitro. Conclusion Chronic low dose exposure of chlorine aggravates allergic Th2 inflammation and AHR potentially through activation of inflammasome danger signaling pathways. PMID:25202911

  10. Kinetics of aqueous chlorination of some pharmaceuticals and their elimination from water matrices. (United States)

    Acero, Juan L; Benitez, F Javier; Real, Francisco J; Roldan, Gloria


    Apparent rate constants for the reactions of four selected pharmaceutical compounds (metoprolol, naproxen, amoxicillin, and phenacetin) with chlorine in ultra-pure (UP) water were determined as a function of the pH. It was found that amoxicillin (in the whole pH range 3-12), and naproxen (in the low pH range 2-4) presented high reaction rates, while naproxen (in the pH range 5-9), and phenacetin and metoprolol (in the pH range 2.5-12 for phenacetin, and 3-10 for metoprolol) followed intermediate and slow reaction rates. A mechanism is proposed for the chlorination reaction, which allowed the evaluation of the intrinsic rate constants for the elementary reactions of the ionized and un-ionized species of each selected pharmaceutical with chlorine. An excellent agreement is obtained between experimental and calculated rate constants by this mechanism.The elimination of these substances in several waters (a groundwater, a surface water from a public reservoir, and two effluents from municipal wastewater treatment plants) was also investigated at neutral pH. The efficiency of the chlorination process with respect to the pharmaceuticals elimination and the formation THMs was also established. It is generally observed that the increasing presence of organic and inorganic matter in the water matrices demand more oxidant agent (chlorine), and therefore, less chlorine is available for the oxidation of these compounds. Finally, half-life times and oxidant exposures (CT) required for the removal of 99% of the four pharmaceuticals are also evaluated. These parameters are useful for the establishment of safety chlorine doses in oxidation or disinfection stages of pharmaceuticals in treatment plants.

  11. Microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons. (United States)

    Varjani, Sunita J


    Petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants are recalcitrant compounds and are classified as priority pollutants. Cleaning up of these pollutants from environment is a real world problem. Bioremediation has become a major method employed in restoration of petroleum hydrocarbon polluted environments that makes use of natural microbial biodegradation activity. Petroleum hydrocarbons utilizing microorganisms are ubiquitously distributed in environment. They naturally biodegrade pollutants and thereby remove them from the environment. Removal of petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants from environment by applying oleophilic microorganisms (individual isolate/consortium of microorganisms) is ecofriendly and economic. Microbial biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants employs the enzyme catalytic activities of microorganisms to enhance the rate of pollutants degradation. This article provides an overview about bioremediation for petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants. It also includes explanation about hydrocarbon metabolism in microorganisms with a special focus on new insights obtained during past couple of years. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Connection between Model Performance on the CCMVal Transport Diagnostics and Simulated Sensitivity of Ozone to Chlorine Change (United States)

    Douglass, Anne; Stolarski, Richard; Oman, Luke; Strahan, Susan


    The chemistry climate models that contributed simulations for past and future ozone evolution to the 2010 Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion were subject to extensive evaluation by the SPARC (Stratospheric Processes and their Role in Climate) CCMVal (Chemistry-Climate Model Validation) activity. The sensitivity of ozone to changes in composition and climate varies among the models, but the relationship between these variations and the model evaluations of CCMVal is not obvious. We have learned that the transport evaluation can be used to interpret the comparisons between observed and simulated columns of chlorine reservoirs, hydrochloric acid (HCl) and chlorine nitrate (ClONO2); these comparisons were part of the CCMVal evaluation of chemistry. The simulations with best performance on the transport diagnostics most faithfully reproduce the evolution and seasonal variation of the chlorine reservoirs as observed at NDACC (Network for Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change) stations (NyAlesund 78.9N, Kiruna 67.8N, Harestua 60.2N, Jungfraujoch 46.6N, Toronto 43.6N, Kitt Peak 31.9N, Izana 28.3N, Mauna Loa 19.5N, Lauder 45S and Arrival Heights 77.8S). In the simulations, the HCl in the lower stratosphere depends on total inorganic chlorine (Cly) and partitioning between HCl and ClON02. Total inorganic chlorine depends on the fractional release of chlorine from source gases, and ratio of ClON02 to HCl is inversely dependent on methane and varies quadratically with ozone. Simulated HCl from various models may agree with observations even though Cly is in error, partitioning is in error, or both. Simulated ozone sensitivity to chlorine is shown to be greater for models that produce larger values of chlorine nitrate for background chlorine levels, and vice versa. Comparisons with the NDACC data show why the models with 'best' transport have similar sensitivity to chlorine change. The realistic evolution of the simulated HCl and ClONO2 columns suggests realistic

  13. Effect of chlorination of drinking-water on water quality and childhood diarrhoea in a village in Pakistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter K; Ensink, Jeroen H J; Jayasinghe, Gayathri


    To evaluate the importance of public-domain transmission of pathogens in drinking-water, an intervention study was carried out by chlorinating the public water-supply system in a village in Pakistan. The water quality improved and reached a geometric mean of 3 Escherichia coli per 100 m...... that in a neighbouring village where most children used water from a non-chlorinated water-supply system with very poor water quality. In this study area, under non-epidemic conditions, the reduction of faecal bacteria in the public drinking-water supply by chlorination does not seem to be a priority intervention...

  14. Effects of chlorine and chlorine dioxide on human rotavirus infectivity and genome stability. (United States)

    Xue, Bin; Jin, Min; Yang, Dong; Guo, Xuan; Chen, Zhaoli; Shen, Zhiqiang; Wang, Xinwei; Qiu, Zhigang; Wang, Jingfeng; Zhang, Bin; Li, Junwen


    Despite the health risks posed by waterborne human rotavirus (HRV), little information is available concerning the effectiveness of chlorine or chlorine dioxide (ClO2), two common disinfectants of public water sources, against HRV and their effects on its genome remain poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of chlorine and ClO2 on purified HRV by using cell culture and RT-PCR to assess virus infectivity and genetic integrity, respectively. The disinfection efficacy of ClO2 was found to be higher than that of chlorine. According to the efficiency factor Hom model, Ct value (mg/L min) ranges required for a 4-log reduction of HRV at 20 °C by chlorine and ClO2 were 5.55-5.59 and 1.21-2.47 mg/L min, respectively. Detection of the 11 HRV genome segments revealed that damage to the 1227-2354 bp of the VP4 gene was associated with the disappearance of viral infectivity by chlorine. However, no complete accordance between culturing and RT-PCR assays was observed after treatment of HRV with ClO2. These results collectively indicate that the current practice of chlorine disinfection may be inadequate to manage the risk of waterborne HRV infection, and offer the potential to monitor the infectivity of HRV adapting PCR-based protocols in chlorine disinfection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of UV irradiation on the proportion of organic chloramines in total chlorine in subsequent chlorination. (United States)

    Zhang, Tian-Yang; Lin, Yi-Li; Xu, Bin; Xia, Sheng-Ji; Tian, Fu-Xiang; Gao, Nai-Yun


    This study investigated the changes of chlorine species and proportion of organic chloramines during the chlorination process after UV irradiation pretreatment in drinking water. It was found that the UV pretreatment could enhance the percentage of organic chloramines by increasing free chlorine consumption in the chlorination of raw waters. The percentage of organic chloramines in total chlorine increased with UV intensity and irradiation time in raw waters. However, for the humic acid synthesized water, the percentage of organic chloramines increased first and then decreased with the increase of UV irradiation time. The value of SUVA declined in both raw and humic acid synthesized waters over the UV irradiation time, which indicated that the decomposition of aromatic organic matter by UV could be a contributor to the increase of free chlorine consumption and organic chloramine proportion. The percentage of organic chloramines during chlorination of raw waters after 30-min UV irradiation pretreatment varied from 20.2% to 41.8%. Total chlorine decreased obviously with the increase of nitrate concentration, but the percentage of organic chloramines increased and was linearly correlated to nitrate concentration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Possible role of reactive chlorine in microbial antagonism and organic matter chlorination in terrestrial environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bengtson, P.; Bastviken, D.; De Boer, W.; Öberg, G.


    Several studies have demonstrated that extensive formation of organically bound chlorine occurs both in soil and in decaying plant material. Previous studies suggest that enzymatic formation of reactive chlorine outside cells is a major source. However, the ecological role of microbial-induced

  17. Soil microbial communities: Influence of geographic location and hydrocarbon pollutants

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maila, MP


    Full Text Available The importance and relevance of the geographical origin of the soil sample and the hydrocarbons in determining the functional or species diversity within different bacterial communities was evaluated using the community level physiological profiles...

  18. Ecotoxicologically based environmental risk limits for several volatile aliphatic hydrocarbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong FMW de; Posthuma-Doodeman CJAM; Verbruggen EMJ; SEC


    This report describes ecotoxicological environmental risk limits derived for a number of volatile aliphatic hydrocarbons. On the basis of evaluated literature, the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) proposes ecotoxicological environmental risk limits for these compounds

  19. Assessment of plant-derived hydrocarbons. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFadden, K.; Nelson, S.H.


    A number of hydrocarbon producing plants are evaluated as possible sources of rubber, liquid fuels, and industrial lubricants. The plants considered are Euphorbia lathyris or gopher plant, milkweeds, guayule, rabbit brush, jojoba, and meadow foam. (ACR)

  20. Chlorine decay and trihalomethane formation following ferrate(VI) preoxidation and chlorination of drinking water. (United States)

    Li, Cong; Luo, Feng; Dong, Feilong; Zhao, Jingguo; Zhang, Tuqiao; He, Guilin; Cizmas, Leslie; Sharma, Virender K


    This paper presents the effect of preoxidation with ferrate(VI) (FeVIO42-, Fe(VI)) prior to chlorination on chlorine decay and formation of disinfection by-products in filtered raw water from a full-scale drinking water treatment plant. The rate of chlorine decay became significantly faster as the concentration of ferrate(VI) increased. Chlorine degradation followed two first-order decay reactions with rate constants k1 and k2 for fast and slow decay, respectively. Kinetic modeling established the relationships between k1 and k2 and varying dosages of chlorine and ferrate(VI). When ferrate(VI) was used as a pre-oxidant, the levels of trihalomethanes (trichloromethane (TCM), dichlorobromomethane (DCBM), dibromochloromethane (DBCM), and tribromomethane (TBM)) in water samples decreased as the ferrate(VI) concentration increased. The concentrations of these trihalomethanes followed the order TCM > DCBM ≈ DBCM > TBM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallgren, Paul


    Bioremediation has been widely applied in the restoration of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated. Parameters that may affect the rate and efficiency of biodegradation include temperature, moisture, salinity, nutrient availability, microbial species, and type and concentration of contaminants. Other factors can also affect the success of the bioremediation treatment of contaminants, such as climatic conditions, soil type, soil permeability, contaminant distribution and concentration, and drainage. Western Research Institute in conjunction with TechLink Environmental, Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy conducted laboratory studies to evaluate major parameters that contribute to the bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated drill cuttings using land farming and to develop a biotreatment cell to expedite biodegradation of hydrocarbons. Physical characteristics such as soil texture, hydraulic conductivity, and water retention were determined for the petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil. Soil texture was determined to be loamy sand to sand, and high hydraulic conductivity and low water retention was observed. Temperature appeared to have the greatest influence on biodegradation rates where high temperatures (>50 C) favored biodegradation. High nitrogen content in the form of ammonium enhanced biodegradation as well did the presence of water near field water holding capacity. Urea was not a good source of nitrogen and has detrimental effects for bioremediation for this site soil. Artificial sea water had little effect on biodegradation rates, but biodegradation rates decreased after increasing the concentrations of salts. Biotreatment cell (biocell) tests demonstrated hydrocarbon biodegradation can be enhanced substantially when utilizing a leachate recirculation design where a 72% reduction of hydrocarbon concentration was observed with a 72-h period at a treatment temperature of 50 C. Overall, this study demonstrates the investigation of the effects of

  2. Input, monitoring and evaluation of carcinogenic environmental stress of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Eintrag, Monitoring und Bewertung der kanzerogenen Umweltbelastung durch polycyclische aromatische Kohlenwasserstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimmer, G. (Biochemisches Inst. fuer Umweltcarcinogene, Grosshansdorf (Germany))


    It may be estimated from the emission of benzo(a)pyrene per kg fuel combusted and the annual consumption in the FRG that in 1981 coal-fired residential heating and coke production emitted by far the most amounts of BaP with 10.21 t and 5.6 t BaP, respectively, whereas significant lower contributions came from vehicles, oil heating using jet burners (0.0002 t), or coal energy plants (0.001 t). After a selective enrichment procedure, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are analytically determined by capillary gaschromatography or HPLC using internal standards (e.g. indeno(1,2,3-cd)-fluoranthene). In case of more volatile compounds it is required to use an additional standard such as deuterated phenanthrene. An enrichment scheme for PAH, azaarenes, thiaarenes, nitro-PAH and aromatic amines is described. (orig./EF).

  3. Direct hydrocarbon fuel cells (United States)

    Barnett, Scott A.; Lai, Tammy; Liu, Jiang


    The direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells, to generate greater power densities at lower temperatures without carbon deposition. The performance obtained is comparable to that of fuel cells used for hydrogen, and is achieved by using novel anode composites at low operating temperatures. Such solid oxide fuel cells, regardless of fuel source or operation, can be configured advantageously using the structural geometries of this invention.

  4. Effects of oil pipeline explosion on ambient particulate matter and their associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. (United States)

    Zhao, Yue; Cao, Lixin; Zhou, Qing; Que, Qiming


    Effects of the oil pipeline explosion on PM(2.5)-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their substituted (alkylated, nitrated, oxygenated, hydroxyl and chlorinated) derivatives are assessed near the accident scene of Qingdao, China. Compared with those in TSP-PM(2.5), gaseous phase, burn residue and unburned crude oil, eighty-nine PAHs in PM(2.5) are identified and quantified to investigate the composition, temporal and spatial distribution, and sources. The concentrations of PM(2.5)-associated parent PAHs increase approximately seven times from the non-explosion samples to the explosion samples (mean ± standard deviation: 112 ± 2 vs 764 ± 15 ng/m(3)), while some substituted products (nitro- and oxy-) increase by two orders of magnitude (3117 ± 156 pg/m(3) vs 740 ± 37 ng/m(3)). The toxicity evaluation indicates the BaP equivalent concentrations (based on the US EPA's toxicity factors) in PM(2.5) are much higher than those in the other phases, especially for a long duration after the tragic accident.

  5. Acute toxicity variation of hydroxyl benzophenone UV filters during photoinduction-chlorination disinfection processes. (United States)

    Yu, Qi; Wei, Dongbin; Liu, Wei; Du, Yuguo


    Benzophenones (BPs), a group of widely used UV filters, exert multiple, significant toxicity effects. The 11 BPs were selected as target compounds, and the photobacterium acute toxicity test and an index for acute toxicity formation potential (ATFP) were used to evaluate the toxicity variation of BPs before and after a photoinduction-chlorination disinfection process. Orthogonal experiments were performed at different pH values and chlorine dosages. The characteristics of ATFP values for 11 BPs after a photoinduction-chlorination process can be summarized as follows: (1) The ATFPs decreased as the hydroxyl group number increased in BPs molecules. (2) For those BPs with the same hydroxyl group number, the ATFPs were higher when the hydroxyl groups were located at the 3- or 4-position than those at the 2-position; the BPs with hydroxyl groups distributed on two benzene rings had higher ATFPs than those on one ring. (3) Introducing a methoxyl group and sulfonic acid group into BP molecules increased the ATFP values. (4) The ATFPs were pH-dependent, the values of which were lowest at the neutral condition and highest at the acid condition. (5) The ATFPs increased and then decreased as the chlorine dosage increased. The results can be used as a reference to scientifically evaluate the environmental fate and potential risk of BPs in photoinduction-chlorination disinfection processes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Susceptibility of the brine shrimp Artemia and its pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus to chlorine dioxide in contaminated sea-water. (United States)

    Puente, M E; Vega-Villasante, F; Holguin, G; Bashan, Y


    Adults and nauplii of the brine shrimp, Artemia, together with Vibrio parahaemolyticus, were placed in sewage-contaminated sea-water which had been treated with chlorine dioxide (Hallox E-100TM) to test its potential as a disinfectant for salt water aquaculture. The nauplii were very susceptible to low concentrations of chlorine dioxide (47 micrograms/l Cl-), but the adults were slightly more resistant. Sterile sea-water treated with lower concentrations of chlorine dioxide (less than 47 micrograms/l Cl-) had no effect on the shrimp, but inhibited the growth of V. parahaemolyticus. In sewage-contaminated sea-water, chlorine dioxide levels of 285-2850 micrograms/l, necessary for the inactivation of V. parahaemolyticus and any native bacteria, destroyed the Artemia culture. Hallox E-100TM persisted in sea-water for 18 h, but later decayed. We conclude that: (i) Artemia nauplii are a sensitive and convenient test-organism to determine low concentrations of chlorine dioxide in sea-water; (ii) chlorine dioxide is efficient for controlling V. parahaemolyticus in sea-water; and (iii) chlorine dioxide should be further evaluated as a potential disinfectant for aquaculture, but, for higher organisms than Artemia.

  7. Degradation of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) by UV/chlorine oxidation: Radical roles, influencing factors, and degradation pathway. (United States)

    Ye, Bei; Li, Yue; Chen, Zhuo; Wu, Qian-Yuan; Wang, Wen-Long; Wang, Ting; Hu, Hong-Ying


    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) is widely used in industry but is difficult to degrade. In this study, the synergistic effect of UV irradiation and chlorination on degradation of PVA was investigated. UV irradiation or chlorination alone did not degrade PVA. By contrast, UV/chlorine oxidation showed good efficiency for PVA degradation via generation of active free radicals, such as OH and Cl. The relative importance of these two free radicals in the oxidation process was evaluated, and it was shown that OH contributed more to PVA degradation than Cl did. The degradation of PVA followed pseudo first order kinetics. The rate constant k increased linearly from 0 min-1 to 0.3 min-1 with increasing chlorine dosage in range of 0 mg/L to 20 mg/L. However, when the chlorine dosage was increased above 20 mg/L, scavenging effect of free radicals occurred, and the degradation efficiency of PVA did not increase much more. Acidic media increased the degradation efficiency of PVA by UV/chlorine oxidation more than basic or neutral media because of the higher ratio of [HOCl]/[OCl-], higher free radical quantum yields, and the lower free radical quenching effect under acidic conditions. Results of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy showed that carbonyl groups in degradation products were formed during UV/chlorine oxidation, and a possible degradation pathway via alcohol to carbonyl was proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of Aloe vera, chlorine dioxide, and chlorhexidine mouth rinses on plaque and gingivitis: A randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Yeturu, Sravan Kumar; Acharya, Shashidhar; Urala, Arun Sreenivas; Pentapati, Kalyana Chakravarthy


    To evaluate the effect of Aloe vera, chlorine dioxide, and chlorhexidine mouth rinses on plaque and gingivitis in orthodontic treatment. A randomized single-center, single-blind, parallel group, controlled trial was conducted among 90 subjects undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment. The subjects were randomly divided into one of the three study groups (Aloe vera, chlorhexidine, chlorine dioxide). Plaque and gingivitis were assessed using modified Silness and Loe Plaque Index and Gingival Index at baseline and at follow-up after 15 days. Paired t-test and ANOVA with post hoc Dunnett test were used. A p-value of Aloe vera group. However, no significant difference was seen between chlorhexidine and chlorine dioxide with respect to mean reduction in plaque and gingival scores. Chlorine dioxide can be a suitable and economical alternative for chlorhexidine. Further long-term studies are recommended for evaluating their effectiveness.

  9. Isomers of nitric acid and chlorine nitrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrath, M.P.; Francl, M.M.; Rowland, F.S.; Hehre, W.J.


    Ab initio molecular orbital calculations at the HF/6-31G* and MP2/6-31G* levels have been performed on nitric acid and chlorine nitrate. Equilibrium geometries and electric dipole moments obtained from the MP2/6-31G* calculations are in good agreement with the respective experimental values, normal-mode (harmonic) vibrational frequencies and frequency shifts due to isotopic substitution calculated at this level support the most recent gas-phase infrared assignments for chlorine nitrate but suggest a reversal in the assignment of v/sub 5/ and v/sub 6/ for nitric acid. Calculations at the same levels of theory were also performed on peroxynitrous acid (HOONO) and chlorine peroxynitrite (ClOONO). The former is found to be 35 kcal/mol less stable than nitric acid at the MP2/6-31G* level; chlorine peroxynitrite is 30 kcal/mol higher in energy than chlorine nitrate. The possible role of these high-energy isomers in atmospheric processes is discussed.

  10. Chlorine monoxide (Cl(2)O) and molecular chlorine (Cl(2)) as active chlorinating agents in reaction of dimethenamid with aqueous free chlorine. (United States)

    Sivey, John D; McCullough, Corey E; Roberts, A Lynn


    HOCl is often assumed to represent the active oxidant in solutions of free available chlorine (FAC). We present evidence that Cl(2)O and Cl(2) can play a greater role than HOCl during chlorination of the herbicide dimethenamid. Reaction orders in [FAC] were determined at various solution conditions and ranged from 1.10 +/- 0.13 to 1.78 +/- 0.22, consistent with the concurrent existence of reactions that appear first-order and second-order in [FAC]. Solution pH, [Cl(-)], [FAC], and temperature were systematically varied so that the reactivity and activation parameters of each FAC species could be delineated. Modeling of kinetic data afforded calculation of second-order rate constants (units: M(-1) s(-1)) at 25 degrees C: k(Cl2O) = (1.37 +/- 0.17) x 10(6), k(Cl2) = (1.21 +/- 0.06) x 10(6), and k(HOCl) = 0.18 +/- 0.10. Under conditions typical of drinking water chlorination, Cl(2)O is the predominant chlorinating agent of dimethenamid. To the extent that Cl(2)O represents the active species in reactions with other disinfection byproduct (DBP) precursors, the influence of [FAC] and pH on DBP precursor reaction rates is different than if HOCl were the principal oxidant. Moreover, these findings call into question the validity of apparent rate constants (k(app)) commonly reported in the chlorination literature.

  11. Chlorination of organophosphorus pesticides in natural waters. (United States)

    Acero, Juan L; Benítez, F Javier; Real, Francisco J; González, Manuel


    Unknown second-order rate constants for the reactions of three organophosphorus pesticides (chlorpyrifos, chlorfenvinfos and diazinon) with chlorine were determined in the present study, and the influence of pH and temperature was established. It was found that an increase in the pH provides a negative effect on the pesticides degradation rates. Apparent second-order rate constants at 20 degrees C and pH 7 were determined to be 110.9, 0.004 and 191.6 M(-1) s(-1) for chlorpyrifos, chlorfenvinfos and diazinon, respectively. A higher reactivity of chlorine with the phosphorothioate group (chlorpyrifos and diazinon) than with the phosphate moiety (chlorfenvinfos) could explain these results. Intrinsic rate constant for the elementary reactions of chlorine species with chlorpyrifos and diazinon were also calculated, leading to the conclusion that the reaction between hypochlorous acid and the pesticide is predominant at neutral pH. The elimination of these pesticides in surface waters was also investigated. A chlorine dose of 2.5 mg L(-1) was enough to oxidize chlorpyrifos and diazinon almost completely, with a formation of trihalomethanes below the EU standard for drinking water. However, the removal of chlorfenvinfos was not appreciable. Therefore, chlorination is a feasible option for the removal of organophosphorus pesticides with phosphorothioate group during oxidation and disinfection processes, but not for the elimination of pesticides with phosphate moiety.

  12. Chlorination of organophosphorus pesticides in natural waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acero, Juan L. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Energetica, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain)], E-mail:; Benitez, F. Javier; Real, Francisco J.; Gonzalez, Manuel [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Energetica, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain)


    Unknown second-order rate constants for the reactions of three organophosphorus pesticides (chlorpyrifos, chlorfenvinfos and diazinon) with chlorine were determined in the present study, and the influence of pH and temperature was established. It was found that an increase in the pH provides a negative effect on the pesticides degradation rates. Apparent second-order rate constants at 20 {sup o}C and pH 7 were determined to be 110.9, 0.004 and 191.6 M{sup -1} s{sup -1} for chlorpyrifos, chlorfenvinfos and diazinon, respectively. A higher reactivity of chlorine with the phosphorothioate group (chlorpyrifos and diazinon) than with the phosphate moiety (chlorfenvinfos) could explain these results. Intrinsic rate constant for the elementary reactions of chlorine species with chlorpyrifos and diazinon were also calculated, leading to the conclusion that the reaction between hypochlorous acid and the pesticide is predominant at neutral pH. The elimination of these pesticides in surface waters was also investigated. A chlorine dose of 2.5 mg L{sup -1} was enough to oxidize chlorpyrifos and diazinon almost completely, with a formation of trihalomethanes below the EU standard for drinking water. However, the removal of chlorfenvinfos was not appreciable. Therefore, chlorination is a feasible option for the removal of organophosphorus pesticides with phosphorothioate group during oxidation and disinfection processes, but not for the elimination of pesticides with phosphate moiety.

  13. Phosphate valorization by dry chlorination route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanari N.


    Full Text Available This work deals with the extraction of phosphorus chlorinated compounds from phosphate materials using chlorination with gaseous chlorine. An industrial sample of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, after transformation into calcium pyrophosphate (Ca2P2O7, is subjected to reactions with Cl2+CO+N2 and Cl2+C+N2 at temperatures ranging from 625 to 950°C using boat experiments. Gathering results of the thermodynamic predictions and TG/DT analysis with those of SEM and XRD examinations of the chlorinated residues allowed the interpretation of phenomena and reactions mechanism occurring during the calcium pyrophosphate carbochlorination. Reaction rate of Ca2P2O7 by Cl2+CO+N2 at 950°C is slowed down due to the formation of a CaCl2 liquid layer acting as a barrier for the diffusion of the reactive gases and further reaction progress. While, the carbochlorination with Cl2+C+N2 led to almost full chlorination of Ca2P2O7 at 750°C and the process proceeds with an apparent activation energy of about 104 kJ/mol between 625 and 750°C. Carbochlorination technique can be considered as an alternative and selective route for the valorization of low grade phosphates and for the phosphorus extraction from its bearing materials.

  14. Reductive dechlorination of chlorinated ethenes by iron metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivavec, T.M.; Horney, D.P. [GE Corp. Research and Development, Schenectady, NY (United States)


    Reduction of chlorinated ethenes in aqueous solution by iron metal was studied in batch and column systems under anaerobic and mildly aerobic conditions. The goal of this work was to gain a fundamental mechanistic understanding of the reaction chemistry and to determine the factors that affect dechlorination rate and long-term performance in groundwater treatment. Pseudo-first-order TCE, DCE and VC dechlorination rates and product mass balances (chloride ion and C2-C6 hydrocarbons) were measured for greater than twenty-five commercial iron metals. All experimental evidence was found to support a direct reduction mechanism in which electron transfer from Fe{sup o} to the adsorbed chloroethene occurs at the metal/water interface. XPS depth profile analysis was used to correlate Fe{sup o} surface concentration with observed dechlorination rates. A linear dependence of dechlorination rate on iron specific surface area was determined. Other factors that influence dechlorination rates will be discussed, including proton- and anion-promoted dissolution processes that remove surface iron oxides and yield new Fe{sup o} surfaces.

  15. Chlorine isotopes potential as geo-chemical tracers

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shirodkar, P.V.; Pradhan, U.K.; Banerjee, R.

    The potential of chlorine isotopes as tracers of geo-chemical processes of earth and the oceans is highlighted based on systematic studies carried out in understanding the chlorine isotope fractionation mechanism, its constancy in seawater and its...

  16. Blends of caprolactam/caprolactone copolymers and chlorinated polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alberda van Ekenstein, G.O.R.; Deuring, H.; ten Brinke, G.; Ellis, T.S.

    The phase behaviour of blends of chlorinated polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and chlorinated PVC with random copolymers of caprolactone and caprolactam has been investigated and the results correlated with a binary interaction model. The known miscibility of polycaprolactone in the

  17. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) inducers and estrogen receptor (ER) activities in surface sediments of Three Gorges Reservoir, China evaluated with in vitro cell bioassays. (United States)

    Wang, Jingxian; Bovee, Toine F H; Bi, Yonghong; Bernhöft, Silke; Schramm, Karl-Werner


    Two types of biological tests were employed for monitoring the toxicological profile of sediment cores in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR), China. In the present study, sediments collected in June 2010 from TGR were analyzed for estrogen receptor (ER)- and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated activities. The estrogenic activity was assessed using a rapid yeast estrogen bioassay, based on the expression of a green fluorescent reporter protein. Weak anti-estrogenic activity was detected in sediments from an area close to the dam of the reservoir, and weak estrogenic activities ranging from 0.3 to 1 ng 17β-estradiol (E2) equivalents (EQ) g(-1) dry weight sediment (dw) were detected in sediments from the Wanzhou to Guojiaba areas. In the upstream areas Wanzhou and Wushan, sediments demonstrated additive effects in co-administration of 1 nM E2 in the yeast test system, while sediments from the downstream Badong and Guojiaba areas showed estrogenic activities which seemed to be more than additive (synergistic activity). There was an increasing tendency in estrogenic activity from upstream of TGR to downstream, while this tendency terminated and converted into anti-estrogenic activity in the area close to the dam. The AhR activity was detected employing rat hepatoma cell line (H4IIE). EROD activities were found homogenously distributed in sediments in TGR ranging from 200 to 311 pg 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) EQ g(-1) dw for total AhR agonists and from 45 to 76 pg TCDD EQ g(-1) dw for more persistent AhR agonists. The known AhR agonists polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, polychlorinated biphenyl, and PCDD/F only explained up to 8 % of the more persistent AhR agonist activity in the samples, which suggests that unidentified AhR-active compounds represented a great proportion of the TCDD EQ in sediments from TGR. These findings of estrogenic potential and dioxin-like activity in TGR sediments provide possible weight-of-evidence of potential

  18. Effects of aging on chlorinated plasma polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turri, Rafael Gustavo; Amorim, Milena Kowalczuk Manosso; Hadich, Tayan Vieira; Fernandes, Isabela Cristina; Fernandes, Gabriel Ferreira; Rossi, Diego; Rangel, Elidiane Cipriano; Durrant, Steven Frederick, E-mail: [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Sorocaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Plasmas Tecnologicos


    Thin films deposited from propanol-chloroform-argon mixtures by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition at different partial pressures of chloroform in the feed, C{sub Cl}, were characterized after two years of aging and their characteristics compared with their as-deposited properties. Film thickness decreased and surface roughness increased with aging. Surface contact angles also increased with aging for the chlorinated films. For the film deposited with 40% chloroform in the feed the contact angle increased about 14°. Transmission infrared and Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy revealed that the films gain carbonyl and hydroxyl groups and lose chlorine and hydrogen on aging. Chlorination appears to make the films more durable. Delamination was observed for the unchlorinated films. (author)

  19. Chlorine: Undergraduate Research on an Element of Controversy (United States)

    Chang, Hasok


    If chemical elements were people, chlorine would be a celebrity. Although intrinsically no more or less important than any other element, chlorine has had a knack of making headlines. The genre of "object biography" has been quite successful in popular science recently. We took this opportunity to write a "biographical" study of chlorine. Chlorine's wide range of interesting controversies is well suited for attracting and maintaining the enthusiasm of the diverse range of students we teach in our department.

  20. The roles of reactive species in micropollutant degradation in the UV/free chlorine system. (United States)

    Fang, Jingyun; Fu, Yun; Shang, Chii


    The UV/free chlorine process forms reactive species such as hydroxyl radicals (HO(•)), chlorine atoms (Cl(•)), Cl2(•-), and O(•-). The specific roles of these reactive species in aqueous micropollutant degradation in the UV/chlorine process under different conditions were investigated using a steady-state kinetic model. Benzoic acid (BA) was chosen as the model micropollutant. The steady-state kinetic model developed fitted the experimental data well. The results showed that HO(•) and Cl(•) contributed substantially to BA degradation, while the roles of the other reactive species such as Cl2(•-) and O(•-) were negligible. The overall degradation rate of BA decreased as the pH increased from 6 to 9. In particular, the relative contributions of HO(•) and Cl(•) to the degradation changed from 34.7% and 65.3% respectively at pH 6 to 37.9% and 62% respectively at pH 9 under the conditions evaluated. Their relative contributions also changed slightly with variations in chlorine dosage, BA concentration and chloride concentration. The scavenging effect of natural organic matter (NOM) on Cl(•) was relatively small compared to that on HO(•), while bicarbonate preferentially reduced the contribution of Cl(•). This study is the first to demonstrate the contributions of different reactive species to the micropollutant degradation in the UV/chlorine system under environmentally relevant conditions.

  1. Aqueous chlorination of mefenamic acid: kinetics, transformation by-products and ecotoxicity assessment. (United States)

    Adira Wan Khalit, Wan Nor; Tay, Kheng Soo


    Mefenamic acid (Mfe) is one of the most frequently detected nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the environment. This study investigated the kinetics and the transformation by-products of Mfe during aqueous chlorination. The potential ecotoxicity of the transformation by-products was also evaluated. In the kinetic study, the second-order rate constant (kapp) for the reaction between Mfe and free available chlorine (FAC) was determined at 25 ± 0.1 °C. The result indicated that the degradation of Mfe by FAC is highly pH-dependent. When the pH was increased from 6 to 8, it was found that the kapp for the reaction between Mfe and FAC was decreased from 16.44 to 4.4 M(-1) s(-1). Characterization of the transformation by-products formed during the chlorination of Mfe was carried out using liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight accurate mass spectrometry. Four major transformation by-products were identified. These transformation by-products were mainly formed through hydroxylation, chlorination and oxidation reactions. Ecotoxicity assessment revealed that transformation by-products, particularly monohydroxylated Mfe which is more toxic than Mfe, can be formed during aqueous chlorination.

  2. Aromatization process of hydrocarbons containing 2 to 4 carbon atoms in the presence of MFI structure zeolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alario, F.; Deves, J.M.


    The invention describes an aromatization process of hydrocarbons comprising 2 to 4 carbon atoms per molecule in the presence of a composite catalyst which contains: a MFI structure zeolite containing an element chosen among alkaline or alkaline-earth metals, with a structure made of Silicon, Aluminium and / or Gallium; a matrix; platinum metals and additive metal chosen among Stain, Germanium, Indium, Copper, Iron, Molybdenum, Gallium, Thallium, Gold, Silver, Ruthenium, Chrome, Tungsten and Lead at least; an halogen chosen among Fluorine, Chlorine, Bromine and Iodine at least; Gallium and Zinc possibly; alkaline or alkaline-earth metal in the matrix preferentially. The invention describes also catalyst preparation and use for hydrocarbons aromatization reactions.

  3. Natural and Enhanced Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents Using RT3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Christian D.; Truex, Michael J.; Clement, T P.


    RT3D (Reactive Transport in 3-Dimensions) is a reactive transport code that can be applied to model solute fate and transport for many different purposes. This document specifically addresses application of RT3D for modeling related to evaluation and implementation of Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA). Selection of MNA as a remedy requires an evaluation process to demonstrate that MNA will meet the remediation goals. The U.S. EPA, through the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER) Directive 9200.4?17P, provides the regulatory context for the evaluation and implementation of MNA. In a complementary fashion, the context for using fate and transport modeling as part of MNA evaluation is described in the EPA?s technical protocol for chlorinated solvent MNA, the Scenarios Evaluation Tool for Chlorinated Solvent MNA, and in this document. The intent of this document is to describe (1) the context for applying RT3D for chlorinated solvent MNA and (2) the attenuation processes represented in RT3D, (3) dechlorination reactions that may occur, and (4) the general approach for using RT3D reaction modules (including a summary of the RT3D reaction modules that are available) to model fate and transport of chlorinated solvents as part of MNA or for combinations of MNA and selected types of active remediation.

  4. Determination of chlorine in silicate rocks (United States)

    Peck, L.C.


    In a rapid accurate method for the determination of chlorine in silicate rocks, the rock powder is sintered with a sodium carbonate flux containing zinc oxide and magnesium carbonate. The sinter cake is leached with water, the resulting solution is filtered, and the filtrate is acidified with nitric acid. Chlorine is determined by titrating this solution with mercuric nitrate solution using sodium nitroprusside as the indicator. The titration is made in the dark with a beam of light shining through the solution. The end point of the titration is found by visually comparing the intensity of this beam of light with that of a similar beam of light in a reference solution.

  5. Evaluation of the flame velocities of hydrocarbons and oxygenates using a gasoline engine; Gasoline engine ni yoru tanka suiso oyobi gansanso kagobutsu no kaen sokudo hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, K.; Akasaka, Y. [JOMO Technical Research Center, Tokyo (Japan)


    Study was made on the relation between chemical structures of fuels and flame propagation velocities in gasoline engines. Recently lean burn engines have been developed, however, their combustion is largely unstable for every combustion cycle under a lean burn condition. A decrease in thermal efficiency and an increase in unburnt hydrocarbon emission due to reduction of a combustion rate are also major problems. Increasing a flame velocity in engines is one of their solutions. As the study result, flame velocities of light olefin and naphthene were higher, while those of isooctane, MTBE and ETBE were lower. A heat production period and time to dQmax were shorter in light olefin and naphthene, while longer in isooctane, MTBE and ETBE. Substances with higher flame velocities had higher thermal efficiencies under a lean burn condition because reduction of a thermal efficiency due to dissociation from Otto cycle is small. THC concentration in emission gas was lower in 4-methyl-1-pentane, 2-methyl-2-butane and cyclopentane with faster flame velocities, while higher in isooctane with the lower velocity. 3 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Rate of absorption and interfacial area of chlorine into aqueous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The rate of absorption predicted from developed model is compared with experimental results. They were in good agreement. ... are chlorine-water, chlorine-aqueous solution of alkaline carbonate, chlorine-aqueous alkaline ... Bulk concentration of an individual chemical species in liquid. Assuming all the reactions are at ...

  7. δ37Cl : the geochemistry of chlorine isotopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggenkamp, H.G.M.


    In this thesis the geochemistry of the stable isotopes of chlorine will be examined. Chlorine is one of the halogens, the seventh group in the periodic system of elements. This group consists of five elements, fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine.

  8. 49 CFR 176.225 - Stowage of chlorine. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stowage of chlorine. 176.225 Section 176.225 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Requirements for Class 2 (Compressed Gas) Materials § 176.225 Stowage of chlorine. Chlorine (UN 1017) must be...

  9. Chlorine inactivation of mixed population versus indicator microorganism (poster)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, M.C.F.M.; Keuten, M.G.A.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.; Rietveld, L.C.


    Chlorine is present in most swimming pools as residual disinfectant. In the Netherlands, the chlorine concentration in swimming pools has to be between 0.5-1.5 mg/L free available chlorine, which is based on a 4-log removal of Pseudomonas aeruginosa within 30 seconds. Besides disinfection of

  10. Efficiency of Chlorine Dioxide as a Bactericide1 (United States)

    Benarde, Melvin A.; Israel, Bernard M.; Olivieri, Vincent P.; Granstrom, Marvin L.


    We found chlorine dioxide to be a more effective disinfectant than chlorine in sewage effluent at pH 8.5. Chlorine dioxide was also found to be a more stable bactericide in relation to pH in the range studied. Images Fig. 1 PMID:5325940

  11. Effects of chlorine and temperature on yeasts isolatedfrom a soft ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yeasts isolated from sugar and filling valves in a bottling process were exposed to different chlorine concentrations and various high temperatures. It was found that growth of yeasts decreased with increase in chlorine concentration. The maximum chlorine concentration that inhibited both types of yeasts was 60mg/l while ...

  12. Chlorine Gas: An Evolving Hazardous Material Threat and Unconventional Weapon


    Jones, Robert MD; Wills, Brandon DO; Kang, Christopher MD


    Chlorine gas represents a hazardous material threat from industrial accidents and as a terrorist weapon. This review will summarize recent events involving chlorine disasters and its use by terrorists, discuss pre-hospital considerations and suggest strategies for the initial management for acute chlorine exposure events. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(2):151-156.

  13. Chlorine Gas: An Evolving Hazardous Material Threat and Unconventional Weapon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones, Robert MD


    Full Text Available Chlorine gas represents a hazardous material threat from industrial accidents and as a terrorist weapon. This review will summarize recent events involving chlorine disasters and its use by terrorists, discuss pre-hospital considerations and suggest strategies for the initial management for acute chlorine exposure events. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(2:151-156.

  14. Exposure to Chlorine Dioxide Gas for 4 Hours Renders Syphacia Ova Nonviable


    Czarra, Jane A; Adams, Joleen K; Carter, Christopher L; Hill, William A; Coan, Patricia N


    The purpose of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of chlorine dioxide gas for environmental decontamination of Syphacia spp. ova. We collected Syphacia ova by perianal cellophane tape impression of pinworm-infected mice. Tapes with attached ova were exposed to chlorine dioxide gas for 1, 2, 3, or 4 h. After gas exposure, ova were incubated in hatching medium for 6 h to promote hatching. For controls, tapes with attached ova were maintained at room temperature for 1, 2, 3, and 4 h without ...

  15. Removal of Chlorinated Resin and Fatty Acids from Paper Mill wastewater through Constructed Wetland


    Ashutosh Kumar Choudhary; Satish Kumar; Chhaya Sharma


    This study evaluates the performance of horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland (HSSF-CW) for the removal of chlorinated resin and fatty acids (RFAs) from pulp and paper mill wastewater. The dimensions of the treatment system were 3.5 m x 1.5 m x 0.28 m with surface area of 5.25 m2, filled with fine sand and gravel. The cell was planted with an ornamental plant species Canna indica. The removal efficiency of chlorinated RFAs was in the range of 92-96% at the hydrau...

  16. Efficacy of chlorine and acidified sodium chlorite on microbial population and quality changes of spinach leaves. (United States)

    Nei, Daisuke; Choi, Ji-Weon; Bari, Md Latiful; Kawasaki, Susumu; Kawamoto, Shinichi; Inatsu, Yasuhiro


    Efficacy of washing with distilled water, chlorine solution, and acidified sodium chlorite (ASC) solution on populations of microorganisms on spinach leaves was evaluated. Washing with chlorine (100 mg/L) and ASC (sodium chlorite, 15 mg/L; citric acid, 200 mg/L) resulted in significant population reduction (1.1-1.9 log CFU/g) of aerobic microflora, coliform, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 (p spinach leaves showed lower reduction than that of spot-inoculated spinach. After washing, populations of aerobic microflora, coliform, and E. coli O157:H7 were increased during storage at 10 degrees C, and washing condition before storage did not affect the subsequent increases in microbial population. Color of spinach leaves washed with ASC solution was not different from the color of those washed with water or chlorine solution, and washing with ASC solution was concluded to has no effect on appearance of spinach leaves.

  17. Filtration of chlorine and hydrogen chloride gas by engineered UiO-66-NH2metal-organic framework. (United States)

    Browe, Matthew A; Napolitano, Amedeo; DeCoste, Jared B; Peterson, Gregory W


    Chlorine (Cl 2 ) and hydrogen chloride (HCl) are heavily utilized industrial chemicals that present significant respiratory health risks. The metal-organic framework UiO-66-NH 2 has shown an unprecedented ability in powder form to remove chlorine gas. Here, we engineered UiO-66-NH 2 into 20×40 mesh granules and evaluated their ability to remove chlorine and hydrogen chloride gas challenges. The exposed materials were characterized with nitrogen isotherms, powder X-ray diffraction, and attenuated total reflectance - Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Breakthrough results revealed that UiO-66-NH 2 sorption of chlorine and hydrogen chloride met or exceeded sorption of state-of-the-art metal-impregnated activated carbon materials on a mass and volume basis in engineered form. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. A dynamic system for delivering controlled bromine and chlorine vapor exposures to weanling swine skin. (United States)

    Snider, Thomas H; Perry, Mark R; Richter, William R; Plahovinsak, Jennifer L; Rogers, James; Reid, Frances M; Graham, John S


    Assessing the hazards of accidental exposure to toxic industrial chemical (TIC) vapors and evaluating therapeutic compounds or treatment regimens require the development of appropriate animal models. The objective of this project was to develop an exposure system for delivering controlled vapor concentrations of TICs to the skin of anesthetized weanling pigs. Injury levels targeted for study were superficial dermal (SD) and deep dermal (DD) skin lesions as defined histopathologically. The exposure system was capable of simultaneously delivering chlorine or bromine vapor to four, 3-cm diameter exposure cups placed over skin between the axillary and inguinal areas of the ventral abdomen. Vapor concentrations were generated by mixing saturated bromine or chlorine vapor with either dried dilution air or nitrogen. Bromine exposure concentrations ranged from 6.5 × 10(-4) to 1.03 g/L, and exposure durations ranged from 1 to 45 min. A 7-min skin exposure to bromine vapors at 0.59 g/L was sufficient to produce SD injuries, while a 17-min exposure produced a DD injury. Chlorine exposure concentrations ranged from 1.0 to 2.9 g/L (saturated vapor concentration) for exposures ranging from 3 to 90 min. Saturated chlorine vapor challenges for up to 30 min did not induce significant dermal injuries, whereas saturated chlorine vapor with wetted material on the skin surface for 30-60 min induced SD injuries. DD chlorine injuries could not be induced with this system. The vapor exposure system described in this study provides a means for safely regulating, quantifying and delivering TIC vapors to the skin of weanling swine as a model to evaluate therapeutic treatments.

  19. Effects of ZDDP and Chlorinated Paraffins on Lubricant Film in Twist Compression Tribotest (United States)

    Zinc Dialkyl Dithio Phosphate, Chlorinated Paraffins and other Extreme Pressure (EP) additives are used in oils for severe boundary lubrication applications, such as metal forming or gears. Twist Compression Tribotester (TCT) was employed (steel-on-steel) to evaluate EP additives at 3 to 20% wt. in...

  20. Characterization of the reactivity and chlorinated products of carbazole during aqueous chlorination. (United States)

    Xu, Xiong; Wang, Donghong; Li, Chunmei; Feng, Hongru; Wang, Zijian


    Carbazole in source water is a potential precursor for toxic chlorocarbazoles in drinking water when chlorine is used as a disinfection agent in drinking water treatment plants. However, the reactivity of carbazole and the specific structures and predominant analogues of chlorocarbazoles produced during aqueous chlorination remain unknown. In this study, the aqueous chlorination of carbazole was performed to characterize its reactivity and the chlorinated products. Chlorocarbazoles generated from carbazole were identified by a comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method, and their molecular structures were predicted by the Fukui index of electrophilic attack, f-1(r). As a result, the comprehensive chlorination pathway of carbazole was extrapolated with a total of nine chlorocarbazoles identified, including two monochlorocarbazoles (3-chlorocarbazole and 1-chlorocarbazole), four dichlorocarbazoles (3,6-dichlorocarbazole, 1,6-dichlorocarbazole, 1,3-dichlorocarbazole and 1,8-dichlorocarbazole), two trichlorocarbazoles (1,3,6-trichlorocarbazole and 1,3,8-trichlorocarbazole) and one tetrachlorocarbazole (1,3,6,8-tetrachlorocarbazole). The f-1(r) value indicates that the C1, C3, C6 and C8 atoms of carbazole were the favored positions for electrophilic attack, with the C3 and C6 atoms being the predominant sites for chlorine substitution. 3-Chlorocarbazole, 3,6-dichlorocarbazole, 1,3,6-trichlorocarbazole and 1,3,6,8-tetrachlorocarbazole were the major analogues of each chlorocarbazole group; however, the production of minor analogues such as 1-chlorocarbazole and 1,6-dichlorocarbazole should not be overlooked. The chlorination of carbazole was a pseudo first order reaction with a reaction rate of 0.1836 nmol/(L· h) and half-life of 3.77 h (pH = 6.4, Cl2 = 4.7 mg/L), and the chlorination rate of carbazole was approximately 5 times faster than that of an known chlorination precursor pyrene. These results showed that Fukui index was

  1. Vol. 4 in the series: Site profiles of persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons - cause-oriented monitoring in aquatic media; Pestizide aus der Reihe der persistenten chlorierten Kohlenwasserstoffe in Gewaessern der Rhein-Region - Ergebnisse nachhaltiger Steuerungen von Wirtschaft und Politik. Bd. 4 der Reihe: Standortprofile persistenter chlorierter Kohlenwasserstoffe - ursachenorientiertes Monitoring in aquatischen Medien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinisch, E.; Kettrup, A.; Bergheim, W.; Wenzel, S.


    Evaluating the analytical data of DDT and its metabolites, the isomers of HCH as well as (sometimes) of aldrin and dieldrin in surface water, suspended matter, eels, breams and roaches from the rivers Rhine, Neckar, Kocher, Enz, Main (upto km 360), Weschnitz, Modau, Schwarzbach, Hengstbach, Grundbach, Nidda, Rodau, Kinzig, Werra, Diemel, Lahn, Nahe, Mosel, Sauer, Saar, Ahr, Kyll, Sieg and Laacher See distance profiles (partly from Konstanz till Markermeer) and time series (partly from 1984-2001) were elaborated. The primary data come from about 15 mainly regional investigation departments, the IKSR and the Environmental Specimen Bank. The chemical enterprises in Rheinfelden, Grenzach, Ludwigshafen, Lampertheim, Gernsheim, Darmstadt, Hoechst, Kelsterbach, Offenbach, Ingelheim, Loelsdorf, Leverkusen, Elberfeld, Krefeld-Uerdingen and Huels could partly be made transparent by the course of the sDDT and sHCH values and the profiles of the constituents and isomers, resp., in the distance profiles (especially from the river Rhine) mainly from 1990/92. The corresponding graph for the year 2000 shows that there is no longer a human and ecotoxicological relevance of the compounds to be expected. (orig.)



    Abdulah Gagić; Selma Selimović; Suad Jukić; Ajla Ališah; Aida Kustura


    It is common that experts use routine procedures for disinfection. Every part of the disinfection procedure is routinely done: preparation of the disinfection media, selection of the type of disinfection, protective measures, effect control and environmental issues. This article offers a new insight into the use of stabilized liquid chlorine dioxide as a qualitative alternative disinfectant for wider application by comparing it to the most frequently used chlorine and its compounds. When used...

  3. Thermophysical Properties of Hydrocarbon Mixtures (United States)

    SRD 4 NIST Thermophysical Properties of Hydrocarbon Mixtures (PC database for purchase)   Interactive computer program for predicting thermodynamic and transport properties of pure fluids and fluid mixtures containing up to 20 components. The components are selected from a database of 196 components, mostly hydrocarbons.

  4. Chlorinated organic compounds in urban river sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soma, Y.; Shiraishi, H.; Inaba, K. [National Inst. of Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)


    Among anthropogenic chemicals, many chlorinated organic compounds have been used as insecticides and detected frequently as contaminants in urban river sediments so far. However, the number and total amount of chemicals produced commercially and used are increasing year by year, though each amount of chemicals is not so high. New types of contaminants in the environment may be detected by the use of newly developed chemicals. Chlorinated organic compounds in the urban river sediments around Tokyo and Kyoto, large cities in Japan, were surveyed and recent trends of contaminants were studied. Contaminants of the river sediments in industrial areas had a variety, but PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls) was detected in common in industrial areas. Concentration of PCB related well to the number of factories on both sides of rivers, although the use of PCB was stopped 20 years ago. In domestic areas, Triclosan (5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)-phenol) and Triclocarban (3,4,4{prime}-trichlorocarbanilide)(both are contained in soap or shampoo for fungicides), p-dichlorobenzene (insecticides for wears) and TCEP(tris-chloroethyl phosphate) were detected. EOX(extracted organic halogen) in the sediments was 5 to 10 times of chlorinated organic compounds detected by GC/MS. Major part of organic halogen was suggested to be included in chlorinated organics formed by bleaching or sterilization.

  5. Halogenase‐Inspired Oxidative Chlorination Using Flavin Photocatalysis (United States)

    Hering, Thea; Mühldorf, Bernd


    Abstract Chlorine gas or electropositive chlorine reagents are used to prepare chlorinated aromatic compounds, which are found in pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and polymers, and serve as synthetic precursors for metal‐catalyzed cross‐couplings. Nature chlorinates with chloride anions, FAD‐dependent halogenases, and O2 as the oxidant. A photocatalytic oxidative chlorination is described based on the organic dye riboflavin tetraacetate mimicking the enzymatic process. The chemical process allows within the suitable arene redox potential window a broader substrate scope compared to the specific activation in the enzymatic binding pocket. PMID:26991557

  6. Turbidity and chlorine demand reduction using alum and moringa flocculation before household chlorination in developing countries. (United States)

    Preston, Kelsey; Lantagne, Daniele; Kotlarz, Nadine; Jellison, Kristen


    Over 1.1 billion people in the world lack access to improved drinking water. Diarrhoeal and other waterborne diseases cause an estimated 1.87 million deaths per year. The Safe Water System (SWS) is a household water treatment intervention that reduces diarrhoeal disease incidence among users in developing countries. Turbid waters pose a particular challenge to implementation of SWS programmes; although research shows that a 3.75 mg l(-1) sodium hypochlorite dose effectively treats turbid waters, users sometimes object to the strong chlorine taste and prefer to drink water that is more aesthetically pleasing. This study investigated the efficacy of two locally available chemical water treatments-alum and Moringa oleifera flocculation-to reduce turbidity and chlorine demand at turbidities of 10, 30, 70, 100 and 300 NTU. Both treatments effectively reduced turbidity (alum flocculation 23.0-91.4%; moringa flocculation 14.2-96.2%). Alum flocculation effectively reduced chlorine demand compared with controls at 30, 70, 100 and 300 NTU (p=0.01-0.06). Moringa flocculation increased chlorine demand to the point where adequate free chlorine residual was not maintained for 24 hours after treatment. Alum pretreatment is recommended in waters>or=30 NTU for optimum water disinfection. Moringa flocculation is not recommended before chlorination.

  7. Chlorinated aromatics from combustion: influence of chlorine, combustion conditions, and catalytic activity. (United States)

    Oberg, T; Ohrström, T


    Research on the formation of chlorinated aromatics in combustion processes has mainly taken place in the laboratory. Previous attempts to correlate observation data from commercial plants have been inconclusive. This study reports on the outcome of an industrial experiment in a full-scale afterburner. The influence of chlorine input, combustion temperature, and catalytic activity was investigated in a factorial design with two blocks. Polychlorinated benzenes, dibenzo-p-dioxins, and dibenzofurans were formed both at combustion temperatures and below 400 degrees C. The results show that all three experimental factors have statistically significant impact on the formation and release of these toxic byproducts. The quantitative dependence between chlorine input and the occurrence of chlorinated aromatics is of particular interest due to previous controversy. The purpose with this study was to ensure that the installation of a boiler for energy recovery would not cause elevated emissions of chlorinated aromatics. The experiment demonstrated that this risk is probably low, since the presence of catalytic material or an increase in chlorine input is required for this to happen. A general conclusion was that industrial experimentation employing the principles of statistical design could improve the validity in recommendations regarding commercial plant operation.

  8. Evaluation of aqueous cleaners as alternatives to vapor degreasing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guidotti, R.A.; Schneider, T.W.; Frye, G.C. [and others


    As part of the preparation process during assembly of thermally activated batteries, the stainless steel piece parts are normally cleaned by vapor degreasing with trichloroethylene. Severe restrictions on the use of chlorinated and fluorinated hydrocarbons in recent years prompted the evaluation of a number of aqueous cleaners as a replacement technology for this application. A total of seven commercial aqueous degreasers was evaluated in this study at several dilution ratios and temperatures. One organic cleaner was also examined under ambient conditions. The effectiveness of the cleaner was determined by the use of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), which is a surface analytical technique that is very sensitive to low levels of surface contaminants. A quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) that is immersed in the cleaning bath was evaluated as a tool for monitoring the bath cleanliness. The best overall cleaning results were obtained with Micro, Impro-Clean 3800, and Sonicor cleaners.

  9. An Approach that Uses the Concentrations of Hydrocarbon Compounds in Soil Gas at the Source of Contamination to Evaluate the Potential for Intrusion of Petroleum Vapors into Buildings (PVI) (United States)

    If motor fuels are spilled from underground storage tanks, petroleum hydrocarbons can vaporize from the spill and move as a vapor through the unsaturated zone. If a building is sited above or near the spill, the hydrocarbons may intrude into the air space of the building. This ...

  10. Dual carbon-chlorine stable isotope investigation of sources and fate of chlorinated ethenes in contaminated groundwater. (United States)

    Wiegert, Charline; Aeppli, Christoph; Knowles, Tim; Holmstrand, Henry; Evershed, Richard; Pancost, Richard D; Macháčková, Jiřina; Gustafsson, Örjan


    Chlorinated ethenes (CEs) are ubiquitous groundwater contaminants, yet there remains a need for a method to efficiently monitor their in situ degradation. We report here the first field application of combined stable carbon and chlorine isotope analysis of tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE) to investigate their biodegradation in a heavily contaminated aquifer. The two-dimensional Compound Specific Isotope Analysis (2D-CSIA) approach was facilitated by a recently developed gas chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry (GCqMS) method for δ(37)Cl determination. Both C and Cl isotopes showed evidence of ongoing PCE transformation. Applying published C isotope enrichment factors (ε(C)) enabled evaluation of the extent of in situ PCE degradation (11-78%). We interpreted C and Cl isotopes using a numerical reactive transport model along a 60-m flow path. It revealed that combined PCE and TCE mass load was dechlorinated by less than 10%, and that cis-dichloroethene was not further dechlorinated. Furthermore, the 2D-CSIA approach allowed estimation of Cl isotope enrichment factors ε(Cl) (-7.8 to -0.8‰) and characteristic ε(Cl)/ε(C) values (0.42-1.12) for reductive PCE dechlorination at this field site. This investigation demonstrates the benefit of 2D-CSIA to assess in situ degradation of CEs and the applicability of Cl isotope fractionation to evaluate PCE and TCE dechlorination.

  11. Evaluation of EpiDerm full thickness-300 (EFT-300) as an in vitro model for skin irritation: Studies on aliphatic hydrocarbons (United States)

    Mallampati, Ramya; Patlolla, Ram R.; Agarwal, Saurab; Babu, R. Jayachandra; Hayden, Patrick; Klausner, Mitchell; Singh, Mandip S.


    The aim of this study was to understand the skin irritation effects of saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons (HCs), C9–C16, found jet fuels using in vitro 3-dimensional EpiDerm full thickness-300 (EFT-300) skin cultures. The EFT-300 cultures were treated with 2.5 µl of HCs and the culture medium and skin samples were collected at 24 and 48 h to measure the release of various inflammatory biomarkers (IL-1α, IL-6 and IL-8). To validate the in vitro results, in vivo skin irritation studies were carried out in hairless rats by measuring trans epidermal water loss (TEWL) and erythema following un-occlusive dermal exposure of HCs for 72 h. The MTT tissue viability assay results with the EFT-300 tissue show that 2.5 µl/tissue (≈4.1 µl/cm2) of the HCs did not induce any significant changes in the tissue viability for exposure times up to 48 h of exposure. Microscopic observation of the EFT-300 cross-sections indicated that there were no obvious changes in the tissue morphology of the samples at 24 h, but after 48 h of exposure, tridecane, tetradecane and hexadecane produced a slight thickening and disruption of stratum corneum. Dermal exposures of C12–C16 HCs for 24 h significantly increased the expression of IL-1α in the skin as well as in the culture medium. Similarly, dermal exposure of all HCs for 24 h significantly increased the expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8 in the skin as well as in the culture medium in proportion to the HC chain length. As the exposure time increased to 48 h, IL-6 concentrations increased 2-fold compared to the IL-6 values at 24 h. The in vivo skin irritation data also showed that both TEWL and erythema scores increased with increased HCs chain length (C9–C16). In conclusion, the EFT-300 showed that the skin irritation profile of HCs was in the order of C9 ≤ C10 ≤ C11 ≤ C12 < C13 ≈ C14 ≈ C16 and that the tissue was an excellent in vitro model to predict in vivo irritation and to understand the structural activity

  12. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR to determine the inactivation of Human Rotavirus by chlorine. (United States)

    Xue, Bin; Li, Chenyu; Zhang, Bin; Zhao, Tianyu; Shen, Zhiqiang; Qiu, Zhigang; Jin, Min; Wang, Jingfeng; Li, Junwen


    Human rotaviruses (HRVs) are the major cause of acute diarrhea in infants and young children. Here, a real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay targeting the rotaviral VP4 gene (VP4-RT-qPCR) was established to evaluate the inactivation of HRV upon chlorine disinfection, based on a previous report that damage to the 1227-2354bp region of the VP4 gene was associated with eliminated HRV infectivity by chlorine. In this study, inactivation of HRV by 0.6mg/L free chlorine was assessed in phosphate buffered saline (PBS; pH 7.2), and tap and river water samples, using both TCID50 and RT-qPCR (VP2- and VP4-RT-qPCR) assays, respectively. Among the samples tested, the VP2-RT-qPCR method did not show significant inactivation after chlorine disinfection; however, the reduction in VP4-RT-qPCR signal was correlated with decreased HRV infectivity. Moreover, the higher sensitivity of the VP4-RT-qPCR assay allowed for assessment of chlorine HRV inactivation at longer exposure times compared with the conventional TCID50 assay. Collectively, these results indicated that the VP4-RT-qPCR assay is a rapid, sensitive, and reliable tool to detect infectious HRV following chlorine inactivation, and highlights the potential for further development of qPCR/RT-qPCR assays to provide information regarding viral infectivity from drinking water plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. UV/chlorine treatment of carbamazepine: Transformation products and their formation kinetics. (United States)

    Pan, Yanheng; Cheng, ShuangShuang; Yang, Xin; Ren, Jingyue; Fang, Jingyun; Shang, Chii; Song, Weihua; Lian, Lushi; Zhang, Xinran


    Carbamazepine (CBZ) is one of the pharmaceuticals most frequently detected in the aqueous environment. This study investigated the transformation products when CBZ is degraded by chlorine under ultraviolet (UV) irradiation (the UV/chlorine process). Detailed pathways for the degradation of CBZ were elucidated using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC)-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOF-MS). CBZ is readily degraded by hydroxyl radicals (HO) and chlorine radicals (Cl) in the UV/chlorine process, and 24 transformation products were identified. The products indicate that the 10,11-double bond and aromatic ring in CBZ are the sites most susceptible to attack by HO and Cl. Subsequent reaction produces hydroxylated and chlorinated aromatic ring products. Four specific products were quantified and their evolution was related with the chlorine dose, pH, and natural organic matter concentration. Their yields showed an increase followed by a decreasing trend with prolonged reaction time. CBZ-10,11-epoxide (I), the main quantified transformation product from HO oxidation, was observed with a peak transformation yield of 3-32% depending on the conditions. The more toxic acridine (IV) was formed involving both HO and Cl with peak transformation yields of 0.4-1%. All four quantified products together amounted to a peak transformation yield of 34.5%. The potential toxicity of the transformation products was assayed by evaluating their inhibition of the bioluminescence of the bacterium Vibrio Fischeri. The inhibition increased at first and the decreased at longer reaction times, which was in parallel with the evolution of transformation products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. In vivo chlorine and sodium MRI of rat brain at 21.1 T (United States)

    Elumalai, Malathy; Kitchen, Jason A.; Qian, Chunqi; Gor’kov, Peter L.; Brey, William W.


    Object MR imaging of low-gamma nuclei at the ultrahigh magnetic field of 21.1 T provides a new opportunity for understanding a variety of biological processes. Among these, chlorine and sodium are attracting attention for their involvement in brain function and cancer development. Materials and methods MRI of 35Cl and 23Na were performed and relaxation times were measured in vivo in normal rat (n = 3) and in rat with glioma (n = 3) at 21.1 T. The concentrations of both nuclei were evaluated using the center-out back-projection method. Results T1 relaxation curve of chlorine in normal rat head was fitted by bi-exponential function (T1a = 4.8 ms (0.7) T1b = 24.4 ± 7 ms (0.3) and compared with sodium (T1 = 41.4 ms). Free induction decays (FID) of chlorine and sodium in vivo were bi-exponential with similar rapidly decaying components of T2a∗=0.4 ms and T2a∗=0.53 ms, respectively. Effects of small acquisition matrix and bi-exponential FIDs were assessed for quantification of chlorine (33.2 mM) and sodium (44.4 mM) in rat brain. Conclusion The study modeled a dramatic effect of the bi-exponential decay on MRI results. The revealed increased chlorine concentration in glioma (~1.5 times) relative to a normal brain correlates with the hypothesis asserting the importance of chlorine for tumor progression. PMID:23748497

  15. Inactivation of three genera of dominant fungal spores in groundwater using chlorine dioxide: Effectiveness, influencing factors, and mechanisms. (United States)

    Wen, Gang; Xu, Xiangqian; Huang, Tinglin; Zhu, Hong; Ma, Jun


    Fungi in aquatic environments received more attention recently; therefore, the characteristics of inactivation of fungal spores by widely used disinfectants are quite important. Nonetheless, the inactivation efficacy of fungal spores by chlorine dioxide is poorly known. In this study, the effectiveness of chlorine dioxide at inactivation of three dominant genera of fungal spores isolated from drinking groundwater and the effects of pH, temperature, chlorine dioxide concentration, and humic acid were evaluated. The inactivation mechanisms were explored by analyzing the leakage of intracellular substances, the increase in extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP), deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), and proteins as well as the changes in spore morphology. The kinetics of inactivation by chlorine dioxide fitted the Chick-Watson model, and different fungal species showed different resistance to chlorine dioxide inactivation, which was in the following order: Cladosporium sp.>Trichoderma sp. >Penicillium sp., which are much more resistant than Escherichia coli. Regarding the three genera of fungal spores used in this study, chlorine dioxide was more effective at inactivation of fungal spores than chlorine. The effect of disinfectant concentration and temperature was positive, and the impact of pH levels (6.0 and 7.0) was insignificant, whereas the influence of water matrices on the inactivation efficiency was negative. The increased concentration of characteristic extracellular substances and changes of spore morphology were observed after inactivation with chlorine dioxide and were due to cell wall and cell membrane damage in fungal spores, causing the leakage of intracellular substances and death of a fungal spore. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Formation of chlorinated organic compounds in fluidized bed combustion of recycled fuels; Kloorattujen orgaanisten yhdisteiden muodostuminen kierraetyspolttoaineiden leijukerrospoltossa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vesterinen, R.; Kallio, M.; Kirjalainen, T.; Kolsi, A.; Merta, M. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)


    Four tests of co-combustion of recycled fuels (REP) with peat and coal in the 15 kW fluidized bed reactor were performed. The recycled fuel was so-called dry fraction in four vessels sampling at Keltinmaeki. In three tests a part of peat energy was replaced with coal. The mixtures were prepared so that in all mixtures 25 % of energy was recycled fuel and 75 % was either peat or the mixture of peat and coal. The concentrations of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and chlorophenols decreased with increasing part of coal due to the increasing sulphur/chlorine ratio. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Square regression analysis (PLS) showed that the chlorine, copper and sulphur contents of the fuel effected most on the concentrations of chlorophenols, chlorobenzenes, PCBs and PCDDs/PCDFs. Other variables influencing on a model were the lead concentration and the sulphur/chlorine ratio in fuel and the hydrogen chloride concentration of the flue gas. The concentrations of chlorophenols and chlorobenzenes were also significant for PCDD/PCDF concentrations in flue gas. The sulphur, chlorine, copper and chromium contents in fly ash and the temperature of the reactor influenced on the chlorophenol, chlorobenzene, PCB and PCDD/PCDF concentrations in fly ash. The chlorophenol and chlorobenzene contents in fly ash, the sulphur/chlorine ratio and the lead content in fuel, the sulphur dioxide, hydrogen chloride and carbon monoxide concentrations in flue gas had also influence on PCDD/PCDF concentrations in fly ash

  17. Solo Mycoremediation Impacted by Waste Hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Santos Freire


    Full Text Available Oil and its derivatives are the principal means of energy generation for vehicles that transport raw materials and goods produced in developed and developing regions accentuating the risk of accidents by spills in stockpiling, transport, use or discarding. The contamination by total hydrocarbons suggests the elevated propension to mutations and to the formation of carcinogenic tumors, as a consequence of the exposure to human contamination by these products. This work had as aims: a To investigate, in a laboratorial scale, the degrading capacity of autochthonous microbiota in the presence of differing concentrations of hydrocarbons (0%, 2,5%, 5% e 7,5%; b To isolate fungi tolerant to the contaminant; c To quantify and analyze the biodegradation capacity of soil through the microbial biomass and metabolic quotient; and d To set, in laboratory, ideal conditions of biodegradation of the xenobiotic compound. Some parameters of microbial activity have been evaluated, such as: biological (Carbon of microbial biomass, CO2 , qCO2 emission, and fungi growth, chemical (pH, electrical conductivity –EC –, analysis of fertility and total hydrocarbons and physical (physical composition of the soil for analysis and comparisons. The obtained results suggest that the adding of 5% of waste oil in the ground provided ideal condition for the biodegradation of he   contaminant in the environment. From the evaluated parameters, the emission of CO2 and microbial C were considered more indicative of changes in soil microbial activity subject to the addition of hydrocarbons, confirming the possibility of microremediation use.

  18. National Gas Survey. Synthesized gaseous hydrocarbon fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The supply-Technical Advisory Task Force-Synthesized Gaseous Hydrocarbon Fuels considered coal, hydrocarbon liquids, oil shales, tar sands, and bioconvertible materials as potential feedstocks for gaseous fuels. Current status of process technology for each feedstock was reviewed, economic evaluations including sensitivity analysis were made, and constraints for establishment of a synthesized gaseous hydrocarbon fuels industry considered. Process technology is presently available to manufacture gaseous hydrocarbon fuels from each of the feedstocks. In 1975 there were eleven liquid feedstock SNG plants in the United States having a capacity of 1.1 billion SCFD. There can be no contribution of SNG before 1982 from plants using feedstocks other than liquids because there are no plants in operation or under construction as of 1977. Costs for SNG are higher than current regulated prices for U.S. natural gas. Because of large reserves, coal is a prime feedstock candidate although there are major constraints in the area of coal leases, mining and water permits, and others. Commercial technology is available and several new gasification processes are under development. Oil shale is also a feedstock in large supply and commercial process technology is available. There are siting and permit constraints, and water availability may limit the ultimate size of an oil shale processing industry. Under projected conditions, bioconvertible materials are not expected to support the production of large quantities of pipeline quality gas during the next decade. Production of low or medium Btu gas from municipal solid wastes can be expected to be developed in urban areas in conjunction with savings in disposal costs. In the economic evaluations presented, the most significant factor for liquid feedstock plants is the anticipated cost of feedstock and fuel. The economic viability of plants using other feedstocks is primarily dependent upon capital requirements.

  19. Quantification of temperature impacts on the dissolution of chlorinated hydrocarbons into groundwater (United States)

    Koproch, Nicolas; Popp, Steffi; Köber, Ralf; Beyer, Christof; Bauer, Sebastian; Dahmke, Andreas


    Shallow thermal energy storage has great potential for heat storage especially in urban and industrial areas. However, frequently existing organic groundwater contaminations in such areas were currently seen as exclusion criteria for thermal use of the shallow subsurface, since increased contaminant discharge is feared as consequence of heating. Contaminant discharge is influenced by a complex interaction of processes and boundary conditions as e.g. solubility, dispersion, viscosity and degradation, where there is still a lack of experimental evidence of the temperature dependent interaction. Even existing studies on basic influencing factors as e.g. temperature dependent solubilities show contradictory results. Such knowledge gaps should be reduced to improve the basis and liability of numerical model simulations and the knowledge base to enable a more differentiated and optimized use of resources. For this purpose batch as well as 1- and 2-dimensional experimental studies concerning the temperature dependent release of TCE (trichloroethylene) from a NAPL (non aqueous phase liquid) source are presented and discussed. In addition, this experimental studies are accompanied by a numerical model verification, where extensions of existing numerical model approaches on basis of this obtained experimental results are developed. Firstly, temperature dependent TCE solubility data were collected using batch experiments with significantly better temperature resolution compared to earlier studies, showing a distinct minimum at 35°C and increased solubility towards 5°C and 70°C. Secondly, heated 1-dimensional stainless steel columns homogenously filled with quartz sand were used to quantify source zone depletion and contaminant discharge at 10-70°C. Cumulative mass discharge curves indicated two blob categories with distinct differences in dissolution kinetics. Increasing the temperature showed here an increase of the amount of fast dissolving blobs indicating higher NAPL-water contact areas. Thirdly, heatable 2D-tanks (40 cm x 25 cm x 10 cm) homogenously filled with quartz sand and percolated by distilled H2O were used to investigate the dissolution behavior and plume development of TCE from a residual source zone (5 cm x 5 cm x 10 cm) at 10-70°C. Using NAPL source zone saturation of 5% (Case A) and 20% (Case B) two exemplary cases of a depleted and a fresh source zone were investigated. TCE outflow concentrations in case A increased continuously with increasing temperature, but were controlled by the temperature-dependent solubility in Case B. The experimental results showed that the TCE mass transfer rate has a minimum at about 40°C, if dissolution is non-rate limited and a continuous increase with increasing temperature for rate-limited systems. Implementation of temperature dependent NAPL dissolution and two different blob categories with different mass transfer rate coefficients in the OpenGeoSys code proved successful in reproducing the experimental results. Acknowledgments: The presented work is part of the ANGUS+ project (03EK3022) funded by the German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF).

  20. Technical Protocol for Using Soluble Carbohydrates to Enhance Reductive Dechlorination of Chlorinated Aliphatic Hydrocarbons (United States)


    Demonstration USEPA CVOCs Large-Scale Pilot underway 41 Palatine IL Metal Plating Facility Illinois EPA CVOCs and Cr+6 Pilot 1998-1999; Full-Scale...year (3.1 to 21.3 meters per year). The bedrock is primarily fractured along horizontal bedding planes that strike to the northwest with a slight...bedding plane partings that are coincident with the strike of the rock. Groundwater flow is generally south-southeast with the orientation of the

  1. Chlorinated hydrocarbons and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) from Barentsburg (West Spitsbergen)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savinov, V.; Savinova, T. [Akvaplan-niva Polar Environmental Centre, Tromso (Norway); Muir, D. [National Water Research Inst., Burlington, ON (Canada); Gabrielsen, G.W. [Norwegian Polar Inst., Tromso (Norway); Alexeeva, L. [SPA Typhoon, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Marasaev, S.; Zyryanov, S. [Murmansk Marine Biological Inst., Murmansk (Russian Federation)


    Glaucous gulls are vulnerable to contaminant exposure in the Arctic due to their low metabolic activity. This paper provided details of a study that analyzed the tissues of a number of glaucous gulls recently found dead in the Svalbard region. Liver samples were analyzed for organochlorine; polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs); DDT; chlorobenzenes (CBz); hexachlorohexanes (HCH); chlordane-related compounds (CHL); endosulfanes; endrine; methoxychlor; mirex; toxaphenes; and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Toxic equivalency factors were used to calculate levels of PCBs. Factor analysis was used to obtain the correlation structure of contaminant concentrations. Lipid base log-transformed contaminant concentrations were used to obtain a Spearman rank order correlation and factor analyses. Results showed that PCBs, DDT, CBz, and CHL were the most abundant persistent contaminants in the hepatic tissues of both male and female glaucous gulls. PBDE hepatic concentrations in female and male glaucous gulls ranged from 3.5 to 100 ng/g ww and 6.1 to 27 ng/g ww. The factor analysis showed that the 4 main contaminants found in the gulls accounted for 75.6 per cent of the total variance found. It was concluded that deca-BDE was the most abundant PBDE congener, which reflected current widespread use of brominated flame retardants in the region. 8 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  2. Temperature Dependence of the Inhibition of Positronium by Chlorine- Substituted Hydrocarbons in Non-Polar Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wikander, G.; Mogensen, O.E.; Pedersen, Niels Jørgen


    Positron annihilation lifetime spectra were measured for solutions of 1,2,3,5-C6H2Cl4 in hexane, toluene, m-xylene and mesitylene, CCl4 in hexane and toluene, and C2HCl3 in n-hexane for concentrations below 1 M and at various temperatures between −30°C and 67°C. The Ps inhibition by C6H2Cl4 was r...

  3. Persistent synthetic chlorinated hydrocarbons in albatross tissue samples from Midway Atoll

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, P.D.; Hannah, D.J.; Buckland, S.J. [ESR:Environmental, Lower Hutt (New Zealand)] [and others


    Anthropogenic organic contaminants have been found in even the most remote locations. To assess the global distribution and possible effects of such contaminants, the authors examined the tissues of two species of albatross collected from Midway Atoll in the central North Pacific Ocean. These birds have an extensive feeding range covering much of the subtropical and northern Pacific Ocean. Anthropogenic contaminants were found at relatively great concentrations in these birds. The sum of 19 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners ranged from 177 ng/g wet weight in eggs to 2,750 ng/g wet weight in adult fat. Total toxic equivalents (TEQs) derived from polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) ranged from 17.2 to 297 pg/g wet weight in the same tissues, while the inclusion of TEQs from PCBs increased these values to 48.4 and 769 pg/g wet weight, respectively. While contaminant concentrations varied between species and tissues, the contaminant profile was relatively uniform. The profile of contaminants detected was unusual in that much of the TEQs was contributed by two pentachlorinated congeners (2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin), and the profiles of PCB congeners did not match known sources. When compared to other studies the concentrations detected in the Midway Atoll samples were near or above the thresholds known to cause adverse effects in other fish-eating bird species.


    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...


    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  6. Biodegradation of chlorinated unsaturated hydrocarbons in relation to biological waste-gas treatment


    Hartmans, S.


    The original goal of the research described in this thesis was to develop a biological process for the removal of vinyl chloride from waste gases. The gaseous and carcinogenic vinyl chloride is used to produce the plastic polyvinyl chloride (PVC). During this production process waste gases containing vinyl chloride are generated. As a microorganism capable of growth on vinyl chloride as the sole carbon and energy source had been isolated it was envisaged that it might be possible to ...

  7. Biodegradation of chlorinated unsaturated hydrocarbons in relation to biological waste-gas treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmans, S.


    The original goal of the research described in this thesis was to develop a biological process for the removal of vinyl chloride from waste gases. The gaseous and carcinogenic vinyl chloride is used to produce the plastic polyvinyl chloride (PVC). During this production process waste gases

  8. Heterogeneous chlorine activation on stratospheric aerosols and clouds in the Arctic polar vortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Wegner


    Full Text Available Chlorine activation in the Arctic is investigated by examining different parameterizations for uptake coefficients on stratospheric aerosols, high-resolution in-situ measurements and vortex-wide satellite observations. The parameterizations for heterogeneous chemistry on liquid aerosols are most sensitive to temperature with the reaction rates doubling for every 1 K increase in temperature. However, differences between the currently available parameterizations are negligible. For Nitric Acid Trihydrate particles (NAT the major factors of uncertainty are the number density of nucleated particles and different parameterizations for heterogeneous chemistry. These two factors induce an uncertainty that covers several orders of magnitude on the reaction rate. Nonetheless, since predicted reaction rates on liquid aerosols always exceed those on NAT, the overall uncertainty for chlorine activation is small. In-situ observations of ClOx from Arctic winters in 2005 and 2010 are used to evaluate the heterogeneous chemistry parameterizations. The conditions for these measurements proved to be very different between those two winters with HCl being the limiting reacting partner for the 2005 measurements and ClONO2 for the 2010 measurements. Modeled levels of chlorine activation are in very good agreement with the in-situ observations and the surface area provided by Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSCs has only a limited impact on modeled chlorine activation. This indicates that the parameterizations give a good representation of the processes in the atmosphere. Back-trajectories started on the location of the observations in 2005 indicate temperatures on the threshold for PSC formation, hence the surface area is mainly provided by the background aerosol. Still, the model shows additional chlorine activation during this time-frame, providing cautionary evidence for chlorine activation even in the absence of PSCs. Vortex-averaged satellite

  9. Inactivation dynamics of Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in wash water during simulated chlorine depletion and replenishment processes. (United States)

    Zhou, Bin; Luo, Yaguang; Nou, Xiangwu; Lyu, Shuxia; Wang, Qin


    Maintaining effective sanitizer concentration is of critical importance for preventing pathogen survival and transference during fresh-cut produce wash operation and for ensuring the safety of finished products. However, maintaining an adequate level of sanitizer in wash water can be challenging for processors due to the large organic load in the wash system. In this study, we investigated how the survival of human pathogens was affected by the dynamic changes in water quality during chlorine depletion and replenishment in simulated produce washing operations. Lettuce extract was added incrementally into water containing pre-set levels of free chlorine to simulate the chlorine depletion process, and sodium hypochlorite was added incrementally into water containing pre-set levels of lettuce extract to simulate chlorine replenishment. Key water quality parameters were closely monitored and the bactericidal activity of the wash water was evaluated using three-strain cocktails of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes. In both chlorine depletion and replenishment processes, no pathogen survival was observed when wash water free chlorine level was maintained above 3.66 mg/L, irrespective of the initial free chlorine levels (10, 50, 100 and 200 mg/L) or organic loading (chemical oxidation demand levels of 0, 532, 1013 and 1705 mg/L). At this free chlorine concentration, the measured ORP was 843 mV and pH was 5.12 for the chlorine depletion process; the measured ORP was 714 mV and pH was 6.97 for the chlorine replenishment process. This study provides quantitative data needed by the fresh-cut produce industry and the regulatory agencies to establish critical operational control parameters to prevent pathogen survival and cross-contamination during fresh produce washing. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. A comparison of iodinated trihalomethane formation from chlorine, chlorine dioxide and potassium permanganate oxidation processes. (United States)

    Zhang, Tian-Yang; Xu, Bin; Hu, Chen-Yan; Lin, Yi-Li; Lin, Lin; Ye, Tao; Tian, Fu-Xiang


    This study compared the formation of iodinated trihalomethanes (I-THMs) from iodide-containing raw waters oxidized by chlorine, chlorine dioxide (ClO₂) and potassium permanganate (KMnO₄) at different oxidant concentrations, reaction times, pHs, initial iodide concentrations and bromide to iodide mass ratios. Among the six investigated I-THMs, iodoform was the major species formed during the oxidation using chlorine, ClO₂ and KMnO₄. When oxidant concentration increased from 0.1 to 3.0 mg/L, the formation of I-THMs increased and then decreased for chlorine and ClO₂, but kept increasing for KMnO₄. As the reaction time went by, I-THM concentration increased to a plateau within 10 h (ClO₂ within only 1 h, especially) for all the three oxidants. I-THM formation gradually increased from pH 3.0 to 9.0 and remained stable at pH values higher than 7.5 for chlorine; however, for ClO₂ and KMnO₄ the highest I-THM formation showed at pH 7.0 and 7.5, respectively. As initial iodide concentration increased from 20 to 800 μg/L, the total amount and species of I-THMs increased for the three oxidants. Iodide contributed to I-THM formation much more significantly than bromide.

  11. Chlorine-Free Red-Burning Pyrotechnics. (United States)

    Sabatini, Jesse J; Koch, Ernst-Christian; Poret, Jay C; Moretti, Jared D; Harbol, Seth M


    The development of a red, chlorine-free pyrotechnic illuminant of high luminosity and spectral purity was investigated. Red-light emission based solely on transient SrOH(g) has been achieved by using either 5-amino-1H-tetrazole or hexamine to deoxidize the combustion flame of a Mg/Sr(NO3 )2 /Epon-binder composition and reduce the amount of both condensed and gaseous SrO, which emits undesirable orange-red light. The new formulations were found to possess high thermal onset temperatures. Avoiding chlorine in these formulations eliminates the risk of the formation of PCBs, PCDDs, and PCDFs. This finding, hence, will have a great impact on both military pyrotechnics and commercial firework sectors. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Revisiting the thermochemistry of chlorine fluorides. (United States)

    Sánchez, Hernán R