WorldWideScience

Sample records for evaluating basic assumptions

  1. Helping Students to Recognize and Evaluate an Assumption in Quantitative Reasoning: A Basic Critical-Thinking Activity with Marbles and Electronic Balance

    OpenAIRE

    Slisko, Josip; Cruz, Adrian Corona

    2013-01-01

    There is a general agreement that critical thinking is an important element of 21st century skills. Although critical thinking is a very complex and controversial conception, many would accept that recognition and evaluation of assumptions is a basic critical-thinking process.  When students use simple mathematical model to reason quantitatively about a situation, they usually do not consider which implicit assumptions they have made and, consequently, they do not evaluate if these assumption...

  2. Artificial Intelligence: Underlying Assumptions and Basic Objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cercone, Nick; McCalla, Gordon

    1984-01-01

    Presents perspectives on methodological assumptions underlying research efforts in artificial intelligence (AI) and charts activities, motivations, methods, and current status of research in each of the major AI subareas: natural language understanding; computer vision; expert systems; search, problem solving, planning; theorem proving and logic…

  3. Basic assumptions in statistical analyses of data in biomedical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    If one or more assumptions are violated, an alternative procedure must be used to obtain valid results. This article aims at highlighting some basic assumptions in statistical analyses of data in biomedical sciences. Keywords: samples, independence, non-parametric, parametric, statistical analyses. Int. J. Biol. Chem. Sci. Vol.

  4. Evaluation of Algebraic Reynolds Stress Model Assumptions Using Experimental Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyoti, B.; Ewing, D.; Matovic, D.

    1996-11-01

    The accuracy of Rodi's ASM assumption is examined by evaluating the terms in Reynolds stress transport equation and their modelled counterparts. The basic model assumption: Dτ_ij/Dt + partial T_ijl/partial xl = (τ_ij/k )(Dk/Dt + partial Tl /partial xl ) (Rodi( Rodi W., ZAMM.), 56, pp. 219-221, 1976.), can also be broken into two stronger assumptions: Da_ij/Dt = 0 and (2) partial T_ijl/partial xl = (τ_ij/k )(partial Tl /partial xl ) (e.g. Taulbee( Taulbee D. B., Phys. of Fluids), 4(11), pp. 2555-2561, 1992.). Fu et al( Fu S., Huang P.G., Launder B.E. & Leschziner M.A., J. Fluid Eng.), 110(2), pp. 216-221., 1988 examined the accuracy of Rodi's assumption using the results of RSM calculation of axisymmetric jets. Since the RSM results did not accurately predict the experimental results either, it may be useful to examine the basic ASM model assumptions using experimental data. The database of Hussein, Capp and George( Hussein H., Capp S. & George W., J.F.M.), 258, pp.31-75., 1994. is sufficiently detailed to evaluate the terms of Reynolds stress transport equations individually, thus allowing both Rodi's and the stronger assumptions to be tested. For this flow assumption (1) is well satisfied for all the components (including \\overlineuv); however, assumption (2) does not seem as well satisfied.

  5. Evaluating model assumptions in item response theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijmstra, J.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation deals with the evaluation of model assumptions in the context of item response theory. Item response theory, also known as modern test theory, provides a statistical framework for the measurement of psychological constructs that cannot by observed directly, such as intelligence or

  6. Primary prevention in public health: an analysis of basic assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliffe, J; Wallack, L

    1985-01-01

    The common definition of primary prevention is straightforward; but how it is transformed into a framework to guide action is based on personal and societal feelings and beliefs about the basis for social organization. This article focuses on the two contending primary prevention strategies of health promotion and health protection. The contention between the two strategies stems from a basic disagreement about disease causality in modern society. Health promotion is based on the "lifestyle" theory of disease causality, which sees individual health status linked ultimately to personal decisions about diet, stress, and drug habits. Primary prevention, from this perspective, entails persuading individuals to forgo their risk-taking, self-destructive behavior. Health protection, on the other hand, is based on the "social-structural" theory of disease causality. This theory sees the health status of populations linked ultimately to the unequal distribution of social resources, industrial pollution, occupational stress, and "anti-health promotion" marketing practices. Primary prevention, from this perspective, requires changing existing social and, particularly, economic policies and structures. In order to provide a basis for choosing between these contending strategies, the demonstrated (i.e., past) impact of each strategy on the health of the public is examined. Two conclusions are drawn. First, the health promotion strategy shows little potential for improving the public health, because it systematically ignores the risk-imposing, other-destructive behavior of influential actors (policy-makers and institutions) in society. And second, effective primary prevention efforts entail an "upstream" approach that results in far-reaching sociopolitical and economic change.

  7. Self-transcendent positive emotions increase spirituality through basic world assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cappellen, Patty; Saroglou, Vassilis; Iweins, Caroline; Piovesana, Maria; Fredrickson, Barbara L

    2013-01-01

    Spirituality has mostly been studied in psychology as implied in the process of overcoming adversity, being triggered by negative experiences, and providing positive outcomes. By reversing this pathway, we investigated whether spirituality may also be triggered by self-transcendent positive emotions, which are elicited by stimuli appraised as demonstrating higher good and beauty. In two studies, elevation and/or admiration were induced using different methods. These emotions were compared to two control groups, a neutral state and a positive emotion (mirth). Self-transcendent positive emotions increased participants' spirituality (Studies 1 and 2), especially for the non-religious participants (Study 1). Two basic world assumptions, i.e., belief in life as meaningful (Study 1) and in the benevolence of others and the world (Study 2) mediated the effect of these emotions on spirituality. Spirituality should be understood not only as a coping strategy, but also as an upward spiralling pathway to and from self-transcendent positive emotions.

  8. CRITIQUES TOWARDS COSO’S ENTERPRISE RISK MANAGEMENT (ERM) FRAMEWORK IN ITS BASIC ASSUMPTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Kurniawanti, Ika Atma

    2010-01-01

    Most professionals in internal control, risk management and other similar bailiwickshave agreed that Enterprise Risk Management discourses would’ve invariablyreferred to what the COSO had produced recently: the framework underlying ERM.But this paper takes a bit different stance that views several problematic issuesstem from unclear conceptions of either the basic premise underlying ERM or thenature of some ERM’s components outlined by COSO. This paper notes that, atleast, there are three poi...

  9. Evaluating The Markov Assumption For Web Usage Mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, S.; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Thorhauge, J.

    2003-01-01

    Web usage mining concerns the discovery of common browsing patterns, i.e., pages requested in sequence, from web logs. To cope with the enormous amounts of data, several aggregated structures based on statistical models of web surfing have appeared, e.g., the Hypertext Probabilistic Grammar (HPG...... knowledge there has been no systematic study of the validity of the Markov assumption wrt.\\ web usage mining and the resulting quality of the mined browsing patterns. In this paper we systematically investigate the quality of browsing patterns mined from structures based on the Markov assumption. Formal......, that long rules are generally more distorted than shorter rules and that the model yield knowledge of a higher quality when applied to more random usage patterns. Thus we conclude that Markov-based structures for web usage mining are best suited for tasks demanding less accuracy such as pre...

  10. How biological background assumptions influence scientific risk evaluation of stacked genetically modified plants: an analysis of research hypotheses and argumentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Elena; Andersen, Fredrik

    2017-08-14

    Scientific risk evaluations are constructed by specific evidence, value judgements and biological background assumptions. The latter are the framework-setting suppositions we apply in order to understand some new phenomenon. That background assumptions co-determine choice of methodology, data interpretation, and choice of relevant evidence is an uncontroversial claim in modern basic science. Furthermore, it is commonly accepted that, unless explicated, disagreements in background assumptions can lead to misunderstanding as well as miscommunication. Here, we extend the discussion on background assumptions from basic science to the debate over genetically modified (GM) plants risk assessment. In this realm, while the different political, social and economic values are often mentioned, the identity and role of background assumptions at play are rarely examined. We use an example from the debate over risk assessment of stacked genetically modified plants (GM stacks), obtained by applying conventional breeding techniques to GM plants. There are two main regulatory practices of GM stacks: (i) regulate as conventional hybrids and (ii) regulate as new GM plants. We analyzed eight papers representative of these positions and found that, in all cases, additional premises are needed to reach the stated conclusions. We suggest that these premises play the role of biological background assumptions and argue that the most effective way toward a unified framework for risk analysis and regulation of GM stacks is by explicating and examining the biological background assumptions of each position. Once explicated, it is possible to either evaluate which background assumptions best reflect contemporary biological knowledge, or to apply Douglas' 'inductive risk' argument.

  11. Evaluating Basic Technology Instruction in Nigerian Secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is an important technique which when appropriately adopted results into effective teaching and learning of practical subjects. This study focused on identification of evaluating techniques aimed at improving the teaching of Basic technology in Edo State. The area of study comprises of the eighteen Local Government Areas ...

  12. An Evaluation of the NAMI Basics Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brister, Teri; Cavaleri, Mary A.; Olin, S. Serene; Shen, Sa; Burns, Barbara J.; Hoagwood, Kimberly E.

    2012-01-01

    This brief report describes results from an evaluation of NAMI Basics, a peer-delivered family education program for family caregivers of children and adolescents with mental illness. Over six classes, family members are given information (e.g. education about mental illness and treatments), skills training (e.g. family communication skills) and…

  13. Evaluating the influence of the 'unity assumption' on the temporal perception of realistic audiovisual stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatakis, Argiro; Spence, Charles

    2008-01-01

    Vatakis, A. and Spence, C. (in press) [Crossmodal binding: Evaluating the 'unity assumption' using audiovisual speech stimuli. Perception &Psychophysics] recently demonstrated that when two briefly presented speech signals (one auditory and the other visual) refer to the same audiovisual speech event, people find it harder to judge their temporal order than when they refer to different speech events. Vatakis and Spence argued that the 'unity assumption' facilitated crossmodal binding on the former (matching) trials by means of a process of temporal ventriloquism. In the present study, we investigated whether the 'unity assumption' would also affect the binding of non-speech stimuli (video clips of object action or musical notes). The auditory and visual stimuli were presented at a range of stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) using the method of constant stimuli. Participants made unspeeded temporal order judgments (TOJs) regarding which modality stream had been presented first. The auditory and visual musical and object action stimuli were either matched (e.g., the sight of a note being played on a piano together with the corresponding sound) or else mismatched (e.g., the sight of a note being played on a piano together with the sound of a guitar string being plucked). However, in contrast to the results of Vatakis and Spence's recent speech study, no significant difference in the accuracy of temporal discrimination performance for the matched versus mismatched video clips was observed. Reasons for this discrepancy are discussed.

  14. Camera traps and mark-resight models: The value of ancillary data for evaluating assumptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Arielle W.; Simons, Theodore R.; Pollock, Kenneth H.; Stoskopf, Michael K.; Stocking, Jessica J.; O'Connell, Allan F.

    2015-01-01

    Unbiased estimators of abundance and density are fundamental to the study of animal ecology and critical for making sound management decisions. Capture–recapture models are generally considered the most robust approach for estimating these parameters but rely on a number of assumptions that are often violated but rarely validated. Mark-resight models, a form of capture–recapture, are well suited for use with noninvasive sampling methods and allow for a number of assumptions to be relaxed. We used ancillary data from continuous video and radio telemetry to evaluate the assumptions of mark-resight models for abundance estimation on a barrier island raccoon (Procyon lotor) population using camera traps. Our island study site was geographically closed, allowing us to estimate real survival and in situ recruitment in addition to population size. We found several sources of bias due to heterogeneity of capture probabilities in our study, including camera placement, animal movement, island physiography, and animal behavior. Almost all sources of heterogeneity could be accounted for using the sophisticated mark-resight models developed by McClintock et al. (2009b) and this model generated estimates similar to a spatially explicit mark-resight model previously developed for this population during our study. Spatially explicit capture–recapture models have become an important tool in ecology and confer a number of advantages; however, non-spatial models that account for inherent individual heterogeneity may perform nearly as well, especially where immigration and emigration are limited. Non-spatial models are computationally less demanding, do not make implicit assumptions related to the isotropy of home ranges, and can provide insights with respect to the biological traits of the local population.

  15. Evaluation of assumptions for estimating chemical light extinction at U.S. national parks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenthal, Douglas; Zielinska, Barbara; Samburova, Vera; Collins, Don; Taylor, Nathan; Kumar, Naresh

    2015-03-01

    Studies were conducted at Great Smoky Mountains National Park (NP) (GRSM), Tennessee, Mount Rainier NP (MORA), Washington, and Acadia NP (ACAD), Maine, to evaluate assumptions used to estimate aerosol light extinction from chemical composition. The revised IMPROVE equation calculates light scattering from concentrations of PM2.5 sulfates, nitrates, organic carbon mass (OM), and soil. Organics are assumed to be nonhygroscopic. Organic carbon (OC) is converted to OM with a multiplier of 1.8. Experiments were conducted to evaluate assumptions on aerosol hydration state, the OM/OC ratio, OM hygroscopicity, and mass scattering efficiencies. Sulfates were neutralized by ammonium during winter at GRSM (W, winter) and at MORA during summer but were acidic at ACAD and GRSM (S, summer) during summer. Hygroscopic growth was mostly smooth and continuous, rarely exhibiting hysteresis. Deliquescence was not observed except infrequently during winter at GRSM (W). Water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) was separated from bulk OC with solid-phase absorbents. The average OM/OC ratios were 2.0, 2.7, 2.1, and 2.2 at GRSM (S), GRSM (W), MORA, and ACAD, respectively. Hygroscopic growth factors (GF) at relative humidity (RH) 90% for aerosols generated from WSOC extracts averaged 1.19, 1.06, 1.13, and 1.16 at GRSM (S), GRSM (W), MORA, and ACAD, respectively. Thus, the assumption that OM is not hygroscopic may lead to underestimation of its contribution to light scattering. Studies at IMPROVE sites conducted in U.S. national parks showed that aerosol organics comprise more PM2.5 mass and absorb more water as a function of relative humidity than is currently assumed by the IMPROVE equation for calculating chemical light extinction. Future strategies for reducing regional haze may therefore need to focus more heavily on understanding the origins and control of anthropogenic sources of organic aerosols.

  16. Evaluating the reliability of equilibrium dissolution assumption from residual gasoline in contact with water saturated sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekmine, Greg; Sookhak Lari, Kaveh; Johnston, Colin D.; Bastow, Trevor P.; Rayner, John L.; Davis, Greg B.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding dissolution dynamics of hazardous compounds from complex gasoline mixtures is a key to long-term predictions of groundwater risks. The aim of this study was to investigate if the local equilibrium assumption for BTEX and TMBs (trimethylbenzenes) dissolution was valid under variable saturation in two dimensional flow conditions and evaluate the impact of local heterogeneities when equilibrium is verified at the scale of investigation. An initial residual gasoline saturation was established over the upper two-thirds of a water saturated sand pack. A constant horizontal pore velocity was maintained and water samples were recovered across 38 sampling ports over 141 days. Inside the residual NAPL zone, BTEX and TMBs dissolution curves were in agreement with the TMVOC model based on the local equilibrium assumption. Results compared to previous numerical studies suggest the presence of small scale dissolution fingering created perpendicular to the horizontal dissolution front, mainly triggered by heterogeneities in the medium structure and the local NAPL residual saturation. In the transition zone, TMVOC was able to represent a range of behaviours exhibited by the data, confirming equilibrium or near-equilibrium dissolution at the scale of investigation. The model locally showed discrepancies with the most soluble compounds, i.e. benzene and toluene, due to local heterogeneities exhibiting that at lower scale flow bypassing and channelling may have occurred. In these conditions mass transfer rates were still high enough to fall under the equilibrium assumption in TMVOC at the scale of investigation. Comparisons with other models involving upscaled mass transfer rates demonstrated that such approximations with TMVOC could lead to overestimate BTEX dissolution rates and underestimate the total remediation time.

  17. Evaluating the reliability of equilibrium dissolution assumption from residual gasoline in contact with water saturated sands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekmine, Greg; Sookhak Lari, Kaveh; Johnston, Colin D; Bastow, Trevor P; Rayner, John L; Davis, Greg B

    2017-01-01

    Understanding dissolution dynamics of hazardous compounds from complex gasoline mixtures is a key to long-term predictions of groundwater risks. The aim of this study was to investigate if the local equilibrium assumption for BTEX and TMBs (trimethylbenzenes) dissolution was valid under variable saturation in two dimensional flow conditions and evaluate the impact of local heterogeneities when equilibrium is verified at the scale of investigation. An initial residual gasoline saturation was established over the upper two-thirds of a water saturated sand pack. A constant horizontal pore velocity was maintained and water samples were recovered across 38 sampling ports over 141days. Inside the residual NAPL zone, BTEX and TMBs dissolution curves were in agreement with the TMVOC model based on the local equilibrium assumption. Results compared to previous numerical studies suggest the presence of small scale dissolution fingering created perpendicular to the horizontal dissolution front, mainly triggered by heterogeneities in the medium structure and the local NAPL residual saturation. In the transition zone, TMVOC was able to represent a range of behaviours exhibited by the data, confirming equilibrium or near-equilibrium dissolution at the scale of investigation. The model locally showed discrepancies with the most soluble compounds, i.e. benzene and toluene, due to local heterogeneities exhibiting that at lower scale flow bypassing and channelling may have occurred. In these conditions mass transfer rates were still high enough to fall under the equilibrium assumption in TMVOC at the scale of investigation. Comparisons with other models involving upscaled mass transfer rates demonstrated that such approximations with TMVOC could lead to overestimate BTEX dissolution rates and underestimate the total remediation time. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Drug Distribution to Human Tissues: Prediction and Examination of the Basic Assumption in In Vivo Pharmacokinetics-Pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin, Patrick

    2015-06-01

    The tissue:plasma partition coefficients (Kp ) are good indicators of the extent of tissue distribution. Therefore, advanced tissue composition-based models were used to predict the Kp values of drugs under in vivo conditions on the basis of in vitro and physiological input data. These models, however, focus on animal tissues and do not challenge the predictions with human tissues for drugs. The first objective of this study was to predict the experimentally determined Kp values of seven human tissues for 26 drugs. In all, 95% of the predicted Kp values are within 2.5-fold error of the observed values in humans. Accordingly, these results suggest that the tissue composition-based model used in this study is able to provide accurate estimates of drug partitioning in the studied human tissues. Furthermore, as the Kp equals to the ratio of total concentration between tissue and plasma, or the ratio of unbound fraction between plasma (fup ) and tissue (fut ), this parameter Kp would deviate from the unity. Therefore, the second objective was to examine the corresponding relationships between fup and fut values experimentally determined in humans for several drugs. The results also indicate that fup may significantly deviate to fut ; the discrepancies are governed by the dissimilarities in the binding and ionization on both sides of the membrane, which were captured by the tissue composition-based model. Hence, this violated the basic assumption in in vivo pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) research, since the free drug concentration in tissue and plasma was not equal particularly for the ionizable drugs due to the pH gradient effect on the fraction of unionized drug in plasma (fuip ) and tissue (fuit ) (i.e., fup × fuip × total plasma concentration = fut × fuit × total tissue concentration, and, hence, the free drug concentration in plasma and tissue differed by fuip/fuit). Therefore, this assumption should be adjusted for the ionized drugs, and, hence, a

  19. Ecological risk of anthropogenic pollutants to reptiles: Evaluating assumptions of sensitivity and exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Scott M; Suski, Jamie G; Salice, Christopher J

    2010-12-01

    A large data gap for reptile ecotoxicology still persists; therefore, ecological risk assessments of reptiles usually incorporate the use of surrogate species. This necessitates that (1) the surrogate is at least as sensitive as the target taxon and/or (2) exposures to the surrogate are greater than that of the target taxon. We evaluated these assumptions for the use of birds as surrogates for reptiles. Based on a survey of the literature, birds were more sensitive than reptiles in less than 1/4 of the chemicals investigated. Dietary and dermal exposure modeling indicated that exposure to reptiles was relatively high, particularly when the dermal route was considered. We conclude that caution is warranted in the use of avian receptors as surrogates for reptiles in ecological risk assessment and emphasize the need to better understand the magnitude and mechanism of contaminant exposure in reptiles to improve exposure and risk estimation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Assumption of linearity in soil and plant concentration ratios: an experimental evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheppard, S.C.; Evenden, W.G.

    1988-01-01

    We have evaluated one of the main assumptions in the use of concentration ratios to describe the transfer of elements in the environment. The ratios examined in detail were the 'concentration ratio' (CR) of leaf to soil and the 'partition coefficient' (Ksub(d)) of solid- to liquid-phase concentrations in soil. Use of these ratios implies a linear relationship between the concentrations. Soil was experimentally contaminated to evaluate this linearity over more than a 1000-fold range in concentration. A secondary objective was to determine CR and Ksub(d) values in a long-term (2 y) outdoor study using a peat soil and blueberries. The elements I, Se, Cs, Pb and U were chosen as environmentally important elements. The results indicated that relationships of leaf and leachate concentrations were not consistently linearly related to the total soil concentrations for each of the elements. The modelling difficulties implied by these concentration dependencies can be partially offset by including the strong negative correlation between CR and Ksub(d). The error introduced by using a mean value of the ratios for Se or U resulted in up to a ten-fold increase in variability for CR and a three-fold increase for Ksub(d).

  1. Evaluating assumptions for least squares analysis using the general linear model: a guide for the pharmaceutical industry statistician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darken, Patrick F

    2004-08-01

    A review of graphical and test based methods for evaluating assumptions underlying the use of least squares analysis with the general linear model is presented along with some discussion of robustness. Alternative analyses are described for situations where there is evidence that the assumptions are not reasonable. Evaluation of the assumptions is illustrated through the use of an example from a clinical trial used for US registration purposes. It is recommended that: (1) most assumptions required for the least squares analysis of data using the general linear model can be judged using residuals graphically without the need for formal testing, (2) it is more important to normalize data or to use nonparametric methods when there is heterogeneous variance between treatment groups, and (3) nonparametric analyses can be used to demonstrate robustness of results and that it is best to specify these analyses prior to unblinding.

  2. Evaluation of the accuracy of antioxidant competition assays: incorrect assumptions with major impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balk, Jiska M; Bast, Aalt; Haenen, Guido R M M

    2009-07-15

    The activity of antioxidants is frequently determined in competition assays. In these assays an antioxidant (A) and a detector molecule (D) compete for the reactive species (R). The competitive inhibitory effect of A on the reaction of D with R is a measure of the antioxidant activity of A. In determining the activity of A, it is in general incorrectly assumed that the concentrations of A and D remain equal to the initial concentration. However, the principle of the assay is that some A and D is consumed and consequently the concentrations of A and D will decrease during a competition assay, resulting in a deviation in the observed antioxidant activity. Computer modeling was used to obtain a graphical tool to estimate the extent of the deviation caused by the incorrect assumption that the concentrations of A and D do not decrease. Several competition assays were evaluated using this graphical tool, demonstrating that frequently inaccurate antioxidant activities have been reported. In general, differences between antioxidants are underestimated and the activity of all antioxidants shifts toward the antioxidant activity of D. A strategy is provided to improve the accuracy of a competition assay. To obtain accurate results in a competition assay, the reaction rate constant of the detector molecule with the reactive species should be comparable to that of the antioxidant. In addition, the concentration of the reactive species should be as low as possible.

  3. Ecological risk of anthropogenic pollutants to reptiles: Evaluating assumptions of sensitivity and exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weir, Scott M., E-mail: scott.weir@ttu.ed [Texas Tech University, Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX (United States); Suski, Jamie G., E-mail: jamie.suski@ttu.ed [Texas Tech University, Department of Biological Sciences, Box 43131, Lubbock, TX (United States); Salice, Christopher J., E-mail: chris.salice@ttu.ed [Texas Tech University, Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX (United States)

    2010-12-15

    A large data gap for reptile ecotoxicology still persists; therefore, ecological risk assessments of reptiles usually incorporate the use of surrogate species. This necessitates that (1) the surrogate is at least as sensitive as the target taxon and/or (2) exposures to the surrogate are greater than that of the target taxon. We evaluated these assumptions for the use of birds as surrogates for reptiles. Based on a survey of the literature, birds were more sensitive than reptiles in less than 1/4 of the chemicals investigated. Dietary and dermal exposure modeling indicated that exposure to reptiles was relatively high, particularly when the dermal route was considered. We conclude that caution is warranted in the use of avian receptors as surrogates for reptiles in ecological risk assessment and emphasize the need to better understand the magnitude and mechanism of contaminant exposure in reptiles to improve exposure and risk estimation. - Avian receptors are not universally appropriate surrogates for reptiles in ecological risk assessment.

  4. Experimental evaluation of the pure configurational stress assumption in the flow dynamics of entangled polymer melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Bejenariu, Anca Gabriela; Hassager, Ole

    2010-01-01

    A filament stretching rheometer was used for measuring the startup of uni-axial elongational flow followed by reversed bi-axial flow, both with a constant elongational strain rate. A narrow molecular mass distribution linear polyisoprene with a molecular weight of 483 kg/mole was subjected...... to the flow in the non-linear flow regime. This has allowed highly elastic measurements within the limit of pure orientational stress, as the time of the flow was considerably smaller than the Rouse time. A Doi-Edwards [J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. 2 74, 1818-1832 (1978)] type of constitutive model...... with the assumption of pure configurational stress was accurately able to predict the startup as well as the reversed flow behavior. This confirms that this commonly used theoretical picture for the flow of polymeric liquids is a correct physical principle to apply. c 2010 The Society of Rheology. [DOI: 10.1122/1.3496378]...

  5. Questioning Assumptions about Portfolio-Based Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamp-Lyons, Liz; Condon, William

    1993-01-01

    Reviews basic concepts and history of portfolio assessment as a useful means of evaluating student writing. Considers insights gained from the use of portfolio assessment. Questions five assumptions underlying portfolio assessment and suggests ways of working with portfolios that take into account new insights and perspectives. (HB)

  6. The privatization of spa companies in Poland - An evaluation of policy assumptions and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szromek, Adam R; Romaniuk, Piotr; Hadzik, Andrzej

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this article is to present the course of privatization of spa companies in Poland during the period 2001-2011. We discuss assumptions of the privatization process, as well as actual implementation, having identified the process as chaotic and inconsistent with prior legal provisions. We found that in its applied form the process resulted in limitation of the therapeutic potential of spas, and reduction of the State's ability to implement health policy in a legally determined form. We also found that privatization potentially improved spa infrastructure standards and increases the tourist potential of spa resorts. We recommend that clear eligibility criteria are applied to institutions in the privatization process, as well as the provision of legal guarantees for access to spa services financed from public resources. Such guarantees should be made a public obligation, to ensure the availability of services for insured persons, and there should be an obligation to maintain a specific part of a given institution's potential for the needs of patients funded by public health insurance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. False assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, M

    1997-01-01

    Indian women do not have to be told the benefits of breast feeding or "rescued from the clutches of wicked multinational companies" by international agencies. There is no proof that breast feeding has declined in India; in fact, a 1987 survey revealed that 98% of Indian women breast feed. Efforts to promote breast feeding among the middle classes rely on such initiatives as the "baby friendly" hospital where breast feeding is promoted immediately after birth. This ignores the 76% of Indian women who give birth at home. Blaming this unproved decline in breast feeding on multinational companies distracts attention from more far-reaching and intractable effects of social change. While the Infant Milk Substitutes Act is helpful, it also deflects attention from more pressing issues. Another false assumption is that Indian women are abandoning breast feeding to comply with the demands of employment, but research indicates that most women give up employment for breast feeding, despite the economic cost to their families. Women also seek work in the informal sector to secure the flexibility to meet their child care responsibilities. Instead of being concerned about "teaching" women what they already know about the benefits of breast feeding, efforts should be made to remove the constraints women face as a result of their multiple roles and to empower them with the support of families, governmental policies and legislation, employers, health professionals, and the media.

  8. Reciprocity and Educational Evaluations by European Inspectorates : assumptions and reality checks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, Frans L.

    2002-01-01

    Many European countries have inspectorates of education and although they differ in some ways, all focus on the quality of education, all undertake evaluations and all strive for improvement in education. First, it will be argued that reciprocity between inspectors and inspectees (such as schools,

  9. Multiverse Assumptions and Philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    James R. Johnson

    2018-01-01

    Multiverses are predictions based on theories. Focusing on each theory’s assumptions is key to evaluating a proposed multiverse. Although accepted theories of particle physics and cosmology contain non-intuitive features, multiverse theories entertain a host of “strange” assumptions classified as metaphysical (outside objective experience, concerned with fundamental nature of reality, ideas that cannot be proven right or wrong) topics such as: infinity, duplicate yous, hypothetical fields, mo...

  10. Using Instrument Simulators and a Satellite Database to Evaluate Microphysical Assumptions in High-Resolution Simulations of Hurricane Rita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristova-Veleva, S. M.; Chao, Y.; Chau, A. H.; Haddad, Z. S.; Knosp, B.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Li, P.; Martin, J. M.; Poulsen, W. L.; Rodriguez, E.; Stiles, B. W.; Turk, J.; Vu, Q.

    2009-12-01

    Improving forecasting of hurricane intensity remains a significant challenge for the research and operational communities. Many factors determine a tropical cyclone’s intensity. Ultimately, though, intensity is dependent on the magnitude and distribution of the latent heating that accompanies the hydrometeor production during the convective process. Hence, the microphysical processes and their representation in hurricane models are of crucial importance for accurately simulating hurricane intensity and evolution. The accurate modeling of the microphysical processes becomes increasingly important when running high-resolution models that should properly reflect the convective processes in the hurricane eyewall. There are many microphysical parameterizations available today. However, evaluating their performance and selecting the most representative ones remains a challenge. Several field campaigns were focused on collecting in situ microphysical observations to help distinguish between different modeling approaches and improve on the most promising ones. However, these point measurements cannot adequately reflect the space and time correlations characteristic of the convective processes. An alternative approach to evaluating microphysical assumptions is to use multi-parameter remote sensing observations of the 3D storm structure and evolution. In doing so, we could compare modeled to retrieved geophysical parameters. The satellite retrievals, however, carry their own uncertainty. To increase the fidelity of the microphysical evaluation results, we can use instrument simulators to produce satellite observables from the model fields and compare to the observed. This presentation will illustrate how instrument simulators can be used to discriminate between different microphysical assumptions. We will compare and contrast the members of high-resolution ensemble WRF model simulations of Hurricane Rita (2005), each member reflecting different microphysical assumptions

  11. Multiverse Assumptions and Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. Johnson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Multiverses are predictions based on theories. Focusing on each theory’s assumptions is key to evaluating a proposed multiverse. Although accepted theories of particle physics and cosmology contain non-intuitive features, multiverse theories entertain a host of “strange” assumptions classified as metaphysical (outside objective experience, concerned with fundamental nature of reality, ideas that cannot be proven right or wrong topics such as: infinity, duplicate yous, hypothetical fields, more than three space dimensions, Hilbert space, advanced civilizations, and reality established by mathematical relationships. It is easy to confuse multiverse proposals because many divergent models exist. This overview defines the characteristics of eleven popular multiverse proposals. The characteristics compared are: initial conditions, values of constants, laws of nature, number of space dimensions, number of universes, and fine tuning explanations. Future scientific experiments may validate selected assumptions; but until they do, proposals by philosophers may be as valid as theoretical scientific theories.

  12. Sampling Assumptions in Inductive Generalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Daniel J.; Dry, Matthew J.; Lee, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Inductive generalization, where people go beyond the data provided, is a basic cognitive capability, and it underpins theoretical accounts of learning, categorization, and decision making. To complete the inductive leap needed for generalization, people must make a key "sampling" assumption about how the available data were generated.…

  13. Measuring Basic Needs Satisfaction: Evaluating Previous Research and Conducting New Psychometric Evaluations of the Basic Needs Satisfaction in General Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Mary M.; Finney, Sara J.

    2010-01-01

    Self-Determination Theory specifies the existence of three basic psychological needs: autonomy, competence, and relatedness. The current set of studies (a) provides a narrative review of past research on the Basic Needs Satisfaction in General Scale, (b) examines its dimensionality which has been assumed but not empirically studied, and (c)…

  14. 91 Evaluating Recommended Literature Texts for Senior Basic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NGOZI

    learning and the implementation of those decisions' (59).She further explains that autonomy has been viewed as 'a means to an end of learning a foreign or a second language or as an end itself.' (59) Through autonomous learning of literary texts, the learner acquires the basic language skills. Drama texts also constitute ...

  15. Evaluating the assessment of essay type questions in the basic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Amongst the contemporary methods of assessment of examinations in the Basic Medical Sciences, the essay type method is the most subjective as it relies mainly on the judgment of an individual assessor and question sampling. Examiners therefore resort to the close system of marking of theory papers in ...

  16. Teenagers Poor Readers: Evaluation of Basic Cognitive Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa del Carmen Flores Macías

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the cognitive processes associated with reading difficulties of teenage poor readers. Several studies suggest that this population presents a poor comprehension, despite reading the words properly and have good phonological skills (which distinguishes them from a population with dyslexia. With a comparative cross-sectional design the Sicole-R multimedia battery, which assesses basic cognitive processes related to reading, was applied to participants. Results indicate that poor reader students exhibit a lower performance than normal readers in phonological awareness, orthographic processing and processing syntax, although only the latter comparison was statistically significant.

  17. Basic and translational evaluation of renewal of operant responding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michael E; Liddon, Clare J; Ribeiro, Aurelia; Greif, Abigail E; Podlesnik, Christopher A

    2015-01-01

    Treatment relapse, defined as the reemergence of problem behavior after treatment, is a serious difficulty faced by clinicians. Failures of treatment integrity (i.e., failure to implement interventions as intended) are often invoked to explain the reemergence of problem behavior. Basic studies suggest that the prevailing stimulus context might also contribute. We conducted 2 experiments in which reinforcement for a target response was followed by 2 phases of extinction with different or identical stimulus contexts relative to baseline (ABA renewal). In Experiment 1, pigeons served as subjects using procedures typical of those used in basic behavioral research. Experiment 2 was designed as a translational replication of Experiment 1, and children who had been diagnosed with autism served as participants. Returning to the previously reinforced stimulus context in both species produced a clear and immediate increase of extinguished responding. These findings are consistent with previous studies that have suggested that both reinforcement contingencies and stimulus context influence the reemergence of extinguished behavior. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  18. Evaluating the assumption of power-law late time scaling of breakthrough curves in highly heterogeneous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedretti, Daniele

    2017-04-01

    Power-law (PL) distributions are widely adopted to define the late-time scaling of solute breakthrough curves (BTCs) during transport experiments in highly heterogeneous media. However, from a statistical perspective, distinguishing between a PL distribution and another tailed distribution is difficult, particularly when a qualitative assessment based on visual analysis of double-logarithmic plotting is used. This presentation aims to discuss the results from a recent analysis where a suite of statistical tools was applied to evaluate rigorously the scaling of BTCs from experiments that generate tailed distributions typically described as PL at late time. To this end, a set of BTCs from numerical simulations in highly heterogeneous media were generated using a transition probability approach (T-PROGS) coupled to a finite different numerical solver of the flow equation (MODFLOW) and a random walk particle tracking approach for Lagrangian transport (RW3D). The T-PROGS fields assumed randomly distributed hydraulic heterogeneities with long correlation scales creating solute channeling and anomalous transport. For simplicity, transport was simulated as purely advective. This combination of tools generates strongly non-symmetric BTCs visually resembling PL distributions at late time when plotted in double log scales. Unlike other combination of modeling parameters and boundary conditions (e.g. matrix diffusion in fractures), at late time no direct link exists between the mathematical functions describing scaling of these curves and physical parameters controlling transport. The results suggest that the statistical tests fail to describe the majority of curves as PL distributed. Moreover, they suggest that PL or lognormal distributions have the same likelihood to represent parametrically the shape of the tails. It is noticeable that forcing a model to reproduce the tail as PL functions results in a distribution of PL slopes comprised between 1.2 and 4, which are the

  19. Brand Evaluation - A Basic Feature in Modern Brand Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmin IRIMIEŞ

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Defined as the sum of features that make a subject unique, the brand has turned into one of the most important characteristics of the way products, services and institutions conduct their public relations or are presented to the contemporary consumer. Taking into consideration that branding is an extremely flexible process and can be applied to a very wide range of subjects, the brand management has become one of the most important instruments of modern marketing and is used in every selling/buying transaction. The purpose of this article is to make a comprehensive analysis of the evaluation methods of brands, to present the situations that usually need a brand evaluation as well as to see whether Romania has made any progress from this point of view.

  20. Interrogating Values and Assumptions

    OpenAIRE

    Maudlin, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Architecture and design students are not necessarily or immediately interested in history. It cannot be assumed that the typological or stylistic evolution of form and ornament over time, or lists of acknowledged masters and their works, will be viewed as having any relevance to a contemporary designer. Teaching architectural history within design forces a reappraisal of assumptions and hitherto unquestioned values. The artist-and-object, art-historical tradition excludes all architectures co...

  1. An evaluation of the 18- and 12-month basic postgraduate training programmes in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Niels Kristian; Qvesel, Dorte; Kodal, Troels

    2010-01-01

    and new programmes evaluate their training, and it explores their attitudes towards the new postgraduate training programme. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We developed a questionnaire by which quantitative and qualitative data were collected. The questionnaire was sent to all physicians following basic...... equipped and less ready for continued specialisation than doctors of the 18-month programme and they requested a downward adjustment of the learning objectives associated with the educational positions which follow their basic training. Physicians do not expect the increased focus on learning...... and supervision to compensate for the six-month reduction of the training period. Internal medicine should be included in the basic postgraduate training of all physicians. Training in secondary as well as primary health care was requested. CONCLUSION: The young physicians were reluctant towards the new basic...

  2. Contextuality under weak assumptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Andrew W.; Wallman, Joel J.; Pashayan, Hakop; Bartlett, Stephen D.; Rudolph, Terry

    2017-03-01

    The presence of contextuality in quantum theory was first highlighted by Bell, Kochen and Specker, who discovered that for quantum systems of three or more dimensions, measurements could not be viewed as deterministically revealing pre-existing properties of the system. More precisely, no model can assign deterministic outcomes to the projectors of a quantum measurement in a way that depends only on the projector and not the context (the full set of projectors) in which it appeared, despite the fact that the Born rule probabilities associated with projectors are independent of the context. A more general, operational definition of contextuality introduced by Spekkens, which we will term ‘probabilistic contextuality’, drops the assumption of determinism and allows for operations other than measurements to be considered contextual. Even two-dimensional quantum mechanics can be shown to be contextual under this generalised notion. Probabilistic noncontextuality represents the postulate that elements of an operational theory that cannot be distinguished from each other based on the statistics of arbitrarily many repeated experiments (they give rise to the same operational probabilities) are ontologically identical. In this paper, we introduce a framework that enables us to distinguish between different noncontextuality assumptions in terms of the relationships between the ontological representations of objects in the theory given a certain relation between their operational representations. This framework can be used to motivate and define a ‘possibilistic’ analogue, encapsulating the idea that elements of an operational theory that cannot be unambiguously distinguished operationally can also not be unambiguously distinguished ontologically. We then prove that possibilistic noncontextuality is equivalent to an alternative notion of noncontextuality proposed by Hardy. Finally, we demonstrate that these weaker noncontextuality assumptions are sufficient to prove

  3. The use of the SF-36 questionnaire in adult survivors of childhood cancer: evaluation of data quality, score reliability, and scaling assumptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winter David L

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The SF-36 has been used in a number of previous studies that have investigated the health status of childhood cancer survivors, but it never has been evaluated regarding data quality, scaling assumptions, and reliability in this population. As health status among childhood cancer survivors is being increasingly investigated, it is important that the measurement instruments are reliable, validated and appropriate for use in this population. The aim of this paper was to determine whether the SF-36 questionnaire is a valid and reliable instrument in assessing self-perceived health status of adult survivors of childhood cancer. Methods We examined the SF-36 to see how it performed with respect to (1 data completeness, (2 distribution of the scale scores, (3 item-internal consistency, (4 item-discriminant validity, (5 internal consistency, and (6 scaling assumptions. For this investigation we used SF-36 data from a population-based study of 10,189 adult survivors of childhood cancer. Results Overall, missing values ranged per item from 0.5 to 2.9 percent. Ceiling effects were found to be highest in the role limitation-physical (76.7% and role limitation-emotional (76.5% scales. All correlations between items and their hypothesised scales exceeded the suggested standard of 0.40 for satisfactory item-consistency. Across all scales, the Cronbach's alpha coefficient of reliability was found to be higher than the suggested value of 0.70. Consistent across all cancer groups, the physical health related scale scores correlated strongly with the Physical Component Summary (PCS scale scores and weakly with the Mental Component Summary (MCS scale scores. Also, the mental health and role limitation-emotional scales correlated strongly with the MCS scale score and weakly with the PCS scale score. Moderate to strong correlations with both summary scores were found for the general health perception, energy/vitality, and social functioning

  4. Sea urchin fertilization assay: an evaluation of assumptions related to sample salinity adjustment and use of natural and synthetic marine waters for testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonczyk, E; Gilron, G; Zajdlik, B

    2001-04-01

    Most industrial effluents discharged into the marine coastal environment are freshwater in nature and therefore require manipulation prior to testing with marine organisms. The sea urchin fertilization test is a common marine bioassay used for routine environmental monitoring, investigative evaluations, and/or regulatory testing of effluents and sediment pore waters. The existing Canadian and U.S. Environmental Protection Agencies test procedures using sea urchin (and sand dollar) gametes allow for sample salinity adjustment using either brine or dry salts. Moreover, these procedures also allow for the use of either natural or synthetic marine water for culturing/holding test organisms and for full-scale testing. At present, it is unclear to what extent these variables affect test results for whole effluents. The test methods simply state that there are no data available and that the use of artificial dry sea salts should be considered provisional. We conducted a series of concurrent experiments aimed at comparing the two different treatments of sample salinity adjustment and the use of natural versus synthetic seawater in order to test these assumptions and evaluate effects on the estimated end points generated by the sea urchin fertilization sublethal toxicity test. Results from these experiments indicated that there is no significant difference in test end points when dry salts or brine are used for sample salinity adjustment. Similarly, results obtained from parallel (split-sample) industrial effluent tests with natural and artificial seawater suggest that both dilution waters produce similar test results. However, data obtained from concurrent tests with the reference toxicant, copper sulfate, showed higher variability and greater sensitivity when using natural seawater as control/dilution water.

  5. Evaluation of Achievement of Universal Basic Education (UBE) in Delta State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osadebe, P. U.

    2014-01-01

    The study evaluated the objectives of the Universal Basic Education (UBE) programme in Delta State. It considered the extent to which each objective was achieved. A research question on the extent to which the UBE objectives were achieved guided the study. Two hypotheses were tested. A sample of 300 students was randomly drawn through the use of…

  6. Designing an evaluation framework for WFME basic standards for medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tackett, Sean; Grant, Janet; Mmari, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    To create an evaluation plan for the World Federation for Medical Education (WFME) accreditation standards for basic medical education. We conceptualized the 100 basic standards from "Basic Medical Education: WFME Global Standards for Quality Improvement: The 2012 Revision" as medical education program objectives. Standards were simplified into evaluable items, which were then categorized as inputs, processes, outputs and/or outcomes to generate a logic model and corresponding plan for data collection. WFME standards posed significant challenges to evaluation due to complex wording, inconsistent formatting and lack of existing assessment tools. Our resulting logic model contained 244 items. Standard B 5.1.1 separated into 24 items, the most for any single standard. A large proportion of items (40%) required evaluation of more than one input, process, output and/or outcome. Only one standard (B 3.2.2) was interpreted as requiring evaluation of a program outcome. Current WFME standards are difficult to use for evaluation planning. Our analysis may guide adaptation and revision of standards to make them more evaluable. Our logic model and data collection plan may be useful to medical schools planning an institutional self-review and to accrediting authorities wanting to provide guidance to schools under their purview.

  7. Linking assumptions in amblyopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    LEVI, DENNIS M.

    2017-01-01

    Over the last 35 years or so, there has been substantial progress in revealing and characterizing the many interesting and sometimes mysterious sensory abnormalities that accompany amblyopia. A goal of many of the studies has been to try to make the link between the sensory losses and the underlying neural losses, resulting in several hypotheses about the site, nature, and cause of amblyopia. This article reviews some of these hypotheses, and the assumptions that link the sensory losses to specific physiological alterations in the brain. Despite intensive study, it turns out to be quite difficult to make a simple linking hypothesis, at least at the level of single neurons, and the locus of the sensory loss remains elusive. It is now clear that the simplest notion—that reduced contrast sensitivity of neurons in cortical area V1 explains the reduction in contrast sensitivity—is too simplistic. Considerations of noise, noise correlations, pooling, and the weighting of information also play a critically important role in making perceptual decisions, and our current models of amblyopia do not adequately take these into account. Indeed, although the reduction of contrast sensitivity is generally considered to reflect “early” neural changes, it seems plausible that it reflects changes at many stages of visual processing. PMID:23879956

  8. Testing Our Fundamental Assumptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Science is all about testing the things we take for granted including some of the most fundamental aspects of how we understand our universe. Is the speed of light in a vacuum the same for all photons regardless of their energy? Is the rest mass of a photon actually zero? A series of recent studies explore the possibility of using transient astrophysical sources for tests!Explaining Different Arrival TimesArtists illustration of a gamma-ray burst, another extragalactic transient, in a star-forming region. [NASA/Swift/Mary Pat Hrybyk-Keith and John Jones]Suppose you observe a distant transient astrophysical source like a gamma-ray burst, or a flare from an active nucleus and two photons of different energies arrive at your telescope at different times. This difference in arrival times could be due to several different factors, depending on how deeply you want to question some of our fundamental assumptions about physics:Intrinsic delayThe photons may simply have been emitted at two different times by the astrophysical source.Delay due to Lorentz invariance violationPerhaps the assumption that all massless particles (even two photons with different energies) move at the exact same velocity in a vacuum is incorrect.Special-relativistic delayMaybe there is a universal speed for massless particles, but the assumption that photons have zero rest mass is wrong. This, too, would cause photon velocities to be energy-dependent.Delay due to gravitational potentialPerhaps our understanding of the gravitational potential that the photons experience as they travel is incorrect, also causing different flight times for photons of different energies. This would mean that Einsteins equivalence principle, a fundamental tenet of general relativity (GR), is incorrect.If we now turn this problem around, then by measuring the arrival time delay between photons of different energies from various astrophysical sources the further away, the better we can provide constraints on these

  9. Use of anchoring vignettes to evaluate health reporting behavior amongst adults aged 50 years and above in Africa and Asia – testing assumptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhivinayak Hirve

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Comparing self-rating health responses across individuals and cultures is misleading due to different reporting behaviors. Anchoring vignettes is a technique that allows identifying and adjusting self-rating responses for reporting heterogeneity (RH. Objective: This article aims to test two crucial assumptions of vignette equivalence (VE and response consistency (RC that are required to be met before vignettes can be used to adjust self-rating responses for RH. Design: We used self-ratings, vignettes, and objective measures covering domains of mobility and cognition from the WHO study on global AGEing and adult health, administered to older adults aged 50 years and above from eight low- and middle-income countries in Africa and Asia. For VE, we specified a hierarchical ordered probit (HOPIT model to test for equality of perceived vignette locations. For RC, we tested for equality of thresholds that are used to rate vignettes with thresholds derived from objective measures and used to rate their own health function. Results: There was evidence of RH in self-rating responses for difficulty in mobility and cognition. Assumptions of VE and RC between countries were violated driven by age, sex, and education. However, within a country context, assumption of VE was met in some countries (mainly in Africa, except Tanzania and violated in others (mainly in Asia, except India. Conclusion: We conclude that violation of assumptions of RC and VE precluded the use of anchoring vignettes to adjust self-rated responses for RH across countries in Asia and Africa.

  10. Basic test framework for the evaluation of text line segmentation and text parameter extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodić, Darko; Milivojević, Dragan R; Milivojević, Zoran

    2010-01-01

    Text line segmentation is an essential stage in off-line optical character recognition (OCR) systems. It is a key because inaccurately segmented text lines will lead to OCR failure. Text line segmentation of handwritten documents is a complex and diverse problem, complicated by the nature of handwriting. Hence, text line segmentation is a leading challenge in handwritten document image processing. Due to inconsistencies in measurement and evaluation of text segmentation algorithm quality, some basic set of measurement methods is required. Currently, there is no commonly accepted one and all algorithm evaluation is custom oriented. In this paper, a basic test framework for the evaluation of text feature extraction algorithms is proposed. This test framework consists of a few experiments primarily linked to text line segmentation, skew rate and reference text line evaluation. Although they are mutually independent, the results obtained are strongly cross linked. In the end, its suitability for different types of letters and languages as well as its adaptability are its main advantages. Thus, the paper presents an efficient evaluation method for text analysis algorithms.

  11. Basic Test Framework for the Evaluation of Text Line Segmentation and Text Parameter Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Brodić

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Text line segmentation is an essential stage in off-line optical character recognition (OCR systems. It is a key because inaccurately segmented text lines will lead to OCR failure. Text line segmentation of handwritten documents is a complex and diverse problem, complicated by the nature of handwriting. Hence, text line segmentation is a leading challenge in handwritten document image processing. Due to inconsistencies in measurement and evaluation of text segmentation algorithm quality, some basic set of measurement methods is required. Currently, there is no commonly accepted one and all algorithm evaluation is custom oriented. In this paper, a basic test framework for the evaluation of text feature extraction algorithms is proposed. This test framework consists of a few experiments primarily linked to text line segmentation, skew rate and reference text line evaluation. Although they are mutually independent, the results obtained are strongly cross linked. In the end, its suitability for different types of letters and languages as well as its adaptability are its main advantages. Thus, the paper presents an efficient evaluation method for text analysis algorithms.

  12. Basic evaluation of typical nanoporous silica nanoparticles in being drug carrier: Structure, wettability and hemolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Guo, Yingyu

    2017-04-01

    Herein, the present work devoted to study the basic capacity of nanoporous silica nanoparticles in being drug carrier that covered structure, wettability and hemolysis so as to provide crucial evaluation. Typical nanoporous silica nanoparticles that consist of nanoporous silica nanoparticles (NSN), amino modified nanoporous silica nanoparticles (amino-NSN), carboxyl modified nanoporous silica nanoparticles (carboxyl-NSN) and hierachical nanoporous silica nanoparticles (hierachical-NSN) were studied. The results showed that their wettability and hemolysis were closely related to structure and surface modification. Basically, wettability became stronger as the amount of OH on the surface of NSN was higher. Both large nanopores and surface modification can reduce the wettability of NSN. Furthermore, NSN series were safe to be used when they circulated into the blood in low concentration, while if high concentration can not be avoided during administration, high porosity or amino modification of NSN were safer to be considered. It is believed that the basic evaluation of NSN can make contribution in providing scientific instruction for designing drug loaded NSN systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Program evaluation of an Integrated Basic Science Medical Curriculum in Shiraz Medical School, Using CIPP Evaluation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooholamini, Azadeh; Amini, Mitra; Bazrafkan, Leila; Dehghani, Mohammad Reza; Esmaeilzadeh, Zohreh; Nabeiei, Parisa; Rezaee, Rita; Kojuri, Javad

    2017-07-01

    In recent years curriculum reform and integration was done in many medical schools. The integrated curriculum is a popular concept all over the world. In Shiraz medical school, the reform was initiated by stablishing the horizontal basic science integration model and Early Clinical Exposure (ECE) for undergraduate medical education. The purpose of this study was to provide the required data for the program evaluation of this curriculum for undergraduate medical students, using CIPP program evaluation model. This study is an analytic descriptive and triangulation mixed method study which was carried out in Shiraz Medical School in 2012, based on the views of professors of basic sciences courses and first and second year medical students. The study evaluated the quality of the relationship between basic sciences and clinical courses and the method of presenting such courses based on the Context, Input, Process and Product (CIPP) model. The tools for collecting data, both quantitatively and qualitatively, were some questionnaires, content analysis of portfolios, semi- structured interview and brain storming sessions. For quantitative data analysis, SPSS software, version 14, was used. In the context evaluation by modified DREEM questionnaire, 77.75%of the students believed that this educational system encourages them to actively participate in classes. Course schedule and atmosphere of class were reported suitable by 87.81% and 83.86% of students. In input domain that was measured by a researcher made questionnaire, the facilities for education were acceptable except for shortage of cadavers. In process evaluation, the quality of integrated modules presentation and Early Clinical Exposure (ECE) was good from the students' viewpoint. In product evaluation, students' brain storming, students' portfolio and semi-structured interview with faculties were done, showing some positive aspects of integration and some areas that need improvement. The main advantage of assessing

  14. Program evaluation of an integrated basic science medical curriculum in Shiraz Medical School, using CIPP evaluation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AZADEH ROOHOLAMINI

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In recent years curriculum reform and integration was done in many medical schools. The integrated curriculum is a popular concept all over the world. In Shiraz medical school, the reform was initiated by stablishing the horizontal basic science integration model and Early Clinical Exposure (ECE for undergraduate medical education. The purpose of this study was to provide the required data for the program evaluation of this curriculum for undergraduate medical students, using CIPP program evaluation model. Methods: This study is an analytic descriptive and triangulation mixed method study which was carried out in Shiraz Medical School in 2012, based on the views of professors of basic sciences courses and first and second year medical students. The study evaluated the quality of the relationship between basic sciences and clinical courses and the method of presenting such courses based on the Context, Input, Process and Product (CIPP model. The tools for collecting data, both quantitatively and qualitatively, were some questionnaires, content analysis of portfolios, semistructured interview and brain storming sessions. For quantitative data analysis, SPSS software, version 14, was used. Results: In the context evaluation by modified DREEM questionnaire, 77.75%of the students believed that this educational system encourages them to actively participate in classes. Course schedule and atmosphere of class were reported suitable by 87.81% and 83.86% of students. In input domain that was measured by a researcher made questionnaire, the facilities for education were acceptable except for shortage of cadavers. In process evaluation, the quality of integrated modules presentation and Early Clinical Exposure (ECE was good from the students’ viewpoint. In product evaluation, students’ brain storming, students’ portfolio and semi-structured interview with faculties were done, showing some positive aspects of integration and some areas

  15. Evaluating the assumptions of surface reflectance and aerosol type selection within the MODIS aerosol retrieval over land: the problem of dust type selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Mielonen

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD and Ångström exponent (AE values derived with the MODIS retrieval algorithm over land (Collection 5 are compared with ground based sun photometer measurements at eleven sites spanning the globe. Although, in general, total AOD compares well at these sites (R2 values generally over 0.8, there are cases (from 2 to 67% of the measurements depending on the site where MODIS clearly retrieves the wrong spectral dependence, and hence, an unrealistic AE value. Some of these poor AE retrievals are due to the aerosol signal being too small (total AOD < 0.3 but in other cases the AOD should have been high enough to derive accurate AE. However, in these cases, MODIS indicates AE values close to 0.6 and zero fine model weighting (FMW, i.e. dust model provides the best fitting to the MODIS observed reflectance. Yet, according to evidence from the collocated sun photometer measurements and backtrajectory analyses, there should be no dust present. This indicates that the assumptions about aerosol model and surface properties made by the MODIS algorithm may have been incorrect. Here we focus on problems related to parameterization of the land-surface optical properties in the algorithm, in particular the relationship between the surface reflectance at 660 and 2130 nm. The retrieval assumes that there is a linear equation that relates the reflectance in these two channels, with the value of the slope (slope660/2130 determined, in part, by the infrared Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, (NDVISWIR. However, the assumed dependence of the slope on the NDVISWIR is not supported by a MODIS based surface albedo climatology. The use of a modified relationship based on the albedo data improves the AE retrieval at the studied sites. The increase in the AE agreement fraction between MODIS and AERONET measurements is between 3 and 22 percentage units depending on the site. These results

  16. Pre-training evaluation and feedback improved skills retention of basic life support in medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Zhou, Rong-hua; Liu, Jin; Lin, Jing; Ma, Er-Li; Liang, Peng; Shi, Ting-wei; Fang, Li-qun; Xiao, Hong

    2013-09-01

    Pre-training evaluation and feedback have been shown to improve medical students' skills acquisition of basic life support (BLS) immediately following training. The impact of such training on BLS skills retention is unknown. This study was conducted to investigate effects of pre-training evaluation and feedback on BLS skills retention in medical students. Three hundred and thirty 3rd year medical students were randomized to two groups, the control group (C group) and pre-training evaluation and feedback group (EF group). Each group was subdivided into four subgroups according to the time of retention-test (at 1-, 3-, 6-, 12-month following the initial training). After a 45-min BLS lecture, BLS skills were assessed (pre-training evaluation) in both groups before training. Following this, the C group received 45 min training. 15 min of group feedback corresponding to students' performance in pre-training evaluation was given only in the EF group that was followed by 30 min of BLS training. BLS skills were assessed immediately after training (post-test) and at follow up (retention-test). No skills difference was observed between the two groups in pre-training evaluation. Better skills acquisition was observed in the EF group (85.3 ± 7.3 vs. 68.1 ± 12.2 in C group) at post-test (pskills retention was observed in each EF subgroup, compared with its paired C subgroup. Pre-training evaluation and feedback improved skills retention in the EF group for 12 months after the initial training, compared with the control group. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 10 CFR 436.14 - Methodological assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Methodological assumptions. 436.14 Section 436.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Methodology and... period is as follows: (1) For evaluating and ranking alternative retrofits for an existing Federal...

  18. Disastrous assumptions about community disasters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dynes, R.R. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States). Disaster Research Center

    1995-12-31

    Planning for local community disasters is compounded with erroneous assumptions. Six problematic models are identified: agent facts, big accident, end of the world, media, command and control, administrative. Problematic assumptions in each of them are identified. A more adequate model centered on problem solving is identified. That there is a discrepancy between disaster planning efforts and the actual response experience seems rather universal. That discrepancy is symbolized by the graffiti which predictably surfaces on many walls in post disaster locations -- ``First the earthquake, then the disaster.`` That contradiction is seldom reduced as a result of post disaster critiques, since the most usual conclusion is that the plan was adequate but the ``people`` did not follow it. Another explanation will be provided here. A more plausible explanation for failure is that most planning efforts adopt a number of erroneous assumptions which affect the outcome. Those assumptions are infrequently changed or modified by experience.

  19. Investigation and basic evaluation for ultra-high burnup fuel cladding material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ioka, Ikuo; Nagase, Fumihisa; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Kiuchi, Kiyoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Suga, Masataka [Kokan Keisoku Co., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2001-03-01

    In ultra-high burnup of the power reactor, it is an essential problem to develop the cladding with excellent durability. First, development history and approach of the safety assessment of Zircaloy for the high burnup fuel were summarized in the report. Second, the basic evaluation and investigation were carried out on the material with high practicability in order to select the candidate materials for the ultra-high burnup fuel. In addition, the basic research on modification technology of the cladding surface was carried out from the viewpoint of the addition of safety margin as a cladding. From the development history of the zirconium alloy including the Zircaloy, it is hard to estimate the results of in-pile test from those of the conventional corrosion test (out-pile test). Therefore, the development of the new testing technology that can simulate the actual environment and the elucidation of the corrosion-controlling factor of the cladding are desired. In cases of RIA (Reactivity Initiated Accident) and LOCA (Loss of Coolant Accident), it seems that the loss of ductility in zirconium alloys under heavy irradiation and boiling of high temperature water restricts the extension of fuel burnup. From preliminary evaluation on the high corrosion-resistance materials (austenitic stainless steel, iron or nickel base superalloys, titanium alloy, niobium alloy, vanadium alloy and ferritic stainless steel), stabilized austenitic stainless steels with a capability of future improvement and high-purity niobium alloys with a expectation of the good corrosion resistance were selected as candidate materials of ultra-high burnup cladding. (author)

  20. Evaluation of Multiple Choice and Short Essay Question items in Basic Medical Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Mukhtiar; Ali, Syeda Kauser; Ali, Sobia; Huda, Nighat

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate Multiple Choice and Short Essay Question items in Basic Medical Sciences by determining item writing flaws (IWFs) of MCQs along with cognitive level of each item in both methods. Methods: This analytical study evaluated the quality of the assessment tools used for the first batch in a newly established medical college in Karachi, Pakistan. First and sixth module assessment tools in Biochemistry during 2009-2010 were analyzed. Cognitive level of MCQs and SEQs, were noted and MCQ item writing flaws were also evaluated. Results: A total of 36 SEQs and 150 MCQs of four items were analyzed. The cognitive level of 83.33% of SEQs was at recall level while remaining 16.67% were assessing interpretation of data. Seventy six percent of the MCQs were at recall level while remaining 24% were at the interpretation. Regarding IWFs, 69 IWFs were found in 150 MCQs. The commonest among them were implausible distracters (30.43%), unfocused stem (27.54%) and unnecessary information in the stem (24.64%). Conclusion: There is a need to review the quality including the content of assessment tools. A structured faculty development program is recommended for developing improved assessment tools that align with learning outcomes and measure competency of medical students. PMID:24639820

  1. Evaluation of additives required for periodontal disease formulation using basic fibroblast growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yasuhiko; Oba, Takuma; Natori, Nobuyuki; Danjo, Kazumi

    2010-12-01

    To design a suitable periodontal disease formulation using basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), legally available thickeners were evaluated focusing on their viscosity, extrusive force from a syringe, flow property and inertness to bFGF. Thirteen candidate thickeners showed appropriate viscosity (about 1×10⁴ mPa·s), and further evaluations were conducted on them. Flow property was evaluated by the tilting test tube method. As a result, most thickener solutions with the optimum viscosity showed appropriate flow time (about 100 s) and the flow time did not depend on thickener concentration, whereas the extrusive force from a syringe depended on thickener concentration despite the thickener type and grade. Thickener solutions of 2-3% showed ideal result (10-20 N) and thickener solutions prepared outside of the concentration range (2-3%) were found to show unsuitable extrusive force. Consequently, to obtain required properties for a dental drug formulation, thickener solutions needed to show adequate viscosity (about 1×10⁴ mPa·s) at 2-3% thickener concentration. In addition, several types of cellulose derivatives showed inertness to the bFGF because of their structure, without strong ionic dissociable groups, and neutral pH. Overall, the present work demonstrates that some water-soluble cellulose derivatives, such as hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) and hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC), were suggested to have required properties for a dental drug formulation including bFGF.

  2. Medical students can learn the basic application, analytic, evaluative, and psychomotor skills of critical care medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, P L; Jacob, H; Thomas, E A; Harwell, M; Willenkin, R L; Pinsky, M R

    2000-02-01

    To determine whether fourth-year medical students can learn the basic analytic, evaluative, and psychomotor skills needed to initially manage a critically ill patient. Student learning was evaluated using a performance examination, the objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Students were randomly assigned to one of two clinical scenarios before the elective. After the elective, students completed the other scenario, using a crossover design. Five surgical intensive care units in a tertiary care university teaching hospital. Forty fourth-year medical students enrolled in the critical care medicine (CCM) elective. All students evaluated a live "simulated critically ill" patient, requested physiologic data from a nurse, ordered laboratory tests, received data in real time, and intervened as they deemed appropriate. Student performance of specific behavioral objectives was evaluated at five stations. They were expected to a) assess airway, breathing, and circulation in appropriate sequence; b) prepare a manikin for intubation, obtain an acceptable airway on the manikin, demonstrate bag-mouth ventilation, and perform acceptable laryngoscopy and intubation; c) provide appropriate mechanical ventilator settings; d) manage hypotension; and e) request and interpret pulmonary artery data and initiate appropriate therapy. OSCEs were videotaped and reviewed by two faculty members masked to time of examination. A checklist of key behaviors was used to evaluate performance. The primary outcome measure was the difference in examination score before and after the rotation. Secondary outcomes included the difference in scores at each rotation. The mean preelective score was 57.0%+/-8.3% compared with 85.9%+/-7.4% (ppsychomotor skills necessary to initially manage critically ill patients. After an appropriate 1-month CCM elective, students' thinking and application skills required to initially manage critically ill patients improved markedly, as demonstrated by an OSCE

  3. The Axioms and Special Assumptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchers, Hans-Jürgen; Sen, Rathindra Nath

    For ease of reference, the axioms, the nontriviality assumptions (3.1.10), the definition of a D-set and the special assumptions of Chaps. 5 and 6 are collected together in the following. The verbal explanations that follow the formal definitions a)-f) of (4.2.1) have been omitted. The entries below are numbered as they are in the text. Recall that βC is the subset of the cone C which, in a D-set, is seen to coincide with the boundary of C after the topology is introduced (Sects. 3.2 and 3.2.1).

  4. An Evaluation of the Occupationally Oriented Basic Education Program In Waterbury, Connecticut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Steven J.; Karas, Shawky F.

    The Waterbury Board of Education is currently operating a Manpower Development and Training Act (MDTA) project. It includes the Adult Basic Education Program and Occupational Skill Training. The program provides basic elementary education to individuals functioning at or below the third grade level in arithmetic and English, as well as those who…

  5. An Independent Evaluation of the Technical Features of the Basic Reading Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieber, Gregg; Hulac, David M.; Schweinle, William

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated some psychometric properties of the Basic Reading Inventory (BRI), a widely used informal reading inventory. The BRI and Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) probes were administered to 149 third, fourth, and fifth graders. Test--retest and alternate forms reliability analyses indicated adequate…

  6. Evaluation of a standardized physical training program for basic combat training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapik, Joseph; Darakjy, Salima; Scott, Shawn J; Hauret, Keith G; Canada, Sara; Marin, Roberto; Rieger, William; Jones, Bruce H

    2005-05-01

    A control group (CG, n = 1,138) that implemented a traditional Basic Combat Training (BCT) physical training (PT) program was compared to an evaluation group (EG, n = 829) that implemented a PT program newly designed for BCT. The Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) was taken at various points in the PT program, and injuries were obtained from a medical surveillance system. After 9 weeks of training, the proportion failing the APFT was lower in the EG than in the CG (1.7 vs. 3.3%, p = 0.03). After adjustment for initial fitness levels, age, and body mass index, the relative risk of an injury in the CG was 1.6 (95% confidence interval [CI] =1.2-2.0) and 1.5 (95% CI = 1.2-1.8) times higher than in the EG for men and women, respectively. The newly designed PT program resulted in higher fitness test pass rates and lower injury rates compared to a traditional BCT physical training program.

  7. Evaluation of Basic Life Support Training Program Provided for Nurses in A University Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Terzi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study was conducted to assess the efficiency of the basic life support (BLS training program provided for nurses in a university hospital. To evaluate the efficiency of the BLS training program provided for nurses in a university hospital. Methods: In this a quasi-experimental study, a total of 404 nurses who received BLS training were enrolled. The study was performed in two stages. In stage one, the participant nurses were given a pre-test that consisted of 25 questions, four points each, before the training on the first day of the 2-day BLS training. The post-test was conducted in addition to practical exams on manikins to determine nurses’ practice skills on BLS. Results: There was a statistically significant difference between the nurses with previous BLS training and the difference between their pre- and post-test results (p<0.05, and high statistically significant difference was found between the nurses with previous advanced life support (ALS training and the difference between their pre- and post-test results (p<0.001. Conclusion: Nurses should receive BLS training in hospitals and the training should be repeated on a regular basis. The BLS training that the nurses received in this study was effective and increased their knowledge level on BLS

  8. Evaluation of a School Building in Turkey According to the Basic Sustainable Design Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, H. D.

    2017-08-01

    In Turkey, as well as many other developing countries, the significance of sustainable education buildings has only recently become recognized and the issue of sustainability issue has not been sufficiently involved in laws and regulations. In this study, first of all architectural sustainability with basic design criteria has been explained. After that selected type primary school project in Turkey has been evaluated according to the sustainable design criteria. Type project of school buildings significantly limits the sustainability performance expected from buildings. It is clear that type projects shorten the planning time as they include a designing process that is independent of settlement and they are repeated in various places with different characteristics, indeed. On the other hand; abundance of disadvantages such as the overlook of the natural physical and structural properties of the location mostly restricts the sustainable design of the building. For sustainable buildings, several factors such as the environment, land, climate, insolation, direction etc. shall be taken into consideration at the beginning stage. Therefore; implementation of type projects can be deemed to be inappropriate for sustainability.

  9. Wood’s Lamp Examination: Evaluation of Basic Knowledge in General Physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pudit Suraprasit

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wood’s lamp examination is a useful diagnostic test in many dermatological disorders. However, there was limited data on knowledge of physicians about this tool. Objective: To evaluate basic knowledge of physicians on Wood’s lamp and its applications. Methods: The study used questionnaires in Thai general physicians who attended the 2013 Dermatology Annual Meeting. The questionnaire composed of a picture of a Wood’s lamp instrument and two open-end questions including 1 What is the name of this device? 2 Which diseases can this device help to make the diagnosis? Results: Eighty-two physicians enrolled in this study. Only 55 physicians (67.1% answered the name of a Wood’s lamp correctly. There were 29 out of 55 physicians (52.7% knew at least one application of Wood’s lamp. About half did not know any applications. Tinea versicolor, followed by melasma, tinea captitis, erythrasma, acne, porphyria, and vitiligo, respectively were the common applications that most physicians answered. Conclusion: This study showed around two-third of physicians know Wood’s lamp, but only half of them were knowledgeable about its’ application in dermatoses. Education regarding Wood’s lamp and application should be emphasized more in physicians to assist in dermatologic diagnoses.

  10. Do unreal assumptions pervert behaviour?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Verner C.

    After conducting a series of experiments involving economics students Miller concludes: "The experience of taking a course in microeconomics actually altered students' conceptions of the appropriateness of acting in a self-interested manner, not merely their definition of self-interest." Being...... taught the assumptions of neoclassical economics one might become inclined to expect others to act in a self-interested way. This may indicate that the canonical assumptions of economics in turn influence the views of its practitioners for instance in business administration. The management practice...... of Jack Welch may show how this works in practice. He became famous for promoting a system of internal competition, in which employees were divided into a three category ranking with the top 20% being the stars, and the bottom 10% were weeded out. If such a scheme does not force employees to act in a self...

  11. Evaluation of a newly developed media-supported 4-step approach for basic life support training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sopka Saša

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The quality of external chest compressions (ECC is of primary importance within basic life support (BLS. Recent guidelines delineate the so-called 4“-step approach” for teaching practical skills within resuscitation training guided by a certified instructor. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether a “media-supported 4-step approach” for BLS training leads to equal practical performance compared to the standard 4-step approach. Materials and methods After baseline testing, 220 laypersons were either trained using the widely accepted method for resuscitation training (4-step approach or using a newly created “media-supported 4-step approach”, both of equal duration. In this approach, steps 1 and 2 were ensured via a standardised self-produced podcast, which included all of the information regarding the BLS algorithm and resuscitation skills. Participants were tested on manikins in the same mock cardiac arrest single-rescuer scenario prior to intervention, after one week and after six months with respect to ECC-performance, and participants were surveyed about the approach. Results Participants (age 23 ± 11, 69% female reached comparable practical ECC performances in both groups, with no statistical difference. Even after six months, there was no difference detected in the quality of the initial assessment algorithm or delay concerning initiation of CPR. Overall, at least 99% of the intervention group (n = 99; mean 1.5 ± 0.8; 6-point Likert scale: 1 = completely agree, 6 = completely disagree agreed that the video provided an adequate introduction to BLS skills. Conclusions The “media-supported 4-step approach” leads to comparable practical ECC-performance compared to standard teaching, even with respect to retention of skills. Therefore, this approach could be useful in special educational settings where, for example, instructors’ resources are sparse or large-group sessions

  12. Triatominae Biochemistry Goes to School: Evaluation of a Novel Tool for Teaching Basic Biochemical Concepts of Chagas Disease Vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Leonardo Rodrigues; de Oliveria Cudischevitch, Cecília; Carneiro, Alan Brito; Macedo, Gustavo Bartholomeu; Lannes, Denise; da Silva-Neto, Mário Alberto Cardoso

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate a new approach to teaching the basic biochemistry mechanisms that regulate the biology of Triatominae, major vectors of "Trypanosoma cruzi," the causative agent of Chagas disease. We have designed and used a comic book, "Carlos Chagas: 100 years after a hero's discovery" containing scientific information obtained by…

  13. On testing the missing at random assumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    Most approaches to learning from incomplete data are based on the assumption that unobserved values are missing at random (mar). While the mar assumption, as such, is not testable, it can become testable in the context of other distributional assumptions, e.g. the naive Bayes assumption. In this ......Most approaches to learning from incomplete data are based on the assumption that unobserved values are missing at random (mar). While the mar assumption, as such, is not testable, it can become testable in the context of other distributional assumptions, e.g. the naive Bayes assumption...

  14. Measuring Productivity Change without Neoclassical Assumptions: A Conceptual Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.M. Balk (Bert)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe measurement of productivity change (or difference) is usually based on models that make use of strong assumptions such as competitive behaviour and constant returns to scale. This survey discusses the basics of productivity measurement and shows that one can dispense with most if not

  15. Modern Cosmology: Assumptions and Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jai-Chan

    2012-06-01

    Physical cosmology tries to understand the Universe at large with its origin and evolution. Observational and experimental situations in cosmology do not allow us to proceed purely based on the empirical means. We examine in which sense our cosmological assumptions in fact have shaped our current cosmological worldview with consequent inevitable limits. Cosmology, as other branches of science and knowledge, is a construct of human imagination reflecting the popular belief system of the era. The question at issue deserves further philosophic discussions. In Whitehead's words, ``philosophy, in one of its functions, is the critic of cosmologies.'' (Whitehead 1925).

  16. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Wwww of... - Basic Requirements for Performance Tests, Performance Evaluations, and Design Evaluations for New...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Devices 6 Table 6 to Subpart WWWW of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Production Pt. 63, Subpt. WWWW, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart WWWW of Part 63—Basic Requirements for Performance...

  17. Evaluation of Games in Games and Physical Activity Course Curriculum in Terms of Common Basic Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inan, Mehmet; Ozden, Bülent; Dervent, Fatih; Küçüktepe, Coskun

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide an overview of the games in the "I am Playing Games" (IPG) compilation booklet that was used in the Games and Physical Activity (GPA) curriculum. 257 games in IPG compilation booklet were coded whether they had elements that would enable development of common basic skills or not. Common basic…

  18. Evaluating the role of Adult Basic Education and Training (ABET), in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although literacy efforts in South Africa were standardised and legitimised by the establishment of the National Qualifications Framework in 1995, Adult Basic Education and Training (ABET) programmes are dwindling in numbers. Firstly, this paper seeks to position ABET within the National Qualifications Framework in a ...

  19. Basic principles of test-negative design in evaluating influenza vaccine effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Wakaba; Hirota, Yoshio

    2017-08-24

    Based on the unique characteristics of influenza, the concept of "monitoring" influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) across the seasons using the same observational study design has been developed. In recent years, there has been a growing number of influenza VE reports using the test-negative design, which can minimize both misclassification of diseases and confounding by health care-seeking behavior. Although the test-negative designs offer considerable advantages, there are some concerns that widespread use of the test-negative design without knowledge of the basic principles of epidemiology could produce invalid findings. In this article, we briefly review the basic concepts of the test-negative design with respect to classic study design such as cohort studies or case-control studies. We also mention selection bias, which may be of concern in some countries where rapid diagnostic testing is frequently used in routine clinical practices, as in Japan. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Universally composable protocols with relaxed set-up assumptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barak, Boaz; Canetti, Ran; Nielsen, Jesper Buus

    2004-01-01

    infrastructure": parties have registered public keys, no single registration authority needs to be fully trusted, and no single piece of information has to be globally trusted and available. In addition, unlike known protocols in the CRS model, the proposed protocols guarantee some basic level of security even...... allow for UC protocols. We answer this question in the affirmative: we propose alternative and relaxed set-up assumptions and show that they suffice for reproducing the general feasibility results for UC protocols in the CRS model. These alternative assumptions have the flavor of a "public-key...

  1. Basic nursing care: retrospective evaluation of communication and psychosocial interventions documented by nurses in the acute care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvé-Udina, Maria-Eulàlia; Pérez, Esperanza Zuriguel; Padrés, Núria Fabrellas; Samartino, Maribel Gonzalez; García, Marta Romero; Creus, Mònica Castellà; Batllori, Núria Vila; Calvo, Cristina Matud

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the frequency of psychosocial aspects of basic nursing care, as e-charted by nurses, when using an interface terminology. An observational, multicentre study was conducted in acute wards. The main outcome measure was the frequency of use of the psychosocial interventions in the electronic nursing care plans, analysed over a 12 month retrospective review. Overall, 150,494 electronic care plans were studied. Most of the intervention concepts from the interface terminology were used by registered nurses to illustrate the psychosocial aspects of fundamentals of care in the electronic care plans. The results presented help to demonstrate that the interventions of this interface terminology may be useful to inform psychosocial aspects of basic and advanced nursing care. The identification of psychosocial elements of basic nursing care in the nursing documentation may lead to obtain a deeper understanding of those caring interventions nurses consider essential to represent nurse-patient interactions. The frequency of psychosocial interventions may contribute to delineate basic and advanced nursing care. © 2013 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  2. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Basic Life Support Training on the Knowledge and Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afzalimoghaddam M

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Basic Life Support (BLS as the first level of medical care in sudden cardiac arrest and life-threatening illnesses can improve survival outcomes. The aim of this study was to compare the knowledge and skills of BLS among medical students at the beginning and the end of the training course in the emergency department. Materials and Methods:This study was a descriptive analytic cross- sectional study among 90 medical students in their sixth academic year during emergency medicine training course. At first, a standard Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE was performed to obtain their basic knowledge and skills of BLS. Then a training course was provided in two theoretical and practical parts using the 2006 American Heart Association guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care. At the end of the study, the same standard OSCE was performed. Results: The mean score of the primary OSCE was 4.9 with 55 students (61.11% having a score between zero to five and 35 (35.89% between five to ten.  The mean scores increased significantly after training regarding checking the patient's response, head tilt and chin lift maneuvers, number of massages and correct breathing (p

  3. Underlying assumptions of developmental models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britten, Roy J.

    1998-01-01

    These 10 obvious propositions make a model of the specification of form, intended to expose underlying assumptions of developmental biology for examination and future experimentation. (I) The control of development is by means of local interactions, rather than global control mechanisms. (II) A macromolecule near a specific site will bind by mass action. (III) Starting with a precursor cell, all cells are assembled automatically by specifically binding macromolecules. (IV) At the surface of cells are specific adhesion sites that determine how all cells bind to each other. (V) An organism will assemble automatically from parts (macromolecules, structures, and cells) specified by nuclear control factors. (VI) The nuclear control factors in each cell are from precursor cells and factors derived by signaling from other cells. (VII) The macromolecules that determine specific binding, cell adhesion, and signaling are controlled by nuclear control factors, and in a grand feedback the cell adhesion and signaling systems determine the nuclear factor patterns. (VIII) The embryonic precursor cells for organs, termed “precursor groups,” are linked by adhesion and signaling relationships. (IX) The precursor groups include precursors for regions of an organ and boundary cells between regions having few cell types, growing without additional specific cell-to-cell relationships. (X) Organs are held together by cell adhesion in functional relationships. Thus the form and function of the organism is specified entirely by local control mechanisms. Without global control systems, information for form is in the genes for structural proteins, adhesion molecules, control factors, signaling molecules, and their control regions. PMID:9689087

  4. An Agent-Based Approach for Evaluating Basic Design Options of Management Accounting Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friederike Wall

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effectiveness of reducing errors in management accounting systems with respect to organizational performance. In particular, different basic design options of management accounting systems of how to improve the information base by measurements of actual values are analyzed in different organizational contexts. The paper applies an agent-based simulation based on the idea of NK fitness landscapes. The results provide broad, but no universal support for conventional wisdom that lower inaccuracies of accounting information lead to more effective adaptation processes. Furthermore, results indicate that the effectiveness of improving the management accounting system subtly interferes with the complexity of the interactions within the organization and the coordination mode applied

  5. Measurement and Basic Physics Committee of the U.S. Cross-Section Evaluation Working Group annual report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.L. [ed.] [comp.] [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); McLane, V. [ed.] [comp.] [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1997-10-01

    The Cross-Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) is a long-standing committee charged with responsibility for organizing and overseeing the US cross-section evaluation effort. It`s main product is the official US evaluated nuclear data file, ENDF. In 1992 CSEWG added the Measurements Committee to its list of standing committees and subcommittees. This action was based on a recognition of the importance of experimental data in the evaluation process as well as the realization that measurement activities in the US were declining at an alarming rate and needed considerable encouragement to avoid the loss of this resource. The mission of the Committee is to maintain contact with experimentalists in the Us and to encourage them to contribute to the national nuclear data effort. Improved communication and the facilitation of collaborative activities are among the tools employed in achieving this objective. In 1994 the Committee was given an additional mission, namely, to serve as an interface between the applied interests represented in CSEWG and the basic nuclear science community. Accordingly, its name was changed to the Measurement and Basic Physics Committee. The present annual report is the third such document issued by the Committee. It contains voluntary contributions from several laboratories in the US. Their contributions were submitted to the Chairman for compilation and editing.

  6. Towards New Probabilistic Assumptions in Business Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schumann Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main assumptions of mathematical tools in science is represented by the idea of measurability and additivity of reality. For discovering the physical universe additive measures such as mass, force, energy, temperature, etc. are used. Economics and conventional business intelligence try to continue this empiricist tradition and in statistical and econometric tools they appeal only to the measurable aspects of reality. However, a lot of important variables of economic systems cannot be observable and additive in principle. These variables can be called symbolic values or symbolic meanings and studied within symbolic interactionism, the theory developed since George Herbert Mead and Herbert Blumer. In statistical and econometric tools of business intelligence we accept only phenomena with causal connections measured by additive measures. In the paper we show that in the social world we deal with symbolic interactions which can be studied by non-additive labels (symbolic meanings or symbolic values. For accepting the variety of such phenomena we should avoid additivity of basic labels and construct a new probabilistic method in business intelligence based on non-Archimedean probabilities.

  7. Wetland distribution assumptions: consequences for Methane emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinen, Thomas; Brovkin, Victor

    2017-04-01

    Wetlands are the largest natural source of methane to the atmosphere. While process models of wetland methane emissions have advanced considerably in recent years, all of these models critically depend on estimates of the methane-emitting area. These estimates are highly uncertain, however. We investigate several approaches for estimating the wetland area and the consequences these assumptions have for the spatial and temporal distributions of wetland methane emissions. For this investigation we use JSBACH, the land surface component of the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model MPI-ESM, extended with modules for the generation and soil transport of methane. We drive the model with an ensemble of simulations of climate over the historical period from the MPI-ESM CMIP5 archive, as well as observed climate from CRU-NCEP. We impose both static and dynamic wetland maps, as well as modelled wetland distributions, and determine the wetland methane emissions resulting from these estimates. Results are compared to methane fluxes from atmospheric inversions to evaluate the consequences of the assumptions on wetland area.

  8. A BASIC STUDY OF EVALUATION STRUCTURE TO VISUAL DESIGN OF NEO-FUNCTIONALISM BRIDGES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Teppei; Sasaki, Yoh

    This research's final goal is to clarify how people focus on the external appearance of neo-functionalism bridges which are characterized by their distinguishing morphological features, and also determine whether people evaluate these bridges and how they do it. As a first step, the research focuses on the Through-type Arch Bridge and attempts to make clear the evaluation structure by means of an experimental psychology approach. Upon this, the dynamic image will be defined by the vitality flow and motion impression that characterize this kind of bridge. The sensibility evaluation experiment is carried out by using CG that reflects the changes of related feature shapes. Thus, the relationship between the assortments of the bridge's morphological characteristic and its impression are analyzed by using Rough Set Theory. As a result, it was possible to find out a variety of evaluation trends related to the intellectual background of the bridge observer and also establish the distinct characteristics of various evaluation trends.

  9. The Immoral Assumption Effect: Moralization Drives Negative Trait Attributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meindl, Peter; Johnson, Kate M; Graham, Jesse

    2016-04-01

    Jumping to negative conclusions about other people's traits is judged as morally bad by many people. Despite this, across six experiments (total N = 2,151), we find that multiple types of moral evaluations--even evaluations related to open-mindedness, tolerance, and compassion--play a causal role in these potentially pernicious trait assumptions. Our results also indicate that moralization affects negative-but not positive-trait assumptions, and that the effect of morality on negative assumptions cannot be explained merely by people's general (nonmoral) preferences or other factors that distinguish moral and nonmoral traits, such as controllability or desirability. Together, these results suggest that one of the more destructive human tendencies--making negative assumptions about others--can be caused by the better angels of our nature. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  10. MEASUREMENT AND BASIC PHYSICS COMMITTEE OF THE U.S. CROSS-SECTION EVALUATION WORKING GROUP, ANNUAL REPORT 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SMITH,D.L.; MCLANE,V.

    1998-10-20

    The Cross-Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) is a long-standing committee charged with responsibility for organizing and overseeing the US cross-section evaluation effort. Its main product is the official US evaluated nuclear data file, ENDF. The current version of this file is Version VI. All evaluations included in ENDF, as well as periodic modifications and updates to the file, are reviewed and approved by CSEWG and issued by the US Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory. CSEWG is comprised of volunteers from the US nuclear data community who possess expertise in evaluation methodologies and who collectively have been responsible for producing most of the evaluations included in ENDF. In 1992 CSEWG added the Measurements Committee to its list of standing committees and subcommittees. This action was based on a recognition of the importance of experimental data in the evaluation process as well as the realization that measurement activities in the US were declining at an alarming rate and needed considerable encouragement to avoid the loss of this resource. The mission of the Committee is to maintain contact with experimentalists in the US and to encourage them to contribute to the national nuclear data effort. Improved communication and the facilitation of collaborative activities are among the tools employed in achieving this objective. In 1994 the Committee was given an additional mission, namely, to serve as an interface between the applied interests represented in CSEWG and the basic nuclear science community. Accordingly, its name was changed to the Measurement and Basic Physics Committee. The present annual report is the third such document issued by the Committee. It contains voluntary contributions from several laboratories in the US. Their contributions were submitted to the Chairman for compilation and editing.

  11. Program evaluation of an integrated basic science medical curriculum in Shiraz Medical School, using CIPP evaluation model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    AZADEH ROOHOLAMINI; MITRA AMINI; LEILA BAZRAFKAN; MOHAMMAD REZA DEHGHANI; ZOHREH ESMAEILZADEH; PARISA NABEIEI; RITA REZAEE; JAVAD KOJURI

    2017-01-01

    ...) for undergraduate medical education. The purpose of this study was to provide the required data for the program evaluation of this curriculum for undergraduate medical students, using CIPP program evaluation model. Methods...

  12. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Research Glossary Brain Basics (PDF, 10 pages) Introduction Watch the Brain Basics video Welcome. Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses ...

  13. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain Brain ... called the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Brain Basics in Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life— ...

  14. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Research Glossary Brain Basics (PDF, 10 pages) Introduction Watch the Brain Basics video Welcome. Brain Basics ... depression experience when starting treatment. Gene Studies ... medication. This information may someday make it possible to predict who ...

  15. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Research Glossary Brain Basics (PDF, 10 pages) Introduction Watch the Brain Basics video Welcome. Brain Basics ... fear hub," which activates our natural "fight-or-flight" response to confront or escape from a dangerous ...

  16. AN EVALUATION OF THE BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF A PLASTIC SCINTILLATING FIBRE DETECTOR IN CT RADIATION FIELDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terasaki, Kento; Fujibuchi, Toshioh; Toyoda, Takatoshi; Yoshida, Yutaka; Akasaka, Tsutomu; Nohtomi, Akihiro; Morishita, Junji

    2016-12-01

    The ionisation chamber for computed tomography (CT) is an instrument that is most commonly used to measure the computed tomography dose index. However, it has been reported that the 10 cm effective detection length of the ionisation chamber is insufficient due to the extent of the dose distribution outside the chamber. The purpose of this study was to estimate the basic characteristics of a plastic scintillating fibre (PSF) detector with a long detection length of 50 cm in CT radiation fields. The authors investigated position dependence using diagnostic X-ray equipment and dependencies for energy, dose rate and slice thickness using an X-ray CT system. The PSF detector outputs piled up at a count rate of 10 000 counts ms(-1) in dose rate dependence study. With calibration, this detector may be useful as a CT dosemeter with a long detection length except for the measurement at high dose rate. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Basic and clinical evaluation of our newly developed radiographic orthopantomography in studying the TMJ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takagi, Sumio

    1987-03-01

    Temporomandibular arthrosis has been reported in many fields: oral surgery, dental prosthetics, otolaryngology, radiology, psychosomatic medicine etc... Roentgenographic examination plays an important role in the diagnosis of temporomandibular arthrosis. There have been studies on various types of roentgenography of the temporomandibular joint, but because its anatomical morphology is so complicated that it is difficult to obtain an adequate roentgenograph. Thus, no definite method of roentgenography has been clearly established. We developed a new method of roentgenography that takes advantage of the characteristics of orthopantomography, and analyzed our results statistically. The following results were obtained: 1) As conditions for roentgenography, the optimal tube voltage was 60 -- 75 KVp, but this varied according to sex and age; the optimal tube current was 15 mA. 2) The optimal position of the head in the anteroposterior position was 10 mm in front of the standard point, and that in the vertical position was the central part of the film. 3) The optimal position of the head was reached when the OM line was horizontal. 4) On the basis of the data obtained from these basic experiments, images from standard roentgenography were compared statistically with those from the modified method of Schuller in patients with temporomandibular arthrosis. There was a significant difference between the images. These results demonstrated that this method of roentgenography may be useful in standardizing X-ray procedures, provides images of temporomandibular arthrosis of high reproductive quality, suggesting that this method may be adequate for more definitive diagnoses.

  18. Dominant region: a basic feature for group motion analysis and its application to teamwork evaluation in soccer games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taki, Tsuyoshi; Hasegawa, Jun-ichi

    1998-12-01

    This paper proposes a basic feature for quantitative measurement and evaluation of group behavior of persons. This feature called 'dominant region' is a kind of sphere of influence for each person in the group. The dominant region is defined as a region in where the person can arrive earlier than any other persons and can be formulated as Voronoi region modified by replacing the distance function with a time function. This time function is calculated based on a computational model of moving ability of the person. As an application of the dominant region, we present a motion analysis system of soccer games. The purpose of this system is to evaluate the teamwork quantitatively based on movement of all the players in the game. From experiments using motion pictures of actual games, it is suggested that the proposed feature is useful for measurement and evaluation of group behavior in team sports. This basic feature may be applied to other team ball games, such as American football, basketball, handball and water polo.

  19. High intertester reliability of the cumulated ambulation score for the evaluation of basic mobility in patients with hip fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Morten Tange; Andersen, Lene; Bech-Jensen, Rie

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the intertester reliability of the three activities of the Cumulated Ambulation Score (CAS) and the total CAS, and to define limits for the smallest change in basic mobility that indicates a real change in patients with hip fracture. DESIGN: An intertester reliability study....... independent ambulation. MAIN MEASURES: Reliability was evaluated using weighted kappa statistics, the standard error of measurement (SEM) and the smallest real difference (SRD). RESULTS: The kappa coefficient, the SEM and the SRD in the three activities and the total CAS were >or=0.92,...

  20. Institutional Evaluation in Basic Education Schools: a participation-oriented approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Dalben

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The present work is a synthesis of my Master’s Degree dissertation in which I tried toidentify the factors that have influenced the implementation of Participatory InstitutionalEvaluation in a public primary school of the periphery of Campinas, a Brazilianmunicipality in the state of Sao Paulo. Based on the concept of negotiated quality, theenactment of the institutional evaluation model proposed required the constitution ofan Evaluation Commission by representatives of diverse actors of the school community.The research consisted of a qualitative case study, using data collected from October2005 to December 2006, when I entered the school environment in order to support theschool to develop its evaluation process. Four categories of analysis were constructedto reflect on the school political pedagogical project, the educational culture of theschool principal, the nuances of participation and the potentialities of participativeinstitutional evaluation. The results acknowledge the potential of participative institutionalevaluation as a means for democratic management and for technical and politicalcapacity building at the school level aimed at overcoming problems faced by theschool.

  1. Evaluation of the effect of 3-month bladder basic advice in children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkaczyk, Marcin; Maternik, Michał; Krakowska, Anna; Wosiak, Agnieszka; Miklaszewska, Monika; Zachwieja, Katarzyna; Runowski, Dariusz; Jander, Anna; Ratajczak, Dariusz; Korzeniecka-Kozyrska, Agata; Mader-Wołyńska, Izabella; Kiliś-Pstrusińska, Katarzyna

    2017-06-01

    Advice (BBA) into the standards of patients' care in both monosymptomatic and non-monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis. Although the idea of this recommendation was clear and reflects clinical experience, duration and efficacy have not been definitely established. Recent data have demonstrated the lack of efficacy of BBA and a fierce discussion has ensued. The present study was aimed to assess the efficacy of BBA in a group of previously untreated children with primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (MNE). The study was a prospective interventional multicenter trial in a cohort of previously untreated MNE patients. Forty-nine children (36 males, 13 females, mean age 7.2 years) were included in the analysis. The treatment efficacy was assessed at the 30th, 60th, and 90th days of BBA. We discovered that the mean number of wet nights decreased significantly (p initially predicted the response to the BBA. Our study confirmed rather limited efficacy of BBA, similarly to previous observations, but provided more information on isolated MNE, because of a more specific study group and longer period of observation. The limitation of the study was lack of randomization. Our study revealed that in treatment-naïve children with monosymptomatic enuresis basic bladder training had a low (18%) and late effect, mostly pronounced after the third month of therapy. It seems that only if the patient presents with a favorable profile of bedwetting, occasionally and with a high maximum voided volume, it is worth maintaining BBA for a longer period of up to 3 months before initiating second-line therapy. In an unfavorable initial profile desmopressin or an alarm may be introduced much earlier. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of Selected Basic Soil Properties at the James Ross Island (Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vítězslav Vlček

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to summarize the basic soil properties of the selected places in the deglaciated areas on the James Ross Island (Antarctica. James Ross Island is a large island near the north-eastern extremity of the Antarctic Peninsula, from which it is separated by the Prince Gustav Channel. The island is approximately 2,600 km2 large and is covered in 80% of its surface by a glacier. Deglaciated areas cover relatively young soils developing after the parent substrate was deglaciated, but they still have a greatly varying character (fluvial, glacial, volcanic, possibly also aeolian. We determined in a separated fraction of fine earth following proportions of textural fractions: the average content (±Standard deviation of clay was 9.9 ± 1.6%; silt 31.9 ± 3.2% and average content of sand was 58.6 ± 2.9%. The content of oxidized carbon (Cox was very low, the average Cox content was 0.34 ± 0.06%. The average active soil reaction was 6.26 ± 0.45. The average electrical conductivity (EC was 1242 ± 252 µS.cm−1. The average: calcium content was 1.48 ± 0.34%; magnesium content 1.22 ± 0.19%; phosphorus content was 0.06 ± 0.01%; potassium content of samples was 0.25 ± 0.05% and sodium content was in average 0.46 ± 0.08%.

  3. Deep Drilling Basic Research: Volume 5 - System Evaluations. Final Report, November 1988--August 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1990-06-01

    This project is aimed at decreasing the costs and increasing the efficiency of drilling gas wells in excess of 15,000 feet. This volume presents a summary of an evaluation of various drilling techniques. Drilling solutions were compared quantitatively against typical penetration rates derived from conventional systems. A qualitative analysis measured the impact of a proposed system on the drilling industry. The evaluations determined that the best candidates f o r improving the speed and efficiency of drilling deep gas wells include: PDC/TSD bits, slim-hole drilling, roller-cone bits, downhole motors, top-driven systems, and coiled-tubing drilling.

  4. Making Foundational Assumptions Transparent: Framing the Discussion about Group Communication and Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Renee A.; Seibold, David R.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors seek to augment Dean Hewes's (1986, 1996) intriguing bracketing and admirable larger effort to "return to basic theorizing in the study of group communication" by making transparent the foundational, and debatable, assumptions that underlie those models. Although these assumptions are addressed indirectly by Hewes, the…

  5. Basic Evaluation and the Virtuous Realisation of Values: The Integrative Model of Aristotle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Riedenauer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Human affectivity is a research topic situated at the intersection of psychology, philosophical anthropology, theory of action and ethics. This article reconstructs the Aristotelian theory of emotions in the context of his theory of aspiration (o/recij and in terms of their function as primary evaluators of situations, which forms the basis for virtue ethics. The Aristotelian model integrates desire, motivation and morality for a rational being in community. Affects (pa/Jh reveal the profile of relevance of the world to a person as an indispensable basis for the work of practical reason. They are analysed in the dimensions of their cognitive core, their social, bodily, and motivational aspects. Affectivity constitutes a primary evaluative response to situations and thereby disposes human beings to realise their call to morally good, virtuous and fulfilling action.

  6. Basic Test Framework for the Evaluation of Text Line Segmentation and Text Parameter Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Darko Brodić; Milivojević, Dragan R.; Zoran Milivojević

    2010-01-01

    Text line segmentation is an essential stage in off-line optical character recognition (OCR) systems. It is a key because inaccurately segmented text lines will lead to OCR failure. Text line segmentation of handwritten documents is a complex and diverse problem, complicated by the nature of handwriting. Hence, text line segmentation is a leading challenge in handwritten document image processing. Due to inconsistencies in measurement and evaluation of text segmentation algorithm quality, som...

  7. Evaluation of Basic Skills Improvement for Laparoscopy by Training with a Video Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fernanda Gómez-Ramírez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Due to the growing economical and ethical limitations in surgeons training for minimally invasive surgery (mis, e.g. laparoscopy, this study aims at evaluating the effect of a continuous practice of a particular videogame on the development of the fundamental and specific skills needed to perform this type of procedure successfully. Materials and methods: To evaluate the effectiveness of video game practicing, three essential and common activities were chosen (cutting, suturing, and eye-hand coordination to be performed in laparoscopic simulators. Eight different indexes or variables of performance were measured in the three activities. Fourteen voluntaries without previous experience in surgery were divided in two groups (intervention and control and their performance was evaluated before and after a one-month standardized training program with the video game Marble Mania®. Results: A general improvement of all the performance variables was observed after one month training in the intervention group. This improvement was significant with respect to the control group in three of the eight variables: suturing errors (p = 0.003, and the execution and number of errors in the eye-hand coordination (p = 0.025 and 0.001, respectively.

  8. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Research Glossary Brain Basics (PDF, 10 pages) Introduction Watch the Brain Basics video Welcome. Brain Basics ... basic, working unit of the brain and nervous system, which processes and transmits information. neurotransmitter —A chemical produced by neurons that carries ...

  9. A practical approach to instrument selection, evaluation, basic financial management and implementation in pathology and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, Ashraf; Favaloro, Emmanuel J; Koutts, Jerry

    2008-01-01

    In response to increasingly complex demands in terms of productivity and budgets, there is a critical need to avoid mistakes during instrument selection that will be financially costly, and adversely affect customers, staff, productivity and test turnaround time. As there is no "one size fits all", guidelines must be appropriate to permit informed decision making. A Medline search was conducted to assess background knowledge in this area, using the terms "laboratory instrument selection" and "laboratory instrument evaluation". Searches returned over 800 articles, of which only seven were directly related to the topic of the search, with most outdated, and suggesting a paucity of appropriate information. Additional resources used included the American Association of Clinical Chemistry (AACC) website and the Internet. Appropriate criteria for instrument selection were established in the current report based on subjective and objective (technical) evaluations. Additionally, a sound and simple financial approach is also suggested to help in making informed decisions and avoid costly mistakes. We propose that such a process as outlined in our report will protect laboratories from making costly and avoidable mistakes in the acquisition of major equipment.

  10. Technological assumptions for biogas purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makareviciene, Violeta; Sendzikiene, Egle

    2015-01-01

    Biogas can be used in the engines of transport vehicles and blended into natural gas networks, but it also requires the removal of carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, and moisture. Biogas purification process flow diagrams have been developed for a process enabling the use of a dolomite suspension, as well as for solutions obtained by the filtration of the suspension, to obtain biogas free of hydrogen sulphide and with a carbon dioxide content that does not exceed 2%. The cost of biogas purification was evaluated on the basis of data on biogas production capacity and biogas production cost obtained from local water treatment facilities. It has been found that, with the use of dolomite suspension, the cost of biogas purification is approximately six times lower than that in the case of using a chemical sorbent such as monoethanolamine. The results showed travelling costs using biogas purified by dolomite suspension are nearly 1.5 time lower than travelling costs using gasoline and slightly lower than travelling costs using mineral diesel fuel.

  11. Using basic ethical principles to evaluate safety efforts in transfusion medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Jay P

    2012-01-01

    Pursuit of pharmaceutical purity of the blood in the bag has led to a shrinking donor base and a significantly more expensive product. Decisions regarding new infectious marker testing and donor deferrals have typically been made emphasizing decreasing one specific risk without considering the effect the intervention will have on the overall safety and availability of blood transfusion. Regulations have been formulated by governmental agencies with limited input from the medical community. The decision making process has lacked risk benefit analyses and has not had the robustness associated with spirited discussions. Policies made in this manner may result in certain risks being decreased but can also have adverse unintended consequences. Being guided by the ethical principles of nonmaleficence, beneficence, autonomy, and justice, we need to evaluate our actions in the context of overall blood safety rather than narrowly focusing on any one area.

  12. Using Basic Ethical Principles to Evaluate Safety Efforts in Transfusion Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay P. Brooks

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pursuit of pharmaceutical purity of the blood in the bag has led to a shrinking donor base and a significantly more expensive product. Decisions regarding new infectious marker testing and donor deferrals have typically been made emphasizing decreasing one specific risk without considering the effect the intervention will have on the overall safety and availability of blood transfusion. Regulations have been formulated by governmental agencies with limited input from the medical community. The decision making process has lacked risk benefit analyses and has not had the robustness associated with spirited discussions. Policies made in this manner may result in certain risks being decreased but can also have adverse unintended consequences. Being guided by the ethical principles of nonmaleficence, beneficence, autonomy, and justice, we need to evaluate our actions in the context of overall blood safety rather than narrowly focusing on any one area.

  13. [Basic evaluation of sampling step angle and spatial resolution in continuous rotating acquisition with SPECT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangai, Yoshiharu; Nagaki, Akio; Matsutomo, Norikazu; Sugino, Shuichi; Ohata, Yasushi; Mimura, Hiroaki; Onishi, Hideo

    2011-01-01

    In the data sampling in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), the continuous rotating acquisition method has high clinical utility. There have been various reports about the optimum sampling step angle for continuous rotating acquisition. Objective evaluation was performed visually and by measuring spatial resolution with a column phantom to find the optimum sampling step angle for continuous rotating acquisition. In locations far from the rotation center, a large sampling step angle produced artificial images with tangential elongation. The spatial resolution was 11.58 ± 0.19 mm full width half maximum (FWHM) as measured at a sampling step angle of 3 degrees and at 10 cm away from the rotation center. Increasing the sampling step angle to more than 3 degrees resulted in an increase of FWHM in the tangential direction. The optimum sampling step angle for continuous rotating acquisition in SPECT needs to be below that calculated from the sampling theorem.

  14. Evaluation of the Acidification targets. The basics; Evaluatie van de Verzuringsdoelstellingen. De onderbouwing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albers, R.; Beck, J.; Bleeker, A.; Van Bree, L.; Van Dam, J.; Van der Eerden, L.; Freijer, J.; Van Hinsberg, A.; Marra, M.; Van der Salm, C.; Tonneijck, A.; De Vries, W.; Wesselink, L.; Wortelboer, F.

    2001-07-01

    The Third National Environmental Policy Plan announced an evaluation of the acidification policy goals for The Netherlands. This reports presents the scientific building blocks for this evaluation. An overview is given of the emission trends and the environmental quality since 1980 with an outlook up to the year 2010. Besides, an assessment has been made of the state of the art on: the transport and deposition of acidifying compounds and the formation of ozone and particulate matter (PM10); the effects of transboundary air pollution on the health of human and the damage to plants and materials; the effects on the composition of species within terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and on soil and ground water quality. The main findings are: the most recent scientific findings do not differ significantly from the critical loads and levels as they were when the goals were defined; the NOx and NH3 emission goals for the year 2010 require very large efforts, as is also the case for the deposition goals for 2010; the emission reduction of the last decades has enlarged the importance of some aspects that until recently could be neglected. [Dutch] In het Derde Nationaal Milieubeleidsplan 3 (NMP3) is een evaluatie van de verzuringsdoelstelling aangekondigd. In het rapport wordt een wetenschappelijke onderbouwing van de evaluatie gegeven. Er is een overzicht gemaakt van de ontwikkeling van de emissies vanaf 1980 met een doorkijk naar 2010. Daarnaast is de stand van de wetenschappelijke kennis op een rij gezet wat betreft: de verspreiding, transport en depositie van verzurende stoffen en de vorming van ozon en fijn stof; de effecten van grootschalige luchtverontreiniging op de gezondheid van mensen en schade aan planten en materialen; de effecten op de soortensamenstelling van terrestische en aquatische natuur en op bodem- en grondwaterkwaliteit. De belangrijkste bevindingen zijn: de meest recente inzichten in de effecten leiden niet tot wezenlijk andere kritische niveaus dan

  15. [Evaluation of an education intervention for childhood obesity prevention in basic schools in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobos Fernández, Luz Lorena; Leyton Dinamarca, Bárbara; Kain Bercovich, Juliana; Vio del Río, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a comprehensive intervention in nutrition education and physical activity to prevent childhood obesity in primary school children of low socioeconomic status in Macul county in Chile, with a two year follow-up (2008 and 2009) of the children. The intervention consisted in teacher nutrition training in healthy eating and the implementation of educational material based on Chilean dietary guidelines. In addition, there was an increase in physical education classes to 3-4 hours per week and physical education teachers were recruited for that purpose. Weight, height and six minutes walk test (6MWT) were measured and body mass index (BMI), BMI Z score, prevalence of normal, overweight and obese children were calculated with WHO 2007reference. Changes between baseline and BMI Z in each period and 6MWT/height, and changes in nutrition knowledge through questionnaires were measured. There was no significant difference in BMI Z score between the initial and final periods and in the evolution of the nutritional status of children. Nutrition knowledge improved significantly between the two measurements. There was a significant increase in 6MWT/height (10 meters between baseline and follow-up, p childhood obesity in primary schools. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  16. [Basic ethological considerations concerning the evaluation of the welfare of farm animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knierim, U

    2002-06-01

    In the assessment of husbandry conditions with regard to farm animal welfare the probability or risk is evaluated to which extent the animals are feeling well or are prone to pain, suffering or physical harm under the specific husbandry conditions. It is emphasised that well-being is more than merely the absence of pain, suffering and physical harm. Well-being is defined as the experience of the extent of being able to successfully cope with the environment. Consequently, any prevention to actively and successfully interact with the environment may impair animal well-being. This situation often arises because of conflicts between husbandry conditions and innate species-specific behaviour programs, regardless of any domestication effects on the reactivity of the farm animals to their environment. Based on these presumptions, four broad categories of influence on the well-being of animals are identified and exemplary explained. On the side of the environment these are the extent of (1) physical opportunity to perform species-specific behaviour, (2) availability of adequate stimuli and substrates for this behaviour and (3) adequate learning opportunities, especially during rearing. On the animals' side it is the extent of (4) their genetically based bodily capacity to perform species-specific behaviour. Less behavioural restriction is associated with the likelihood that better well-being is safeguarded under the aspect of behaviour. For a full assessment with respect to animal welfare also health aspects and other variables as appropriate must be taken into account. The assessment is comparative by nature and does not in itself include any conclusion about the acceptability of certain conditions.

  17. [Evaluation of a dessert in patients with deglutition changes, one more step in advanced basic feeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luis, D A; Cabezas, G; Rojo, S; Terroba, C; Aller, R; Izaola, O; Cuéllar, L

    2001-01-01

    Decrease in the capacity to deglutition solids and liquids is a problem in many people, this problem decreases quality of life. The objective of our work is to evaluate the acceptance degree of a dessert (stewed fruit) (including in the normal diet of the Hospital) in a group of patients with dysphagia. Forty seven patients were studied in Hospital Universitario del Río Hortega (Valladolid) in July of 2000. The main pathology of these patients was; (n = 12) 25.5% acute stroke, (n = 16) 34% aerodigestive tumors (Jarynx carcinoma (n = 5), cavum carcinoma (n = 9), oesophagus carcinoma (n = 2)) and 40.4% (n = 19) chronic neurologic disease (Alzheimer, vascular dementia, and parkinson). All patients took a oral triturated diet, a dessert with apple and pear (Resource fruits Instant). All patients took a portion of the dessert and after that a acceptance questionnaire was filled. Global acceptance of the product was 7.25 +/- 1.5, this punctuation was higher in the tumoral group 8 +/- 1.1 points, 6.86 +/- 1.4 in patients with acute stroke and 6.7 +/- 1.5 in patients with chronic neurologic disease (p < 0.05). Different organoleptic characteristics were analyzed, mean punctuation in texture was 1.79 +/- 0.6, color 2.2 +/- 0.5, smell 2.24 +/- 0.59 and taste 1.95 +/- 0.61, in a scale of 1 (very good) until 5 (very bad), a total of 57.9% patients responded very good (1) or good (2) in texture scale, 71.1% in color scale, 60.5% in smell scale and 63.2% in taste scale. Acceptance of this product in patients with dysphagia has been elevated, showing useful in these patients with nutrition alterations.

  18. The relevance of ''theory rich'' bridge assumptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindenberg, S

    1996-01-01

    Actor models are increasingly being used as a form of theory building in sociology because they can better represent the caul mechanisms that connect macro variables. However, actor models need additional assumptions, especially so-called bridge assumptions, for filling in the relatively empty

  19. Evaluation of retention of knowledge and skills imparted to first-year medical students through basic life support training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pande, Sushma; Pande, Santosh; Parate, Vrushali; Pande, Sanket; Sukhsohale, Neelam

    2014-03-01

    Poor awareness among medical graduates about basic life support (BLS) is a matter of great concern. The presence of a trained rescuer is the key determinant of ultimate survival from life-threatening emergencies. To achieve this goal, early exposure to such life-saving skills is the right decision to foster these skills for medical students, which can be reenforced in succeeding years. Forty-two first-year medical students participated in this study. The entire procedure consisted of faculty training, assessment of knowledge of students by a pretest questionnaire, a lecture, a demonstration, and hands-on training using a mannequin (with special emphasis on the site, depth, rate, and sustainment of uninterrupted chest compressions). Posttest 1 was conducted to assess the knowledge gained. The retention of knowledge and skills in the second year was evaluated by posttest 2 and directly observed procedural skills, respectively. Student feedback was collected on five-point Likert scale. Analysis using a Freidman test indicated the mean rank for posttest 1 (2.81) to be significantly higher than the pretest (1.26), indicating a gain in knowledge. The mean rank for posttest 2 (1.93) was lower than for posttest 1 (2.81) but was significantly higher compared with the pretest (1.26), indicating a significant retention of knowledge during the second year. Directly observed procedural skill evaluation showed that 7% students could perform all the seven steps correctly and that 74% students could perform three or more steps correctly, signifying a good retention of skill. Two students taught BLS skills to their family members as well. The results of this study suggest that the program provides students with sound basic knowledge and adequate practical skills in BLS.

  20. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... PDF, 10 pages) Introduction Watch the Brain Basics video Welcome. Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses are disorders of the brain, and ongoing research that helps ...

  1. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The basic structure of the brain How different parts of the brain communicate and work with each ... of conducting messages. A neuron has three basic parts: Cell body which includes the nucleus, cytoplasm, and ...

  2. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit of the brain and nervous system. These cells ... A nerve cell that is the basic, working unit of the brain and nervous system, which processes ...

  3. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit of the brain ... specialized for the function of conducting messages. A neuron has three basic parts: Cell body which includes ...

  4. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in Real Life Brain Research Glossary Brain Basics (PDF, 10 pages) Introduction Watch the Brain Basics video ... and epigenetic changes can be passed on to future generations. Further understanding of genes and epigenetics may ...

  5. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Mental Illnesses Clinical Trials Outreach Research Priorities Funding Labs at NIMH News & Events About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain Brain Basics in Real Life Brain Research Glossary Brain Basics (PDF, 10 pages) ...

  6. Educational intervention to reduce disease related to sub-optimal basic hygiene in Rwanda: initial evaluation and feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Margaret A; Ndagijimana, Hormisdas

    2018-01-01

    Despite a global reduction in morbidity related to sub-optimal water, sanitation and hygiene, the incidence of such diseases remains a significant problem in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed to initially assess the potential effectiveness (primarily in terms of impact on morbidity) of a simple educational intervention delivered in Rwanda. Additionally, we sought to explore feasibility relating to the practicality of evaluating and implementing this type of intervention in a low- and middle-income country. Two districts in Northern Province were purposively selected; one was randomly allocated to receive the intervention, with the other acting as control. The intervention was based on an interactive DVD about basic hygiene. Baseline and follow-up data for incident cases of relevant morbidities were collected from health centre records. Changes were compared between the two districts using descriptive statistics and chi-squared tests. Qualitative data were obtained through observations, discussions and feedback and were analysed thematically. Cases of infection with intestinal worms and parasites were frequently recorded in both districts. For these morbidities, there was a 39% decrease in cases between baseline and follow-up in the intervention district (4995 reduced to 3069), compared to 13% (5002 reduced to 4356) in the control district (p evaluation and implementation, whilst also highlighting problems encountered and possible solutions, in particular, the potential advantages of training local personnel to deliver this type of intervention. This small-scale study has a number of acknowledged limitations which would need to be addressed in a larger study in order to confidently confirm the effectiveness of the intervention. It nevertheless provides evidence suggesting that the educational intervention is promising in terms of a potential impact on health and feasible to deliver and evaluate. These findings indicate that further evaluation and possibly early

  7. How Symmetrical Assumptions Advance Strategic Management Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Hallberg, Hallberg

    2014-01-01

    application domains of the theory. We argue that assumptional symmetry leads to theoretical advancement by promoting the development of theory with greater falsifiability and stronger ontological grounding. Thus, strategic management theory may be advanced by systematically searching for asymmetrical...

  8. Basic electrotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Ashen, R A

    2013-01-01

    BASIC Electrotechnology discusses the applications of Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC) in engineering, particularly in solving electrotechnology-related problems. The book is comprised of six chapters that cover several topics relevant to BASIC and electrotechnology. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to BASIC, and Chapter 2 talks about the use of complex numbers in a.c. circuit analysis. Chapter 3 covers linear circuit analysis with d.c. and sinusoidal a.c. supplies. The book also discusses the elementary magnetic circuit theory. The theory and performance of two windi

  9. "Basic Medical Skills" - Evaluation of a primary care oriented course concept within the new medical curriculum in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer, Thomas

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: To increase the practical orientation of medical student education in Germany, we have introduced a new mandatory course into the 3rd study year. This course combines doctor-patient communication training sessions with practical skills such as taking blood, changing dressings, etc. The primary care point of view to these topics was emphasized. The study describes the course and an evaluation of its effects on basic medical skills.Methods: Learning progress was measured using an anonymous self-evaluation questionnaire. Students graded their own competence in each individual course element using a 1-6 point scale (1='excellent' to 6='insufficient'. To objectify the learning process with regards to both practical skills and communicative competence we performed an "Objective Structured Clinical Examination" (OSCE.Results: Complete data are available from 154 of the 193 students participating in the course (average age 23.7 ±2.7 years. With regards to their competence in taking a case history, participants rated themselves with an average score of 3.99 before the course and an improved average score of 2.42 afterwards (P<0.0001. Students gave themselves credit for definite improvement in practical skills as well. Neither gender, age nor earlier medical training had any effect of the self-evaluation. Results of self-reported questionnaires corresponded well with the test results of the OSCE (N=193. Female students had significantly better results in the global rating in the communicative sections of the OSCE test than their male counterparts. Overall, the general evaluation of the course (grade 1.93 and its value for later medical competence (1.97 were very high in comparison to the average values for medical seminars at this university.Conclusion: We found high effects on clinical competence both in self-reported evaluations of the course and in the OSCE. A longitudinal study is under way in order to investigate to what

  10. Evaluation of an Educational Model Based on the Development of Sustainable Competencies in Basic Teacher Training in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Vega-Marcote

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The environmental deterioration of the planet, caused by unsustainable development and an unfair model, requires global change on a political, social and environmental level. To boost this change, it is necessary to redirect education and, specifically, environmental education, to educate citizens so that they are capable of making responsible decisions and behaving sustainably. The purpose of this study is to evaluate an educational teacher training model based on the development of sustainable competencies and on the solving of environmental problems. Its final aim is to search for a model that enables students to participate, individually and collectively, in the solution of socio-environmental problems in their surroundings, but without losing the global perspective, and that fosters sustainable life styles. To do so, a quasi-experimental quantitative research was performed with two pretest-posttest phases to compare the results of an active and participative methodology with another more expository one. The results show significant differences in the knowledge, attitudes and intention of the behavior of the aspiring teachers. Thus, this first analysis shows that the experiential educational model promotes and favors sustainable actions in higher education (the faculty of educational science, responsible for basic teacher training more efficiently and could be the basis for future proposals in this field.

  11. Triatominae biochemistry goes to school: evaluation of a novel tool for teaching basic biochemical concepts of Chagas disease vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Leonardo Rodrigues; Cudischevitch, Cecília de Oliveira; Carneiro, Alan Brito; Macedo, Gustavo Bartholomeu; Lannes, Denise; Silva-Neto, Mário Alberto Cardoso da

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate a new approach to teaching the basic biochemistry mechanisms that regulate the biology of Triatominae, major vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. We have designed and used a comic book, "Carlos Chagas: 100 years after a hero's discovery" containing scientific information obtained by seven distinguished contemporary Brazilian researchers working with Triatominaes. Students (22) in the seventh grade of a public elementary school received the comic book. The study was then followed up by the use of Concept Maps elaborated by the students. Six Concept Maps elaborated by the students before the introduction of the comic book received an average score of 7. Scores rose to an average of 45 after the introduction of the comic book. This result suggests that a more attractive content can greatly improve the knowledge and conceptual understanding among students not previously exposed to insect biochemistry. In conclusion, this study illustrates an alternative to current strategies of teaching about the transmission of neglected diseases. It also promotes the diffusion of the scientific knowledge produced by Brazilian researchers that may stimulate students to choose a scientific career. © 2014 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  12. Basic Warehousing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on basic warehousing is designed to provide Marines with Military Occupation Speciality 3051 in the rank of private through corporal with instruction in those basic principles, methods, and procedures that can be applied to any warehousing or storage…

  13. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Brain Basics in Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah ... axis —A brain-body circuit which plays a critical role in the body's response to stress. impulse — ...

  14. Body Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español About Body Basics KidsHealth / For Parents / About Body Basics Print Remember the biology class you had ... do, lots of new knowledge about how the body works helps us to understand it now better ...

  15. Anesthesia Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help? Talking to Your Parents - or Other Adults Anesthesia Basics KidsHealth > For Teens > Anesthesia Basics Print A ... español Conceptos básicos sobre la anestesia What Is Anesthesia? No doubt about it, getting an operation can ...

  16. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Brain Basics in Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah ... having trouble coping with the stresses in her life. She began to think of suicide because she ...

  17. Life Support Baseline Values and Assumptions Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Molly S.; Ewert, Michael K.; Keener, John F.

    2018-01-01

    The Baseline Values and Assumptions Document (BVAD) provides analysts, modelers, and other life support researchers with a common set of values and assumptions which can be used as a baseline in their studies. This baseline, in turn, provides a common point of origin from which many studies in the community may depart, making research results easier to compare and providing researchers with reasonable values to assume for areas outside their experience. This document identifies many specific physical quantities that define life support systems, serving as a general reference for spacecraft life support system technology developers.

  18. Basic hydraulics

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, P D

    1982-01-01

    BASIC Hydraulics aims to help students both to become proficient in the BASIC programming language by actually using the language in an important field of engineering and to use computing as a means of mastering the subject of hydraulics. The book begins with a summary of the technique of computing in BASIC together with comments and listing of the main commands and statements. Subsequent chapters introduce the fundamental concepts and appropriate governing equations. Topics covered include principles of fluid mechanics; flow in pipes, pipe networks and open channels; hydraulic machinery;

  19. The basic aerodynamics of floatation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, M.J.; Wood, D.H.

    1983-09-01

    The original derivation of the basic theory governing the aerodynamics of both hovercraft and modern floatation ovens, requires the validity of some extremely crude assumptions. However, the basic theory is surprisingly accurate. It is shown that this accuracy occurs because the final expression of the basic theory can be derived by approximating the full Navier-Stokes equations in a manner that clearly shows the limitations of the theory. These limitations are used in discussing the relatively small discrepancies between the theory and experiment, which may not be significant for practical purposes.

  20. The Analysis of Basic Public Service Supply Regional Equalization in China’s Provinces——Based on the Theil Index Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Zangyi

    2017-12-01

    Accomplishing the regional equalization of basic public service supply among the provinces in China is an important objective that can promote the people’s livelihood construction. In order to measure the problem which is about the non-equalization of basic public service supply, this paper takes these aspects as the first index, such as the infrastructure construction, basic education services, public employment services, public health service and social security service. At the same time, it cooperates with 16 index as the second index to construct the performance evaluation systems, and then use the Theil index to evaluate the performance in provinces that using the panel data from the year 2000 to 2012.

  1. Basic Oxygen Furnace steel slag aggregates for phosphorus treatment. Evaluation of its potential use as a substrate in constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Ivan; Molle, Pascal; Sáenz de Miera, Luis E; Ansola, Gemma

    2016-02-01

    Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF) steel slag aggregates from NW Spain were tested in batch and column experiments to evaluate its potential use as a substrate in constructed wetlands (CWs). The objectives of this study were to identify the main P removal mechanisms of BOF steel slag and determine its P removal capacity. Also, the results were used to discuss the suitability of this material as a substrate to be used in CWs. Batch experiments with BOF slag aggregates and increasing initial phosphate concentrations showed phosphate removal efficiencies between 84 and 99% and phosphate removal capacities from 0.12 to 8.78 mg P/g slag. A continuous flow column experiment filled with BOF slag aggregates receiving an influent synthetic solution of 15 mg P/L during 213 days showed a removal efficiency greater than 99% and a phosphate removal capacity of 3.1 mg P/g slag. In both experiments the main P removal mechanism was found to be calcium phosphate precipitation which depends on Ca(2+) and OH(-) release from the BOF steel slag after dissolution of Ca(OH)2 in water. P saturation of slag was reached within the upper sections of the column which showed phosphate removal capacities between 1.7 and 2.5 mg P/g slag. Once Ca(OH)2 was completely dissolved in these column sections, removal efficiencies declined gradually from 99% until reaching stable outlet concentrations with P removal efficiencies around 7% which depended on influent Ca(2+) for limited continuous calcium phosphate precipitation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. An Evaluation of the Quality of the Desinfection Process in Inanimated Surfaces of Basic Health Units by Biomarkers Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Bandeira Fucci

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Infection Related Health Care – IRHC may occur by exogenous transmission through the contamination of contaminated surfaces. This study aimed at verifying the quality of the process of disinfecting inanimate surfaces of Basic Health Units – BHU in a northeastern city in São Paulo state, through the presence of biomarkers, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. We evaluated 7 UBS in random times and days, covering the following areas: dressing-room doorknob, drinking fountains and faucets, office desk, reception counter. Sterile swabs were rubbed on a 20 cm2 surface and transported to the laboratory in Stuart medium to the Clinical Analyses Didactic Laboratory of UNIFEV. The samples were cultured on Blood agar and MacConkey agar at 35 ± 1oC for 24 hours in aerobic and microaerophilic jar, respectively. Staphylococcus aureus was identified by the production of hemolysin, catalase and coagulase. Escherichia coli was identified using the biochemical tests: TSI, citrate, urease, indole, lysine, ornithine and arginine. Of the 105 samples analyzed, 6.66% of the samples were positive for Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli to 2.85%. The Areas which showed the presence of biomarkers were: the reception booth, booth pharmacy, handles of the dressing room, dressing room faucet and drinking fountain. These results corroborate other studies that show that inanimate surfaces are important sources of contamination in the healthcare environment, contributing to crosscontamination and, consequently, to the increase of infection to the patient who is subjected to procedures in this environment. Within this context, government, by means of public health policies, is responsible for the training of health professionals, contributing to the promotion and prevention of public health

  3. Mexican-American Cultural Assumptions and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, E. Lou

    The search for presuppositions of a people's thought is not new. Octavio Paz and Samuel Ramos have both attempted to describe the assumptions underlying the Mexican character. Paz described Mexicans as private, defensive, and stoic, characteristics taken to the extreme in the "pachuco." Ramos, on the other hand, described Mexicans as…

  4. Assumptions of Multiple Regression: Correcting Two Misconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Matt N.; Gomez Grajales, Carlos Alberto; Kurkiewicz, Dason

    2013-01-01

    In 2002, an article entitled "Four assumptions of multiple regression that researchers should always test" by Osborne and Waters was published in "PARE." This article has gone on to be viewed more than 275,000 times (as of August 2013), and it is one of the first results displayed in a Google search for "regression…

  5. BOLD Noise Assumptions in fMRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wink, Alle Meije; Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the assumption of Gaussian noise in the blood-oxygenation-dependent (BOLD) contrast for functional MRI (fMRI). In principle, magnitudes in MRI images follow a Rice distribution. We start by reviewing differences between Rician and Gaussian noise. An analytic expression is

  6. Extracurricular Business Planning Competitions: Challenging the Assumptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Kayleigh; McGowan, Pauric; Smith, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Business planning competitions [BPCs] are a commonly offered yet under-examined extracurricular activity. Given the extent of sceptical comment about business planning, this paper offers what the authors believe is a much-needed critical discussion of the assumptions that underpin the provision of such competitions. In doing so it is suggested…

  7. Critically Challenging Some Assumptions in HRD

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, David; McGuire, David; Cross, Christine

    2006-01-01

    This paper sets out to critically challenge five interrelated assumptions prominent in the (human resource development) HRD literature. These relate to: the exploitation of labour in enhancing shareholder value; the view that employees are co-contributors to and co-recipients of HRD benefits; the distinction between HRD and human resource…

  8. Leakage-resilient cryptography from minimal assumptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazay, Carmit; López-Alt, Adriana; Wee, Hoeteck

    2013-01-01

    results under specific assumptions. As a building block of independent interest, we study a notion of weak hash-proof systems in the public-key and symmetric-key settings. While these inherit some of the interesting security properties of standard hash-proof systems, we can instantiate them under general...

  9. 47 CFR 214.3 - Assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assumptions. 214.3 Section 214.3 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL PROCEDURES FOR THE USE AND..., will have authority to make new or revised assignments of radio frequencies in accordance with...

  10. Brain Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  11. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Events About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  12. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a ... brain. DNA —The "recipe of life," containing inherited genetic information that helps to define physical and some ...

  13. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... go awry, leading to mental illnesses. Brain Basics will introduce you to some of this science, such ... released it increases the chance that the neuron will fire. This enhances the electrical flow among brain ...

  14. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... effectively coordinate the billions of cells in the body, the results can affect many aspects of life. ... messages. A neuron has three basic parts: Cell body which includes the nucleus, cytoplasm, and cell organelles. ...

  15. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a middle- ... symptoms and family medical history. Epigenetic changes from stress or early-life experiences may have made it ...

  16. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Basics will introduce you to some of this science, such as: How the brain develops How ... cell, and responds to signals from the environment; this all helps the cell maintain its balance with ...

  17. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and the environment affect the brain The basic structure of the brain How different parts of the ... for the cell to work properly including small structures called cell organelles. Dendrites branch off from the ...

  18. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Opportunities & Announcements Funding Strategy for Grants Application Process Managing Grants Clinical Research Training Labs at NIMH Labs ... normal brain development and function can go awry, leading to mental illnesses. Brain Basics will introduce you ...

  19. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot effectively coordinate the billions ... basic working unit of the brain and nervous system. These cells are highly specialized for the function ...

  20. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... normal brain development and function can go awry, leading to mental illnesses. Brain Basics will introduce you ... of DNA. Sometimes this copying process is imperfect, leading to a gene mutation that causes the gene ...

  1. Basic Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittek, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    A discussion of the basic measures of corporate financial strength, and the sources of the information is reported. Considered are: balance sheet, income statement, funds and cash flow, and financial ratios.

  2. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a ... blues" from time to time. In contrast, major depression is a serious disorder that lasts for weeks. ...

  3. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a ... in her life. She began to think of suicide because she felt like things weren't going ...

  4. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot effectively coordinate the billions ... the basic working unit of the brain and nervous system. These cells are highly specialized for the function ...

  5. Insulin Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Insulin Basics There are different types of insulin depending ... you may be experiencing a reaction. Types of Insulin Rapid-acting insulin , begins to work about 15 ...

  6. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses are disorders of the brain, ... learning more about how the brain grows and works in healthy people, and how normal brain development ...

  7. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... network of neurons and their interconnections. neuron —A nerve cell that is the basic, working unit of the brain and nervous system, which processes and transmits information. neurotransmitter —A chemical ...

  8. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as: How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic structure of the ... leaves the cell, and responds to signals from the environment; this all helps the cell maintain its balance ...

  9. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a middle- ... and her husband questions about Sarah's symptoms and family medical history. Epigenetic changes from stress or early- ...

  10. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... science, such as: How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic ... that with brain development in people mental disorders. Genes and environmental cues both help to direct this ...

  11. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit of ... but sometimes give rise to disabilities or diseases. neural circuit —A network of neurons and their interconnections. ...

  12. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a middle- ... unit of the brain and nervous system, which processes and transmits information. neurotransmitter —A chemical produced by ...

  13. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic structure of the ... inside contents of the cell from its surrounding environment and controls what enters and leaves the cell, ...

  14. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Mental Illnesses Clinical Trials Outreach Outreach Home Stakeholder Engagement Outreach Partnership Program Alliance for Research Progress Coalition ... Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses are disorders of the brain, ...

  15. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit of ... of contact for receiving impulses on a neuron, branching off from the cell body. dopamine —A neurotransmitter ...

  16. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Publications Help for Mental Illnesses Clinical Trials Outreach Research Priorities Funding Labs at NIMH News & Events About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The ...

  17. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... all. She was happily married and successful in business. Then, after a serious setback at work, she ... A nerve cell that is the basic, working unit of the brain and nervous system, which processes ...

  18. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a middle- ... than ever before. Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses ...

  19. Blood Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Group Links Advocacy Toolkit Home For Patients Blood Basics Blood is a specialized body fluid. It ... about nine pints. Jump To: The Components of Blood and Their Importance Many people have undergone blood ...

  20. Science as Knowledge, Practice, and Map Making: The Challenge of Defining Metrics for Evaluating and Improving DOE-Funded Basic Experimental Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodnarczuk, M.

    1993-03-01

    Industrial R&D laboratories have been surprisingly successful in developing performance objectives and metrics that convincingly show that planning, management, and improvement techniques can be value-added to the actual output of R&D organizations. In this paper, I will discuss the more difficult case of developing analogous constructs for DOE-funded non-nuclear, non-weapons basic research, or as I will refer to it - basic experimental science. Unlike most industrial R&D or the bulk of applied science performed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the purpose of basic experimental science is producing new knowledge (usually published in professional journals) that has no immediate application to the first link (the R) of a planned R&D chain. Consequently, performance objectives and metrics are far more difficult to define. My claim is that if one can successfully define metrics for evaluating and improving DOE-funded basic experimental science (which is the most difficult case), then defining such constructs for DOE-funded applied science should be much less problematic. With the publication of the DOE Standard - Implementation Guide for Quality Assurance Programs for Basic and Applied Research (DOE-ER-STD-6001-92) and the development of a conceptual framework for integrating all the DOE orders, we need to move aggressively toward the threefold next phase: (1) focusing the management elements found in DOE-ER-STD-6001-92 on the main output of national laboratories - the experimental science itself; (2) developing clearer definitions of basic experimental science as practice not just knowledge; and (3) understanding the relationship between the metrics that scientists use for evaluating the performance of DOE-funded basic experimental science, the management elements of DOE-ER-STD-6001-92, and the notion of continuous improvement.

  1. The Perspectives of Students and Teachers in the English Department in the College of Basic Education on the Student Evaluation of Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taqi, Hanan A.; Al-Nouh, Nowreyah A.; Dashti, Abdulmuhsin A.; Shuqair, Khaled M.

    2014-01-01

    In the context of students' evaluation of teachers in higher education, this paper examines the perspectives of students and faculty members in the English Department in the college of Basic education (CBE) in the State of Kuwait. The study is based on a survey that covered 320 students and 19 members of staff in the English department. The study…

  2. The predictive value of demonstrable stress incontinence during basic office evaluation and urodynamics in women without symptomatic urinary incontinence undergoing vaginal prolapse surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ploeg, J. Marinus; Zwolsman, Sandra E.; Posthuma, Selina; Wiarda, Hylco S.; van der Vaart, C. Huub; Roovers, Jan-Paul W. R.

    2017-01-01

    Women with pelvic organ prolapse without symptoms of urinary incontinence (UI) might demonstrate stress urinary incontinence (SUI) with or without prolapse reduction. We aimed to determine the value of demonstrable SUI during basic office evaluation or urodynamics in predicting SUI after vaginal

  3. Evaluation of innovative stationary phase ligand chemistries and analytical conditions for the analysis of basic drugs by supercritical fluid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desfontaine, Vincent; Veuthey, Jean-Luc; Guillarme, Davy

    2016-03-18

    Similar to reversed phase liquid chromatography, basic compounds can be highly challenging to analyze by supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC), as they tend to exhibit poor peak shape, especially those with high pKa values. In this study, three new stationary phase ligand chemistries available in sub -2 μm particle sizes, namely 2-picolylamine (2-PIC), 1-aminoanthracene (1-AA) and diethylamine (DEA), were tested in SFC conditions for the analysis of basic drugs. Due to the basic properties of these ligands, it is expected that the repulsive forces may improve peak shape of basic substances, similarly to the widely used 2-ethypyridine (2-EP) phase. However, among the 38 tested basic drugs, less of 10% displayed Gaussian peaks (asymmetry between 0.8 and 1.4) using pure CO2/methanol on these phases. The addition of 10mM ammonium formate as mobile phase additive, drastically improved peak shapes and increased this proportion to 67% on 2-PIC. Introducing the additive in the injection solvent rather than in the organic modifier, gave acceptable results for 2-PIC only, with 31% of Gaussian peaks with an average asymmetry of 1.89 for the 38 selected basic drugs. These columns were also compared to hybrid silica (BEH), DIOL and 2-EP stationary phases, commonly employed in SFC. These phases commonly exhibit alternative retention and selectivity. In the end, the two most interesting ligands used as complementary columns were 2-PIC and BEH, as they provided suitable peak shapes for the basic drugs and almost orthogonal selectivities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparative Interpretation of Classical and Keynesian Fiscal Policies (Assumptions, Principles and Primary Opinions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin Oner

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Adam Smith being its founder, in the Classical School, which gives prominence to supply and adopts an approach of unbiased finance, the economy is always in a state of full employment equilibrium. In this system of thought, the main philosophy of which is budget balance, that asserts that there is flexibility between prices and wages and regards public debt as an extraordinary instrument, the interference of the state with the economic and social life is frowned upon. In line with the views of the classical thought, the classical fiscal policy is based on three basic assumptions. These are the "Consumer State Assumption", the assumption accepting that "Public Expenditures are Always Ineffectual" and the assumption concerning the "Impartiality of the Taxes and Expenditure Policies Implemented by the State". On the other hand, the Keynesian School founded by John Maynard Keynes, gives prominence to demand, adopts the approach of functional finance, and asserts that cases of underemployment equilibrium and over-employment equilibrium exist in the economy as well as the full employment equilibrium, that problems cannot be solved through the invisible hand, that prices and wages are strict, the interference of the state is essential and at this point fiscal policies have to be utilized effectively.Keynesian fiscal policy depends on three primary assumptions. These are the assumption of "Filter State", the assumption that "public expenditures are sometimes effective and sometimes ineffective or neutral" and the assumption that "the tax, debt and expenditure policies of the state can never be impartial". 

  5. On distributional assumptions and whitened cosine similarities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loog, Marco

    2008-01-01

    Recently, an interpretation of the whitened cosine similarity measure as a Bayes decision rule was proposed (C. Liu, "The Bayes Decision Rule Induced Similarity Measures,'' IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 1086-1090, June 2007. This communication makes...... the observation that some of the distributional assumptions made to derive this measure are very restrictive and, considered simultaneously, even inconsistent....

  6. Critically challenging some assumptions in HRD

    OpenAIRE

    O'Donnell, D.; McGuire, David; Cross, C

    2006-01-01

    peer-reviewed This paper sets out to critically challenge five inter-related assumptions prominent in the HRD literature. These relate to: the exploitation of labour in enhancing shareholder value; the view that employees are co-contributors to and co-recipients of HRD benefits; the distinction between HRD and HRM; the relationship between HRD and unitarism; and, the relationship between HRD and organisational and learning cultures. From a critical modernist perspective, it ...

  7. Questioning ten common assumptions about peatlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    University of Leeds Peat Club:

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Peatlands have been widely studied in terms of their ecohydrology, carbon dynamics, ecosystem services and palaeoenvironmental archives. However, several assumptions are frequently made about peatlands in the academic literature, practitioner reports and the popular media which are either ambiguous or in some cases incorrect. Here we discuss the following ten common assumptions about peatlands: 1. the northern peatland carbon store will shrink under a warming climate; 2. peatlands are fragile ecosystems; 3. wet peatlands have greater rates of net carbon accumulation; 4. different rules apply to tropical peatlands; 5. peat is a single soil type; 6. peatlands behave like sponges; 7. Sphagnum is the main ‘ecosystem engineer’ in peatlands; 8. a single core provides a representative palaeo-archive from a peatland; 9. water-table reconstructions from peatlands provide direct records of past climate change; and 10. restoration of peatlands results in the re-establishment of their carbon sink function. In each case we consider the evidence supporting the assumption and, where appropriate, identify its shortcomings or ways in which it may be misleading.

  8. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrook, Harold D

    1971-01-01

    Basic Electronics is an elementary text designed for basic instruction in electricity and electronics. It gives emphasis on electronic emission and the vacuum tube and shows transistor circuits in parallel with electron tube circuits. This book also demonstrates how the transistor merely replaces the tube, with proper change of circuit constants as required. Many problems are presented at the end of each chapter. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and opens with an overview of electron theory, followed by a discussion on resistance, inductance, and capacitance, along with their effects on t

  9. Workplace Basic Skills from Beginning to End (Overview, Needs Analysis, Marketing/Recruitment, Workforce Assessment, Curriculum, Instruction, Evaluation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Douglas; And Others

    The materials, visuals to accompany a presentation on development of workplace literacy programs, include: a definition of workplace literacy; flow chart for basic skills program development; definition of workplace education needs assessment; list of topics for interviewing trainers, supervisors, management personnel/HR, safety, union/labor…

  10. Evaluation of a Numeracy Intervention Program Focusing on Basic Numerical Knowledge and Conceptual Knowledge: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Liane; Handl, Pia; Thony, Brigitte

    2003-01-01

    In this study, six elementary grade children with developmental dyscalculia were trained individually and in small group settings with a one-semester program stressing basic numerical knowledge and conceptual knowledge. All the children showed considerable and partly significant performance increases on all calculation components. Results suggest…

  11. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a major mood circuit called the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Brain Basics in Real Life Brain ... in creating and filing new memories. hypothalmic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis —A brain-body circuit which plays ...

  12. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... will fire. This enhances the electrical flow among brain cells required for normal function and plays an important ... of neurons and their interconnections. neuron —A nerve cell that is the basic, working unit of the brain and nervous system, which processes and transmits information. ...

  13. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... all. She was happily married and successful in business. Then, after a serious setback at work, she ... basic, working unit of the brain and nervous system, which processes and transmits information. neurotransmitter —A chemical produced by neurons that carries ...

  14. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a ... MSC 9663 Bethesda, MD 20892-9663 Follow Us Facebook Twitter YouTube Google Plus NIMH Newsletter NIMH RSS ...

  15. Ethanol Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-01-30

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  16. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a middle-aged woman who seemed to have it all. She was happily married and successful in business. Then, after a serious setback at work, she ...

  17. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... These circuits control specific body functions such as sleep and speech. The brain continues maturing well into a person's early 20s. ... Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah ... had problems getting to sleep and generally felt tired, listless, and had no ...

  18. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... including autism , obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) , schizophrenia , and depression . Brain Regions Just as many neurons working together form ... Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a middle-aged woman ...

  19. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Join A Study News & Events News & Events Home Science News Events Multimedia Social Media Press Resources Newsletters NIMH News Feeds About Us About Us Home About the Director Advisory Boards and ... Basics will introduce you to some of this science, such as: How the brain develops How genes ...

  20. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of cells in the body, the results can affect many aspects of life. Scientists are continually learning more about how the brain grows and works in healthy people, and how normal brain development and function can go awry, leading ... the environment affect the brain The basic structure of the brain ...

  1. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Join A Study News & Events News & Events Home Science News Events Multimedia Social Media Press Resources Newsletters NIMH News Feeds About Us About Us Home About the Director Advisory Boards and Groups Strategic ... Basics will introduce you to some of this science, such as: How the brain develops How genes ...

  2. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... our physical surroundings but also factors that can affect our bodies, such as sleep, diet, or stress. These factors may act alone ... Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain ... had problems getting to sleep and generally felt tired, listless, and had no ...

  3. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... basic working unit of the brain and nervous system. These cells are highly specialized for the function of conducting messages. ... specialized brain systems. We have many specialized brain systems that work ... research are listed below. Amygdala —The brain's "fear hub," which ...

  4. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... learning more about how the brain grows and works in healthy people, and how normal brain development and function can go awry, leading to mental illnesses. Brain Basics will introduce you to some of this science, such as: ... of the brain communicate and work with each other How changes in the brain ...

  5. Teaching and Learning Science in the 21st Century: Challenging Critical Assumptions in Post-Secondary Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda L. Glaze

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available It is widely agreed upon that the goal of science education is building a scientifically literate society. Although there are a range of definitions for science literacy, most involve an ability to problem solve, make evidence-based decisions, and evaluate information in a manner that is logical. Unfortunately, science literacy appears to be an area where we struggle across levels of study, including with students who are majoring in the sciences in university settings. One reason for this problem is that we have opted to continue to approach teaching science in a way that fails to consider the critical assumptions that faculties in the sciences bring into the classroom. These assumptions include expectations of what students should know before entering given courses, whose responsibility it is to ensure that students entering courses understand basic scientific concepts, the roles of researchers and teachers, and approaches to teaching at the university level. Acknowledging these assumptions and the potential for action to shift our teaching and thinking about post-secondary education represents a transformative area in science literacy and preparation for the future of science as a field.

  6. What's Love Got to Do with It? Rethinking Common Sense Assumptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trachman, Matthew; Bluestone, Cheryl

    2005-01-01

    One of the most basic tasks in introductory social science classes is to get students to reexamine their common sense assumptions concerning human behavior. This article introduces a shared assignment developed for a learning community that paired an introductory sociology and psychology class. The assignment challenges students to rethink the…

  7. Evaluation by the Basic Checklist and the risk of 3 years incident long-term care insurance certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamegaya, Tadahiko; Yamaguchi, Haruyasu; Hayashi, Kunihiko

    2017-10-01

    A rapidly aging society needs effective approaches to support frail older people who have a high risk of requiring long-term care. We investigated the validity of the Basic Checklist (the "Kihon Checklist") as a tool to select candidates for a program to prevent long-term care. A survey with questions from the Basic Checklist was conducted with functionally independent older residents aged ≥65 years living in Takasaki City, Japan. Subjects who completed the questionnaire were followed over 3 years for the presence or absence of certification for long-term care requirement. We used multiple logistic regression analysis to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) for long-term care requirement certification. A total of 21 325 subjects were analyzed. The odds ratio was the highest when items number one-20 had a total of ≥10 checked answers (OR, 2.71; 95%CI, 2.22-3.32). Physical function (OR, 2.29; 95%CI, 2.05-2.55), nutritional condition (OR, 1.85; 95%CI, 1.38-2.48), oral function (OR, 1.40; 95%CI, 1.25-1.57), whether patients were elected as a care prevention program candidate (OR, 1.90; 95%CI, 1.73-2.08), Homebound state (OR, 1.91; 95%CI, 1.55-2.37), the presence of dementia (OR, 1.97; 95%CI, 1.75-2.20), and depression (OR, 1.96; 95%CI, 1.73-2.22) were associated with a higher odds ratio. Individuals who were selected as long-term care prevention program candidates based on the Basic Checklist had a higher risk of requiring long-term care. Older residents who corresponded to 10 or more of the 20 Basic Checklist items are at the highest risk of becoming certified as needing long-term care.

  8. Limiting assumptions in molecular modeling: electrostatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Garland R

    2013-02-01

    Molecular mechanics attempts to represent intermolecular interactions in terms of classical physics. Initial efforts assumed a point charge located at the atom center and coulombic interactions. It is been recognized over multiple decades that simply representing electrostatics with a charge on each atom failed to reproduce the electrostatic potential surrounding a molecule as estimated by quantum mechanics. Molecular orbitals are not spherically symmetrical, an implicit assumption of monopole electrostatics. This perspective reviews recent evidence that requires use of multipole electrostatics and polarizability in molecular modeling.

  9. [Evaluating the efficiency of basic public health service project in Beijing rural areas based on data envelopment analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gui-lin; Pan, Xi-long

    2013-04-18

    To measure the efficiency changes of basic public health service in Beijing rural areas and to provide some suggestions for the basic public health service project throughout China. In the study, stratified random samples from 32 township health centers (THCs) were measured by data envelopment analysis (DEA) model with the panel data from 2007 to 2009. (1) The average total efficiency score of samples was 0.972. The TE non-efficient THCs were with excess in all input indicators and insufficient outputs in technology management, health promotion and chronic disease management. (2) The total factor productivity (TFP) from 2007 to 2008 increased 8.8%, which was attributed to technology change. The TFP decreased by 6.6% from 2008 to 2009, but the technical efficiency increased by 3.3%. There is room for improvemrnt in the basic public health service project in Beijing rural areas. Scale efficiency should be improved and the common development of technical efficiency and technology progress promoted in order to increase the project outputs.

  10. Albanian: Basic Course. Basic Situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    The purpose of this volume is to provide the student with a vehicle for reviewing the grammar and vocabulary of Lessons 1-120 of "Albanian: Basic Course," and, with practice and the help of new words and idioms, increasing his fluency and scope of expression. The volume contains eleven units, each unit describing a situation, which in turn is…

  11. Wavelet basics

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, Y T

    1995-01-01

    Since the study of wavelets is a relatively new area, much of the research coming from mathematicians, most of the literature uses terminology, concepts and proofs that may, at times, be difficult and intimidating for the engineer. Wavelet Basics has therefore been written as an introductory book for scientists and engineers. The mathematical presentation has been kept simple, the concepts being presented in elaborate detail in a terminology that engineers will find familiar. Difficult ideas are illustrated with examples which will also aid in the development of an intuitive insight. Chapter 1 reviews the basics of signal transformation and discusses the concepts of duals and frames. Chapter 2 introduces the wavelet transform, contrasts it with the short-time Fourier transform and clarifies the names of the different types of wavelet transforms. Chapter 3 links multiresolution analysis, orthonormal wavelets and the design of digital filters. Chapter 4 gives a tour d'horizon of topics of current interest: wave...

  12. Consenting to Heteronormativity: Assumptions in Biomedical Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cottingham, M.D.; Fisher, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    The process of informed consent is fundamental to basic scientific research with human subjects. As one aspect of the scientific enterprise, clinical drug trials rely on informed consent documents to safeguard the ethical treatment of trial participants. This paper explores the role of

  13. Explorations in statistics: the assumption of normality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran-Everett, Douglas

    2017-09-01

    Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This twelfth installment of Explorations in Statistics explores the assumption of normality, an assumption essential to the meaningful interpretation of a t test. Although the data themselves can be consistent with a normal distribution, they need not be. Instead, it is the theoretical distribution of the sample mean or the theoretical distribution of the difference between sample means that must be roughly normal. The most versatile approach to assess normality is to bootstrap the sample mean, the difference between sample means, or t itself. We can then assess whether the distributions of these bootstrap statistics are consistent with a normal distribution by studying their normal quantile plots. If we suspect that an inference we make from a t test may not be justified-if we suspect that the theoretical distribution of the sample mean or the theoretical distribution of the difference between sample means is not normal-then we can use a permutation method to analyze our data. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Evaluative Conditioning 2.0: Direct versus Associative Transfer of Affect to Brands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.T.L.R. Sweldens (Steven)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractA basic assumption in advertising is that brands become more well-liked after they were presented in positive contexts. This assumption is warranted because studies on ‘evaluative conditioning’ have demonstrated that when a brand is repeatedly presented together with positive affective

  15. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Tayal, DC

    2010-01-01

    The second edition of this book incorporates the comments and suggestions of my friends and students who have critically studied the first edition. In this edition the changes and additions have been made and subject matter has been rearranged at some places. The purpose of this text is to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date study of the principles of operation of solid state devices, their basic circuits and application of these circuits to various electronic systems, so that it can serve as a standard text not only for universities and colleges but also for technical institutes. This book

  16. Regression Basics

    CERN Document Server

    Kahane, Leo H

    2007-01-01

    Using a friendly, nontechnical approach, the Second Edition of Regression Basics introduces readers to the fundamentals of regression. Accessible to anyone with an introductory statistics background, this book builds from a simple two-variable model to a model of greater complexity. Author Leo H. Kahane weaves four engaging examples throughout the text to illustrate not only the techniques of regression but also how this empirical tool can be applied in creative ways to consider a broad array of topics. New to the Second Edition Offers greater coverage of simple panel-data estimation:

  17. Challenging the assumptions for thermal sensation scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schweiker, Marcel; Fuchs, Xaver; Becker, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    extensively, which is suitable for describing a one-dimensional relationship between physical parameters of indoor environments and subjective thermal sensation. However, human thermal comfort is not merely a physiological but also a psychological phenomenon. Thus, it should be investigated how scales for its...... assessment could benefit from a multidimensional conceptualization. The common assumptions related to the usage of thermal sensation scales are challenged, empirically supported by two analyses. These analyses show that the relationship between temperature and subjective thermal sensation is non......-linear and depends on the type of scale used. Moreover, the results signify that most people do not perceive the categories of the thermal sensation scale as equidistant and that the range of sensations regarded as ‘comfortable’ varies largely. Therefore, challenges known from experimental psychology (describing...

  18. Catalyst Deactivation: Control Relevance of Model Assumptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernt Lie

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Two principles for describing catalyst deactivation are discussed, one based on the deactivation mechanism, the other based on the activity and catalyst age distribution. When the model is based upon activity decay, it is common to use a mean activity developed from the steady-state residence time distribution. We compare control-relevant properties of such an approach with those of a model based upon the deactivation mechanism. Using a continuous stirred tank reactor as an example, we show that the mechanistic approach and the population balance approach lead to identical models. However, common additional assumptions used for activity-based models lead to model properties that may deviate considerably from the correct one.

  19. Ethnic identity, identity coherence, and psychological functioning: testing basic assumptions of the developmental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Moin; Juang, Linda P

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to test three fundamental theoretical propositions from Phinney's (1990) developmental model about the relations among ethnic identity, identity coherence, and psychological functioning: (a) ethnic identity is more strongly related to identity coherence for ethnic minorities than for Whites; (b) ethnic identity is more strongly related to psychological functioning for ethnic minorities than for Whites; and (c) identity coherence mediates the association between ethnic identity and psychological functioning for ethnic minorities, but not for Whites. These hypotheses were tested in three independent samples of ethnically diverse youth. In general, we found weak to moderate support for these three hypotheses, suggesting that the theoretically proposed differences in ethnic identity between ethnic minorities and Whites may not be supported by data. Implications for theory and measurement of ethnic identity are discussed.

  20. Mathematical Models Relating to Human Thermoregulation: Basic Assumptions, Validation, and Application. Parts A & B

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-11-02

    8217 ,’.-. _ .... . .... ................... ............ .. .... .. .-- ... , .... . . . 162 T, mpcr io Terperature As a Funotion of T ime For Subjeot ST During an Imeersion in 18 c Water I E Stoloajc model A Goldw w HodlI LcD N i la Model

  1. Development of a basic root canal treatment (BRT) for primary oral health care--evaluation after one year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Rainer A; Markovic, Ljubisa; Holzner, Anna L; Richter, Benjamin; Gaengler, Peter

    2009-06-01

    Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) was a major step forward in community dentistry but treatment options for deep carious lesions or pulp involvement still focus on tooth extraction in under-served areas worldwide. To bridge the gap between ART and extraction this pilot study aimed to develop and follow-up a basic root canal treatment for rural dental health facilities in the Republic of The Gambia (West Africa), faced with an environment lacking technical equipment and developing primary oral health care. 25 single rooted teeth with acute irreversible pulpitis were root canal treated with a standardised endodontic instrument kit and a specific procedure. A step-back technique was used with intermittent chlorhexidine 0.2% and saline irrigation. Root canal obturation was performed using a single-cone technique with gutta-percha using Grossman's root canal cement. Coronal filling was carried out by using ART. Clinical examinations were documented before treatment, one day, five days, six months and twelve months postoperatively. None of the root canal fillings had to be revised due to postoperative complications. In 9 out of 25 teeth, transitory apical pain disappeared after a few days. After six months, all ART fillings appeared clinically acceptable, two fillings had to be corrected. Four class II restorations and three class IV restorations needed replacement after 12 months. Patients' assessment of health related quality of life improved significantly, especially concerning dental pain, chewing ability and fitness for work. Preliminary clinical follow-ups showed encouraging results for the basic root canal treatment approach. Longitudinal clinical studies with greater populations are required to substantiate these results. Modifications in the coronal filling technique are preferable to improve the clinical performance of extended ART cavity restorations.

  2. Methodology and assumptions for evaluating heating and cooling energy requirements in new single-family residential buildings: Technical support document for the PEAR (Program for Energy Analysis of Residences) microcomputer program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Y.J.; Ritschard, R.; Bull, J.; Byrne, S.; Turiel, I.; Wilson, D.; Hsui, C.; Foley, D.

    1987-01-01

    This report provides technical documentation for a software package called PEAR (Program for Energy Analysis of Residences) developed by LBL. PEAR offers an easy-to-use and accurate method of estimating the energy savings associated with various energy conservation measures used in site-built, single-family homes. This program was designed for use by non-technical groups such as home builders, home buyers or others in the buildings industry, and developed as an integral part of a set of voluntary guidelines entitled Affordable Housing Through Energy Conservation: A Guide to Designing and Constructing Energy Efficient Homes. These guidelines provide a method for selecting and evaluating cost-effective energy conservation measures based on the energy savings estimated by PEAR. This work is part of a Department of Energy program aimed at conducting research that will improve the energy efficiency of the nation's stock of conventionally-built and manufactured homes, and presenting the results to the public in a simplified format.

  3. Transsexual parenthood and new role assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faccio, Elena; Bordin, Elena; Cipolletta, Sabrina

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the parental role of transsexuals and compares this to common assumptions about transsexuality and parentage. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 14 male-to-female transsexuals and 14 men, half parents and half non-parents, in order to explore four thematic areas: self-representation of the parental role, the description of the transsexual as a parent, the common representations of transsexuals as a parent, and male and female parental stereotypes. We conducted thematic and lexical analyses of the interviews using Taltac2 software. The results indicate that social representations of transsexuality and parenthood have a strong influence on processes of self-representation. Transsexual parents accurately understood conventional male and female parental prototypes and saw themselves as competent, responsible parents. They constructed their role based on affection toward the child rather than on the complementary role of their wives. In contrast, men's descriptions of transsexual parental roles were simpler and the descriptions of their parental role coincided with their personal experiences. These results suggest that the transsexual journey toward parenthood involves a high degree of re-adjustment, because their parental role does not coincide with a conventional one.

  4. Post-traumatic stress and world assumptions: the effects of religious coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukerman, Gil; Korn, Liat

    2014-12-01

    Religiosity has been shown to moderate the negative effects of traumatic event experiences. The current study was designed to examine the relationship between post-traumatic stress (PTS) following traumatic event exposure; world assumptions defined as basic cognitive schemas regarding the world; and self and religious coping conceptualized as drawing on religious beliefs and practices for understanding and dealing with life stressors. This study examined 777 Israeli undergraduate students who completed several questionnaires which sampled individual world assumptions and religious coping in addition to measuring PTS, as manifested by the PTSD check list. Results indicate that positive religious coping was significantly associated with more positive world assumptions, while negative religious coping was significantly associated with more negative world assumptions. Additionally, negative world assumptions were significantly associated with more avoidance symptoms, while reporting higher rates of traumatic event exposure was significantly associated with more hyper-arousal. These findings suggest that religious-related cognitive schemas directly affect world assumptions by creating protective shields that may prevent the negative effects of confronting an extreme negative experience.

  5. Inflation Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Dan [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2014-03-01

    inflation since metrical fluctuations, both scalar and tensor, are also produced in inflationary models. Thus, the time appears to be appropriate for a very basic and simple exposition of the inflationary model written from a particle physics perspective. Only the simplest scalar model will be explored because it is easy to understand and contains all the basic elements of the inflationary model.

  6. Design, management, and critical evaluation of a surgical basic/clinical science curriculum: the role of an educational chief resident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Shea C; Eisenberg, Dan; Duffy, Andrew J; Longo, Walter E

    2008-01-01

    To demonstrate that a surgery "educational" chief resident can develop a resident-centered, evidence-based, surgical basic/clinical science curriculum that will improve American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination (ABSITE) scores. Retrospective cohort study. Two curriculums were developed by 2 surgical "educational" chief residents (in their final year of training), for the academic years 2005-2006 and 2006-2007. The primary roles of these individuals were to design and maintain a surgical curriculum under the ongoing supervision of the program director. In 2005/2006, a baseline weekly lecture series was developed by assigning topics from multiple textbooks to members of the surgical faculty based on their respective surgical specialties. In 2006/2007, a similar approach was used; however, the lecture series was accompanied by additional activities that have been described in the literature as useful in improving ABSITE performance. These activities included recommended reading assignments, ABSITE-styled questions based on the weekly lecture topic, problem-based learning conferences, and an ABSITE remediation course. To assess the 2 approaches, conference attendance and mean ABSITE total test percent correct scores for categorical and preliminary surgical residents in their 1st through 4th postgraduate years (PGY) of training in 2005/2006 and 2nd through 5th years in 2006/2007 were followed. Subgroup analysis of conference attendance and mean ABSITE percent correct scores was performed on those participating versus those not participating in the ABSITE remediation course. A Likert survey was performed to assess our surgical curriculum in 2007. Twenty-five residents participated in both the 2005/2006 and the 2006/2007 surgical curriculums. Twelve residents were assigned to mandatory remediation, whereas 13 were not required to participate in remediation in 2006/2007. Conference attendance did not significantly change between 2005/2006 and 2006/2007 among

  7. Evaluation of transplantation procedures acceptance among students of Thai, American, and Polish origin who finished a basic didactic course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caban, A; Ziaja, J; Budziński, G; Król, R; Oczkowicz, G; Wystrychowski, W; Mąka, B; Badura, J; Cierniak, T; Cierpka, L

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this paper was to compare acceptance of basic transplantation procedures as displayed among students from Poland, Thailand, and the United States who finished their education in our clinic. The research concerned a group of 110 fifth year students of the medical department, including 42 citizens of Poland (group 1), 41 citizens of Thailand (group 2), and 27 citizens of the United States (group 3). The average age of the respondents was 25.4 years and 58% were women. After completing a number of clinical transplantation classes, we performed an anonymous poll that consisted of 12 questions related to attitudes toward organ donation and transplantation from dead of living donors. Chi-square tests were used to analyze the relationship between expressed opinions and demographic data. The majority of students accepted organ donation from either dead (92% "definitely yes") or living (81%) donors. The smallest percentage (58%) was expressed by group 2. Some insignificant differences were also observed in connection with the question of whether "brain death" is equivalent to death of a person. Students' responses were diverged with regard to consideration of implied consent as a factor to condition organ procurement from dead donors. Amid Thai students, acceptance was definitely lower (23%) than Polish (67%) or American (58%) ones. At the same time, organ donation was mostly dependent on the consent of a deceased person's family. Similar to other groups, the great majority of students declared their consent to both organ procurement after their own death, to donating a kidney to their relatives, or to persons with whom they are emotionally connected. Interestingly, 16% accepted organ donation for money. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Challenging assumptions from emotion dysregulation psychological treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neacsiu, Andrada D; Smith, Megan; Fang, Caitlin M

    2017-09-01

    Contemporary treatments assume that the inability to downregulate negative emotional arousal is a key problem in the development and maintenance of psychopathology and that lack of effective regulation efforts and a preference to use maladaptive regulation strategies is a primary mechanism. Though ubiquitous, there is limited empirical evidence to support this assumption. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to examine whether self-reported emotion dysregulation equated to difficulties reducing emotional arousal during a behavioral task and to primary use of maladaptive strategies to manage negative emotions. 44 anxious and depressed adults with high emotion dysregulation induced negative distress using autobiographic memory recall. After induction, participants were instructed to downregulate but were not provided any specific instructions in strategies to use. Self-reported emotional arousal was assessed before and after induction and after regulation. Qualitative descriptions of regulation efforts were collected and codedinto effective and maladaptive strategies. The task was successful in inducing emotional arousal and participants were successful in their efforts to down regulate negative emotions. Additionally, effective regulation strategies were used more frequently than maladaptive strategies. Data collected was exclusively self-report and the sample size was small. Adults who report high emotion dysregulation may still have effective emotion regulation strategies in their behavioral repertoire and are more likely to engage in these effective strategies when given an unspecific prompt to regulate negative emotional arousal. Despite reporting problems with emotion regulation, adults with anxiety and depression can successfully downregulate distress when prompted to do so. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Psychopatholgy, fundamental assumptions and CD-4 T lymphocyte ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    e.g. PTSD, depression, substance abuse) was associated with more negative fundamental assumptions. A secondary aim was to investigate whether psychopathology and fundamental assumptions were associated with a lower CD4 count.

  10. Iowa CASAS Pilot Project Reports: An Initial Evaluation of CASAS Effectiveness in Iowa's Adult Basic Education Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, Mary L.

    In fall 1992, the Iowa Department of Education began pilot tests of the Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment System (CASAS), an assessment system evaluating reading, math, and problem solving in a life skills context for adult remedial programs. This document provides reports from the nine community colleges that served as test sites, describing…

  11. National uranium resource evaluation program: hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance basic data for Ely quadrangle, Nevada; Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-15

    Field and laboratory data are presented for 1937 sediment samples from the Ely Quadrangle, Nevada; Utah. The samples were collected by Savannah River Laboratory; laboratory analysis and data reporting were performed by the Uranium Resource Evaluation Project at Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

  12. Designing and Evaluating a Professional Development Programme for Basic Technology Integration in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansyari, Muhammad Fauzan

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to develop and evaluate a professional development programme for technology integration in an Indonesian university's English language teaching setting. The study explored the characteristics of this programme to English lecturers' technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK) development. This design-based research employed…

  13. Roy's specific life values and the philosophical assumption of humanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Debra R

    2013-01-01

    Roy's philosophical assumption of humanism, which is shaped by the veritivity assumption, is considered in terms of her specific life values and in contrast to the contemporary view of humanism. Like veritivity, Roy's philosophical assumption of humanism unites a theocentric focus with anthropological values. Roy's perspective enriches the mainly secular, anthropocentric assumption. In this manuscript, the basis for Roy's perspective of humanism will be discussed so that readers will be able to use the Roy adaptation model in an authentic manner.

  14. Establishing the minimal number of virtual reality simulator training sessions necessary to develop basic laparoscopic skills competence: evaluation of the learning curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Jordao Duarte

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Medical literature is scarce on information to define a basic skills training program for laparoscopic surgery (peg and transferring, cutting, clipping. The aim of this study was to determine the minimal number of simulator sessions of basic laparoscopic tasks necessary to elaborate an optimal virtual reality training curriculum. Materials and Methods Eleven medical students with no previous laparoscopic experience were spontaneously enrolled. They were submitted to simulator training sessions starting at level 1 (Immersion Lap VR, San Jose, CA, including sequentially camera handling, peg and transfer, clipping and cutting. Each student trained twice a week until 10 sessions were completed. The score indexes were registered and analyzed. The total of errors of the evaluation sequences (camera, peg and transfer, clipping and cutting were computed and thereafter, they were correlated to the total of items evaluated in each step, resulting in a success percent ratio for each student for each set of each completed session. Thereafter, we computed the cumulative success rate in 10 sessions, obtaining an analysis of the learning process. By non-linear regression the learning curve was analyzed. Results By the non-linear regression method the learning curve was analyzed and a r2 = 0.73 (p < 0.001 was obtained, being necessary 4.26 (∼five sessions to reach the plateau of 80% of the estimated acquired knowledge, being that 100% of the students have reached this level of skills. From the fifth session till the 10th, the gain of knowledge was not significant, although some students reached 96% of the expected improvement. Conclusions This study revealed that after five simulator training sequential sessions the students' learning curve reaches a plateau. The forward sessions in the same difficult level do not promote any improvement in laparoscopic basic surgical skills, and the students should be introduced to a more difficult training

  15. Evaluation of Medical Students' Attitudes and Performance of Basic Surgery Skills in a Training Program Using Fresh Human skin, Excised During Body Contouring Surgeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberger, Jens; Seyed Jafari, Seyed Morteza; Schnabel, Kai P; Tschumi, Christian; Angermeier, Sarina; Shafighi, Maziar

    2015-01-01

    Learning surgical skills in the operating room may be a challenge for medical students. Therefore, more approaches using simulation to enable students to develop their practical skills are required. We hypothesized that (1) there would be a need for additional surgical training for medical students in the pre-final year, and (2) our basic surgery skills training program using fresh human skin would improve medical students' surgical skills. We conducted a preliminary survey of medical students to clarify the need for further training in basic surgery procedures. A new approach using simulation to teach surgical skills on human skin was set up. The procedural skills of 15 randomly selected students were assessed in the operating room before and after participation in the simulation, using Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills. Furthermore, subjective assessment was performed based on students' self-evaluation. The data were analyzed using SPSS, version 21 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL). The study took place at the Inselspital, Bern University Hospital. A total of 186 pre-final-year medical students were enrolled into the preliminary survey; 15 randomly selected medical students participated in the basic surgical skills training course on the fresh human skin operating room. The preliminary survey revealed the need for a surgical skills curriculum. The simulation approach we developed showed significant (p students become more proficient in handling surgical instruments before stepping into a real surgical situation. We suggest further studies evaluating our proposed teaching method and the possibility of integrating this simulation approach into the medical school curriculum. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. 46 CFR 67.239 - Requirements for assumptions of mortgages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for assumptions of mortgages. 67.239... MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS DOCUMENTATION OF VESSELS Filing and Recording of Instruments-Mortgages, Preferred Mortgages, and Related Instruments § 67.239 Requirements for assumptions of mortgages. An assumption of...

  17. Philosophy of Technology Assumptions in Educational Technology Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Mark David

    2017-01-01

    A qualitative study using grounded theory methods was conducted to (a) examine what philosophy of technology assumptions are present in the thinking of K-12 technology leaders, (b) investigate how the assumptions may influence technology decision making, and (c) explore whether technological determinist assumptions are present. Subjects involved…

  18. The zero-sum assumption in neutral biodiversity theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etienne, Rampal S.; Alonso, David; McKane, Alan J.

    2007-01-01

    The neutral theory of biodiversity as put forward by Hubbell in his 2001 monograph has received much criticism for its unrealistic simplifying assumptions. These are the assumptions of functional equivalence among different species (neutrality), the assumption of point mutation speciation, and the

  19. Evaluation of the blood compatibility of materials, cells, and tissues: basic concepts, test models, and practical guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekdahl, Kristina N; Hong, Jaan; Hamad, Osama A; Larsson, Rolf; Nilsson, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Medicine today uses a wide range of biomaterials, most of which make contact with blood permanently or transiently upon implantation. Contact between blood and nonbiological materials or cells or tissue of nonhematologic origin initiates activation of the cascade systems (complement, contact activation/coagulation) of the blood, which induces platelet and leukocyte activation. Although substantial progress regarding biocompatibility has been made, many materials and medical treatment procedures are still associated with severe side effects. Therefore, there is a great need for adequate models and guidelines for evaluating the blood compatibility of biomaterials. Due to the substantial amount of cross talk between the different cascade systems and cell populations in the blood, it is advisable to use an intact system for evaluation. Here, we describe three such in vitro models for the evaluation of the biocompatibility of materials and therapeutic cells and tissues. The use of different anticoagulants and specific inhibitors in order to be able to dissect interactions between the different cascade systems and cells of the blood is discussed. In addition, we describe two clinically relevant medical treatment modalities, the integration of titanium implants and transplantation of islets of Langerhans to patients with type 1 diabetes, whose mechanisms of action we have addressed using these in vitro models.

  20. Finite Element Simulations to Explore Assumptions in Kolsky Bar Experiments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crum, Justin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-05

    The chief purpose of this project has been to develop a set of finite element models that attempt to explore some of the assumptions in the experimental set-up and data reduction of the Kolsky bar experiment. In brief, the Kolsky bar, sometimes referred to as the split Hopkinson pressure bar, is an experimental apparatus used to study the mechanical properties of materials at high strain rates. Kolsky bars can be constructed to conduct experiments in tension or compression, both of which are studied in this paper. The basic operation of the tension Kolsky bar is as follows: compressed air is inserted into the barrel that contains the striker; the striker accelerates towards the left and strikes the left end of the barrel producing a tensile stress wave that propogates first through the barrel and then down the incident bar, into the specimen, and finally the transmission bar. In the compression case, the striker instead travels to the right and impacts the incident bar directly. As the stress wave travels through an interface (e.g., the incident bar to specimen connection), a portion of the pulse is transmitted and the rest reflected. The incident pulse, as well as the transmitted and reflected pulses are picked up by two strain gauges installed on the incident and transmitted bars as shown. By interpreting the data acquired by these strain gauges, the stress/strain behavior of the specimen can be determined.

  1. The contour method cutting assumption: error minimization and correction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prime, Michael B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kastengren, Alan L [ANL

    2010-01-01

    The recently developed contour method can measure 2-D, cross-sectional residual-stress map. A part is cut in two using a precise and low-stress cutting technique such as electric discharge machining. The contours of the new surfaces created by the cut, which will not be flat if residual stresses are relaxed by the cutting, are then measured and used to calculate the original residual stresses. The precise nature of the assumption about the cut is presented theoretically and is evaluated experimentally. Simply assuming a flat cut is overly restrictive and misleading. The critical assumption is that the width of the cut, when measured in the original, undeformed configuration of the body is constant. Stresses at the cut tip during cutting cause the material to deform, which causes errors. The effect of such cutting errors on the measured stresses is presented. The important parameters are quantified. Experimental procedures for minimizing these errors are presented. An iterative finite element procedure to correct for the errors is also presented. The correction procedure is demonstrated on experimental data from a steel beam that was plastically bent to put in a known profile of residual stresses.

  2. Assessing Statistical Model Assumptions under Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varotsos, Konstantinos V.; Giannakopoulos, Christos; Tombrou, Maria

    2016-04-01

    The majority of the studies assesses climate change impacts on air-quality using chemical transport models coupled to climate ones in an off-line mode, for various horizontal resolutions and different present and future time slices. A complementary approach is based on present-day empirical relations between air-pollutants and various meteorological variables which are then extrapolated to the future. However, the extrapolation relies on various assumptions such as that these relationships will retain their main characteristics in the future. In this study we focus on the ozone-temperature relationship. It is well known that among a number of meteorological variables, temperature is found to exhibit the highest correlation with ozone concentrations. This has led, in the past years, to the development and application of statistical models with which the potential impact of increasing future temperatures on various ozone statistical targets was examined. To examine whether the ozone-temperature relationship retains its main characteristics under warmer temperatures we analyze the relationship during the heatwaves events of 2003 and 2006 in Europe. More specifically, we use available gridded daily maximum temperatures (E-OBS) and hourly ozone observations from different non-urban stations (EMEP) within the areas that were impacted from the two heatwave events. In addition, we compare the temperature distributions of the two events with temperatures from two different future time periods 2021-2050 and 2071-2100 from a number of regional climate models developed under the framework of the Cordex initiative (http://www.cordex.org) with a horizontal resolution of 12 x 12km, based on different IPCC RCPs emissions scenarios. A statistical analysis is performed on the ozone-temperature relationship for each station and for the two aforementioned years which are then compared against the ozone-temperature relationships obtained from the rest of the available dataseries. The

  3. Visual Product Evaluation: Using the Semantic Differential to Investigate the Influence of Basic Vase Geometry on Users’ Perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiche, Sofiane; Maier, Anja; Milanova, Krasimira

    2014-01-01

    Products evoke emotions in people. Emotions can influence purchase decisions and product evaluations. It is widely acknowledged that better product performance and higher user satisfaction can be reached through aesthetic design. However, when designing a new product, most of the attention...... is generally paid to enhance its functionality and usability and much less consideration is given to the emotional needs of users. This paper explores a methodology based on Emotional Design theory in order to discover implicit emotional needs of users toward product design and how they are related to very...... perception from a simple set of geometric features....

  4. Spatial modelling of assumption of tourism development with geographic IT using

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Machalová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to show the possibilities of spatial modelling and analysing of assumptions of tourism development in the Czech Republic with the objective to make decision-making processes in tourism easier and more efficient (for companies, clients as well as destination managements. The development and placement of tourism depend on the factors (conditions that influence its application in specific areas. These factors are usually divided into three groups: selective, localization and realization. Tourism is inseparably connected with space – countryside. The countryside can be modelled and consecutively analysed by the means of geographical information technologies. With the help of spatial modelling and following analyses the localization and realization conditions in the regions of the Czech Republic have been evaluated. The best localization conditions have been found in the Liberecký region. The capital city of Prague has negligible natural conditions; however, those social ones are on a high level. Next, the spatial analyses have shown that the best realization conditions are provided by the capital city of Prague. Then the Central-Bohemian, South-Moravian, Moravian-Silesian and Karlovarský regions follow. The development of tourism destination is depended not only on the localization and realization factors but it is basically affected by the level of local destination management. Spatial modelling can help destination managers in decision-making processes in order to optimal use of destination potential and efficient targeting their marketing activities.

  5. Evaluation of essay questions used to assess medical students' application and integration of basic and clinical science knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierer, S Beth; Taylor, Christine A; Dannefer, Elaine F

    2009-10-01

    Educators need approaches to assess medical students' abilities to apply and integrate concepts essential to medical practice. We used a multimethod approach to examine the quality of essay questions intended to elicit medical students' ability to apply and integrate their understanding of medical concepts. Three educators assigned essay questions (n = 120) to one of four levels of cognition. Kappa was computed before and after discussion. Faculty (n = 46) critiqued essay quality using a checklist (97% response), and students completed a questionnaire about the learning environment (91% response). We identified effective approaches to evaluate the quality of essay questions and to train faculty to write essay questions of sufficient complexity. This systematic review of essay questions also encouraged review of the curriculum to determine if core concepts were being taught. It is feasible to have faculty write and critique essay questions targeted at higher levels of cognition.

  6. Assumptions of Customer Knowledge Enablement in the Open Innovation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokubauskienė Raminta

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the scientific literature, open innovation is one of the most effective means to innovate and gain a competitive advantage. In practice, there is a variety of open innovation activities, but, nevertheless, customers stand as the cornerstone in this area, since the customers’ knowledge is one of the most important sources of new knowledge and ideas. Evaluating the context where are the interactions of open innovation and customer knowledge enablement, it is necessary to take into account the importance of customer knowledge management. Increasingly it is highlighted that customers’ knowledge management facilitates the creation of innovations. However, it should be an examination of other factors that influence the open innovation, and, at the same time, customers’ knowledge management. This article presents a theoretical model, which reveals the assumptions of open innovation process and the impact on the firm’s performance.

  7. Cost and Performance Assumptions for Modeling Electricity Generation Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidball, R.; Bluestein, J.; Rodriguez, N.; Knoke, S.

    2010-11-01

    The goal of this project was to compare and contrast utility scale power plant characteristics used in data sets that support energy market models. Characteristics include both technology cost and technology performance projections to the year 2050. Cost parameters include installed capital costs and operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. Performance parameters include plant size, heat rate, capacity factor or availability factor, and plant lifetime. Conventional, renewable, and emerging electricity generating technologies were considered. Six data sets, each associated with a different model, were selected. Two of the data sets represent modeled results, not direct model inputs. These two data sets include cost and performance improvements that result from increased deployment as well as resulting capacity factors estimated from particular model runs; other data sets represent model input data. For the technologies contained in each data set, the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) was also evaluated, according to published cost, performance, and fuel assumptions.

  8. Evaluating the appropriateness of hospital doctors' requests for pulmonary function tests beyond basic spirometry: results from a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, Krishna Bajee; Fountain, Zoe; Hockenhull, Jessica; Zagami, Debbie

    2017-08-01

    Hospitalists request 'complete' pulmonary function tests (PFTs), typically comprising of spirometry, diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) and absolute lung volumes (ALVs), the results of which assist in the management of patients with respiratory disorders. Recently, concerns have been raised about over-requesting of 'complete' PFTs, but there is a paucity of information on the proportion of requests that can be considered clinically inappropriate. This study prospectively evaluated the 'complete' PFTs requested in a hospital service and assessed the impact of medical review of the requests. A six-month prospective study on requests to two teaching hospital PFT laboratories from non-respiratory doctors was undertaken. Requests at one laboratory underwent review by a respiratory doctor ('intervention laboratory') while requests at the second laboratory were not reviewed ('control laboratory'). The appropriateness of requests was measured against pre-specified criteria. PFT requests for 335 subjects were included in the study. In the intervention laboratory, 8 of 110 ALV and 122 of 134 DLCO requests fulfilled pre-specified criteria for appropriate test indications. Fewer ALV (7% vs. 100%, p requests from non-respiratory hospital doctors may be unwarranted. Using a simple screening method, the number of unnecessary PFTs could be reduced, resulting in substantial time and cost savings for hospital PFT laboratories.

  9. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance basic data for Sherman NTMS Quadrangle, Texas; Oklahoma. Uranium resource evaluation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-09-29

    Field and laboratory data are presented for 718 groundwater and 715 stream sediment samples. Statistical and areal distributions of uranium and possible uranium-related variables are displayed. A generalized geologic map of the survey area is provided, and pertinent geologic factors which may be of significance in evaluating the potential for uranium mineralization are briefly discussed. Groundwater data indicate that uranium concentrations above the 85th percentile are predominant in the Trinity Group (Lower Cretaceous), and the Taylor and Navarro Groups (Upper Cretaceous). Values of uranium above the 85th percentile also occur in the Permian units located in the northwestern section of the survey area. Several trends delineating saline water are discernable, the most notable of which occur in sections of the Woodbine Formation and the Permian units. Less distinguishing saline trends occur in many of the Upper Cretaceous formations. Stream sediment data indicate that uranium concentrations above the 85th percentile occur in sections of the Fredericksburg Group parallel to the contact with the Washita Group, in the Eagle Ford Formation, and in the Taylor Group. High values of uranium in the Fredericksburg Group appear to be associated with carbonates and marine clays. High values of uranium in the Eagle Ford Formation are most likely associated with heavy and/or resistate mineral assemblages. High values of uranium occurring in the Taylor Group may be related to the carbonate and phosphatic lithologies which comprise this group.

  10. Development and evaluation of a hypermedia system that integrates basic concepts of mechanics, biomechanics and human anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Rezende

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the modeling of a hypermedia learning system (called “Biomec” that integrates physical, biomechanical and anatomical concepts involved in the human motion and a study carried out with undergraduate students who interacted with the system. The instructional design of the “Biomec” hypermedia system was developed on the basis of a theoretical framework which articulates the Cognitive Flexibility Theory and the interdisciplinary approach to knowledge. The system was evaluated based on its use by students of Biomechanics I and Kinesiology in a Pre Service Teachers Training Course of Physical Education aiming to discuss the following questions: (i what is its impact on the students’ attitude related to Physics? (ii in what extent does the hypertextual approach to the content favor the interdisciplinary conception of human motion? (iii in what extent do the students’ navigation profiles adapt to conceptual needs of the different disciplines of the course? The students answered instruments that assessed affective and cognitive aspects before and after the interaction with the system, and had their navigation registered and analyzed. The set of data obtained allowed to conclude that the “Biomec” system is a relevant instructional material, capable of positively influence the students’ attitude related to Physics, to favor the interdisciplinary approach of human motion and to attend the students enrolled in Biomechanics I better than the students enrolled in Kinesiology.

  11. TIES for Dummies 3rd Edition (Technology Identification, Evaluation, and Selection) Basic how to's to implement the TIES method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Michelle R.

    2002-01-01

    The TIES method is a forecasting environment whereby the decision-maker has the ability to easily assess and trade-off the impact of various technologies without sophisticated and time-consuming mathematical formulations. TIES provides a methodical approach where technically feasible alternatives can be identified with accuracy and speed to reduce design cycle time, and subsequently, life cycle costs, and was achieved through the use of various probabilistic methods, such as Response Surface Methodology and Monte Carlo Simulations. Furthermore, structured and systematic techniques are utilized from other fields to identify possible concepts and evaluation criteria by which comparisons can be made. This objective is achieved by employing the use of Morphological Matrices and Multi-Attribute Decision Making techniques. Through the execution of each step, a family of design alternatives for a given set of customer requirements can be identified and assessed subjectively or objectively. This methodology allows for more information (knowledge) to be brought into the earlier phases of the design process and will have direct implications on the affordability of the system. The increased knowledge allows for optimum allocation of company resources and quantitative justification for program decisions. Finally, the TIES method provided novel results and quantitative justification to facilitate decision making in the early stages of design so as to produce affordable and quality products.

  12. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance basic data for Manhattan NTMS Quadrangle, Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-13

    Results of a reconnaissance geochemical survey of the Manhattan Quadrangle, Kansas, are reported. Field and laboratory data are presented for 674 groundwater and 718 stream sediment samples. Statistical and areal distributions of uranium and possible uranium-related variables are displayed. A generalized geologic map of the survey area is provided, and pertinent geologic factors which may be of significance in evaluating the potential for uranium mineralization are briefly discussed. The groundwater data indicate that the most promising area for potential uranium mineralization occurs in the western-northwestern part of the quadrangle where waters are produced from the Quaternary loess deposits, and the Cretaceous Greenhorn-Graneros and Dakota Formations. Associated elements in the quadrangle include arsenic, potassium, manganese, vanadium, and selenium. The stream sediment data indicate that the highest average uranium concentrations in sediments from the Manhattan Quadrangle are obtained from the Pennsylvanian Wabaunsee Group followed by the Cretaceous Carlile Shale, Greenhorn-Graneros and Dakota Formations. In the northwestern corner of the quadrangle, high concentrations of uranium are associated with high concentrations of barium, niobium, strontium, titanium, vanadium, yttrium, and zirconium. In southeast Cloud County and extending to the northeast, high values of total uranium are associated with high values of titanium, yttrium, zirconium, and low U-FL/U-NT values. These associations indicate that the uranium is probably present in heavy and/or resistate minerals.

  13. Synthetic Vision Systems in GA Cockpit-Evaluation of Basic Maneuvers Performed by Low Time GA Pilots During Transition from VMC to IMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takallu, M. A.; Wong, D. T.; Uenking, M. D.

    2002-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to study the effectiveness of modern flight displays in general aviation cockpits for mitigating Low Visibility Loss of Control and the Controlled Flight Into Terrain accidents. A total of 18 General Aviation (GA) pilots with private pilot, single engine land rating, with no additional instrument training beyond private pilot license requirements, were recruited to evaluate three different display concepts in a fixed-based flight simulator at the NASA Langley Research Center's General Aviation Work Station. Evaluation pilots were asked to continue flight from Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC) into Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) while performing a series of 4 basic precision maneuvers. During the experiment, relevant pilot/vehicle performance variables, pilot control inputs and physiological data were recorded. Human factors questionnaires and interviews were administered after each scenario. Qualitative and quantitative data have been analyzed and the results are presented here. Pilot performance deviations from the established target values (errors) were computed and compared with the FAA Practical Test Standards. Results of the quantitative data indicate that evaluation pilots committed substantially fewer errors when using the Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) displays than when they were using conventional instruments. Results of the qualitative data indicate that evaluation pilots perceived themselves to have a much higher level of situation awareness while using the SVS display concept.

  14. Evaluation the Quality of The Wells Water in Hilla City by Water Quality Index and Applying in Visual Basic Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesrin J.Al-Mansori

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, ground water samples were gathered from differentregions located inHillacity during period from October 2014 to September ,2015. Water samples were taken from ten wells (monthly two samples from each well in different regions for analyzing laboratory for thirteen parameters, they are: Temperature, pH , Electrical conductivity (EC, Total hardness (TH, Calcium (Ca+2, Magnesium (Mg+2, Chloride (Cl-1, Sulphate (SO4-2, Nitrate (NO3-, Sodium (Na+, Potassium (K+ and Total Dissolved Solid (TDS . The evaluation of water suitability of the present study for drinking and other irrigated purposes was achieved by means of arithmetic method of WQI depending on guideline values of (WHO,2004 and Iraqi Standard No.417 for (2004 . Values of WQI ranged from (97.230 - 79.100at Hilla city which is not suitable for human consumption according to the classification of Iraqi Standard No.417 for (2004 and WHO ,2004. These values belong to high water electrical conductivity and chloride of the studied wells comparable with other parameters. Also, correlation coefficient supports this interpretation where there are strong positively correlation between WQI values and both electrical conductivity and chloride values (0.997, 0.919 respectively.While in the assessment of ground water quality for irrigation, electrical conductivity, pH, sodium absorption ratio (SAR, chloride,slphate, sodium, calisum and magisumwere used to calculateWQI values which range from (98.074- 83.187. These values are associated with both EC and Cl- in a strong negatively correlation (-0.968, -0.969 respectively. Application of Visual Basicsoftware is a good tool to explain the WQI index for all types of rivers and streams in Iraq, that will be useful to give fast indication about WQI index

  15. “Five Minutes of Composers”: A Technique for Evaluating Productivity of Verbal Memory in the System of Basic Music Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorokov D.G.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the need for developing criteria-based diagnostic tools for quick individual and group evaluation of musical knowledge in children within the system of basic music education. The proposed technique called “Five Minutes of Composers” allows one to evaluate musical knowledge in a single child, in a whole class or in an educational organisation. The paper provides a full description of the technique and the process of its standartisation: stanines and corresponding normative values are assigned to each age group; the differential validity of the technique is statistically proven for the factors "gender", "stage of education", "age", and "total productivity". The outcomes of the conducted study show the following: the average level of productivity is significantly higher in girls; this level is significantly higher in students of 6th and 7th classes as compared to students of 3rd—5th classes; there is a direct correlation between age and productivity of recall; children with high levels of productivity outscore others in the number of recalled names of composers right from the start. The paper concludes with some remarks concerning the possibilities of using this technique for measuring the progress in children’s musical knowledge, for criteria-based comparative analysis of the quality of teaching, and for evaluating the quality of music education in single classes and educational organisations in general.

  16. Assumptions, Trust, and Names in Computer Security Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS ASSUMPTIONS, TRUST, AND NAMES IN COMPUTER SECURITY PROTOCOLS by Charles Dylan Shearer June 2011...21–6–2011 Master’s Thesis 27-09-2010—17-06-2011 Assumptions, Trust, and Names in Computer Security Protocols Charles Dylan Shearer Naval Postgraduate...future work. computer security , protocol, assumption, belief, trust, naming Unclassified Unclassified Unclassified UU 85 i THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT

  17. Investigating the Assumptions of Uses and Gratifications Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lometti, Guy E.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Discusses a study designed to determine empirically the gratifications sought from communication channels and to test the assumption that individuals differentiate channels based on gratifications. (MH)

  18. Legal assumptions for private company claim for additional (supplementary payment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šogorov Stevan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Subject matter of analyze in this article are legal assumptions which must be met in order to enable private company to call for additional payment. After introductory remarks discussion is focused on existence of provisions regarding additional payment in formation contract, or in shareholders meeting general resolution, as starting point for company's claim. Second assumption is concrete resolution of shareholders meeting which creates individual obligations for additional payments. Third assumption is defined as distinctness regarding sum of payment and due date. Sending of claim by relevant company body is set as fourth legal assumption for realization of company's right to claim additional payments from member of private company.

  19. Breakdown of Hydrostatic Assumption in Tidal Channel with Scour Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyan Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydrostatic condition is a common assumption in tidal and subtidal motions in oceans and estuaries.. Theories with this assumption have been largely successful. However, there is no definite criteria separating the hydrostatic from the non-hydrostatic regimes in real applications because real problems often times have multiple scales. With increased refinement of high resolution numerical models encompassing smaller and smaller spatial scales, the need for non-hydrostatic models is increasing. To evaluate the vertical motion over bathymetric changes in tidal channels and assess the validity of the hydrostatic approximation, we conducted observations using a vessel-based acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP. Observations were made along a straight channel 18 times over two scour holes of 25 m deep, separated by 330 m, in and out of an otherwise flat 8 m deep tidal pass leading to the Lake Pontchartrain over a time period of 8 hours covering part of the diurnal tidal cycle. Out of the 18 passages over the scour holes, 11 of them showed strong upwelling and downwelling which resulted in the breakdown of hydrostatic condition. The maximum observed vertical velocity was ~ 0.35 m/s, a high value in a tidal channel, and the estimated vertical acceleration reached a high value of 1.76×10-2 m/s2. Analysis demonstrated that the barotropic non-hydrostatic acceleration was dominant. The cause of the non-hydrostatic flow was the that over steep slopes. This demonstrates that in such a system, the bathymetric variation can lead to the breakdown of hydrostatic conditions. Models with hydrostatic restrictions will not be able to correctly capture the dynamics in such a system with significant bathymetric variations particularly during strong tidal currents.

  20. Drilling deeper into the core: an analysis of journal evaluation methodologies used to create the "Basic List of Veterinary Medical Serials," third edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugaz, Ana G

    2011-04-01

    The paper analyzes the journal evaluation criteria used to create the third edition of a core list of veterinary serials to determine the impact of each criterion on the final composition of the list in order to assess the value of using multiple criteria in creating a core list. Three additional lists were generated from criteria that were previously combined to prepare the third edition of the "Basic List of Veterinary Medical Serials": a list based on journal recommendations from veterinary specialty organizations, another list based on journals selected by veterinary librarians, and a list based on both indexing coverage and scholarly rank. The top fifteen journals in each of the three lists were then compared to reveal potential biases. Subject representation on the full lists generated by each of these methods was also compared. The list based on journal recommendations from veterinary specialty organizations exhibited a focus on clinically relevant titles. The list based on veterinary librarian recommendations resulted in the broadest subject coverage. The list based on indexing and scholarly rank, while emphasizing research titles, produced the largest number of unique titles. A combination approach that includes objective evaluation measures and practical input, whether from librarians or discipline experts, can improve coverage and can result in a list that balances research-based with clinical practice journals.

  1. Drilling deeper into the core: an analysis of journal evaluation methodologies used to create the “Basic List of Veterinary Medical Serials,” third edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugaz, Ana G

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The paper analyzes the journal evaluation criteria used to create the third edition of a core list of veterinary serials to determine the impact of each criterion on the final composition of the list in order to assess the value of using multiple criteria in creating a core list. Methods: Three additional lists were generated from criteria that were previously combined to prepare the third edition of the “Basic List of Veterinary Medical Serials”: a list based on journal recommendations from veterinary specialty organizations, another list based on journals selected by veterinary librarians, and a list based on both indexing coverage and scholarly rank. The top fifteen journals in each of the three lists were then compared to reveal potential biases. Subject representation on the full lists generated by each of these methods was also compared. Results: The list based on journal recommendations from veterinary specialty organizations exhibited a focus on clinically relevant titles. The list based on veterinary librarian recommendations resulted in the broadest subject coverage. The list based on indexing and scholarly rank, while emphasizing research titles, produced the largest number of unique titles. Conclusion: A combination approach that includes objective evaluation measures and practical input, whether from librarians or discipline experts, can improve coverage and can result in a list that balances research-based with clinical practice journals. PMID:21464852

  2. Evaluation of Polycaprolactone Scaffold with Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor and Fibroblasts in an Athymic Rat Model for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Nima; Arshi, Armin; Nazemi, Azadeh; Wu, Ben; Petrigliano, Frank A.; McAllister, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture is a common ligamentous injury often necessitating surgery. Current surgical treatment options include ligament reconstruction with autograft or allograft, which have their inherent limitations. Thus, there is interest in a tissue-engineered substitute for use in ACL regeneration. However, there have been relatively few in vivo studies to date. In this study, an athymic rat model of ACL reconstruction was used to evaluate electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) grafts, with and without the addition of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and human foreskin fibroblasts. We examined the regenerative potential of tissue-engineered ACL grafts using histology, immunohistochemistry, and mechanical testing up to 16 weeks postoperatively. Histology showed infiltration of the grafts with cells, and immunohistochemistry demonstrated aligned collagen deposition with minimal inflammatory reaction. Mechanical testing of the grafts demonstrated significantly higher mechanical properties than immediately postimplantation. Acellular grafts loaded with bFGF achieved 58.8% of the stiffness and 40.7% of the peak load of healthy native ACL. Grafts without bFGF achieved 31.3% of the stiffness and 28.2% of the peak load of healthy native ACL. In this in vivo rodent model study for ACL reconstruction, the histological and mechanical evaluation demonstrated excellent healing and regenerative potential of our electrospun PCL ligament graft. PMID:25744933

  3. Distributed automata in an assumption-commitment framework

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We propose a class of finite state systems of synchronizing distributed processes, where processes make assumptions at local states about the state of other processes in the system. This constrains the global states of the system to those where assumptions made by a process about another are compatible with the ...

  4. 40 CFR 761.2 - PCB concentration assumptions for use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false PCB concentration assumptions for use..., AND USE PROHIBITIONS General § 761.2 PCB concentration assumptions for use. (a)(1) Any person may..., oil-filled cable, and rectifiers whose PCB concentration is not established contain PCBs at < 50 ppm...

  5. 7 CFR 1779.88 - Transfers and assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.88 Transfers and assumptions... transfer fees will be a standard fee plus the cost of the appraisal. (2) The lender will collect and submit... be filed, registered, or recorded as appropriate and legally permissible. (4) The assumption will be...

  6. Performance Appraisal Is Based on Five Major Assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Harvey A.

    This review of the performance appraisal process discusses the major assumptions on which performance appraisal is based, the general goals of performance appraisal, and the characteristics of effective performance appraisal programs. The author stresses the dependence of the process on the assumption that human behavior can be changed; he…

  7. A randomized control trial to evaluate the importance of pre-training basic laparoscopic psychomotor skills upon the learning curve of laparoscopic intra-corporeal knot tying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinas, Carlos Roger; Binda, Maria Mercedes; Sisa, Cesar Manuel; Campo, Rudi

    2017-01-01

    Training of basic laparoscopic psychomotor skills improves the acquisition of more advanced laparoscopic tasks, such as laparoscopic intra-corporeal knot tying (LICK). This randomized controlled trial was designed to evaluate whether pre-training of basic skills, as laparoscopic camera navigation (LCN), hand-eye coordination (HEC), and bimanual coordination (BMC), and the combination of the three of them, has any beneficial effect upon the learning curve of LICK. The study was carried out in a private center in Asunción, Paraguay, by 80 medical students without any experience in surgery. Four laparoscopic tasks were performed in the ENCILAP model (LCN, HEC, BMC, and LICK). Participants were allocated to 5 groups (G1-G5). The study was structured in 5 phases. In phase 1, they underwent a base-line test ( T 1 ) for all tasks (1 repetition of each task in consecutive order). In phase 2, participants underwent different training programs (30 consecutive repetitions) for basic tasks according to the group they belong to (G1: none; G2: LCN; G3: HEC; G4: BMC; and G5: LCN, HEC, and BMC). In phase 3, they were tested again ( T 2 ) in the same manner than at T 1 . In phase 4, they underwent a standardized training program for LICK (30 consecutive repetitions). In phase 5, they were tested again ( T 3 ) in the same manner than at T 1 and T 2 . At each repetition, scoring was based on the time taken for task completion system. The scores were plotted and non-linear regression models were used to fit the learning curves to one- and two-phase exponential decay models for each participant (individual curves) and for each group (group curves). The LICK group learning curves fitted better to the two-phase exponential decay model. From these curves, the starting points ( Y 0), the point after HEC training/before LICK training ( Y 1), the Plateau, and the rate constants ( K ) were calculated. All groups, except for G4, started from a similar point ( Y 0). At Y 1, G5 scored already

  8. Rapid and simple detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus: Evaluation of a cartridge-based molecular detection system for use in basic laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goller, K V; Dill, V; Madi, M; Martin, P; Van der Stede, Y; Vandenberge, V; Haas, B; Van Borm, S; Koenen, F; Kasanga, C J; Ndusilo, N; Beer, M; Liu, L; Mioulet, V; Armson, B; King, D P; Fowler, V L

    2017-11-09

    Highly contagious transboundary animal diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) are major threats to the productivity of farm animals. To limit the impact of outbreaks and to take efficient steps towards a timely control and eradication of the disease, rapid and reliable diagnostic systems are of utmost importance. Confirmatory diagnostic assays are typically performed by experienced operators in specialized laboratories, and access to this capability is often limited in the developing countries with the highest disease burden. Advances in molecular technologies allow implementation of modern and reliable techniques for quick and simple pathogen detection either in basic laboratories or even at the pen-side. Here, we report on a study to evaluate a fully automated cartridge-based real-time RT-PCR diagnostic system (Enigma MiniLab® ) for the detection of FMD virus (FMDV). The modular system integrates both nucleic acid extraction and downstream real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR). The analytical sensitivity of this assay was determined using serially diluted culture grown FMDV, and the performance of the assay was evaluated using a selected range of FMDV positive and negative clinical samples of bovine, porcine and ovine origin. The robustness of the assay was evaluated in an international inter-laboratory proficiency test and by deployment into an African laboratory. It was demonstrated that the system is easy to use and can detect FMDV with high sensitivity and specificity, roughly on par with standard laboratory methods. This cartridge-based automated real-time RT-PCR system for the detection of FMDV represents a reliable and easy to use diagnostic tool for the early and rapid disease detection of acutely infected animals even in remote areas. This type of system could be easily deployed for routine surveillance within endemic regions such as Africa or could alternatively be used in the developed world. © 2017 The Authors. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases

  9. Stem Cell Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tips Info Center Research Topics Federal Policy Glossary Stem Cell Information General Information Clinical Trials Funding Information Current ... Basics » Stem Cell Basics I. Back to top Stem Cell Basics I. Introduction: What are stem cells, and ...

  10. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance basic data for Beeville NTMS Quadrangle, Texas. Uranium resource evaluation project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-31

    Results of a reconnaissance geochemical survey of the Beeville Quadrangle, Texas are reported. Field and laboratory data are presented for 373 groundwater and 364 stream sediment samples. Statistical and areal distributions of uranium and possible uranium-related variables are displayed. A generalized geologic map of the survey area is provided, and pertinent geologic factors which may be of significance in evaluating the potential for uranium mineralization are briefly discussed. The groundwater data indicate that the northwestern corner of the quadrangle is the most favorable for potential uranium mineralization. Favorability is indicated by high uranium concentrations; high arsenic, molybdenum, and vanadium concentrations; and proximity and similar geologic setting to the mines of the Karnes County mining district. Other areas that appear favorable are an area in Bee and Refugio Counties and the northeastern part of the quadrangle. Both areas have water chemistry similar to the Karnes County area, but the northeastern area does not have high concentrations of pathfinder elements. The stream sediment data indicate that the northeastern corner of the quadrangle is the most favorable for potential mineralization, but agricultural practices and mineralogy of the outcropping Beaumont Formation may indicate a false anomaly. The northwestern corner of the quadrangle is considered favorable because of its proximity to the known uranium deposits, but the data do not seem to support this.

  11. Depletion sampling in stream ecosystems: assumptions and techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raleigh, Robert F.; Short, Cathleen

    1981-01-01

    Reliable fish and invertebrate population estimates depend on meeting the assumptions of the methods used for organism capture and data analysis. A review of several population estimation studies has indicated that assumptions of the removal method for population estimation are often violated. This paper outlines (1) procedures to assist in meeting the removal method assumptions (2) an economical procedure to obtain reliable invertebrate population estimates by the removal method and (3) a computer program (CAPTURE) designed to test the adequacy of study design and to analyze capture data where variable probability of removal exists.

  12. PKreport: report generation for checking population pharmacokinetic model assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoyong; Li, Jun

    2011-05-16

    Graphics play an important and unique role in population pharmacokinetic (PopPK) model building by exploring hidden structure among data before modeling, evaluating model fit, and validating results after modeling. The work described in this paper is about a new R package called PKreport, which is able to generate a collection of plots and statistics for testing model assumptions, visualizing data and diagnosing models. The metric system is utilized as the currency for communicating between data sets and the package to generate special-purpose plots. It provides ways to match output from diverse software such as NONMEM, Monolix, R nlme package, etc. The package is implemented with S4 class hierarchy, and offers an efficient way to access the output from NONMEM 7. The final reports take advantage of the web browser as user interface to manage and visualize plots. PKreport provides 1) a flexible and efficient R class to store and retrieve NONMEM 7 output, 2) automate plots for users to visualize data and models, 3) automatically generated R scripts that are used to create the plots; 4) an archive-oriented management tool for users to store, retrieve and modify figures, 5) high-quality graphs based on the R packages, lattice and ggplot2. The general architecture, running environment and statistical methods can be readily extended with R class hierarchy. PKreport is free to download at http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/PKreport/index.html.

  13. PKreport: report generation for checking population pharmacokinetic model assumptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jun

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Graphics play an important and unique role in population pharmacokinetic (PopPK model building by exploring hidden structure among data before modeling, evaluating model fit, and validating results after modeling. Results The work described in this paper is about a new R package called PKreport, which is able to generate a collection of plots and statistics for testing model assumptions, visualizing data and diagnosing models. The metric system is utilized as the currency for communicating between data sets and the package to generate special-purpose plots. It provides ways to match output from diverse software such as NONMEM, Monolix, R nlme package, etc. The package is implemented with S4 class hierarchy, and offers an efficient way to access the output from NONMEM 7. The final reports take advantage of the web browser as user interface to manage and visualize plots. Conclusions PKreport provides 1 a flexible and efficient R class to store and retrieve NONMEM 7 output, 2 automate plots for users to visualize data and models, 3 automatically generated R scripts that are used to create the plots; 4 an archive-oriented management tool for users to store, retrieve and modify figures, 5 high-quality graphs based on the R packages, lattice and ggplot2. The general architecture, running environment and statistical methods can be readily extended with R class hierarchy. PKreport is free to download at http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/PKreport/index.html.

  14. A avaliação na educação básica entre dois modelos Brasilian basic education: two diferent aproaches for evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elba Siqueira de Sá Barretto

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Este texto visa aprofundar a análise de alguns modelos de avaliação propostos para o ensino básico. Parte de constatações a que chegou estado da arte versando sobre artigos de periódicos acadêmicos acerca do tema no Brasil, nos anos 90, e acrescenta outras reflexões. Constata que fundamentalmente dois modelos vêm povoando o discurso sobre a avaliação no país: um que se reporta à sua potencialidade emancipadora e outro que deita raízes na função reguladora do Estado. Procura examiná-los em termos das suas matrizes teóricas e ideológicas e discute questões que deles decorrem. Conclui pela necessidade de repensar, a partir de nova ótica, as funções reguladora e emancipadora da avaliação.This text aims to analyse the approches claimed for evaluation on brasilian basic education. It comments some conclusions from a State of Art about academic articles on the theme during the 90s, and adds other reflections. According to the author, two approches have been taking up the discurse on evalution in the country: one of them refers to its emancipatory potential and the other takes roots in the regulatory function of the state. The article seeks to examine both visions in terms of their theoretical and ideological matrices and to discuss issues that follows from them. It concludes by the need to rethink the regulatory and emancipatory functions of evaluation, adopting other theoretical perspective.

  15. Evaluating the role of acidic, basic, and polar amino acids and dipeptides on a molecular electrocatalyst for H 2 oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boralugodage, Nilusha Priyadarshani; Arachchige, Rajith Jayasingha; Dutta, Arnab; Buchko, Garry W.; Shaw, Wendy J.

    2017-01-01

    Amino acids and peptides have been shown to have a significant influence on the H2 production and oxidation reactivity of Ni(PR2NR’2)2, where PR2NR’2 = 1,5-diaza-3,7-diphosphacyclooctane, R is either phenyl (Ph) or cyclohexyl (Cy), and R’ is either an amino acid or peptide. Most recently, the Ni(PCy2Naminoacid2)2 complexes (CyAA) have shown enhanced H2 oxidation rates, water solubility, and in the case of arginine (CyArg) and phenylalanine (CyPhe), electrocatalytic reversibility. Both the backbone –COOH and side chain interactions were shown to be critical to catalytic performance. Here we further investigate the roles of the outer coordination sphere by evaluating amino acids with acidic, basic, and hydrophilic side chains, as well as dipeptides which combine multiple successful features from previous complexes. Six new complexes were prepared, three containing single amino acids: aspartic acid (CyAsp), lysine (CyLys), and serine (CySer) and three containing dipeptides: glycine-phenylalanine (Cy(GlyPhe)), phenylalanine-glycine (Cy(PheGly)), and aspartic acid-phenylananine (Cy(AspPhe)). The resulting catalytic performance demonstrates that complexes need both interactions between side chain and –COOH groups for fast, efficient catalysis. The fastest of all of the catalysts, Cy(AspPhe), had both of these features, while the other dipeptide complexes with an amide replacing the -COOH were both slower; however, the amide group was demonstrated to participate in the proton pathway when side chain interactions are present to position it. Both the hydrophilic and basic side chains, notably lacking in side chain interactions, significantly increased the overpotential, with only modest increases in TOF. Of all of the complexes, only CyAsp was reversible at room temperature, and only in water, the first of these

  16. Target similarity effects: support for the parallel distributed processing assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, M S; Tehan, G; O'Shea, A; Bolland, S W

    2000-07-01

    Recent research has begun to provide support for the assumptions that memories are stored as a composite and are accessed in parallel (Tehan & Humphreys, 1998). New predictions derived from these assumptions and from the Chappell and Humphreys (1994) implementation of these assumptions were tested. In three experiments, subjects studied relatively short lists of words. Some of the lists contained two similar targets (thief and theft) or two dissimilar targets (thief and steal) associated with the same cue (robbery). As predicted, target similarity affected performance in cued recall but not free association. Contrary to predictions, two spaced presentations of a target did not improve performance in free association. Two additional experiments confirmed and extended this finding. Several alternative explanations for the target similarity effect, which incorporate assumptions about separate representations and sequential search, are rejected. The importance of the finding that, in at least one implicit memory paradigm, repetition does not improve performance is also discussed.

  17. Supporting calculations and assumptions for use in WESF safetyanalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hey, B.E.

    1997-03-07

    This document provides a single location for calculations and assumptions used in support of Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) safety analyses. It also provides the technical details and bases necessary to justify the contained results.

  18. Verification of test battery of motoric assumptions for tennis

    OpenAIRE

    Křelina, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    This thesis focuses on testing the motoric assumptions of junior category tennis players in certain sport games. The aim of this thesis is to compare the results of the motoric test regarding to three tennis players of various performance levels in chosen sport games. Thus define the substantive significance and specificity of each test towards tennis. The assumptions in the theoretical part are based on my Bachelor thesis. In said thesis I am dealing with the characteristics of tennis, the s...

  19. What is a god? Metatheistic assumptions in Old Testament Yahwism(s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J W Gericke

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the author provides a prolegomena to further research attempting to answer a most undamental and basic question � much more so than what has thus far been the case in the disciplines of Old Testament theology and history of Israelite religion. It concerns the implicit assumptions in the Hebrew Bible�s discourse about the fundamental nature of deity. In other words, the question is not, �What is� YHWH like?� but rather , �what, according to the Old Testament texts, is a god?�

  20. Developing animals flout prominent assumptions of ecological physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burggren, Warren W

    2005-08-01

    Every field of biology has its assumptions, but when they grow to be dogma, they can become constraining. This essay presents data-based challenges to several prominent assumptions of developmental physiologists. The ubiquity of allometry is such an assumption, yet animal development is characterized by rate changes that are counter to allometric predictions. Physiological complexity is assumed to increase with development, but examples are provided showing that complexity can be greatest at intermediate developmental stages. It is assumed that organs have functional equivalency in embryos and adults, yet embryonic structures can have quite different functions than inferred from adults. Another assumption challenged is the duality of neural control (typically sympathetic and parasympathetic), since one of these two regulatory mechanisms typically considerably precedes in development the appearance of the other. A final assumption challenged is the notion that divergent phylogeny creates divergent physiologies in embryos just as in adults, when in fact early in development disparate vertebrate taxa show great quantitative as well as qualitative similarity. Collectively, the inappropriateness of these prominent assumptions based on adult studies suggests that investigation of embryos, larvae and fetuses be conducted with appreciation for their potentially unique physiologies.

  1. Efeito da violação de pressuposições da metodologia de modelos mistos na avaliação genética animal Effect of assumption violations of the mixed model methodology on the genetic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Fonseca

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Estudos de simulação foram conduzidos para verificar o efeito da violação de pressuposições da metodologia de modelos mistos, variâncias genéticas conhecidas sem erro e distribuição normal dos erros aleatórios sobre os ganhos genéticos obtidos durante 10 gerações de seleção. Outros parâmetros, como valor fenotípico e acurácia, também foram avaliados. Inicialmente, foi simulado um genoma constituído de uma única característica quantitativa governada por 500 locos. O genoma foi utilizado na construção de uma população-base, na qual a característica quantitativa possuía herdabilidade inicial de 0,10. Para se obter uma estrutura de parentesco a partir das populações-base, foi gerada uma população inicial a partir da qual o processo de seleção teve início e os erros nos componentes de variâncias e as distribuições dos efeitos de ambiente foram introduzidos. Para pressuposição de que a variância genética era conhecida, utilizaram-se as intensidades de erro de 0%, -10%, -30%, -50%, 10%, 30% e 50%, enquanto que para a pressuposição de que a distribuição dos erros aleatórios era normal, utilizaram-se as distribuições normal, exponencial, poisson e uniforme. A cada geração foram selecionados 20 machos e 100 fêmeas, acasalados ao acaso, cada macho acasalado com cinco fêmeas, produzindo cinco descendentes por acasalamento. Esse processo foi repetido 30 vezes para minimização dos efeitos da flutuação gênica. Para a primeira pressuposição, não foi verificado efeito das intensidades de erro, aplicadas ao componente de variância genética aditiva sobre o ganho genético durante as 10 gerações de seleção. O mesmo resultado foi verificado para a distribuição dos erros aleatórios, ou seja, não houve influência de diferentes distribuições nos ganhos genéticos verificados.Simulation studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of two assumption violations of the methodology of mixed models

  2. COMPETITION VERSUS COLLUSION: THE PARALLEL BEHAVIOUR IN THE ABSENCE OF THE SYMETRY ASSUMPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romano Oana Maria

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Cartel detection is usually viewed as a key task of competition authorities. A special case of cartel is the parallel behaviour in terms of price selling. This type of behaviour is difficult to assess and its analysis has not always conclusive results. For evaluating such behaviour the data available are compared with theoretical values obtained by using a competitive or a collusive model. When different competitive or collusive models are considered, for the simplicity of calculations the economists use the symmetry assumption of costs and quantities produced / sold. This assumption has the disadvantage that the theoretical values obtained may deviate significantly from actual values (the real values on the market, which can sometimes lead to ambiguous results. The present paper analyses the parallel behaviour of economic agents in the absence of the symmetry assumption and study the identification of the model in this conditions.

  3. Questionable assumptions hampered interpretation of a network meta-analysis of primary care depression treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Klaus; Rücker, Gerta; Schneider, Antonius; Kriston, Levente

    2016-03-01

    We aimed to evaluate the underlying assumptions of a network meta-analysis investigating which depression treatment works best in primary care and to highlight challenges and pitfalls of interpretation under consideration of these assumptions. We reviewed 100 randomized trials investigating pharmacologic and psychological treatments for primary care patients with depression. Network meta-analysis was carried out within a frequentist framework using response to treatment as outcome measure. Transitivity was assessed by epidemiologic judgment based on theoretical and empirical investigation of the distribution of trial characteristics across comparisons. Homogeneity and consistency were investigated by decomposing the Q statistic. There were important clinical and statistically significant differences between "pure" drug trials comparing pharmacologic substances with each other or placebo (63 trials) and trials including a psychological treatment arm (37 trials). Overall network meta-analysis produced results well comparable with separate meta-analyses of drug trials and psychological trials. Although the homogeneity and consistency assumptions were mostly met, we considered the transitivity assumption unjustifiable. An exchange of experience between reviewers and, if possible, some guidance on how reviewers addressing important clinical questions can proceed in situations where important assumptions for valid network meta-analysis are not met would be desirable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of dynamics and equilibrium models for the sorption of Basic Violet 3 on activated carbon prepared from Moringa Oleifera fruit shell waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sumithra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of activated carbon prepared from Moringa oleifera fruit shell waste to remove Basic Violet 3 from aqueous solution was investigated through batch mode contact time studies. The surface chemistry of activated carbon is studied using Boehm titrations and pH of PZC measurements indicates that the surface oxygenated groups are mainly basic in nature. The surface area of the activated carbon is determined using BET method. The kinetics of Basic Violet 3 adsorption are observed to be pH dependent. The experimental data can be explained by Pseudo second order kinetic model. For, Basic Violet 3, the Langmuir model is best suited to stimulate the adsorption isotherms.

  5. Evaluation of an Australian health literacy training program for socially disadvantaged adults attending basic education classes: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten J. McCaffery

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People with low literacy and low health literacy have poorer health outcomes. Literacy and health literacy are distinct but overlapping constructs that impact wellbeing. Interventions that target both could improve health outcomes. Methods/design This is a cluster randomised controlled trial with a qualitative component. Participants are 300 adults enrolled in basic language, literacy and numeracy programs at adult education colleges across New South Wales, Australia. Each adult education institute (regional administrative centre contributes (at least two classes matched for student demographics, which may be at the same or different campuses. Classes (clusters are randomly allocated to receive either the health literacy intervention (an 18-week program with health knowledge and skills embedded in language, literacy, and numeracy training (LLN, or the standard Language Literacy and Numeracy (LLN program (usual LLN classes, specifically excluding health content. The primary outcome is functional health literacy skills – knowing how to use a thermometer, and read and interpret food and medicine labels. The secondary outcomes are self-reported confidence, more advanced health literacy skills; shared decision making skills, patient activation, health knowledge and self-reported health behaviour. Data is collected at baseline, and immediately and 6 months post intervention. A sample of participating teachers, students, and community health workers will be interviewed in-depth about their experiences with the program to better understand implementation issues and to strengthen the potential for scaling up the program. Discussion Outcomes will provide evidence regarding real-world implementation of a health literacy training program with health worker involvement in an Australian adult education setting. The evaluation trial will provide insight into translating and scaling up health literacy education for vulnerable populations

  6. Evaluation of an Australian health literacy training program for socially disadvantaged adults attending basic education classes: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffery, Kirsten J; Morony, Suzanne; Muscat, Danielle M; Smith, Sian K; Shepherd, Heather L; Dhillon, Haryana M; Hayen, Andrew; Luxford, Karen; Meshreky, Wedyan; Comings, John; Nutbeam, Don

    2016-05-27

    People with low literacy and low health literacy have poorer health outcomes. Literacy and health literacy are distinct but overlapping constructs that impact wellbeing. Interventions that target both could improve health outcomes. This is a cluster randomised controlled trial with a qualitative component. Participants are 300 adults enrolled in basic language, literacy and numeracy programs at adult education colleges across New South Wales, Australia. Each adult education institute (regional administrative centre) contributes (at least) two classes matched for student demographics, which may be at the same or different campuses. Classes (clusters) are randomly allocated to receive either the health literacy intervention (an 18-week program with health knowledge and skills embedded in language, literacy, and numeracy training (LLN)), or the standard Language Literacy and Numeracy (LLN) program (usual LLN classes, specifically excluding health content). The primary outcome is functional health literacy skills - knowing how to use a thermometer, and read and interpret food and medicine labels. The secondary outcomes are self-reported confidence, more advanced health literacy skills; shared decision making skills, patient activation, health knowledge and self-reported health behaviour. Data is collected at baseline, and immediately and 6 months post intervention. A sample of participating teachers, students, and community health workers will be interviewed in-depth about their experiences with the program to better understand implementation issues and to strengthen the potential for scaling up the program. Outcomes will provide evidence regarding real-world implementation of a health literacy training program with health worker involvement in an Australian adult education setting. The evaluation trial will provide insight into translating and scaling up health literacy education for vulnerable populations with low literacy. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials

  7. Evaluation of the use of Classical Nucleation Theory for predicting intestinal crystalline precipitation of two weakly basic BSC class II drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlert, Sara; Lennernäs, Hans; Abrahamsson, Bertil

    2014-03-12

    The aim of this work was to evaluate an in vitro-in silico approach for prediction of small intestinal crystalline precipitation and drug absorption of two weakly basic model BCS class II drugs, AZD0865 and mebendazole. The crystallization rates were investigated in an in vitro method using simulated gastric and intestinal media, and the result was modeled by using Classical Nucleation Theory (CNT). The effect of varying in vitro parameters (initial drug concentration, rate of mixing gastric and intestinal fluid, stirring and filtration) on the interfacial tension γ, being a key parameter in CNT, was investigated. The initial drug concentration had the most significant effect on γ for both substances tested, although γ is a fundamental parameter independent of concentration according to CNT. In the subsequent in silico prediction of drug absorption, by use of a Compartmental and Transit intestinal model, an empirical approach was used where γ was allowed to vary with simulated small intestinal concentrations. The in silico predictions were compared to published human in vivo plasma drug concentration data for different doses of AZD0865 and dog intestinal drug concentrations, amount precipitated in intestine and plasma concentrations for mebendazole. The results showed that lack of significant crystallization effects on absorption in man of the model drug AZD0865 up to doses of 4 mg/kg could be predicted which was in accordance with in vivo data. Mebendazole intestinal precipitation in canines was also well described by the model, where mean predicted amount precipitated was 136% (range 111-164%) of measured solid amount, and mean predicted intestinal concentration was 94% (range 59-147%) of measured concentration. In conclusion, the in vitro-in silico approach can be used for predictions of absorption effects of crystallization, but the model could benefit from further development work on the theoretical crystallization model and in vitro experimental design

  8. Increasing the physical fitness of low-fit recruits before basic combat training: an evaluation of fitness, injuries, and training outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapik, Joseph J; Darakjy, Salima; Hauret, Keith G; Canada, Sara; Scott, Shawn; Rieger, William; Marin, Roberto; Jones, Bruce H

    2006-01-01

    Recruits arriving for basic combat training (BCT) between October 1999 and May 2004 were administered an entry-level physical fitness test at the reception station. If they failed the test, then they entered the Fitness Assessment Program (FAP), where they physically trained until they passed the test and subsequently entered BCT. The effectiveness of the FAP was evaluated by examining fitness, injury, and training outcomes. Recruits who failed the test, trained in the FAP, and entered BCT after passing the test were designated the preconditioning (PC) group (64 men and 94 women). Recruits who failed the test but were allowed to enter BCT without going into the FAP were called the no preconditioning (NPC) group (32 men and 73 women). Recruits who passed the test and directly entered BCT were designated the no need of preconditioning (NNPC) group (1,078 men and 731 women). Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) scores and training outcomes were obtained from a company-level database, and injured recruits were identified from cases documented in medical records. The proportions of NPC, PC, and NNPC recruits who completed the 9-week BCT cycle were 59%, 83%, and 87% for men (p APFT, compared with 84% and 86% of the PC and NNPC groups, respectively. The proportions of NPC, PC, and NNPC recruits who passed the final APFT after all retakes were 88%, 92%, and 98% for men (p < 0.01) and 89%, 92%, and 97% for women (p < 0.01), respectively. Compared with NNPC men, injury risk was 1.5 (95% confidence interval, 1.0-2.2) and 1.7 (95% confidence interval, 1.0-3.1) times higher for PC and NPC men, respectively. Compared with NNPC women, injury risk was 1.2 (95% confidence interval, 0.9-1.6) and 1.5 (95% confidence interval, 1.1-2.1) times higher for PC and NPC women, respectively. This program evaluation showed that low-fit recruits who preconditioned before BCT had reduced attrition and tended to have lower injury risk, compared with recruits of similar low fitness who did not

  9. Providing security assurance in line with national DBT assumptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajramovic, Edita; Gupta, Deeksha

    2017-01-01

    As worldwide energy requirements are increasing simultaneously with climate change and energy security considerations, States are thinking about building nuclear power to fulfill their electricity requirements and decrease their dependence on carbon fuels. New nuclear power plants (NPPs) must have comprehensive cybersecurity measures integrated into their design, structure, and processes. In the absence of effective cybersecurity measures, the impact of nuclear security incidents can be severe. Some of the current nuclear facilities were not specifically designed and constructed to deal with the new threats, including targeted cyberattacks. Thus, newcomer countries must consider the Design Basis Threat (DBT) as one of the security fundamentals during design of physical and cyber protection systems of nuclear facilities. IAEA NSS 10 describes the DBT as "comprehensive description of the motivation, intentions and capabilities of potential adversaries against which protection systems are designed and evaluated". Nowadays, many threat actors, including hacktivists, insider threat, cyber criminals, state and non-state groups (terrorists) pose security risks to nuclear facilities. Threat assumptions are made on a national level. Consequently, threat assessment closely affects the design structures of nuclear facilities. Some of the recent security incidents e.g. Stuxnet worm (Advanced Persistent Threat) and theft of sensitive information in South Korea Nuclear Power Plant (Insider Threat) have shown that these attacks should be considered as the top threat to nuclear facilities. Therefore, the cybersecurity context is essential for secure and safe use of nuclear power. In addition, States should include multiple DBT scenarios in order to protect various target materials, types of facilities, and adversary objectives. Development of a comprehensive DBT is a precondition for the establishment and further improvement of domestic state nuclear-related regulations in the

  10. Maritime clusters productivity and competitiveness evaluation methods: Systematic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viederytė Rasa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many scientists underline the importance of the clusters as agglomerated industries, working for the same purpose with joined resources and potential. This article analyses the basic assumptions which turn organizations to be clustered: the Productivity and the Competitiveness. For the evaluation of those assumptions in Maritime Clusters, many of the methods practically are applied without systematic approach - some are focused to the port efficiency, others provide quantity of resources growth dynamics, infrastructure parameters or even explain productivity and competitiveness as the same assumption. This article presents the analysis of Maritime Clusters' Productivity and Competitiveness evaluation methods in systematic approach, providing the analysis on the mostly-used variables and parameters of the evaluation the assumptions to be examined.

  11. Assessing assumptions of multivariate linear regression framework implemented for directionality analysis of fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Shilpa; Chaudhury, Santanu; Lall, Brejesh; Roy, Prasun Kumar

    2015-08-01

    Directionality analysis of time-series, recorded from task-activated regions-of-interest (ROIs) during functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), has helped in gaining insights of complex human behavior and human brain functioning. The most widely used standard method of Granger Causality for evaluating directionality employ linear regression modeling of temporal processes. Such a parameter-driven approach rests on various underlying assumptions about the data. The short-comings can arise when misleading conclusions are reached after exploration of data for which the assumptions are getting violated. In this study, we assess assumptions of Multivariate Autoregressive (MAR) framework which is employed for evaluating directionality among fMRI time-series recorded during a Sensory-Motor (SM) task. The fMRI time-series here is an averaged time-series from a user-defined ROI of multiple voxels. The "aim" is to establish a step-by-step procedure using statistical methods in conjunction with graphical methods to seek the validity of MAR models, specifically in the context of directionality analysis of fMRI data which has not been done previously to the best of our knowledge. Here, in our case of SM task (block design paradigm) there is violation of assumptions, indicating the inadequacy of MAR models to find directional interactions among different task-activated regions of brain.

  12. Discourses and Theoretical Assumptions in IT Project Portfolio Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kristian; Kræmmergaard, Pernille

    2014-01-01

    DISCOURSES AND THEORETICAL ASSUMPTIONS IN IT PROJECT PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE These years increasing interest is put on IT project portfolio management (IT PPM). Considering IT PPM an interdisciplinary practice, we conduct a concept-based literature review of relevant......: (1) IT PPM as the top management marketplace, (2) IT PPM as the cause of social dilemmas at the lower organizational levels (3) IT PPM as polity between different organizational interests, (4) IT PPM as power relations that suppress creativity and diversity. Our metaphors can be used by practitioners...... to articulate and discuss underlying and conflicting assumptions in IT PPM, serving as a basis for adjusting organizations’ IT PPM practices. Keywords: IT project portfolio management or IT PPM, literature review, scientific discourses, underlying assumptions, unintended consequences, epistemological biases...

  13. Evolution of Requirements and Assumptions for Future Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Molly; Sargusingh, Miriam; Perry, Jay

    2017-01-01

    NASA programs are maturing technologies, systems, and architectures to enabling future exploration missions. To increase fidelity as technologies mature, developers must make assumptions that represent the requirements of a future program. Multiple efforts have begun to define these requirements, including team internal assumptions, planning system integration for early demonstrations, and discussions between international partners planning future collaborations. For many detailed life support system requirements, existing NASA documents set limits of acceptable values, but a future vehicle may be constrained in other ways, and select a limited range of conditions. Other requirements are effectively set by interfaces or operations, and may be different for the same technology depending on whether the hard-ware is a demonstration system on the International Space Station, or a critical component of a future vehicle. This paper highlights key assumptions representing potential life support requirements and explanations of the driving scenarios, constraints, or other issues that drive them.

  14. Discourses and Theoretical Assumptions in IT Project Portfolio Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kristian; Kræmmergaard, Pernille

    2014-01-01

    DISCOURSES AND THEORETICAL ASSUMPTIONS IN IT PROJECT PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE These years increasing interest is put on IT project portfolio management (IT PPM). Considering IT PPM an interdisciplinary practice, we conduct a concept-based literature review of relevant...... to articulate and discuss underlying and conflicting assumptions in IT PPM, serving as a basis for adjusting organizations’ IT PPM practices. Keywords: IT project portfolio management or IT PPM, literature review, scientific discourses, underlying assumptions, unintended consequences, epistemological biases......: (1) IT PPM as the top management marketplace, (2) IT PPM as the cause of social dilemmas at the lower organizational levels (3) IT PPM as polity between different organizational interests, (4) IT PPM as power relations that suppress creativity and diversity. Our metaphors can be used by practitioners...

  15. BMP (Basic Metabolic Panel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Basic Metabolic Panel (BMP) Send Us Your Feedback Choose ... Screen Chem 7 SMA 7 SMAC7 Formal Name Basic Metabolic Panel This article was last reviewed on ...

  16. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Adult Injuries Spinal ... Spinal Cord Injury 101 Lawrence Vogel, MD The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation Sara Klaas, MSW Transitions ...

  17. Basic Research Firing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Basic Research Firing Facility is an indoor ballistic test facility that has recently transitioned from a customer-based facility to a dedicated basic research...

  18. Basic BASIC; An Introduction to Computer Programming in BASIC Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coan, James S.

    With the increasing availability of computer access through remote terminals and time sharing, more and more schools and colleges are able to introduce programing to substantial numbers of students. This book is an attempt to incorporate computer programming, using BASIC language, and the teaching of mathematics. The general approach of the book…

  19. Plant uptake of elements in soil and pore water: field observations versus model assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raguž, Veronika; Jarsjö, Jerker; Grolander, Sara; Lindborg, Regina; Avila, Rodolfo

    2013-09-15

    Contaminant concentrations in various edible plant parts transfer hazardous substances from polluted areas to animals and humans. Thus, the accurate prediction of plant uptake of elements is of significant importance. The processes involved contain many interacting factors and are, as such, complex. In contrast, the most common way to currently quantify element transfer from soils into plants is relatively simple, using an empirical soil-to-plant transfer factor (TF). This practice is based on theoretical assumptions that have been previously shown to not generally be valid. Using field data on concentrations of 61 basic elements in spring barley, soil and pore water at four agricultural sites in mid-eastern Sweden, we quantify element-specific TFs. Our aim is to investigate to which extent observed element-specific uptake is consistent with TF model assumptions and to which extent TF's can be used to predict observed differences in concentrations between different plant parts (root, stem and ear). Results show that for most elements, plant-ear concentrations are not linearly related to bulk soil concentrations, which is congruent with previous studies. This behaviour violates a basic TF model assumption of linearity. However, substantially better linear correlations are found when weighted average element concentrations in whole plants are used for TF estimation. The highest number of linearly-behaving elements was found when relating average plant concentrations to soil pore-water concentrations. In contrast to other elements, essential elements (micronutrients and macronutrients) exhibited relatively small differences in concentration between different plant parts. Generally, the TF model was shown to work reasonably well for micronutrients, whereas it did not for macronutrients. The results also suggest that plant uptake of elements from sources other than the soil compartment (e.g. from air) may be non-negligible. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  20. Changing Assumptions and Progressive Change in Theories of Strategic Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai J.; Hallberg, Niklas L.

    2017-01-01

    A commonly held view is that strategic organization theories progress as a result of a Popperian process of bold conjectures and systematic refutations. However, our field also witnesses vibrant debates or disputes about the specific assumptions that our theories rely on, and although these debates...... are often decoupled from the results of empirical testing, changes in assumptions seem closely intertwined with theoretical progress. Using the case of the resource-based view, we suggest that progressive change in theories of strategic organization may come about as a result of scholarly debate and dispute...

  1. Roy's specific life values and the philosophical assumption of veritivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Debra R

    2012-07-01

    Roman Catholic beliefs that form the basis for Roy's life values are discussed to help others understand veritivity and the Roy adaptation model more clearly. Veritivity, the main philosophical assumption of the Roy adaptation model, shapes it, and Roy's assumption of humanism in a unique way. Veritivity has a theocentric focus, with anthropological values. Roy views human beings as individuals in community with a loving Creator and with others. Truth, freedom, and moral ends are discussed in terms of veritivity and in terms of contemporary values.

  2. Long-term impact of parental divorce on optimism and trust: changes in general assumptions or narrow beliefs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, K M; Janoff-Bulman, R; Roberts, J E

    1990-10-01

    Two studies were conducted to examine the long-term impact of parental divorce on beliefs about the self and others. In Study 1, college-aged children of divorce and students from intact families did not differ on 8 basic assumptions or on measures of depression. Those whose parents are divorced, however, were less optimistic about the success of their own future marriages. Assumptions about the benevolence of people best predicted the marital optimism of the parental divorce group, but not of the intact family group. In Study 2, assumptions about the benevolence of people were explored in terms of trust beliefs. College-aged children of divorce and a matched sample from intact homes differed only on marriage-related beliefs, not on generalized trust. Children of divorced reported less trust of a future spouse and were less optimistic about marriage. Exploratory analyses found that continuous conflict in family of origin adversely affected all levels of trust.

  3. Body Basics Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents - or Other Adults About the Body Basics Library KidsHealth > For Teens > About the Body Basics Library Print A A A Did you ever wonder ... system, part, and process works. Use this medical library to find out about basic human anatomy, how ...

  4. The Measurement of Basic Stuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disch, James G., Ed.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Seven articles contain information about measurement and evaluation in physical education and sport and complement the "Basic Stuff" series. They focus on (1) student self-assessment for exercise physiology; (2) monitoring motor development; (3) biomechanical analysis; and (4) measurements of aesthetic qualities, psychosocial…

  5. Beginning Visual Basic 2010

    CERN Document Server

    Willis, Thearon

    2010-01-01

    A focused, step-by-step approach to Visual Basic for new programmers. What better way to get started with Visual Basic than with this essential Wrox beginner's guide? Beginning Microsoft Visual Basic 2010 not only shows you how to write Windows applications, Web applications with ASP.NET, and Windows mobile and embedded CE apps with Visual Basic 2010, but you'll also get a thorough grounding in the basic nuts-and-bolts of writing good code. You'll be exposed to the very latest VB tools and techniques with coverage of both the Visual Studio 2010 and .NET 4 releases. Plus, the book walks you ste

  6. Challenging Teachers' Pedagogic Practice and Assumptions about Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartner, Helen C.; Hallas, Julia L.

    2017-01-01

    This article describes an innovative approach to professional development designed to challenge teachers' pedagogic practice and assumptions about educational technologies such as social media. Developing effective technology-related professional development for teachers can be a challenge for institutions and facilitators who provide this…

  7. Extension of the GSMW Formula in Weaker Assumptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfeng Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this note, the generalized Sherman-Morrison-Woodbury (for short GSMW formula (A+YGZ∗⊙=A⊙−A⊙Y(G⊙+Z∗A⊙Y⊙Z∗A⊙ is extended under some assumptions weaker than those used by Duan, 2013.

  8. Questioning Engelhardt's assumptions in Bioethics and Secular Humanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi Nasab Emran, Shahram

    2016-06-01

    In Bioethics and Secular Humanism: The Search for a Common Morality, Tristram Engelhardt examines various possibilities of finding common ground for moral discourse among people from different traditions and concludes their futility. In this paper I will argue that many of the assumptions on which Engelhardt bases his conclusion about the impossibility of a content-full secular bioethics are problematic. By starting with the notion of moral strangers, there is no possibility, by definition, for a content-full moral discourse among moral strangers. It means that there is circularity in starting the inquiry with a definition of moral strangers, which implies that they do not share enough moral background or commitment to an authority to allow for reaching a moral agreement, and concluding that content-full morality is impossible among moral strangers. I argue that assuming traditions as solid and immutable structures that insulate people across their boundaries is problematic. Another questionable assumption in Engelhardt's work is the idea that religious and philosophical traditions provide content-full moralities. As the cardinal assumption in Engelhardt's review of the various alternatives for a content-full moral discourse among moral strangers, I analyze his foundationalist account of moral reasoning and knowledge and indicate the possibility of other ways of moral knowledge, besides the foundationalist one. Then, I examine Engelhardt's view concerning the futility of attempts at justifying a content-full secular bioethics, and indicate how the assumptions have shaped Engelhardt's critique of the alternatives for the possibility of content-full secular bioethics.

  9. DDH-like Assumptions Based on Extension Rings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer, Ronald; Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Kiltz, Eike

    2011-01-01

    We introduce and study a new type of DDH-like assumptions based on groups of prime order q. Whereas standard DDH is based on encoding elements of F_{q} ``in the exponent'' of elements in the group, we ask what happens if instead we put in the exponent elements of the extension ring R_f= \\F...

  10. Distributed automata in an assumption-commitment framework

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    This kind of distribution through assumption and commitment is not novel. This hap- pens routinely when one develops subsystems without having access to a global view of the system, for example, when different groups develop parts of a large program. For instance, suppose we are designing a receiver that receives a bit ...

  11. Assumptions behind size-based ecosystem models are realistic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ken Haste; Blanchard, Julia L.; Fulton, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    A recent publication about balanced harvesting (Froese et al., ICES Journal of Marine Science; doi:10.1093/icesjms/fsv122) contains several erroneous statements about size-spectrum models. We refute the statements by showing that the assumptions pertaining to size-spectrum models discussed...

  12. Does Artificial Neural Network Support Connectivism's Assumptions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlDahdouh, Alaa A.

    2017-01-01

    Connectivism was presented as a learning theory for the digital age and connectivists claim that recent developments in Artificial Intelligence (AI) and, more specifically, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) support their assumptions of knowledge connectivity. Yet, very little has been done to investigate this brave allegation. Does the advancement…

  13. Origins and Traditions in Comparative Education: Challenging Some Assumptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzon, Maria

    2018-01-01

    This article questions some of our assumptions about the history of comparative education. It explores new scholarship on key actors and ways of knowing in the field. Building on the theory of the social constructedness of the field of comparative education, the paper elucidates how power shapes our scholarly histories and identities.

  14. Operation Cottage: A Cautionary Tale of Assumption and Perceptual Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    the planning process, but the planning staff must not become so wedded to their assumptions that they reject or overlook information that is not in...Allied deci- sionmakers misread and misunderstood Japanese intentions on Kiska, facilitating a needless loss of blood and treasure. Epilogue Two tense

  15. Bilingual Learners: How Our Assumptions Limit Their World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, David; Freeman, Yvonne

    Five common assumptions are held by teachers about learners: (1) adults should choose what children need to learn; (2) oral language must be mastered before written language can be introduced; (3) real, whole language is too difficult for students learning language; (4) language learning is different in different languages, and simultaneous…

  16. 7 CFR 1980.476 - Transfer and assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... number of the transferor and transferee. (m) Loan terms cannot be changed by the Assumption agreement... released from personal liability. Any new loan terms cannot exceed those authorized in this subpart. The... loan terms. (2) Certification that the lien position securing the guaranteed loan will be maintained or...

  17. 7 CFR 3575.88 - Transfers and assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agency case number of the transferor and transferee. (5) Loan terms cannot be changed by the Assumption... transferor (including guarantor if it has not been released from personal liability). Any new loan terms... explanation of the reasons for the proposed change in the loan terms, and (ii) Certification that the lien...

  18. Observing gravitational-wave transient GW150914 with minimal assumptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Phythian-Adams, A.T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwa, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. C.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, R.D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C. J.; Berger, B. K.; Bergman, J.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, M.J.; Birney, R.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, A.L.S.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, J.G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, T.C; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brocki, P.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, A.D.; Brown, D.; Brown, N. M.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Calderon Bustillo, J.; Callister, T. A.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Diaz, J. Casanueva; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglia, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Baiardi, L. Cerboni; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chatterji, S.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, D. S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Qian; Chua, S. E.; Chung, E.S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Clark, M.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P. -F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, A.C.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J. -P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, A.L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Daveloza, H. P.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; Debra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De laurentis, M.; Deleglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dereli, H.; Dergachev, V.A.; DeRosa, R. T.; Rosa, R.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Diaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Giovanni, M.G.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dojcinoski, G.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H. -B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, T. M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.M.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. R.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M; Fournier, J. -D.; Franco, S; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritsche, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gatto, A.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Gendre, B.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.P.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; Gonzalez, Idelmis G.; Castro, J. M. Gonzalez; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Lee-Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.M.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; de Haas, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Buffoni-Hall, R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.L.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, P.J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C. -J.; Haughian, K.; Healy, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hinder, I.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Hofman, D.; Hollitt, S. E.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, S.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Idrisy, A.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J. -M.; Isi, M.; Islas, G.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jang, D.H.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jimenez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W.; Jones, I.D.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Haris, K.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.H.; Kanner, J. B.; Karki, S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kawazoe, F.; Kefelian, F.; Kehl, M. S.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Kennedy, R.E.; Key, J. S.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan., S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijhunchoo, N.; Kim, C.; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Kim, Nam-Gyu; Kim, Namjun; Kim, Y.M.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinsey, M.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Kokeyama, K.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krolak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Laguna, P.; Landry, M.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, R.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C.H.; Lee, K.H.; Lee, M.H.; Lee, K.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Levine, B. M.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Logue, J.; Lombardi, A. L.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lueck, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Luo, J.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; MacDonald, T.T.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magana-Sandoval, F.; Magee, R. M.; Mageswaran, M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Marka, S.; Marka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R.M.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; Mazzolo, G.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mende, G.; Mendoza-Gandara, D.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B.C.; Moore, J.C.; Moraru, D.; Gutierrez Moreno, M.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, S.D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P.G.; Mytidis, A.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Necula, V.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Gutierrez-Neri, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newton-Howes, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M. B.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Page, J.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.S; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Patrick, Z.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Premachandra, S. S.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prodi, G. A.; Prolchorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Puerrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosinska, D.; Rowan, S.; Ruediger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.A.; Sachdev, P.S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, J; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.B.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schoenbeck, A.; Schreiber, K.E.C.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, M.S.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Serna, G.; Setyawati, Y.; Sevigny, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shah, S.; Shithriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shao, Z.M.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Silva, António Dias da; Simakov, D.; Singer, A; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith, N.D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stone, J.R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S. E.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepanczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.D.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tapai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, W.R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Toyra, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifiro, D.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tse, M.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlhruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; Van Bakel, N.; Van Beuzekom, Martin; Van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.F.F.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vasuth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, R. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Vicere, A.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J. -Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D. V.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, MT; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L. -W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Welborn, T.; Wen, L.M.; Wessels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; White, D. J.; Whiting, B. F.; Williams, D.; Williams, D.R.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Worden, J.; Wright, J.L.; Wu, G.; Yablon, J.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yap, M. J.; Yu, H.; Yvert, M.; Zadrozny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J. -P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.

    2016-01-01

    The gravitational-wave signal GW150914 was first identified on September 14, 2015, by searches for short-duration gravitational-wave transients. These searches identify time-correlated transients in multiple detectors with minimal assumptions about the signal morphology, allowing them to be

  19. Relaxing the zero-sum assumption in neutral biodiversity theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haegeman, Bart; Etienne, Rampal S.

    2008-01-01

    The zero-sum assumption is one of the ingredients of the standard neutral model of biodiversity by Hubbell. It states that the community is saturated all the time, which in this model means that the total number of individuals in the community is constant over time, and therefore introduces a

  20. The Metatheoretical Assumptions of Literacy Engagement: A Preliminary Centennial History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruby, George G.; Burns, Leslie D.; Botzakis, Stergios; Groenke, Susan L.; Hall, Leigh A.; Laughter, Judson; Allington, Richard L.

    2016-01-01

    In this review of literacy education research in North America over the past century, the authors examined the historical succession of theoretical frameworks on students' active participation in their own literacy learning, and in particular the metatheoretical assumptions that justify those frameworks. The authors used "motivation" and…

  1. Unpacking Assumptions in Research Synthesis: A Critical Construct Synthesis Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolgemuth, Jennifer R.; Hicks, Tyler; Agosto, Vonzell

    2017-01-01

    Research syntheses in education, particularly meta-analyses and best-evidence syntheses, identify evidence-based practices by combining findings across studies whose constructs are similar enough to warrant comparison. Yet constructs come preloaded with social, historical, political, and cultural assumptions that anticipate how research problems…

  2. Deep Borehole Field Test Requirements and Controlled Assumptions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Ernest [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This document presents design requirements and controlled assumptions intended for use in the engineering development and testing of: 1) prototype packages for radioactive waste disposal in deep boreholes; 2) a waste package surface handling system; and 3) a subsurface system for emplacing and retrieving packages in deep boreholes. Engineering development and testing is being performed as part of the Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT; SNL 2014a). This document presents parallel sets of requirements for a waste disposal system and for the DBFT, showing the close relationship. In addition to design, it will also inform planning for drilling, construction, and scientific characterization activities for the DBFT. The information presented here follows typical preparations for engineering design. It includes functional and operating requirements for handling and emplacement/retrieval equipment, waste package design and emplacement requirements, borehole construction requirements, sealing requirements, and performance criteria. Assumptions are included where they could impact engineering design. Design solutions are avoided in the requirements discussion. Deep Borehole Field Test Requirements and Controlled Assumptions July 21, 2015 iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This set of requirements and assumptions has benefited greatly from reviews by Gordon Appel, Geoff Freeze, Kris Kuhlman, Bob MacKinnon, Steve Pye, David Sassani, Dave Sevougian, and Jiann Su.

  3. Challenging Our Assumptions: Helping a Baby Adjust to Center Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Enid

    2003-01-01

    Contends that assumptions concerning infants' adjustment to child center care need to be tempered with attention to observation, thought, and commitment to each individual baby. Describes the Options Daycare program for pregnant teens and young mothers. Presents a case study illustrating the need for openness in strategy and planning for…

  4. Basics of Bayesian Learning - Basically Bayes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan

    Tutorial presented at the IEEE Machine Learning for Signal Processing Workshop 2006, Maynooth, Ireland, September 8, 2006. The tutorial focuses on the basic elements of Bayesian learning and its relation to classical learning paradigms. This includes a critical discussion of the pros and cons....... The theory is illustrated by specific models and examples....

  5. Basic research for environmental restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the midst of a major environmental restoration effort to reduce the health and environmental risks resulting from past waste management and disposal practices at DOE sites. This report describes research needs in environmental restoration and complements a previously published document, DOE/ER-0419, Evaluation of Mid-to-Long Term Basic Research for Environmental Restoration. Basic research needs have been grouped into five major categories patterned after those identified in DOE/ER-0419: (1) environmental transport and transformations; (2) advanced sampling, characterization, and monitoring methods; (3) new remediation technologies; (4) performance assessment; and (5) health and environmental effects. In addition to basic research, this document deals with education and training needs for environmental restoration. 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. Basic digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Lockhart, Gordon B

    1985-01-01

    Basic Digital Signal Processing describes the principles of digital signal processing and experiments with BASIC programs involving the fast Fourier theorem (FFT). The book reviews the fundamentals of the BASIC program, continuous and discrete time signals including analog signals, Fourier analysis, discrete Fourier transform, signal energy, power. The text also explains digital signal processing involving digital filters, linear time-variant systems, discrete time unit impulse, discrete-time convolution, and the alternative structure for second order infinite impulse response (IIR) sections.

  7. Basic molecular spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Gorry, PA

    1985-01-01

    BASIC Molecular Spectroscopy discusses the utilization of the Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC) programming language in molecular spectroscopy. The book is comprised of five chapters that provide an introduction to molecular spectroscopy through programs written in BASIC. The coverage of the text includes rotational spectra, vibrational spectra, and Raman and electronic spectra. The book will be of great use to students who are currently taking a course in molecular spectroscopy.

  8. The sufficiency assumption of the reasoned approach to action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Trafimow

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The reasoned action approach to understanding and predicting behavior includes the sufficiency assumption. Although variables not included in the theory may influence behavior, these variables work through the variables in the theory. Once the reasoned action variables are included in an analysis, the inclusion of other variables will not increase the variance accounted for in behavioral intentions or behavior. Reasoned action researchers are very concerned with testing if new variables account for variance (or how much traditional variables account for variance, to see whether they are important, in general or with respect to specific behaviors under investigation. But this approach tacitly assumes that accounting for variance is highly relevant to understanding the production of variance, which is what really is at issue. Based on the variance law, I question this assumption.

  9. Models for waste life cycle assessment: Review of technical assumptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentil, Emmanuel; Damgaard, Anders; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2010-01-01

    , such as the functional unit, system boundaries, waste composition and energy modelling. The modelling assumptions of waste management processes, ranging from collection, transportation, intermediate facilities, recycling, thermal treatment, biological treatment, and landfilling, are obviously critical when comparing......A number of waste life cycle assessment (LCA) models have been gradually developed since the early 1990s, in a number of countries, usually independently from each other. Large discrepancies in results have been observed among different waste LCA models, although it has also been shown that results...... from different LCA studies can be consistent. This paper is an attempt to identify, review and analyse methodologies and technical assumptions used in various parts of selected waste LCA models. Several criteria were identified, which could have significant impacts on the results...

  10. Unconditionally Secure and Universally Composable Commitments from Physical Assumptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Scafuro, Alessandra

    2013-01-01

    the usefulness of our compiler by providing two (constant-round) instantiations of ideal straight-line extractable commitment based on (malicious) PUFs [36] and stateless tamper-proof hardware tokens [26], therefore achieving the first unconditionally UC-secure commitment with malicious PUFs and stateless tokens......, respectively. Our constructions are secure for adversaries creating arbitrarily malicious stateful PUFs/tokens. Previous results with malicious PUFs used either computational assumptions to achieve UC-secure commitments or were unconditionally secure but only in the indistinguishability sense [36]. Similarly......, with stateless tokens, UC-secure commitments are known only under computational assumptions [13,24,15], while the (not UC) unconditional commitment scheme of [23] is secure only in a weaker model in which the adversary is not allowed to create stateful tokens. Besides allowing us to prove feasibility...

  11. On the minimum set of physical assumption leading to the

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobbio, S.; Marrucci, G. [Naples Univ. `Federico II` (Italy). School of Engineering

    1996-11-01

    The way of obtaining the Schroedinger equation for a quantum particle in an electromagnetic field is revisited, showing that very few physical assumptions are required. In fact, after having introduced the general formalism of non-relativistic quantum mechanics, it is shown that the structure of the Schroedinger equation for a spinless particle is obtained merely by requiring continuity of space and time, and covariance with respect to Galilean transformation. Both the Correspondence and Uncertainly principles then become `theorems`.

  12. Experimental data from irradiation of physical detectors disclose weaknesses in basic assumptions of the δ ray theory of track structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, K. J.; Hansen, Jørgen-Walther

    1985-01-01

    The applicability of track structure theory has been tested by comparing predictions based on the theory with experimental high-LET dose-response data for an amino acid alanine and a nylon based radiochromic dye film radiation detector. The linear energy transfer LET, has been varied from 28...

  13. A Test of Three Basic Assumptions of Situational Leadership® II Model and Their Implications for HRD Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigarmi, Drea; Roberts, Taylor Peyton

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to test the following three assertions underlying the Situational Leadership® II (SLII) Model: all four leadership styles are received by followers; all four leadership styles are needed by followers; and if there is a fit between the leadership style a follower receives and needs, that follower will demonstrate favorable…

  14. Etic Plus Emic Versus Pseudoetic: A Test of a Basic Assumption of Contemporary Cross-Cultural Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triandis, Harry C.

    1983-01-01

    Mainstream and Hispanic naval recruits responded to a role differential consisting of 30 roles judged on 20 behavior scales taken from a previous study of American and Greek role perceptions. Results were compared with data from a role differential specifically designed for Hispanic and mainstream recruits. (GC)

  15. An Expedient Study on Back-Propagation (BPN) Neural Networks for Modeling Automated Evaluation of the Answers and Progress of Deaf Students' That Possess Basic Knowledge of the English Language and Computer Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrettaros, John; Vouros, George; Drigas, Athanasios S.

    This article studies the expediency of using neural networks technology and the development of back-propagation networks (BPN) models for modeling automated evaluation of the answers and progress of deaf students' that possess basic knowledge of the English language and computer skills, within a virtual e-learning environment. The performance of the developed neural models is evaluated with the correlation factor between the neural networks' response values and the real value data as well as the percentage measurement of the error between the neural networks' estimate values and the real value data during its training process and afterwards with unknown data that weren't used in the training process.

  16. Exponentiation: A New Basic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Brent

    2015-01-01

    For centuries, the basic operations of school mathematics have been identified as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. Notably, these operations are "basic," not because they are foundational to mathematics knowledge, but because they were vital to a newly industrialized and market-driven economy several hundred years…

  17. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Expert Videos Topics menu Topics The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David Chen, ... Meade, PhD Jonathon Rose, PhD The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Kristine Cichowski, MS Occupational Therapy after Spinal Cord ...

  18. HAUSA, BASIC COURSE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HODGE, CARLETON T.; AND OTHERS

    A DISCUSSION OF THE LINGUISTIC AND PRACTICAL IMPORTANCE OF HAUSA (A LANGUAGE OF WEST AFRICA) ACCOMPANIES A TEXT WHICH CONSISTS OF BASIC SENTENCES, NOTES, AND GRAMMATICAL DRILLS. THE BASIC SENTENCES ARE DIALOGS TO BE MEMORIZED, AND THEIR ENGLISH RENDERINGS ARE MEANT TO BE SITUATIONAL EQUIVALENTS, NOT LITERAL TRANSLATIONS. THE NOTES EXPLAIN…

  19. Finding Basic Writing's Place.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan-Rabideau, Mary P.; Brossell, Gordon

    1995-01-01

    Posits that basic writing serves a vital function by providing writing support for at-risk students and serves the needs of a growing student population that universities accept yet feel needs additional writing instruction. Concludes that the basic writing classroom is the most effective educational support for at-risk students and their writing.…

  20. Basic Electronics I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, L. Paul

    Designed for use in basic electronics programs, this curriculum guide is comprised of twenty-nine units of instruction in five major content areas: Orientation, Basic Principles of Electricity/Electronics, Fundamentals of Direct Current, Fundamentals of Alternating Current, and Applying for a Job. Each instructional unit includes some or all of…

  1. Nuclear multifragmentation: Basic concepts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-05-02

    May 2, 2014 ... Abstract. We present a brief overview of nuclear multifragmentation reaction. Basic formalism of canonical thermodynamical model based on equilibrium statistical mechanics is described. This model is used to calculate basic observables of nuclear multifragmentation like mass distribution, fragment ...

  2. [Basic research in pulmonology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gea, Joaquim

    2008-11-01

    This is a review of the articles dealing with basic science published in recent issues of Archivos de Bronconeumología. Of particular interest with regard to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were an article on extrapulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress and another on bronchial remodeling. The articles relating to asthma included a review on the use of drugs that block free immunoglobulin-E and an article about the contribution of experimental models to our knowledge of this disease. Two of the most interesting articles on the topic of lung cancer dealt with gene therapy and resistance to chemotherapy. Also notable were 2 studies that investigated ischemia-reperfusion injury. One evaluated tissue resistance to injury while the other analyzed the role played by interleukin-8 in this process. On the topic of pulmonary fibrosis, an article focused on potential biomarkers of progression and prognosis; others dealt with the contribution of experimental models to our understanding of this disorder and the fibrogenic role of transforming growth factor b. In the context of both sleep apnea syndrome and pulmonary infection, studies investigating the role of oxidative stress were published. Finally, 2 studies analyzed the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis and other pulmonary infections.

  3. Has Adult Education any Philosophical Basics? | Akpama | Sophia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper attempts to prove that the emerging discipline of Adult Education has philosophical basics which form the hub of its theory and practice. Skeptics and some non-professionals widely ridicule and misjudge the discipline of adult education as lacking intellectual depth and value assumptions to befit the status of a ...

  4. Anti-Atheist Bias in the United States: Testing Two Critical Assumptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawton K Swan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Decades of opinion polling and empirical investigations have clearly demonstrated a pervasive anti-atheist prejudice in the United States. However, much of this scholarship relies on two critical and largely unaddressed assumptions: (a that when people report negative attitudes toward atheists, they do so because they are reacting specifically to their lack of belief in God; and (b that survey questions asking about attitudes toward atheists as a group yield reliable information about biases against individual atheist targets. To test these assumptions, an online survey asked a probability-based random sample of American adults (N = 618 to evaluate a fellow research participant (“Jordan”. Jordan garnered significantly more negative evaluations when identified as an atheist than when described as religious or when religiosity was not mentioned. This effect did not differ as a function of labeling (“atheist” versus “no belief in God”, or the amount of individuating information provided about Jordan. These data suggest that both assumptions are tenable: nonbelief—rather than extraneous connotations of the word “atheist”—seems to underlie the effect, and participants exhibited a marked bias even when confronted with an otherwise attractive individual.

  5. Old and New Ideas for Data Screening and Assumption Testing for Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flora, David B.; LaBrish, Cathy; Chalmers, R. Philip

    2011-01-01

    We provide a basic review of the data screening and assumption testing issues relevant to exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis along with practical advice for conducting analyses that are sensitive to these concerns. Historically, factor analysis was developed for explaining the relationships among many continuous test scores, which led to the expression of the common factor model as a multivariate linear regression model with observed, continuous variables serving as dependent variables, and unobserved factors as the independent, explanatory variables. Thus, we begin our paper with a review of the assumptions for the common factor model and data screening issues as they pertain to the factor analysis of continuous observed variables. In particular, we describe how principles from regression diagnostics also apply to factor analysis. Next, because modern applications of factor analysis frequently involve the analysis of the individual items from a single test or questionnaire, an important focus of this paper is the factor analysis of items. Although the traditional linear factor model is well-suited to the analysis of continuously distributed variables, commonly used item types, including Likert-type items, almost always produce dichotomous or ordered categorical variables. We describe how relationships among such items are often not well described by product-moment correlations, which has clear ramifications for the traditional linear factor analysis. An alternative, non-linear factor analysis using polychoric correlations has become more readily available to applied researchers and thus more popular. Consequently, we also review the assumptions and data-screening issues involved in this method. Throughout the paper, we demonstrate these procedures using an historic data set of nine cognitive ability variables. PMID:22403561

  6. Expressing Environment Assumptions and Real-time Requirements for a Distributed Embedded System with Shared Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjell, Simon; Fernandes, João Miguel

    2008-01-01

    In a distributed embedded system, it is often necessary to share variables among its computing nodes to allow the distribution of control algorithms. It is therefore necessary to include a component in each node that provides the service of variable sharing. For that type of component, this paper...... discusses how to create a Colored Petri Nets (CPN) model that formally expresses the following elements in a clearly separated structure: (1) assumptions about the behavior of the environment of the component, (2) real-time requirements for the component, and (3) a possible solution in terms of an algorithm...... for the component. The CPN model can be used to validate the environment assumptions and the requirements. The validation is performed by execution of the model during which traces of events and states are automatically generated and evaluated against the requirements....

  7. Investigation of assumptions underlying current safety guidelines on EM-induced nerve stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Esra; Vogiatzis Oikonomidis, Ioannis; Iacono, Maria Ida; Angelone, Leonardo M.; Kainz, Wolfgang; Kuster, Niels

    2016-06-01

    An intricate network of a variety of nerves is embedded within the complex anatomy of the human body. Although nerves are shielded from unwanted excitation, they can still be stimulated by external electromagnetic sources that induce strongly non-uniform field distributions. Current exposure safety standards designed to limit unwanted nerve stimulation are based on a series of explicit and implicit assumptions and simplifications. This paper demonstrates the applicability of functionalized anatomical phantoms with integrated coupled electromagnetic and neuronal dynamics solvers for investigating the impact of magnetic resonance exposure on nerve excitation within the full complexity of the human anatomy. The impact of neuronal dynamics models, temperature and local hot-spots, nerve trajectory and potential smoothing, anatomical inhomogeneity, and pulse duration on nerve stimulation was evaluated. As a result, multiple assumptions underlying current safety standards are questioned. It is demonstrated that coupled EM-neuronal dynamics modeling involving realistic anatomies is valuable to establish conservative safety criteria.

  8. Questioning the foundations of physics which of our fundamental assumptions are wrong?

    CERN Document Server

    Foster, Brendan; Merali, Zeeya

    2015-01-01

    The essays in this book look at way in which the fundaments of physics might need to be changed in order to make progress towards a unified theory. They are based on the prize-winning essays submitted to the FQXi essay competition “Which of Our Basic Physical Assumptions Are Wrong?”, which drew over 270 entries. As Nobel Laureate physicist Philip W. Anderson realized, the key to understanding nature’s reality is not anything “magical”, but the right attitude, “the focus on asking the right questions, the willingness to try (and to discard) unconventional answers, the sensitive ear for phoniness, self-deception, bombast, and conventional but unproven assumptions.” The authors of the eighteen prize-winning essays have, where necessary, adapted their essays for the present volume so as to (a) incorporate the community feedback generated in the online discussion of the essays, (b) add new material that has come to light since their completion and (c) to ensure accessibility to a broad audience of re...

  9. A Novel Clinical-Simulated Suture Education for Basic Surgical Skill: Suture on the Biological Tissue Fixed on Standardized Patient Evaluated with Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skill (OSATS) Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhanlong; Yang, Fan; Gao, Pengji; Zeng, Li; Jiang, Guanchao; Wang, Shan; Ye, Yingjiang; Zhu, Fengxue

    2017-06-21

    Clinical-simulated training has shown benefit in the education of medical students. However, the role of clinical simulation for surgical basic skill training such as suturing techniques remains unclear. Forty-two medical students were asked to perform specific suturing tasks at three stations with the different settings within four minutes (Station 1: Synthetic suture pad fixed on the bench, Station 2: Synthetic suture pad fixed on the standardized patient, Station 3: Pig skin fixed on the standardized patient); the OSATS (Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skill) tool was used to evaluate the performance of students. A questionnaire was distributed to the students following the examination. Mean performance score of Station 3 was significant lower than that of Station 1 and 2 in the general performance including tissue handling, time, and motion. The suturing techniques of students at Station 2 and 3 were not as accurate as that at Station 1. Inappropriate tension was applied to the knot at Station 2 compared with Station 1 and 3. On the questionnaire, 93% of students considered clinical-simulated training of basic surgical skills was necessary and may increase their confidence in future clinical work as surgeons; 98% of students thought the assessment was more objective when OSATS tool was used for evaluation. Clinical simulation examination assessed with OSATS might throw a novel light on the education of basic surgical skills and may be worthy of wider adoption in the surgical education of medical students.

  10. Posttraumatic world assumptions among treatment-seeking refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Heide, F Jackie June; Sleijpen, Marieke; van der Aa, Niels

    2017-01-01

    The clinical relevance of negative changes in cognitions about oneself, others, and the world is reflected in the diagnostic criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the DSM-5 and complex posttraumatic stress disorder in the ICD-11. Although such changes in cognition have been posited to be especially relevant for traumatised refugees, few studies have examined this in refugee populations. The present study used a cross-sectional design to compare negative cognitions among 213 adult treatment-seeking refugees with those in previously published samples from the general population, veterans with combat-related PTSD, and whiplash victims. Measures included the World Assumptions Scale (WAS) and the Events and DSM-IV PTSD subscales of the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ). Path models examined the relation of the WAS subscales to five demographic and trauma-related variables. Results showed that world assumptions were especially negative with regard to Benevolence of World, Benevolence of People, and Luck subscales, on which refugees scored lower than all reference samples. Differences between the refugee sample and the reference samples were smallest with regard to self-worth and self-controllability. World assumptions were associated with gender and PTSD symptom severity but not with age, length of residence in the Netherlands, and number of traumatic event types. The DSM-5 criterion of negative changes in belief about oneself, others, and the world appears more applicable to refugees than the more narrowly formulated ICD-11 criterion of diminished and defeated sense of self. Prevention and treatment efforts with refugees may need to be especially aimed at preventing a further decline of trust as well as restoration of trust in others and the world.

  11. THE COMPLEX OF ASSUMPTION CATHEDRAL OF THE ASTRAKHAN KREMLIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savenkova Aleksandra Igorevna

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to an architectural and historical analysis of the constructions forming a complex of Assumption Cathedral of the Astrakhan Kremlin, which earlier hasn’t been considered as a subject of special research. Basing on the archival sources, photographic materials, publications and on-site investigations of monuments, the creation history of the complete architectural complex sustained in one style of the Muscovite baroque, unique in its composite construction, is considered. Its interpretation in the all-Russian architectural context is offered. Typological features of single constructions come to light. The typology of the Prechistinsky bell tower has an untypical architectural solution - “hexagonal structure on octagonal and quadrangular structures”. The way of connecting the building of the Cathedral and the chambers by the passage was characteristic of monastic constructions and was exclusively seldom in kremlins, farmsteads and ensembles of city cathedrals. The composite scheme of the Assumption Cathedral includes the Lobnoye Mesto (“the Place of Execution” located on an axis from the West, it is connected with the main building by a quarter-turn with landing. The only prototype of the structure is a Lobnoye Mesto on the Red Square in Moscow. In the article the version about the emergence of the Place of Execution on the basis of earlier existing construction - a tower “the Peal” which is repeatedly mentioned in written sources in connection with S. Razin’s revolt is considered. The metropolitan Sampson, trying to keep the value of the Astrakhan metropolitanate, builds the Assumption Cathedral and the Place of Execution directly appealing to a capital prototype to emphasize the continuity and close connection with Moscow.

  12. Posttraumatic Growth and Shattered World Assumptions Among Ex-POWs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahav, Y.; Bellin, Elisheva S.; Solomon, Z.

    2016-01-01

    world assumptions (WAs) and that the co-occurrence of high PTG and negative WAs among trauma survivors reflects reconstruction of an integrative belief system. The present study aimed to test these claims by investigating, for the first time, the mediating role of dissociation in the relation between...... PTG and WAs. Method: Former prisoners of war (ex-POWs; n = 158) and comparable controls (n = 106) were assessed 38 years after the Yom Kippur War. Results: Ex-POWs endorsed more negative WAs and higher PTG and dissociation compared to controls. Ex-POWs with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD...

  13. Diversion assumptions for high-powered research reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binford, F.T.

    1984-01-01

    This study deals with diversion assumptions for high-powered research reactors -- specifically, MTR fuel; pool- or tank-type research reactors with light-water moderator; and water, beryllium, or graphite reflectors, and which have a power level of 25 MW(t) or more. The objective is to provide assistance to the IAEA in documentation of criteria and inspection observables related to undeclared plutonium production in the reactors described above, including: criteria for undeclared plutonium production, necessary design information for implementation of these criteria, verification guidelines including neutron physics and heat transfer, and safeguards measures to facilitate the detection of undeclared plutonium production at large research reactors.

  14. Radiation hormesis and the linear-no-threshold assumption

    CERN Document Server

    Sanders, Charles L

    2009-01-01

    Current radiation protection standards are based upon the application of the linear no-threshold (LNT) assumption, which considers that even very low doses of ionizing radiation can cause cancer. The radiation hormesis hypothesis, by contrast, proposes that low-dose ionizing radiation is beneficial. In this book, the author examines all facets of radiation hormesis in detail, including the history of the concept and mechanisms, and presents comprehensive, up-to-date reviews for major cancer types. It is explained how low-dose radiation can in fact decrease all-cause and all-cancer mortality an

  15. First assumptions and overlooking competing causes of death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Peter Mygind; Andersen, Anh Thao Nguyen

    2014-01-01

    Determining the most probable cause of death is important, and it is sometimes tempting to assume an obvious cause of death, when it readily presents itself, and stop looking for other competing causes of death. The case story presented in the article illustrates this dilemma. The first assumption...... of cause of death, which was based on results from bacteriology tests, proved to be wrong when the results from the forensic toxicology testing became available. This case also illustrates how post mortem computed tomography (PMCT) findings of radio opaque material in the stomach alerted the pathologist...

  16. Exploring power assumptions in the leadership and management debate

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, G.; Schedlitzki, D.; Turnbull, S.; Gill, R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to take a fresh look at the leadership and management debate through exploring underlying power assumptions in the literature.\\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach – The paper is a conceptual discussion that draws on the power-based literature to develop a framework to help conceptually understand leadership in relation to management.\\ud \\ud Findings – The paper highlights the historically clichéd nature of comments regarding conceptual similarities and di...

  17. Basic stress analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Iremonger, M J

    1982-01-01

    BASIC Stress Analysis aims to help students to become proficient at BASIC programming by actually using it in an important engineering subject. It also enables the student to use computing as a means of learning stress analysis because writing a program is analogous to teaching-it is necessary to understand the subject matter. The book begins by introducing the BASIC approach and the concept of stress analysis at first- and second-year undergraduate level. Subsequent chapters contain a summary of relevant theory, worked examples containing computer programs, and a set of problems. Topics c

  18. Quantum electronics basic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Fain, V M; Sanders, J H

    1969-01-01

    Quantum Electronics, Volume 1: Basic Theory is a condensed and generalized description of the many research and rapid progress done on the subject. It is translated from the Russian language. The volume describes the basic theory of quantum electronics, and shows how the concepts and equations followed in quantum electronics arise from the basic principles of theoretical physics. The book then briefly discusses the interaction of an electromagnetic field with matter. The text also covers the quantum theory of relaxation process when a quantum system approaches an equilibrium state, and explai

  19. Rating system in evaluation of departments and teaching staff and its use in management of basic processes of quality of education at medical university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Protopopov

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the experience of departments and teaching staff rating at Saratov Medical University. Rating evaluation was carried out according to the criteria proposed by the staff and approved by the Quality and Rating Committee of the University. The rating evaluation is a type of quantitative and qualitative monitoring of teachers' activities and departments, which can be combined with other evaluating methods used in high schools

  20. Common-sense chemistry: The use of assumptions and heuristics in problem solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeyer, Jenine Rachel

    interviewees seemed to view chemical reactions as macroscopic reassembling processes where favorability was related to the perceived ease with which reactants broke apart or products formed. Students also expressed spurious chemical assumptions based on the misinterpretation and overgeneralization of periodicity and electronegativity. Our findings suggest the need to create more opportunities for college chemistry students to monitor their thinking, develop and apply analytical ways of reasoning, and evaluate the effectiveness of shortcut reasoning procedures in different contexts.

  1. Powassan (POW) Virus Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professionals Related Topics For International Travelers Powassan (POW) Virus Basics Download this fact sheet formatted for print: ... POW) Virus Fact Sheet (PDF) What is Powassan virus? Powassan (POW) virus is a flavivirus that is ...

  2. Brain Basics: Preventing Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here Home » Disorders » Patient & Caregiver Education Brain Basics: Preventing Stroke Table of Contents Introduction What ... Americans are protecting their most important asset—their brain. Are you? Stroke ranks as the fourth leading ...

  3. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... menu Topics The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David Chen, ... Life After Pediatric Spinal Injury Dawn Sheaffer, MSW Rehabilitation Psychological Realities after Spinal Cord Injury Toby Huston, ...

  4. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... menu Topics The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David Chen, ... Life After Pediatric Spinal Injury Dawn Sheaffer, MSW Rehabilitation Psychological Realities after Spinal Cord Injury Toby Huston, ...

  5. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics The Basics of ... injury? What is a Spinal Cord Injury? SCI Medical Experts People Living With SCI Personal Experiences By ...

  6. Basic Information about Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Environment Contact Us Share Basic Information about Mercury On this page: What is mercury? Emissions of ... Consumer products that traditionally contain mercury What is Mercury? Mercury is a naturally-occurring chemical element found ...

  7. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... How Peer Counseling Works Julie Gassaway, MS, RN Pediatric Injuries Pediatric Spinal Cord Injury 101 Lawrence Vogel, MD The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation Sara Klaas, MSW Transitions for Children ...

  8. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David ...

  9. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics The Basics of Spinal Cord ... LLC Understanding Spinal Cord Injury About Us Expert Videos Contact Us Personal Experience Videos Blog Videos By ...

  10. Basic Financial Accounting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiborg, Karsten

    This textbook on Basic Financial Accounting is targeted students in the economics studies at universities and business colleges having an introductory subject in the external dimension of the company's economic reporting, including bookkeeping, etc. The book includes the following subjects...

  11. Physical Activity Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Physical Activity Basics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir How much physical activity do you need? Regular physical activity helps improve ...

  12. HIV Treatment: The Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content HIV Treatment Home Understanding HIV/AIDS Fact Sheets HIV ... 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV Treatment: The Basics Last Reviewed: January 18, 2018 ...

  13. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 ...

  14. Basics of Probiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Probiotics The Basics of Probiotics Past Issues / Winter 2016 Table of Contents Millions ... the facts? Photo courtest of Pixabay What Are Probiotics? Probiotics are live microorganisms (such as bacteria) that ...

  15. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Adult Injuries ... Therapy-Lokomat T. George Hornby, PhD, PT Empowering the Patient After Spinal Cord Injury Guy W. Fried, ...

  16. Video Screen Capture Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This article is an introduction to video screen capture. Basic information of two software programs, QuickTime for Mac and BlueBerry Flashback Express for PC, are also discussed. Practical applications for video screen capture are given.

  17. Sugar Cane Genome Numbers Assumption by Ribosomal DNA FISH Techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thumjamras, S.; Jong, de H.; Iamtham, S.; Prammanee, S.

    2013-01-01

    Conventional cytological method is limited for polyploidy plant genome study, especially sugar cane chromosomes that show unstable numbers of each cultivar. Molecular cytogenetic as fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques were used in this study. A basic chromosome number of sugar cane

  18. Positivism in Education: Philosophical, Research, and Organizational Assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peca, Kathy

    The basic concepts of the positivistic paradigm are traced historically in this paper from Aristotle through Comte, the Vienna Circle, empiricism, Durkheim, sociobehavioral theory, and organizational theory. Various concepts have been added, deleted, and transformed through positivism's history, but its fundamental basis has remained the same:…

  19. The extended evolutionary synthesis: its structure, assumptions and predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laland, Kevin N; Uller, Tobias; Feldman, Marcus W; Sterelny, Kim; Müller, Gerd B; Moczek, Armin; Jablonka, Eva; Odling-Smee, John

    2015-08-22

    Scientific activities take place within the structured sets of ideas and assumptions that define a field and its practices. The conceptual framework of evolutionary biology emerged with the Modern Synthesis in the early twentieth century and has since expanded into a highly successful research program to explore the processes of diversification and adaptation. Nonetheless, the ability of that framework satisfactorily to accommodate the rapid advances in developmental biology, genomics and ecology has been questioned. We review some of these arguments, focusing on literatures (evo-devo, developmental plasticity, inclusive inheritance and niche construction) whose implications for evolution can be interpreted in two ways—one that preserves the internal structure of contemporary evolutionary theory and one that points towards an alternative conceptual framework. The latter, which we label the 'extended evolutionary synthesis' (EES), retains the fundaments of evolutionary theory, but differs in its emphasis on the role of constructive processes in development and evolution, and reciprocal portrayals of causation. In the EES, developmental processes, operating through developmental bias, inclusive inheritance and niche construction, share responsibility for the direction and rate of evolution, the origin of character variation and organism-environment complementarity. We spell out the structure, core assumptions and novel predictions of the EES, and show how it can be deployed to stimulate and advance research in those fields that study or use evolutionary biology. © 2015 The Author(s).

  20. The extended evolutionary synthesis: its structure, assumptions and predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laland, Kevin N.; Uller, Tobias; Feldman, Marcus W.; Sterelny, Kim; Müller, Gerd B.; Moczek, Armin; Jablonka, Eva; Odling-Smee, John

    2015-01-01

    Scientific activities take place within the structured sets of ideas and assumptions that define a field and its practices. The conceptual framework of evolutionary biology emerged with the Modern Synthesis in the early twentieth century and has since expanded into a highly successful research program to explore the processes of diversification and adaptation. Nonetheless, the ability of that framework satisfactorily to accommodate the rapid advances in developmental biology, genomics and ecology has been questioned. We review some of these arguments, focusing on literatures (evo-devo, developmental plasticity, inclusive inheritance and niche construction) whose implications for evolution can be interpreted in two ways—one that preserves the internal structure of contemporary evolutionary theory and one that points towards an alternative conceptual framework. The latter, which we label the ‘extended evolutionary synthesis' (EES), retains the fundaments of evolutionary theory, but differs in its emphasis on the role of constructive processes in development and evolution, and reciprocal portrayals of causation. In the EES, developmental processes, operating through developmental bias, inclusive inheritance and niche construction, share responsibility for the direction and rate of evolution, the origin of character variation and organism–environment complementarity. We spell out the structure, core assumptions and novel predictions of the EES, and show how it can be deployed to stimulate and advance research in those fields that study or use evolutionary biology. PMID:26246559

  1. Economic Growth Assumptions in Climate and Energy Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nir Y. Krakauer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The assumption that the economic growth seen in recent decades will continue has dominated the discussion of future greenhouse gas emissions and the mitigation of and adaptation to climate change. Given that long-term economic growth is uncertain, the impacts of a wide range of growth trajectories should be considered. In particular, slower economic growth would imply that future generations will be relatively less able to invest in emissions controls or adapt to the detrimental impacts of climate change. Taking into consideration the possibility of economic slowdown therefore heightens the urgency of reducing greenhouse gas emissions now by moving to renewable energy sources, even if this incurs short-term economic cost. I quantify this counterintuitive impact of economic growth assumptions on present-day policy decisions in a simple global economy-climate model (Dynamic Integrated model of Climate and the Economy (DICE. In DICE, slow future growth increases the economically optimal present-day carbon tax rate and the utility of taxing carbon emissions, although the magnitude of the increase is sensitive to model parameters, including the rate of social time preference and the elasticity of the marginal utility of consumption. Future scenario development should specifically include low-growth scenarios, and the possibility of low-growth economic trajectories should be taken into account in climate policy analyses.

  2. Halo-Independent Direct Detection Analyses Without Mass Assumptions

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Adam J.; Kahn, Yonatan; McCullough, Matthew

    2015-10-06

    Results from direct detection experiments are typically interpreted by employing an assumption about the dark matter velocity distribution, with results presented in the $m_\\chi-\\sigma_n$ plane. Recently methods which are independent of the DM halo velocity distribution have been developed which present results in the $v_{min}-\\tilde{g}$ plane, but these in turn require an assumption on the dark matter mass. Here we present an extension of these halo-independent methods for dark matter direct detection which does not require a fiducial choice of the dark matter mass. With a change of variables from $v_{min}$ to nuclear recoil momentum ($p_R$), the full halo-independent content of an experimental result for any dark matter mass can be condensed into a single plot as a function of a new halo integral variable, which we call $\\tilde{h}(p_R)$. The entire family of conventional halo-independent $\\tilde{g}(v_{min})$ plots for all DM masses are directly found from the single $\\tilde{h}(p_R)$ plot through a simple re...

  3. Transportation Emissions: some basics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontovas, Christos A.; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

    2016-01-01

    . The main purpose of this chapter is to introduce some basic concepts that are relevant in the quest of green transportation logistics. First, we present the basics of estimating emissions from transportation activities, the current statistics and future trends, as well as the total impact of air emissions...... of the energy efficiency gap and examines why governments and companies may forego cost-effective investments in energy efficiency, even though they could significantly reduce energy consumption at a lower cost....

  4. On the ontological assumptions of the medical model of psychiatry: philosophical considerations and pragmatic tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giordano James

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A common theme in the contemporary medical model of psychiatry is that pathophysiological processes are centrally involved in the explanation, evaluation, and treatment of mental illnesses. Implied in this perspective is that clinical descriptors of these pathophysiological processes are sufficient to distinguish underlying etiologies. Psychiatric classification requires differentiation between what counts as normality (i.e.- order, and what counts as abnormality (i.e.- disorder. The distinction(s between normality and pathology entail assumptions that are often deeply presupposed, manifesting themselves in statements about what mental disorders are. In this paper, we explicate that realism, naturalism, reductionism, and essentialism are core ontological assumptions of the medical model of psychiatry. We argue that while naturalism, realism, and reductionism can be reconciled with advances in contemporary neuroscience, essentialism - as defined to date - may be conceptually problematic, and we pose an eidetic construct of bio-psychosocial order and disorder based upon complex systems' dynamics. However we also caution against the overuse of any theory, and claim that practical distinctions are important to the establishment of clinical thresholds. We opine that as we move ahead toward both a new edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, and a proposed Decade of the Mind, the task at hand is to re-visit nosologic and ontologic assumptions pursuant to a re-formulation of diagnostic criteria and practice.

  5. Estimation of the energy loss at the blades in rowing: common assumptions revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmijster, Mathijs; De Koning, Jos; Van Soest, A J

    2010-08-01

    In rowing, power is inevitably lost as kinetic energy is imparted to the water during push-off with the blades. Power loss is estimated from reconstructed blade kinetics and kinematics. Traditionally, it is assumed that the oar is completely rigid and that force acts strictly perpendicular to the blade. The aim of the present study was to evaluate how reconstructed blade kinematics, kinetics, and average power loss are affected by these assumptions. A calibration experiment with instrumented oars and oarlocks was performed to establish relations between measured signals and oar deformation and blade force. Next, an on-water experiment was performed with a single female world-class rower rowing at constant racing pace in an instrumented scull. Blade kinematics, kinetics, and power loss under different assumptions (rigid versus deformable oars; absence or presence of a blade force component parallel to the oar) were reconstructed. Estimated power losses at the blades are 18% higher when parallel blade force is incorporated. Incorporating oar deformation affects reconstructed blade kinematics and instantaneous power loss, but has no effect on estimation of power losses at the blades. Assumptions on oar deformation and blade force direction have implications for the reconstructed blade kinetics and kinematics. Neglecting parallel blade forces leads to a substantial underestimation of power losses at the blades.

  6. Back to the basics: identifying positive youth development as the theoretical framework for a youth drug prevention program in rural Saskatchewan, Canada amidst a program evaluation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dell, Colleen Anne; Duncan, Charles Randy; DesRoches, Andrea; Bendig, Melissa; Steeves, Megan; Turner, Holly; Quaife, Terra; McCann, Chuck; Enns, Brett

    2013-01-01

    ... of evidence-informed goals and objectives. This paper shares the 'preptory' outcomes of our team's program evaluation of the Prince Albert Parkland Health Region Mental Health and Addiction Services' Outreach Worker Service (OWS...

  7. Constructional physics with BASIC. Bauphysik mit BASIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siemens, U.T.

    1984-01-01

    According to the 1977 Thermal Insulation Ordinance, thermal, insulation measures must be planned already in the first licensing stage. The necessary calculations are facilitated by computer systems. The standard constructional physics data for calculations of thermal insulation and diffusion can be directly accessed in existing data storages, so that only the specific data of the envisaged project must be entered. Further, there is a computer program for determining the reverberation time in 6 different frequency ranges in static room acoustics. After a review of the program package 'Calculation of Thermal Insulation' with its subroutines for walls, windows and outside doors, roofs and ceilings, foundations and other structural components tables are presented with details of 7 different programs. 2 programs for reverberation time calculation are also described in detail. The programming language employed was BASIC-II.

  8. Development and Pre-Clinical Evaluation of Recombinant Human Myelin Basic Protein Nano Therapeutic Vaccine in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Mice Animal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghobashy, Medhat A.; Elmeshad, Aliaa N.; Abdelsalam, Rania M.; Nooh, Mohammed M.; Al-Shorbagy, Muhammad; Laible, Götz

    2017-04-01

    Recombinant human myelin basic protein (rhMBP) was previously produced in the milk of transgenic cows. Differences in molecular recognition of either hMBP or rhMBP by surface-immobilized anti-hMBP antibodies were demonstrated. This indicated differences in immunological response between rhMBP and hMBP. Here, the activity of free and controlled release rhMBP poly(ε-caprolactone) nanoparticles (NPs), as a therapeutic vaccine against multiple sclerosis (MS) was demonstrated in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) animal model. Following optimization of nanoformulation, discrete spherical, rough-surfaced rhMBP NPs with high entrapment efficiency and controlled release pattern were obtained. Results indicated that rhMBP was loaded into and electrostatically adsorbed onto the surface of NPs. Subcutaneous administration of free or rhMBP NPs before EAE-induction reduced the average behavioral score in EAE mice and showed only mild histological alterations and preservation of myelin sheath, with rhMBP NPs showing increased protection. Moreover, analysis of inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-10) in mice brains revealed that pretreatment with free or rhMBP NPs significantly protected against induced inflammation. In conclusion: i) rhMBP ameliorated EAE symptoms in EAE animal model, ii) nanoformulation significantly enhanced efficacy of rhMBP as a therapeutic vaccine and iii) clinical investigations are required to demonstrate the activity of rhMBP NPs as a therapeutic vaccine for MS.

  9. Evaluation of cavitated and non-cavitated carious lesions using the WHO basic methods, ICDAS-II and laser fluorescence measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mridula Goswami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was aimed to compare the diagnostic outcome of the WHO criteria, ICDAS-II criteria and laser fluorescence measurements in measuring the caries ratings of children. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: The study involved 31 children between 3 and 14 years of age, attending the Department of Pedodontics at Maulana Azad College of Dental Sciences, New Delhi. The surface-related caries status was registered according to the WHO basic method criteria (1997. Additionally, the ICDAS-II visual criteria and the DIAGNOdent readings were documented. Statistical analysis used: The data were analysed with ezANOVA and Excel 2000 (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, WA, USA. Results: The mean ICDAS-II values amounted to 8.76 ± 0.72. The mean values for DMFS/def were 7.67 ± 0.91, whereas for DIAGNOdent it amounted to 4.00 ± 0.62. Conclusions: In conclusion, this study showed the diagnostic potential of the ICDAS-II criteria in comparison to the traditional WHO criteria by means of the non-cavitated caries lesions additionally detected. The DIAGNOdent use in field studies that already apply detailed visual criteria seems to bring limited additional information.

  10. Positron emission tomography basic sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Townsend, D W; Valk, P E; Maisey, M N

    2003-01-01

    Essential for students, science and medical graduates who want to understand the basic science of Positron Emission Tomography (PET), this book describes the physics, chemistry, technology and overview of the clinical uses behind the science of PET and the imaging techniques it uses. In recent years, PET has moved from high-end research imaging tool used by the highly specialized to an essential component of clinical evaluation in the clinic, especially in cancer management. Previously being the realm of scientists, this book explains PET instrumentation, radiochemistry, PET data acquisition and image formation, integration of structural and functional images, radiation dosimetry and protection, and applications in dedicated areas such as drug development, oncology, and gene expression imaging. The technologist, the science, engineering or chemistry graduate seeking further detailed information about PET, or the medical advanced trainee wishing to gain insight into the basic science of PET will find this book...

  11. Experimental assessment of unvalidated assumptions in classical plasticity theory.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brannon, Rebecca Moss (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT); Burghardt, Jeffrey A. (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT); Bauer, Stephen J.; Bronowski, David R.

    2009-01-01

    This report investigates the validity of several key assumptions in classical plasticity theory regarding material response to changes in the loading direction. Three metals, two rock types, and one ceramic were subjected to non-standard loading directions, and the resulting strain response increments were displayed in Gudehus diagrams to illustrate the approximation error of classical plasticity theories. A rigorous mathematical framework for fitting classical theories to the data, thus quantifying the error, is provided. Further data analysis techniques are presented that allow testing for the effect of changes in loading direction without having to use a new sample and for inferring the yield normal and flow directions without having to measure the yield surface. Though the data are inconclusive, there is indication that classical, incrementally linear, plasticity theory may be inadequate over a certain range of loading directions. This range of loading directions also coincides with loading directions that are known to produce a physically inadmissible instability for any nonassociative plasticity model.

  12. Analysis of assumptions of recent tests of local realism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednorz, Adam

    2017-04-01

    Local realism in recent experiments is excluded on condition of freedom or randomness of choice combined with no signaling between observers by implementations of simple quantum models. Both no signaling and the underlying quantum model can be directly checked by analysis of experimental data. For particular tests performed on the data, it is shown that two of these experiments give the probability of the data under no-signaling (or choice independence in one of them) hypothesis at the level of 5%, accounting for the look-elsewhere effect, moderately suggesting that no signaling is violated with 95% confidence. On the other hand, the data from the two other experiments violate the assumption of the simple quantum model. Further experiments are necessary to clarify these issues and freedom and randomness of choice.

  13. Commentary: profiling by appearance and assumption: beyond race and ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapién, Robert E

    2010-04-01

    In this issue, Acquaviva and Mintz highlight issues regarding racial profiling in medicine and how it is perpetuated through medical education: Physicians are taught to make subjective determinations of race and/or ethnicity in case presentations, and such assumptions may affect patient care. The author of this commentary believes that the discussion should be broadened to include profiling on the basis of general appearance. The author reports personal experiences as someone who has profiled and been profiled by appearance-sometimes by skin color, sometimes by other physical attributes. In the two cases detailed here, patient care could have been affected had the author not become aware of his practices in such situations. The author advocates raising awareness of profiling in the broader sense through training.

  14. Ancestral assumptions and the clinical uncertainty of evolutionary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cournoyea, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Evolutionary medicine is an emerging field of medical studies that uses evolutionary theory to explain the ultimate causes of health and disease. Educational tools, online courses, and medical school modules are being developed to help clinicians and students reconceptualize health and illness in light of our evolutionary past. Yet clinical guidelines based on our ancient life histories are epistemically weak, relying on the controversial assumptions of adaptationism and advocating a strictly biophysical account of health. To fulfill the interventionist goals of clinical practice, it seems that proximate explanations are all we need to develop successful diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines. Considering these epistemic concerns, this article argues that the clinical relevance of evolutionary medicine remains uncertain at best.

  15. Elements and elasmobranchs: hypotheses, assumptions and limitations of elemental analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, M N; Izzo, C; Wade, B; Gillanders, B M

    2017-02-01

    Quantifying the elemental composition of elasmobranch calcified cartilage (hard parts) has the potential to answer a range of ecological and biological questions, at both the individual and population level. Few studies, however, have employed elemental analyses of elasmobranch hard parts. This paper provides an overview of the range of applications of elemental analysis in elasmobranchs, discussing the assumptions and potential limitations in cartilaginous fishes. It also reviews the available information on biotic and abiotic factors influencing patterns of elemental incorporation into hard parts of elasmobranchs and provides some comparative elemental assays and mapping in an attempt to fill knowledge gaps. Directions for future experimental research are highlighted to better understand fundamental elemental dynamics in elasmobranch hard parts. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  16. Dynamic Group Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange under standard assumptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bresson, Emmanuel; Chevassut, Olivier; Pointcheval, David

    2002-02-14

    Authenticated Diffie-Hellman key exchange allows two principals communicating over a public network, and each holding public-private keys, to agree on a shared secret value. In this paper we study the natural extension of this cryptographic problem to a group of principals. We begin from existing formal security models and refine them to incorporate major missing details (e.g., strong-corruption and concurrent sessions). Within this model we define the execution of a protocol for authenticated dynamic group Diffie-Hellman and show that it is provably secure under the decisional Diffie-Hellman assumption. Our security result holds in the standard model and thus provides better security guarantees than previously published results in the random oracle model.

  17. New media in strategy – mapping assumptions in the field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulbrandsen, Ib Tunby; Plesner, Ursula; Raviola, Elena

    2018-01-01

    themselves in either a deterministic or at volontaristic camp with regards to technology. Strategy is portrayed as either determined by new media or a matter of rationally using them. Additionally, most articles portray the organization nicely delineated entity, where new media are relevant either...... to new media. By contrast, there is relatively little attention to the assumptions behind strategic thinking in relation to new media. This article reviews the most influential strategy journals, asking how new media are conceptualized. It is shown that strategy scholars have a tendency to place......There is plenty of empirical evidence for claiming that new media make a difference for how strategy is conceived and executed. Furthermore, there is a rapidly growing body of literature that engages with this theme, and offers recommendations regarding the appropriate strategic actions in relation...

  18. Elasticity reconstruction: Beyond the assumption of local homogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkus, Ralph; Daire, Jean-Luc; Van Beers, Bernard E.; Vilgrain, Valerie

    2010-07-01

    Elasticity imaging is a novel domain which is currently gaining significant interest in the medical field. Most inversion techniques are based on the homogeneity assumption, i.e. the local spatial derivatives of the complex-shear modulus are ignored. This analysis presents an analytic approach in order to overcome this limitation, i.e. first order spatial derivatives of the real-part of the complex-shear modulus are taken into account. Resulting distributions in a gauged breast lesion phantom agree very well with the theoretical expectations. An in-vivo example of a cholangiocarcinoma demonstrates that the new approach provides maps of the viscoelastic properties which agree much better with expectations from anatomy.

  19. Chemometric evaluation of the combined effect of temperature, pressure, and co-solvent fractions on the chiral separation of basic pharmaceuticals using actual vs set operational conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forss, Erik; Haupt, Dan; Stålberg, Olle; Enmark, Martin; Samuelsson, Jörgen; Fornstedt, Torgny

    2017-05-26

    The need to determine the actual operational conditions, instead of merely using the set operational conditions, was investigated for in packed supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) by design of experiments (DoE) using a most important type of compounds, pharmaceutical basics, as models. The actual values of temperature, pressure, and methanol levels were recorded and calculated from external sensors, while the responses in the DoE were the retention factors and selectivity. A Kromasil CelluCoat column was used as the stationary phase, carbon dioxide containing varying methanol contents as the mobile phase, and the six racemates of alprenolol, atenolol, metoprolol, propranolol, clenbuterol, and mianserin were selected as model solutes. For the retention modeling, the most important term was the methanol fraction followed by the temperature and pressure. Significant differences (p<0.05) between most of the coefficients in the retention models were observed when comparing models from set and actual conditions. The selectivity was much less affected by operational changes, and therefore was not severely affected by difference between set and actual conditions. The temperature differences were usually small, maximum ±1.4°C, whereas the pressure differences were larger, typically approximately +10.5bar. The set and actual fractions of methanol also differed, usually by ±0.4 percentage points. A cautious conclusion is that the primary reason for the discrepancy between the models is a mismatch between the set and actual methanol fractions. This mismatch is more serious in retention models at low methanol fractions. The study demonstrates that the actual conditions should almost always be preferred. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Bases, Assumptions, and Results of the Flowsheet Calculations for the Decision Phase Salt Disposition Alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimenna, R.A.; Jacobs, R.A.; Taylor, G.A.; Durate, O.E.; Paul, P.K.; Elder, H.H.; Pike, J.A.; Fowler, J.R.; Rutland, P.L.; Gregory, M.V.; Smith III, F.G.; Hang, T.; Subosits, S.G.; Campbell, S.G.

    2001-03-26

    The High Level Waste (HLW) Salt Disposition Systems Engineering Team was formed on March 13, 1998, and chartered to identify options, evaluate alternatives, and recommend a selected alternative(s) for processing HLW salt to a permitted wasteform. This requirement arises because the existing In-Tank Precipitation process at the Savannah River Site, as currently configured, cannot simultaneously meet the HLW production and Authorization Basis safety requirements. This engineering study was performed in four phases. This document provides the technical bases, assumptions, and results of this engineering study.

  1. Basic Electromagnetism and Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Moliton, André

    2007-01-01

    Basic Electromagnetism and Materials is the product of many years of teaching basic and applied electromagnetism. This textbook can be used to teach electromagnetism to a wide range of undergraduate science majors in physics, electrical engineering or materials science. However, by making lesser demands on mathematical knowledge than competing texts, and by emphasizing electromagnetic properties of materials and their applications, this textbook is uniquely suited to students of materials science. Many competing texts focus on the study of propagation waves either in the microwave or optical domain, whereas Basic Electromagnetism and Materials covers the entire electromagnetic domain and the physical response of materials to these waves. Professor André Moliton is Director of the Unité de Microélectronique, Optoélectronique et Polymères (Université de Limoges, France), which brings together three groups studying the optoelectronics of molecular and polymer layers, micro-optoelectronic systems for teleco...

  2. Spectroscopic imaging: basic principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoch, Antonin; Jiru, Filip; Bunke, Jürgen

    2008-08-01

    Spectroscopic imaging (SI) is a method that enables the measurement of the spatial distribution of metabolite concentrations in tissue. In this paper, an overview of measurement and processing techniques for SI is given. First, the basic structure of SI pulse sequences is introduced and the concepts of k-space, point spread function and spatial resolution are described. Then, special techniques are presented for the purpose of eliminating spurious signals and reducing measurement time. Finally, basic post-processing of SI data and the methods for viewing the results of SI measurement are summarized.

  3. Comprehensive basic mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Veena, GR

    2005-01-01

    Salient Features As per II PUC Basic Mathematics syllabus of Karnataka. Provides an introduction to various basic mathematical techniques and the situations where these could be usefully employed. The language is simple and the material is self-explanatory with a large number of illustrations. Assists the reader in gaining proficiency to solve diverse variety of problems. A special capsule containing a gist and list of formulae titled ''REMEMBER! Additional chapterwise arranged question bank and 3 model papers in a separate section---''EXAMINATION CORNER''.

  4. Basic Electron Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, B. J.; Morgan, G. J.; Howson, M. A.

    This chapter will take you through a simple introduction to transport theory covering the Boltzmann equation, the Fuchs-Sondheimer model for thin films, the normal magnetoresistance and quantum interference effects in metals with strong electron scattering. At the end of the chapter we will also introduce you to a number of the basic techniques involved in electron transport measurements. All of this is by way of introduction to basic transport properties common to all metals. In later chapters these ideas will be developed and applied to systems in which spin dependent transport is important.

  5. Basic semiconductor physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hamaguchi, Chihiro

    2001-01-01

    This book presents a detailed description of the basic physics of semiconductors. All the important equations describing the properties of these materials are derived without the help of other textbooks. The reader is assumed to have only a basic command of mathematics and some elementary semiconductor physics. The text covers a wide range of important semiconductor phenomena, from the simple to the advanced. Examples include recent progress in semiconductor quantum structures such as two-dimensional electron-gas systems, ballistic transport, the quantum Hall effect, the Landauer formula, the Coulomb blockade and the single-electron transistor.

  6. Basic set theory

    CERN Document Server

    Levy, Azriel

    2002-01-01

    An advanced-level treatment of the basics of set theory, this text offers students a firm foundation, stopping just short of the areas employing model-theoretic methods. Geared toward upper-level undergraduate and graduate students, it consists of two parts: the first covers pure set theory, including the basic motions, order and well-foundedness, cardinal numbers, the ordinals, and the axiom of choice and some of it consequences; the second deals with applications and advanced topics such as point set topology, real spaces, Boolean algebras, and infinite combinatorics and large cardinals. An

  7. Basic properties of semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Landsberg, PT

    2013-01-01

    Since Volume 1 was published in 1982, the centres of interest in the basic physics of semiconductors have shifted. Volume 1 was called Band Theory and Transport Properties in the first edition, but the subject has broadened to such an extent that Basic Properties is now a more suitable title. Seven chapters have been rewritten by the original authors. However, twelve chapters are essentially new, with the bulk of this work being devoted to important current topics which give this volume an almost encyclopaedic form. The first three chapters discuss various aspects of modern band theory and the

  8. Public-private partnerships to improve primary healthcare surgeries: clarifying assumptions about the role of private provider activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudyarabikwa, Oliver; Tobi, Patrick; Regmi, Krishna

    2017-07-01

    Aim To examine assumptions about public-private partnership (PPP) activities and their role in improving public procurement of primary healthcare surgeries. PPPs were developed to improve the quality of care and patient satisfaction. However, evidence of their effectiveness in delivering health benefits is limited. A qualitative study design was employed. A total of 25 interviews with public sector staff (n=23) and private sector managers (n=2) were conducted to understand their interpretations of assumptions in the activities of private investors and service contractors participating in Local Improvement Finance Trust (LIFT) partnerships. Realist evaluation principles were applied in the data analysis to interpret the findings. Six thematic areas of assumed health benefits were identified: (i) quality improvement; (ii) improved risk management; (iii) reduced procurement costs; (iv) increased efficiency; (v) community involvement; and (vi) sustainable investment. Primary Care Trusts that chose to procure their surgeries through LIFT were expected to support its implementation by providing an environment conducive for the private participants to achieve these benefits. Private participant activities were found to be based on a range of explicit and tacit assumptions perceived helpful in achieving government objectives for LIFT. The success of PPPs depended upon private participants' (i) capacity to assess how PPP assumptions added value to their activities, (ii) effectiveness in interpreting assumptions in their expected activities, and (iii) preparedness to align their business principles to government objectives for PPPs. They risked missing some of the expected benefits because of some factors constraining realization of the assumptions. The ways in which private participants preferred to carry out their activities also influenced the extent to which expected benefits were achieved. Giving more discretion to public than private participants over critical

  9. R0 for vector-borne diseases: impact of the assumption for the duration of the extrinsic incubation period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartemink, Nienke; Cianci, Daniela; Reiter, Paul

    2015-03-01

    Mathematical modeling and notably the basic reproduction number R0 have become popular tools for the description of vector-borne disease dynamics. We compare two widely used methods to calculate the probability of a vector to survive the extrinsic incubation period. The two methods are based on different assumptions for the duration of the extrinsic incubation period; one method assumes a fixed period and the other method assumes a fixed daily rate of becoming infectious. We conclude that the outcomes differ substantially between the methods when the average life span of the vector is short compared to the extrinsic incubation period.

  10. Luminescent microporous metal-organic framework with functional Lewis basic sites on the pore surface: Quantifiable evaluation of luminescent sensing mechanisms towards Fe3+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jun-Cheng; Guo, Rui-Li; Zhang, Wen-Yan; Jiang, Chen; Wang, Yao-Yu

    2016-11-01

    A systematic study has been conducted on a novel luminescent metal-organic framework, {[Zn(bpyp)(L-OH)]·DMF·2H2O}n (1), to explore its sensing mechanisms to Fe3+. Structure analyses show that compound 1 exist pyridine N atoms and -OH groups on the pore surface for specific sensing of metal ions via Lewis acid-base interactions. On this consideration, the quenching mechanisms are studied and the processes are controlled by multiple mechanisms in which dynamic and static mechanisms are calculated, achieving the quantification evaluation of the quenching process. This work not only achieves the quantitative evaluation of the luminescence quenching but also provides certain insights into the quenching process, and the possible mechanisms explored in this work may inspire future research and design of target luminescent metal-organic frameworks (LMOFs) with specific functions.

  11. Luminescent microporous metal–organic framework with functional Lewis basic sites on the pore surface: Quantifiable evaluation of luminescent sensing mechanisms towards Fe{sup 3+}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Jun-Cheng [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of the Ministry of Education, Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Physico-Inorganic Chemistry, College of Chemistry & Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi' an 710069 (China); Technology Promotion Center of Nano Composite Material of Biomimetic Sensor and Detecting Technology, Preparation and Application, Anhui Provincial Laboratory West Anhui University, Anhui 237012 (China); Guo, Rui-Li; Zhang, Wen-Yan [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of the Ministry of Education, Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Physico-Inorganic Chemistry, College of Chemistry & Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi' an 710069 (China); Jiang, Chen [Technology Promotion Center of Nano Composite Material of Biomimetic Sensor and Detecting Technology, Preparation and Application, Anhui Provincial Laboratory West Anhui University, Anhui 237012 (China); Wang, Yao-Yu, E-mail: wyaoyu@nwu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of the Ministry of Education, Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Physico-Inorganic Chemistry, College of Chemistry & Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi' an 710069 (China)

    2016-11-15

    A systematic study has been conducted on a novel luminescent metal-organic framework, ([Zn(bpyp)(L-OH)]·DMF·2H{sub 2}O){sub n} (1), to explore its sensing mechanisms to Fe{sup 3+}. Structure analyses show that compound 1 exist pyridine N atoms and -OH groups on the pore surface for specific sensing of metal ions via Lewis acid-base interactions. On this consideration, the quenching mechanisms are studied and the processes are controlled by multiple mechanisms in which dynamic and static mechanisms are calculated, achieving the quantification evaluation of the quenching process. This work not only achieves the quantitative evaluation of the luminescence quenching but also provides certain insights into the quenching process, and the possible mechanisms explored in this work may inspire future research and design of target luminescent metal-organic frameworks (LMOFs) with specific functions. - Graphical abstract: A systematic study has been conducted on a novel luminescent metal-organic framework to explore its sensing mechanisms to Fe{sup 3+}. The quenching mechanisms are studied and the processes are controlled by multiple mechanisms in which dynamic and static mechanisms are calculated, achieving the quantification evaluation of the quenching process. - Highlights: • A novel porous luminescent MOF containing uncoordinated groups in interlayer channels was successfully synthesized. • The compound 1 can exhibit significant luminescent sensitivity to Fe{sup 3+}, which make its good candidate as luminescent sensor. • The corresponding dynamic and static quenching constants are calculated, achieving the quantification evaluation of the quenching process.

  12. Assumption-versus data-based approaches to summarizing species' ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, A Townsend; Navarro-Sigüenza, Adolfo G; Gordillo, Alejandro

    2016-08-04

    For conservation decision making, species' geographic distributions are mapped using various approaches. Some such efforts have downscaled versions of coarse-resolution extent-of-occurrence maps to fine resolutions for conservation planning. We examined the quality of the extent-of-occurrence maps as range summaries and the utility of refining those maps into fine-resolution distributional hypotheses. Extent-of-occurrence maps tend to be overly simple, omit many known and well-documented populations, and likely frequently include many areas not holding populations. Refinement steps involve typological assumptions about habitat preferences and elevational ranges of species, which can introduce substantial error in estimates of species' true areas of distribution. However, no model-evaluation steps are taken to assess the predictive ability of these models, so model inaccuracies are not noticed. Whereas range summaries derived by these methods may be useful in coarse-grained, global-extent studies, their continued use in on-the-ground conservation applications at fine spatial resolutions is not advisable in light of reliance on assumptions, lack of real spatial resolution, and lack of testing. In contrast, data-driven techniques that integrate primary data on biodiversity occurrence with remotely sensed data that summarize environmental dimensions (i.e., ecological niche modeling or species distribution modeling) offer data-driven solutions based on a minimum of assumptions that can be evaluated and validated quantitatively to offer a well-founded, widely accepted method for summarizing species' distributional patterns for conservation applications. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  13. Back to the basics: identifying positive youth development as the theoretical framework for a youth drug prevention program in rural Saskatchewan, Canada amidst a program evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell, Colleen Anne; Duncan, Charles Randy; DesRoches, Andrea; Bendig, Melissa; Steeves, Megan; Turner, Holly; Quaife, Terra; McCann, Chuck; Enns, Brett

    2013-10-22

    Despite endorsement by the Saskatchewan government to apply empirically-based approaches to youth drug prevention services in the province, programs are sometimes delivered prior to the establishment of evidence-informed goals and objectives. This paper shares the 'preptory' outcomes of our team's program evaluation of the Prince Albert Parkland Health Region Mental Health and Addiction Services' Outreach Worker Service (OWS) in eight rural, community schools three years following its implementation. Before our independent evaluation team could assess whether expectations of the OWS were being met, we had to assist with establishing its overarching program goals and objectives and 'at-risk' student population, alongside its alliance with an empirically-informed theoretical framework. A mixed-methods approach was applied, beginning with in-depth focus groups with the OWS staff to identify the program's goals and objectives and targeted student population. These were supplemented with OWS and school administrator interviews and focus groups with school staff. Alignment with a theoretical focus was determined though a review of the OWS's work to date and explored in focus groups between our evaluation team and the OWS staff and validated with the school staff and OWS and school administration. With improved understanding of the OWS's goals and objectives, our evaluation team and the OWS staff aligned the program with the Positive Youth Development theoretical evidence-base, emphasizing the program's universality, systems focus, strength base, and promotion of assets. Together we also gained clarity about the OWS's definition of and engagement with its 'at-risk' student population. It is important to draw on expert knowledge to develop youth drug prevention programming, but attention must also be paid to aligning professional health care services with a theoretically informed evidence-base for evaluation purposes. If time does not permit for the establishment of

  14. Foundation of Basic Arithmetic

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 2. Foundation of Basic Arithmetic. Jasbir S Chahal. General Article Volume 11 Issue 2 February 2006 pp 6-16. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/011/02/0006-0016. Keywords. Different ...

  15. Foundations of Basic Geometry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 7. Foundations of Basic Geometry. Jasbir S Chahal. General Article Volume 11 Issue 7 July 2006 pp 30-41. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/011/07/0030-0041. Keywords. Area ...

  16. Mastering the basics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monique Turkenburg

    2011-01-01

    Original title: De basis meester Language and arithmetic/mathematics are basic skills, but it can no longer be taken for granted that school pupils and students have a good mastery of them. This publication describes current thinking in the educational field about devoting more attention to

  17. Burmese Basic Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    These five volumes, comprising 65 lesson units, follow the Defense Language Institute audiolingual approach and general format. New materials, introduced in "basic dialogs," are followed by colloquial and literal translations, word lists, and in later lessons, by a variety of drills and reading exercises. A consonant chart and a transcribed list…

  18. Teaching Basic Caregiver Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Susan, Ed.; Harrah, Doris, Ed.

    This instructor's guide provides materials for a nursing skills course designed to teach basic home nursing skills to families who plan to care for a chronically ill or elderly family member at home. It may be taught by a registered nurse with knowledge of all areas or by a team, with each instructor concentrating on his/her area of expertise.…

  19. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Allen Heinemann, PhD How Peer Counseling Works Julie Gassaway, MS, RN Pediatric Injuries Pediatric Spinal Cord Injury 101 Lawrence Vogel, MD The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation Sara Klaas, MSW Transitions for Children with Spinal Cord Injury Patricia Mucia, RN Family ...

  20. Foundation of Basic Arithmetic

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 1. Foundation of Basic Arithmetic. Jasbir S Chahal. General Article Volume 11 Issue 1 January 2006 pp 8-20. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/011/01/0008-0020. Keywords. Roman ...

  1. Basic Exchange Rate Theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis four-chapter overview of basic exchange rate theories discusses (i) the elasticity and absorption approach, (ii) the (long-run) implications of the monetary approach, (iii) the short-run effects of monetary and fiscal policy under various economic conditions, and (iv) the transition

  2. Basic physics for all

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, B N

    2012-01-01

    This is a simple, concise book for both student and non-physics students, presenting basic facts in straightforward form and conveying fundamental principles and theories of physics. This book will be helpful as a supplement to class teaching and to aid those who have difficulty in mastering concepts and principles.

  3. Ethanol Basics (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  4. Basic Tuberculosis Facts

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-12

    In this podcast, Dr. Kenneth Castro, Director of the Division of Tuberculosis Elimination, discusses basic TB prevention, testing, and treatment information.  Created: 3/12/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 3/12/2012.

  5. Basic Microfluidics Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Winnie Edith

    2015-01-01

    ,000 m−1, which is a huge difference and has a large impact on flow behavior. In this chapter the basic microfluidic theory will be presented, enabling the reader to gain a comprehensive understanding of how liquids behave at the microscale, enough to be able to engage in design of micro systems...

  6. Lippincott Basic Reading Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monterey Peninsula Unified School District, Monterey, CA.

    This program, included in "Effective Reading Programs...," serves 459 students in grades 1-3 at 15 elementary schools. The program employs a diagnostic-prescriptive approach to instruction in a nongraded setting through the use of the Lippincott Basic Reading program. When a child enters the program, he is introduced to a decoding…

  7. YORUBA, BASIC COURSE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    STEVICK, EARL W.; AND OTHERS

    A BASIC COURSE IN YORUBA, A LANGUAGE OF WEST AFRICA, IS PROVIDED IN THIS TEXT. THE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO BE USED WITH TAPE RECORDINGS AND IS DIVIDED INTO THREE PARTS--(1) THREE SERIES OF TONE DRILLS WHICH CONCENTRATE ON THE TONE PATTERNS OF SHORT VOWELS IN SHORT UTTERANCES, THE TONE PATTERNS OF LONG OR DOUBLE VOWELS IN SHORT UTTERANCES, AND THE…

  8. Greek Basic Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This course in Modern Greek, consisting of 100 lesson units in 13 volumes, is one of the Defense Language Institute's Basic Course Series. The course is designed to train native English language speakers to Level 3 proficiency in comprehension, speaking, reading, and writing Modern Greek. (Level 5 is native-speaker proficiency.) Lesson units…

  9. Basic SPSS tutorial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grotenhuis, H.F. te; Matthijssen, A.C.B.

    2015-01-01

    This supplementary book for the social, behavioral, and health sciences helps readers with no prior knowledge of IBM® SPSS® Statistics, statistics, or mathematics learn the basics of SPSS. Designed to reduce fear and build confidence, the book guides readers through point-and-click sequences using

  10. Assessing Basic Fact Fluency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kling, Gina; Bay-Williams, Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors share a variety of ways to formatively assess basic fact fluency. The define fluency, raise some issues related to timed testing, and then share a collection of classroom-tested ideas for authentic fact fluency assessment. This article encourages teachers to try a variety of alternative assessments from this sampling,…

  11. Basic Pneumatics. Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fessehaye, Michael

    This instructor's guide is designed for use by industrial vocational teachers in teaching a course on basic pneumatics. Covered in the individual units are the following topics: an introduction to pneumatics (including the operation of a service station hoist); fundamentals and physical laws; air compressors (positive displacement compressors;…

  12. Basic Nuclear Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    Basic concepts of nuclear structures, radiation, nuclear reactions, and health physics are presented in this text, prepared for naval officers. Applications to the area of nuclear power are described in connection with pressurized water reactors, experimental boiling water reactors, homogeneous reactor experiments, and experimental breeder…

  13. Czech Basic Course: Folklore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This booklet is designed for use in the advanced phase of the Defense Language Institute's "Basic Course" in Czech. It is used in the advanced phase as a part of cultural background information. Reading selections, with vocabulary lists, include: (1) ethnography; (2) incantations and spells; (3) proverbs, sayings, and weather lore; (4) fairy tales…

  14. Incorporating basic and applied approaches to evaluate the effects of invasive Asian Carp on native fishes: A necessary first step for integrated pest management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quinton E Phelps

    Full Text Available Numerous studies throughout North America allege deleterious associations among invasive Asian Carp and native fishes; however, no empirical evidence on a system-wide scale exists. We used Mississippi River Basin fish community data collected by the Long Term Resource Monitoring program and the Missouri Department of Conservation to evaluate possible interaction between Asian Carp and native fishes. Results from two decades of long-term monitoring throughout much of the Mississippi River suggest that Silver Carp relative abundance has increased while relative abundance (Bigmouth Buffalo [F 3, 8240 = 6.44, P 0.05. To this end, this study provides evidence that Silver Carp are likely adversely influencing native fishes; however, mere presence of Silver Carp in the system does not induce deleterious effects on native fishes. To the best of our knowledge, this evaluation is the first to describe the effects of Asian Carp throughout the Mississippi River Basin and could be used to reduce the effects of Asian Carp on native biota through an integrated pest management program as suggested by congressional policy. Despite the simplicity of the data analyzed and approach used, this study provides a framework for beginning to identify the interactions of invasive fish pests on native fishes (i.e., necessary first step of integrated pest management. However, knowledge gaps remain. We suggest future efforts should conduct more in depth analyses (i.e., multivariate statistical approaches that investigate the influence on all native species.

  15. Stream of consciousness: Quantum and biochemical assumptions regarding psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonello, Lucio; Cocchi, Massimo; Gabrielli, Fabio; Tuszynski, Jack A

    2017-04-01

    The accepted paradigms of mainstream neuropsychiatry appear to be incompletely adequate and in various cases offer equivocal analyses. However, a growing number of new approaches are being proposed that suggest the emergence of paradigm shifts in this area. In particular, quantum theories of mind, brain and consciousness seem to offer a profound change to the current approaches. Unfortunately these quantum paradigms harbor at least two serious problems. First, they are simply models, theories, and assumptions, with no convincing experiments supporting their claims. Second, they deviate from contemporary mainstream views of psychiatric illness and do so in revolutionary ways. We suggest a possible way to integrate experimental neuroscience with quantum models in order to address outstanding issues in psychopathology. A key role is played by the phenomenon called the "stream of consciousness", which can be linked to the so-called "Gamma Synchrony" (GS), which is clearly demonstrated by EEG data. In our novel proposal, a unipolar depressed patient could be seen as a subject with an altered stream of consciousness. In particular, some clues suggest that depression is linked to an "increased power" stream of consciousness. It is additionally suggested that such an approach to depression might be extended to psychopathology in general with potential benefits to diagnostics and therapeutics in neuropsychiatry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. On Some Unwarranted Tacit Assumptions in Cognitive Neuroscience†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mausfeld, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    The cognitive neurosciences are based on the idea that the level of neurons or neural networks constitutes a privileged level of analysis for the explanation of mental phenomena. This paper brings to mind several arguments to the effect that this presumption is ill-conceived and unwarranted in light of what is currently understood about the physical principles underlying mental achievements. It then scrutinizes the question why such conceptions are nevertheless currently prevailing in many areas of psychology. The paper argues that corresponding conceptions are rooted in four different aspects of our common-sense conception of mental phenomena and their explanation, which are illegitimately transferred to scientific enquiry. These four aspects pertain to the notion of explanation, to conceptions about which mental phenomena are singled out for enquiry, to an inductivist epistemology, and, in the wake of behavioristic conceptions, to a bias favoring investigations of input–output relations at the expense of enquiries into internal principles. To the extent that the cognitive neurosciences methodologically adhere to these tacit assumptions, they are prone to turn into a largely a-theoretical and data-driven endeavor while at the same time enhancing the prospects for receiving widespread public appreciation of their empirical findings. PMID:22435062

  17. DDH-Like Assumptions Based on Extension Rings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer, Ronald; Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Kiltz, Eike

    2012-01-01

    _f= \\mathbb{F}_{q}[X]/(f)$ where f is a degree-d polynomial. The decision problem that follows naturally reduces to the case where f is irreducible. This variant is called the d-DDH problem, where 1-DDH is standard DDH. We show in the generic group model that d-DDH is harder than DDH for d > 1 and that we...... obtain, in fact, an infinite hierarchy of progressively weaker assumptions whose complexities lie “between” DDH and CDH. This leads to a large number of new schemes because virtually all known DDH-based constructions can very easily be upgraded to be based on d-DDH. We use the same construction......-VDDH), which are based on f(X) = Xd, but with a twist to avoid problems with reducible polynomials. We show in the generic group model that d-VDDH is hard in bilinear groups and that the problems become harder with increasing d. We show that hardness of d-VDDH implies CCA-secure encryption, efficient Naor...

  18. Weak convergence of Jacobian determinants under asymmetric assumptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Alberico

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Let $\\Om$ be a bounded open set in $\\R^2$ sufficiently smooth and $f_k=(u_k,v_k$ and $f=(u,v$ mappings belong to the Sobolev space $W^{1,2}(\\Om,\\R^2$. We prove that if the sequence of Jacobians $J_{f_k}$ converges to a measure $\\mu$ in sense of measures andif one allows different assumptions on the two components of $f_k$ and $f$, e.g.$$u_k \\rightharpoonup u \\;\\;\\mbox{weakly in} \\;\\; W^{1,2}(\\Om \\qquad \\, v_k \\rightharpoonup v \\;\\;\\mbox{weakly in} \\;\\; W^{1,q}(\\Om$$for some $q\\in(1,2$, then\\begin{equation}\\label{0}d\\mu=J_f\\,dz.\\end{equation}Moreover, we show that this result is optimal in the sense that conclusion fails for $q=1$.On the other hand, we prove that \\eqref{0} remains valid also if one considers the case $q=1$, but it is necessary to require that $u_k$ weakly converges to $u$ in a Zygmund-Sobolev space with a slightly higher degree of regularity than $W^{1,2}(\\Om$ and precisely$$ u_k \\rightharpoonup u \\;\\;\\mbox{weakly in} \\;\\; W^{1,L^2 \\log^\\alpha L}(\\Om$$for some $\\alpha >1$.    

  19. Basic plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Basudev

    2014-01-01

    Basic Plasma Physics is designed to serve as an introductory compact textbook for advanced undergraduate, postgraduate and research students taking plasma physics as one of their subject of study for the first time. It covers the current syllabus of plasma physics offered by the most universities and technical institutions. The book requires no background in plasma physics but only elementary knowledge of basic physics and mathematics. Emphasis has been given on the analytical approach. Topics are developed from first principle so that the students can learn through self-study. One chapter has been devoted to describe some practical aspects of plasma physics. Each chapter contains a good number of solved and unsolved problems and a variety of review questions, mostly taken from recent examination papers. Some classroom experiments described in the book will surely help students as well as instructors.

  20. Basic linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Blyth, T S

    2002-01-01

    Basic Linear Algebra is a text for first year students leading from concrete examples to abstract theorems, via tutorial-type exercises. More exercises (of the kind a student may expect in examination papers) are grouped at the end of each section. The book covers the most important basics of any first course on linear algebra, explaining the algebra of matrices with applications to analytic geometry, systems of linear equations, difference equations and complex numbers. Linear equations are treated via Hermite normal forms which provides a successful and concrete explanation of the notion of linear independence. Another important highlight is the connection between linear mappings and matrices leading to the change of basis theorem which opens the door to the notion of similarity. This new and revised edition features additional exercises and coverage of Cramer's rule (omitted from the first edition). However, it is the new, extra chapter on computer assistance that will be of particular interest to readers:...

  1. Basic Semiconductor Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hamaguchi, Chihiro

    2010-01-01

    This book presents a detailed description of the basic semiconductor physics. The reader is assumed to have a basic command of mathematics and some elementary knowledge of solid state physics. The text covers a wide range of important phenomena in semiconductors, from the simple to the advanced. The reader can understand three different methods of energy band calculations, empirical pseudo-potential, k.p perturbation and tight-binding methods. The effective mass approximation and electron motion in a periodic potential, Boltzmann transport equation and deformation potentials used for full band Monte Carlo simulation are discussed. Experiments and theoretical analysis of cyclotron resonance are discussed in detail because the results are essential to the understanding of semiconductor physics. Optical and transport properties, magneto-transport, two dimensional electron gas transport (HEMT and MOSFET), and quantum transport are reviewed, explaining optical transition, electron phonon interactions, electron mob...

  2. Emulsion Science Basic Principles

    CERN Document Server

    Leal-Calderon, Fernando; Schmitt, Véronique

    2007-01-01

    Emulsions are generally made out of two immiscible fluids like oil and water, one being dispersed in the second in the presence of surface-active compounds.They are used as intermediate or end products in a huge range of areas including the food, chemical, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, paint, and coating industries. Besides the broad domain of technological interest, emulsions are raising a variety of fundamental questions at the frontier between physics and chemistry. This book aims to give an overview of the most recent advances in emulsion science. The basic principles, covering aspects of emulsions from their preparation to their destruction, are presented in close relation to both the fundamental physics and the applications of these materials. The book is intended to help scientists and engineers in formulating new materials by giving them the basics of emulsion science.

  3. Basics of statistical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Müller-Kirsten, Harald J W

    2013-01-01

    Statistics links microscopic and macroscopic phenomena, and requires for this reason a large number of microscopic elements like atoms. The results are values of maximum probability or of averaging. This introduction to statistical physics concentrates on the basic principles, and attempts to explain these in simple terms supplemented by numerous examples. These basic principles include the difference between classical and quantum statistics, a priori probabilities as related to degeneracies, the vital aspect of indistinguishability as compared with distinguishability in classical physics, the differences between conserved and non-conserved elements, the different ways of counting arrangements in the three statistics (Maxwell-Boltzmann, Fermi-Dirac, Bose-Einstein), the difference between maximization of the number of arrangements of elements, and averaging in the Darwin-Fowler method. Significant applications to solids, radiation and electrons in metals are treated in separate chapters, as well as Bose-Eins...

  4. Basic electronic circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Buckley, P M

    1980-01-01

    In the past, the teaching of electricity and electronics has more often than not been carried out from a theoretical and often highly academic standpoint. Fundamentals and basic concepts have often been presented with no indication of their practical appli­ cations, and all too frequently they have been illustrated by artificially contrived laboratory experiments bearing little relationship to the outside world. The course comes in the form of fourteen fairly open-ended constructional experiments or projects. Each experiment has associated with it a construction exercise and an explanation. The basic idea behind this dual presentation is that the student can embark on each circuit following only the briefest possible instructions and that an open-ended approach is thereby not prejudiced by an initial lengthy encounter with the theory behind the project; this being a sure way to dampen enthusiasm at the outset. As the investigation progresses, questions inevitably arise. Descriptions of the phenomena encounte...

  5. Basic ergodic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Nadkarni, M G

    2013-01-01

    This is an introductory book on Ergodic Theory. The presentation has a slow pace and the book can be read by any person with a background in basic measure theory and metric topology. A new feature of the book is that the basic topics of Ergodic Theory such as the Poincare recurrence lemma, induced automorphisms and Kakutani towers, compressibility and E. Hopf's theorem, the theorem of Ambrose on representation of flows are treated at the descriptive set-theoretic level before their measure-theoretic or topological versions are presented. In addition, topics around the Glimm-Effros theorem are discussed. In the third edition a chapter entitled 'Additional Topics' has been added. It gives Liouville's Theorem on the existence of invariant measure, entropy theory leading up to Kolmogorov-Sinai Theorem, and the topological dynamics proof of van der Waerden's theorem on arithmetical progressions.

  6. Basic approach to estimate subsidence and effective palaeo-heat flow of sediment basins using maturity data. Evaluation of selected regions of the Rhine Valley Graben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stiller, E.; Berner, U. [Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, Hannover (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    Jurassic sediments of the Rhine Valley Graben (RVG) are recognised by Ladage and Berner (2012) as potential shale gas targets. The geological and tectonic development of the region is complicated, which also holds true for the past and present-day heat flow systems, which have a major imprint on the hydrocarbon generation of the region. We focus on the evaluation of the palaeo-heat flow of the RVG using thermal maturities of organic matter applying the method of Stiller and Berner (2012) which facilitates basin modeling through easy to generate pre-modeling information. Palaeo-subsurface temperatures and related heat flows of selected boreholes at the flanks and the center of the RVG have been restored. However, the reconstruction of a maximum burial is a challenge, because high temperatures within the RVG affected the physical properties of the sediments. Restored palaeo-temperatures and heat flows indicate high temperatures in the graben center and lower values at the graben flanks, however they appear to be lower then present-day temperature conditions in certain regions. The temperature distribution of the RVG has been and is still affected by circulating hot fluids and cold meteoric waters. Present-day thermal effects were not quantified by our method and complicate the reconstruction of the palaeo-temperature conditions. The results of our approach are validated using basin modeling.

  7. Development and evaluation of a basic physical and sports activity program for preschool children in nursery schools in iran: an interventional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordi, Ramin; Nourian, Ruhollah; Ghayour, Mahboubeh; Kordi, Mahboubeh; Younesian, Ali

    2012-09-01

    The objectives of this study were a) to develop a physical activity program for nursery schools, and b) to evaluate the effects of this program on fundamental movement skills of preschool age children in Iran. In this quasi-experimental study 147 children from five nursery schools in five different cities in Iran were enrolled. A physical activity program was developed for nursery children. Trained nursery physical activity instructors conducted the program for 10 weeks for all subjects. The levels of gross motor development of all subjects were measured before intervention and after 10 weeks physical activity program employing the Test of Gross Motor Development-edition 2 (TGMD-2). The participants in this study had a mean (SD) age of 4.95 (0.83) years. At the end of the study, scores of subjects at all components of TGMD-2 (including locomotor, object control, sum of standard scores and gross motor quotient) were significantly improved compared to the baseline scores (P120) and after 10 weeks intervention this rate was increased to 49.7% of all subjects. It seems that the developed physical activity program conducted by trained nursery physical activity instructors could be an effective and practical way of increasing levels of fundamental movement skills of preschool children in Iran.

  8. Risk communication basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corrado, P.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    In low-trust, high-concern situations, 50% of your credibility comes from perceived empathy and caring, demonstrated in the first 30 s you come in contact with someone. There is no second chance for a first impression. These and other principles contained in this paper provide you with a basic level of understanding of risk communication. The principles identified are time-tested caveats and will assist you in effectively communicating technical information.

  9. Menstrual Cycle: Basic Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Hawkins, Shannon M.; Matzuk, Martin M.

    2008-01-01

    The basic biology of the menstrual cycle is a complex, coordinated sequence of events involving the hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, ovary, and endometrium. The menstrual cycle with all its complexities can be easily perturbed by environmental factors such as stress, extreme exercise, eating disorders, and obesity. Furthermore, genetic influences such as fragile X premutations (Chapter X), X chromosome abnormalities (Chapter X), and galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) point mutati...

  10. Basic of Neutron NDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trahan, Alexis Chanel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-15

    The objectives of this presentation are to introduce the basic physics of neutron production, interactions and detection; identify the processes that generate neutrons; explain the most common neutron mechanism, spontaneous and induced fission and (a,n) reactions; describe the properties of neutron from different sources; recognize advantages of neutron measurements techniques; recognize common neutrons interactions; explain neutron cross section measurements; describe the fundamental of 3He detector function and designs; and differentiate between passive and active assay techniques.

  11. Basics of Computer Networking

    CERN Document Server

    Robertazzi, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Springer Brief Basics of Computer Networking provides a non-mathematical introduction to the world of networks. This book covers both technology for wired and wireless networks. Coverage includes transmission media, local area networks, wide area networks, and network security. Written in a very accessible style for the interested layman by the author of a widely used textbook with many years of experience explaining concepts to the beginner.

  12. Basic Financial Accounting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiborg, Karsten

    This textbook on Basic Financial Accounting is targeted students in the economics studies at universities and business colleges having an introductory subject in the external dimension of the company's economic reporting, including bookkeeping, etc. The book includes the following subjects......: business entities, the transformation process, types of businesses, stakeholders, legislation, the annual report, the VAT system, double-entry bookkeeping, inventories, and year-end cast flow analysis....

  13. The basic anaesthesia machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C L Gurudatt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available After WTG Morton′s first public demonstration in 1846 of use of ether as an anaesthetic agent, for many years anaesthesiologists did not require a machine to deliver anaesthesia to the patients. After the introduction of oxygen and nitrous oxide in the form of compressed gases in cylinders, there was a necessity for mounting these cylinders on a metal frame. This stimulated many people to attempt to construct the anaesthesia machine. HEG Boyle in the year 1917 modified the Gwathmey′s machine and this became popular as Boyle anaesthesia machine. Though a lot of changes have been made for the original Boyle machine still the basic structure remains the same. All the subsequent changes which have been brought are mainly to improve the safety of the patients. Knowing the details of the basic machine will make the trainee to understand the additional improvements. It is also important for every practicing anaesthesiologist to have a thorough knowledge of the basic anaesthesia machine for safe conduct of anaesthesia.

  14. Projecting the future of Canada's population: assumptions, implications, and policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beaujot, Roderic

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available After considering the assumptions for fertility, mortality and international migration, this paper looks at implications of the evolving demographics for population growth, labour force, retirement, and population distribution. With the help of policies favouring gender equity and supporting families of various types, fertility in Canada could avoid the particularly low levels seen in some countries, and remain at levels closer to 1.6 births per woman. The prognosis in terms of both risk factors and treatment suggests further reductions in mortality toward a life expectancy of 85. On immigration, there are political interests for levels as high as 270,000 per year, while levels of 150,000 correspond to the long term post-war average. The future will see slower population growth, and due to migration more than natural increase. International migration of some 225,000 per year can enable Canada to avoid population decline, and sustain the size of the labour force, but all scenarios show much change in the relative size of the retired compared to the labour force population. According to the ratio of persons aged 20-64 to that aged 65 and over, there were seven persons at labour force ages per person at retirement age in 1951, compared to five in 2001 and probably less than 2.5 in 2051. Growth that is due to migration more so than natural increase will accentuate the urbanization trend and the unevenness of the population distribution over space. Past projections have under-projected the mortality improvements and their impact on the relative size of the population at older age groups. Policies regarding fertility, mortality and migration could be aimed at avoiding population decline and reducing the effect of aging, but there is lack of an institutional basis for policy that would seek to endogenize population.

  15. Cosmology without Einstein's assumption that inertial mass produces gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Homer G.

    2015-06-01

    Giving up Einstein's assumption, implicit in his 1916 field equations, that inertial mass, even in its appearance as energy, is equivalent to active gravitational mass and therefore is a source of gravity allows revising the field equations to a form in which a positive cosmological constant is seen to (mis)represent a uniform negative net mass density of gravitationally attractive and gravitationally repulsive matter. Field equations with both positive and negative active gravitational mass densities of both primordial and continuously created matter, incorporated along with two scalar fields to 'relax the constraints' on the spacetime geometry, yield cosmological solutions that exhibit inflation, deceleration, coasting, acceleration, and a 'big bounce' instead of a 'big bang,' and provide good fits to a Hubble diagram of Type Ia supernovae data. The repulsive matter is identified as the back sides of the 'drainholes' introduced by the author in 1973 as solutions of those same field equations. Drainholes (prototypical examples of 'traversable wormholes') are topological tunnels in space which gravitationally attract on their front, entrance sides, and repel more strongly on their back, exit sides. The front sides serve both as the gravitating cores of the visible, baryonic particles of primordial matter and as the continuously created, invisible particles of the 'dark matter' needed to hold together the large-scale structures seen in the universe; the back sides serve as the misnamed 'dark energy' driving the current acceleration of the expansion of the universe. Formation of cosmic voids, walls, filaments and nodes is attributed to expulsion of drainhole entrances from regions populated by drainhole exits and accumulation of the entrances on boundaries separating those regions.

  16. Evaluation of Water Sanitation Health Education Programme: Working with the Knowledge of the Basic Sanitation Services in a Developing Community in Rural Haiti after the 2010 Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Ortiz, V E; Calderón-Alicea, W; Castillo, R; Cintrón-García, J J; Cintrón-García, J J; Colón Cruz, L; Hernández-Muñoz, A; Irizarry-Pérez, I; Lockward, I; Neste-Laboy, C; Ortíz-León, M; Peréz-Homar, A; Pérez, J; Ramírez-López, W; Rivera, L; Scholz, D; Soto-Ortíz, M; Torres-García, A

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study is to measure the knowledge regarding the new sanitation water system being implemented in Dessources, a rural community in the municipality of Croix-des-Bouquets in Haiti after a two-year intervention programme. A cross-sectional epidemiologic design was used to measure the knowledge of the people in the community using a semi-structured questionnaire. Data collection followed a face-to-face interview process in all houses of the community. The instrument content validity was performed by a panel of experts followed by Cronbach's alpha test to establish the reliability of knowledge scale. In addition, association measures were done using Stata 11.0 statistical package. Content validity test were performed with minimum changes and an alpha of 0.74 was obtained for the scale. Response rate was 65.57% (41/60 houses); non-participants were only those who did not meet the inclusion criteria. Most of the participants (77.5%) were 21-49 years old and 85% had been living in the community for more than 20 years. Bivariate analysis showed that the people of Dessources had adequate knowledge. Significant differences, however, were found among the zones that are not in use of the new sanitary systems and among families with more than seven members per house. Differences found can be explained based on the Rogers theoretical diffusion of innovation model. The evaluation shows that people of Dessources in Haiti have a high knowledge regarding the new water sanitation system and provided evidence of an adequate health education programme intervention.

  17. Back to basics: an evaluation of NaOH and alternative rapid DNA extraction protocols for DNA barcoding, genotyping, and disease diagnostics from fungal and oomycete samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmundson, Todd W; Eyre, Catherine A; Hayden, Katherine M; Dhillon, Jaskirn; Garbelotto, Matteo M

    2013-01-01

    The ubiquity, high diversity and often-cryptic manifestations of fungi and oomycetes frequently necessitate molecular tools for detecting and identifying them in the environment. In applications including DNA barcoding, pathogen detection from plant samples, and genotyping for population genetics and epidemiology, rapid and dependable DNA extraction methods scalable from one to hundreds of samples are desirable. We evaluated several rapid extraction methods (NaOH, Rapid one-step extraction (ROSE), Chelex 100, proteinase K) for their ability to obtain DNA of quantity and quality suitable for the following applications: PCR amplification of the multicopy barcoding locus ITS1/5.8S/ITS2 from various fungal cultures and sporocarps; single-copy microsatellite amplification from cultures of the phytopathogenic oomycete Phytophthora ramorum; probe-based P. ramorum detection from leaves. Several methods were effective for most of the applications, with NaOH extraction favored in terms of success rate, cost, speed and simplicity. Frozen dilutions of ROSE and NaOH extracts maintained PCR viability for over 32 months. DNA from rapid extractions performed poorly compared to CTAB/phenol-chloroform extracts for TaqMan diagnostics from tanoak leaves, suggesting that incomplete removal of PCR inhibitors is an issue for sensitive diagnostic procedures, especially from plants with recalcitrant leaf chemistry. NaOH extracts exhibited lower yield and size than CTAB/phenol-chloroform extracts; however, NaOH extraction facilitated obtaining clean sequence data from sporocarps contaminated by other fungi, perhaps due to dilution resulting from low DNA yield. We conclude that conventional extractions are often unnecessary for routine DNA sequencing or genotyping of fungi and oomycetes, and recommend simpler strategies where source materials and intended applications warrant such use. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. White Noise Assumptions Revisited : Regression Models and Statistical Designs for Simulation Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Kleijnen, J.P.C.

    2006-01-01

    Classic linear regression models and their concomitant statistical designs assume a univariate response and white noise.By definition, white noise is normally, independently, and identically distributed with zero mean.This survey tries to answer the following questions: (i) How realistic are these classic assumptions in simulation practice?(ii) How can these assumptions be tested? (iii) If assumptions are violated, can the simulation's I/O data be transformed such that the assumptions hold?(i...

  19. School Principals' Assumptions about Human Nature: Implications for Leadership in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabanci, Ali

    2008-01-01

    This article considers principals' assumptions about human nature in Turkey and the relationship between the assumptions held and the leadership style adopted in schools. The findings show that school principals hold Y-type assumptions and prefer a relationship-oriented style in their relations with assistant principals. However, both principals…

  20. Exploring the Influence of Ethnicity, Age, and Trauma on Prisoners' World Assumptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Sandy

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the author explores world assumptions of prisoners, how these assumptions vary by ethnicity and age, and whether trauma history affects world assumptions. A random sample of young and old prisoners, matched for prison location, was drawn from the New Jersey Department of Corrections prison population. Age and ethnicity had…

  1. 7 CFR 1436.16 - Foreclosure, liquidation, assumptions, sales or conveyance, or bankruptcy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... subsequent borrower's ability to show a satisfactory credit history. An assumption of the loan may be... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Foreclosure, liquidation, assumptions, sales or... FARM STORAGE FACILITY LOAN PROGRAM REGULATIONS § 1436.16 Foreclosure, liquidation, assumptions, sales...

  2. Philosophy of Technology Assumptions in Educational Technology Leadership: Questioning Technological Determinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Mark David

    2013-01-01

    Scholars have emphasized that decisions about technology can be influenced by philosophy of technology assumptions, and have argued for research that critically questions technological determinist assumptions. Empirical studies of technology management in fields other than K-12 education provided evidence that philosophy of technology assumptions,…

  3. The necessary distinction between methodology and philosophical assumptions in healthcare research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesel, Terje

    2013-09-01

    Methodological discussions within healthcare research have traditionally described a methodological dichotomy between qualitative and quantitative methods. The aim of this article is to demonstrate that such a dichotomy presents unnecessary obstacles for good research design and is methodologically and philosophically unsustainable. The issue of incommensurability is not a question of method but rather a question of the philosophical premises underpinning a given method. Thus, transparency on the philosophical level is important for validity and consistency as well as for attempts to integrate or establish an interface to other research. I argue that it is necessary to make a distinction between methodology and philosophical assumptions and to ensure consistency in these correlations. Furthermore, I argue that the question of incommensurability is best answered at this basic philosophical level. The complexity of health care calls for methodological pluralism and creativity that utilises the strength of both qualitative and quantitative approaches. Transparency and consistency on the philosophical level can facilitate new mixed methods research designs that may be promising methodological assets for healthcare research. I believe we are ill served by fortified positions that continue to uphold old battle lines. Empirical research begins in the field of practice and requires a certain amount of pragmatism. However, this pragmatism must be philosophically informed. © 2012 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences © 2012 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  4. Personal and Communal Assumptions to Determine Pragmatic Meanings of Phatic Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunjana Rahardi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This research was meant to describe the manifestations of phatic function in the education domain. The phatic function in the communication and interaction happening in the education domain could be accurately identified when the utterances were not separated from their determining pragmatic context. The context must not be limited only to contextual and social or societal perspectives, but must be defined as basic assumptions. The data of this research included various kinds of speech gathered naturally in education circles that contain phatic functions. Two methods of data gathering were employed in this study, namely listening and conversation methods. Recorded data was analyzed through the steps as follows (1 data were identified based on the discourse markers found (2 data were classified based on the phatic perception criteria; (3 data were interpreted based on the referenced theories; (4 data were described in the form of analysis result description. The research proves that phatic function in the form of small talks in the education domain cannot be separated from the context surrounding it. 

  5. Quality quantification model of basic raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Š. Vilamová

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Basic raw materials belong to the key input sources in the production of pig iron. The properties of basic raw materials can be evaluated using a variety of criteria. The essential ones include the physical and chemical properties. Current competitive pressures, however, force the producers of iron more and more often to include cost and logistic criteria into the decision-making process. In this area, however, they are facing a problem of how to convert a variety of vastly different parameters into one evaluation indicator in order to compare the available raw materials. This article deals with the analysis of a model created to evaluate the basic raw materials, which was designed as part of the research.

  6. The ozone depletion potentials on halocarbons: Their dependence of calculation assumptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karol, Igor L.; Kiselev, Andrey A.

    1994-01-01

    The concept of Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP) is widely used in the evaluation of numerous halocarbons and of their replacement effects on ozone, but the methods, assumptions and conditions used in ODP calculations have not been analyzed adequately. In this paper a model study of effects on ozone of the instantaneous releases of various amounts of CH3CCl3 and of CHF2Cl (HCFC-22) for several compositions of the background atmosphere are presented, aimed at understanding connections of ODP values with the assumptions used in their calculations. To facilitate the ODP computation in numerous versions for the long time periods after their releases, the above rather short-lived gases and the one-dimensional radiative photochemical model of the global annually averaged atmospheric layer up to 50 km height are used. The variation of released gas global mass from 1 Mt to 1 Gt leads to ODP value increase with its stabilization close to the upper bound of this range in the contemporary atmosphere. The same variations are analyzed for conditions of the CFC-free atmosphere of 1960's and for the anthropogenically loaded atmosphere in the 21st century according to the known IPCC 'business as usual' scenario. Recommendations for proper ways of ODP calculations are proposed for practically important cases.

  7. Simplified subsurface modelling: data assimilation and violated model assumptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdal, Daniel; Lange, Natascha; Neuweiler, Insa

    2017-04-01

    Integrated models are gaining more and more attention in hydrological modelling as they can better represent the interaction between different compartments. Naturally, these models come along with larger numbers of unknowns and requirements on computational resources compared to stand-alone models. If large model domains are to be represented, e.g. on catchment scale, the resolution of the numerical grid needs to be reduced or the model itself needs to be simplified. Both approaches lead to a reduced ability to reproduce the present processes. This lack of model accuracy may be compensated by using data assimilation methods. In these methods observations are used to update the model states, and optionally model parameters as well, in order to reduce the model error induced by the imposed simplifications. What is unclear is whether these methods combined with strongly simplified models result in completely data-driven models or if they can even be used to make adequate predictions of the model state for times when no observations are available. In the current work we consider the combined groundwater and unsaturated zone, which can be modelled in a physically consistent way using 3D-models solving the Richards equation. For use in simple predictions, however, simpler approaches may be considered. The question investigated here is whether a simpler model, in which the groundwater is modelled as a horizontal 2D-model and the unsaturated zones as a few sparse 1D-columns, can be used within an Ensemble Kalman filter to give predictions of groundwater levels and unsaturated fluxes. This is tested under conditions where the feedback between the two model-compartments are large (e.g. shallow groundwater table) and the simplification assumptions are clearly violated. Such a case may be a steep hill-slope or pumping wells, creating lateral fluxes in the unsaturated zone, or strong heterogeneous structures creating unaccounted flows in both the saturated and unsaturated

  8. Catalyst in Basic Oleochemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Suyenty

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently Indonesia is the world largest palm oil producer with production volume reaching 16 million tones per annum. The high crude oil and ethylene prices in the last 3 – 4 years contribute to the healthy demand growth for basic oleochemicals: fatty acids and fatty alcohols. Oleochemicals are starting to replace crude oil derived products in various applications. As widely practiced in petrochemical industry, catalyst plays a very important role in the production of basic oleochemicals. Catalytic reactions are abound in the production of oleochemicals: Nickel based catalysts are used in the hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids; sodium methylate catalyst in the transesterification of triglycerides; sulfonic based polystyrene resin catalyst in esterification of fatty acids; and copper chromite/copper zinc catalyst in the high pressure hydrogenation of methyl esters or fatty acids to produce fatty alcohols. To maintain long catalyst life, it is crucial to ensure the absence of catalyst poisons and inhibitors in the feed. The preparation methods of nickel and copper chromite catalysts are as follows: precipitation, filtration, drying, and calcinations. Sodium methylate is derived from direct reaction of sodium metal and methanol under inert gas. The sulfonic based polystyrene resin is derived from sulfonation of polystyrene crosslinked with di-vinyl-benzene. © 2007 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.[Presented at Symposium and Congress of MKICS 2007, 18-19 April 2007, Semarang, Indonesia][How to Cite: E. Suyenty, H. Sentosa, M. Agustine, S. Anwar, A. Lie, E. Sutanto. (2007. Catalyst in Basic Oleochemicals. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 2 (2-3: 22-31.  doi:10.9767/bcrec.2.2-3.6.22-31][How to Link/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.2.2-3.6.22-31 || or local: http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/6

  9. Evaluating Basic Grammar Projects, Using the SAMR Model (La evaluación de proyectos de Gramática Básica según el modelo SAMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Giangiulio Lobo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The research evaluates the projects assigned in two basic grammar courses of the English teaching majors, at Universidad Nacional in Costa Rica, using the SAMR framework for evaluating learning activities that implemented Information and Communication Technologies. First, the relevance of the use of these projects is presented. Second, the SAMR framework is explained. Third, the six different projects are discussed and evaluated according to the SAMR framework, taking into consideration the students’ perceptions. Recommendations are given regarding the use of technology to learn grammatical structures. Resumen Se analizan proyectos efectuados en dos cursos básicos de gramática para las carreras de enseñanza del inglés, en la Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica, mediante el modelo SAMR para la evaluación de actividades de aprendizaje que se valen de tecnologías de la información y la comunicación. En primer lugar, se refiere a la pertinencia del uso de este tipo de proyecto; en segundo lugar, se describe y explica tal modelo; y en tercer lugar se analizan los proyectos llevados a cabo con base en el modelo, teniendo en cuenta la percepción del estudiantado. Se dan recomendaciones en cuanto al uso de la tecnología para el aprendizaje de estructuras gramaticales.

  10. Basic structural dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, James C

    2012-01-01

    A concise introduction to structural dynamics and earthquake engineering Basic Structural Dynamics serves as a fundamental introduction to the topic of structural dynamics. Covering single and multiple-degree-of-freedom systems while providing an introduction to earthquake engineering, the book keeps the coverage succinct and on topic at a level that is appropriate for undergraduate and graduate students. Through dozens of worked examples based on actual structures, it also introduces readers to MATLAB, a powerful software for solving both simple and complex structural d

  11. Basic genetics for dermatologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthu Sendhil Kumaran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During the past few decades, advances in the field of molecular genetics have enriched us in understanding the pathogenesis of diseases, their identification, and appropriate therapeutic interventions. In the last 20 years, genetic basis of more than 350 monogenic skin diseases have been elucidated and is counting. The widespread use of molecular genetics as a tool in diagnosis is not practiced routinely due to genetic heterogenicity, limited access and low sensitivity. In this review, we have presented the very basics of genetics so as to enable dermatologists to have working understanding of medical genetics.

  12. Basic heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Bacon, D H

    2013-01-01

    Basic Heat Transfer aims to help readers use a computer to solve heat transfer problems and to promote greater understanding by changing data values and observing the effects, which are necessary in design and optimization calculations.The book is concerned with applications including insulation and heating in buildings and pipes, temperature distributions in solids for steady state and transient conditions, the determination of surface heat transfer coefficients for convection in various situations, radiation heat transfer in grey body problems, the use of finned surfaces, and simple heat exc

  13. C# Database Basics

    CERN Document Server

    Schmalz, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Working with data and databases in C# certainly can be daunting if you're coming from VB6, VBA, or Access. With this hands-on guide, you'll shorten the learning curve considerably as you master accessing, adding, updating, and deleting data with C#-basic skills you need if you intend to program with this language. No previous knowledge of C# is necessary. By following the examples in this book, you'll learn how to tackle several database tasks in C#, such as working with SQL Server, building data entry forms, and using data in a web service. The book's code samples will help you get started

  14. Machine shop basics

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Rex

    2004-01-01

    Use the right tool the right wayHere, fully updated to include new machines and electronic/digital controls, is the ultimate guide to basic machine shop equipment and how to use it. Whether you're a professional machinist, an apprentice, a trade student, or a handy homeowner, this fully illustrated volume helps you define tools and use them properly and safely. It's packed with review questions for students, and loaded with answers you need on the job.Mark Richard Miller is a Professor and Chairman of the Industrial Technology Department at Texas A&M University in Kingsville, T

  15. Back to basics audio

    CERN Document Server

    Nathan, Julian

    1998-01-01

    Back to Basics Audio is a thorough, yet approachable handbook on audio electronics theory and equipment. The first part of the book discusses electrical and audio principles. Those principles form a basis for understanding the operation of equipment and systems, covered in the second section. Finally, the author addresses planning and installation of a home audio system.Julian Nathan joined the audio service and manufacturing industry in 1954 and moved into motion picture engineering and production in 1960. He installed and operated recording theaters in Sydney, Austra

  16. Electrical installation calculations basic

    CERN Document Server

    Kitcher, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    All the essential calculations required for basic electrical installation workThe Electrical Installation Calculations series has proved an invaluable reference for over forty years, for both apprentices and professional electrical installation engineers alike. The book provides a step-by-step guide to the successful application of electrical installation calculations required in day-to-day electrical engineering practice. A step-by-step guide to everyday calculations used on the job An essential aid to the City & Guilds certificates at Levels 2 and 3Fo

  17. VQABQ: Visual Question Answering by Basic Questions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jia-Hong

    2017-03-19

    Taking an image and question as the input of our method, it can output the text-based answer of the query question about the given image, so called Visual Question Answering (VQA). There are two main modules in our algorithm. Given a natural language question about an image, the first module takes the question as input and then outputs the basic questions of the main given question. The second module takes the main question, image and these basic questions as input and then outputs the text-based answer of the main question. We formulate the basic questions generation problem as a LASSO optimization problem, and also propose a criterion about how to exploit these basic questions to help answer main question. Our method is evaluated on the challenging VQA dataset and yields state-of-the-art accuracy, 60.34% in open-ended task.

  18. Regression assumptions in clinical psychology research practice-a systematic review of common misconceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Anja F; Albers, Casper J

    2017-01-01

    Misconceptions about the assumptions behind the standard linear regression model are widespread and dangerous. These lead to using linear regression when inappropriate, and to employing alternative procedures with less statistical power when unnecessary. Our systematic literature review investigated employment and reporting of assumption checks in twelve clinical psychology journals. Findings indicate that normality of the variables themselves, rather than of the errors, was wrongfully held for a necessary assumption in 4% of papers that use regression. Furthermore, 92% of all papers using linear regression were unclear about their assumption checks, violating APA-recommendations. This paper appeals for a heightened awareness for and increased transparency in the reporting of statistical assumption checking.

  19. Basic research projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-04-01

    The research programs under the cognizance of the Office of Energy Research (OER) are directed toward discovery of natural laws and new knowledge, and to improved understanding of the physical and biological sciences as related to the development, use, and control of energy. The ultimate goal is to develop a scientific underlay for the overall DOE effort and the fundamental principles of natural phenomena so that these phenomena may be understood, and new principles, formulated. The DOE-OER outlay activities include three major programs: High Energy Physics, Nuclear Physics, and Basic Energy Sciences. Taken together, these programs represent some 30 percent of the Nation's Federal support of basic research in the energy sciences. The research activities of OER involve more than 6,000 scientists and engineers working in some 17 major Federal Research Centers and at more than 135 different universities and industrial firms throughout the United States. Contract holders in the areas of high-energy physics, nuclear physics, materials sciences, nuclear science, chemical sciences, engineering, mathematics geosciences, advanced energy projects, and biological energy research are listed. Funding trends for recent years are outlined. (RWR)

  20. Basic and clinical immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinen, Javier; Shearer, William T.

    2003-01-01

    Progress in immunology continues to grow exponentially every year. New applications of this knowledge are being developed for a broad range of clinical conditions. Conversely, the study of primary and secondary immunodeficiencies is helping to elucidate the intricate mechanisms of the immune system. We have selected a few of the most significant contributions to the fields of basic and clinical immunology published between October 2001 and October 2002. Our choice of topics in basic immunology included the description of T-bet as a determinant factor for T(H)1 differentiation, the role of the activation-induced cytosine deaminase gene in B-cell development, the characterization of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells, and the use of dynamic imaging to study MHC class II transport and T-cell and dendritic cell membrane interactions. Articles related to clinical immunology that were selected for review include the description of immunodeficiency caused by caspase 8 deficiency; a case series report on X-linked agammaglobulinemia; the mechanism of action, efficacy, and complications of intravenous immunoglobulin; mechanisms of autoimmunity diseases; and advances in HIV pathogenesis and vaccine development. We also reviewed two articles that explore the possible alterations of the immune system caused by spaceflights, a new field with increasing importance as human space expeditions become a reality in the 21st century.

  1. Improving inference for aerial surveys of bears: The importance of assumptions and the cost of unnecessary complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Joshua H; Wilson, Tammy L; Thompson, William L; Reynolds, Joel H

    2017-07-01

    Obtaining useful estimates of wildlife abundance or density requires thoughtful attention to potential sources of bias and precision, and it is widely understood that addressing incomplete detection is critical to appropriate inference. When the underlying assumptions of sampling approaches are violated, both increased bias and reduced precision of the population estimator may result. Bear (Ursus spp.) populations can be difficult to sample and are often monitored using mark-recapture distance sampling (MRDS) methods, although obtaining adequate sample sizes can be cost prohibitive. With the goal of improving inference, we examined the underlying methodological assumptions and estimator efficiency of three datasets collected under an MRDS protocol designed specifically for bears. We analyzed these data using MRDS, conventional distance sampling (CDS), and open-distance sampling approaches to evaluate the apparent bias-precision tradeoff relative to the assumptions inherent under each approach. We also evaluated the incorporation of informative priors on detection parameters within a Bayesian context. We found that the CDS estimator had low apparent bias and was more efficient than the more complex MRDS estimator. When combined with informative priors on the detection process, precision was increased by >50% compared to the MRDS approach with little apparent bias. In addition, open-distance sampling models revealed a serious violation of the assumption that all bears were available to be sampled. Inference is directly related to the underlying assumptions of the survey design and the analytical tools employed. We show that for aerial surveys of bears, avoidance of unnecessary model complexity, use of prior information, and the application of open population models can be used to greatly improve estimator performance and simplify field protocols. Although we focused on distance sampling-based aerial surveys for bears, the general concepts we addressed apply to a

  2. Local Large-Scale Structure and the Assumption of Homogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Ryan C.; Barger, Amy J.; Cowie, Lennox L.

    2016-10-01

    Our recent estimates of galaxy counts and the luminosity density in the near-infrared (Keenan et al. 2010, 2012) indicated that the local universe may be under-dense on radial scales of several hundred megaparsecs. Such a large-scale local under-density could introduce significant biases in the measurement and interpretation of cosmological observables, such as the inferred effects of dark energy on the rate of expansion. In Keenan et al. (2013), we measured the K-band luminosity density as a function of distance from us to test for such a local under-density. We made this measurement over the redshift range 0.01 0.07, we measure an increasing luminosity density that by z ~ 0.1 rises to a value of ~ 1.5 times higher than that measured locally. This implies that the stellar mass density follows a similar trend. Assuming that the underlying dark matter distribution is traced by this luminous matter, this suggests that the local mass density may be lower than the global mass density of the universe at an amplitude and on a scale that is sufficient to introduce significant biases into the measurement of basic cosmological observables. At least one study has shown that an under-density of roughly this amplitude and scale could resolve the apparent tension between direct local measurements of the Hubble constant and those inferred by Planck team. Other theoretical studies have concluded that such an under-density could account for what looks like an accelerating expansion, even when no dark energy is present.

  3. Evaluating Recommended Literature Texts for Senior Basic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... omission and improper application of prepositions in structures. The implication of the findings in the teaching and learning of English is discussed and suggestions for improvement made. Key words: Literary art(ist), Language acquisition, Grammatical level, Error analysis, Concord incongruity, Articles and Pronouns ...

  4. Challenging Assumptions: Mobile Learning for Mathematics Project in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Nicky; Vanska, Riitta

    2011-01-01

    This article introduces the Nokia Mobile Learning for Mathematics Project in South Africa, which made use of mobile technology to support mathematics learning at 30 public secondary schools. It draws on the evaluation of this project from January to June 2010. The article discusses learner access to mobile devices, learner and teacher uptake and…

  5. Impact of velocity distribution assumption on simplified laser speckle imaging equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-San-Juan, Julio C; Ramos-García, Ruben; Guizar-Iturbide, Ileana; Martínez-Niconoff, Gabriel; Choi, Bernard

    2008-03-03

    Since blood flow is tightly coupled to the health status of biological tissue, several instruments have been developed to monitor blood flow and perfusion dynamics. One such instrument is laser speckle imaging. The goal of this study was to evaluate the use of two velocity distribution assumptions (Lorentzian- and Gaussian-based) to calculate speckle flow index (SFI) values. When the normalized autocorrelation function for the Lorentzian and Gaussian velocity distributions satisfy the same definition of correlation time, then the same velocity range is predicted for low speckle contrast (0 < C < 0.6) and predict different flow velocity range for high contrast. Our derived equations form the basis for simplified calculations of SFI values.

  6. Basic Tools: Program Listing Processor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, Antonio

    1988-01-01

    Presents a program that provides a structured listing of BASIC computer programs in a text file. Indents for-next loops for better appearance and easier understanding. Lists program and provides for several versions of BASIC. (MVL)

  7. Basic semiconductor physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hamaguchi, Chihiro

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a detailed description of basic semiconductor physics. The text covers a wide range of important phenomena in semiconductors, from the simple to the advanced. Four different methods of energy band calculations in the full band region are explained: local empirical pseudopotential, non-local pseudopotential, KP perturbation and tight-binding methods. The effective mass approximation and electron motion in a periodic potential, Boltzmann transport equation and deformation potentials used for analysis of transport properties are discussed. Further, the book examines experiments and theoretical analyses of cyclotron resonance in detail. Optical and transport properties, magneto-transport, two-dimensional electron gas transport (HEMT and MOSFET) and quantum transport are reviewed, while optical transition, electron-phonon interaction and electron mobility are also addressed. Energy and electronic structure of a quantum dot (artificial atom) are explained with the help of Slater determinants. The...

  8. Basic real analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Sohrab, Houshang H

    2014-01-01

    This expanded second edition presents the fundamentals and touchstone results of real analysis in full rigor, but in a style that requires little prior familiarity with proofs or mathematical language. The text is a comprehensive and largely self-contained introduction to the theory of real-valued functions of a real variable. The chapters on Lebesgue measure and integral have been rewritten entirely and greatly improved. They now contain Lebesgue’s differentiation theorem as well as his versions of the Fundamental Theorem(s) of Calculus. With expanded chapters, additional problems, and an expansive solutions manual, Basic Real Analysis, Second Edition, is ideal for senior undergraduates and first-year graduate students, both as a classroom text and a self-study guide. Reviews of first edition: The book is a clear and well-structured introduction to real analysis aimed at senior undergraduate and beginning graduate students. The prerequisites are few, but a certain mathematical sophistication is required. ....

  9. Cloud computing basics

    CERN Document Server

    Srinivasan, S

    2014-01-01

    Cloud Computing Basics covers the main aspects of this fast moving technology so that both practitioners and students will be able to understand cloud computing. The author highlights the key aspects of this technology that a potential user might want to investigate before deciding to adopt this service. This book explains how cloud services can be used to augment existing services such as storage, backup and recovery. Addressing the details on how cloud security works and what the users must be prepared for when they move their data to the cloud. Also this book discusses how businesses could prepare for compliance with the laws as well as industry standards such as the Payment Card Industry.

  10. Basic engineering mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Bird, John

    2014-01-01

    Introductory mathematics written specifically for students new to engineering Now in its sixth edition, Basic Engineering Mathematics is an established textbook that has helped thousands of students to succeed in their exams. John Bird's approach is based on worked examples and interactive problems. This makes it ideal for students from a wide range of academic backgrounds as the student can work through the material at their own pace. Mathematical theories are explained in a straightforward manner, being supported by practical engineering examples and applications in order to ensure that readers can relate theory to practice. The extensive and thorough topic coverage makes this an ideal text for introductory level engineering courses. This title is supported by a companion website with resources for both students and lecturers, including lists of essential formulae, multiple choice tests, full solutions for all 1,600 further questions contained within the practice exercises, and biographical information on t...

  11. Basic MHD Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresnyak, Andrey

    2013-01-01

    Astrophysical fluids are conductive, magnetized and turbulent. This entails a variety of phenomena, two most basic of which is the dynamo and the energy cascade. Very well known empirically in hydrodynamics so called "zeroth law of turbulence" states that even if viscosity goes to zero, energy dissipation does not, but goes to a constant. It turns out that in MHD not only this still holds true, but another basic law, which I call "zeroth law of dynamo", is valid, namely that if Reynolds numbers are sufficiently high and magnetic energy is low, the latter will grow at a constant rate, which is a fraction of the total dissipation rate. Another point of interest for an astrophysicist is the properties of MHD cascade in the inertial range. I will argue that both theory and numerics favor Kolmogorov -5/3 slope and not -3/2 slope that was reported earlier. The most challenging problem is so-called imbalanced, or cross-helical case which appear whenever there is a localized source of perturbations, such as the Sun for the solar wind turbulence or the central engine in AGN jets. The standard Goldreich-Sridhar model does not apply in this case and it eluded theoretical description for a long time. The keys to understand energy cascades in the imbalanced case are the anisotropies of the Elsasser fields which turn out to be different. I will show the results of one of the highest resolution simulations ever performed, which were very helpful in discriminating between various viable models of MHD turbulence.

  12. Discrete Neural Signatures of Basic Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarimäki, Heini; Gotsopoulos, Athanasios; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Lampinen, Jouko; Vuilleumier, Patrik; Hari, Riitta; Sams, Mikko; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2016-06-01

    Categorical models of emotions posit neurally and physiologically distinct human basic emotions. We tested this assumption by using multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) to classify brain activity patterns of 6 basic emotions (disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, anger, and surprise) in 3 experiments. Emotions were induced with short movies or mental imagery during functional magnetic resonance imaging. MVPA accurately classified emotions induced by both methods, and the classification generalized from one induction condition to another and across individuals. Brain regions contributing most to the classification accuracy included medial and inferior lateral prefrontal cortices, frontal pole, precentral and postcentral gyri, precuneus, and posterior cingulate cortex. Thus, specific neural signatures across these regions hold representations of different emotional states in multimodal fashion, independently of how the emotions are induced. Similarity of subjective experiences between emotions was associated with similarity of neural patterns for the same emotions, suggesting a direct link between activity in these brain regions and the subjective emotional experience. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Basic metabolic panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sequential multi-channel analysis with computer-7; SMA7; Metabolic panel 7; CHEM-7 ... Bope ET, Kellerman RD. Endocrine and metabolic disorders. In: Bope ET, ... PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 5. Oh MS, Briefel G. Evaluation ...

  14. Bioaccumulation factors and the steady state assumption for cesium isotopes in aquatic foodwebs near nuclear facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, D J

    2013-07-01

    Steady state approaches, such as transfer coefficients or bioaccumulation factors, are commonly used to model the bioaccumulation of (137)Cs in aquatic foodwebs from routine operations and releases from nuclear generating stations and other nuclear facilities. Routine releases from nuclear generating stations and facilities, however, often consist of pulses as liquid waste is stored, analyzed to ensure regulatory compliance and then released. The effect of repeated pulse releases on the steady state assumption inherent in the bioaccumulation factor approach has not been evaluated. In this study, I examine the steady state assumption for aquatic biota by analyzing data for two cesium isotopes in the same biota, one isotope in steady state (stable (133)Cs) from geologic sources and the other released in pulses ((137)Cs) from reactor operations. I also compare (137)Cs bioaccumulation factors for similar upstream populations from the same system exposed solely to weapon test (137)Cs, and assumed to be in steady state. The steady state assumption appears to be valid for small organisms at lower trophic levels (zooplankton, rainbow smelt and 0+ yellow perch) but not for older and larger fish at higher trophic levels (walleye). Attempts to account for previous exposure and retention through a biokinetics approach had a similar effect on steady state, upstream and non-steady state, downstream populations of walleye, but were ineffective in explaining the more or less constant deviation between fish with steady state exposures and non-steady state exposures of about 2-fold for all age classes of walleye. These results suggest that for large, piscivorous fish, repeated exposure to short duration, pulse releases leads to much higher (137)Cs BAFs than expected from (133)Cs BAFs for the same fish or (137)Cs BAFs for similar populations in the same system not impacted by reactor releases. These results suggest that the steady state approach should be used with caution in any

  15. Retinal image registration under the assumption of a spherical eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Matas, Carlos; Zabulis, Xenophon; Triantafyllou, Areti; Anyfanti, Panagiota; Argyros, Antonis A

    2017-01-01

    We propose a method for registering a pair of retinal images. The proposed approach employs point correspondences and assumes that the human eye has a spherical shape. The image registration problem is formulated as a 3D pose estimation problem, solved by estimating the rigid transformation that relates the views from which the two images were acquired. Given this estimate, each image can be warped upon the other so that pixels with the same coordinates image the same retinal point. Extensive experimental evaluation shows improved accuracy over state of the art methods, as well as robustness to noise and spurious keypoint matches. Experiments also indicate the method's applicability to the comparative analysis of images from different examinations that may exhibit changes and its applicability to diagnostic support. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Basic Data on Biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Renewable gases such as biogas and biomethane are considered as key energy carrier when the society is replacing fossil fuels with renewable alternatives. In Sweden, almost 80 % of the fossil fuels are used in the transport sector. Therefore, the focus in Sweden has been to use the produced biogas in this sector as vehicle gas. Basic Data on Biogas contains an overview of production, utilisation, climate effects etc. of biogas from a Swedish perspective. The purpose is to give an easy overview of the current situation in Sweden for politicians, decision makers and interested public. 1.4 TWh of biogas is produced annually in Sweden at approximately 230 facilities. The 135 wastewater treatment plants that produce biogas contribute with around half of the production. In order to reduce the sludge volume, biogas has been produced at wastewater treatment plants for decades. New biogas plants are mainly co-digestion plants and farm plants. The land filling of organic waste has been banned since 2005, thus the biogas produced in landfills is decreasing.

  17. Basic operator theory

    CERN Document Server

    Gohberg, Israel

    2001-01-01

    rii application of linear operators on a Hilbert space. We begin with a chapter on the geometry of Hilbert space and then proceed to the spectral theory of compact self adjoint operators; operational calculus is next presented as a nat­ ural outgrowth of the spectral theory. The second part of the text concentrates on Banach spaces and linear operators acting on these spaces. It includes, for example, the three 'basic principles of linear analysis and the Riesz­ Fredholm theory of compact operators. Both parts contain plenty of applications. All chapters deal exclusively with linear problems, except for the last chapter which is an introduction to the theory of nonlinear operators. In addition to the standard topics in functional anal­ ysis, we have presented relatively recent results which appear, for example, in Chapter VII. In general, in writ­ ing this book, the authors were strongly influenced by re­ cent developments in operator theory which affected the choice of topics, proofs and exercises. One ...

  18. Basics of aerothermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Hirschel, Ernst Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    This successful book gives an introduction to the basics of aerothermodynamics, as applied in particular to winged re-entry vehicles and airbreathing hypersonic cruise and acceleration vehicles. The book gives a review of the issues of transport of momentum, energy and mass, real-gas effects as well as inviscid and viscous flow phenomena. In this second, revised edition the chapters with the classical topics of aerothermodynamics more or less were left untouched. The access to some single topics of practical interest was improved. Auxiliary chapters were put into an appendix. The recent successful flights of the X-43A and the X-51A indicate that the dawn of sustained airbreathing hypersonic flight now has arrived. This proves that the original approach of the book to put emphasis on viscous effects and the aerothermodynamics of radiation-cooled vehicle surfaces was timely. This second, revised edition even more accentuates these topics. A new, additional chapter treats examples of viscous thermal surface eff...

  19. Nanodesign: some basic questions

    CERN Document Server

    Schommers, Wolfram

    2013-01-01

    There is no doubt that nanoscience will be the dominant direction for technology in this century, and that this science will influence our lives to a large extent as well as open completely new perspectives on all scientific and technological disciplines. To be able to produce optimal nanosystems with tailor-made properties, it is necessary to analyze and construct such systems in advance by adequate theoretical and computational methods. Since we work in nanoscience and nanotechnology at the ultimate level, we have to apply the basic laws of physics. What methods and tools are relevant here? The book gives an answer to this question. The background of the theoretical methods and tools is critically discussed, and also the world view on which these physical laws are based. Such a debate is not only of academic interest but is of highly general concern, and this is because we constantly move in nanoscience and nanotechnology between two extreme poles, between infinite life and total destruction . On the one ...

  20. Tank waste remediation system retrieval and disposal mission key enabling assumptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, J.H.

    1998-01-09

    An overall systems approach has been applied to develop action plans to support the retrieval and immobilization waste disposal mission. The review concluded that the systems and infrastructure required to support the mission are known. Required systems are either in place or plans have been developed. An analysis of the programmatic, management and technical activities necessary to declare Readiness to Proceed with execution of the mission demonstrates that the system, people, and hardware will be on line and ready to support the private contractors. The systems approach included defining the retrieval and immobilized waste disposal mission requirements and evaluating the readiness of the TWRS contractor to supply waste feed to the private contractors in June 2002. The Phase 1 feed delivery requirements from the Private Contractor Request for Proposals were reviewed, transfer piping routes were mapped on it, existing systems were evaluated, and upgrade requirements were defined. Technical Basis Reviews were completed to define work scope in greater detail, cost estimates and associated year by year financial analyses were completed. Personnel training, qualifications, management systems and procedures were reviewed and shown to be in place and ready to support the Phase 1B mission. Key assumptions and risks that could negatively impact mission success were evaluated and appropriate mitigative actions plans were planned and scheduled.