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Sample records for evaluating aid effectiveness

  1. Evaluating aid effectiveness in the aggregate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Hansen, Henrik

    The purpose of the present Evaluation Study is to discuss the methodological problems researchers are facing in gauging the impact of aid on economic growth. The discussion is nontechnical and aimed at an audience without much prior knowledge in the fields of macroeconomics and econometrics....

  2. Aid Effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    of the main relationships; (ii) estimating the impact of aid on a range of final and intermediate outcomes; and (iii) quantifying a simplied representation of the full structural form, where aid impacts on growth through key intermediate outcomes. A coherent picture emerges: aid stimulates growth and reduces......Controversy over the aggregate impact of foreign aid has focused on reduced form estimates of the aid-growth link. The causal chain, through which aid affects developmental outcomes including growth, has received much less attention. We address this gap by: (i) specifying a structural model...... poverty through physical capital investment and improvements in health....

  3. Effect of patient decision aid was influenced by presurgical evaluation among patients with osteoarthritis of the knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Laura; Taljaard, Monica; Dervin, Geoffrey; Trenaman, Logan; Tugwell, Peter; Pomey, Marie-Pascale; Stacey, Dawn

    2018-02-01

    Decision aids help patients make total joint arthroplasty decisions, but presurgical evaluation might influence the effects of a decision aid. We compared the effects of a decision aid among patients considering total knee arthroplasty at 2 surgical screening clinics with different evaluation processes. We performed a subgroup analysis of a randomized controlled trial. Patients were recruited from 2 surgical screening clinics: an academic clinic providing 20-minute physician consultations and a community clinic providing 45-minute physiotherapist/nurse consultations with education. We compared the effects of decision quality, decisional conflict and surgery rate using Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel χ 2 tests and the Breslow-Day test. We evaluated 242 patients: 123 from the academic clinic (61 who used the decision aid and 62 controls) and 119 from the community clinic (59 who used the decision aid and 60 controls). Results suggested a between-site difference in the effect of the decision aid on the patients' decision quality ( p = 0.09): at the academic site, patients who used the decision aid were more likely to make better-quality decisions than controls (54% v. 35%, p = 0.044), but not at the community site (47% v. 51%, p = 0.71). Fewer patients who used decision aids at the academic site than at the community site experienced decisional conflict ( p = 0.007) (33% v. 52%, p = 0.05 at the academic site and 40% v. 24%, p = 0.08 at the community site). The effect of the decision aid on surgery rates did not differ between sites ( p = 0.65). The decision aid had a greater effect at the academic site than at the community site, which provided longer consultations with more verbal education. Hence, decision aids might be of greater value when more extensive total knee arthroplasty presurgical assessment and counselling are either impractical or unavailable.

  4. Non Castigat Ridendo Mores: evaluating the effectiveness of humor appeal in printed advertisements for HIV/AIDS prevention in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soscia, Isabella; Turrini, Alex; Tanzi, Emilio

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the effects of different emotional appeals in HIV/AIDS prevention campaigns using printed advertisements. More specifically, it examines the effectiveness of humor appeal compared with shock and fear appeals. The authors experimentally test the level of attention drawn and the spontaneous recall arising when young Italian adults are shown different HIV/AIDS prevention campaigns. Findings show that humor appeals are less effective than fear and shock appeals, evidencing the failures in HIV/AIDS prevention campaigns in Italy, a country where the former communication strategy has been used in substantive ways. The results also indicate the higher effectiveness of fear appeals (over shock and humor) in printed HIV/AIDS advertising campaigns. The implications of these results for further studies and for improving the design, implementation, and evaluation of HIV/AIDS campaign efforts are also discussed.

  5. Aid Effectiveness on Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    The AEL (aid effectiveness literature) is econo¬metric studies of the macroeconomic effects of development aid. It contains about 100 papers of which 68 are reduced form estimates of theeffect of aid on growth in the recipient country. The raw data show that growth is unconnected to aid......, but the AEL has put so much structure on the data that all results possible have emerged. The present meta study considers both the best-set of the 68 papers and the all-set of 543 regressions published. Both sets have a positive average aid-growth elasticity, but it is small and insignificant: The AEL has...... betweenstudies is real. In particular, the aid-growth association is stronger for Asian countries, and the aid-growth association is shown to have been weaker in the 1970s....

  6. The Aid Effectiveness Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    The AEL consists of empirical macro studies of the effects of development aid. At the end of 2004 it had reached 97 studies of three families, which we have summarized in one study each using meta-analysis. Studies of the effect on investments show that they rise by 1/3 of the aid – the rest is c...

  7. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Mental Health First Aid Training among Student Affairs Staff at a Canadian University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Jennifer; Brooks, Meghan; Burrow, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of providing the Mental Health First Aid training program to student affairs staff. The objective of the training was to increase knowledge of mental health, enhance sensitivity, and raise confidence to intervene and assist individuals experiencing a mental health issue. We found the training successfully met…

  8. Evaluating Knowledge, Attitudinal, and Behavioral Change Effects from a Multinational HIV/AIDS Education Program for Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardre, Patricia L.; Garcia, Fe; Apamo, Peter; Mutheu, Lucy; Ndege, Monica; Bois, Iderle

    2010-01-01

    This project tracked the mid-term evaluation processes, practices, and products of a multinational program to reduce at-risk behaviors for HIV/AIDS among children in Kenya, Tanzania, and Haiti. It focused on participant and community perceptions; program effectiveness in promoting abstinence and monogamy decisions; and factors supporting ongoing…

  9. A Framework for Evaluating the Cost-Effectiveness of Patient Decision Aids: A Case Study Using Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, Scott B.; Rajan, Tanya; Linder, Suzanne K.; Volk, Robert J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Patient decision aids are important tools for facilitating balanced, evidence-based decision making. However, the potential of decision aids to lower health care utilization and costs is uncertain; few studies have investigated the cost-effectiveness of decision aids that change patient behavior. Using an example of a decision aid for colorectal cancer screening, we provide a framework for analyzing the cost-effectiveness of decision aids. Methods A decision-analytic model with two strategies (decision aid or no decision aid) was used to calculate expected costs in U.S. dollars and benefits measured in life-years saved (LYS). Data from a systematic review of ten studies about decision aid effectiveness was used to calculate the percentage increase in the number of people choosing screening instead of no screening. We then calculated the incremental cost per LYS with the use of the decision aid. Results The no decision aid strategy had an expected cost of $3,023 and yielded 18.19 LYS. The decision aid strategy cost $3,249 and yielded 18.20 LYS. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for the decision aid strategy was $36,126 per LYS. Results were sensitive to the cost of the decision aid and the percentage change in behavior caused by the decision aid. Conclusions This study provides proof-of-concept evidence for future studies examining the cost-effectiveness of decision aids. The results suggest that decision aids can be beneficial and cost-effective. PMID:25979678

  10. Radiographic evaluation of AIDS patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Blang, S.D.; Witheman, M.L.; Donovan Post, M.J.; Casillas, J.V.

    1995-01-01

    Morphological imaging, based on the use of various techniques including ultrasound, X-ray computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), plays an important role in the characterization, diagnosis and follow-up of patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). While the presence of thoracic infections, the most frequently observed illnesses in AIDS patients, can best be performed by using conventional chest films and CT, the assessment of cerebral involvement in AIDS patients - characterized by the presence of focal masses, demyelination, meningitis, and infarction - is best achieved using MRI. The work-up of patients with gastrointestinal symptoms should include the use of ultrasound for the evaluation of visceral involvement and lymphadenopathy, completed by CT to further characterize pathologic conditions in either the bowel or visceral organs. Ultrasound is the screening exam of choice in AIDS patients with suspected renal disease, but other methods may be necessary for the assessment of the complications due to pharmacological treatment. Musculoskeletal complications may require the combined use of all the above methods, since they may be caused by infections, tumors and rheumatologic illness. The use of the radiographic methods for the detection of the numerous forms of infections and malignancies in AIDS patients is described in detail for the various body districts

  11. An evaluation of portion size estimation aids: Consumer perspectives on their effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Gemma P; Livingstone, M Barbara E; Pourshahidi, L Kirsty; Spence, Michelle; Dean, Moira; O'Brien, Sinead; Gibney, Eileen R; Wallace, Julie M W; McCaffrey, Tracy A; Kerr, Maeve A

    2017-07-01

    This qualitative study aimed to investigate consumer opinions on the usefulness of portion size estimation aids (PSEA); consumer preferences in terms of format and context for use; and the level of detail of guidance considered necessary for the effective application of PSEA. Six focus groups (three to eight participants per group) were conducted to elicit views on PSEA. The discussions were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed by two independent researchers using a template approach. The focus groups were conducted in 2013 by an experienced moderator in various sites across the island of Ireland (three in the Republic of Ireland and three in Northern Ireland) including local leisure, community and resource centres; the home environment; and a university meeting room. General population, males (n = 17) and females (n = 15) aged 18-64 years old. Participants were recruited from both urban and rural locations representing a range of socio-economic groups. The majority of participants deemed the coloured portion pots and disposable plastic cup (household measures) to be useful particularly for the estimation of amorphous cereal products (e.g. breakfast cereals). Preferences were evident for "visual" PSEA (reference objects, household measures and food packaging) rather than 'quantities and measures' such as weighing in grams or ounces. Participants stated that PS education should be concise, consistent, from a reputable source, initiated at school age and communicated innovatively e.g. mobile app or TV advertisement. Guidance in relation to gender, age and activity level was favoured over a "one size fits all" approach. This study identified consumer preferences and acceptance of "visual" PSEA such as portion pots/cups to estimate appropriate PS of amorphous grain foods such as breakfast cereals, pasta and rice. Concise information from a reputable source in relation to gender, age and activity level should accompany PSEA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

  12. Comparative evaluation of the effectiveness of audio and audiovisual distraction aids in the management of anxious pediatric dental patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajwinder Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare audio and audiovisual distraction aids in management of anxious pediatric dental patients of different age groups and to study children′s response to sequential dental visits with the use of distraction aids. Study Design: This study was conducted on two age groups, that is, 4-6 years and 6-8 years with 30 patients in each age group on their first dental visit. The children of both the age groups were divided into 3 subgroups, the control group, audio distraction group, audiovisual distraction group with 10 patients in each subgroup. Each child in all the subgroups had gone through three dental visits. Child anxiety level at each visit was assessed by using a combination of anxiety measuring parameters. The data collected was tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis. Results: Tukey honest significant difference post-hoc test at 0.05% level of significance revealed audiovisual group showed statistically highly significant difference from audio and control group, whereas audio group showed the statistically significant difference from the control group. Conclusion: Audiovisual distraction was found to be a more effective mode of distraction in the management of anxious children in both the age groups when compared to audio distraction. In both the age groups, a significant effect of the visit type was also observed.

  13. Comparative evaluation of the effectiveness of audio and audiovisual distraction aids in the management of anxious pediatric dental patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Rajwinder; Jindal, Ritu; Dua, Rohini; Mahajan, Sandeep; Sethi, Kunal; Garg, Sunny

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare audio and audiovisual distraction aids in management of anxious pediatric dental patients of different age groups and to study children's response to sequential dental visits with the use of distraction aids. This study was conducted on two age groups, that is, 4-6 years and 6-8 years with 30 patients in each age group on their first dental visit. The children of both the age groups were divided into 3 subgroups, the control group, audio distraction group, audiovisual distraction group with 10 patients in each subgroup. Each child in all the subgroups had gone through three dental visits. Child anxiety level at each visit was assessed by using a combination of anxiety measuring parameters. The data collected was tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis. Tukey honest significant difference post-hoc test at 0.05% level of significance revealed audiovisual group showed statistically highly significant difference from audio and control group, whereas audio group showed the statistically significant difference from the control group. Audiovisual distraction was found to be a more effective mode of distraction in the management of anxious children in both the age groups when compared to audio distraction. In both the age groups, a significant effect of the visit type was also observed.

  14. Conditional Aid Effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    of the differences in results between studies. Taking all available studies in consideration, we find no support for conditionality with respect to policy, while conditionality regarding aid itself is dubious. However, the results differ depending on the authors’ institutional affiliation....

  15. Evaluating the effects of community-based organization engagement on HIV and AIDS-related risk behavior in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehman, Kara S; Kakietek, Jakub; Manteuffel, Brigitte A; Rodriguez-García, Rosalía; Bonnel, Rene; N'Jie, N'Della; Godoy-Garraza, Lucas; Orago, Alloys; Murithi, Patrick; Fruh, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    International donors have increasingly shifted AIDS funding directly to community-based organizations (CBOs) with the assumption that responding to the epidemic is best achieved at the community level. The World Bank, ICF Macro, and the National Council for Population and Development in Kenya, conducted a study to evaluate the community response in Kenya. The study used a quasi-experimental design comparing seven study communities and seven comparison communities in Nyanza Province and Western Province. We examined the impact of CBO activity on individual and community-level outcomes, including HIV knowledge, awareness and perceptions, sexual risk behavior, and social transformation (gender ideology and social capital). The study consisted of two components: a household survey conducted in all 14 communities, and qualitative data collected in a subset of communities. Individuals in communities with higher CBO engagement were significantly more likely to have reported consistent condom use. Higher CBO engagement was associated with some measures of social capital, including participation in local and national elections, and participation in electoral campaigns. CBOs provide added value in addressing the HIV and AIDS epidemic in very targeted and specific ways that are closely tied to the services they provide (e.g., prevention education); thus, increasing CBO engagement can be an effective measure in scaling up prevention efforts in those areas.

  16. Evaluation of the British Columbia AIDS Information Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, D C; Bell, M A; Gilchrist, L D

    1991-01-01

    We evaluated implementation of the British Columbia AIDS Information Line during its initial 15 weeks of operation. Data collected during daily operation of the line included call frequency, caller characteristics, response patterns, caller concerns and community referrals. Information on activities and resources required to implement the AIDS Line was also assembled. The study concluded that the advertising campaign sponsored by the provincial government and other AIDS-related media events had a strong impact on the frequency of calls made to the AIDS Line. However, the effect of both advertising and media events was of relatively short duration, suggesting that utilization of an AIDS information line is dependent on continuing promotional activities. The evaluation results demonstrate the importance of continuous collection of data online utilization, to track public awareness of and response to AIDS-related issues, and to facilitate planning of public education.

  17. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of a First Aid Health Volunteers' Training Programme Using Kirkpatrick's Model: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizeshfar, Fatemeh; Momennasab, Marzieh; Yektatalab, Shahrzad; Iman, Mohamad Taghi

    2018-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a health volunteers' complementary training programme on first aid. Design: Quasi-experimental study. Setting: A comprehensive health centre in the southwest of Iran. Method: The study was conducted in the second half of 2015 with all 25 health volunteers in the Qamar Bani Hashem…

  18. Aid and good governance: Examining aggregate unintended effects of aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Geske

    2018-06-01

    Although donors generally aim to improve governance in recipient countries by various means, critics claim that the aggregate effect of large aid flows is the deterioration of governance. Aid is said to weaken domestic accountability, sustain authoritarian regimes, increase political instability, weaken government capacities, and increase corruption. Conducting a systematic search in Web of Science, this paper reviews the empirical evidence for these unintended aggregate effects of aid on the political, administrative, and judicial dimensions of good governance. It finds that the negative effects of aid on governance are much exaggerated. The aggregate effect of aid on democracy has become more positive after the Cold War, and the effect of aid on government capacity and on reducing corruption has also improved over time. Furthermore, most studies show a positive effect of aid on political stability. These findings imply that donor intentions matter: donors that are serious about their intended effects on governance are able to mitigate the possible negative unintended effects of their aid. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Computer-aided detection system for masses in automated whole breast ultrasonography: development and evaluation of the effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeoung Hyun [Dept. of Radiology, Ewha Womans University Mokdong Hospital, Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Joo Hee; Kim, Nam Kug; Chang, Young Jun; Kim, Hak Hee [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Myung Su [Health Screening and Promotion Center, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Young Wook [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of a proposed computer-aided detection (CAD) system in automated breast ultrasonography (ABUS). Eighty-nine two-dimensional images (20 cysts, 42 benign lesions, and 27 malignant lesions) were obtained from 47 patients who underwent ABUS (ACUSON S2000). After boundary detection and removal, we detected mass candidates by using the proposed adjusted Otsu's threshold; the threshold was adaptive to the variations of pixel intensities in an image. Then, the detected candidates were segmented. Features of the segmented objects were extracted and used for training/testing in the classification. In our study, a support vector machine classifier was adopted. Eighteen features were used to determine whether the candidates were true lesions or not. A five-fold cross validation was repeated 20 times for the performance evaluation. The sensitivity and the false positive rate per image were calculated, and the classification accuracy was evaluated for each feature. In the classification step, the sensitivity of the proposed CAD system was 82.67% (SD, 0.02%). The false positive rate was 0.26 per image. In the detection/segmentation step, the sensitivities for benign and malignant mass detection were 90.47% (38/42) and 92.59% (25/27), respectively. In the five-fold cross-validation, the standard deviation of pixel intensities for the mass candidates was the most frequently selected feature, followed by the vertical position of the centroids. In the univariate analysis, each feature had 50% or higher accuracy. The proposed CAD system can be used for lesion detection in ABUS and may be useful in improving the screening efficiency.

  20. AID SELECTIVITY PRACTICE AND AID EFFECTIVENESS IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeniyi Jimmy Adedokun

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Foreign aid strategies have undergone restructuring as donors adopt aid selectivity practice to improve aid effectiveness. This study investigates the impact of aid selectivity practice on aid effectiveness (aid-growth relationship in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA and several groups of countries within SSA from 1980 to 2012. Employing system generalized methods of moments (system GMM technique; the study produces strong evidence that there is significant improvement in aid effectiveness due to aid selectivity practice.

  1. Effectiveness of dual focus mutual aid for co-occurring substance use and mental health disorders: a review and synthesis of the "Double Trouble" in Recovery evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magura, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Over 5 million adults in the United States have a co-occurring substance use disorder and serious psychological distress. Mutual aid (self-help) can usefully complement treatment, but people with co-occurring substance use and psychiatric disorders often encounter a lack of empathy and acceptance in traditional mutual aid groups. Double Trouble in Recovery (DTR) is a dual focus fellowship whose mission is to bring the benefits of mutual aid to persons recovering from co-occurring disorders. An evaluation of DTR was conducted by interviewing 310 persons attending 24 DTR meetings in New York City (NYC) in 1998 and following them up for 2 years, in 1999 and 2000. The evaluation produced 13 articles in 12 peer-reviewed journals, the main results of which are summarized here. The sample's characteristics were as follows: mean age, 40 years; women, 28%; black, 59%; white, 25%; Hispanic, 14%; never married, 63%; live in supported community residence, 53%; high school graduate or GED, 60%; arrested as adult, 63%; diagnoses of: schizophrenia, 39%; major depression, 21%; or bipolar disorder, 20%; currently prescribed psychiatric medication, 92%; primary substance used, current or past: cocaine/crack, 42%; alcohol 34%; or heroin, 11%. Overall, the findings indicate that DTR participation has both direct and indirect effects on several important components of recovery: drug/alcohol abstinence, psychiatric medication adherence, self-efficacy for recovery, and quality of life. The study also identified several "common" therapeutic factors (e.g., internal motivation and social support) and unique mutual aid processes (helper-therapy and reciprocal learning) that mediate the influence of DTR participation on recovery. For clinicians, these results underline the importance of fostering stable affiliation with specialized dual focus 12-step groups for their patients with co-occurring disorders, as part of a comprehensive recovery-oriented treatment approach.

  2. The Effect of Fear Appeal HIV-AIDS Social Marketing on Behaviour: Evaluating the Importance of Market Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlize TERBLANCHE-SMIT

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The increase in various social problems has caused practitioners to review fear appeals in order to influence behaviour. The Aids pandemic is a major concern and some advertising campaigns do not seem to be producing the expected results. This study used structural equation modelling to investigate whether the use of fear increases the likelihood of adopting appropriate behaviour pertaining to HIV/Aids prevention. Fear, attitude towards the advertisements, severity, susceptibility and efficacy were examined to ascertain the influence of fear appeals on a specific market segment. The findings of this paper indicate a relationship among susceptibility, fear, attitude and behavioural intent.

  3. AID SELECTIVITY PRACTICE AND AID EFFECTIVENESS IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA

    OpenAIRE

    Adedokun, Adeniyi Jimmy; Abiodun O. Folawewo, Abiodun O.

    2017-01-01

    Foreign aid strategies have undergone restructuring as donors adopt aid selectivity practice to improve aid effectiveness. This study investigates the impact of aid selectivity practice on aid effectiveness (aid-growth relationship) in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and several groups of countries within SSA from 1980 to 2012. Employing system generalized methods of moments (system GMM) technique; the study produces strong evidence that there is significant improvement in aid effectiveness due to a...

  4. 42 CFR 483.154 - Nurse aide competency evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... an individual who is not employed, or does not have an offer to be employed, as a nurse aide becomes... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nurse aide competency evaluation. 483.154 Section... Requirements That Must Be Met by States and State Agencies: Nurse Aide Training and Competency Evaluation, and...

  5. Evaluation of Socio-Demographic Characteristics of HIV/AIDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of Socio-Demographic Characteristics of HIV/AIDS Patients in a Tertiary Hospital. ... Journal of Pharmaceutical and Allied Sciences. Journal Home ... Keywords: Socio-demographics, HIV/AID, Retrospective, Teaching hospital ...

  6. Core indicators evaluation of effectiveness of HIV-AIDS preventive-control programmes carried out by nongovernmental organizations. A mixed method study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansilla Rosa

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of nongovernmental organizations working on AIDS has grown. There is great diversity in the type of activities and population groups that have been targeted. The purposes of this study are: to describe and analyze the objectives and HIV-AIDS preventive activities that are carried out by the AIDS-NGOs that work with AIDS in Catalonia and that receive subsidies from the Department of Health; and to develop a comprehensive proposal for measurable and agreed upon core quality evaluation indicators to monitor and assess those objectives and activities that can have an impact on the fight against inequalities and stigmatization, and incorporate the perspectives of the service providers and users. Methods A mixed method study has been carried out with professionals from the 36 NGOs that work with HIV/AIDS in Catalonia, as well as their users. This study achieved the completeness model using the following phases: 1. A systematic review of AIDS-NGOs annual reports and preparation of a catalogue of activities grouped by objectives, level of prevention and AIDS-NGOs target population; 2. A transversal study through an ad-hoc questionnaire administered to the AIDS-NGOs representatives; 3. A qualitative study with a phenomenological approach through focus groups, individual interviews and observations; 4. Consensus meetings between AIDS-NGOs professionals and the research team using Haddon matrices in order to establish a proposal of evaluation indicators. Results The information was classified according to level of prevention and level of intervention. A total of 248 objectives and 258 prevention activities were identified. 1564 evaluation indicators, addressed to 7 target population groups, were produced. Thirty core activities were selected. The evaluation indicators proposed for these activities were: 76 indicators for 15 primary prevention activities, 43 for 5 secondary prevention activities and 68 for 10 tertiary

  7. Core indicators evaluation of effectiveness of HIV-AIDS preventive-control programmes carried out by nongovernmental organizations. A mixed method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenguera, Anna; Pujol-Ribera, Enriqueta; Violan, Concepció; Romaguera, Amparo; Mansilla, Rosa; Giménez, Albert; Ascaso, Carlos; Almeda, Jesús

    2011-07-28

    The number of nongovernmental organizations working on AIDS has grown. There is great diversity in the type of activities and population groups that have been targeted. The purposes of this study are: to describe and analyze the objectives and HIV-AIDS preventive activities that are carried out by the AIDS-NGOs that work with AIDS in Catalonia and that receive subsidies from the Department of Health; and to develop a comprehensive proposal for measurable and agreed upon core quality evaluation indicators to monitor and assess those objectives and activities that can have an impact on the fight against inequalities and stigmatization, and incorporate the perspectives of the service providers and users. A mixed method study has been carried out with professionals from the 36 NGOs that work with HIV/AIDS in Catalonia, as well as their users. This study achieved the completeness model using the following phases:1. A systematic review of AIDS-NGOs annual reports and preparation of a catalogue of activities grouped by objectives, level of prevention and AIDS-NGOs target population; 2. A transversal study through an ad-hoc questionnaire administered to the AIDS-NGOs representatives; 3. A qualitative study with a phenomenological approach through focus groups, individual interviews and observations; 4. Consensus meetings between AIDS-NGOs professionals and the research team using Haddon matrices in order to establish a proposal of evaluation indicators. The information was classified according to level of prevention and level of intervention. A total of 248 objectives and 258 prevention activities were identified. 1564 evaluation indicators, addressed to 7 target population groups, were produced. Thirty core activities were selected. The evaluation indicators proposed for these activities were: 76 indicators for 15 primary prevention activities, 43 for 5 secondary prevention activities and 68 for 10 tertiary prevention activities. The results could help to homogeneously

  8. Stable isotope aided evaluation of Community Nutrition Program: effect of food supplementation schemes on maternal and infant nutritional status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarr Cisse, Aita; Dossou, Nicole; Ndiaye, Mamadou

    2002-01-01

    The supplementation program of the community nutrition project (PNC) launched by the Senegalese Government in order to protect the most vulnerable groups (children and women) was evaluated. Using a stable isotope (deuterium), we assessed the effect of the PNC on breastmilk output, mother's body composition, and baby's growth at three months of lactation. Breastmilk triglycerides, lactose, protein, and zinc were also determined. Mothers who were supplemented more than 60 days during pregnancy showed a significant increase in fot- free mass as compared to those who were supplemented for less than 30 days (p= .03). Breastmilk output was not influenced by the supplementation, but breastmilk lactose, total protein, and zinc contents increased significantly (p < .01) in the supplemented mothers. Growth of the babies of the supplemented mothers was better than that of those whose mothers were not supplemented. It was concluded that the food supplementation had beneficial effects on both mothers' and babies' nutritional status depending on the onset of the supplementation.

  9. Donor policy rules and aid effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars

    2008-01-01

    The present paper examines the macroeconomic impact of aid, by introducing endogenous aid allocations into a neoclassical growth framework. On this basis it is shown that donor policies can have important implications for the trajectory of recipients' GDP per capita. Depending on specific donor...... policy choices, aid disbursements may lead to faster transitional growth, stagnation or cyclical growth. Moreover, the analysis also suggests that donor policies may be part of the reason why foreign aid is not found to be uniformly effective in raising long-run productivity across recipients...

  10. Evaluation of computer-aided detection and diagnosis systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrick, Nicholas; Sahiner, Berkman; Armato, Samuel G; Bert, Alberto; Correale, Loredana; Delsanto, Silvia; Freedman, Matthew T; Fryd, David; Gur, David; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Huo, Zhimin; Jiang, Yulei; Morra, Lia; Paquerault, Sophie; Raykar, Vikas; Samuelson, Frank; Summers, Ronald M; Tourassi, Georgia; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Zheng, Bin; Zhou, Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping

    2013-08-01

    Computer-aided detection and diagnosis (CAD) systems are increasingly being used as an aid by clinicians for detection and interpretation of diseases. Computer-aided detection systems mark regions of an image that may reveal specific abnormalities and are used to alert clinicians to these regions during image interpretation. Computer-aided diagnosis systems provide an assessment of a disease using image-based information alone or in combination with other relevant diagnostic data and are used by clinicians as a decision support in developing their diagnoses. While CAD systems are commercially available, standardized approaches for evaluating and reporting their performance have not yet been fully formalized in the literature or in a standardization effort. This deficiency has led to difficulty in the comparison of CAD devices and in understanding how the reported performance might translate into clinical practice. To address these important issues, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) formed the Computer Aided Detection in Diagnostic Imaging Subcommittee (CADSC), in part, to develop recommendations on approaches for assessing CAD system performance. The purpose of this paper is to convey the opinions of the AAPM CADSC members and to stimulate the development of consensus approaches and "best practices" for evaluating CAD systems. Both the assessment of a standalone CAD system and the evaluation of the impact of CAD on end-users are discussed. It is hoped that awareness of these important evaluation elements and the CADSC recommendations will lead to further development of structured guidelines for CAD performance assessment. Proper assessment of CAD system performance is expected to increase the understanding of a CAD system's effectiveness and limitations, which is expected to stimulate further research and development efforts on CAD technologies, reduce problems due to improper use, and eventually improve the utility and efficacy of CAD in

  11. performance evaluation of a pilot paraplegic centricity mobility aid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A PILOT PARAPLEGIC CENTRICITY. MOBILITY AID. MOBILITY ... The result of the test showed a remarkable improvement in. Wilcoxin's signed rank test. .... RESEARCH METHOD. RESEARCH METHOD.

  12. Analytical evaluation of computer-based decision aids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisner, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    This paper introduces a method for evaluating decision aids for nuclear power plant operators. The method involves a two-stage process of classification and analytical evaluation of display form and content. The classification scheme relates each specific aid to one or more general decision-making tasks. Evaluation then proceeds using a normative top-down design process based on the classification scheme by determining or deducing how various design issues associated with this process were resolved by the designer. The result is an assessment of the ''understandability'' of the aid as well as identification of the training and display features necessary to ensure understandability. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  13. Using theatrical presentations as a means of disseminating knowledge of HIV/AIDS risk factors to migrant farmworkers: an evaluation of the effectiveness of the Infórmate program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovey, Joseph D; Booker, Victoria; Seligman, Laura D

    2007-04-01

    Previous research has suggested that Mexican migrant farmworkers are at elevated risk for contracting HIV/AIDS and that they are in need of receiving HIV/AIDS-related education. The present study evaluated the impact of the Infórmate adolescent theater program on HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitudes among farmworker audience members of various ages. Audience members from 7 migrant farmworker camps completed a self-administered questionnaire before and after they observed the Infórmate performance. Paired-samples t-tests and McNemar tests indicated an increase in knowlege in "modes of HIV transmission," "body fluids that can transmit HIV," and items assessing HIV/AIDS "myths." In addition, a greater percentage of farmworkers at posttest reported that they believed that condoms should always be used during sex. The overall findings from this study suggest that theater can be an effective medium for increasing HIV/AIDS-related knowledge among migrant farmworkers. However, it is suggested that, because some farmworkers held false beliefs regarding modes of HIV transmission after viewing the theater program, theater used in combination with other prevention activities may provide for a more comprehensive educational experience.

  14. Cerebral toxoplasmosis in AIDS - computerized tomography evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Regina Coeli Fonseca; Narchiori, Edson

    1999-01-01

    Cerebral toxoplasmosis is a disease that affects many AIDS's patients. FOr this paper 46 patients with confirmed cases of cerebral toxoplasmosis who did a CT scan between March, 1994 and September, 1997 were examined. Single lesions were found in 28.3% of the patients. The lesions were more frequently detected in the basal ganglia and the frontal lobes. No lesion was larger than 4 cm. As regards the contrast enhancing of the lesions on a CT scan we observed that 54.5% of the lesions had a ring-like contrast enhancing, 36.4% had a nodular contrast enhancing and 6% had a heterogeneous form. After the 21st day of treatment we noticed an improvement in the aspect of the patients'lesions. The improvement of the lesions could be seen through a reduction of the edematous halo, a reduction of the lesion size and a modification in the contrast enhancing on the CT scan. The CT scan was an important method to demonstrate the lesions compatibility enhancing on the CT scan. The CT scan was an important method to demonstrate the lesions compatibility with cerebral toxoplasmosis, as well as to monitor these patients during treatment. (author)

  15. [Hearing aid application performance evaluation questionnaire to presbycusis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xianghong; Zhou, Huifang; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Liqun

    2011-02-01

    By matching patients with presbycusis hearing aids,hearing aid performance assessment questionnaire to fill out to assess the effect of its use and targeted to solve problems encountered in its use and improve the quality of life of older persons. Through face to face way to investigate and analyse patients with hearing aids fitting, totally 30 subjects accepted the analysis, preliminary assessment of the use of hearing aids in patient with presbycusis results and solve problems encountered in its use by using SPSS software to analyze the collecting data. HHIE questionnaire on statistical analysis, obtained in patients with hearing loss use hearing aids after the problem is a significant improvement statistical analysis of the SADL questionnaire, the conclusion is relatively satisfied with the overall satisfaction. Effects Assessment Questionnaire in patients with hearing aids hearing impairment can be epitomized the disabled after use to improve the situation and understand the satisfaction of patients with hearing aids can be an initial effect as the rehabilitation of a reliable subjective assessment of the impact assessment indicators.

  16. Estimating Effective Subsidy Rates of Student Aid Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Stacey H. CHEN

    2008-01-01

    Every year millions of high school students and their parents in the US are asked to fill out complicated financial aid application forms. However, few studies have estimated the responsiveness of government financial aid schemes to changes in financial needs of the students. This paper identifies the effective subsidy rate (ESR) of student aid, as defined by the coefficient of financial needs in the regression of financial aid. The ESR measures the proportion of subsidy of student aid under ...

  17. Computer aided instrumented Charpy test applied dynamic fracture toughness evaluation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Toshiro; Niinomi, Mitsuo

    1986-01-01

    Micro computer aided data treatment system and personal computer aided data analysis system were applied to the traditional instrumented Charpy impact test system. The analysis of Charpy absorbed energy (E i , E p , E t ) and load (P y , P m ), and the evaluation of dynamic toughness through whole fracture process, i.e. J Id , J R curve and T mat was examined using newly developed computer aided instrumented Charpy impact test system. E i , E p , E t , P y and P m were effectively analyzed using moving average method and printed out automatically by micro computer aided data treatment system. J Id , J R curve and T mat could be measured by stop block test method. Then, J Id , J R curve and T mat were effectively estimated using compliance changing rate method and key curve method on the load-load point displacement curve of single fatigue cracked specimen by personal computer aided data analysis system. (author)

  18. AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000594.htm HIV/AIDS To use the sharing features on this page, ... immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. When a person becomes infected with HIV, the ...

  19. performance evaluation of a pilot paraplegic centricity mobility aid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper was aimed at evaluating the functional characteristics of a developed mobility aid for paraplegics in Benin City, Nigeria using their anthropometric data. These functional characteristics were compared with the conventional motorised wheel chair found in most city centres in Nigeria under the same condition.

  20. Evaluation of Moringa oleifera seed as coagulation aid for treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laboratory tests were carried out to evaluate the potentials of Moringa oleifera seed powder as a coagulation aid for removal of suspended particles in fish culture effluent. The standard jar test was used to investigate the dosage and mixing intensity required to optimize the use of the coagulant in removing of suspended ...

  1. A preliminary evaluation of the training effects of a didactic and simulation-based psychological first aid program in students and school counselors in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Sun; You, Sungeun; Choi, Yun-Kyeung; Youn, Hyae-Young; Shin, Hye Sook

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the training effects of a didactic and simulation-based psychological first aid (PFA) program. Based on the competency-based model, the study sought to examine whether the PFA training would enhance knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Study 1 examined the training effects of the PFA program in a sample of undergraduate and graduate students in psychology. Study 2 was conducted with school counselors. In both studies, all participants completed a one-day PFA workshop with a 3-hour didactic lecture and a 3-hour simulation-based practice. Assessments were conducted prior to the didactic lecture and upon completion of the simulation-based practice. In study 1, an examination of pre- and posttest comparisons indicated that the training significantly improved students' PFA knowledge and perceived competence in PFA skill. In study 2, the same PFA training significantly improved school counselors' PFA knowledge, perceived competence in PFA skill, perceived preparedness and confidence to provide psychological assistance for future disasters, but their perceived willingness to participate in psychological assistance did not significantly change after the training. This study provides preliminary evidence supporting the effectiveness of the PFA training program using a combined method of didactic and simulation-based practice for disaster mental health providers in Korea.

  2. A preliminary evaluation of the training effects of a didactic and simulation-based psychological first aid program in students and school counselors in South Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Sun Lee

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to examine the training effects of a didactic and simulation-based psychological first aid (PFA program. Based on the competency-based model, the study sought to examine whether the PFA training would enhance knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Study 1 examined the training effects of the PFA program in a sample of undergraduate and graduate students in psychology. Study 2 was conducted with school counselors. In both studies, all participants completed a one-day PFA workshop with a 3-hour didactic lecture and a 3-hour simulation-based practice. Assessments were conducted prior to the didactic lecture and upon completion of the simulation-based practice. In study 1, an examination of pre- and posttest comparisons indicated that the training significantly improved students' PFA knowledge and perceived competence in PFA skill. In study 2, the same PFA training significantly improved school counselors' PFA knowledge, perceived competence in PFA skill, perceived preparedness and confidence to provide psychological assistance for future disasters, but their perceived willingness to participate in psychological assistance did not significantly change after the training. This study provides preliminary evidence supporting the effectiveness of the PFA training program using a combined method of didactic and simulation-based practice for disaster mental health providers in Korea.

  3. A Self-Instructional Course in Student Financial Aid Administration. Module 17--Evaluation of Student Aid Management: Self-Evaluation, Audit, and Program Review. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington Consulting Group, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The 17th module in the 17-module self-instructional course on student financial aid administration discusses the evaluation of student aid management in terms of self-evaluation, audit, and program review. The full course offers a systematic introduction to the management of federal financial aid programs authorized by Title IV of the Higher…

  4. Opinion: do we have the architecture for health aid right? Increasing global aid effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godal, Tore

    2005-11-01

    The advent of the new millennium has witnessed the embracing of a different perspective on global health aid. New and innovative mechanisms in health-aid financing are leading to new opportunities, focused on greater innovation, risk taking and speed. However, these opportunities might not fully materialize if the traditional approaches of channeling and using funds are followed. To maximize global aid effectiveness and to have a realistic chance of achieving the Millennium Development Goals, the implementation of a holistic approach to the global architecture of health aid will be essential.

  5. Effectiveness of Dual Focus Mutual Aid for Co-occurring Substance Use and Mental Health Disorders: A Review and Synthesis of the “Double Trouble” in Recovery Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magura, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Over five million adults in the U.S. have a co-occurring substance use disorder and serious psychological distress. Mutual aid (“self-help”) can usefully complement treatment, but people with co-occurring substance use and psychiatric disorders often encounter a lack of empathy and acceptance in traditional mutual aid groups. Double Trouble in Recovery (DTR) is a dual focus fellowship whose mission is to bring the benefits of mutual aid to persons recovering from co-occurring disorders. An evaluation of DTR was conducted by interviewing 310 persons attending 24 DTR meetings in New York City in 1998 and following them up for two years, in 1999 and 2000. The evaluation produced 13 articles in 12 peer reviewed journals, the main results of which are summarized here. The sample’s characteristics were: mean age, 40 years; women, 28%; black, 59%; white, 25%; Hispanic, 14%; never married, 63%; live in supported community residence, 53%; high school graduate or GED, 60%; arrested as adult, 63%; diagnoses of: schizophrenia, 39%; major depression, 21%; or bipolar disorder; 20%; currently prescribed psychiatric medication, 92%; primary substance used, current or past: cocaine/crack, 42%; alcohol 34%; or heroin, 11%. Overall, the findings indicate that DTR participation has both direct and indirect effects on several important components of recovery: drug/alcohol abstinence, psychiatric medication adherence, self-efficacy for recovery, and quality of life. The study also identified several “common” therapeutic factors (e.g., internal motivation, social support) and unique mutual aid processes (helper-therapy, reciprocal learning) that mediate the influence of DTR participation on recovery. For clinicians, these results underline the importance of fostering stable affiliation with specialized dual focus 12-step groups for their patients with co-occurring disorders, as part of a comprehensive recovery-oriented treatment approach. PMID:19016171

  6. Effect of an AIDS education program for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, M A

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of an age-specific AIDS education program on HIV/AIDS knowledge, perceived susceptibility to AIDS, and perceived severity of AIDS in older adults. The health belief model served as a framework. The age-specific AIDS education program was developed based on a knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors survey of 458 older adults at senior citizen centers. The program included case study presentations of actual older people with AIDS along with an emphasis on myths identified in the initial survey. There was a significant increase in total knowledge about AIDS (p < .001), perceived susceptibility (p < .01), and perceived severity (p < .001) after the educational program. Based on the results of this study, nurses are in an excellent position to provide primary and secondary AIDS prevention strategies for all age groups, including the older adult population.

  7. Empirical Evaluation of a Decision-Analytic Aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    Morris, Smallwood , Lansford, and Gibbons (1980) state: "In the traditional paradigm, the decision-maker must decide to accept or reject the model. If he... Smallwood , R. D., Langford, R. K., & Gibbons, R. S. Analytic Procedures for Evaluating Decision Aids. Applied Decision Analysis, Inc. (Menlo Park, CA...Menlo Park, CA 94025 Department of Psychology University of Oklahoma Dr. Jesse Orlansky 455 West Lindsey Institute for Defense Analyses Norman , OK 73069

  8. Exploring the effectiveness of the output-based aid voucher program to increase uptake of gender-based violence recovery services in Kenya: A qualitative evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Njuki Rebecca

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies in Africa have explored in detail the ability of output-based aid (OBA voucher programs to increase access to gender-based violence recovery (GBVR services. Methods A qualitative study was conducted in 2010 and involved: (i in-depth interviews (IDIs with health managers, service providers, voucher management agency (VMA managers and (ii focus group discussions (FGDs with voucher users, voucher non-users, voucher distributors and opinion leaders drawn from five program sites in Kenya. Results The findings showed promising prospects for the uptake of OBA GBVR services among target population. However, a number of factors affect the uptake of the services. These include lack of general awareness of the GBVR services vouchers, lack of understanding of the benefit package, immediate financial needs of survivors, as well as stigma and cultural beliefs that undermine reporting of cases or seeking essential medical services. Moreover, accreditation of only hospitals to offer GBVR services undermines access to the services in rural areas. Poor responsiveness from law enforcement agencies and fear of reprisal from perpetrators also undermine treatment options and access to medical services. Low provider knowledge on GBVR services and lack of supplies also affect effective provision and management of GBVR services. Conclusions The above findings suggest that there is a need to build the capacity of health care providers and police officers, strengthen the community strategy component of the OBA program to promote the GBVR services voucher, and conduct widespread community education programs aimed at prevention, ensuring survivors know how and where to access services and addressing stigma and cultural barriers.

  9. Exploring the effectiveness of the output-based aid voucher program to increase uptake of gender-based violence recovery services in Kenya: a qualitative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njuki, Rebecca; Okal, Jerry; Warren, Charlotte E; Obare, Francis; Abuya, Timothy; Kanya, Lucy; Undie, Chi-Chi; Bellows, Ben; Askew, Ian

    2012-06-12

    Few studies in Africa have explored in detail the ability of output-based aid (OBA) voucher programs to increase access to gender-based violence recovery (GBVR) services. A qualitative study was conducted in 2010 and involved: (i) in-depth interviews (IDIs) with health managers, service providers, voucher management agency (VMA) managers and (ii) focus group discussions (FGDs) with voucher users, voucher non-users, voucher distributors and opinion leaders drawn from five program sites in Kenya. The findings showed promising prospects for the uptake of OBA GBVR services among target population. However, a number of factors affect the uptake of the services. These include lack of general awareness of the GBVR services vouchers, lack of understanding of the benefit package, immediate financial needs of survivors, as well as stigma and cultural beliefs that undermine reporting of cases or seeking essential medical services. Moreover, accreditation of only hospitals to offer GBVR services undermines access to the services in rural areas. Poor responsiveness from law enforcement agencies and fear of reprisal from perpetrators also undermine treatment options and access to medical services. Low provider knowledge on GBVR services and lack of supplies also affect effective provision and management of GBVR services. The above findings suggest that there is a need to build the capacity of health care providers and police officers, strengthen the community strategy component of the OBA program to promote the GBVR services voucher, and conduct widespread community education programs aimed at prevention, ensuring survivors know how and where to access services and addressing stigma and cultural barriers.

  10. Randomized controlled trial of the effect of medical audit on AIDS prevention in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandbæk, Annelli

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the effect of a medical audit on AIDS prevention in general practice. METHODS: We conducted a prospective randomized controlled study performed as 'lagged intervention'. At the time of comparison, the intervention group had completed 6 months of audit including a p...... of such consultations initiated by the GPs. CONCLUSIONS: Medical audit had no observed effect on AIDS prevention in general practice. Udgivelsesdato: 1999-Oct......OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the effect of a medical audit on AIDS prevention in general practice. METHODS: We conducted a prospective randomized controlled study performed as 'lagged intervention'. At the time of comparison, the intervention group had completed 6 months of audit including....... One hundred and thirty-three GPs completed the project. The main outcome measures were the number of consultations involving AIDS prevention and the number of talks about AIDS initiated by the GP, and some elements of the content were registered on a chart. RESULTS: No statistically significant...

  11. Monitoring and evaluation of sport-based HIV/ AIDS awareness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... HIV/ AIDS awareness programmes: Strengthening outcome indicators. ... within the key priorities highlighted in the current National Strategic Plan for HIV/AIDS, ... of HIV/AIDS and change in attitude and intention towards HIV risk behaviours.

  12. The Effect of Teacher's Aides in the Classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simon Calmar; Beuchert-Pedersen, Louise Voldby; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    2015-01-01

    -34%, but it is a much more flexible instrument than class-size reduction. We find substantial positive average effects on reading scores, which tend to be greater when resources are spent on teaching assistants without teaching degrees who - at a fixed budget - can spend more time in class in comparison to co......This paper evaluates the impact of three kinds of teacher's aides on 13-year-old students' test scores, behavior and well-being. We gain leverage from combining a randomized experiment with rich survey and registry data from Denmark. The intervention reduces student-to-teacher ratios by 27......-teachers with teaching degrees....

  13. Mental health first aid for eating disorders: pilot evaluation of a training program for the public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Laura M; Jorm, Anthony F; Paxton, Susan J

    2012-08-02

    Eating disorders cause significant burden that may be reduced by early and appropriate help-seeking. However, despite the availability of effective treatments, very few individuals with eating disorders seek treatment. Training in mental health first aid is known to be effective in increasing mental health literacy and supportive behaviours, in the social networks of individuals with mental health problems. Increases in these domains are thought to improve the likelihood that effective help is sought. However, the efficacy of mental health first aid for eating disorders has not been evaluated. The aim of this research was to examine whether specific training in mental health first aid for eating disorders was effective in changing knowledge, attitudes and behaviours towards people with eating disorders. A repeated measures, uncontrolled trial was conducted to establish proof of concept and provide guidance on the future design of a randomised controlled trial. Self-report questionnaires, administered at baseline, post-training and 6-month follow-up, assessed the effectiveness of the 4-hour, single session, mental health first aid training. 73 participants completed the training and all questionnaires. The training intervention was associated with statistically significant increases in problem recognition and knowledge of appropriate mental health first aid strategies, which were maintained at 6-month follow-up. Sustained significant changes in attitudes and behaviours were less clear. 20 participants reported providing assistance to someone with a suspected eating disorder, seven of whom sought professional help as a result of the first aid interaction. Results provided no evidence of a negative impact on participants or the individuals they provided assistance to. This research provides preliminary evidence for the use of training in mental health first aid as a suitable intervention for increasing community knowledge of and support for people with eating

  14. Rade-aid a decision support system to evaluate countermeasures after a radiological accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagenaar, G.; Van Den Bosch, C.J.H.; Weger, D. de.

    1990-01-01

    After Chernobyl the authorities in many countries were overwhelmed by the enormous amount of information that was being generated by measuring and monitoring programs. In making decisions, this information had to be combined with the results of specific countermeasures, in order to determine the optimal strategy with respect to a large number of consequences. The development of RADE-AID, the Radiological Accident Decision AIDing system, is aimed at providing a powerful tool in the decision-making process. RADE-AID is developed by TNO (The Netherlands) in a joint contract with KfK (FRG) and NRPB (UK). In the first phase a demonstration system will be built, called RADE-AID/D. RADE-AID/D will be used as a decision support system in the intermediate and late phase after a radiological accident. RADE-AID/D will consider countermeasures with respect to external exposure and internal exposure by food ingestion. Countermeasures are evaluated considering reduction in doses and in numbers of health effects, costs, and social effects. The paper covers the structure of the program, presentation of data and results, and the decision analysis technique that is being used. This decision analysis part is an important feature of the system; an advanced decision analysis technique is used, that is able to compare data of varying nature. Furthermore the place of RADE-AID in the decision-making process will be treated. RADE-AID/D is an interactive computer program, that offers the user the possibility to enter relevant data and to have data and results displayed in a variety of ways. Furthermore the system contains an advanced decision analysis technique, that is able to compare data of varying nature. Input data for the decision analysis calculations are provided by models from UFOMOD and MARC-codes

  15. Community senior first aid training in Western Australia: its extent and effect on knowledge and skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Dania M; Gennat, Hanni C; Celenza, Tony; Jacobs, Ian G; O'Brien, Debra; Jelinek, George A

    2006-04-01

    To define the extent of Senior First Aid training in a sample of the Western Australian community, and to evaluate the effect of previous training on first aid knowledge and skills. A telephone survey of a random sample from suburban Perth and rural Western Australia; and practical assessment of first aid skills in a subsample of those surveyed. 30.4% of respondents had completed a Senior First Aid certificate. Trained individuals performed consistently better in theoretical tests (p=0.0001) and practical management of snakebite (p=0.021) than untrained. However, many volunteers, both trained and untrained, demonstrated poor skills in applying pressure immobilisation bandaging and splinting the limb adequately despite electing to do so in theory. Overall knowledge and performance of first aid skills by the community are poor, but are improved by first aid training courses.

  16. [Effect of Vimang in HIV/AIDS patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil del Valle, Lizette; Serrano López, Teresita; Calderón Fuentes, Odalys; Núñez Sánchez, Felicita; Tápanes Peraza, Rolando D; Pérez Avila, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    the oxidative stress (OS) has been recognized as a co-factor of HIV infection evolution to AIDS condition. to evaluate the possible antioxidant effect and the impact on the functioning of several systems in the body, resulting in the toxicological safety of Vimang use. sixty eight HIV-seropositive patients were double-blind randomized in two groups; the first was supplied with Vimang during six months and the other with placebo. Redox condition and the biochemical indexes of the hematological, renal and hepatic functions were measured. Also, dietary intake was assessed through surveys administered for 7 days at the beginning and at the end of the study. there were statistically significant differences between the groups regarding positive change in redox figures in Vimang group compared to those of the placebo group. No significant difference was found either in the evaluated dietary intake indexes or in the biochemical indexes of the renal, hematological and hepatic functions at the end of the study. Vimang antioxidant effect was shown, without any toxic influence during the six month-study conducted in HIV/AIDS patients.

  17. Experimental evaluation of ontology-based HIV/AIDS frequently asked question retrieval system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayalew, Yirsaw; Moeng, Barbara; Mosweunyane, Gontlafetse

    2018-05-01

    This study presents the results of experimental evaluations of an ontology-based frequently asked question retrieval system in the domain of HIV and AIDS. The main purpose of the system is to provide answers to questions on HIV/AIDS using ontology. To evaluate the effectiveness of the frequently asked question retrieval system, we conducted two experiments. The first experiment focused on the evaluation of the quality of the ontology we developed using the OQuaRE evaluation framework which is based on software quality metrics and metrics designed for ontology quality evaluation. The second experiment focused on evaluating the effectiveness of the ontology in retrieving relevant answers. For this we used an open-source information retrieval platform, Terrier, with retrieval models BM25 and PL2. For the measurement of performance, we used the measures mean average precision, mean reciprocal rank, and precision at 5. The results suggest that frequently asked question retrieval with ontology is more effective than frequently asked question retrieval without ontology in the domain of HIV/AIDS.

  18. Making aid work for education in developing countries: an analysis of aid effectiveness for primary education coverage and quality

    OpenAIRE

    Birchler, Kassandra; Michaelowa, Katharina

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of education aid on primary enrolment and education quality. Using the most recent data on aid disbursements and econometric specifications inspired by the general aid effectiveness literature, we find some evidence that donors' increase in funding has substantially contributed to the successful increase in enrolment over the last 15 years. The most robust effect is obtained by aid for education facilities and training. In addition, we find complementarities bet...

  19. [Evaluation of national prevention campaigns against AIDS: analysis model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausser, D; Lehmann, P; Dubois, F; Gutzwiller, F

    1987-01-01

    The evaluation of the "Stop-Aids" campaign is based upon a model of behaviour modification (McAlister) which includes the communication theory of McGuire and the social learning theory of Bandura. Using this model, it is possible to define key variables that are used to measure the impact of the campaign. Process evaluation allows identification of multipliers that reinforce and confirm the initial message of prevention (source) thereby encouraging behaviour modifications that are likely to reduce the transmission of HIV (condom use, no sharing of injection material, monogamous relationship, etc.). Twelve studies performed by seven teams in the three linguistic areas contribute to the project. A synthesis of these results will be performed by the IUMSP.

  20. AIDS and its effects on the advancement of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    This document gives an overview of the worldwide spread of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), the means of its prevention, and its effects on women who are not infected. It also explains how the AIDS virus is not spread, and why it is important not to be afraid of those infected with the AIDS virus. It stresses the need for information at a time when a vaccine or cure are not yet available, and education is the only means of prevention. The global mobilization being conducted to fight the AIDS crisis is discussed. Different ways in which women are at risk to infection by the HIV virus are reviewed, especially the subordination of women. This denies them the same education, legal rights, training, health, and independent incomes, all of which reduces their chance for access to information about AIDS. It considers risk of being infected by a partner, from a blood transfusion, increased susceptibility in someone who already has a sexually transmitted disease, increased susceptibility in a woman who has been circumcised, risk of infection from rape, and how women are coerced into prostitution, putting them at risk for AIDS. It also covers HIV infection and contraception, the danger to professional health-care workers, transmission of HIV infection from mother-to-infant, and discrimination that is AIDS-related. Women who are not infected are impacted by AIDS because they suffer stress as caretakers. The document also discusses the social and economic consequences of AIDS.

  1. On the dynamic effects of foreign aid on corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Simplice Asongu

    2015-01-01

    We assemble more pieces on the puzzle of the aid-corruption nexus. In essence, we extend the debate on the effect of foreign aid on corruption by providing evidence on dynamic effects of wealth, legal origin, religious-domination, regional proximity, openness to sea, natural resources and politico-economic stability. The empirical evidence from dynamic panel GMM estimation is based on 53 African countries for the period 1996-2010. The findings show that the positive effect of foreign aid on c...

  2. Evaluación de conocimientos, actitudes, susceptibilidad y autoeficacia frente al VIH/sida en profesionales de la salud Avaliação dos conhecimentos, atitudes, susceptibilidades e auto-eficácia perante o HIV/AIDS nos profissionais da saúde Evaluation of the health professionals' knowledge, attitudes, susceptibilities and self-effectiveness related to HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Fernanda Uribe

    2011-12-01

    ência. Estes profissionais constantemente assumem a responsabilidade de abordar os problemas associados a esta questão, e também procuram o fortalecimento das habilidades dos adolescentes e jovens para prevenir condutas de risco que atentem contra sua saúde. Objetivos: avaliar os conhecimentos, atitudes, susceptibilidades e auto-eficácia perante o HIV/AIDS dos profissionais, levando em conta que eles são os principais agentes de mudanças aos quais as comunidades acodem. Metodologia: a amostra esteve composta por 34 profissionais da saúde; 70,6% mulheres, 17,6% homens, de 19 a 69 anos (M = 33,71; DT = 11, 53 que fazem parte de uma instituição de saúde pública de Cali (Colômbia. A "Adaptação colombiana da escala HIV/AIDS-65", "Escala de multicomponentes de fobia a AIDS" e a "Escala de auto-eficácia generalizada (SEA-27" foram utilizadas. Resultados: a maioria dos profissionais da saúde possui suficientes conhecimentos da infecção do HIV, mantém uma atitude positiva perante as pessoas diagnosticadas com o vírus e uma maior auto-eficácia perante o HIV/AIDS. Discussão e conclusões: embora os profissionais possuam conhecimentos suficientes, uma atitude positiva e auto-eficácia perante a infecção de HIV/AIDS, é preciso fortalecer as estratégias para apoiar alguns conceitos e condutas favoráveis perante o HIV/AIDS, devido a que são necessários para as intervenções dirigidas à população que utiliza esses serviços oferecidos pelos profissionais da saúde, para propiciar atitudes e as capacidades de cuidado autônomo da própria comunidade.Health professionals (doctors, psychologists, social workers, nurses play a very important role in the development of teenage sexual and reproductive health programs. These professionals constantly face the problems associated with these topics, and they attempt to strengthen young people's abilities to prevent high-risk conducts that threaten their health. Goals: evaluate the knowledge, attitudes, susceptibilities

  3. Aid effectiveness in the Education Sector: A Dynamic Panel Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Michaelowa, Katharina; Weber, Anke

    2007-01-01

    Applying the general question of aid effectiveness to the sector of education, this paper provides some evidence for a positive effect of development assistance on primary enrolment and completion. However, even the most optimistic estimates clearly show that at any realistic rate of growth, aid will never be able to move the world markedly closer towards the internationally agreed objective of “Education For All”. Universal primary education requires increased efficiency of educational spend...

  4. Evaluation of an HIV/AIDS peer education programme in a South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To evaluate a South African workplace HIV I AIDS peer-education programme running since 1997. Methods. In 2001 a cross-sectional study was done of 900 retail-section employees in three geographical areas. The study measured HIV I AIDS knowledge, attitudes towards people living with HIV I AIDS, belief ...

  5. Can donor aid for health be effective in a poor country? Assessment of prerequisites for aid effectiveness in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliet, Nabyonga Orem; Freddie, Ssengooba; Okuonzi, Sam

    2009-10-22

    Inadequate funding for health is a challenge to attaining health-related Millennium Development Goals. Significant increase in health funding was recommended by the Commission for Macroeconomics and Health. Indeed Official Development Assistance has increased significantly in Uganda. However, the effectiveness of donor aid has come under greater scrutiny. This paper scrutinizes the prerequisites for aid effectiveness. The objective of the study was to assess the prerequisites for effectiveness of donor aid, specifically, its proportion to overall health funding, predictability, comprehensiveness, alignment to country priorities, and channeling mechanisms. Secondary data obtained from various official reports and surveys were analyzed against the variables mentioned under objectives. This was augmented by observations and participation in discussions with all stakeholders to discuss sector performance including health financing. Between 2004-2007, the level of aid increased from US$6 per capita to US$11. Aid was found to be unpredictable with expenditure varying between 174-8722;360 percent from budgets. More than 50% of aid was found to be off budget and unavailable for comprehensive planning. There was disproportionate funding for some items such as drugs. Key health system elements such as human resources and infrastructure have not been given due attention in investment. The government's health funding from domestic sources grew only modestly which did not guarantee fiscal sustainability. Although donor aid is significant there is need to invest in the prerequisites that would guarantee its effective use.

  6. Can donor aid for health be effective in a poor country? Assessment of prerequisites for aid effectiveness in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ssengooba Freddie

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inadequate funding for health is a challenge to attaining health-related Millennium Development Goals. Significant increase in health funding was recommended by the Commission for Macroeconomics and Health. Indeed Official Development Assistance has increased significantly in Uganda. However, the effectiveness of donor aid has come under greater scrutiny. This paper scrutinizes the prerequisites for aid effectiveness. The objective of the study was to assess the prerequisites for effectiveness of donor aid, specifically, its proportion to overall health funding, predictability, comprehensiveness, alignment to country priorities, and channeling mechanisms. Methods:Secondary data obtained from various official reports and surveys were analyzed against the variables mentioned under objectives. This was augmented by observations and participation in discussions with all stakeholders to discuss sector performance including health financing. Results:Between 2004−2007, the level of aid increased from US$6 per capita to US$11. Aid was found to be unpredictable with expenditure varying between 174−360 percent from budgets. More than 50% of aid was found to be off budget and unavailable for comprehensive planning. There was disproportionate funding for some items such as drugs. Key health system elements such as human resources and infrastructure have not been given due attention in investment. The government’s health funding from domestic sources grew only modestly which did not guarantee fiscal sustainability. Conclusion: Although donor aid is significant there is need to invest in the prerequisites that would guarantee its effective use.

  7. Effects of first aid training in the kindergarten--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollig, Georg; Myklebust, Anne G; Østringen, Kristin

    2011-02-28

    Children can be the only persons present in an emergency situation. Aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of a first aid course for 4-5-year-old kindergarten children given by a first aid instructor and kindergarten teachers. A mixed methods approach using both quantitative and qualitative methods was used to investigate the effects of teaching first aid in the kindergarten in the present study. 10 kindergarten children at the age of 4-5 years were included in a pilot-study, 5 girls and 5 boys. Three of them were four years and seven were five years old. Two months after completion of the first aid course children were tested in a scenario where the children had to provide first aid to an unconscious victim after a cycle accident. The next seven months the children were followed by participant observation. The findings suggest that 4-5-year-old children are able to learn and apply basic first aid. Tested two months after course completion 70% of the children assessed consciousness correctly and knew the correct emergency telephone number; 60% showed correct assessment of breathing and 40% of the participants accomplished the other tasks (giving correct emergency call information, knowledge of correct recovery position, correct airway management) correctly. Many of the children showed their capabilities to do so in a first aid scenario although some participants showed fear of failure in the test scenario. In an informal group testing most of these children could perform first aid measures, too. Teaching first aid also lead to more active helping behaviour and increased empathy in the children. Kindergarten children aged 4-5 years can learn basic fist aid. First aid training should start in the kindergarten. © 2011 Bollig et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  8. Effectiveness of nonresuscitative first aid training in laypersons: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Velde, Stijn; Heselmans, Annemie; Roex, Ann; Vandekerckhove, Philippe; Ramaekers, Dirk; Aertgeerts, Bert

    2009-09-01

    This study reviewed evidence on the effects of nonresuscitative first aid training on competence and helping behavior in laypersons. We identified randomized and nonrandomized controlled trials and interrupted time series on nonresuscitative first aid training for laypersons by using 12 databases (including MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO), hand searching, reference checking, and author communication. Two reviewers independently evaluated selected studies with the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Review Group quality criteria. One reviewer extracted data with a standard form and another checked them. In anticipation of substantial heterogeneity across studies, we elected a descriptive summary of the included studies. We included 4 studies, 3 of which were randomized trials. We excluded 11 studies on quality issues. Two studies revealed that participants trained in first aid demonstrated higher written test scores than controls (poisoning first aid: relative risk 2.11, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.64 to 2.72; various first aid cases: mean difference 4.75, 95% CI 3.02 to 6.48). Two studies evaluated helping responses during unannounced simulations. First aid training improved the quality of help for a bleeding emergency (relative risk 25.94; 95% CI 3.60 to 186.93), not the rate of helping (relative risk 1.13; 95% CI 0.88 to 1.45). Training in first aid and helping behavior increased the helping rates in a chest pain emergency compared with training in first aid only (relative risk 2.80; 95% CI 1.05 to 7.50) or controls (relative risk 3.81; 95% CI 0.98 to 14.89). Participants trained in first aid only did not help more than controls (relative risk 1.36; 95% CI 0.28 to 6.61). First aid programs that also train participants to overcome inhibitors of emergency helping behavior could lead to better help and higher helping rates.

  9. The evaluation of first aid and basic life support training for the first year university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintaş, Kerim Hakan; Aslan, Dilek; Yildiz, Ali Naci; Subaşi, Nüket; Elçin, Melih; Odabaşi, Orhan; Bilir, Nazmi; Sayek, Iskender

    2005-02-01

    In Turkey, the first aiders are few in quantity and yet they are required in many settings, such as earthquakes. It was thought that training first year university students in first aid and basic life support (FA-BLS) techniques would serve to increase the number of first aiders. It was also thought that another problem, the lack of first aid trainers, might be addressed by training medical students to perform this function. A project aimed at training first year university students in FA-BLS was conducted at Hacettepe University. In the first phase, medical student first aid trainers (MeSFAT) were trained in FA-BLS training techniques by academic trainers and in the second phase, first year university students were trained in FA-BLS techniques by these peer trainers under the academic trainers' supervision. The purpose of this study was to assess the participants' evaluation of this project and to propose a new program to increase the number of first aiders in the country. In total, 31 medical students were certified as MeSFATs and 12 of these trained 40 first year university students in FA-BLS. Various questionnaires were applied to the participants to determine their evaluation of the training program. Most of the participants and the authors considered the program to be successful and effective. This method may be used to increase the number of first aid trainers and first aiders in the community.

  10. Industrial versus Laboratory Clinker Processing Using Grinding Aids (Scale Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Jean Assaad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of grinding aid (GA effect on clinker processing in laboratory grinding mills is relatively simple. Yet, the results obtained cannot be directly transposed to industrial mills, given the fundamentally different operational modes and grinding parameters. This paper seeks to evaluate the scale effect by comparing the results obtained from a closed-circuit tube mill operating at 90 ton/hr to those determined using a 50-liter laboratory mill. Tests results have shown that the decrease in specific energy consumption (Ec due to glycol or amine-based GA can be evaluated under laboratory conditions. However, such tests underestimate the actual performance that could be achieved in real-scale mills; the Ec reduction due to GA is around twofold higher when grinding is performed in real-scale mill. Compared to industrial tests, the cement particle size distribution curves widened and shifted towards higher diameters when grinding was performed under laboratory conditions, particularly with GA additions. This led to remarkable changes in water demand, setting time, and 1- and 28-day compressive strengths.

  11. Explanation and elaboration of the Standards for UNiversal reporting of patient Decision Aid Evaluations (SUNDAE) guidelines: examples of reporting SUNDAE items from patient decision aid evaluation literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Aubri S; Abhyankar, Purva; Sheridan, Stacey; Bekker, Hilary; LeBlanc, Annie; Levin, Carrie; Ropka, Mary; Shaffer, Victoria; Stacey, Dawn; Stalmeier, Peep; Vo, Ha; Wills, Celia; Thomson, Richard

    2018-01-01

    This Explanation and Elaboration (E&E) article expands on the 26 items in the Standards for UNiversal reporting of Decision Aid Evaluations guidelines. The E&E provides a rationale for each item and includes examples for how each item has been reported in published papers evaluating patient decision aids. The E&E focuses on items key to reporting studies evaluating patient decision aids and is intended to be illustrative rather than restrictive. Authors and reviewers may wish to use the E&E broadly to inform structuring of patient decision aid evaluation reports, or use it as a reference to obtain details about how to report individual checklist items. PMID:29467235

  12. Evaluation of HIV/AIDS patients' knowledge on antiretroviral drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Flávia de Castro Almeida

    Full Text Available Lack of information on antiretroviral drugs or the misunderstanding of available information can facilitate incorrect use of such drugs. This can result in non-adherence to the prescribed regimen, leading to a great possibility of a therapeutic failure. The aim of this study was to know which information HIV/AIDS patients, who receive their medicines at the pharmacy of a reference hospital in the northeast Brazil, have on the drugs they use, the source of this information and whether there is a need for additional information. A total of 195 HIV/AIDS patients, who were using either zidovudina + lamivudina 300+150mg (AZT+3TC, efavirenz 600mg (EFZ or lopinavir/ritonavir 133.33/33mg (LPV/r, were interviewed. The mean age was 41 years (SD = 9.55 and 70.8% were males. Of the total, 55.4% didn't know the effect of the drug in the organism; 35.9% were unaware of the necessity of taking antiretroviral drugs for the rest of their lives; only 14.4% knew how to proceed when a dosage was missed; 22.1% said they could die and the same number of individuals believed in aggravation of the disease in case of treatment interruption. The majority, 68.2%, considered it very necessary to receive drug information. The results show that there is an apparent lack of general information among users of antiretroviral drugs, and at the same time a need for it. It is necessary that all professionals involved in the health care of the patients agree that an efficient supply of information on prescribed drugs is an ethical component of the treatment that favors and fosters its adherence.

  13. An evaluation of a family planning mobile job aid for community health workers in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Rebecca; Lasway, Christine; Agarwal, Smisha; L'Engle, Kelly; Layer, Erica; Silas, Lucy; Mwakibete, Anna; Kudrati, Mustafa

    2016-07-01

    The global rapid growth in mobile technology provides unique opportunities to support community health workers (CHWs) in providing family planning (FP) services. FHI 360, Pathfinder International and D-tree International developed an evidence-based mobile job aid to support CHW counseling, screening, service provision and referrals, with mobile forms for client and service data, and text-message reporting and reminders. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the acceptability and potential benefits to service quality from the perspective of CHWs and their clients. The mobile job aid was piloted in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Data collection tools included a demographic survey of all 25 CHWs trained to use the mobile job aid, in-depth interviews with 20 of the CHWs after 3 months and a survey of 176 clients who received FP services from a CHW using the mobile job aid after 6 months. Both CHWs and their clients reported that the mobile job aid was a highly acceptable FP support tool. CHWs perceived benefits to service quality, including timelier and more convenient care; better quality of information; increased method choice; and improved privacy, confidentiality and trust with clients. Most clients discussed multiple FP methods with CHWs; only 1 in 10 clients reported discussion of all 9 methods. This research suggests that mobile phones can be effective tools to support CHWs with FP counseling, screening and referrals, data collection and reporting, and communication. Challenges remain to support informed contraceptive choice. Future research should focus on implementation, including scale-up and sustainability. Mobile job aids can uniquely enhance FP service provision at the community level through adherence to standard protocols, real-time feedback and technical assistance, and provision of confidential care. This study can inform future efforts to support and expand the role of CHWs in increasing FP access and informed contraceptive choice. Copyright © 2016

  14. Effects of donor proliferation in development aid for health on health program performance: A conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallas, Sarah Wood; Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2017-02-01

    Development aid for health increased dramatically during the past two decades, raising concerns about inefficiency and lack of coherence among the growing number of global health donors. However, we lack a framework for how donor proliferation affects health program performance to inform theory-based evaluation of aid effectiveness policies. A review of academic and gray literature was conducted. Data were extracted from the literature sample on study design and evidence for hypothesized effects of donor proliferation on health program performance, which were iteratively grouped into categories and mapped into a new conceptual framework. In the framework, increases in the number of donors are hypothesized to increase inter-donor competition, transaction costs, donor poaching of recipient staff, recipient control over aid, and donor fragmentation, and to decrease donors' sense of accountability for overall development outcomes. There is mixed evidence on whether donor proliferation increases or decreases aid volume. These primary effects in turn affect donor innovation, information hoarding, and aid disbursement volatility, as well as recipient country health budget levels, human resource capacity, and corruption, and the determinants of health program performance. The net effect of donor proliferation on health will vary depending on the magnitude of the framework's competing effects in specific country settings. The conceptual framework provides a foundation for improving design of aid effectiveness practices to mitigate negative effects from donor proliferation while preserving its potential benefits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of a Modified User Guide for Hearing Aid Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caposecco, Andrea; Hickson, Louise; Meyer, Carly; Khan, Asaduzzaman

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated if a hearing aid user guide modified using best practice principles for health literacy resulted in superior ability to perform hearing aid management tasks, compared with the user guide in the original form. This research utilized a two-arm study design to compare the original manufacturer's user guide with a modified user guide for the same hearing aid--an Oticon Acto behind-the-ear aid with an open dome. The modified user guide had a lower reading grade level (4.2 versus 10.5), used a larger font size, included more graphics, and had less technical information. Eighty-nine adults ages 55 years and over were included in the study; none had experience with hearing aid use or management. Participants were randomly assigned either the modified guide (n = 47) or the original guide (n = 42). All participants were administered the Hearing Aid Management test, designed for this study, which assessed their ability to perform seven management tasks (e.g., change battery) with their assigned user guide. The regression analysis indicated that the type of user guide was significantly associated with performance on the Hearing Aid Management test, adjusting for 11 potential covariates. In addition, participants assigned the modified guide required significantly fewer prompts to perform tasks and were significantly more likely to perform four of the seven tasks without the need for prompts. The median time taken by those assigned the modified guide was also significantly shorter for three of the tasks. Other variables associated with performance on the Hearing Aid Management test were health literacy level, finger dexterity, and age. Findings indicate that the need to design hearing aid user guides in line with best practice principles of health literacy as a means of facilitating improved hearing aid management in older adults.

  16. HIV/AIDS response in Rivers State, Nigeria: an evaluation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Over the years Rivers State of Nigeria has witnessed a rising trend in HIV/AIDS infection. In 2006, the State Action Committee on AIDS commenced the implementation of a Strategic Response Plan to prevent and mitigate the effect of HIV/AIDS by 2009. Aim : To verify the extent of achievement of the Strategic ...

  17. Reduction in uptake of PSA tests following decision aids: systematic review of current aids and their evaluations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, R.; Edwards, A.; Brett, J.; Bradburn, M.; Watson, E.; Austoker, J.; Elwyn, G.

    2005-01-01

    A man's decision to have a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test should be an informed one. We undertook a systematic review to identify and appraise PSA decision aids and evaluations. We searched 15 electronic databases and hand-searched key journals. We also contacted key authors and organisations.

  18. Evaluating adherence to ocular hypotensives using the Travatan dosing aid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Dell L

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Leslie O'Dell1, Amy L Hennessy2,3, Alan L Robin2–41May Eye Care Center, Hanover, PA, USA; 2Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA; 3Glaucoma Specialists, Baltimore, MD, USA; 4Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USAPurpose: The Travatan™ Dosing Aid (TDA is the first commercially available device designed to aid in patients' adherence to their glaucoma therapies and to record patients' eyedrop administration, so that doctors can better assess adherence. No prior studies have objectively evaluated adherence to glaucoma medications and its relationship to the severity of glaucoma or the use of multiple systemic medications.Methods: We enrolled 100 consecutive subjects from a private glaucoma practice, all currently using topical travoprost 0.004%. Each subject was issued a TDA to record the time and date of each drop instilled. Informed consents were signed and the subjects were aware that their medication use was being monitored. Patients returned for follow-up 30–60 days after their initial exam.Results: 89 subjects completed the study: 44 were male, with a mean age of 67 years, and 69.7% were Caucasian. Overall, patient adherence was 74.8% (range 22%–100% improving to 85.4% on the day prior to follow-up. The mean number of missed doses per month was 6.24 ± 5.9. Only 7.9% of the study population never missed a dose and 23.6% ± 4.3% missed more than ten drops per month. No marked association was observed between the severity of glaucoma, race, or the number of systemic medications and adherence. A marked improvement in adherence was noted in patients using travoprost 0.004% as monocular therapy rather than binocular therapy, 84.0% ± 17.1% vs 67.4% ± 23.5% (P < 0.005.Conclusion: Patient adherence to glaucoma medical therapy is a major barrier in the management and treatment of glaucoma patients given the chronic nature and asymptomatic course of the disease. Until recently

  19. Veterans Like Me: Formative evaluation of a patient decision aid design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Bryan; Butler, Jorie; Doyon, Katherine; Ellington, Lee; Bray, Bruce E; Zeng, Qing

    2017-07-01

    Patient decision aids are tools intended to facilitate shared decision-making. Currently development of a patient decision aid is resource intensive: it requires a decision-specific review of the scientific literature by experts to ascertain the potential outcomes under different treatments. The goal of this project was to conduct a formative evaluation of a generalizable, scalable decision aid component we call Veterans Like Me (VLme). VLme mines EHR data to present the outcomes of individuals "like you" on different treatments to the user. These outcome are presented through a combination of an icon array and simulated narratives. Twenty-six patients participated in semi-structured interviews intended to elicit feedback on the tool's functional and interface design. The interview focused on the filters users desired with which to make cases similar to them, the kinds of outcomes they wanted presented, and their envisioned use of the tool. The interview also elicited participants information needs and salient factors related to the therapeutic decision. The interview transcripts were analyzed using an iteratively refined coding schema and content analysis. . Participants generally expressed enthusiasm for the tool's design and functionality. Our analysis identified desired filters for users to view patients like themselves, outcome types that should be included in future iterations of the tool (e.g. patient reported outcomes), and information needs that need to be addressed for patients to effectively participate in shared decision making. Implications for the integration of our findings into the design of patient decision aids are discussed. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Integrating resource efficiency and EU State aid. An evaluation of resource efficiency considerations in the current EU State aid framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennink, D.; Faber, J.; Smit, M. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Goba, V. [SIA Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian Environment ELLE, Tallinn (Estonia); Miller, K.; Williams, E. [AEA Technology plc, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-15

    This study, for the European Commission, analyses the issues that need to be addressed in the revision of the EU State aid framework to ensure that they do not hinder environmental, resource efficiency and sustainable development goals. In some cases, State aid can be considered an environmentally harmful subsidy (EHS). The study analyses (1) the extent to which the Environmental Aid Guidelines (EAG) need to be changed to take into account recent European environmental policy developments; (2) existing and potential resource efficiency considerations in a) the Regional Aid Guidelines; b) the Research, Development and Innovation (RDI) Guidelines and c) the Agriculture and Forestry Guidelines; assesses cases and schemes using these guidelines to identify whether resource efficiency considerations are taken into account. The study also considers the social, environmental and economic impacts of these cases and schemes. It develops recommendations for the review of the EAG and a number of horizontal guidelines. One of the conclusions of the analysis is that the way in which multiple objectives and impacts are balanced, when deciding to approve state aid, is unclear. Also, EU member states are not required to provide information on certain types of (estimated) impacts. To guarantee that multiple objectives and impacts are sufficiently balanced, it is recommended that the State aid framework prescribes that applicants identify social, economic and environmental objectives and impacts and describe how these are taken into account in the procedure of balancing multiple (conflicting) objectives. Objectives and impacts should be quantified as much as possible, for example by making use of the method of external cost calculation laid down in 'the Handbook on estimation of external costs in the transport Sector'. The results of the study are used by the European Commission as an input for evaluating and improving the EU State aid framework.

  1. Integrating resource efficiency and EU State aid. An evaluation of resource efficiency considerations in the current EU State aid framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennink, D.; Faber, J.; Smit, M. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Goba, V. [SIA Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian Environment ELLE, Tallinn (Estonia); Miller, K.; Williams, E. [AEA Technology plc, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-15

    This study, for the European Commission, analyses the issues that need to be addressed in the revision of the EU State aid framework to ensure that they do not hinder environmental, resource efficiency and sustainable development goals. In some cases, State aid can be considered an environmentally harmful subsidy (EHS). The study analyses (1) the extent to which the Environmental Aid Guidelines (EAG) need to be changed to take into account recent European environmental policy developments; (2) existing and potential resource efficiency considerations in a) the Regional Aid Guidelines; b) the Research, Development and Innovation (RDI) Guidelines and c) the Agriculture and Forestry Guidelines; assesses cases and schemes using these guidelines to identify whether resource efficiency considerations are taken into account. The study also considers the social, environmental and economic impacts of these cases and schemes. It develops recommendations for the review of the EAG and a number of horizontal guidelines. One of the conclusions of the analysis is that the way in which multiple objectives and impacts are balanced, when deciding to approve state aid, is unclear. Also, EU member states are not required to provide information on certain types of (estimated) impacts. To guarantee that multiple objectives and impacts are sufficiently balanced, it is recommended that the State aid framework prescribes that applicants identify social, economic and environmental objectives and impacts and describe how these are taken into account in the procedure of balancing multiple (conflicting) objectives. Objectives and impacts should be quantified as much as possible, for example by making use of the method of external cost calculation laid down in 'the Handbook on estimation of external costs in the transport Sector'. The results of the study are used by the European Commission as an input for evaluating and improving the EU State aid framework.

  2. User involvement in the design and evaluation of a smart mobility aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, G; MacNamara, S

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the design and evaluation of an innovative smart mobility aid for the frail visually impaired. The Personal Adaptive Mobility AID (PAM-AID) was developed to address the difficulties in personal mobility of the frail and elderly visually impaired. The paper provides an overview of the PAM-AID research at Trinity College and describes the evolutionary nature of the design process. Because there were no existing systems to guide its development, a series of prototypes was constructed and they were regularly evaluated in the field. This approach views potential users as vital contributing members of the design team and led to rapid and hopefully useful improvements in the design.

  3. Effect of HIV/AIDS on the control environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzee, Philna

    2006-07-01

    The management of organizations is responsible for risk management and control systems. HIV/AIDS could be a great threat in the achievement of strategic business objectives, implicating a great concern for management. Management needs to understand this possible risk. This study aims to identify the effect that HIV/AIDS could have on the different elements of the control environment. The archival research method was used. It was established that no formal research was conducted to date on the effect of HIV/AIDS on the control environment as a whole. Various studies have included the effect of HIV/AIDS on certain factors of the control environment. These studies will be discussed briefly to identify relevant findings. The study indicated that the disease could affect various aspects of the control environment, namely: competency of the workforce (e.g. productivity, quality of work, absenteeism, loss of skills and knowledge, training and recruitment, etc.); organizational structure (e.g. increase use of technology labour, disruption of processes, level of employees affected by the disease); human resource (HR) policies and practices (e.g. legislation applicable, prevention and awareness programmes, compensation and benefits). Research limitation: HIV/AIDS is a relatively new potential risk to organizations. Knowledge of the disease is limited. HIV/AIDS is also a very sensitive issue as people fear the disease and do not like to discuss its existence. Government determined that it should be a non-notifiable disease and the disease is currently greatly stigmatized. The databases of companies investigated by other research studies were not developed to gather all the relevant information. Management should be aware that HIV/AIDS poses a possible risk to organizations. Data on the effect of HIV/AIDS should be gathered and used in the decision-making process on how to manage this risk. To be able to fulfil this duty, management first has to determine: whether HIV/AIDS is

  4. Effectiveness of Mental Health First Aid training in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kamilla B.; Morthorst, Britt Reuter; Vendsborg, Per B.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine the effect of the Australian educational intervention Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) in a Danish context. Primary outcome was improvement concerning confidence in help-giving behavior towards people suffering from mental illness. Secondary outcomes were increased knowledge...

  5. Aid Effectiveness, Transaction Costs and Conditionality in the Education Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashford, Richard; Biswas, Shampa

    2010-01-01

    The reduction of transaction costs is a commonly mentioned yet rarely elaborated goal for aid effectiveness in educational development. The casual use of the concept of transaction costs conceals which costs may be reduced, which costs are required and, indeed, what transaction costs actually are. Examining issues related to harmonizing the…

  6. The Role of Social Institutions in Determining Aid Effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Foa (Roberto)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIn recent years, scholars and policymakers have placed growing attention on the issue of aid effectiveness, that is, the efficiency of donor assistance in achieving stated economic and human development objectives. While research has tended to highlight the need for greater capacity

  7. A quantitative method for evaluating alternatives. [aid to decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forthofer, M. J.

    1981-01-01

    When faced with choosing between alternatives, people tend to use a number of criteria (often subjective, rather than objective) to decide which is the best alternative for them given their unique situation. The subjectivity inherent in the decision-making process can be reduced by the definition and use of a quantitative method for evaluating alternatives. This type of method can help decision makers achieve degree of uniformity and completeness in the evaluation process, as well as an increased sensitivity to the factors involved. Additional side-effects are better documentation and visibility of the rationale behind the resulting decisions. General guidelines for defining a quantitative method are presented and a particular method (called 'hierarchical weighted average') is defined and applied to the evaluation of design alternatives for a hypothetical computer system capability.

  8. Evaluation of the Fracture Resistance of Computer‑aided Design ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-04-04

    Apr 4, 2018 ... were milled using a CEREC 4 CAD/CAM system (Software Version, 4.2.0.57192). CAD/CAM crowns ... Computer‑aided Manufacturing Monolithic Crowns Prepared in. Different ..... Engineering long term clinical success of ...

  9. FBI fingerprint identification automation study. AIDS 3 evaluation report. Volume 4: Economic feasibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulhall, B. D. L.

    1980-01-01

    The results of the economic analysis of the AIDS 3 system design are presented. AIDS 3 evaluated a set of economic feasibility measures including life cycle cost, implementation cost, annual operating expenditures and annual capital expenditures. The economic feasibility of AIDS 3 was determined by comparing the evaluated measures with the same measures, where applicable, evaluated for the current system. A set of future work load scenarios was constructed using JPL's environmental evaluation study of the fingerprint identification system. AIDS 3 and the current system were evaluated for each of the economic feasibility measures for each of the work load scenarios. They were compared for a set of performance measures, including response time and accuracy, and for a set of cost/benefit ratios, including cost per transaction and cost per technical search. Benefit measures related to the economic feasibility of the system are also presented, including the required number of employees and the required employee skill mix.

  10. The Long-Run Macroeconomic Effects of Aid and Disaggregated Aid in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebregziabher, Fiseha Haile

    2014-01-01

    positively, whereas it is negatively associated with government consumption. Our results concerning the impacts of disaggregated aid stand in stark contrast to earlier work. Bilateral aid increases investment and GDP and is negatively associated with government consumption, whereas multilateral aid is only...... positively associated with imports. Grants contribute to GDP, investment and imports, whereas loans affect none of the variables. Finally, there is evidence to suggest that multilateral aid and loans have been disbursed in a procyclical fashion...

  11. Mental health first aid training for Australian medical and nursing students: an evaluation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Kathy S; Jorm, Anthony F; Kitchener, Betty A; Reavley, Nicola J

    2015-01-01

    The role and demands of studying nursing and medicine involve specific stressors that may contribute to an increased risk for mental health problems. Stigma is a barrier to help-seeking for mental health problems in nursing and medical students, making these students vulnerable to negative outcomes including higher failure rates and discontinuation of study. Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) is a potential intervention to increase the likelihood that medical and nursing students will support their peers to seek help for mental health problems. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a tailored MHFA course for nursing and medical students. Nursing and medical students self-selected into either a face-to-face or online tailored MHFA course. Four hundred and thirty-four nursing and medical students completed pre- and post-course surveys measuring mental health first aid intentions, mental health literacy, confidence in providing help, stigmatising attitudes and satisfaction with the course. The results of the study showed that both the online and face-to-face courses improved the quality of first aid intentions towards a person experiencing depression, and increased mental health literacy and confidence in providing help. The training also decreased stigmatizing attitudes and desire for social distance from a person with depression. Both online and face-to-face tailored MHFA courses have the potential to improve outcomes for students with mental health problems, and may benefit the students in their future professional careers.

  12. Evaluating social outcomes of HIV/AIDS interventions: a critical assessment of contemporary indicator frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannell, Jenevieve; Cornish, Flora; Russell, Jill

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary HIV-related theory and policy emphasize the importance of addressing the social drivers of HIV risk and vulnerability for a long-term response. Consequently, increasing attention is being given to social and structural interventions, and to social outcomes of HIV interventions. Appropriate indicators for social outcomes are needed in order to institutionalize the commitment to addressing social outcomes. This paper critically assesses the current state of social indicators within international HIV/AIDS monitoring and evaluation frameworks. We analyzed the indicator frameworks of six international organizations involved in efforts to improve and synchronize the monitoring and evaluation of the HIV/AIDS response. Our analysis classifies the 328 unique indicators according to what they measure and assesses the degree to which they offer comprehensive measurement across three dimensions: domains of the social context, levels of change and organizational capacity. The majority of indicators focus on individual-level (clinical and behavioural) interventions and outcomes, neglecting structural interventions, community interventions and social outcomes (e.g. stigma reduction; community capacity building; policy-maker sensitization). The main tool used to address social aspects of HIV/AIDS is the disaggregation of data by social group. This raises three main limitations. Indicator frameworks do not provide comprehensive coverage of the diverse social drivers of the epidemic, particularly neglecting criminalization, stigma, discrimination and gender norms. There is a dearth of indicators for evaluating the social impacts of HIV interventions. Indicators of organizational capacity focus on capacity to effectively deliver and manage clinical services, neglecting capacity to respond appropriately and sustainably to complex social contexts. Current indicator frameworks cannot adequately assess the social outcomes of HIV interventions. This limits knowledge about

  13. Evaluating first-aid knowledge and attitudes of a sample of Turkish primary school teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başer, Mürüvvet; Coban, Sibel; Taşci, Sultan; Sungur, Gönül; Bayat, Meral

    2007-10-01

    Knowledge of first aid, which constitutes life-saving treatments for injuries or unexpected illnesses, is important for every individual at every age. First aid and basic life support are so important that teaching basic first aid should be compulsory in all schools. The goal of this study was to determine the knowledge and attitudes of a sample of Turkish teachers regarding the administration of first aid. Three hundred twelve teachers took part in this study to evaluate knowledge and attitudes of teachers in primary schools about first aid. Data were obtained using a questionnaire. It included 30 questions that help identify the teachers and determine their knowledge and attitudes about first aid. Data were analyzed by chi-square test. In this study, it was determined that most of the teachers do not have correct knowledge and attitudes about first aid. For example, 65.1% of teachers gave incorrect answers regarding epistaxis, 63.5% for bee stings, and 88.5% for abrasion. It was found out that as the age of the teachers increases, appropriate first-aid practice becomes more and more unlikely. The results of this study showed that teachers did not have enough knowledge about first aid.

  14. The effect of foreign aid on corruption: A quantile regression approach

    OpenAIRE

    Okada, Keisuke; Samreth, Sovannroeun

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of foreign aid on corruption using a quantile regression method. Our estimation results illustrate that foreign aid generally lessens corruption and, in particular, its reduction effect is larger in countries with low levels of corruption. In addition, considering foreign aid by donors, our analysis indicates that while multilateral aid has a larger reduction impact on corruption, bilateral aid from the world’s leading donors, such as France, the United King...

  15. Psychological first aid following trauma: implementation and evaluation framework for high-risk organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, David; Lewis, Virginia; Varker, Tracey; Phelps, Andrea; O'Donnell, Meaghan; Wade, Darryl J; Ruzek, Josef I; Watson, Patricia; Bryant, Richard A; Creamer, Mark

    2011-01-01

    International clinical practice guidelines for the management of psychological trauma recommend Psychological First Aid (PFA) as an early intervention for survivors of potentially traumatic events. These recommendations are consensus-based, and there is little published evidence assessing the effectiveness of PFA. This is not surprising given the nature of the intervention and the complicating factors involved in any evaluation of PFA. There is, nevertheless, an urgent need for stronger evidence evaluating its effectiveness. The current paper posits that the implementation and evaluation of PFA within high risk organizational settings is an ideal place to start. The paper provides a framework for a phasic approach to implementing PFA within such settings and presents a model for evaluating its effectiveness using a logic- or theory-based approach which considers both pre-event and post-event factors. Phases 1 and 2 of the PFA model are pre-event actions, and phases 3 and 4 are post-event actions. It is hoped that by using the Phased PFA model and evaluation method proposed in this paper, future researchers will begin to undertake the important task of building the evidence about the most effective approach to providing PFA in high risk organizational and community disaster settings.

  16. Evaluating the short-term and long-term effects of an internet-based aural rehabilitation programme for hearing aid users in general clinical practice: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmberg, Milijana; Lunner, Thomas; Kähäri, Kim; Andersson, Gerhard

    2017-06-06

    Guided internet-based intervention beyond hearing aid (HA) fitting has been shown to be efficacious in randomised controlled trials (RCTs). However, internet interventions have rarely been applied clinically as a part of regular aural rehabilitation (AR). Our aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of internet-based AR for HA users from a clinical population. The Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly (HHIE) was used as the primary outcome measure, and the Communication Strategies Scale (CSS) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale were used as secondary outcome measures. All questionnaires were administered before and directly after the intervention and at 6 months postintervention. We used a parallel group design (RCT). The data were collected in 2013-2014 at three different clinics. Seventy-four HA users were randomly assigned to receive either full internet-based AR (intervention group, n=37) or one element of the internet-based AR (control group, n=37). Data were analysed following the intention-to-treat principle. Each group showed improved HHIE scores over time and did not differ significantly from each other. The intervention group showed significantly greater improvement compared with the control group for the CSS total and the non-verbal subscale scores. The intervention group and control group were also subdivided into two age groups: 20-59 years and 60-80 years. Significantly better improvement on the CSS total and non-verbal subscale scores was found in the older group compared with the younger participants. This study indicates that participants in an internet-based intervention applied in general clinical practice showed improved self-reported communication skills compared with a control group. Receiving a full intervention was not more effective in improving self-reported hearing problems than receiving just one element of the internet-based intervention. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrals.gov, NCT01837550; results. © Article author

  17. Foreign Aid and Corruption: Anti-Corruption Strategies Need Greater Alignment with the Objective of Aid Effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Quibria, M.G.

    2017-01-01

    The history of foreign aid has been inextricably linked with corruption. Since the inception of International Development Association(IDA) in 1960, with its concessional lending to developing countries, a large body of writings has emerged on the corrosive effect of corruption that undermines the effectiveness of foreign aid. In view of the pervasiveness of corruption, the international development community has taken a firm stance against it. This essay begins with a brief discussion of the ...

  18. Evaluation of mental health first aid training with members of the Vietnamese community in Melbourne, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minas, Harry; Colucci, Erminia; Jorm, Anthony F

    2009-09-07

    The aim of this project was to investigate in members of the Vietnamese community in Melbourne the impact of Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) training on attitudes to people with mental illness and on knowledge about mental disorders. Our hypotheses were that at the end of the training participants would have increased knowledge of mental disorders and their treatments, and decreased negative attitudes towards people with mental disorders. Respondents were 114 participants in two-day MHFA training workshops for the Vietnamese community in Melbourne conducted by two qualified MHFA trainers. Participants completed the research questionnaire prior to the commencement of the training (pre-test) and at its completion (post-test). The questionnaires assessed negative attitudes towards people with mental illness (as described in four vignettes), ability to recognise the mental disorders described in the vignettes, and knowledge about how to assist someone with one of these disorders. Responses to open-ended questions were content analysed and coded. To evaluate the effect of the training, answers to the structured questions and to the coded open-ended questions given at pre- and post-test were compared using McNemar tests for dichotomous values and Wilcoxon tests for other scores. Between pre- and post-test there was significant improvement in recognition of mental disorders; more targeted and appropriate mental health first aid responses, and reduction in inappropriate first aid responses; and negative attitudes to the people described in the vignettes declined significantly on many items of the stigma scale. A two-day, MHFA training course for general members of the Vietnamese community in Melbourne demonstrated significant reductions in stigmatising attitudes, improved knowledge of mental disorders and improved knowledge about appropriate forms of assistance to give to people in the community with mental disorder. There is sufficient evidence to scale up to a population

  19. Monitoring and evaluation of sport-based HIV/AIDS awareness programmes: Strengthening outcome indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elma Nelisiwe Maleka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There are number of Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs in South Africa that use sport as a tool to respond to Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS, however, little is reported about the outcomes and impact of these programmes. The aim of this study is to contribute to a generic monitoring and evaluation framework by improving the options for the use of outcome indicators of sport-based HIV/AIDS awareness programmes of selected NGOs in South Africa. A qualitative method study was carried out with seven employees of five selected NGOs that integrate sport to deliver HIV/AIDS programmes in South Africa. The study further involved six specialists/experts involved in the field of HIV/AIDS and an official from Sport Recreation South Africa (SRSA. Multiple data collection instruments including desktop review, narrative systematic review, document analysis, one-on-one interviews and focus group interview were used to collect information on outcomes and indicators for sport-based HIV/AIDS awareness programmes. The information was classified according to the determinants of HIV/AIDS. The overall findings revealed that the sport-based HIV/AIDS awareness programmes of five selected NGOs examined in this study focus on similar HIV prevention messages within the key priorities highlighted in the current National Strategic Plan for HIV/AIDS, STIs and TB of South Africa. However, monitoring and evaluating outcomes of sport-based HIV/AIDS programmes of the selected NGOs remains a challenge. A need exists for the improvement of the outcome statements and indicators for their sport-based HIV/AIDS awareness programmes. This study proposed a total of 51 generic outcome indicators focusing on measuring change in the knowledge of HIV/AIDS and change in attitude and intention towards HIV risk behaviours. In addition, this study further proposed a total of eight generic outcome indicators to measure predictors of HIV risk behaviour

  20. Monitoring and evaluation of sport-based HIV/AIDS awareness programmes: Strengthening outcome indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleka, Elma Nelisiwe

    2017-12-01

    There are number of Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) in South Africa that use sport as a tool to respond to Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS), however, little is reported about the outcomes and impact of these programmes. The aim of this study is to contribute to a generic monitoring and evaluation framework by improving the options for the use of outcome indicators of sport-based HIV/AIDS awareness programmes of selected NGOs in South Africa. A qualitative method study was carried out with seven employees of five selected NGOs that integrate sport to deliver HIV/AIDS programmes in South Africa. The study further involved six specialists/experts involved in the field of HIV/AIDS and an official from Sport Recreation South Africa (SRSA). Multiple data collection instruments including desktop review, narrative systematic review, document analysis, one-on-one interviews and focus group interview were used to collect information on outcomes and indicators for sport-based HIV/AIDS awareness programmes. The information was classified according to the determinants of HIV/AIDS. The overall findings revealed that the sport-based HIV/AIDS awareness programmes of five selected NGOs examined in this study focus on similar HIV prevention messages within the key priorities highlighted in the current National Strategic Plan for HIV/AIDS, STIs and TB of South Africa. However, monitoring and evaluating outcomes of sport-based HIV/AIDS programmes of the selected NGOs remains a challenge. A need exists for the improvement of the outcome statements and indicators for their sport-based HIV/AIDS awareness programmes. This study proposed a total of 51 generic outcome indicators focusing on measuring change in the knowledge of HIV/AIDS and change in attitude and intention towards HIV risk behaviours. In addition, this study further proposed a total of eight generic outcome indicators to measure predictors of HIV risk behaviour. The selected

  1. Evaluation of an HIV/AIDS peer education programme South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV I AIDS peer-education programme for its employees aimed at addressing the growing ..... m:JI education intervention in a mining community reports essentially no effect.17 ... yet to be determined. Such data are crucial for the development.

  2. The effect of information types on diagnostic strategies in the information aid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Hyun; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2007-01-01

    Through experiments, this paper investigates the compatibility of information types with the diagnostic strategy in information aid. Compatibility with operator strategies is an important requirement for information aiding systems in nuclear power plants (NPPs). This paper used three typical types of information aids for MCR operators to investigate the effect of the aids on diagnostic strategies: 'alarm (A),' 'hypothesis on faults (H),' and 'hypothesis on faults and expected symptoms (HS).' The experimental results indicate that the effectiveness of information aid types can vary, dependent on the strategies subjects employ. The results also show that the HS aid improved the diagnosis performance in the hypothesis-and-test strategy

  3. Ergonomic evaluation of slide boards used by home care aides to assist client transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chuan; Buchholz, Bryan; Quinn, Margaret; Punnett, Laura; Galligan, Catherine; Gore, Rebecca

    2018-07-01

    Home care aides risk musculoskeletal injury because they lift and move clients; the body weight of most adults exceeds the NIOSH recommended limit for lifting. Methods to reduce manual patient lifting in institutional settings are often technically or economically infeasible in home care. Our goal was to identify suitable, safe, low-technology transfer devices for home care use. Sixteen experienced home care aides performed client transfers from wheelchair to bed (upward) and bed to wheelchair (downward) in a simulated home care environment (laboratory), using four different slide boards and by hand without a device. Aides' hand forces were measured during client transfers; aides also evaluated usability of each board. Hand forces exerted while using slide boards were mostly lower than in manual transfer, and forces were lower in downward versus upward transfers. Aides judged a board with a sliding mechanism easier to use than boards without a sliding mechanism. Practitioner Summary: This paper provides quantitative biomechanical measurements showing that slide boards reduced the hand forces needed by home care aides to transfer clients from bed to wheel chair and vice versa, compared to manual lifting. Using a semi-quantitative usability survey, aides identified boards with a sliding mechanism easiest to use.

  4. Effects of acoustical stimuli delivered through hearing aids on tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetow, Robert W; Sabes, Jennifer Henderson

    2010-01-01

    The use of acoustic signals to mask, mix with, or ease the distress associated with tinnitus has been clinically employed for decades. It has been proposed that expanding acoustic options for tinnitus sufferers due to personal preferences is desirable. Fractal tones incorporate many useful characteristics of music while avoiding certain features that could be distracting to some individuals. To assess the effects on relaxation, tinnitus annoyance, tinnitus handicap, and tinnitus reaction from the use of a hearing aid that incorporates combinations of amplification, fractal tones, and white noise. Participants listened to experimental hearing aids containing several acoustic options and were asked to rate the signals in terms of their effect on relaxation and tinnitus annoyance. They subsequently wore the hearing aids for 6 mo and completed tinnitus handicap and reaction scales. Fourteen hearing-impaired adults with primary complaints of subjective tinnitus. Participants were tested wearing hearing aids containing several programs including amplification only, fractal tones only, and a combination of amplification, noise, and/or fractal tones. The fractal tones (now commercially available as the "Zen" feature) were generated by the Widex Mind hearing aid. Rating procedures were conducted in the laboratory, and tinnitus reaction and handicap were assessed during and following a 6 mo field trial. Data were collected at the initial visit, one week, 1 mo, 3 mo, and 6 mo. Nonparametric statistics included Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank, chi(2), and repeated-measures analyses of variance. Thirteen of 14 participants reported that their tinnitus annoyance, as measured by the Tinnitus Annoyance Scale, was reduced for at least one of the amplified conditions (with or without fractal tones or noise), relative to the unaided condition. Nine assigned a lower tinnitus annoyance rating when listening to fractal tones alone versus the amplification-alone condition. There was a

  5. Symbolic Uses of Evaluation in the International Aid Sector: Arguments for Critical Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, James

    2012-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in recent years to improve the quality of the evaluation of international aid. Increasingly, this includes an interest in improving the way evaluations are used to improve policies and programmes. However, the prevalence of symbolic use--a phenomenon that is often mentioned but rarely studied--reflects an…

  6. Process and Outcome Evaluation of an Art Therapy Program for People Living with HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Matthew B.; Betts, Donna J.; Blausey, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Program evaluation offers an opportunity for improving the implementation and impact of art therapy. This article describes a process and outcomes evaluation of an art therapy program within the mental health services unit of a community-based organization for people living with HIV/AIDS. The aims were to assess utilization patterns and program…

  7. Evaluation of the AIDS prevention street nurse program: one step at a time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, B Ann; Thompson, Ray; Moore-Dempsey, Laura

    2009-03-01

    The AIDS Prevention Street Nurse Program uses specially prepared community health nurses to focus on HIV and STD prevention with marginalized, hard-to-reach and high-risk clients within a broader context of harm reduction and health promotion. Street nurses (n=17), service providers (n=30), representatives of other HIV/STD programs in the province of British Columbia, Canada (n=5), and clients (n=32) were interviewed during an evaluation for the purpose of describing the nurses' work, the challenges the nurses' face, the fit of the program with other services, and the impact of the nurses' work.This article describes the impact of the nurses' work on clients. Impact/outcome changes reflected a progression from knowledge to behavioural levels and to major indicators of health/illness. Impact on clients included: knowing more about HIV/AIDS, their own situation, and options; receiving essential supplies to reduce harm and promote health; changing behaviour to reduce disease transmission, improve resistance, and promote health; connecting with help; feeling better about themselves and others; feeling supported; influencing others; receiving earlier attention for problems; being healthier with or without HIV; making major changes in drug use; and likely decreasing morbidity and mortality. The program was found to be clearly effective in making a positive impact on clients.

  8. Development and evaluation of a computer-aided system for analyzing human error in railway operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong San; Baek, Dong Hyun; Yoon, Wan Chul

    2010-01-01

    As human error has been recognized as one of the major contributors to accidents in safety-critical systems, there has been a strong need for techniques that can analyze human error effectively. Although many techniques have been developed so far, much room for improvement remains. As human error analysis is a cognitively demanding and time-consuming task, it is particularly necessary to develop a computerized system supporting this task. This paper presents a computer-aided system for analyzing human error in railway operations, called Computer-Aided System for Human Error Analysis and Reduction (CAS-HEAR). It supports analysts to find multiple levels of error causes and their causal relations by using predefined links between contextual factors and causal factors as well as links between causal factors. In addition, it is based on a complete accident model; hence, it helps analysts to conduct a thorough analysis without missing any important part of human error analysis. A prototype of CAS-HEAR was evaluated by nine field investigators from six railway organizations in Korea. Its overall usefulness in human error analysis was confirmed, although development of its simplified version and some modification of the contextual factors and causal factors are required in order to ensure its practical use.

  9. The Effects of Hearing Aids on Localization of White Noise by Blind Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, Bruce R.

    1980-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to observe the effects of hearing aids on the ability of 20 blind veterans to localize white noise. In all cases, Ss performed more poorly on a localization task while wearing a hearing aid. (Author)

  10. Evaluation of State-of-the-Art Acoustic Feedback Cancellation Systems for Hearing Aids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Meng; Jensen, Søren Holdt; Jensen, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    This research evaluates four state-of-the-art acoustic feedback cancellation systems in hearing aids in terms of the cancellation performance, sound quality degradation, and computational complexity. The authors compared a traditional full-band system to a system with a prediction error method...... in a full band, a subband system, a subband system with frequency shifting, and a recently proposed subband system with a novel probe noise deployment. All systems outperformed the traditional full-band system in cancellation performance, especially the subband system with probe noise is most effective...... for cancellation. However, in all cases there was a trade-off between performance and computational cost. With a 3-times increase in computation load, the probe noise based cancellation system can be realized that functions even in the most challenging feedback situation....

  11. arriba-lib: evaluation of an electronic library of decision aids in primary care physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirsch Oliver

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The successful implementation of decision aids in clinical practice initially depends on how clinicians perceive them. Relatively little is known about the acceptance of decision aids by physicians and factors influencing the implementation of decision aids from their point of view. Our electronic library of decision aids (arriba-lib is to be used within the encounter and has a modular structure containing evidence-based decision aids for the following topics: cardiovascular prevention, atrial fibrillation, coronary heart disease, oral antidiabetics, conventional and intensified insulin therapy, and unipolar depression. The aim of our study was to evaluate the acceptance of arriba-lib in primary care physicians. Methods We conducted an evaluation study in which 29 primary care physicians included 192 patients. The physician questionnaire contained information on which module was used, how extensive steps of the shared decision making process were discussed, who made the decision, and a subjective appraisal of consultation length. We used generalised estimation equations to measure associations within patient variables and traditional crosstab analyses. Results Only a minority of consultations (8.9% was considered to be unacceptably extended. In 90.6% of consultations, physicians said that a decision could be made. A shared decision was perceived by physicians in 57.1% of consultations. Physicians said that a decision was more likely to be made when therapeutic options were discussed “detailed”. Prior experience with decision aids was not a critical variable for implementation within our sample of primary care physicians. Conclusions Our study showed that it might be feasible to apply our electronic library of decision aids (arriba-lib in the primary care context. Evidence-based decision aids offer support for physicians in the management of medical information. Future studies should monitor the long-term adoption of

  12. The Effects of Environmental Factors on Persons Living with HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Sarpong

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, environmental awareness has received a great deal of public attention. However, little emphasis has been put on the influence of environmental factors (weather, personal attitudes, policies, physical structures, transportation, etc. on the quality of life of persons infected with HIV/AIDS. The goal of this study was to assess the effect of selected environmental factors on the quality of life of persons affected by HIV/AIDS. To achieve this goal, the Craig Hospital Inventory of Environmental Factors (CHIEF subscales including Policies, Physical Structure, Work/School, Attitudes/Support, and Service/ Assistance were evaluated in patients selected from a STD/HIV clinic in Jackson, MS. They were chosen based on previously diagnosed HIV/AIDS status and age (16-95. Written consents, demographics sheets and self-administered questionnaires were obtained. Data were analyzed using Excel and SPSS software. Interviews started in July 2007 and ended in August, 2007. One hundred and thirteen patients responded. Participants were 72.6% (82 male, 26.5% (30 female and 0.9% (1 transgender. The median age of participants was 38.8 (18-63. Over 50% (65 had some college or higher education, and 35.4% reported annual incomes less than $10,000. Multivariate analysis showed marginal significance between disease diagnosis and gender (p < 0.10, and statistical significance between disease diagnosis and income (p = 0.03. Also, age (p = 0.01 and education (p = 0.03 were significant predictors in one of the subscales. The CHIEF subscales that showed the greatest significance among AIDS respondents were Attitudes and Support, and Government Policies with mean sensitivity scores of 1.39 and 1.42, respectively. The element with the least effect on AIDS patients was the Work/School subscale, with a mean score of 0.74. In general AIDS patients were disproportionately affected in all but one of the five subscales observed. Conversely those with HIV were more

  13. Aid, growth, and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    2010-01-01

    The micro-macro paradox has been revived. Despite broadly positive evaluations at the micro- and meso-levels, recent literature doubts the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth and development. This paper assesses the aid-growth literature and, taking inspiration from the program...... evaluation literature, we re-examine key hypotheses. In our findings, aid has a positive and statistically significant causal effect on growth over the long run, with confidence intervals conforming to levels suggested by growth theory. Aid remains a key tool for enhancing the development prospects of poor...

  14. Estimating the Effect of Student Aid on College Enrollment: Evidence from a Government Grant Policy Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Sørensen, Torben; Taber, Christopher

    In this paper, we investigate the responsiveness of the demand for college to changes in student aid arising from a Danish reform. We separately identify the effect of aid from that of other observed and unobserved variables such as parental income. We exploit the combination of a kinked aid sche...

  15. Assessing the effect of an online HIV/AIDS course on 1st-year ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. More international HIV/AIDS intervention initiatives targeting young adults are needed to help reach targets set by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS (UNAIDS). Objectives. To determine the effect of an online HIV/AIDS course on 1st-year pharmacy students' knowledge of HIV prevention and ...

  16. The Differential Effects of Financial Aid on Degree Completion by Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Jacob P. K.; Berry, Matthew; Reynolds, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    Financial aid and student success are interrelated and essential components of strategic enrollment management. From an economic perspective, by reducing the price students pay, financial aid affects student demand for education. However, financial aid also has nonmonetary effects. For example, students receiving institutional scholarships may…

  17. Randomized controlled trial of the effect of medical audit on AIDS prevention in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandbæk, Annelli

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the effect of a medical audit on AIDS prevention in general practice. METHODS: We conducted a prospective randomized controlled study performed as 'lagged intervention'. At the time of comparison, the intervention group had completed 6 months of audit including...... of such consultations initiated by the GPs. CONCLUSIONS: Medical audit had no observed effect on AIDS prevention in general practice. Udgivelsesdato: 1999-Oct...... a primary activity registration, feedback of own data and a meeting with colleagues and experts, and had received brief summaries of the meetings and reminders about the project (a full 'audit circle'). The participants were from general practices in Copenhagen and the Counties of Funen and Vejle, Denmark...

  18. Effect of First Aid Education on First Aid Knowledge and Skills of Commercial Drivers in South West Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olumide, Adesola O; Asuzu, Michael C; Kale, Oladele O

    2015-12-01

    Prompt prehospital care is essential for improving outcomes of road crash victims; however, this service is sub-optimal in developing countries because Emergency Medical Services (EMS) are not readily available. Training of lay responders in first aid has been suggested as a means of filling this gap in settings with inadequate EMS. This study was conducted to determine the effect of first aid training on the first aid knowledge and skills of commercial drivers. A before-and-after study was conducted among 128 commercial drivers (62 intervention and 66 controls) selected by multi-stage sampling. Drivers' first aid knowledge and skills were assessed at baseline, immediate, and three months post-intervention. The intervention involved a 2-day training session in first aid. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to test for differences in respondents' pre- and post-intervention scores over the three assessment points. Mean first aid knowledge scores for intervention drivers were 48.9% (SD=12.0), 57.8% (SD=11.2), and 59.2% (SD=9.0) at baseline, immediate, and three months post-intervention. Corresponding scores for the controls were 48.3% (SD=12.8), 39.2% (SD=15.3), and 46.8% (SD=15.3). Mean first aid skill scores for intervention drivers were 17.5% (SD=3.8), 80.7% (SD=8.3), and 72.3% (SD=16.8). Scores for control drivers were 16.5% (SD=4.5), 16.3% (SD=4.7), and 20.4% (SD=9.1), respectively. Repeated measures ANOVA showed significant differences in first aid knowledge and skills scores over the three phases. Independent t-test revealed significant differences in scores between the intervention and control groups post-intervention. The training led to significant improvement in first aid knowledge and skills of intervention drivers. This confirms that lay responders can be trained in provision of first aid. The slight drop in skills scores, which occurred three months post-intervention, highlights the need for periodic refresher trainings to be conducted for the drivers in

  19. Evaluation of Source of Messages on AIDS by College Students

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tor's expert ability: the higher the opinion the more effective the message. Others have also stated that there is more attitude change when the communi- cation possesses high credibility rather than low credibility 2, and the communicator who is trusted produces more attitude change than one who is not . Thus more attitude ...

  20. Decision aid systems for evaluating sustainability: a critical survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, Norbert; Starkl, Markus

    2004-01-01

    Assessing sustainability in compliance with the EU water framework directive is affected by numerous conflicting interests. As they can no longer be resolved by means of intuitive reasoning, some authors propose the integration of the major fragmented indicators into one common indicator of the overall sustainability by means of a codified multi-criteria decision support methodology (DSM). Practitioners in urban water management, however, usually object to the use of a codified DSM, as in the legal context (negotiations between the stakeholders, tendering procedure) it might jeopardize the feasibility of the decision making process (DMP). Here we show that a feasible implementation of a DSM into the DMP is possible. To this end, we design a cooperative approach, which by means of an axiomatic evaluation helps to select an appropriate DSM. We illustrate it by a hypothetical dialogue between the relevant authority and the developer. It will expose the inherent limitations of the DSM, which are due to their underlying mathematical features

  1. Evaluation of Mental Health First Aid training with members of the Vietnamese community in Melbourne, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorm Anthony F

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this project was to investigate in members of the Vietnamese community in Melbourne the impact of Mental Health First Aid (MHFA training on attitudes to people with mental illness and on knowledge about mental disorders. Our hypotheses were that at the end of the training participants would have increased knowledge of mental disorders and their treatments, and decreased negative attitudes towards people with mental disorders. Methods Respondents were 114 participants in two-day MHFA training workshops for the Vietnamese community in Melbourne conducted by two qualified MHFA trainers. Participants completed the research questionnaire prior to the commencement of the training (pre-test and at its completion (post-test. The questionnaires assessed negative attitudes towards people with mental illness (as described in four vignettes, ability to recognise the mental disorders described in the vignettes, and knowledge about how to assist someone with one of these disorders. Responses to open-ended questions were content analysed and coded. To evaluate the effect of the training, answers to the structured questions and to the coded open-ended questions given at pre- and post-test were compared using McNemar tests for dichotomous values and Wilcoxon tests for other scores. Results Between pre- and post-test there was significant improvement in recognition of mental disorders; more targeted and appropriate mental health first aid responses, and reduction in inappropriate first aid responses; and negative attitudes to the people described in the vignettes declined significantly on many items of the stigma scale. Conclusion A two-day, MHFA training course for general members of the Vietnamese community in Melbourne demonstrated significant reductions in stigmatising attitudes, improved knowledge of mental disorders and improved knowledge about appropriate forms of assistance to give to people in the community with mental

  2. Impact evaluation of HIV/AIDS education in rural Henan province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Ben-Yan; Xiang, Yuan-Xi; Zhao, Rui; Feng, Zhan-Chun; Liang, Shu-Ying; Wang, Yu-Ming

    2013-12-01

    Nowadays, there is a trend of HIV prevalence transmitting from high-risk group to average-risk group in China. Rural China is the weak link of HIV prevention, and rural areas of Henan province which is one of the most high-risk regions in China have more than 60% of the AIDS patients in the province. Thus, improving the HIV awareness and implementing health education become the top-priority of HIV/AIDS control and prevention. A multistage sampling was designed to draw 1129 people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs) and 1168 non-PLWHAs in 4 prevalence counties of Henan province. A health promoting and social-psychological support model was constructed to improve the health knowledge of participants. Chi-square tests and unconditional logistic regression were performed to determine the intervention effect and influencing factors. All groups had misunderstandings towards the basic medical knowledge and the AIDS transmission mode. Before the intervention, 59.3% of the HIV/AIDS patients and 74.6% of the healthy people had negative attitudes towards the disease. There was statistically significant difference in the improvement of knowledge, attitude and action with regards to HIV prevention before and after intervention (Peducation level (OR=1.910) were found to have better HIV/AIDS health knowledge, whereas older PLWHAs (OR=0.961) were less likely to have better HIV/AIDS health knowledge. However, the intervention effect was associated with the expertise of doctors and supervisors, the content and methods of education, and participants' education level. It was concluded that health education of HIV/AIDS which positively influences the awareness and attitude of HIV prevention is popular in rural areas, therefore, a systematic and long-term program of HIV control and prevention is urgently needed in rural areas.

  3. Targeting burn prevention in Ukraine: evaluation of base knowledge in burn prevention and first aid treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamelli, Liza; Mykychack, Iryna; Kushnir, Antin; Driscoll, Daniel N; Fuzaylov, Gennadiy

    2015-01-01

    Burn prevention has been identified by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a topic in need of further investigation and education throughout the world, with an increased need in low-income countries. It has been noted that implementing educational programs for prevention in high income countries has aided in lowering the rate of burn injuries. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the current education level of knowledge of prevention and first aid treatment of scald burns. A prevention campaign will target these educational needs as a part of an outreach program to improve burn care in Ukraine. The research team evaluated the current health structure in Ukraine and how it could benefit from the increased knowledge of burn prevention and first aid. A test was designed to assess the baseline level of knowledge with regard to first aid and scald prevention in parents, pregnant woman, and healthcare and daycare providers. A total of 14,456 tests were sent to pediatric clinics, obstetrician clinics, and daycare facilities to test respondents. A total of 6,120 completed tests were returned. Doctors presented with the highest level of knowledge averaging 77.0% on prevention and 67.5% on first aid while daycare workers presented the largest gap in knowledge at 65.0% in prevention and 54.3% in first aid. Interest in further educational materials was reported by 92% of respondents. The results of this study clearly show a lack of knowledge in first aid and prevention of scald burn injury in all the populations tested.

  4. SAR-aided method for rural soil evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay-Ekuakille, Aime; Dellisanti, Carmelo; Pelillo, Vincenza; Tralli, Francesco

    2003-03-01

    The principal land characteristics that can be estimated by means of airphoto interpretation are bedrock type, landform, soil texture, site drainage conditions, susceptibility to flooding, and depth of unconsolidated materials over bedrock. In addition, the slope of the land surface can be estimated by airphoto interpretation and measured by phptpgrammetric methods. The aim of this paper is to show an experimental use of satellite images in determining soil quality affected by anthropic activities as rock crushing, or scarifying. Scarifying activities began, in Murgia area, Apulia Region, Italy), as land improvement for agriculture uses. Scarifying is defined as loosening (the surface of soil) by using an agricultural tool or a machine with prongs. This kind of activity is facilitated by the availability, on the market, of scarifying machines and the objective is to get a stratum of agriculture-useful loose material on the soil surface. Apulia Region Government has permitted calcareous stone scarifying with Regional Law n.54 (August 31, 1981) according to National Law n.984 (Dicember 27,1977), that provides for encouraging to transform grazing in sown land in order to create new possibility of forage production to increase zootecnical facilities. We have used ERS-2/SAR images as contribution in the process of soil characterization.The area we have considered is in Puglia Region and is subject to soil transformation due to rocks crushed on land for agricultural facilities. European Union, through the same Apulia Region Government, has renewed funds for the improvement of meadow and grazing for an overall surface of 2000 hectares. In this way it is clear to understand the importance of qualitative and quantitative evaluation of rock crushing or scarifying by using airphoto interpretation. We have evaluated the soil quality by introducing a multicriteria, analysis by using a qualitative and quantitative methodology, so that it will be possible to prevent damages on

  5. Protocol for the evaluation of a decision aid for women with a breech-presenting baby [ISRCTN14570598

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peat Brian

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is now good evidence about the management options for pregnant women with a breech presentation (buttocks or feet rather than head-first at term; external cephalic version (ECV – the turning of a breech baby to a head-down position and/or planned caesarean section (CS. Each of these options has benefits and risks and the relative importance of these vary for each woman, subject to her personal values and preferences, a situation where a decision aid may be helpful. Decision aids are designed to assist patients and their doctors in making informed decisions using information that is unbiased and based on high quality research evidence. Decision aids are non-directive in the sense that they do not aim to steer the user towards any one option, but rather to support decision making which is informed and consistent with personal values. The ECV decision aid was developed using the Ottawa Decision Support Framework, including a systematic review of the evidence about the benefits and risks of the options for breech pregnancy. It comprises an audiotape with a supplementary booklet and worksheet, a format that can be taken home and discussed with a partner. This project aims to evaluate the ECV decision aid for women with a breech presenting baby in late pregnancy. Study design We aim to evaluate the effectiveness of the decision aid compared with usual care in a randomised controlled trial in maternity hospitals that offer ECV. The study group will receive the decision aid in addition to usual care and the control group will receive standard information on management options for breech presentation from their usual pregnancy care provider. Approximately 184 women with a single breech-presenting baby at greater than 34 weeks gestation and who are clinically eligible for ECV will be recruited for the trial. The primary outcomes of the study are knowledge, decisional conflict, anxiety and satisfaction with decision-making that

  6. Protocol for the evaluation of a decision aid for women with a breech-presenting baby [ISRCTN14570598

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Christine L; Nassar, Natasha; Barratt, Alexandra; Raynes-Greenow, Camille H; Peat, Brian; Henderson-Smart, David

    2004-01-01

    Background There is now good evidence about the management options for pregnant women with a breech presentation (buttocks or feet rather than head-first) at term; external cephalic version (ECV) – the turning of a breech baby to a head-down position and/or planned caesarean section (CS). Each of these options has benefits and risks and the relative importance of these vary for each woman, subject to her personal values and preferences, a situation where a decision aid may be helpful. Decision aids are designed to assist patients and their doctors in making informed decisions using information that is unbiased and based on high quality research evidence. Decision aids are non-directive in the sense that they do not aim to steer the user towards any one option, but rather to support decision making which is informed and consistent with personal values. The ECV decision aid was developed using the Ottawa Decision Support Framework, including a systematic review of the evidence about the benefits and risks of the options for breech pregnancy. It comprises an audiotape with a supplementary booklet and worksheet, a format that can be taken home and discussed with a partner. This project aims to evaluate the ECV decision aid for women with a breech presenting baby in late pregnancy. Study design We aim to evaluate the effectiveness of the decision aid compared with usual care in a randomised controlled trial in maternity hospitals that offer ECV. The study group will receive the decision aid in addition to usual care and the control group will receive standard information on management options for breech presentation from their usual pregnancy care provider. Approximately 184 women with a single breech-presenting baby at greater than 34 weeks gestation and who are clinically eligible for ECV will be recruited for the trial. The primary outcomes of the study are knowledge, decisional conflict, anxiety and satisfaction with decision-making that will be assessed using

  7. Dietary Supplements and Health Aids - A Critical Evaluation Part 2 - Macronutrients and Fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubick, Michael A.

    1983-01-01

    Part 1 of this evaluation of dietary supplements and health aids (SE 533 788) focused on various therapeutic claims made for vitamins and minerals. This part examines health-promoting claims made for selected macronutrients and fiber. Macronutrients examined include selected proteins, amino acids, enzymes, carbohydrates, and lipids. (JN)

  8. Do personal stories make patient decision aids more effective? A critical review of theory and evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Patient decision aids support people to make informed decisions between healthcare options. Personal stories provide illustrative examples of others’ experiences and are seen as a useful way to communicate information about health and illness. Evidence indicates that providing information within personal stories affects the judgments and values people have, and the choices they make, differentially from facts presented in non-narrative prose. It is unclear if including narrative communications within patient decision aids enhances their effectiveness to support people to make informed decisions. Methods A survey of primary empirical research employing a systematic review method investigated the effect of patient decision aids with or without a personal story on people’s healthcare judgements and decisions. Searches were carried out between 2005-2012 of electronic databases (Medline, PsycINFO), and reference lists of identified articles, review articles, and key authors. A narrative analysis described and synthesised findings. Results Of 734 citations identified, 11 were included describing 13 studies. All studies found participants’ judgments and/or decisions differed depending on whether or not their decision aid included a patient story. Knowledge was equally facilitated when the decision aids with and without stories had similar information content. Story-enhanced aids may help people recall information over time and/or their motivation to engage with health information. Personal stories affected both “system 1” (e.g., less counterfactual reasoning, more emotional reactions and perceptions) and “system 2” (e.g., more perceived deliberative decision making, more stable evaluations over time) decision-making strategies. Findings exploring associations with narrative communications, decision quality measures, and different levels of literacy and numeracy were mixed. The pattern of findings was similar for both experimental and real

  9. The International Decision Support Initiative Reference Case for Economic Evaluation: An Aid to Thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Thomas; Sculpher, Mark J; Claxton, Karl; Revill, Paul; Briggs, Andrew; Cairns, John A; Teerawattananon, Yot; Asfaw, Elias; Lopert, Ruth; Culyer, Anthony J; Walker, Damian G

    2016-12-01

    Policymakers in high-, low-, and middle-income countries alike face challenging choices about resource allocation in health. Economic evaluation can be useful in providing decision makers with the best evidence of the anticipated benefits of new investments, as well as their expected opportunity costs-the benefits forgone of the options not chosen. To guide the decisions of health systems effectively, it is important that the methods of economic evaluation are founded on clear principles, are applied systematically, and are appropriate to the decision problems they seek to inform. The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, a major funder of economic evaluations of health technologies in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), commissioned a "reference case" through the International Decision Support Initiative (iDSI) to guide future evaluations, and improve both the consistency and usefulness to decision makers. The iDSI Reference Case draws on previous insights from the World Health Organization, the US Panel on Cost-Effectiveness in Health Care, and the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Comprising 11 key principles, each accompanied by methodological specifications and reporting standards, the iDSI Reference Case also serves as a means of identifying priorities for methods research, and can be used as a framework for capacity building and technical assistance in LMICs. The iDSI Reference Case is an aid to thought, not a substitute for it, and should not be followed slavishly without regard to context, culture, or history. This article presents the iDSI Reference Case and discusses the rationale, approach, components, and application in LMICs. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Executive summary of final evaluation: ActionAid women’s right to land

    OpenAIRE

    Forsythe, Lora; Wellard, Kate

    2014-01-01

    The Women’s Rights to Land (WRL) programme aimed to support women’s movements from marginalised communities, including indigenous women in Guatemala, Dalit women in India, and women living with HIV/AIDS in Sierra Leone, to improve their access and control over land. Theprogramme ran from November 2010 to October 2013 and was funded by the European Commission (EC). ActionAid commissioned the Natural Resources Institute to conduct a final evaluation of the programme, the results of which are pr...

  11. Evaluation of a decision aid for women with breech presentation at term: a randomised controlled trial [ISRCTN14570598

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, N; Roberts, CL; Raynes-Greenow, CH; Barratt, A; Peat, B

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of a decision aid for women with a breech presentation compared with usual care. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting Tertiary obstetric hospitals offering external cephalic version (ECV). Population Women with a singleton pregnancy were diagnosed antenatally with a breech presentation at term, and were clinically eligible for ECV. Methods Women were randomised to either receive a decision aid about the management options for breech presentation in addition to usual care or to receive usual care only with standard counselling from their usual pregnancy care provider. The decision aid comprised a 24-page booklet supplemented by a 30-minute audio-CD and worksheet that was designed for women to take home and review with a partner. Main outcome measures Decisional conflict (uncertainty), knowledge, anxiety and satisfaction with decision making, and were assessed using self-administered questionnaires. Results Compared with usual care, women reviewing the decision aid experienced significantly lower decisional conflict (mean difference −8.92; 95% CI −13.18, −4.66) and increased knowledge (mean difference 8.40; 95% CI 3.10, 13.71), were more likely to feel that they had enough information to make a decision (RR 1.30; 95% CI 1.14, 1.47), had no increase in anxiety and reported greater satisfaction with decision making and overall experience of pregnancy and childbirth. In contrast, 19% of women in the usual care group reported they would have made a different decision about their care. Conclusions A decision aid is an effective and acceptable tool for pregnant women that provides an important adjunct to standard counselling for the management of breech presentation. Please cite this paper as: Nassar N, Roberts C, Raynes-Greenow C, Barratt A, Peat B, on behalf of the Decision Aid for Breech Presentation Trial Collaborators. Evaluation of a decision aid for women with breech presentation at term: a randomised controlled

  12. The effect of spasticity, sense and walking aids in falls of people after chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyuer, Ferhan; Oztürk, Ahmet

    2007-05-15

    To study the effects of spasticity, sensory impairment, and type of walking aid on falls in community dwellers with chronic stroke. Functional Independence Measure (FIM) Instrument, Joint Position Sense Evaluation (JPS), the Rivermead motor assessment scale (RMA), Ashworth Scale, Tinetti Assessment Tool were used to assess 100 cases. Fifty-three of the cases were grouped as nonfallers, 36 as one-time fallers and 11 as repeat fallers. These 3 groups were found to be different from each other in respect to FIM, Tinetti test and RMA (p cane, 41.9% high cane). According to Ordinal logistic regression analysis, it was found that the possibility of fall increased (p fall of the individuals with stroke decreased (p falls, spasticity is also an indicator for chronic stroke patients, as is motor impairment, functional situation, impairment of balance and walking. Sensory impairment, using a walking aid and the type were found to be ineffective.

  13. Evaluation of a transit first-aid station providing emergency care to former Yugoslavian war victims evacuated in Ancona, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prospero, E; Raffo, M; Appignanesi, R; Faccenda, G; Ronveaux, O; Annino; D'Errico, M M

    2000-03-01

    A first-aid station was implemented in Falconara Marittima airport (Ancona, Italy). It provided medical emergency care to war victims evacuated from former Yugoslavia in transit for further treatment. A descriptive analysis of the displaced population arriving at the first-aid station was performed using three independent datasets for administrative information, of which one included medical information. The implemented resources were also evaluated. From August 1993 to March 1995, 2272 displaced persons were registered at the first-aid station, out of which 54.2% were accompanying family members. Among those needing medical intervention (45.8% of total), most frequent diagnoses were traumatisms and burns (59.8%), neoplasms (15.6%), and congenital malformations (13.2%). The medical care provided at the first-aid station was most often basic: a medical examination alone was performed on 77.0% of the patients, and a minor dressing on 17.3%. Median length of stay was 1 day. Patients were sent to 30 different countries and 8% were forwarded to the local regional hospital. Deployed logistical resources exceeded by far actual needs but a lack of psychological assistance was observed, mainly for children. The agencies involved did not coordinate data sharing and follow-up information. The medical assistance to the war victims was efficient regarding provided care and timeliness. Effectiveness of such a programme could be improved by a better coordination between partners, allowing more adequate logistics according to appropriate epidemiological information.

  14. The Effect of Job Performance Aids on Quality Assurance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fosshage, Erik [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). System Surety Engineering

    2014-06-01

    Job performance aids (JPAs) have been studied for many decades in a variety of disciplines and for many different types of tasks, yet this is the first known research experiment using JPAs in a quality assurance (QA) context. The objective of this thesis was to assess whether a JPA has an effect on the performance of a QA observer performing the concurrent dual verification technique for a basic assembly task. The JPA used in this study was a simple checklist, and the design borrows heavily from prior research on task analysis and other human factors principles. The assembly task and QA construct of concurrent dual verification are consistent with those of a high consequence manufacturing environment. Results showed that the JPA had only a limited effect on QA performance in the context of this experiment. However, there were three important and unexpected findings that may draw interest from a variety of practitioners. First, a novel testing methodology sensitive enough to measure the effects of a JPA on performance was created. Second, the discovery that there are different probabilities of detection for different types of error in a QA context may be the most far-reaching results. Third, these results highlight the limitations of concurrent dual verification as a control against defects. It is hoped that both the methodology and results of this study are an effective baseline from which to launch future research activities.

  15. An Evaluation Of Holograms In Training And As Job Performance Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Allan H.

    1986-08-01

    Experimentation was carried out to evaluate holograms for use in training and as job aids. Holograms were compared against line drawings and photographs as methods of presenting visual information needed to accomplish a number of tasks. The dependent variables were assembly speed and assembly errors with people unstressed, assembly speed and assembly errors with people stressed, the percentage of discovered errors in assemblies, the number of correct assemblies misidentified as erroneous, and information extraction. Holograms generally were as good as or better visual aids than either photographs or line drawings. The use of holograms tends to reduce errors rather than speed assembly time in the assembly tasks used in these experiments. They also enhance the discovery of errors when the subject is attempting to locate assembly errors in a construction. The results of this experimentation suggest that serious consideration should be given to the use of holography in the development of job aids and in training. Besides these advantages for job aids, other advantages we found are that when page formated information is stored in man-readable holograms they are still useable when scratched or damaged even when similarly damaged microfilm is unuseable. Holography can also be used to store man and machine readable data simultaneously. Such storage would provide simplified backup in the event of machine failure, and it would permit the development of compatible machine and manual systems for job aid applications.

  16. 'teen Mental Health First Aid': a description of the program and an initial evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Laura M; Mason, Robert J; Kelly, Claire M; Cvetkovski, Stefan; Jorm, Anthony F

    2016-01-01

    Many adolescents have poor mental health literacy, stigmatising attitudes towards people with mental illness, and lack skills in providing optimal Mental Health First Aid to peers. These could be improved with training to facilitate better social support and increase appropriate help-seeking among adolescents with emerging mental health problems. teen Mental Health First Aid (teen MHFA), a new initiative of Mental Health First Aid International, is a 3 × 75 min classroom based training program for students aged 15-18 years. An uncontrolled pilot of the teen MHFA course was undertaken to examine the feasibility of providing the program in Australian secondary schools, to test relevant measures of student knowledge, attitudes and behaviours, and to provide initial evidence of program effects. Across four schools, 988 students received the teen MHFA program. 520 students with a mean age of 16 years completed the baseline questionnaire, 345 completed the post-test and 241 completed the three-month follow-up. Statistically significant improvements were found in mental health literacy, confidence in providing Mental Health First Aid to a peer, help-seeking intentions and student mental health, while stigmatising attitudes significantly reduced. teen MHFA appears to be an effective and feasible program for training high school students in Mental Health First Aid techniques. Further research is required with a randomized controlled design to elucidate the causal role of the program in the changes observed.

  17. Improving Aid Effectiveness or Transforming the Global Capitalist System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Mark

    2010-01-01

    In the introduction to his article, "Aid, Development, and Education," Klees (2010) poses the question, has the "hundreds of billions of dollars in international aid... loaned to [or otherwise targeted to "assist"] developing countries through bilateral and multilateral mechanisms... helped?" He then posits the question to be "too complicated to…

  18. The Effect of State Financial Aid Policies on College Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragland, Sheri E.

    2016-01-01

    In 2008, state legislatures provided $6 billion in financial aid to 2 million low-income young adults. When low-income young adults receive state financial aid and do not complete college, states lose their investment because fewer people with degrees will contribute to the state's economy. Declining states' budgets have led to (a) the rising cost…

  19. Development and evaluation of a patient decision aid for young people and parents considering fixed orthodontic appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshman, Zoe; Eddaiki, Abdussalam; Bekker, Hilary L; Benson, Philip E

    2016-12-01

    To develop and evaluate a child-centred patient decision aid for young people, and their parents, supporting shared decision making about fixed orthodontic appliance treatment with dental health professionals, namely the Fixed Appliance Decision Aid (FADA). The studies were undertaken in a UK teaching dental hospital orthodontic department in 2013-2014. The development phase involved an interview study with: (a) 10 patients (12-16 years old), and their parents, receiving orthodontic care to investigate treatment decision making and inform the content of the FADA and (b) 23 stakeholders critiquing the draft decision aid's content, structure and utility. The evaluation phase employed a pre-/post-test study design, with 30 patients (12-16 years old) and 30 parents. Outcomes included the Decisional Conflict Scale; measures of orthodontic treatment expectations and knowledge. Qualitative analysis identified two informational needs: effectiveness of treatment on orthodontic outcomes and treatment consequences for patients' lives. Quantitative analysis found decisional conflict reduced in both patients (mean difference -12.3, SD 15.3, 95% CI 6.6-17.9; p orthodontic treatment increased; expectations about care were unchanged. Using the FADA may enable dental professionals to support patients and their parents, decisions about fixed appliance treatments more effectively, ensuring young people's preferences are integrated into care planning.

  20. Adverse effects associated with intravenous pentamidine isethionate as treatment of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in AIDS patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, U; Nielsen, T L

    1992-01-01

    To evaluate the adverse effects of intravenous pentamidine isethionate, a retrospective study was carried out over a four-year period. Twenty-one acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients received intravenous pentamidine as treatment of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP). This was 13......% of the total number of patients with PCP in the department during that period. Four patients died during treatment and were not evaluated for side effects. Thirteen patients (13/17 = 76%) suffered from one or more minor side effects. The most common of these were gastrointestinal discomfort, pancreatitis......, nephro- and hepatotoxicity. Five patients (5/17 = 29%) experienced a major adverse effect. These were cardiac arrest (one patient), severe hypoglycaemia (one patient) and severe pancreatitis (three patients). In two patients, discontinuation of treatment was necessary due to adverse reactions. As long...

  1. Costs and health effects of screening and delivery of hearing aids in Tamil Nadu, India: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Job Anand

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The burden of disease of hearing disorders among adults is high, but a significant part goes undetected. Screening programs in combination with the delivery of hearing aids can alleviate this situation, but the economic attractiveness of such programs is unknown. This study aims to evaluate the population-level costs, effects and cost-effectiveness of alternative delivering hearing aids models in Tamil Nadu, India Methods In an observational study design, we estimated total costs and effects of two active screening programs in the community in combination with the provision of hearing aids at secondary care level, and the costs and effects of the provision of hearing aids at tertiary care level. Screening and hearing aid delivery costs were estimated on the basis of program records and an empirical assessment of health personnel time input. Household costs for seeking and undergoing hearing health care were collected with a questionnaire (see Additional file 2. Health effects were estimated on the basis of compliance with the hearing aid, and associated changes in disability, and were expressed in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs averted. Results Active screening and provision of hearing aids at the secondary care level costs around Rs.7,000 (US$152 per patient, whereas provision of hearing aids at the tertiary care level costs Rs 5,693 (US$122 per patient. The cost per DALY averted was around RS 42,200 (US$900 at secondary care level and Rs 33,900 (US$720 at tertiary care level. The majority of people did consult other providers before being screened in the community. Costs of food and transport ranged between Rs. 2 (US$0,04 and Rs. 39 (US$0,83. Conclusion Active screening and provision of hearing aids at the secondary care level is slightly more costly than passive screening and fitting of hearing aids at the tertiary care level, but seems also able to reach a higher coverage of hearing aids services. Although crude

  2. Control of corruption, democratic accountability, and effectiveness of HIV/AIDS official development assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hwa-Young; Yang, Bong-Ming; Kang, Minah

    2016-01-01

    Despite continued global efforts, HIV/AIDS outcomes in developing countries have not made much progress. Poor governance in recipient countries is often seen as one of the reasons for ineffectiveness of aid efforts to achieve stated objectives and desired outcomes. This study examines the impact of two important dimensions of governance - control of corruption and democratic accountability - on the effectiveness of HIV/AIDS official development assistance. An empirical analysis using dynamic panel Generalized Method of Moments estimation was conducted on 2001-2010 datasets. Control of corruption and democratic accountability revealed an independent effect and interaction with the amount of HIV/AIDS aid on incidence of HIV/AIDS, respectively, while none of the two governance variables had a significant effect on HIV/AIDS prevalence. Specifically, in countries with accountability level below -2.269, aid has a detrimental effect on incidence of HIV/AIDS. The study findings suggest that aid programs need to be preceded or at least accompanied by serious efforts to improve governance in recipient countries and that democratic accountability ought to receive more critical attention.

  3. Control of corruption, democratic accountability, and effectiveness of HIV/AIDS official development assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwa-Young Lee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite continued global efforts, HIV/AIDS outcomes in developing countries have not made much progress. Poor governance in recipient countries is often seen as one of the reasons for ineffectiveness of aid efforts to achieve stated objectives and desired outcomes. Objective: This study examines the impact of two important dimensions of governance – control of corruption and democratic accountability – on the effectiveness of HIV/AIDS official development assistance. Design: An empirical analysis using dynamic panel Generalized Method of Moments estimation was conducted on 2001–2010 datasets. Results: Control of corruption and democratic accountability revealed an independent effect and interaction with the amount of HIV/AIDS aid on incidence of HIV/AIDS, respectively, while none of the two governance variables had a significant effect on HIV/AIDS prevalence. Specifically, in countries with accountability level below −2.269, aid has a detrimental effect on incidence of HIV/AIDS. Conclusion: The study findings suggest that aid programs need to be preceded or at least accompanied by serious efforts to improve governance in recipient countries and that democratic accountability ought to receive more critical attention.

  4. Monitoring and evaluation of Blyth Offshore Wind Farm. NAVAID (Navigational Aid) requirements for UK offshore wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pepper, L.

    2001-07-01

    The principle aim of this report is to review and evaluate the Navigational Aid (NAVAID) requirements for the Blyth Offshore Wind Farms as specified by Trinity House. The effectiveness of the NAVAIDs was monitored and reviewed by the project team with the assistance of the harbour master and the local vessel operators regularly using Blyth Harbour. This report particularly looks at the reasons for the NAVAID specification and the practicalities of using a similar system on larger offshore wind farms. The document not only describes the specification, but also reviews its effectiveness including any difficulties that were encountered during the installation. (author)

  5. Effect of radiation dose reduction and iterative reconstruction on computer-aided detection of pulmonary nodules : Intra-individual comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Harder, Annemarie M.; Willemink, Martin J.; Van Hamersvelt, Robbert W.; Vonken, Evert-Jan P A; Milles, Julien; Schilham, Arnold M R; Lammers, Jan Willem; De Jong, Pim A.; Leiner, Tim; Budde, Ricardo P J

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of radiation dose reduction and iterative reconstruction (IR) on the performance of computer-aided detection (CAD) for pulmonary nodules. Methods In this prospective study twenty-five patients were included who were scanned for pulmonary nodule follow-up. Image

  6. Assessment of effectiveness of Chinese aid in competence building and financing development in Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Nour S.

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of effectiveness of Chinese aid in competence building and financing development in Sudan by S. Nour [abstract] This paper discusses the effectiveness of Chinese aid for competence building and financing development in Sudan using new primary data at the micro level. We find that Chinese aid and loans to Sudan caused mixed positive-negative impacts. The positive impact is competence building and providing alternative complementary sources of finance to complement domestic capital a...

  7. The effects of global health initiatives on country health systems: a review of the evidence from HIV/AIDS control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesma, Regien G; Brugha, Ruairí; Harmer, Andrew; Walsh, Aisling; Spicer, Neil; Walt, Gill

    2009-07-01

    This paper reviews country-level evidence about the impact of global health initiatives (GHIs), which have had profound effects on recipient country health systems in middle and low income countries. We have selected three initiatives that account for an estimated two-thirds of external funding earmarked for HIV/AIDS control in resource-poor countries: the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB and Malaria, the World Bank Multi-country AIDS Program (MAP) and the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). This paper draws on 31 original country-specific and cross-country articles and reports, based on country-level fieldwork conducted between 2002 and 2007. Positive effects have included a rapid scale-up in HIV/AIDS service delivery, greater stakeholder participation, and channelling of funds to non-governmental stakeholders, mainly NGOs and faith-based bodies. Negative effects include distortion of recipient countries' national policies, notably through distracting governments from coordinated efforts to strengthen health systems and re-verticalization of planning, management and monitoring and evaluation systems. Sub-national and district studies are needed to assess the degree to which GHIs are learning to align with and build the capacities of countries to respond to HIV/AIDS; whether marginalized populations access and benefit from GHI-funded programmes; and about the cost-effectiveness and long-term sustainability of the HIV and AIDS programmes funded by the GHIs. Three multi-country sets of evaluations, which will be reporting in 2009, will answer some of these questions.

  8. Analysis, Design, and Evaluation of Acoustic Feedback Cancellation Systems for Hearing Aids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Meng

    2013-01-01

    Acoustic feedback problems occur when the output loudspeaker signal of an audio system is partly returned to the input microphone via an acoustic coupling through the air. This problem often causes significant performance degradations in applications such as public address systems and hearing aids....... In the worst case, the audio system becomes unstable and howling occurs. In this work, first we analyze a general multiple microphone audio processing system, where a cancellation system using adaptive filters is used to cancel the effect of acoustic feedback. We introduce and derive an accurate approximation...... in acoustic feedback cancellation for hearing aids. It utilizes a probe noise signal which is generated with a specific characteristic so that it can facilitate an unbiased adaptive filter estimation with fast tracking of feedback path variations/changes despite its low signal level. We show in a hearing aid...

  9. Product Evaluation Task Force Phase Two report for MEB crud/filter aid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    It has been proposed that all Intermediate Level Wastes arising at Sellafield should be encapsulated prior to ultimate disposal. The Product Evaluation Task Force (PETF) was set up to investigate possible encapsulants and to produce an adequate data base to justify the preferred matrices. This report details the work carried out, under Phase 2 of the Product Evaluation Task Force programme, on MEB Crud/Filter Aid. Three possible types of encapsulants for MEB Crud/Filter Aid:- Inorganic cements, Polymer cements, and Polymers are evaluated using the Kepner Tregoe decision and analysis technique. This technique provides a methodology for scoring and ranking alternative options and evaluating any risks associated with an option. The analysis shows that for all four stages of waste management operations, ie Storage, Transport, handling and emplacement, Disposal and, Process, cement matrices are considerably superior to other potential matrices. A matrix, consisting of nine parts Blast Furnace Slag (BFS) to one part Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) is recommended as the preferred matrix for Phase 3 studies on MEB/Filter Aid. (author)

  10. Evaluation methods of solar contribution in solar aided coal-fired power generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Yong; Zhai, Rongrong; Zhao, Miaomiao; Yang, Yongping; Yan, Qin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Five methods for evaluating solar contribution are analyzed. • Method based on the second law of thermodynamics and thermal economics is more suitable for SACPGS. • Providing reliable reference for the formulation of feed-in tariff policies in China. - Abstract: Solar aided coal-fired power plants utilize solar thermal energy to couple with coal-fired power plants of various types by adopting characteristics of different thermal needs of plants. In this way, the costly thermal storage system and power generating system will become unnecessary, meanwhile the intermittent and unsteady nature of power generation can be avoided. In addition, large-scale utilization of solar thermal power and energy saving can be achieved. With the ever-deepening analyses of solar aided coal-fired power plants, the contribution evaluating system of solar thermal power is worth further exploration. In this paper, five common evaluation methods of solar contribution are analyzed, and solar aided coal-fired power plants of 1000 MW, 600 MW and 330 MW are studied with these five methods in a comparative manner. Therefore, this study can serve as a theoretical reference for future research of evaluation methods and subsidies for new energy

  11. Clinical evaluation of a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) prototype for the detection of pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhmann, Sonja; Herzog, Peter; Liang, Jin; Wolf, Mathias; Salganicoff, Marcos; Kirchhoff, Chlodwig; Reiser, Maximilian; Becker, Christoph H

    2007-06-01

    To evaluate the performance of a prototype computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) tool using artificial intelligence techniques for the detection of pulmonary embolism (PE) and the possible benefit for general radiologists. Forty multidetector row computed tomography datasets (16/64- channel scanner) using 100 kVp, 100 mAs effective/slice, and 1-mm axial reformats in a low-frequency reconstruction kernel were evaluated. A total of 80 mL iodinated contrast material was injected at a flow rate of 5 mL/seconds. Primarily, six general radiologists marked any PE using a commercially available lung evaluation software with simultaneous, automatic processing by CAD in the background. An expert panel consisting of two chest radiologists analyzed all PE marks from the readers and CAD, also searching for additional finding primarily missed by both, forming the ground truth. The ground truth consisted of 212 emboli. Of these, 65 (31%) were centrally and 147 (69%) were peripherally located. The readers detected 157/212 emboli (74%) leading to a sensitivity of 97% (63/65) for central and 70% (103/147) for peripheral emboli with 9 false-positive findings. CAD detected 168/212 emboli (79%), reaching a sensitivity of 74% for central (48/65) and 82%(120/147) for peripheral emboli. A total of 154 CAD candidates were considered as false positives, yielding an average of 3.85 false positives/case. The CAD software showed a sensitivity comparable to that of the general radiologists, but with more false positives. CAD detection of findings incremental to the radiologists suggests benefit when used as a second reader. Future versions of CAD have the potential to further increase clinical benefit by improving sensitivity and reducing false marks.

  12. Proactively evaluating training effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetterman, Harry E.

    2003-01-01

    A common model of the five phase Systematic Approach to Training (SAT) displays the fifth phase, evaluation, feeding back into the previous four phases: analysis, design, development, and implementation. Evaluating training effectiveness in PP and L's Nuclear Department is not simply the fifth phase of the SAT. PP and L has demonstrated a more effective methodology is realized when evaluation is built into each of the other four phases. At PP and L, evaluation is conducted formatively throughout the first four phases of the SAT process and summatively after implementation. (author)

  13. Evaluation of the iPad as a low vision aid for improving reading ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji, Shamim A; Sambhav, Kumar; Grover, Sandeep; Chalam, Kakarla V

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of the iPad as a low vision aid in improving the reading ability of low vision patients (LVPs). In this study, 228 consecutive patients that came for their routine eye care examination at the University of Florida, Jacksonville eye clinic, were enrolled. Patients met inclusion criteria if they had best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of 20/100 or worse in the best corrected eye and were willing to participate in the study. The patient's reading ability was assessed both with the patient's own spectacles and an iPad. Patients were encouraged to enlarge the reading material as well as change the contrast until they could read comfortably. The number of patients able to read the text comfortably was recorded. Out of the total 228 participants who qualified, 103 (45%) were male and 125 (55%) were female. Only 22% could read standard newsprint-sized text (N8) without the help of an iPad. With the help of an iPad, 94% participants with impaired vision were able to read standard newsprint-sized text (N8) or smaller text (PiPad, a new portable electronic media device, can be adapted by LVPs to improve their reading ability.

  14. Evaluation of the International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aids in a veteran sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sherri L; Noe, Colleen M; Alexander, Genevieve C

    2009-06-01

    The International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aids (IOI-HA) was developed as a global hearing aid outcome measure targeting seven outcome domains. The published norms were based on a private-pay sample who were fitted with analog hearing aids. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the IOI-HA and to establish normative data in a veteran sample. Survey. The participants were 131 male veterans (mean age of 74.3 years, SD = 7.4) who were issued hearing aids with digital signal processing (DSP). Hearing aids with DSP that were fitted bilaterally between 2005 and 2007. Veterans were mailed two copies of the IOI-HA. The participants were instructed to complete the first copy of the questionnaire immediately and the second copy in two weeks. The completed questionnaires were mailed to the laboratory. The psychometric properties of the questionnaire were evaluated. As suggested by Cox and colleagues, the participants were divided into two categories based on their unaided subjective hearing difficulty. The two categories were (1) those with less hearing difficulty (none-to-moderate category) and (2) those who report more hearing difficulty (moderately severe+ category). The norms from the current veteran sample then were compared to the original, published sample. For each hearing difficulty category, the critical difference values were calculated for each item and for the total score. A factor analysis showed that the IOI-HA in the veteran sample had the identical subscale structure as reported in the original sample. For the total scale, the internal consistency was good (Chronbach's alpha = 0.83), and the test-retest reliability was high (lambda = 0.94). Group and individual norms were developed for both hearing difficulty categories in the veteran sample. For each IOI-HA item, the critical difference scores were one response unit between two test sessions reflects a true change in outcome for a given domain. The results of this study

  15. Aid and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    , are being drawn on the basis of fragile evidence. This paper first assesses the aid-growth literature with a focus on recent contributions. The aid-growth literature is then framed, for the first time, in terms of the Rubin Causal Model, applied at the macroeconomic level. Our results show that aid has......The micro-macro paradox has been revived. Despite broadly positive evaluations at the micro and meso-levels, recent literature has turned decidedly pessimistic with respect to the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth. Policy implications, such as the complete cessation of aid to Africa...... a positive and statistically significant causal effect on growth over the long run with point estimates at levels suggested by growth theory. We conclude that aid remains an important tool for enhancing the development prospects of poor nations....

  16. Assessment of effectiveness of Chinese aid in competence building and financing development in Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nour, S.

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of effectiveness of Chinese aid in competence building and financing development in Sudan by S. Nour [abstract] This paper discusses the effectiveness of Chinese aid for competence building and financing development in Sudan using new primary data at the micro level. We find that Chinese

  17. The Effect of Foreign Aid on Income Inequality: Evidence from Panel Cointegration

    OpenAIRE

    Dierk Herzer, Peter Nunnenkamp

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the long-run effect of foreign aid on income inequality for 21 recipient countries using panel cointegration techniques to control for omitted variable and endogeneity bias. We find that aid exerts an inequality increasing effect on income distribution

  18. Cost effectiveness analysis of strategies to combat HIV/AIDS in developing countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogan, D.R.; Baltussen, R.M.P.M.; Hayashi, C.; Lauer, J.A.; Salomon, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the costs and health effects of a range of interventions for preventing the spread of HIV and for treating people with HIV/AIDS in the context of the millennium development goal for combating HIV/AIDS. DESIGN: Cost effectiveness analysis based on an epidemiological model.

  19. HIV/AIDS Policy-Making in Iran: Part 2- from Formulation to Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Khodayari Zarnaq

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Achieving an appropriate policy needs an in-depth and comprehensive understanding of policy-making process. This study aimed to analyze HIV/AIDS policy-making process in Iran. Material and Methods: This is a qualitative/exploratory study. Data were collected through document review and semi-structured interview. Non-probability sampling was used for selecting documents and research participants. We used framework analysis approach assisted by MAXQDA for analyzing qualitative data. Results: AIDS policy is formulated in two specific ways within national work group in the format of national strategic plan and drug damage reduction committee. The main problem of the policy process is fragmentation and lack of comprehensiveness. Country approach of the policy implementation is top-down. The main duty of country committee and its sub-committees facing with some challenges is generating interaction between the relevant organizations. Despite the specific structure of evaluation process, it suffers from challenges such as lack of required implementation power, lack of resource anticipation, weakness in systematic and comprehensiveness evaluation and not-enough cooperation among plan’s stakeholders. Conclusion: It is obvious that policy-making in this area is completely governmental and the role of non-governmental organizations and civil servants is neglected. It seems that reform in AIDS policy-making structure and process can solve most of the problems of implementation, monitoring and evaluation.

  20. The effect of hearing aid noise reduction on listening effort in hearing-impaired adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Jamie L; Doherty, Karen A

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a noise-reduction (NR) algorithm on the listening effort hearing-impaired participants expend on a speech in noise task. Twelve hearing-impaired listeners fitted with behind-the-ear hearing aids with a fast-acting modulation-based NR algorithm participated in this study. A dual-task paradigm was used to measure listening effort with and without the NR enabled in the hearing aid. The primary task was a sentence-in-noise task presented at fixed overall speech performance levels of 76% (moderate listening condition) and 50% (difficult listening condition) correct performance, and the secondary task was a visual-tracking test. Participants also completed measures of working memory (Reading Span test), and processing speed (Digit Symbol Substitution Test) ability. Participants' speech recognition in noise scores did not significantly change with the NR algorithm activated in the hearing aid in either listening condition. The NR algorithm significantly decreased listening effort, but only in the more difficult listening condition. Last, there was a tendency for participants with faster processing speeds to expend less listening effort with the NR algorithm when listening to speech in background noise in the difficult listening condition. The NR algorithm reduced the listening effort adults with hearing loss must expend to understand speech in noise.

  1. Evaluation of direct and indirect health education in students' knowlege and attitude about AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shojaiyzadeh D

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available This inverstigation is a quasi-experimental study comparing the effects of two methods of health education on student's knowledge and attitudes about AIDS. The target population consisted of 218 male undergraduates studying in Payame Noor University in Saghez, Iran. A random sample of 106 students was selected using sample random sampling method. The students were randomly divided into two experimental groups. One group was educated about AIDS using a direct method of health education and indirect method was used for the other group. Using pretest/posttest method of data collection, analysis of the data showed a significant difference between each group's knowledge and attitudes before and after the educational programs. Comparison of the two educational methods showed no significant difference on student's knowledge about AIDS. However, method one (using a direct method of health education was significantly more effective in changing student's attitudes towards AIDS than method 2 (using an indirect method of health education.

  2. Total HIV/AIDS expenditures in Dehong Prefecture, Yunnan province in 2010: the first systematic evaluation of both health and non-health related HIV/AIDS expenditures in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Duo; Sun, Jiangping; Yakusik, Anna; Chen, Zhongdan; Yuan, Jianhua; Li, Tao; Fu, Jeannia; Khoshnood, Kaveh; Yang, Xing; Wei, Mei; Duan, Song; Bulterys, Marc; Sante, Michael; Ye, Runhua; Xiang, Lifen; Yang, Yuecheng

    2013-01-01

    We assessed HIV/AIDS expenditures in Dehong Prefecture, Yunnan Province, one of the highest prevalence regions in China, and describe funding sources and spending for different categories of HIV-related interventions and at-risk populations. 2010 HIV/AIDS expenditures in Dehong Prefecture were evaluated based on UNAIDS' National AIDS Spending Assessment methodology. Nearly 93% of total expenditures for HIV/AIDS was contributed by public sources. Of total expenditures, 52.7% was allocated to treatment and care, 24.5% to program management and administration and 19.8% to prevention. Spending on treatment and care was primarily allocated to the treatment of opportunistic infections. Most (40.4%) prevention spending was concentrated on most-at-risk populations, injection drug users (IDUs), sex workers, and men who have sex with men (MSM), with 5.5% allocated to voluntary counseling and testing. Prevention funding allocated for MSM, partners of people living with HIV and prisoners and other confined populations was low compared to the disproportionate burden of HIV/AIDS in these populations. Overall, people living with HIV accounted for 57.57% of total expenditures, while most-at-risk populations accounted for only 7.99%. Our study demonstrated the applicability of NASA for tracking and assessing HIV expenditure in the context of China, it proved to be a useful tool in understanding national HIV/AIDS response from financial aspect, and to assess the extent to which HIV expenditure matches epidemic patterns. Limited funding for primary prevention and prevention for MSM, prisoners and partners of people living with HIV, signal that resource allocation to these key areas must be strengthened. Comprehensive analyses of regional and national funding strategies are needed to inform more equitable, effective and cost-effective HIV/AIDS resource allocation.

  3. Total HIV/AIDS expenditures in Dehong Prefecture, Yunnan province in 2010: the first systematic evaluation of both health and non-health related HIV/AIDS expenditures in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duo Shan

    Full Text Available We assessed HIV/AIDS expenditures in Dehong Prefecture, Yunnan Province, one of the highest prevalence regions in China, and describe funding sources and spending for different categories of HIV-related interventions and at-risk populations.2010 HIV/AIDS expenditures in Dehong Prefecture were evaluated based on UNAIDS' National AIDS Spending Assessment methodology.Nearly 93% of total expenditures for HIV/AIDS was contributed by public sources. Of total expenditures, 52.7% was allocated to treatment and care, 24.5% to program management and administration and 19.8% to prevention. Spending on treatment and care was primarily allocated to the treatment of opportunistic infections. Most (40.4% prevention spending was concentrated on most-at-risk populations, injection drug users (IDUs, sex workers, and men who have sex with men (MSM, with 5.5% allocated to voluntary counseling and testing. Prevention funding allocated for MSM, partners of people living with HIV and prisoners and other confined populations was low compared to the disproportionate burden of HIV/AIDS in these populations. Overall, people living with HIV accounted for 57.57% of total expenditures, while most-at-risk populations accounted for only 7.99%.Our study demonstrated the applicability of NASA for tracking and assessing HIV expenditure in the context of China, it proved to be a useful tool in understanding national HIV/AIDS response from financial aspect, and to assess the extent to which HIV expenditure matches epidemic patterns. Limited funding for primary prevention and prevention for MSM, prisoners and partners of people living with HIV, signal that resource allocation to these key areas must be strengthened. Comprehensive analyses of regional and national funding strategies are needed to inform more equitable, effective and cost-effective HIV/AIDS resource allocation.

  4. Aid effectiveness for poverty reduction:macroeconomic overview and emerging issues

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Guillaumont

    2011-01-01

    Following the adoption of the MDG, particulary the first one that is to reduce poverty by half between 1995 and 2015, numerous studies have examined how external aid can contribute to their achievement. The formula "doubling aid to reduce the poverty by half" relied on the implicit assumption that aid was an effective instrument for poverty reduction. The formula and corresponding assumption have of course been debated. Two opposite views have clearly appeared, one, well represented by Jeffre...

  5. Mental health first aid guidelines: an evaluation of impact following download from the World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Laura M; Jorm, Anthony F; Paxton, Susan J; Cvetkovski, Stefan

    2012-11-01

    Mental health first aid guidelines provide the public with consensus-based information about how to assist someone who is developing a mental illness or experiencing a mental health crisis. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the usefulness and impact of the guidelines on web users who download them. Web users who downloaded the documents were invited to respond to an initial demographic questionnaire, then a follow up about how the documents had been used, their perceived usefulness, whether first-aid situations had been encountered and if these were influenced by the documents. Over 9.8 months, 706 web users responded to the initial questionnaire and 154 responded to the second. A majority reported downloading the document because their job involved contact with people with mental illness. Sixty-three web users reported providing first aid, 44 of whom reported that the person they were assisting had sought professional care as a result of their suggestion. Twenty-three web users reported seeking care themselves. A majority of those who provided first aid reported feeling that they had been successful in helping the person, that they had been able to assist in a way that was more knowledgeable, skilful and supportive, and that the guidelines had contributed to these outcomes. Information made freely available on the Internet, about how to provide mental health first aid to someone who is developing a mental health problem or experiencing a mental health crisis, is associated with more positive, empathic and successful helping behaviours. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. Right choice, right time: Evaluation of an online decision aid for youth depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Magenta B; Elmes, Aurora; McKenzie, Joanne E; Trevena, Lyndal; Hetrick, Sarah E

    2017-08-01

    Appropriate treatment for youth depression is an important public health priority. Shared decision making has been recommended, yet no decision aids exist to facilitate this. The main objective of this study was to evaluate an online decision aid for youth depression. An uncontrolled cohort study with pre-decision, immediately post-decision and follow-up measurements. Young people (n=66) aged 12-25 years with mild, mild-moderate or moderate-severe depression were recruited from two enhanced primary care services. Online decision aid with evidence communication, preference elicitation and decision support components. The main outcome measures were ability to make a decision; whether the decision was in line with clinical practice guidelines, personal preferences and values; decisional conflict; perceived involvement; satisfaction with decision; adherence; and depression scores at follow-up. After using the decision aid, clients were more likely to make a decision in line with guideline recommendations (93% vs 70%; P=.004), were more able to make a decision (97% vs 79%; P=.022), had significantly reduced decisional conflict (17.8 points lower (95% CI: 13.3-22.9 points lower) on the Decisional Conflict Scale (range 0-100)) and felt involved and satisfied with their decision. At follow-up, clients had significantly reduced depression symptoms (2.7 points lower (95% CI: 1.3-4.0 points lower) on the Patient Health Questionnaire nine-item scale (range 0-27)) and were adherent to 88% (95% CI: 82%-94%) of treatment courses. A decision aid for youth depression can help ensure evidence-based, client-centred care, promoting collaboration in this often difficult to engage population. © 2016 The Authors. Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Evaluation of user satisfaction of hearing aids (HA in the Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arakawa, Aline Megumi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The main function of human hearing is enabling oral communication. In this sense, hearing loss impairs severely communication skills and social relationships of individuals. Therefore, the project "USP in Rondônia" of FOB/USP conducts expeditions travelling to the municipality from Monte Negro/RO allowing the promotion of hearing health. Objective: To assess the level of satisfaction user with hearing aids (HA. Method: Was accomplished a prospective study of 18 individuals with hearing loss fitted with hearing aids in the Clinic of Oral and Fono Audiological Health from Monte Negro/RO. For the evaluation, we used the questionnaire for self-assessment IOI-HA (International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aids. Results: Concerning the seven domains assessed, it was verified that the average referring to the use was 4.2, the benefit was 3.9, the limiting of residual activity was 3.7; the satisfaction was 4.4, the restriction of participation of residual activity was 3.8, the impact on others was 4.3 and 3.9 for the quality of life. Respecting the factors one and two, it was applied the statistical test t-Student founding no statistically significant difference. However, the analysis of the score relative to factors one and two showed good results as the individual's interaction with his hearing aid and with their environment, respectively. Conclusion: With this study, we can demonstrate the high grade of satisfaction from the use of hearing aids presented by the majority of the sample collected in all domains analyzed.

  8. Automation of reliability evaluation procedures through CARE - The computer-aided reliability estimation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, F. P.

    1972-01-01

    Description of an on-line interactive computer program called CARE (Computer-Aided Reliability Estimation) which can model self-repair and fault-tolerant organizations and perform certain other functions. Essentially CARE consists of a repository of mathematical equations defining the various basic redundancy schemes. These equations, under program control, are then interrelated to generate the desired mathematical model to fit the architecture of the system under evaluation. The mathematical model is then supplied with ground instances of its variables and is then evaluated to generate values for the reliability-theoretic functions applied to the model.

  9. Training effectiveness evaluation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penrose, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    NAESCO's Training Effectiveness Evaluation Model (TEEM) integrates existing evaluation procedures with new procedures. The new procedures are designed to measure training impact on organizational productivity. TEEM seeks to enhance organizational productivity through proactive training focused on operation results. These results can be identified and measured by establishing and tracking performance indicators. Relating training to organizational productivity is not easy. TEEM is a team process. It offers strategies to assess more effectively organizational costs and benefits of training. TEEM is one organization's attempt to refine, manage and extend its training evaluation program

  10. Foreign aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    2008-01-01

    Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles and instituti......Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles...... and institutions of the aid system; and (c) discusses whether aid has been effective. While much of the original optimism about the impact of foreign aid needed modification, there is solid evidence that aid has indeed helped further growth and poverty reduction...

  11. Effectiveness of an online SUpport PRogramme (SUPR) for older hearing aid users: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijerink, Janine Fj; Pronk, Marieke; Paulissen, Bernadette; Witte, Birgit I; Wouden, Bregje van der; Jansen, Vera; Kramer, Sophia E

    2017-06-20

    An educational SUpport PRogramme called SUPR has been developed for hearing aid users (HAUs) and their communication partners (CPs) offering care beyond hearing aid fitting. SUPR teaches its users communication strategies, hearing aid handling skills and personal adjustment to hearing impairment. Using a cluster randomised controlled trial design, 70 Dutch hearing aid dispenser practices were randomised into hearing aid fitting (care as usual, 34 practices) and hearing aid fitting including SUPR (36 practices). The aim was to recruit a total of 569 older (aged 50+ years) first-time (n=258) and experienced (n=311) HAUs and their CPs. SUPR consists of a Practical Support Booklet and online material offered via email over a period of 6-7 months. The booklet provides practical information on hearing aids, advice on communication strategies and home exercises. The online material consists of educational videos on hearing aid functionality and usage, communication strategies and peer testimonials. Finally, noncommittal email contact with the dispenser is offered. Every HAU is asked to assign a CP who is advised to be involved intensively. Effect measurements for HAUs and their CPs will occur at baseline and at 6, 12 and 18 months follow-up via online questionnaires. The primary outcomes for HAUs will be the use of communication strategies as measured by the subscales of the Communication Profile for the Hearing Impaired. A process evaluation will be performed. The study was approved by the Dutch Institutional Review Board of the VU Medical University Center Amsterdam. This intervention could contribute to lowering the hearing impairment burden in our ageing society. The results will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and scientific conferences. ISRCTN77340339; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly

  12. Evaluation of the fracture resistance of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing monolithic crowns prepared in different cement thicknesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagsoz, N Polat; Yanıkoglu, N

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the fracture resistance of monolithic computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) crowns that are prepared with different cement thickness. For this investigation, a human maxillary premolar tooth was selected. Master model preparation was performed with a demand bur under water spray. Master die was taken to fabricate 105 epoxy resin replicas. The crowns were milled using a CEREC 4 CAD/CAM system (Software Version, 4.2.0.57192). CAD/CAM crowns were made using resin nanoceramic, feldspathic glass ceramic, lithium disilicate, and leucite-reinforced ceramics. Each group was subdivided into three groups in accordance with three different cement thicknesses (30, 90, and 150 μm). Crowns milled out. Then RelyX ™ U200 was used as a luting agent to bond the crowns to the prepared samples. After one hour cementations, the specimens were stored in water bath at 37°C for 1 week before testing. Seven unprepared and unrestored teeth were kept and tested as a control group. A universal test machine was used to assume the fracture resistance of all specimens. The compressive load (N) that caused fracture was recorded for each specimen. Fracture resistance data were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA and two-factor interaction modeling test (α = 0.001). There are statistically significant differences between fracture resistances of CAD/CAM monolithic crown materials (P cement thickness is not statistically significant for fracture resistance of CAD/CAM monolithic crowns (P > 0.001). CAD/CAM monolithic crown materials affected fracture resistance. Cement thickness (30, 90, and 150 μm) was not effective on fracture resistance of CAD/CAM monolithic crowns.

  13. Can the world cut poverty in half ? how policy reform and effective aid can meet international development goals

    OpenAIRE

    Collier, Paul; Dollar, David

    2000-01-01

    More effective development aid could greatly improve poverty reduction in the areas where poverty reduction is expected to lag: Sub-Saharan Africa, Eastern Europe, and Central Asia. Even more potent would be significant policy reform in the countries themselves. The authors develop a model of efficient aid in which the total volume of aid is endogenous. In particular, aid flows respond to ...

  14. The Memory Aid study: protocol for a randomized controlled clinical trial evaluating the effect of computer-based working memory training in elderly patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flak, Marianne M; Hernes, Susanne S; Chang, Linda; Ernst, Thomas; Douet, Vanessa; Skranes, Jon; Løhaugen, Gro C C

    2014-05-03

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a condition characterized by memory problems that are more severe than the normal cognitive changes due to aging, but less severe than dementia. Reduced working memory (WM) is regarded as one of the core symptoms of an MCI condition. Recent studies have indicated that WM can be improved through computer-based training. The objective of this study is to evaluate if WM training is effective in improving cognitive function in elderly patients with MCI, and if cognitive training induces structural changes in the white and gray matter of the brain, as assessed by structural MRI. The proposed study is a blinded, randomized, controlled trail that will include 90 elderly patients diagnosed with MCI at a hospital-based memory clinic. The participants will be randomized to either a training program or a placebo version of the program. The intervention is computerized WM training performed for 45 minutes of 25 sessions over 5 weeks. The placebo version is identical in duration but is non-adaptive in the difficulty level of the tasks. Neuropsychological assessment and structural MRI will be performed before and 1 month after training, and at a 5-month folllow-up. If computer-based training results in positive changes to memory functions in patients with MCI this may represent a new, cost-effective treatment for MCI. Secondly, evaluation of any training-induced structural changes to gray or white matter will improve the current understanding of the mechanisms behind effective cognitive interventions in patients with MCI. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01991405. November 18, 2013.

  15. An Examination of the Predictive Relationships of Self-Evaluation Capacity and Staff Competency on Strategic Planning in Hong Kong Aided Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Eric C. K.

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to examine the predictive relationships of self-evaluation capacity and staff competency on the effect of strategic planning in aided secondary schools in Hong Kong. A quantitative questionnaire survey was compiled to collect data from principals of the participating schools. Confirmatory factor analysis and reliability tests…

  16. The Effect of Merit Aid on Enrollment: A Regression Discontinuity Analysis of Iowa's National Scholars Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeds, Daniel M.; DesJardins, Stephen L.

    2015-01-01

    The cost of attending college has risen steadily over the past 30 years, making financial aid an important determinant of college choice for many students and a subject of concern for colleges and state governments. In this paper, we estimate the effect of rule-based merit aid assignment on students' enrollment decisions at the University of Iowa.…

  17. Effect of boric acid sintering aid on densification of barium ferrite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Physical properties like density and porosity have been studied for all compositions. The phase identification and microstructural investigation on the fractured surface have been carried out to understand the effect of sintering aid on the densification characteristics. Keywords. Barium ferrite; sintering aid; densification. 1.

  18. Effect of Computer-Presented Organizational/Memory Aids on Problem Solving Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Esther R.; And Others

    This research studied the effects of computer-presented organizational/memory aids on problem solving behavior. The aids were either matrix or verbal charts shown on the display screen next to the problem. The 104 college student subjects were randomly assigned to one of the four conditions: type of chart (matrix or verbal chart) and use of charts…

  19. Analysis of the Effect of HIV/AIDS on Productivity and Welfare of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of the Effect of HIV/AIDS on Productivity and Welfare of Women Farmers in ... a tremendous increase in prevalence rate of HIV/AIDS epidemic in recent time, ... reduction in cash flow while 22% complained about their inability to work.

  20. Latino Associate Degree Completion: Effects of Financial Aid over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Jacob P. K.; Zerquera, Desiree; Inge, Brittany; Berry, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Lack of financial resources to pay for postsecondary education--perceived and actual--has been cited as a barrier to student access and persistence, particularly for Latino students. This study investigates the following question: "To what extent does financial aid affect the educational attainment of Latinos enrolled in Associate's degree…

  1. Effect of training algorithms on neural networks aided pavement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Especially, the use of Finite Element (FE) based pavement modeling results for training the NN aided inverse analysis is considered to be accurate in realistically characterizing the non-linear stress-sensitive response of underlying pavement layers in real-time. Efficient NN learning algorithms have been developed and ...

  2. Development of performance measures based on visibility for effective placement of aids to navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Tae Hyun; Kim, Yeon-Gyu; Gong, In-Young; Park, Sekil; Kim, Ah-Young

    2015-09-01

    In order to develop the challenging process of placing Aids to Navigation (AtoN), we propose performance measures which quantifies the effect of such placement. The best placement of AtoNs is that from which the navigator can best recognize the information provided by an AtoN. The visibility of AtoNs depends mostly on light sources, the weather condition and the position of the navigator. Visual recognition is enabled by achieving adequate contrast between the AtoN light source and background light. Therefore, the performance measures can be formulated through the amount of differences between these two lights. For simplification, this approach is based on the values of the human factor suggested by International Association of Marine Aids to Navigation and Lighthouse Authorities (IALA). Performance measures for AtoN placement can be evaluated through AtoN Simulator, which has been being developed by KIOST/KRISO in Korea and has been launched by Korea National Research Program. Simulations for evaluation are carried out at waterway in Busan port in Korea.

  3. Development of performance measures based on visibility for effective placement of aids to navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Hyun Fang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to develop the challenging process of placing Aids to Navigation (AtoN, we propose performance measures which quantifies the effect of such placement. The best placement of AtoNs is that from which the navigator can best recognize the information provided by an AtoN. The visibility of AtoNs depends mostly on light sources, the weather condition and the position of the navigator. Visual recognition is enabled by achieving adequate contrast between the AtoN light source and background light. Therefore, the performance measures can be formulated through the amount of differences between these two lights. For simplification, this approach is based on the values of the human factor suggested by International Association of Marine Aids to Navigation and Lighthouse Authorities (IALA. Performance measures for AtoN placement can be evaluated through AtoN Simulator, which has been being developed by KIOST/KRISO in Korea and has been launched by Korea National Research Program. Simulations for evaluation are carried out at waterway in Busan port in Korea.

  4. Effectiveness of first-aid training on school students in Singur Block of Hooghly District, West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Bandyopadhyay

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: First aid is the helping behavior and initial care provided for an acute illness or injury. Students have the potential for changing the health scenario of the society if properly groomed and educated. The objective of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of educational intervention on the first aid among middle school students of a rural school in West Bengal. Materials and Methods: A total of 230, 6th and 7th standard students were given a self-administered questionnaire for assessing their baseline knowledge about management of common injuries followed by educational intervention with a systematically devised teaching module during February to March 2016. Post intervention evaluation of their knowledge acquisition was done after 2 weeks with same questionnaire. Results: The baseline knowledge on the management of selected injuries was found to be insufficient among the study subjects. Paired t-test was performed to compare the pre- and post-test scores of knowledge and attitude of the students about first aid, and there was a significant change in knowledge from pretest score (mean = 1.50, standard deviation [SD] =0.47 to posttest score (mean = 6.53, SD = 1.30. To quantify the effectiveness of health education, effect size (Cohen's d was derived. For knowledge score, Cohen's d was 5.14 with large effect size indicating highly effective impact of the training program. Significant change was also noticed regarding attitude regarding first aid as evident from increase in pretest score (mean = 1.19, SD = 0.96 to posttest score (mean = 3.17, SD = 1.03; Cohen's d was 1.88 with medium effect size. Conclusion: Inculcating first-aid training in the school curriculum can be a fruitful investment in ensuring proper and timely management of illnesses and injuries not only for the school children but also for the community at large.

  5. Effectiveness of first-aid training on school students in Singur Block of Hooghly District, West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Lina; Manjula, M; Paul, Bobby; Dasgupta, Aparajita

    2017-01-01

    First aid is the helping behavior and initial care provided for an acute illness or injury. Students have the potential for changing the health scenario of the society if properly groomed and educated. The objective of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of educational intervention on the first aid among middle school students of a rural school in West Bengal. A total of 230, 6 th and 7 th standard students were given a self-administered questionnaire for assessing their baseline knowledge about management of common injuries followed by educational intervention with a systematically devised teaching module during February to March 2016. Post intervention evaluation of their knowledge acquisition was done after 2 weeks with same questionnaire. The baseline knowledge on the management of selected injuries was found to be insufficient among the study subjects. Paired t -test was performed to compare the pre- and post-test scores of knowledge and attitude of the students about first aid, and there was a significant change in knowledge from pretest score (mean = 1.50, standard deviation [SD] =0.47) to posttest score (mean = 6.53, SD = 1.30). To quantify the effectiveness of health education, effect size (Cohen's d) was derived. For knowledge score, Cohen's d was 5.14 with large effect size indicating highly effective impact of the training program. Significant change was also noticed regarding attitude regarding first aid as evident from increase in pretest score (mean = 1.19, SD = 0.96) to posttest score (mean = 3.17, SD = 1.03); Cohen's d was 1.88 with medium effect size. Inculcating first-aid training in the school curriculum can be a fruitful investment in ensuring proper and timely management of illnesses and injuries not only for the school children but also for the community at large.

  6. Player or referee? Aid effectiveness and the governance of health policy development: Lessons from Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Rebecca; Olivé, Jean-Marc

    2011-01-01

    Viet Nam is one of the brightest stars in the constellation of developing countries. Its remarkable achievements in reducing poverty and improving health and education outcomes are well known, and as a result it has enjoyed generous aid programmes. Viet Nam also has a reputation for taking a strong lead in disciplining its donors and pushing for more efficient and effective forms of aid delivery, both at home and internationally. This article discusses how efforts to improve the effectiveness of aid intersect with policy-making processes in the health sector. It presents a quantitative review of health aid flows in Viet Nam and a qualitative analysis of the aid environment using event analysis, participant observation and key informant interviews. The analysis reveals a complex and dynamic web of incentives influencing the implementation of the aid effectiveness agenda in the health sector. There are contradictory forces within the Ministry of Health, within government as a whole, within the donor community and between donors and government. Analytical frameworks drawn from the study of policy networks and governance can help explain these tensions. They suggest that governance of health aid in Viet Nam is characterised by multiple, overlapping 'policy networks' which cut across the traditional donor-government divide. The principles of aid effectiveness make sense for some of these communities, but for others they are irrational and may lead to a loss of influence and resources. However, sustained engagement combined with the building of strategic coalitions can overcome individual and institutional incentives. This article suggests that aid reform efforts should be understood not as a technocratic agenda but as a political process with all the associated tensions, perverse incentives and challenges. Partners thus need to recognise - and find new ways of making sense of - the complexity of forces affecting aid delivery.

  7. Prevalence of the use of effective ergogenic aids among professional athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frączek, Barbara; Warzecha, Maja; Tyrała, Florentyna; Pięta, Aleksandra

    Athletic performance can be substantially enhanced with supplements and functional food which are considered by scientists as efficient, safe and legal, such as protein, carbohydrate and protein-carbohydrate supplements, isotonic sports drinks, carbohydrate-protein bars, carbohydrate bars, creatine and caffeine. The study is aimed at an analysis and evaluation of the prevalence of using effective ergogenic aids (creatine, caffeine, isotonic drinks, carbohydrates, and proteins) in a group of Polish professional athletes. The research was conducted on 600 athletes (216 women, 384 men) practicing various sports disciplines; the younger group (18-23 years old) consisted of 307 people, while the older one (24-35 years old) was comprised of 293 subjects. A questionnaire was used with questions concerning the frequency and types of consumed supplements. Nearly half of the athletes (48,2%) admitted to taking supplementation, of which 36.7% consumed the supplements occasionally and 11.5% continually. The majority of the group (75.4%) claimed to be consuming isotonic drinks, which were the most commonly chosen nutritional aid enhancing physical performance, most frequently supplementing the diet in a continuous manner (41.2%). The least frequently used supplement was creatine, chosen by only one in three interviewees (34,5%). The ergogenic aids were used more often by men than women (50.5% vs. 44.1%), and so were nutrients based on proteins (51.8% vs. 32.0%), carbohydrates (60.7% vs. 46.8%), protein-carbohydrates (45.6% vs. 32.9%), as well as creatine (39.8% vs. 25.0%). The studies showed the inessential difference in the frequency of taking supplementation based on the interviewees' age (0.4%). Competitors who use supplements over those who choose not to, seems to reflect the continuous lack of the athletes' sufficient awareness of the effectiveness, safety, and health benefits of dietary supplementation that enhances physical performance. supplements, dietary

  8. Evaluation of a clinical auditory profile in hearing-aid candidates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Nicoline; Santurette, Sébastien; Jørgensen, Søren

    2015-01-01

    by default. However, this does not necessary lead to the same HA benefit. This study aimed at identifying clinically relevant tests that may be informative in addition to the audiogram and relate more directly to HA benefit. Twenty-nine HI listeners performed fast tests of loudness perception, spectral...... and temporal resolution, binaural hearing, speech intelligibility in stationary and fluctuating noise, and a working-memory test. Six weeks after HA fitting they answered the International Outcome Inventory – Hearing Aid evaluation. The HI group was homogeneous based on the audiogram, but only one test...

  9. The effect of hearing aid signal-processing schemes on acceptable noise levels: perception and prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Hsiang; Stangl, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The acceptable noise level (ANL) test determines the maximum noise level that an individual is willing to accept while listening to speech. The first objective of the present study was to systematically investigate the effect of wide dynamic range compression processing (WDRC), and its combined effect with digital noise reduction (DNR) and directional processing (DIR), on ANL. Because ANL represents the lowest signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) that a listener is willing to accept, the second objective was to examine whether the hearing aid output SNR could predict aided ANL across different combinations of hearing aid signal-processing schemes. Twenty-five adults with sensorineural hearing loss participated in the study. ANL was measured monaurally in two unaided and seven aided conditions, in which the status of the hearing aid processing schemes (enabled or disabled) and the location of noise (front or rear) were manipulated. The hearing aid output SNR was measured for each listener in each condition using a phase-inversion technique. The aided ANL was predicted by unaided ANL and hearing aid output SNR, under the assumption that the lowest acceptable SNR at the listener's eardrum is a constant across different ANL test conditions. Study results revealed that, on average, WDRC increased (worsened) ANL by 1.5 dB, while DNR and DIR decreased (improved) ANL by 1.1 and 2.8 dB, respectively. Because the effects of WDRC and DNR on ANL were opposite in direction but similar in magnitude, the ANL of linear/DNR-off was not significantly different from that of WDRC/DNR-on. The results further indicated that the pattern of ANL change across different aided conditions was consistent with the pattern of hearing aid output SNR change created by processing schemes. Compared with linear processing, WDRC creates a noisier sound image and makes listeners less willing to accept noise. However, this negative effect on noise acceptance can be offset by DNR, regardless of microphone mode

  10. Do Visual Aids Really Matter? A Comparison of Student Evaluations before and after Embedding Visuals into Video Lectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Kristine; Mun, Jungwon; A'Jontue, RoseAnn

    2016-01-01

    Educational webcasts or video lectures as a teaching tool and a form of visual aid have become widely used with the rising prevalence of online and blended courses and with the increase of web-based video materials. Thus, research pertaining to factors enhancing the effectiveness of video lectures, such as number of visual aids, is critical. This…

  11. Developing and Implementing Monitoring and Evaluation Methods in the New Era of Expanded Care and Treatment of HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, R. Cameron; Bicego, George; Marconi, Katherine; Bessinger, Ruth; van Praag, Eric; Noriega-Minichiello, Shanti; Pappas, Gregory; Fronczak, Nancy; Peersman, Greet; Fiorentino, Renee K.; Rugg, Deborah; Novak, John

    2004-01-01

    The sharp rise in the HIV/AIDS burden worldwide has elicited calls for increased efforts to combat the spread and impact of HIV/AIDS. Efforts must continue with the aim to decrease new infections. At the same time, care and treatment services for those already infected can lead to longer, productive lives, thereby minimizing negative effects on…

  12. Evaluation of STD/AIDS prevention programs: a review of approaches and methodologies Avaliação de programas de prevenção de DST/AIDS: revendo abordagens e metodologias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marly Marques da Cruz

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a review of approaches and methodologies in the evaluation of STD/AIDS prevention programs, searching for theoretical and methodological support for the institutionalization of evaluation and decision-making. The review included the MEDLINE, SciELO, and ISI Web of Science databases and other sources like textbooks and congress abstracts from 1990 to 2005, with the key words: "evaluation", "programs", "prevention", "STD/AIDS", and similar terms. The papers showed a predominance of quantitative outcome or impact evaluative studies with an experimental or quasi-experimental design. The main use of evaluation is accountability, although knowledge output and program improvement were also identified in the studies. Only a few evaluative studies contemplate process evaluation and its relationship to the contexts. The review aimed to contribute to the debate on STD/AIDS, which requires more effective, consistent, and sustainable decisions in the field of prevention.O artigo apresenta uma revisão de abordagens e metodologias sobre avaliação de programas de prevenção de DST/AIDS, buscando um aporte teórico-metodológico que subsidie a institucionalização da avaliação e a tomada de decisão. A revisão foi realizada nas bases de dados do MEDLINE, SciELO, ISI Web of Science e outras fontes, tais como livros, textos e resumos apresentados em congressos, no período de 1990 a 2005, das palavras-chave: "avaliação", "programas", "prevenção", "DST/AIDS" e termos similares. Nos artigos levantados há uma predominância de estudos avaliativos quantitativos de resultado ou de impacto, do tipo experimental ou quase-experimental. O principal uso da avaliação é o da prestação de contas, embora a produção do conhecimento e a melhoria do programa possam ser identificados nos estudos examinados. Poucos são os estudos avaliativos que contemplam a avaliação de processo e discutem a sua relação com os contextos. Pretendeu

  13. A system for evaluating the use of media in CDC's National AIDS Information and Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, C T; Jason, J

    1991-01-01

    The National AIDS Information and Education Program (NAIEP) commissioned the National Academy of Sciences to design a prototypical system of research for use in the evaluation of the agency's media campaign. It consists of four types of evaluation: formative, efficacy, process, and outcome. These types of evaluations are used to answer such questions as the following: What message strategies will work best? Can a campaign under optimal conditions be expected to make a difference? What interventions are actually delivered during the campaign? Has the campaign actually had an impact? How NAIEP has used the system and adapted it during 1 year of research activities is outlined, and examples from a variety of other social marketing programs are described.

  14. 42 CFR 483.158 - FFP for nurse aide training and competency evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Nurse aides who have an offer of employment from a facility; (3) Nurse aides who become employed by a... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FFP for nurse aide training and competency... CARE FACILITIES Requirements That Must Be Met by States and State Agencies: Nurse Aide Training and...

  15. The role of HIV/AIDS committees in effective workplace governance of HIV/AIDS in South African small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaas, Jocelyn R

    2008-04-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to assess the role, status and scope of workplace HIV/AIDS committees as a means of effective workplace governance of the HIV/AIDS impact, and their role in extending social protective HIV/AIDS-related rights to employees. In-depth qualitative case studies were conducted in five South African small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) that were actively implementing HIV/AIDS policies and programmes. Companies commonly implemented HIV/AIDS policies and programmes through a workplace committee dedicated to HIV/AIDS or a generic committee dealing with issues other than HIV/ AIDS. Management, through the human resources department and the occupational health practitioner often drove initial policy formulation, and had virtually sole control of the HIV/AIDS budget. Employee members of committees were mostly volunteers, and were often production or blue collar employees, while there was a notable lack of participation by white-collar employees, line management and trade unions. While the powers of workplace committees were largely consultative, employee committee members often managed in an indirect manner to secure and extend social protective rights on HIV/AIDS to employees, and monitor their effective implementation in practice. In the interim, workplace committees represented one of the best means to facilitate more effective workplace HIV/AIDS governance. However, the increased demands on collective bargaining as a result of an anticipated rises in AIDS-related morbidity and mortality might prove to be beyond the scope of such voluntary committees in the longer term.

  16. The role of culture in effective HIV/AIDS communication by theatre in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwah, Chijioke

    2013-01-01

    The need to effectively communicate HIV/AIDS messages in South Africa, given the high prevalence of the pandemic, cannot be overemphasised. Communication scholars have long emphasised the need to recognise adherence to cultural norms of target communities as catalyst for effective HIV/AIDS communication. Unfortunately this call has not been totally heeded by the designers of HIV/AIDS communication instruments. In the case of theatre, research has shown that in South Africa, theatre groups have gone into communities with pre-packaged plays without due cognisance of the cultural norms and beliefs of the target population. This research was conducted in KwaZulu-Natal (the province with the highest prevalence rate of HIV/AIDS infection in South Africa). Using a qualitative research methodology this paper investigated the inclusion/non-inclusion of the cultural norms of the target population in the design of the dramatic performance by the theatre group in its HIV/AIDS campaigns. The findings indicate that while the group did try to incorporate aspects of the cultural norms of the target population, it did so at a level that failed to effectively communicate the HIV/AIDS message to its audiences. This paper therefore seeks to show through empirical evidence that the non-inclusion of cultural norms and values of the target population has acted as a stumbling block in the effective communication of HIV/AIDS messages by theatre groups in the country.

  17. Coaching patients in the use of decision and communication aids: RE-AIM evaluation of a patient support program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkora, Jeff; Volz, Shelley; Loth, Meredith; Teng, Alexandra; Zarin-Pass, Margot; Moore, Dan; Esserman, Laura

    2015-05-28

    Decision aids educate patients about treatment options and outcomes. Communication aids include question lists, consultation summaries, and audio-recordings. In efficacy studies, decision aids increased patient knowledge, while communication aids increased patient question-asking and information recall. Starting in 2004, we trained successive cohorts of post-baccalaureate, pre-medical interns to coach patients in the use of decision and communication aids at our university-based breast cancer clinic. From July 2005 through June 2012, we used the RE-AIM framework to measure Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance of our interventions. 1. Reach: Over the study period, our program sent a total of 5,153 decision aids and directly administered 2,004 communication aids. In the most recent program year (2012), out of 1,524 eligible patient appointments, we successfully contacted 1,212 (80%); coached 1,110 (73%) in the self-administered use of decision and communication aids; sent 958 (63%) decision aids; and directly administered communication aids for 419 (27%) patients. In a 2010 survey, coached patients reported self-administering one or more communication aids in 81% of visits 2. Effectiveness: In our pre-post comparisons, decision aids were associated with increased patient knowledge and decreased decisional conflict. Communication aids were associated with increased self-efficacy and number of questions; and with high ratings of patient preparedness and satisfaction 3. Adoption: Among visitors sent decision aids, 82% of survey respondents reviewed some or all; among those administered communication aids, 86% reviewed one or more after the visit 4. Through continuous quality adaptations, we increased the proportion of available staff time used for patient support (i.e. exploitation of workforce capacity) from 29% in 2005 to 84% in 2012 5. Maintenance: The main barrier to sustainability was the cost of paid intern labor. We addressed this by

  18. Income and financial aid effects on persistence and degree attainment in public colleges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia C. Dowd

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the distribution of financial aid among financially dependent four-year college students and the effectiveness of different types of financial aid in promoting student persistence and timely bachelor’s degree attainment. The findings of descriptive statistical and logistic regression analyses using the NCES Beginning Postsecondary Students (1990-94 data show that subsidized loans taken in the first year of college have a positive effect on persistence. The first-year distribution of aid does not close the income gap in bachelor’s degree attainment. Living on campus and first-year grade point average are the most important predictors of timely degree completion.

  19. Role and Relative Effectiveness of Immune System for Combating Small Pox and AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    A. Taqaddas

    2014-01-01

    The human body has a complex system of innate and adaptive mechanisms for combating infection. This article discusses the role and relative effectiveness of these mechanisms in relation to small pox and AIDS.

  20. Application of CT-PSF-based computer-simulated lung nodules for evaluating the accuracy of computer-aided volumetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funaki, Ayumu; Ohkubo, Masaki; Wada, Shinichi; Murao, Kohei; Matsumoto, Toru; Niizuma, Shinji

    2012-07-01

    With the wide dissemination of computed tomography (CT) screening for lung cancer, measuring the nodule volume accurately with computer-aided volumetry software is increasingly important. Many studies for determining the accuracy of volumetry software have been performed using a phantom with artificial nodules. These phantom studies are limited, however, in their ability to reproduce the nodules both accurately and in the variety of sizes and densities required. Therefore, we propose a new approach of using computer-simulated nodules based on the point spread function measured in a CT system. The validity of the proposed method was confirmed by the excellent agreement obtained between computer-simulated nodules and phantom nodules regarding the volume measurements. A practical clinical evaluation of the accuracy of volumetry software was achieved by adding simulated nodules onto clinical lung images, including noise and artifacts. The tested volumetry software was revealed to be accurate within an error of 20 % for nodules >5 mm and with the difference between nodule density and background (lung) (CT value) being 400-600 HU. Such a detailed analysis can provide clinically useful information on the use of volumetry software in CT screening for lung cancer. We concluded that the proposed method is effective for evaluating the performance of computer-aided volumetry software.

  1. Put a Face to a Name (Part A): The Effects of Photographic Aids on Patient Satisfaction, Clinician Communication, and Quality of Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-04

    Effects of Photographic Aids (Photos of Faces) on Patient Recall of Their Clinical Care Team; Effects of Photographic Aids (Photos of Faces) on Clinician-patient Communication; Effects of Photographic Aids (Photos of Faces) on Overall Patient Satisfaction

  2. Effects of hearing aids on cognitive functions and depressive signs in elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Baran; Yurekli, Muge Fethiye; Babademez, Mehmet Ali; Karabulut, Hayriye; Karasen, Rıza Murat

    2011-01-01

    With the physical, emotional and cognitive effects of senility, elderly people, especially those with impaired hearing, need rehabilitation for improving their life conditions. Hearing aids are frequently used to improve their daily life communications and activities. The aim of this study was to report the cognitive and psychological benefits of using hearing aids by the elderly people, over the age of 65. This was a prospective, single-arm interventional study in 34 elderly subjects with hearing impairment who answered the geriatric depression scale-short form (GDS) questionnaire and the mini mental state examination (MMSE) test, prior to, and 3 months following the use of hearing aid, after obtaining the patients' consent to participate in study. Patients with evidence of focal neurological loss with clinical examination, a confusional state, sudden hear loss and severe tinnitus were not included in the study. Scores of the effects of hearing aids on mood and cognitive functions were compared for each subject, before and after, and between males and females. After 3 months of using a hearing aid, all patients showed a significant improvement of the psychosocial and cognitive conditions, and all of them showed betterment of their problems, i.e., the social communication and exchanging information. In conclusion, for the elderly people with the effects of hearing aids in presbycusis and due to the significant improvement in psychological state and mental functions, using and being adaptable to hearing aids is a good solution. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Standardized evaluation of algorithms for computer-aided diagnosis of dementia based on structural MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bron, Esther E.; Smits, Marion; van der Flier, Wiesje M.

    2015-01-01

    algorithms based on a clinically representative multi-center data set. Using clinical practice as the starting point, the goal was to reproduce the clinical diagnosis. Therefore, we evaluated algorithms for multi-class classification of three diagnostic groups: patients with probable Alzheimer's disease...... of aging). The best performing algorithm yielded an accuracy of 63.0% and an area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve (AUC) of 78.8%. In general, the best performances were achieved using feature extraction based on voxel-based morphometry or a combination of features that included volume......Abstract Algorithms for computer-aided diagnosis of dementia based on structural MRI have demonstrated high performance in the literature, but are difficult to compare as different data sets and methodology were used for evaluation. In addition, it is unclear how the algorithms would perform...

  4. Effects of Hearing Impairment and Hearing Aid Amplification on Listening Effort: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlenforst, Barbara; Zekveld, Adriana A; Jansma, Elise P; Wang, Yang; Naylor, Graham; Lorens, Artur; Lunner, Thomas; Kramer, Sophia E

    To undertake a systematic review of available evidence on the effect of hearing impairment and hearing aid amplification on listening effort. Two research questions were addressed: Q1) does hearing impairment affect listening effort? and Q2) can hearing aid amplification affect listening effort during speech comprehension? English language articles were identified through systematic searches in PubMed, EMBASE, Cinahl, the Cochrane Library, and PsycINFO from inception to August 2014. References of eligible studies were checked. The Population, Intervention, Control, Outcomes, and Study design strategy was used to create inclusion criteria for relevance. It was not feasible to apply a meta-analysis of the results from comparable studies. For the articles identified as relevant, a quality rating, based on the 2011 Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation Working Group guidelines, was carried out to judge the reliability and confidence of the estimated effects. The primary search produced 7017 unique hits using the keywords: hearing aids OR hearing impairment AND listening effort OR perceptual effort OR ease of listening. Of these, 41 articles fulfilled the Population, Intervention, Control, Outcomes, and Study design selection criteria of: experimental work on hearing impairment OR hearing aid technologies AND listening effort OR fatigue during speech perception. The methods applied in those articles were categorized into subjective, behavioral, and physiological assessment of listening effort. For each study, the statistical analysis addressing research question Q1 and/or Q2 was extracted. In seven articles more than one measure of listening effort was provided. Evidence relating to Q1 was provided by 21 articles that reported 41 relevant findings. Evidence relating to Q2 was provided by 27 articles that reported 56 relevant findings. The quality of evidence on both research questions (Q1 and Q2) was very low, according to the Grading of

  5. Effect of irradiation of drugs and aiding substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnell, R.; Boegl, W.

    1982-01-01

    In this bibliographic study (Part I - VI), the results of more than 300 radiation tested pharmaceuticals are discussed and evaluated. The substances were treated with ionizing radiation in their pure form (solid substance or liquid), as aqueous or alcohol solution, as emulsion or in compound form, almost exclusively with gamma radiation from cobaldt-60 sources. The radiation doses applied amounted from some krd to about 100 Mrd. The results of the original papers analyzed in this Part VI are not summarized separately since the final Part VII of the study on the effects of irradiation of drugs and drug additives will contain a survey for all essential data discussed in Parts I to VI. (orig./MG) [de

  6. A Computer-Aided Diagnosis for Evaluating Lung Nodules on Chest CT: the Current Status and Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goo, Jin Mo [Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-04-15

    As the detection and characterization of lung nodules are of paramount importance in thoracic radiology, various tools for making a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) have been developed to improve the diagnostic performance of radiologists in clinical practice. Numerous studies over the years have shown that the CAD system can effectively help readers identify more nodules. Moreover, nodule malignancy and the response of malignant lung tumors to treatment can also be assessed using nodule volumetry. CAD also has the potential to objectively analyze the morphology of nodules and enhance the work flow during the assessment of follow-up studies. Therefore, understanding the current status and limitations of CAD for evaluating lung nodules is essential to effectively apply CAD in clinical practice

  7. Effectiveness of a first-aid intervention program applied by undergraduate nursing students to preparatory school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wafik, Wagida; Tork, Hanan

    2014-03-01

    Childhood injuries constitute a major public health problem worldwide. First aid is an effective life-preservation tool at work, school, home, and in public locations. In this study, the effectiveness of a first-aid program delivered by undergraduate nursing students to preparatory school children was examined. This quasi-experimental study was carried out on 100 school children in governmental preparatory schools in Egypt. The researchers designed a program for first-aid training, and this was implemented by trained nursing students. The evaluation involved immediate post-test and follow-up assessment after two months. The results showed generally low levels of satisfactory knowledge and inadequate situational practice among the school students before the intervention. Statistically-significant improvements were shown at the post- and follow-up tests. Multivariate regression analysis identified the intervention and the type of school as the independent predictors of the change in students' knowledge score, while the intervention and the knowledge score were the predictors of the practice score. The study concluded that a first-aid training program delivered by nursing students to preparatory school children is effective in improving their knowledge and practice. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. The effects of nationality differences and work stressors on work adjustment for foreign nurse aides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Hsieh

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main purpose of this study was to discuss the nationality differences of foreign nurse aides and the effect of work stressors influencing work adjustment. And of helping them adapt to Taiwanese society, we summarized the difficulties that foreign nurse aides face in Taiwan. Methods The subjects included 80 foreign nurse aides from the Philippines, Indonesia, and Vietnam who worked in long-term care facilities in Tao Yuan County. We recruited volunteers at the participating facilities to complete the anonymous questionnaires. The return rate of the questionnaire was 88.75%. The validated instruments of Hershenson's (1981 and Schaefer and Moos (1993 were adopted to measure work stressors and work adjustment, respectively. A forward-backward translation process was used in this study. Results Indonesian foreign nurse aides respect their work, and are better workers than Vietnamese and Filipino nurse aids in many respects, which shows how the nationality of the foreign nurse aides might affect work adjustment. The stress created from patient care tasks influenced the foreign nurse aides' personal relationships at work and also affected their attitude when they performed their tasks. In addition, pressure from their supervisors might have affected their work skills, work habits, personal relationships, self-concepts or work attitudes. Moreover, a heavy workload and improper scheduling might have affected the personal relationships and work attitudes of the foreign nurse aides. It was found that work stressors had a significant correlation with work adjustment. Conclusions The results of the present study indicate that training programs are important factors for work adjustment among foreign nurse aides. Furthermore, celebration and leisure activities could be provided to release them from work stressors. More effort should be put into improving the working environment, namely providing a more supportive and enriching

  9. Evaluation of mental health first aid training in a diverse community setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawska, Alina; Fletcher, Renee; Pope, Susan; Heathwood, Ellen; Anderson, Emily; McAuliffe, Christine

    2013-02-01

    Mental health first aid (MHFA) training has been disseminated in the community and has yielded positive outcomes in terms of increasing help-seeking behaviour and mental health literacy. However, there has been limited research investigating the effectiveness of this programme in multicultural communities. Given the increasing levels of multiculturalism in many countries, as well as the large number of barriers presented to these groups when trying to seek help for mental illnesses, the present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of MHFA in these settings. A total of 458 participants, who were recruited from multicultural organizations, participated in a series of MHFA training courses. Participants completed questionnaires pre and post the training course, and 6-month follow-up interviews were conducted with a subsample of participants. Findings suggested that MHFA training increased participant recognition of mental illnesses, concordance with primary care physicians about treatments, confidence in providing first aid, actual help provided to others, and a reduction in stigmatizing attitudes. A 6-month follow up also yielded positive long-term effects of MHFA. The results have implications for further dissemination and the use of MHFA in diverse communities. In addition, the results highlight the need for mental health training in health-care service providers. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing © 2012 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  10. Needs assessment for next generation computer-aided mammography reference image databases and evaluation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsch, Alexander; Hapfelmeier, Alexander; Elter, Matthias

    2011-11-01

    Breast cancer is globally a major threat for women's health. Screening and adequate follow-up can significantly reduce the mortality from breast cancer. Human second reading of screening mammograms can increase breast cancer detection rates, whereas this has not been proven for current computer-aided detection systems as "second reader". Critical factors include the detection accuracy of the systems and the screening experience and training of the radiologist with the system. When assessing the performance of systems and system components, the choice of evaluation methods is particularly critical. Core assets herein are reference image databases and statistical methods. We have analyzed characteristics and usage of the currently largest publicly available mammography database, the Digital Database for Screening Mammography (DDSM) from the University of South Florida, in literature indexed in Medline, IEEE Xplore, SpringerLink, and SPIE, with respect to type of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) (detection, CADe, or diagnostics, CADx), selection of database subsets, choice of evaluation method, and quality of descriptions. 59 publications presenting 106 evaluation studies met our selection criteria. In 54 studies (50.9%), the selection of test items (cases, images, regions of interest) extracted from the DDSM was not reproducible. Only 2 CADx studies, not any CADe studies, used the entire DDSM. The number of test items varies from 100 to 6000. Different statistical evaluation methods are chosen. Most common are train/test (34.9% of the studies), leave-one-out (23.6%), and N-fold cross-validation (18.9%). Database-related terminology tends to be imprecise or ambiguous, especially regarding the term "case". Overall, both the use of the DDSM as data source for evaluation of mammography CAD systems, and the application of statistical evaluation methods were found highly diverse. Results reported from different studies are therefore hardly comparable. Drawbacks of the DDSM

  11. 'The year of first aid': effectiveness of a 3-day first aid programme for 7-14-year-old primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banfai, Balint; Pek, Emese; Pandur, Attila; Csonka, Henrietta; Betlehem, Jozsef

    2017-08-01

    Bystanders can play an important role in the event of sudden injury or illness. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of a 3-day first aid course for all primary school age groups (7-14 years old). 582 school children were involved in the study. Training consisted of three sessions with transfer of theoretical knowledge and practical skills about first aid. The following most urgent situations were addressed in our study: adult basic life support (BLS), using an automated external defibrillator (AED), handling an unconscious patient, managing bleeding and calling the ambulance. Data collection was made with a questionnaire developed for the study and observation. Students were tested before, immediately after and 4 months after training. Results were considered significant in case of pfirst aid training was associated with knowledge of the correct ambulance number (p=0.015) and management of bleeding (p=0.041). Prior to training, age was associated with pre-test knowledge and skills of all topics (p<0.01); after training, it was only associated with AED use (p<0.001). There was a significant correlation between the depth of chest compression and children's age, weight, height and body mass index (p<0.001). Ventilation depended on the same factors (p<0.001). Children aged 7-14 years are able to perform basic life-saving skills. Knowledge retention after 4 months is good for skills, but thinking in algorithms is difficult for these children. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Computer-aided auscultation of murmurs in children: evaluation of commercially available software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cecilia; Rankin, Kathryn N; Zuo, Kevin J; Mackie, Andrew S

    2016-10-01

    Heart murmurs are common in children and may represent congenital or acquired cardiac pathology. Auscultation is challenging and many primary-care physicians lack the skill to differentiate innocent from pathologic murmurs. We sought to determine whether computer-aided auscultation (CardioscanTM) identifies which children require referral to a cardiologist. We consecutively enrolled children aged between 0 and 17 years with a murmur, innocent or pathologic, being evaluated in a tertiary-care cardiology clinic. Children being evaluated for the first time and patients with known cardiac pathology were eligible. We excluded children who had undergone cardiac surgery previously or were unable to sit still for auscultation. CardioscanTM auscultation was performed in a quiet room with the subject in the supine position. The sensitivity and specificity of a potentially pathologic murmur designation by CardioscanTM - that is, requiring referral - was determined using echocardiography as the reference standard. We enrolled 126 subjects (44% female) with a median age of 1.7 years, with 93 (74%) having cardiac pathology. The sensitivity and specificity of a potentially pathologic murmur determination by CardioscanTM for identification of cardiac pathology were 83.9 and 30.3%, respectively, versus 75.0 and 71.4%, respectively, when limited to subjects with a heart rate of 50-120 beats per minute. The combination of a CardioscanTM potentially pathologic murmur designation or an abnormal electrocardiogram improved sensitivity to 93.5%, with no haemodynamically significant lesions missed. Sensitivity of CardioscanTM when interpreted in conjunction with an abnormal electrocardiogram was high, although specificity was poor. Re-evaluation of computer-aided auscultation will remain necessary as advances in this technology become available.

  13. Evaluation of seroepidemiological toxoplasmosis in HIV/AIDS patients in the south of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Augusto Xavier

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is considered one of the opportunistic infections for individuals with the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS, and is also a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of neurotoxoplasmosis, ocular toxoplasmosis and antibodies for Toxoplasma gondii in HIV-positive patients attending the SAE (Specialized Assistance Service for HIV/AIDS, as well as to associate their serological profile with epidemiological and clinical data. A total of 250 patients participated in the study from December, 2009 to November, 2010. Serological analysis was performed using the indirect immunofluorescent technique; epidemiological data were gathered by a questionnaire, and clinical history was based on the analysis of medical charts. Prevalence of seropositivity was 80%, with history of neurotoxoplasmosis in 4.8% and of ocular toxoplasmosis in 1.6% of the patients. The Highly Active Antiretroviral Treatment (HAART was not used by 32% of the patients, 18.4% of the patients had CD4+ T- lymphocyte count less than 200 cells/mm³ and 96.8% of them were not aware of the modes of disease transmission. These findings led us to conclude that the study population is at high risk of clinical toxoplasmosis, because of both reactivation of infection in the seropositive patients who do not make a regular use of HAART, and primo-infection in seronegative patients worsened by an unawareness of the modes of infection reported in this study.

  14. Conservation and aid: designing more effective investments in natural resource governance reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Fred

    2009-10-01

    Biodiversity conservation outcomes are closely related to the rules and institutions governing resource use. Creating local incentives for conservation through more secure resource tenure is central to conservation outcomes on private and communal lands, where the preponderance of biodiversity occurs. Conservation efforts in sub-Saharan Africa are therefore centrally concerned with governance dynamics and institutional reform processes, such as the decentralization of property rights, and how best to achieve such reforms. Traditional mechanisms for financing conservation efforts in Africa rely heavily on funds channeled through multilateral and bilateral aid agencies. The history of development aid highlights a range of constraints these aid agencies face in terms of working toward more effective resource governance arrangements and promoting reforms. Government aid agencies possess incentives for promoting large-scale and short-term projects that maximize expenditure volumes and tend to define issues in technical rather than political terms. The history of development aid suggests that these and other characteristics of aid agencies impedes their ability to influence governance reform processes and that aid funding may discourage the adoption of reforms. Greater emphasis in African conservation financing needs to be placed on flexible, small-scale investments aligned to local interests and constituencies that prioritize innovation, learning, and experimentation. Additionally, more research is required that explores the linkages between conservation funding, donor decision-making processes, and governance reforms.

  15. The Effect Of Extrinsic Motivation On Adversity Quotient In Patients With HIV/AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Nursalam, Nursalam; Misutarno, Misutarno; Puspitawati, Yulia Dewi

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Patients with HIV/AIDS may have various types of psychological responses. It was very difficult situation for them. Difficulty can measured by using Adversity Quotient. As a nurse, we can give extrinsic motivation to bring back the patient HIV/AIDS’s quality of life. The objective of this study was to identify the presence effect of extrinsic motivation on Adversity Quotient in patients with HIV/AIDS in Infectious Disease Intermediateatery Treatment Unit, Dr. Soetomo Hospital, S...

  16. The Effect of Extrinsic Motivation on Adversity Quotient in Patients with Hiv/aids

    OpenAIRE

    Nursalam, Nursalam; Misutarno, Misutarno; Puspitawati, Yulia Dewi

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Patients with HIV/AIDS may have various types of psychological responses. It was very difficult situation for them. Difficulty can measured by using Adversity Quotient. As a nurse, we can give extrinsic motivation to bring back the patient HIV/AIDS’s quality of life. The objective of this study was to identify the presence effect of extrinsic motivation on Adversity Quotient in patients with HIV/AIDS in Infectious Disease Intermediateatery Treatment Unit, Dr. Soetomo Hospital, S...

  17. A study on quantification of the information flow and effectiveness of information aids for diagnosis tasks in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Hyun

    2004-02-01

    Diagnosis is one of the most complex and mental resource-demanding tasks in nuclear power plants (NPPs), especially, to main control room (MCR) operators. Diagnosis is a crucial part of disturbance control in NPPs, since it is a prerequisite task for initiating operating procedures. In order to design a control room feature for NPPs, three elements need to be considered: 1) the operational tasks that must be performed, 2) a model of human performance for these tasks, and 3) a model of how control room features are intended to support performance. The operational tasks define the classes of performance that must be considered. A model of human performance makes more explicit the requirements for accurate and efficient performance and reveals potential sources of error. Finally, the model of support allows the generation of specific hypotheses about how performance is facilitated in the control room. The model of support needs to be developed based on the human performance model. This paper proposes three approaches for the system design of operator support systems to aid MCR operators' diagnosis tasks in NPPs, considering the above three elements. This paper presents 1) a quantitative approach to modeling the information flow of diagnosis tasks, 2) strategy-based evaluation of information aids for diagnosis tasks, and 3) quantitative evaluation of NPP decision support systems. As an analysis of diagnosis tasks, this paper presents a method to quantify the cognitive information flow of diagnosis tasks, integrating a stage model (a qualitative approach) with information theory (a quantitative approach). The method includes: 1) constructing the information flow model, which consists of four stages based on operating procedures of NPPs: and 2) quantifying the information flow using Conant's model, a kind of information theory. Then, three experiments were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed approach to predicting human performances, especially in

  18. Evaluation of HIV and AIDS knowledge in rural Cameroon men with the use of a questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.P. Versteegh (Hendt); A. Bakia (Affuenti); H.M. Koopman (Hendrik); V. Kraaij (Vivian); F.G. Versteegh (Florens)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: HIV/AIDS, the most important health problem in Africa, is the leading cause of death on the continent. Ignorance on HIV/AIDS status will hamper treatment and prevention. To investigate the level of HIV/AIDS knowledge among men in a rural area, we performed a questionnaire

  19. Music preferences with hearing aids: effects of signal properties, compression settings, and listener characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croghan, Naomi B H; Arehart, Kathryn H; Kates, James M

    2014-01-01

    Current knowledge of how to design and fit hearing aids to optimize music listening is limited. Many hearing-aid users listen to recorded music, which often undergoes compression limiting (CL) in the music industry. Therefore, hearing-aid users may experience twofold effects of compression when listening to recorded music: music-industry CL and hearing-aid wide dynamic-range compression (WDRC). The goal of this study was to examine the roles of input-signal properties, hearing-aid processing, and individual variability in the perception of recorded music, with a focus on the effects of dynamic-range compression. A group of 18 experienced hearing-aid users made paired-comparison preference judgments for classical and rock music samples using simulated hearing aids. Music samples were either unprocessed before hearing-aid input or had different levels of music-industry CL. Hearing-aid conditions included linear gain and individually fitted WDRC. Combinations of four WDRC parameters were included: fast release time (50 msec), slow release time (1,000 msec), three channels, and 18 channels. Listeners also completed several psychophysical tasks. Acoustic analyses showed that CL and WDRC reduced temporal envelope contrasts, changed amplitude distributions across the acoustic spectrum, and smoothed the peaks of the modulation spectrum. Listener judgments revealed that fast WDRC was least preferred for both genres of music. For classical music, linear processing and slow WDRC were equally preferred, and the main effect of number of channels was not significant. For rock music, linear processing was preferred over slow WDRC, and three channels were preferred to 18 channels. Heavy CL was least preferred for classical music, but the amount of CL did not change the patterns of WDRC preferences for either genre. Auditory filter bandwidth as estimated from psychophysical tuning curves was associated with variability in listeners' preferences for classical music. Fast

  20. Academic consortium for the evaluation of computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) in mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Seong K.; Freedman, Matthew T.; Wu, Chris Y.; Lo, Shih-Chung B.; Floyd, Carey E., Jr.; Lo, Joseph Y.; Chan, Heang-Ping; Helvie, Mark A.; Petrick, Nicholas; Sahiner, Berkman; Wei, Datong; Chakraborty, Dev P.; Clarke, Laurence P.; Kallergi, Maria; Clark, Bob; Kim, Yongmin

    1995-04-01

    Computer aided diagnosis (CADx) is a promising technology for the detection of breast cancer in screening mammography. A number of different approaches have been developed for CADx research that have achieved significant levels of performance. Research teams now recognize the need for a careful and detailed evaluation study of approaches to accelerate the development of CADx, to make CADx more clinically relevant and to optimize the CADx algorithms based on unbiased evaluations. The results of such a comparative study may provide each of the participating teams with new insights into the optimization of their individual CADx algorithms. This consortium of experienced CADx researchers is working as a group to compare results of the algorithms and to optimize the performance of CADx algorithms by learning from each other. Each institution will be contributing an equal number of cases that will be collected under a standard protocol for case selection, truth determination, and data acquisition to establish a common and unbiased database for the evaluation study. An evaluation procedure for the comparison studies are being developed to analyze the results of individual algorithms for each of the test cases in the common database. Optimization of individual CADx algorithms can be made based on the comparison studies. The consortium effort is expected to accelerate the eventual clinical implementation of CADx algorithms at participating institutions.

  1. Evaluation of the efficiency of computer-aided spectra search systems based on information theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaarschmidt, K.

    1979-01-01

    Application of information theory allows objective evaluation of the efficiency of computer-aided spectra search systems. For this purpose, a significant number of search processes must be analyzed. The amount of information gained by computer application is considered as the difference between the entropy of the data bank and a conditional entropy depending on the proportion of unsuccessful search processes and ballast. The influence of the following factors can be estimated: volume, structure, and quality of the spectra collection stored, efficiency of the encoding instruction and the comparing algorithm, and subjective errors involved in the encoding of spectra. The relations derived are applied to two published storage and retrieval systems for infared spectra. (Auth.)

  2. Acceptance of shared decision making with reference to an electronic library of decision aids (arriba-lib) and its association to decision making in patients: an evaluation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Oliver; Keller, Heidemarie; Krones, Tanja; Donner-Banzhoff, Norbert

    2011-07-07

    Decision aids based on the philosophy of shared decision making are designed to help patients make informed choices among diagnostic or treatment options by delivering evidence-based information on options and outcomes. A patient decision aid can be regarded as a complex intervention because it consists of several presumably relevant components. Decision aids have rarely been field tested to assess patients' and physicians' attitudes towards them. It is also unclear what effect decision aids have on the adherence to chosen options. The electronic library of decision aids (arriba-lib) to be used within the clinical encounter has a modular structure and contains evidence-based decision aids for the following topics: cardiovascular prevention, atrial fibrillation, coronary heart disease, oral antidiabetics, conventional and intensified insulin therapy, and unipolar depression. We conducted an evaluation study in which 29 primary care physicians included 192 patients. After the consultation, patients filled in questionnaires and were interviewed via telephone two months later. We used generalised estimation equations to measure associations within patient variables and traditional crosstab analyses. Patients were highly satisfied with arriba-lib and the process of shared decision making. Two-thirds of patients reached in the telephone interview wanted to be counselled again with arriba-lib. There was a high congruence between preferred and perceived decision making. Of those patients reached in the telephone interview, 80.7% said that they implemented the decision, independent of gender and education. Elderly patients were more likely to say that they implemented the decision. Shared decision making with our multi-modular electronic library of decision aids (arriba-lib) was accepted by a high number of patients. It has positive associations to general aspects of decision making in patients. It can be used for patient groups with a wide range of individual

  3. Effect of resin coating and occlusal loading on microleakage of Class II computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing fabricated ceramic restorations: a confocal microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitayama, Shuzo; Nasser, Nasser A; Pilecki, Peter; Wilson, Ron F; Nikaido, Toru; Tagami, Junji; Watson, Timothy F; Foxton, Richard M

    2011-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of resin coating and occlusal loading on microleakage of class II computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) ceramic restorations. Molars were prepared for an mesio-occlusal-distal (MOD) inlay and were divided into two groups: non-coated (controls); and resin-coated, in which the cavity was coated with a combination of a dentin bonding system (Clearfil Protect Bond) and a flowable resin composite (Clearfil Majesty Flow). Ceramic inlays were fabricated using the CAD/CAM technique (CEREC 3) and cemented with resin cement (Clearfil Esthetic Cement). After 24 h of water storage, the restored teeth in each group were divided into two subgroups: unloaded or loaded with an axial force of 80 N at a rate of 2.5 cycles/s for 250,000 cycles while stored in water. After immersion in 0.25% Rhodamine B solution, the teeth were sectioned bucco-lingually at the mesial and distal boxes. Tandem scanning confocal microscopy (TSM) was used for evaluation of microleakage. The locations of the measurements were assigned to the cavity walls and floor. Loading did not have a significant effect on microleakage in either the resin-coated or non-coated group. Resin coating significantly reduced microleakage regardless of loading. The cavity floor exhibited greater microleakage compared to the cavity wall. TSM observation also revealed that microleakage at the enamel surface was minimal regardless of resin coating. In contrast, non-coated dentin showed extensive leakage, whereas resin-coated dentin showed decreased leakage. Resin coating with a combination of a dentin-bonding system and a flowable resin composite may be indicated prior to impression-taking when restoring teeth with CAD/CAM ceramic inlays in order to reduce microleakage at the tooth-resin interface.

  4. Analysis and minimization of overtraining effect in rule-based classifiers for computer-aided diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qiang; Doi Kunio

    2006-01-01

    Computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) schemes have been developed to assist radiologists detect various lesions in medical images. In CAD schemes, classifiers play a key role in achieving a high lesion detection rate and a low false-positive rate. Although many popular classifiers such as linear discriminant analysis and artificial neural networks have been employed in CAD schemes for reduction of false positives, a rule-based classifier has probably been the simplest and most frequently used one since the early days of development of various CAD schemes. However, with existing rule-based classifiers, there are major disadvantages that significantly reduce their practicality and credibility. The disadvantages include manual design, poor reproducibility, poor evaluation methods such as resubstitution, and a large overtraining effect. An automated rule-based classifier with a minimized overtraining effect can overcome or significantly reduce the extent of the above-mentioned disadvantages. In this study, we developed an 'optimal' method for the selection of cutoff thresholds and a fully automated rule-based classifier. Experimental results performed with Monte Carlo simulation and a real lung nodule CT data set demonstrated that the automated threshold selection method can completely eliminate overtraining effect in the procedure of cutoff threshold selection, and thus can minimize overall overtraining effect in the constructed rule-based classifier. We believe that this threshold selection method is very useful in the construction of automated rule-based classifiers with minimized overtraining effect

  5. Towards a "fourth generation" of approaches to HIV/AIDS management: creating contexts for effective community mobilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Catherine; Cornish, Flora

    2010-01-01

    Many biomedical and behavioural HIV/AIDS programmes aimed at prevention, care and treatment have disappointing outcomes because of a lack of effective community mobilisation. But community mobilisation is notoriously difficult to bring about. We present a conceptual framework that maps out those dimensions of social context that are likely to support or undermine community mobilisation efforts, proposing that attention should be given to three dimensions of social context: the material, symbolic and relational. This paper has four parts. We begin by outlining why community mobilisation is regarded as a core dimension of effective HIV/AIDS management: it increases the "reach" and sustainability of programmes; it is a vital component of the wider "task shifting" agenda given the scarcity of health professionals in many HIV/AIDS-vulnerable contexts. Most importantly it facilitates those social psychological processes that we argue are vital preconditions for effective prevention, care and treatment. Secondly we map out three generations of approaches to behaviour change within the HIV/AIDS field: HIV-awareness, peer education and community mobilisation. We critically evaluate each approach's underlying assumptions about the drivers of behaviour change, to frame our understandings of the pathways between mobilisation and health, drawing on the concepts of social capital, dialogue and empowerment. Thirdly we refer to two well-documented case studies of community mobilisation in India and South Africa to illustrate our claim that community mobilisation is unlikely to succeed in the absence of supportive material, symbolic and relational contexts. Fourthly we provide a brief overview of how the papers in this special issue help us flesh out our conceptualisation of the "health enabling social environment". We conclude by arguing for the urgent need for a 'fourth generation' of approaches in the theory and practice of HIV/AIDS management, one which pays far greater

  6. The effects of information about AIDS risk and self-efficacy on women's intentions to engage in AIDS preventive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yzer, MC; Fisher, JD; Bakker, AB; Siero, FW; Misovich, SJ

    1998-01-01

    Female college students' perceived vulnerability to AIDS and their perceived self-efficacy regarding AIDS preventive behavior (APB), were manipulated in a 2 x 2 design. Consistent with protection motivation theory (e.g.. Rogers, 1983), the results showed that intention to engage in APE was highest

  7. Decision aiding in public policy generation and implementation: a multicriteria approach to evaluate territorial resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Franca Norese

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A decision aid process should be the result of an interaction between analysts, decision makers and stakeholders. Decision aiding is sometimes required when the problem situation is new and a formal decision system does not exist. Its role becomes that of facilitating the Intelligence phase of a decision process. In other situations, a criticism of certain policy making processes and their use of data, which may be available in institutional databases or are required as indicators for the decision process, motivates an intervention oriented towards structure knowledge and improvements of these processes. A preliminary study, which includes modelling and application of multi-criteria methods, can clarify a complex and new situation, propose a consistent approach for the later phases of a decision process or propose a different and more effective use of the data. A case study is proposed here to describe this methodological approach in relation to the disaster resilience of municipalities near the mbrone River, in Tuscany (Italy.

  8. Evaluation of the ZIG-ZAIDS game: an entertaining educational tool for HIV/Aids prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgínia T. Schall

    Full Text Available This article presents the evaluation process for the ZIG-ZAIDS game, investigating the material's applicability in formal and informal educational contexts, i.e., how the game has been used by health professionals, parents, and the target population (pre-adolescents, or children over 9 years old. The study involved evaluation questionnaires sent to a list of schools and institutions using the game, plus interviews and visits to places where the game was used as well as tested with groups of students. It also includes an analysis of evaluation previously sent by the authors to people who had requested the game. The results showed that the population's level of information is more relevant than age in relation to the game's impact. Another important aspect relates to ZIG-ZAIDS' applicability to different situations: training of health and teaching professionals; activities with street children; municipal institutions and events, schools, companies, communities, and health care centers. In summary, ZIG-ZAIDS was found to be an entertaining, creative, and innovative alternative for providing information on AIDS and sexuality.

  9. Evaluation of the ZIG-ZAIDS game: an entertaining educational tool for HIV/Aids prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schall Virgínia T.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the evaluation process for the ZIG-ZAIDS game, investigating the material's applicability in formal and informal educational contexts, i.e., how the game has been used by health professionals, parents, and the target population (pre-adolescents, or children over 9 years old. The study involved evaluation questionnaires sent to a list of schools and institutions using the game, plus interviews and visits to places where the game was used as well as tested with groups of students. It also includes an analysis of evaluation previously sent by the authors to people who had requested the game. The results showed that the population's level of information is more relevant than age in relation to the game's impact. Another important aspect relates to ZIG-ZAIDS' applicability to different situations: training of health and teaching professionals; activities with street children; municipal institutions and events, schools, companies, communities, and health care centers. In summary, ZIG-ZAIDS was found to be an entertaining, creative, and innovative alternative for providing information on AIDS and sexuality.

  10. Evaluating the Efficiency of Tragacanth Coagulant Aid in Removing Colloidal Materials and Suspended Solids Creating Turbidity from Karun River Water

    OpenAIRE

    Majid Farhadi; Afshin Takdastan; Roghayeh Baghbany

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Colloidal materials and suspended solids cause turbidity in water. To remove turbidity, clarification method is used that includes processes of coagulation, flocculation, and sedimentation. Due to the long duration of coagulation process, coagulant aids are applied. Despite the favorable efficiency of synthetic polyelectrolytes as a coagulant aid, due to their harmful effects on human health, in this process, natural organic polymers are used instead. Materials and Methods: I...

  11. A comparison of web-based versus print-based decision AIDS for prostate cancer screening: participants' evaluation and utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomko, Catherine; Davis, Kimberly M; Luta, George; Krist, Alexander H; Woolf, Steven H; Taylor, Kathryn L

    2015-01-01

    Patient decision aids facilitate informed decision making for medical tests and procedures that have uncertain benefits. To describe participants' evaluation and utilization of print-based and web-based prostate cancer screening decision aids that were found to improve decisional outcomes in a prior randomized controlled trial. Men completed brief telephone interviews at baseline, one month, and 13 months post-randomization. Participants were primary care patients, 45-70 years old, who received the print-based (N = 628) or web-based decision aid (N = 625) and completed the follow-up assessments. We assessed men's baseline preference for web-based or print-based materials, time spent using the decision aids, comprehension of the overall message, and ratings of the content. Decision aid use was self-reported by 64.3 % (web) and 81.8 % (print) of participants. Significant predictors of decision aid use were race (white vs. non-white, OR = 2.43, 95 % CI: 1.77, 3.35), higher education (OR = 1.68, 95 % CI: 1.06, 2.70) and trial arm (print vs. web, OR = 2.78, 95 % CI: 2.03, 3.83). Multivariable analyses indicated that web-arm participants were more likely to use the website when they preferred web-based materials (OR: 1.91, CI: 1.17, 3.12), whereas use of the print materials was not significantly impacted by a preference for print-based materials (OR: 0.69, CI: 0.38, 1.25). Comprehension of the decision aid message (i.e., screening is an individual decision) did not significantly differ between arms in adjusted analyses (print: 61.9 % and web: 68.2 %, p = 0.42). Decision aid use was independently influenced by race, education, and the decision aid medium, findings consistent with the 'digital divide.' These results suggest that when it is not possible to provide this age cohort with their preferred decision aid medium, print materials will be more highly used than web-based materials. Although there are many advantages to web-based decision aids, providing an option for

  12. The Effects of Financial Aid in High School on Academic and Labor Market Outcomes: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humlum, Maria Knoth; Vejlin, Rune Majlund

    We investigate the effects of financial aid on student employment and academic outcomes in high school. We exploit administrative differences in the amount of financial aid received based on timing of birth to identify the causal effects of interest. Specifically, individuals born early...... in a quarter receive less financial aid than comparable individuals born late in the previous quarter. We find that receiving less aid induces individuals to work more during high school. However, we do not find any evidence that receiving less financial aid and thereby working more is associated with any...

  13. Goat-based aid programme in Central Java: An effective intervention for the poor and vulnerable?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budisatria, I.G.S.; Udo, H.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated a goat-based aid programme developed to facilitate the recovery of vulnerable people in an earthquake affected area in Central Java, Indonesia. Farmers, organised in farmers’ groups, received a package of one male and four female goats. In total, 72 farmers from 6 farmers’

  14. Moderation of effects of AAC based on setting and types of aided AAC on outcome variables: an aggregate study of single-case research with individuals with ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Jennifer B; Rispoli, Mandy J; Mason, Rose Ann; Hong, Ee Rea

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the potential moderating effects of intervention setting and type of aided augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) on outcome variables for students with autism spectrum disorders. Improvement rate difference, an effect size measure, was used to calculate aggregate effects across 35 single-case research studies. Results indicated that the largest effects for aided AAC were observed in general education settings. With respect to communication outcomes, both speech generating devices (SGDs) and the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) were associated with larger effects than other picture-based systems. With respect to challenging behaviour outcomes, SGDs produced larger effects than PECS. This aggregate study highlights the importance of considering intervention setting, choice of AAC system and target outcomes when designing and planning an aided AAC intervention.

  15. Evaluation of a Patient Decision Aid for Unicompartmental or Total Knee Arthroplasty for Medial Knee Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus, Christopher; Stacey, Dawn; Dervin, Geoffrey F

    2017-11-01

    Many patients with isolated medial compartment osteoarthritis are candidates for either unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA). A novel patient decision aid (PDA) was developed to educate patients on both interventions and prepare them for making the decision with their surgeon. The study objective was to evaluate the acceptability and usefulness of a PDA for informing and helping patients reach a surgical preference without increasing decisional conflict. A PDA was developed in accordance with the criteria listed by Ottawa Decision Support Framework and prospectively tested in UKA and TKA patients, who were mailed the PDAs to complete at home along with outcome measures before surgeon consultation. Of 50 patients who consented to participate, 45 patients (26 men, 19 women) used the PDA. Quantitative analysis of acceptability, decisional conflict, knowledge, and preferred surgical option was then performed. Mean patient age was 64.6 years (range, 50-80 years). Patients rated the PDA as acceptable: 84.4% indicated balanced presentation of information and 77.8% asserted that PDA helped them to make decisions between UKA and TKA. Mean knowledge score was 86.6% and total decisional conflict was 19.7 out of 100. Of 45, 33 stated a preferred option (24 UKA; 9 TKA; 12 unsure). Patients understood the majority of the benefits and risks for each surgical option without increasing decisional conflict. The decision aid for advanced medial compartment osteoarthritis is shown to be acceptable and useful for choosing between UKA and TKA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Accuracy evaluation of metal copings fabricated by computer-aided milling and direct metal laser sintering systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Kyoung; Lee, Wan-Sun; Kim, Hae-Young; Kim, Woong-Chul; Kim, Ji-Hwan

    2015-04-01

    To assess the marginal and internal gaps of the copings fabricated by computer-aided milling and direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) systems in comparison to casting method. Ten metal copings were fabricated by casting, computer-aided milling, and DMLS. Seven mesiodistal and labiolingual positions were then measured, and each of these were divided into the categories; marginal gap (MG), cervical gap (CG), axial wall at internal gap (AG), and incisal edge at internal gap (IG). Evaluation was performed by a silicone replica technique. A digital microscope was used for measurement of silicone layer. Statistical analyses included one-way and repeated measure ANOVA to test the difference between the fabrication methods and categories of measured points (α=.05), respectively. The mean gap differed significantly with fabrication methods (P<.001). Casting produced the narrowest gap in each of the four measured positions, whereas CG, AG, and IG proved narrower in computer-aided milling than in DMLS. Thus, with the exception of MG, all positions exhibited a significant difference between computer-aided milling and DMLS (P<.05). Although the gap was found to vary with fabrication methods, the marginal and internal gaps of the copings fabricated by computer-aided milling and DMLS fell within the range of clinical acceptance (<120 µm). However, the statistically significant difference to conventional casting indicates that the gaps in computer-aided milling and DMLS fabricated restorations still need to be further reduced.

  17. A Pilot Study Evaluating the Feasibility of Psychological First Aid for Nursing Home Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lisa M; Bruce, Martha L; Hyer, Kathryn; Mills, Whitney L; Vongxaiburana, Elizabeth; Polivka-West, Lumarie

    2009-07-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the pilot study were to modify existing psychological first aid (PFA) materials so they would be appropriate for use with institutionalized elders, evaluate the feasibility of using nursing home staff to deliver the intervention to residents, and solicit feedback from residents about the intervention. The STORM Study, an acronym for "services for treating older residents' mental health", is the first step in the development of an evidence-based disaster mental health intervention for this vulnerable and underserved population. METHOD: Demographic characteristics were collected on participating residents and staff. Program evaluation forms were completed by staff participants during the pilot test and nurse training session. Staff and resident discussion groups were conducted during the pilot test to collect qualitative data on the use of PFA in nursing homes. RESULTS: Results demonstrate the feasibility of the PFA program to train staff to provide residents with PFA during disasters. CONCLUSIONS: Future research should focus on whether PFA improves coping and reduces stress in disaster exposed nursing home residents.

  18. Effect of thapsigargin on cytoplasmic Ca2+ and proliferation of human lymphocytes in relation to AIDS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scharff, O; Foder, B; Thastrup, Ole

    1988-01-01

    The tumor-promoting sesquiterpene lactone, thapsigargin, induced a dose-dependent increase of the cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration ([ Ca2+]i) in human lymphocytes from a resting level between 100 and 150 nM up to about 1 microM. Half-maximum response was found at about 1 nM of thapsigargin, full...... of the lymphocytes, which was much higher than that caused by the PHA treatment, even in AIDS lymphocytes. Moreover, the thapsigargin/PMA treatment stimulated the expression of the IL-2 receptors on both normal and AIDS lymphocytes, similar to the effect of PHA. It is concluded that thapsigargin exerts its effects...

  19. HIV / AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Relations Cyber Infrastructure Computational Biology Equal Employment Opportunity Ethics Global Research Office of Mission Integration and Financial Management Strategic Planning Workforce Effectiveness Workplace Solutions Technology Transfer Intellectual Property Division of AIDS ...

  20. A Randomized Controlled Trial to Evaluate the Benefits of a Multimedia Educational Program for First-Time Hearing Aid Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Melanie; Brandreth, Marian; Brassington, William; Leighton, Paul; Wharrad, Heather

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to (1) develop a series of short interactive videos (or reusable learning objects [RLOs]) covering a broad range of practical and psychosocial issues relevant to the auditory rehabilitation for first-time hearing aid users; (2) establish the accessibility, take-up, acceptability and adherence of the RLOs; and (3) assess the benefits and cost-effectiveness of the RLOs. The study was a single-center, prospective, randomized controlled trial with two arms. The intervention group (RLO+, n = 103) received the RLOs plus standard clinical service including hearing aid(s) and counseling, and the waitlist control group (RLO-, n = 100) received standard clinical service only. The effectiveness of the RLOs was assessed 6-weeks posthearing aid fitting. Seven RLOs (total duration 1 hr) were developed using a participatory, community of practice approach involving hearing aid users and audiologists. RLOs included video clips, illustrations, animations, photos, sounds and testimonials, and all were subtitled. RLOs were delivered through DVD for TV (50.6%) and PC (15.2%), or via the internet (32.9%). RLO take-up was 78%. Adherence overall was at least 67%, and 97% in those who attended the 6-week follow-up. Half the participants watched the RLOs two or more times, suggesting self-management of their hearing loss, hearing aids, and communication. The RLOs were rated as highly useful and the majority of participants agreed the RLOs were enjoyable, improved their confidence and were preferable to written information. Postfitting, there was no significant between-group difference in the primary outcome measure, overall hearing aid use. However, there was significantly greater hearing aid use in the RLO+ group for suboptimal users. Furthermore, the RLO+ group had significantly better knowledge of practical and psychosocial issues, and significantly better practical hearing aid skills than the RLO- group. The RLOs were shown to be beneficial to first

  1. A Randomized Controlled Trial to Evaluate the Benefits of a Multimedia Educational Program for First-Time Hearing Aid Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandreth, Marian; Brassington, William; Leighton, Paul; Wharrad, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aims of this study were to (1) develop a series of short interactive videos (or reusable learning objects [RLOs]) covering a broad range of practical and psychosocial issues relevant to the auditory rehabilitation for first-time hearing aid users; (2) establish the accessibility, take-up, acceptability and adherence of the RLOs; and (3) assess the benefits and cost-effectiveness of the RLOs. Design: The study was a single-center, prospective, randomized controlled trial with two arms. The intervention group (RLO+, n = 103) received the RLOs plus standard clinical service including hearing aid(s) and counseling, and the waitlist control group (RLO−, n = 100) received standard clinical service only. The effectiveness of the RLOs was assessed 6-weeks posthearing aid fitting. Seven RLOs (total duration 1 hr) were developed using a participatory, community of practice approach involving hearing aid users and audiologists. RLOs included video clips, illustrations, animations, photos, sounds and testimonials, and all were subtitled. RLOs were delivered through DVD for TV (50.6%) and PC (15.2%), or via the internet (32.9%). Results: RLO take-up was 78%. Adherence overall was at least 67%, and 97% in those who attended the 6-week follow-up. Half the participants watched the RLOs two or more times, suggesting self-management of their hearing loss, hearing aids, and communication. The RLOs were rated as highly useful and the majority of participants agreed the RLOs were enjoyable, improved their confidence and were preferable to written information. Postfitting, there was no significant between-group difference in the primary outcome measure, overall hearing aid use. However, there was significantly greater hearing aid use in the RLO+ group for suboptimal users. Furthermore, the RLO+ group had significantly better knowledge of practical and psychosocial issues, and significantly better practical hearing aid skills than the RLO− group. Conclusions: The RLOs

  2. Effects of information processing speed on learning, memory, and executive functioning in people living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellows, Robert P; Byrd, Desiree A; Morgello, Susan

    2014-01-01

    It is unclear whether or to what degree literacy, aging, and other neurologic abnormalities relate to cognitive deficits among people living with HIV/AIDS in the combined antiretroviral therapy (CART) era. The primary aim of this study was to simultaneously examine the association of age, HIV-associated motor abnormalities, major depressive disorder, and reading level with information processing speed, learning, memory, and executive functions, and to determine whether processing speed mediated any of the relationships between cognitive and noncognitive variables. Participants were 186 racially and ethnically diverse men and women living with HIV/AIDS who underwent comprehensive neurological, neuropsychological, and medical evaluations. Structural equation modeling was utilized to assess the extent to which information processing speed mediated the relationship between age, motor abnormalities, major depressive disorder, and reading level with other cognitive abilities. Age, motor dysfunction, reading level, and current major depressive disorder were all significantly associated with information processing speed. Information processing speed fully mediated the effects of age on learning, memory, and executive functioning and partially mediated the effect of major depressive disorder on learning and memory. The effect of motor dysfunction on learning and memory was fully mediated by processing speed. These findings provide support for information processing speed as a primary deficit, which may account, at least in part, for many of the other cognitive abnormalities recognized in complex HIV/AIDS populations. The association of age and information processing speed may account for HIV/aging synergies in the generation of CART-era cognitive abnormalities.

  3. The economics of sexuality: the effect of HIV/AIDS on homosexual behavior in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Andrew M

    2008-05-01

    In this paper, I test a simple microeconomic theory of sexuality. I apply the theory to make predictions about the effect of AIDS on sexuality, since AIDS dramatically altered the cost of sexual activities. Using a nationally representative dataset on sexuality in the United States, I estimate the effect of AIDS on male and female homosexual behavior. To do so, I postulate that people who have a relative with AIDS, on average, have more knowledge, awareness, and fear of AIDS. Empirically, this variable is uncorrelated with a number of individual background characteristics. I present evidence that AIDS causes some men to shift from homosexual to heterosexual behavior, whereas AIDS causes some women to shift from heterosexual to homosexual behavior. Thus, sexual behavior may respond to incentives. I consider alternative hypotheses, including biological theories of sexual orientation and stigma-related survey bias, and argue that they are unlikely to explain the results.

  4. Work-Centered Design and Evaluation of a C2 Visualization Aid

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roth, Emilie; Scott, Ronald; Kazmierczak, Tom; Whitaker, Randall; Stilson, Mona; Thomas-Meyers, Gina; Wampler, Jeffrey

    2006-01-01

    .... We have been developing and applying work-centered design and evaluation methodologies to design advanced visualization and support tools intended to more effectively support C2 cognitive and collaborative work...

  5. A Comparative Evaluation of Two Interventions for Educator Training in HIV/AIDS in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Li-Wei; Gow, Jeff; Akintola, Olagoke; Pauly, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare two different methods to teach educators about HIV/AIDS. Sixty educators were selected from eight schools in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa, to undergo HIV/AIDS training using an interactive CD-ROM intervention. Another sixty educators from other schools were selected to undergo a two-day Life Skills…

  6. In vitro and in vivo evaluations of three computer-aided shade matching instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Kun; Sun, Xiang; Wang, Fu; Wang, Hui; Chen, Ji-hua

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the accuracy and reliability of three computer-aided shade matching instruments (Shadepilot, VITA Easyshade, and ShadeEye NCC) using both in vitro and in vivo models. The in vitro model included the measurement of five VITA Classical shade guides. The in vivo model utilized three instruments to measure the central region of the labial surface of maxillary right central incisors of 85 people. The accuracy and reliability of the three instruments in these two evaluating models were calculated. Significant differences were observed in the accuracy of instruments both in vitro and in vivo. No significant differences were found in the reliability of instruments between and within the in vitro and the in vivo groups. VITA Easyshade was significantly different in accuracy between in vitro and in vivo models, while no significant difference was found for the other two instruments. Shadepilot was the only instrument tested in the present study that showed high accuracy and reliability both in vitro and in vivo. Significant differences were observed in the L*a*b* values of the 85 natural teeth measured using three instruments in the in vivo assessment. The pair-agreement rates of shade matching among the three instruments ranged from 37.7% to 48.2%, and the incidence of identical shade results shared by all three instruments was 25.9%. As different L*a*b* values and shade matching results were reported for the same tooth, a combination of the evaluated shade matching instruments and visual shade confirmation is recommended for clinical use.

  7. Conducting evaluations to determine training effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, J. Doug; Yoder, John A. Yoder

    2003-01-01

    Training organizations must answer the question: Is the training program adding value in terms of workforce productivity and safety? To answer this question, one needs to know what circumstances led to the development of training to determine how to measure the result of Gaining. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (ENEEL), under contract with the United States Department Of Energy (U.S. DOE), has conducted extensive research hi the area of training effectiveness. A comprehensive Training Performance Indicator Model has been developed, which has become the basis for a DRAFT document entitled Guidance for Conducting Evaluations to Determine Training Effectiveness'. The indicator Model includes the performance indicators, strategies, and methods for measuring training effectiveness. A common nomenclature is used throughout the DRAFT document to aid in using and understanding training effectiveness evaluations. The model incorporates elements of Dr. Donald L. Kirkpatrick's evaluation model, other models from industry leaders, and the findings of a benchmarking study involving both nuclear and non-nuclear industry professionals. This presentation communicates recent Department of Energy efforts in evaluating effectiveness of training, including valuable lessons learned. (author)

  8. The effects of HIV/AIDS on economic growth and human capitals: a panel study evidence from Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Shongkour

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) affects economic growths by reducing the human capitals are among the most poorly understood aspect of the AIDS epidemic. This article analyzes the effects of the prevalence of HIV and full-blown AIDS on a country's human capitals and economic growths. Using a fixed effect model for panel data 1990-2010 from the Asia, I explored the dynamic relationships among HIV/AIDS, economic growths, and human capitals within countries over time. The econometric effects concerned that HIV/AIDS plays an important role in the field of economic growths and it is measured as a change in real gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and human capitals. The modeling results for the Asian countries indicates HIV/AIDS prevalence that has a hurtful effect on GDP per capita by reducing human capitals within countries over time.

  9. Health information as an aid to effective hospital management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogli, G D

    2003-03-01

    No institution can be efficiently organized and managed unless one makes a critical analysis of organizational needs and takes appropriate action to develop the way one wishes it to be. It is, in fact, more true with hospital organization, usually the new hospital starts as a simple and small organization and with-in the space of few years, however, it evolves into a complex body governed by precise laws and regulations, especially as regards finances, facilities and organizations. In order to maintain any organization especially the hospital administration efficiently it is necessary to develop management tools that would reflect the true operation of the hospital and enable resources (personnel, equipment and buildings) to be fully utilized and adapted to the needs of the population serviced. These indicators of true hospital operation would then serve as a basis for determining hospital activity at any given time, in relation to the number and characteristics of the patients, as well as for evaluation hospital activity in terms of progress made towards good utilization of resources. A record of activities, related to the individual patient, would provide a valid basis for establishing a relationship with the morbidity observed in the hospital and would be a first step towards an evaluation of the services "rendered" by the hospital, or its impact on the demand for care in its own particular area. Thus, in its aims of establishing a hospital to adjusting supply to demand in the field of health care. The author had stressed too much emphasis on health information collection and interpretation because of valid reasons. Correct and timely administrative and clinical information which is a barometer of hospital efficiency could indicate whether the quality is balanced with expenditure or whether leading into financial crisis. So, whatever may be the motive behind establishing a hospital whether for profit making, or public-service, it is necessary the investors

  10. Evaluation of marginal/internal fit of chrome-cobalt crowns: Direct laser metal sintering versus computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunsoy, S; Ulusoy, M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the internal and marginal fit of chrome cobalt (Co-Cr) crowns were fabricated with laser sintering, computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing, and conventional methods. Polyamide master and working models were designed and fabricated. The models were initially designed with a software application for three-dimensional (3D) CAD (Maya, Autodesk Inc.). All models were fabricated models were produced by a 3D printer (EOSINT P380 SLS, EOS). 128 1-unit Co-Cr fixed dental prostheses were fabricated with four different techniques: Conventional lost wax method, milled wax with lost-wax method (MWLW), direct laser metal sintering (DLMS), and milled Co-Cr (MCo-Cr). The cement film thickness of the marginal and internal gaps was measured by an observer using a stereomicroscope after taking digital photos in ×24. Best fit rates according to mean and standard deviations of all measurements was in DLMS both in premolar (65.84) and molar (58.38) models in μm. A significant difference was found DLMS and the rest of fabrication techniques (P 0.05). DMLS was best fitting fabrication techniques for single crown based on the results.The best fit was found in marginal; the larger gap was found in occlusal.All groups were within the clinically acceptable misfit range.

  11. Clinical evaluation of a computer-aided diagnosis system for determining cancer aggressiveness in prostate MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litjens, Geert J.S.; Barentsz, Jelle O.; Karssemeijer, Nico; Huisman, Henkjan J.

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the added value of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) on the diagnostic accuracy of PIRADS reporting and the assessment of cancer aggressiveness. Multi-parametric MRI and histopathological outcome of MR-guided biopsies of a consecutive set of 130 patients were included. All cases were prospectively PIRADS reported and the reported lesions underwent CAD analysis. Logistic regression combined the CAD prediction and radiologist PIRADS score into a combination score. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and Spearman's correlation coefficient were used to assess the diagnostic accuracy and correlation to cancer grade. Evaluation was performed for discriminating benign lesions from cancer and for discriminating indolent from aggressive lesions. In total 141 lesions (107 patients) were included for final analysis. The area-under-the-ROC-curve of the combination score was higher than for the PIRADS score of the radiologist (benign vs. cancer, 0.88 vs. 0.81, p = 0.013 and indolent vs. aggressive, 0.88 vs. 0.78, p < 0.01). The combination score correlated significantly stronger with cancer grade (0.69, p = 0.0014) than the individual CAD system or radiologist (0.54 and 0.58). Combining CAD prediction and PIRADS into a combination score has the potential to improve diagnostic accuracy. Furthermore, such a combination score has a strong correlation with cancer grade. (orig.)

  12. Utility of CT in the evaluation of pulmonary tuberculosis in patients without Aids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.S.; Hwang, J.W.; Chung, M.P.

    1997-01-01

    Objective. To assess the utility of CT in the evaluation of pulmonary tuberculosis in patients without AIDS. Patients and methods. Thin-section CT scans for suspicion of pulmonary tuberculosis were obtained from 226 patients. A total of 38 patients were excluded; the reasons were unavailability of final results (n=18), patient unavailability for follow-up (n=13), and coexistence of tuberculosis and aspergilloma (n=7). The results from 188 patients were used for this study. After assessing the patterns of parenchymal lesion, involved segments, and presence of cavity, bronchiectases, and bronchogenic spread of the lesion with CT, tentative diagnosis and disease activity were recorded. Results. With CT, 133 of 146 patients (91%) with tuberculosis were correctly diagnosed as having pulmonary tuberculosis whereas 32 of 42 patients (76%) without tuberculosis were correctly excluded. CT diagnosis of lung cancer (n=8), bacterial pneumonia (n=2), pulmonary metastasis (n=1), chronic hypersensitivity pneumonia (n=1) and diffuse pan-bronchiolitis (n=1) turned out to be tuberculosis. Conversely CT diagnoses of tuberculosis appeared pathologically as lung cancer (n=5), bacterial pneumonia 71/89, 80%) and inactive state (51/57, 89%) of disease respectively could be correctly differentiated by CT. Conclusion. CT can be helpful in the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in most cases. On the basis of CT findings, distinction of active from inactive disease can be made in most cases. (authors)

  13. Effects of pediatric first aid training on preschool teachers: a longitudinal cohort study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Sheng, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Jinsong; Jiang, Fan; Shen, Xiaoming

    2014-08-24

    Unintentional injuries are a major cause of death among children. Data suggest that the retention of knowledge and skills about first aid declined over time. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of pediatric first aid training among teachers. A stratified random sampling method was used to select 1,067 teachers. The selected trainees received pediatric first aid training. Follow-up assessments were conducted 6 months, 9 months and 4 years following the training. A standardized collection of demographics was performed, and participants were given a questionnaire to indicate knowledge of and emotions about first aid. In the pretest, 1067 people responded with a mean of 21.0 correct answers to 37 questions, whereas in the post-test period, the mean score increased to 32.2 correct answers of 37 questions (P 70%) had administered correct first aid for injuries. This study demonstrated that the acquisition of knowledge, both short and long term, significantly improves. Despite appreciable decreases in knowledge long term, knowledge retention was modest but stable.

  14. The Effects of Financial Aid Policies on Student Persistence in Taiwanese Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Hui

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of financial aid policies on student persistence between the first and second year at a private four-year postsecondary institution in Taiwan. A two-phase sequential research design was employed with priority was given to the quantitative data--structural equation modeling (SEM). While the…

  15. Examining the Effects of Financial Aid on Student Persistence in Taiwanese Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Hui

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of financial aid policies on student persistence between the first and second year at a private four-year postsecondary institution in Taiwan. A two-phase sequential research design was employed with priority was given to the quantitative data-structural equation modeling (SEM). While the…

  16. Effects of HIV/AIDS on the livelihood of banana-farming households in Central Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguthi, F.N.; Niehof, A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the effects of HIV/AIDS on the livelihoods of banana-farming households in Maragua district, Central Kenya. It is based on the results of a field study carried out during 2004-2005. The study applied the sustainable livelihood approach, using both quantitative and qualitative

  17. Effectiveness of Foreign Aid on the Growth of the Agricultural Sector ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    activity; it is also the single largest employer of labor forces (70 percent according to NBS, 2009) ... foreign aid has a significant positive effect on agricultural growth in Nigeria. However, the ... know the sign of the parameter . Noting that t t. LNY.

  18. Effective Computer-Aided Assessment of Mathematics; Principles, Practice and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhow, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This article outlines some key issues for writing effective computer-aided assessment (CAA) questions in subjects with substantial mathematical or statistical content, especially the importance of control of random parameters and the encoding of wrong methods of solution (mal-rules) commonly used by students. The pros and cons of using CAA and…

  19. Effects of First Aid Training Using Small Group Instruction with Young Children with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timko, Tamara C.; Sainato, Diane M.

    1999-01-01

    A study involving 9 children (ages 41-69 months) examined the effects of a first aid training procedure on the acquisition, maintenance, and generalization of seeking adult assistance in response to simulated injuries. All participants were successful in acquiring the response and obtaining adult assistance as well as responding quickly.…

  20. Drivers for the effective management of HIV and AIDS in the South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... a panel of experts was used to validate the factors identified in the literature review and formed the second stage of this research. The Delphi method was used as it provided a systematic approach to achieve consensus on the six drivers for effective management of HIV and AIDS management in the construction industry.

  1. Enhancing Aid Effectiveness in Education through a Sector-Wide Approach in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Hiroyuki

    2009-01-01

    Since 2001 the government of Cambodia has striven to advance policy-led education reform based on a sector-wide approach. This paper critically reviews the status and progress of Cambodia's education reform from the perspective of the aid's effectiveness. The paper looks at the performance of the sector reform in the three priority areas…

  2. Effects of External Learning Aids on Learning with Ill-Structured Hypertext.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astleitner, Hermann

    1997-01-01

    Describes three experiments with high school and college students concerning learning with ill-structured hypertext; in each study, one different kind of external learning aid (memo pads, learning time, and teaching objectives) was manipulated and examined for its effect on intentional and incidental knowledge acquisition. Findings are discussed…

  3. Effects of Positioning Aids on Understanding the Relationship Between a Mobile Map and the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juho Kässi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Positioning technologies such as GPS enable mobile map applications to display a symbol representing an estimation of a user’s location on a mobile map, therefore acting as a positioning aid. Previous research on the cognitive processes involved in map reading suggests that map readers need at least two map–environment points (objects that are visualized on the map and perceived in the environment for determining their location on a map. Hence, the positioning aid alone does not provide enough information for self-location. Using a field experiment, we assessed the effect of representing the user’s location on a map on the cognitive processes involved in self-location. The results show that positioning aids guide the search for map–environment points and narrow the area on the map that must be scanned for self-location.

  4. Haptic sensitivity in needle insertion: the effects of training and visual aid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumas Cedric

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an experiment conducted to measure haptic sensitivity and the effects of haptic training with and without visual aid. The protocol for haptic training consisted of a needle insertion task using dual-layer silicon samples. A visual aid was provided as a multimodal cue for the haptic perception task. Results showed that for a group of novices (subjects with no previous experience in needle insertion, training with a visual aid resulted in a longer time to task completion, and a greater applied force, during post-training tests. This suggests that haptic perception is easily overshadowed, and may be completely replaced, by visual feedback. Therefore, haptic skills must be trained differently from visuomotor skills.

  5. Priority setting in HIV/AIDS control in West Java Indonesia: an evaluation based on the accountability for reasonableness framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromp, Noor; Prawiranegara, Rozar; Subhan Riparev, Harris; Siregar, Adiatma; Sunjaya, Deni; Baltussen, Rob

    2015-04-01

    Indonesia has insufficient resources to adequately respond to the HIV/AIDS epidemic, and thus faces a great challenge in prioritizing interventions. In many countries, such priority setting processes are typically ad hoc and not transparent leading to unfair decisions. Here, we evaluated the priority setting process in HIV/AIDS control in West Java province against the four conditions of the accountability for reasonableness (A4R) framework: relevance, publicity, appeals and revision, and enforcement. We reviewed government documents and conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews based on the A4R framework with 22 participants of the 5-year HIV/AIDS strategy development for 2008-13 (West Java province) and 2007-11 (Bandung). We found that criteria for priority setting were used implicitly and that the strategies included a wide range of programmes. Many stakeholders were involved in the process but their contribution could be improved and particularly the public and people living with HIV/AIDS could be better engaged. The use of appeal and publicity mechanisms could be more transparent and formally stated. Public regulations are not yet installed to ensure fair priority setting. To increase fairness in HIV/AIDS priority setting, West Java should make improvements on all four conditions of the A4R framework. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2014; all rights reserved.

  6. Efficient Server-Aided Secure Two-Party Function Evaluation with Applications to Genomic Computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanton Marina

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Computation based on genomic data is becoming increasingly popular today, be it for medical or other purposes. Non-medical uses of genomic data in a computation often take place in a server-mediated setting where the server offers the ability for joint genomic testing between the users. Undeniably, genomic data is highly sensitive, which in contrast to other biometry types, discloses a plethora of information not only about the data owner, but also about his or her relatives. Thus, there is an urgent need to protect genomic data. This is particularly true when the data is used in computation for what we call recreational non-health-related purposes. Towards this goal, in this work we put forward a framework for server-aided secure two-party computation with the security model motivated by genomic applications. One particular security setting that we treat in this work provides stronger security guarantees with respect to malicious users than the traditional malicious model. In particular, we incorporate certified inputs into secure computation based on garbled circuit evaluation to guarantee that a malicious user is unable to modify her inputs in order to learn unauthorized information about the other user’s data. Our solutions are general in the sense that they can be used to securely evaluate arbitrary functions and offer attractive performance compared to the state of the art. We apply the general constructions to three specific types of genomic tests: paternity, genetic compatibility, and ancestry testing and implement the constructions. The results show that all such private tests can be executed within a matter of seconds or less despite the large size of one’s genomic data.

  7. [Evaluation of the decision aid "Entscheidungshilfe Prostatakrebs" from the patients' view : Results from the first three months].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groeben, C; Ihrig, A; Hölscher, T; Krones, T; Kessler, E; Kliesch, S; Wülfing, C; Koch, R; Wirth, M P; Huber, J

    2016-12-01

    The decision aid "Entscheidungshilfe Prostatakrebs" is available online free of charge since June 2016. It is designed to support patients with their treatment decision-making and to lighten the burden on their treating urologists. This study evaluates usage data from the first 3 months. The ICHOM standard set was applied to allow a personalised presentation and to collect relevant data for subsequent counselling. Additionally, personal preferences and psychological burden were assessed amongst others. We collected anonymous data. A multivariate model evaluated predictors for high user satisfaction. From June through August 2016 a total of 319 patients used the decision aid, showing a continuous monthly increase in the number of users. There were n = 219 (68.7%) complete questionnaires. Median age was 66.1 ± 8.0 years. The oncological risk was low in 30.3%, intermediate in 43.6% and high in 26.1%. A majority of 57.5% used the decision aid together with their partner, 35.1% alone and 5.5% with their children. In all, 54.8% were "very satisfied" and 32.0% were "satisfied" with the decision aid for a total satisfaction rate of about 87%. The only predictors of total satisfaction were the usage mode and reported distress level. As shown by the continuously increasing number of users this decision aid is becoming well established in German urology. Patients' overall ratings are very positive. The majority of patients use the decision aid with their partner. This represents a significant advantage of a multimedia approach compared to print media.

  8. Resonant nuclear battery may aid in mitigating the greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, P.M.

    1989-01-01

    A new process for the direct conversion of radioactive decay energy directly into electricity of a usable form is currently being developed by Peripheral Systems, Inc. of Portland, Oregon. United States Patent 4,835,433 was issued May 30, 1989 to protect this Resonant Nuclear Power Supply. When developed, this system promises cheap, reliable power from a package small and light enough to be mobile and an energy density great enough for use as a space-based power supply. One of the potential domestic applications could be to power electric automobiles. Use in highly populated areas would have a tremendous beneficial effect on the ecology. The principle of operation for the resonant nuclear power supply is an LCR (inductance capacitance resistance) resonant tank circuit oscillating at its self-resonant frequency (at resonance, the inductive reactance and the capacitive reactance cancel to leave the ohmic resistance of the circuit as the only major loss of energy). A means for absorbing the natural radioactive decay energy emitted from an alpha or beta source is provided in the primary tank circuit and contributes an amount of energy, by means of the beta voltaic effect, in excess of the energy required to sustain the oscillation of the LCR primary tank. A transformer is impedance matched to this oscillating primary circuit for efficient energy transfer of the excess energy to a secondary output circuit, which yields net electrical power in a high-frequency usable form to drive a load

  9. THE EFFECT OF EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION ON ADVERSITY QUOTIENT IN PATIENTS WITH HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nursalam Nursalam

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Patients with HIV/AIDS may have various types of psychological responses. It was very difficult situation for them. Difficulty can measured by using Adversity Quotient. As a nurse, we can give extrinsic motivation to bring back the patient HIV/AIDS’s quality of life. The objective of this study was to identify the presence effect of extrinsic motivation on Adversity Quotient in patients with HIV/AIDS in Infectious Disease Intermediateatery Treatment Unit, Dr. Soetomo Hospital, Surabaya. Method: This study was used a quasy experimental purposive sampling design. The population was taken from ambulatory patients. There were 16 respondents who met to the inclusion criteria. The independent variable was extrinsic motivation and dependent variable was Adversity Quotient. Data were collected by using questionnaire and interview, then analyzed by using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test and Mann Whitney U Test with significance level p=0.05. Result: The result revealed that there was an effect of extrinsic motivation on Adversity Quotient of patients with HIV/AIDS (p=0.017. The extrinsic motivation was found to have an effect on control response (p=0.027 and origin response (p=0.028, there was no influence of extrinsic motivation on ownership response (p=0.334, reach (p=0.129 and endurance (p=0.161. Discussion: It can be concluded that the extrinsic motivation with intervention of social support has a positive effect on the improvement of Adversity Quotient in patients with HIV/AIDS. Further studies should measure the effectiveness of Adversity Quotient training on acceptance response in patients with HIV/AIDS.

  10. The contribution of process tracing to theory-based evaluations of complex aid instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beach, Derek; Schmitt, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    studies in demanding settings. For the specific task of evaluating the governance effectiveness of budget support interventions, we developed a more fine-grained causal mechanism for a subset of the comprehensive program theory of budget support. Moreover, based on the informal use of Bayesian logic, we...... remedy some of the problems at hand in much case-study research and increase the inferential leverage in complex within-case evaluation studies....

  11. Monitoring and evaluation of sport-based HIV/AIDS awareness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elma Nelisiwe Maleka

    2016-12-20

    Dec 20, 2016 ... information on outcomes and indicators for sport-based HIV/AIDS ..... The following strategies according to Creswell (2009) were used to ...... of integration of maternal, neonatal and child health and nutrition, family plan-.

  12. An evaluation of instructional strategies used in hiv/aids preventive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AIDS instructional strategies on JSS and SSS Students' knowledge, attitude and intentions about future sexual behaviour. Construct validity of the 12-item attitude scale was tested using factor analysis. Cronbach's alpha was utilised to determine ...

  13. The Effects of Hearing Aid Directional Microphone and Noise Reduction Processing on Listening Effort in Older Adults with Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Jamie L

    2016-01-01

    Older listeners with hearing loss may exert more cognitive resources to maintain a level of listening performance similar to that of younger listeners with normal hearing. Unfortunately, this increase in cognitive load, which is often conceptualized as increased listening effort, may come at the cost of cognitive processing resources that might otherwise be available for other tasks. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the independent and combined effects of a hearing aid directional microphone and a noise reduction (NR) algorithm on reducing the listening effort older listeners with hearing loss expend on a speech-in-noise task. Participants were fitted with study worn commercially available behind-the-ear hearing aids. Listening effort on a sentence recognition in noise task was measured using an objective auditory-visual dual-task paradigm. The primary task required participants to repeat sentences presented in quiet and in a four-talker babble. The secondary task was a digital visual pursuit rotor-tracking test, for which participants were instructed to use a computer mouse to track a moving target around an ellipse that was displayed on a computer screen. Each of the two tasks was presented separately and concurrently at a fixed overall speech recognition performance level of 50% correct with and without the directional microphone and/or the NR algorithm activated in the hearing aids. In addition, participants reported how effortful it was to listen to the sentences in quiet and in background noise in the different hearing aid listening conditions. Fifteen older listeners with mild sloping to severe sensorineural hearing loss participated in this study. Listening effort in background noise was significantly reduced with the directional microphones activated in the hearing aids. However, there was no significant change in listening effort with the hearing aid NR algorithm compared to no noise processing. Correlation analysis between objective and self

  14. Effect of computer-aided detection as a second reader in multidetector-row CT colonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mang, Thomas; Peloschek, Philipp; Plank, Christina; Maier, Andrea; Weber, Michael; Herold, Christian; Schima, Wolfgang; Graser, Anno; Bogoni, Luca

    2007-01-01

    Our purpose was to assess the effect of computer-aided detection (CAD) on lesion detection as a second reader in computed tomographic colonography, and to compare the influence of CAD on the performance of readers with different levels of expertise. Fifty-two CT colonography patient data-sets (37 patients: 55 endoscopically confirmed polyps ≥0.5 cm, seven cancers; 15 patients: no abnormalities) were retrospectively reviewed by four radiologists (two expert, two nonexpert). After primary data evaluation, a second reading augmented with findings of CAD (polyp-enhanced view, Siemens) was performed. Sensitivities and reading time were calculated for each reader without CAD and supported by CAD findings. The sensitivity of expert readers was 91% each, and of nonexpert readers, 76% and 75%, respectively, for polyp detection. CAD increased the sensitivity of expert readers to 96% (P = 0.25) and 93% (P = 1), and that of nonexpert readers to 91% (P = 0.008) and 95% (P = 0.001), respectively. All four readers diagnosed 100% of cancers, but CAD alone only 43%. CAD increased reading time by 2.1 min (mean). CAD as a second reader significantly improves sensitivity for polyp detection in a high disease prevalence population for nonexpert readers. CAD causes a modest increase in reading time. CAD is of limited value in the detection of cancer. (orig.)

  15. Computer- Aided diagnosis system for the evaluation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease on CT Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parsa Hosseini M

    2011-03-01

    tested by the mentioned method, suggested the effectiveness of this approach."n"nConclusion: In regard to the challenges of COPD diagnosis, we propose a new computer-aided design which may be helpful to physicians for a more accurate diagnosis of the disease. Moreover, this severity scoring algorithm may be useful for targeted disease management and risk-adjustment.

  16. An Effective Terrain Aided Navigation for Low-Cost Autonomous Underwater Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ling; Cheng, Xianghong; Zhu, Yixian; Dai, Chenxi; Fu, Jinbo

    2017-03-25

    Terrain-aided navigation is a potentially powerful solution for obtaining submerged position fixes for autonomous underwater vehicles. The application of terrain-aided navigation with high-accuracy inertial navigation systems has demonstrated meter-level navigation accuracy in sea trials. However, available sensors may be limited depending on the type of the mission. Such limitations, especially for low-grade navigation sensors, not only degrade the accuracy of traditional navigation systems, but further impact the ability to successfully employ terrain-aided navigation. To address this problem, a tightly-coupled navigation is presented to successfully estimate the critical sensor errors by incorporating raw sensor data directly into an augmented navigation system. Furthermore, three-dimensional distance errors are calculated, providing measurement updates through the particle filter for absolute and bounded position error. The development of the terrain aided navigation system is elaborated for a vehicle equipped with a non-inertial-grade strapdown inertial navigation system, a 4-beam Doppler Velocity Log range sensor and a sonar altimeter. Using experimental data for navigation performance evaluation in areas with different terrain characteristics, the experiment results further show that the proposed method can be successfully applied to the low-cost AUVs and significantly improves navigation performance.

  17. Relationships between familial HIV/AIDS and symptoms of anxiety and depression: the mediating effect of bullying victimization in a prospective sample of South African children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyes, Mark E; Cluver, Lucie D

    2015-04-01

    South African children and adolescents living in HIV/AIDS-affected families are at elevated risk of both symptoms of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Poverty and HIV/AIDS-related stigma are additional risk factors for these negative mental health outcomes. Community level factors, such as poverty and stigma, are difficult to change in the short term and identifying additional potentially malleable mechanisms linking familial HIV/AIDS with mental health is important from an intervention perspective. HIV/AIDS-affected children are also at increased risk of bullying victimization. This longitudinal study aimed to determine whether prospective relationships between familial HIV/AIDS and both anxiety symptoms and depressive symptoms operate indirectly via bullying victimization. Adolescents (M = 13.45 years, 56.67 % female, n = 3,515) from high HIV-prevalent (>30 %) communities in South Africa were interviewed and followed-up one year later (n = 3,401, 96.70 % retention). Census enumeration areas were randomly selected from urban and rural sites in two provinces, and door-to-door sampling included all households with a resident child/adolescent. Familial HIV/AIDS at baseline assessment was not directly associated with mental health outcomes 1 year later. However, significant indirect effects operating via bullying victimization were obtained for both anxiety and depression scores. Importantly, these effects were independent of poverty, HIV/AIDS-related stigma, and baseline mental health, which highlight bullying victimization as a potential target for future intervention efforts. The implementation and rigorous evaluation of bullying prevention programs in South African communities may improve mental health outcomes for HIV/AIDS-affected children and adolescents and this should be a focus of future research and intervention.

  18. Assessing the information desire of patients with advanced cancer by providing information with a decision aid, which is evaluated in a randomized trial: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostendorp, Linda J M; Ottevanger, Petronella B; van der Graaf, Winette T A; Stalmeier, Peep F M

    2011-02-14

    evaluate the effect of the decision aid. This study attempts to settle the debate on the desirability of informing patients with cancer. In contrast to several earlier studies, we will actually deliver information on treatment options to patients at the point of decision making.

  19. Optimization and Evaluation of a PCR Assay for Detecting Toxoplasmic Encephalitis in Patients with AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Priya; Calderón, Maritza M.; Gilman, Robert H.; Quispe, Monica L.; Cok, Jaime; Ticona, Eduardo; Chavez, Victor; Jimenez, Juan A.; Chang, Maria C.; Lopez, Martín J.; Evans, Carlton A.

    2002-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a common life-threatening opportunistic infection. We used experimental murine T. gondii infection to optimize the PCR for diagnostic use, define its sensitivity, and characterize the time course and tissue distribution of experimental toxoplasmosis. PCR conditions were adjusted until the assay reliably detected quantities of DNA derived from less than a single parasite. Forty-two mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with T. gondii tachyzoites and sacrificed from 6 to 72 h later. Examination of tissues with PCR and histology revealed progression of infection from blood to lung, heart, liver, and brain, with PCR consistently detecting parasites earlier than microscopy and with no false-positive results. We then evaluated the diagnostic value of this PCR assay in human patients. We studied cerebrospinal fluid and serum samples from 12 patients with AIDS and confirmed toxoplasmic encephalitis (defined as positive mouse inoculation and/or all of the Centers for Disease Control clinical diagnostic criteria), 12 human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with suspected cerebral toxoplasmosis who had neither CDC diagnostic criteria nor positive mouse inoculation, 26 human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with other opportunistic infections and no signs of cerebral toxoplasmosis, and 18 immunocompetent patients with neurocysticercosis. Eleven of the 12 patients with confirmed toxoplasmosis had positive PCR results in either blood or cerebrospinal fluid samples (6 of 9 blood samples and 8 of 12 cerebrospinal fluid samples). All samples from control patients were negative. This study demonstrates the high sensitivity, specificity, and clinical utility of PCR in the diagnosis of toxoplasmic encephalitis in a resource-poor setting. PMID:12454142

  20. Lung nodule detection on chest CT: evaluation of a computer-aided detection (CAD) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, In Jae; Gamsu, Gordon; Czum, Julianna; Johnson, Rebecca; Chakrapani, Sanjay; Wu, Ning

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the capacity of a computer-aided detection (CAD) system to detect lung nodules in clinical chest CT. A total of 210 consecutive clinical chest CT scans and their reports were reviewed by two chest radiologists and 70 were selected (33 without nodules and 37 with 1-6 nodules, 4-15.4 mm in diameter). The CAD system (ImageChecker CT LN-1000) developed by R2 Technology, Inc. (Sunnyvale, CA) was used. Its algorithm was designed to detect nodules with a diameter of 4-20 mm. The two chest radiologists working with the CAD system detected a total of 78 nodules. These 78 nodules form the database for this study. Four independent observers interpreted the studies with and without the CAD system. The detection rates of the four independent observers without CAD were 81% (63/78), 85% (66/78), 83% (65/78), and 83% (65/78), respectively. With CAD their rates were 87% (68/78), 85% (66/78), 86% (67/78), and 85% (66/78), respectively. The differences between these two sets of detection rates did not reach statistical significance. In addition, CAD detected eight nodules that were not mentioned in the original clinical radiology reports. The CAD system produced 1.56 false-positive nodules per CT study. The four test observers had 0, 0.1, 0.17, and 0.26 false-positive results per study without CAD and 0.07, 0.2, 0.23, and 0.39 with CAD, respectively. The CAD system can assist radiologists in detecting pulmonary nodules in chest CT, but with a potential increase in their false positive rates. Technological improvements to the system could increase the sensitivity and specificity for the detection of pulmonary nodules and reduce these false-positive results

  1. Process Evaluation of the Teacher Training for an AIDS Prevention Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nazeema; Flisher, Alan J.; Mathews, Catherine; Jansen, Shahieda; Mukoma, Wanjiru; Schaalma, Herman

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides a process evaluation of a 6-day teacher training programme which forms part of a sexuality education project. The training aimed at providing teachers with the necessary knowledge and skills to effectively teach a 16-lesson Grade 8 (14 year olds) life skills curriculum consisting of participatory exercises on sexual…

  2. An Evaluation of Computer-Aided Instruction in an Introductory Biostatistics Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, Alan B.; Freed, James R.

    1979-01-01

    Evaluates the effectiveness of computer assisted instruction for teaching biostatistics to first year students at the UCLA School of Dentistry. Results do not demonstrate the superiority of CAI but do suggest that CAI compares favorably to conventional lecture and programed instruction methods. (RAO)

  3. Heavy Vehicle Simulator aided evaluation of overlays on pavements with active cracks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Viljoen, AW

    1987-07-01

    Full Text Available their effects by means of field data from actual pavements. The South African Heavy Simulator was also used to evaluate a variety of conventional and innovative asphaltic overlays on a severely cracked concrete pavement of which the mechanisms and extent...

  4. Computer-Aided Detection of Malignant Lung Nodules on Chest Radiographs: Effect on Observers' Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyung Hee; Goo, Jin Mo; Park, Chang Min; Lee, Hyun Ju; Jin, Kwang Nam

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of computer-aided detection (CAD) system on observer performance in the detection of malignant lung nodules on chest radiograph. Two hundred chest radiographs (100 normal and 100 abnormal with malignant solitary lung nodules) were evaluated. With CT and histological confirmation serving as a reference, the mean nodule size was 15.4 mm (range, 7-20 mm). Five chest radiologists and five radiology residents independently interpreted both the original radiographs and CAD output images using the sequential testing method. The performances of the observers for the detection of malignant nodules with and without CAD were compared using the jackknife free-response receiver operating characteristic analysis. Fifty-nine nodules were detected by the CAD system with a false positive rate of 1.9 nodules per case. The detection of malignant lung nodules significantly increased from 0.90 to 0.92 for a group of observers, excluding one first-year resident (p = 0.04). When lowering the confidence score was not allowed, the average figure of merit also increased from 0.90 to 0.91 (p = 0.04) for all observers after a CAD review. On average, the sensitivities with and without CAD were 87% and 84%, respectively; the false positive rates per case with and without CAD were 0.19 and 0.17, respectively. The number of additional malignancies detected following true positive CAD marks ranged from zero to seven for the various observers. The CAD system may help improve observer performance in detecting malignant lung nodules on chest radiographs and contribute to a decrease in missed lung cancer.

  5. Computer-aided design evaluation of harvestable mandibular bone volume: a clinical and tomographic human study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdugo, Fernando; Simonian, Krikor; Raffaelli, Luca; D'Addona, Antonio

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate and compare the volume of bone graft material that can be safely harvested from the mandibular symphysis and rami using a computer-aided design (CAD) software program. Preoperative computerized tomography scans from 40 patients undergoing bone augmentation procedures were analyzed. Symphysis and rami cross sections were mapped using a CAD software program (AutoCAD(®), Autodesk, Inc., San Rafael, CA, USA) to evaluate the bone volume that can be safely harvested. CAD calculations were contrasted to intrasurgical measurements in a subgroup of 20 individuals. CAD calculations yielded a safe harvestable osseous volume of 1.44 cm(3) ± 0.49 for the symphysis and 0.82 cm(3) ± 0.21 for each ramus (p < .0001, confidence interval [CI] 95%: 0.47-0.78). These measurements were significantly lower (p < .0001) than the bone volumes harvested intrasurgically for both symphysis and ramus, respectively (2.40 cm(3) ± 0.50 vs. 2.65 cm(3) ± 0.45). CAD calculations of harvestable symphysis and ramus bone translated into an average of 2.40 cm(3) ± 0.50 (range: 1.80-3.10 cm(3)) and 2.65 cm(3) ± 0.45 (range: 1.90-3.50) of particulate bone graft intrasurgically, respectively. Ramus cortical was significantly thicker than the symphysis cortical, 2.9 ± 0.4 mm versus 2.19 mm ± 0.4 mm (p < .0001, CI 95%: 0.45-1.03). The symphysis and rami are good harvesting sources to obtain dense corticocancellous bone. The significant volumetric CAD differences between the symphysis and ramus seem to balance out intrasurgically and may be due to the greater cortical bone volume at the ramus area. It is plausible to harvest an average of 7.70 cm(3) from the symphysis and rami alone. The use of a CAD software program can enhance surgical treatment planning prior to bone transplantation. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. An evaluation of quality of life and its determinants among people living with HIV/AIDS from Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susane Müller Klug Passos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study evaluated the quality of life and its associated factors among people living with HIV/AIDS at a regional reference center for the treatment of HIV/AIDS in southern Brazil. WHOQOL-HIV Bref, ASSIST 2.0, HAD Scale, and a questionnaire were used to assess 625 participants on quality of life, clinical and sociodemographic characteristics, drug use, depression and anxiety. Multivariate analysis was performed through linear regression. The lowest results for quality of life were associated with being female, age (< 47 years, low education levels, low socioeconomic class, unemployment, not having a stable relationship, signs of anxiety and depression, abuse or addiction of psychoactive substances, lack of perceived social support, never taking antiretroviral medication, lipodystrophy, comorbidities, HIV related hospitalizations and a CD4+ cell count less than 350. Psychosocial factors should be included in the physical and clinical evaluation given their strong association with quality of life domains.

  7. The effect of multimicrophone noise reduction systems on sound source localization by users of binaural hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Bogaert, Tim; Doclo, Simon; Wouters, Jan; Moonen, Marc

    2008-07-01

    This paper evaluates the influence of three multimicrophone noise reduction algorithms on the ability to localize sound sources. Two recently developed noise reduction techniques for binaural hearing aids were evaluated, namely, the binaural multichannel Wiener filter (MWF) and the binaural multichannel Wiener filter with partial noise estimate (MWF-N), together with a dual-monaural adaptive directional microphone (ADM), which is a widely used noise reduction approach in commercial hearing aids. The influence of the different algorithms on perceived sound source localization and their noise reduction performance was evaluated. It is shown that noise reduction algorithms can have a large influence on localization and that (a) the ADM only preserves localization in the forward direction over azimuths where limited or no noise reduction is obtained; (b) the MWF preserves localization of the target speech component but may distort localization of the noise component. The latter is dependent on signal-to-noise ratio and masking effects; (c) the MWF-N enables correct localization of both the speech and the noise components; (d) the statistical Wiener filter approach introduces a better combination of sound source localization and noise reduction performance than the ADM approach.

  8. Learning AIDS in Singapore: Examining the Effectiveness of HIV/AIDS Efficacy Messages for Adolescents Using ICTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arul Indrasen Chib

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess adolescents‘ receptivity to the use of new interactive media for dissemination of sensitive health messages. We propose a conceptual framework based on the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM to design a game-based HIV/AIDS intervention for adolescents. Amongst key findings, we found that Game Play led to changes in attitudes and intentions.

  9. The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of first aid interventions for burns given to caregivers of children: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmatov, Ulugbek B; Mullen, Stephen; Quinn-Scoggins, Harriet; Mann, Mala; Kemp, Alison

    2018-05-01

    the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of burns first-aid educational interventions given to caregivers of children. Systematic review of eligible studies from seven databases, international journals, trials repositories and contacted international experts. Of 985 potential studies, four met the inclusion criteria. All had high risk of bias and weak global rating. Two studies identified a statistically significant increase in knowledge after of a media campaign. King et al. (41.7% vs 63.2%, pfirst-aid training program and showed a reduction in use of harmful traditional methods for burns in children (29% vs 16.1%, pfirst aid administration. High quality clinical trials are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  10. Teacher Evaluation: Archiving Teaching Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Lance D.

    2014-01-01

    Teacher evaluation is a current hot topic within music education. This article offers strategies for K-12 music educators on how to promote their effectiveness as teachers through archival documentation in a teacher portfolio. Using the Danielson evaluation model (based on four domains of effective teaching practices), examples of music teaching…

  11. Balancing health, work, and daily life: design and evaluation of a pilot intervention for persons with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedell, Gary

    2008-01-01

    To design and evaluate a pilot intervention to promote self-management skills and work transition for persons with HIV/AIDS. The seven-week group intervention consisted of 1.5-hour bi-weekly sessions focused on goal setting and developing strategies to manage health, work and daily life routines while participating in a job skills training program in New York City. Six successive groups received the intervention over the course of two years (n = 53). Existing and newly-developed measures were used to examine key outcomes. Differences between pre-intervention and post-intervention scores on outcome measures were examined using paired-tests and effect sizes. Employment outcomes and participant satisfaction were examined post-intervention. The intervention was feasible to implement and sessions were viewed favorably by the majority of participants. Moderate to large effect sizes were found immediately post-intervention in participants' perceived ability to work and balance health, work and daily life. Fifty two percent of the participants were working part or full time and 41% were actively searching for employment at three to five months follow-up. Small effect sizes demonstrating improved outcomes at follow-up were found in symptom severity, self-advocacy and medication adherence self-efficacy. Small effect sizes demonstrating a potential decrement in outcomes at follow-up were found in participants' need satisfaction and perceived symptom impact on work performance. The results are promising, but further research is needed due to design limitations and the preliminary nature of the intervention and measures used. The potential decrement in outcomes might reflect a shift in participants' needs or view of how their health affected work performance and suggests that ongoing supports were needed post-intervention.

  12. Evaluation of SLAR and simulated thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffer, R. M.; Dean, M. E.; Knowlton, D. J.; Latty, R. S.

    1982-01-01

    Kershaw County, South Carolina was selected as the study site for analyzing simulated thematic mapper MSS data and dual-polarized X-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. The impact of the improved spatial and spectral characteristics of the LANDSAT D thematic mapper data on computer aided analysis for forest cover type mapping was examined as well as the value of synthetic aperture radar data for differentiating forest and other cover types. The utility of pattern recognition techniques for analyzing SAR data was assessed. Topics covered include: (1) collection and of TMS and reference data; (2) reformatting, geometric and radiometric rectification, and spatial resolution degradation of TMS data; (3) development of training statistics and test data sets; (4) evaluation of different numbers and combinations of wavelength bands on classification performance; (5) comparison among three classification algorithms; and (6) the effectiveness of the principal component transformation in data analysis. The collection, digitization, reformatting, and geometric adjustment of SAR data are also discussed. Image interpretation results and classification results are presented.

  13. Neurodynamic evaluation of hearing aid features using EEG correlates of listening effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernarding, Corinna; Strauss, Daniel J; Hannemann, Ronny; Seidler, Harald; Corona-Strauss, Farah I

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we propose a novel estimate of listening effort using electroencephalographic data. This method is a translation of our past findings, gained from the evoked electroencephalographic activity, to the oscillatory EEG activity. To test this technique, electroencephalographic data from experienced hearing aid users with moderate hearing loss were recorded, wearing hearing aids. The investigated hearing aid settings were: a directional microphone combined with a noise reduction algorithm in a medium and a strong setting, the noise reduction setting turned off, and a setting using omnidirectional microphones without any noise reduction. The results suggest that the electroencephalographic estimate of listening effort seems to be a useful tool to map the exerted effort of the participants. In addition, the results indicate that a directional processing mode can reduce the listening effort in multitalker listening situations.

  14. Bone-anchored hearing aids are effective and associated with a high degree of satisfaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gardell, Ida Sofie Kristina; Andresen, Kathrine; Faber, Christian Emil

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to evaluate patients' satisfaction with bone-anchored hearing aids (BAHA). METHODS: This study was retrospective and based on a postal questionnaire. The study sample consisted of patients undergoing surgery at Odense University Hospital in the 1992......-2013-period. The questionnaire was a combination of Satisfaction with Amplification in Daily Life questions from the Hearing Aid Research Lab at the University of Memphis and questions used in a previous Danish study. We also used data from each patient's medical records. All information was collected...... in a database. RESULTS: The response rate was 80% and the user percentage 88. The majority of the patients used their BAHA seven days a week and most of the day. 88% reported that it was in their best interest that they had received a BAHA. 80% of the respondents were able to communicate better using their BAHA...

  15. Effect of hearing aids use on speech stimulus decoding through speech-evoked ABR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Aparecida Leite

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The electrophysiological responses obtained with the complex auditory brainstem response (cABR provide objective measures of subcortical processing of speech and other complex stimuli. The cABR has also been used to verify the plasticity in the auditory pathway in the subcortical regions. Objective To compare the results of cABR obtained in children using hearing aids before and after 9 months of adaptation, as well as to compare the results of these children with those obtained in children with normal hearing. Methods Fourteen children with normal hearing (Control Group - CG and 18 children with mild to moderate bilateral sensorineural hearing loss (Study Group - SG, aged 7-12 years, were evaluated. The children were submitted to pure tone and vocal audiometry, acoustic immittance measurements and ABR with speech stimulus, being submitted to the evaluations at three different moments: initial evaluation (M0, 3 months after the initial evaluation (M3 and 9 months after the evaluation (M9; at M0, the children assessed in the study group did not use hearing aids yet. Results When comparing the CG and the SG, it was observed that the SG had a lower median for the V-A amplitude at M0 and M3, lower median for the latency of the component V at M9 and a higher median for the latency of component O at M3 and M9. A reduction in the latency of component A at M9 was observed in the SG. Conclusion Children with mild to moderate hearing loss showed speech stimulus processing deficits and the main impairment is related to the decoding of the transient portion of this stimulus spectrum. It was demonstrated that the use of hearing aids promoted neuronal plasticity of the Central Auditory Nervous System after an extended time of sensory stimulation.

  16. An evaluation of the prevalence of HIV/AIDS on selected economies of sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raji Abdulghafar Bello

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV whose full-blown period is called acquired immunity deficiency syndrome (AIDS is today a terminal disease. While one weakens the body hormones, the other comes to claim the life with its accompanying opportunistic diseases. Several factors have been reviewed to be causing the infection and its prevalence as well as its socio-economic, scientific and cultural dimensions. The cost implication of this ailment is enormous when considered from individual, national or global perspective, especially when the cost of treatment and the cost of the disability adjusted life years (DALYs lost to incapacitation from HIV/AIDS is considered. This study has investigated the financial implications of treatment and the DALYs lost to HIV/AIDS from the perspective of sub-Saharan Africa covering thirty-five countries. Infected population of age 15-49 years were considered, being the active life year age group. Applying Morrow’s DALYs measurement, and Ainsworth’s per capita general rule method of costing HIV/AIDS, it was found that the cost of treatment of HIV/AIDS in any country depends on her economic strength on the one hand and the size of the infected population on the other, to the extent that no country spends or loses less than 3 percent of her national income on treatment and to DALYs. To any country, the financial cost of the DALYs lost to HIV/AIDS is much more than the cost of treatment per episode, mostly huge enough to develop a sector of the country’s economy. However, a single recommendation could be difficult as individual countries experience different effect, but different countries must pursue long-run anti-prevalence policies individually and as economic region or bloc.

  17. Evaluation of the U.S. Army’s Aids Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-25

    partner,Iwould ] ] E E] discuss AIDS protection with them. 7. Other "safer sex* practices (such asEllEll masturbating each other, phone sex, fantasy) are...patner, I would El 0 E discuss AIDS protection with them. 7. Other "safer sex" practices (such as 0El El El masturbating each other, phone sex, fantasy...protection with them. 7. Other *safer sex" practices (such as El E lE masturbating each other, phone sex, fantasy) are not as enjoyable as having sex. 8

  18. Filter Effectiveness Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    synthetic paraffinic kerosene (SPK), as well as Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD) treated with mono-olein to simulate the effects of biodiesel . Results...fuel. Sufficient analysis and qualification of filter products is becoming increasingly crucial in ground transportation vehicles to promote the...well as a simulated biodiesel composed of ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and mono-olein. As written in the scope of work, the alternative aviation

  19. Effect of HIV/AIDS on Children's Attitudes toward Learning: Voices of Teachers and Caregivers in Western Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepkemboi, Grace; Aldridge, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    The well-being of children orphaned by HIV/AIDS is often significantly compromised, as they are prone to discrimination, victimization, and exclusion from social and familial structures. The present study examines the effect of HIV/AIDS on children's attitudes toward learning, as perceived by teachers and caregivers. Teachers and caregivers from…

  20. The Effects of Service-Delivery Model and Purchase Price on Hearing-Aid Outcomes in Older Adults: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humes, Larry E; Rogers, Sara E; Quigley, Tera M; Main, Anna K; Kinney, Dana L; Herring, Christine

    2017-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine efficacy of hearing aids in older adults using audiology best practices, to evaluate the efficacy of an alternative over-the-counter (OTC) intervention, and to examine the influence of purchase price on outcomes for both service-delivery models. The design of this study was a single-site, prospective, double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial with three parallel branches: (a) audiology best practices (AB), (b) consumer decides OTC model (CD), and (c) placebo devices (P). Outcome measures were obtained after a typical 6-week trial period with follow-up 4-week AB-based trial for those initially assigned to CD and P groups. Older adults from the general community were recruited via newspaper and community flyers to participate at a university research clinic. Participants were adults, ages 55-79 years, with mild-to-moderate hearing loss. There were 188 eligible participants: 163 enrolled as a volunteer sample, and 154 completed the intervention. All participants received the same high-end digital mini-behind-the-ear hearing aids fitted bilaterally. AB and P groups received best-practice services from audiologists; differing mainly in use of appropriate (AB) or placebo (P) hearing aid settings. CD participants self-selected their own pre-programmed hearing aids via an OTC model. Primary outcome measure was a 66-item self-report, Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit (Cox & Gilmore, 1990). Secondary outcome measure was the Connected Speech Test (Cox, Alexander, & Gilmore, 1987) benefit. Additional measures of hearing-aid benefit, satisfaction, and usage were also obtained. Per-protocol analyses were performed. AB service-delivery model was found to be efficacious for most of the outcome measures, with moderate or large effect sizes (Cohen's d). CD service-delivery model was efficacious, with similar effect sizes. However, CD group had a significantly (p purchase hearing aids after the trial. Hearing aids are efficacious in

  1. Assessing Pricing and Aid Strategies: Rethinking Planning and Evaluation Practices. AIR 1994 Annual Forum Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. John, Edward P.

    This paper explores the need for a better understanding of the influences of prices and student aid on student enrollment and college budgets. The theory of net price has not been found to adequately explain changes in enrollment. Based on a critical review of recent research on student price response, this paper develops an alternative approach…

  2. Evaluating the Measurement Structure of the Abbreviated HIV Stigma Scale in a Sample of African Americans Living with HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Eboneé T.; Yaghmaian, Rana A.; Best, Andrew; Chan, Fong; Burrell, Reginald, Jr.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to validate the 10-item version of the HIV Stigma Scale (HSS-10) in a sample of African Americans with HIV/AIDS. Method: One hundred and ten African Americans living with HIV/AIDS were recruited from 3 case management agencies in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Measurement structure of the HSS-10 was evaluated using…

  3. The meaning and effect of HIV/AIDS stigma for people living with AIDS and nurses involved in their care in the North West Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Greeff

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The five countries with the highest HIV prevalence rates in the world are situated in southern Africa, and South Africa, with an estimated 4,7 million people living with HIV (PLWA, has more cases of HIV/AIDS than any other country. AIDS stigma and discrimination continue to impact on those living with and affected by the HIV disease and their health-care providers, particularly in southern Africa, where the burden of AIDS is so significant. Stigma has become a major problem in the provision o f care for PLWA in Africa. A five-year multinational African study on perceived AIDS stigma was undertaken. The North West Province in South Africa formed part of this study. The first phase focused on exploring and describing the meaning and effect o f stigma for PLWA and nurses involved in their care. This article focuses on the data for the North West Province, South Africa. An exploratory descriptive qualitative research design was used. Through focus groups the critical incident method was applied to gain respondents’ emic and etic views. The study was conducted in the Potchefstroom district and the Kayakulu area. Purposive voluntary sampling was utilised. The open coding technique was used for data analysis. Three types of stigma (received, internal and associated stigma and several dimensions for each type o f stigma were identified. Recommendations for interventions, a measuring scale and the formulation of a conceptual model were formulated.

  4. Evaluation of the impacts of the gas aid program in Sao Paulo state, Brazil; Avaliacao dos impactos do programa do auxilio-gas no estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Thiago Pamplona [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FEARP-USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Economia, Administracao e Contabilidade; Anuatti Neto, Francisco [Universidade de Sao Paulo (PIPGE/USP), SP (Brazil). Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this article is to evaluate the coverage and the economic impact of the Federal Government Program Aid Gas (Auxilio Gas) , started in the year of 2002. The evaluation covers only the state of Sao Paulo, using as source the Research of Familiar Budgets of IBGE 2002/2003. To evaluate the coverage of 'Aid-Gas' the targeted population is compared with the population that effectively received the benefit. To evaluate the economic impact of the program a test of significance of dummy variable that differentiate weight gas consumption on income for those attended by the program, controlled by Working-Leser function that models the covariates of gas expenses. A low coverage of the program was evidenced, only 32,098 families had received the benefit (4,01%) out of 786.929 families targeted group, those with per capita income was inferior the half minimum wage. The economic impact had mixed results. In one hand program beneficiaries would spend a larger percentage of income with gas consumption than those not reached; on the other hand, they would have access larger quantities of the product. If the food consumption and the gas consumption are correlated, and the families not benefited by the program are rationed, it is possible to confirm that the introduction of the program would increase welfare of families. (author)

  5. A theoretically based evaluation of HIV/AIDS prevention campaigns along the trans-Africa highway in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, K; Cameron, K A; Lapinski, M K; Nzyuko, S

    1998-01-01

    Print HIV/AIDS prevention campaign materials (e.g., posters, pamphlets, stickers) from 10 public health organizations in Kenya were evaluated according to the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM), a health behavior change theory based on the fear appeal literature, at various sites along the Trans-Africa Highway in Kenya. Three groups each of commercial sex workers (CSWs), truck drivers (TDs) and their assistants (ASSTs), and young men (YM) who live and work at the truck stops participated in focus group discussions where reactions to the campaign materials were gathered according to this theoretical base. Reactions to campaign materials varied substantially, according to the poster or pamphlet viewed. Overall, most participants wanted more detailed information about (a) the proper way to use condoms, (b) ideas for how to negotiate condom use with reluctant partners, and (c) accurate information on symptoms of AIDS and what to do once one contracted HIV. Both quantitative and qualitative analyses of the campaign materials are reported.

  6. The effect of a nonverbal aid on preschoolers' recall for color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, J; Blades, M

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether the provision of a nonverbal memory aid would improve preschoolers' recall of color. Forty 4-year-old children carried out 2 tasks with the same set of colored objects. Colors were not referred to, nor were children told that their recall would later be tested. One day later, the children were split into 2 groups. One group was given a chart containing both the colors of the objects and distractor colors. The other group was not given a chart. Recall for object color was tested. There was an effect of chart provision; children who used the chart recalled more colors correctly than did those who did not use a chart. This result indicates (a) that even very young children can make use of props to facilitate their recall and (b) that such memory aids need not be exact copies of previously seen objects. Implications of these findings for eyewitness recall are discussed.

  7. Evaluating Protocol Lifecycle Time Intervals in HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouten, Jeffrey T.; Dixon, Dennis; Varghese, Suresh; Cope, Marie T.; Marci, Joe; Kagan, Jonathan M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Identifying efficacious interventions for the prevention and treatment of human diseases depends on the efficient development and implementation of controlled clinical trials. Essential to reducing the time and burden of completing the clinical trial lifecycle is determining which aspects take the longest, delay other stages, and may lead to better resource utilization without diminishing scientific quality, safety, or the protection of human subjects. Purpose In this study we modeled time-to-event data to explore relationships between clinical trial protocol development and implementation times, as well as identify potential correlates of prolonged development and implementation. Methods We obtained time interval and participant accrual data from 111 interventional clinical trials initiated between 2006 and 2011 by NIH’s HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials Networks. We determined the time (in days) required to complete defined phases of clinical trial protocol development and implementation. Kaplan-Meier estimates were used to assess the rates at which protocols reached specified terminal events, stratified by study purpose (therapeutic, prevention) and phase group (pilot/phase I, phase II, and phase III/ IV). We also examined several potential correlates to prolonged development and implementation intervals. Results Even though phase grouping did not determine development or implementation times of either therapeutic or prevention studies, overall we observed wide variation in protocol development times. Moreover, we detected a trend toward phase III/IV therapeutic protocols exhibiting longer developmental (median 2 ½ years) and implementation times (>3years). We also found that protocols exceeding the median number of days for completing the development interval had significantly longer implementation. Limitations The use of a relatively small set of protocols may have limited our ability to detect differences across phase groupings. Some timing effects

  8. Computer-aided sperm analysis: a useful tool to evaluate patient's response to varicocelectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Ariagno, Julia I; Mendeluk, Gabriela R; Furlan, Mar?a J; Sardi, M; Chenlo, P; Curi, Susana M; Pugliese, Mercedes N; Repetto, Herberto E; Cohen, Mariano

    2016-01-01

    Preoperative and postoperative sperm parameter values from infertile men with varicocele were analyzed by computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA) to assess if sperm characteristics improved after varicocelectomy. Semen samples of men with proven fertility (n = 38) and men with varicocele-related infertility (n = 61) were also analyzed. Conventional semen analysis was performed according to WHO (2010) criteria and a CASA system was employed to assess kinetic parameters and sperm concentration. Se...

  9. Mental health first aid training for Australian medical and nursing students: an evaluation study

    OpenAIRE

    Bond, Kathy S; Jorm, Anthony F; Kitchener, Betty A; Reavley, Nicola J

    2015-01-01

    Background The role and demands of studying nursing and medicine involve specific stressors that may contribute to an increased risk for mental health problems. Stigma is a barrier to help-seeking for mental health problems in nursing and medical students, making these students vulnerable to negative outcomes including higher failure rates and discontinuation of study. Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) is a potential intervention to increase the likelihood that medical and nursing students will ...

  10. Evaluation of the WHO clinical case definition of AIDS among children in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurprit, Grover; Tripti, Pensi; Gadpayle, A K; Tanushree, Banerjee

    2008-03-01

    The need of a clinical case definition (CCD) for Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) was felt by public health agencies to monitor diseases resulting from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. To test the statistical significance of the existing World Health Organization (WHO) CCD for the diagnosis of AIDS in areas where diagnostic resources are limited in India, a prospective study was conducted in the Paediatrics department at Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital, New Delhi. 360 cases between 18 months-12 years of age satisfying WHO case definitions of AIDS were included in the study group. Informed consent was taken from the parents. The serum of patients was subjected to ELISA to conform the diagnosis of HIV infection. Our study detected 16.66% (60) of HIV prevalence in children visiting paediatrics outpatient clinic. 20% cases manifested 3 major and 2 minor signs. This definition had a sensitivity of 73.33%, specificity of 90.66%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 61.11% and negative predictive value (NPV) of 94.44%. On using stepwise logistic regression analysis weight loss, chronic fever > 1 month and total lymphocyte count of less than 1500 cells/mm3 emerged as important predictors. Cases showing 2 major and 2 minor signs were 86 (23.89%) with a sensitivity and specificity of 86.66% and 88.66% respectively. Based on these findings, we propose a clinical case definition based on 13 clinical signs and symptoms for paediatric AIDS in India with better sensitivity and PPV than the WHO case definition but with almost similar specificity. Thus multicentric studies are further required to modify these criteria in Indian set up.

  11. The classification and evaluation of Computer-Aided Software Engineering tools

    OpenAIRE

    Manley, Gary W.

    1990-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. The use of Computer-Aided Software Engineering (CASE) tools has been viewed as a remedy for the software development crisis by achieving improved productivity and system quality via the automation of all or part of the software engineering process. The proliferation and tremendous variety of tools available have stretched the understanding of experienced practitioners and has had a profound impact on the software engineering process itse...

  12. Skew-t partially linear mixed-effects models for AIDS clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tao

    2016-01-01

    We propose partially linear mixed-effects models with asymmetry and missingness to investigate the relationship between two biomarkers in clinical studies. The proposed models take into account irregular time effects commonly observed in clinical studies under a semiparametric model framework. In addition, commonly assumed symmetric distributions for model errors are substituted by asymmetric distribution to account for skewness. Further, informative missing data mechanism is accounted for. A Bayesian approach is developed to perform parameter estimation simultaneously. The proposed model and method are applied to an AIDS dataset and comparisons with alternative models are performed.

  13. The effectiveness of mass media in changing HIV/AIDS-related behaviour among young people in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Jane T; Anhang, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    To review the strength of the evidence for the effects of three types of mass media interventions (radio only, radio with supporting media, or radio and television with supporting media) on HIV/AIDS-related behaviour among young people in developing countries and to assess whether these interventions reach the threshold of evidence needed to recommend widespread implementation. We conducted a systematic review of studies that evaluated mass media interventions and were published or released between 1990 and 2004. Studies were included if they evaluated a mass media campaign that had the main objective of providing information about HIV/AIDS or sexual health. To be eligible for inclusion studies had to use a pre-intervention versus post-intervention design or an intervention versus control design or analyse cross-sectional data comparing those who had been exposed to the campaign with those who had not been exposed. Studies also had to comprehensively report quantitative data for most outcomes. Of the 15 programmes identified, 11 were from Africa, 2 from Latin America, 1 from Asia, and 1 from multiple countries. One programme used radio only, six used radio with supporting media, and eight others used television and radio with supporting media. The data support the effectiveness of mass media interventions to increase the knowledge of HIV transmission, to improve self-efficacy in condom use, to influence some social norms, to increase the amount of interpersonal communication, to increase condom use and to boost awareness of health providers. Fewer significant effects were found for improving self-efficacy in terms of abstinence, delaying the age of first sexual experience or decreasing the number of sexual partners. We found that mass media programmes can influence HIV-related outcomes among young people, although not on every variable or in every campaign. Campaigns that include television require the highest threshold of evidence, yet they also yield the

  14. The effects of computer-aided design software on engineering students' spatial visualisation skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kösa, Temel; Karakuş, Fatih

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of computer-aided design (CAD) software-based instruction on the spatial visualisation skills of freshman engineering students in a computer-aided engineering drawing course. A quasi-experimental design was applied, using the Purdue Spatial Visualization Test-Visualization of Rotations (PSVT:R) for both the pre- and the post-test. The participants were 116 freshman students in the first year of their undergraduate programme in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at a university in Turkey. A total of 72 students comprised the experimental group; they were instructed with CAD-based activities in an engineering drawing course. The control group consisted of 44 students who did not attend this course. The results of the study showed that a CAD-based engineering drawing course had a positive effect on developing engineering students' spatial visualisation skills. Additionally, the results of the study showed that spatial visualisation skills can be a predictor for success in a computer-aided engineering drawing course.

  15. Planning and pre-testing: the key to effective AIDS education materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostfield, M L; Romocki, L S

    1991-06-01

    The steps in designing and producing effective AIDS prevention educational materials are outlines, using as an example a brochure originated in St. Lucia for clients at STD clinics. The brochure was intended to be read by clients as they waited for their consultation, thus it was targeted to a specific audience delimited by age, sex, language, educational level, religion and associated medical or behavioral characteristics. When researching the audience, it is necessary to learn the medium they best respond to, what they know already, what is their present behavior, how they talk about AIDS, what terms they use, how they perceive the benefits of AIDS prevention behavior, what sources of information they trust. The minimum number of key messages should be selected. Next the most appropriate channel of communication is identified. Mass media are not always best for a target audience, "little media" such as flyers and give-always may be better. The draft is then pre-tested by focus groups and interviews, querying about the text separately, then images, color, format, style. Listen to the way the respondents talk about the draft. Modify the draft and pre-test again. Fine-tune implications of the message for realism in emotional responses, respect, self-esteem, admiration and trust. To achieve wide distribution it is a good idea to involve community leaders to production of the materials, so they will be more likely to take part in the distribution process.

  16. Decision-Aiding Evaluation of Public Infrastructure for Electric Vehicles in Cities and Resorts of Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vytautas Palevičius

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the National Communication Development of 2014–2022 Program and Guidelines of the Development of the Public Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure confirmed by the Government of the Republic of Lithuania, it is planned that, until the year of 2025, among newly registered vehicles, electric ones should make at least 10%. Analysis of the trend of electric vehicles makes evident that the target does not have a real chance to be achieved without targeted efforts. In order to improve the infrastructure of electric vehicles in major cities and resorts of Lithuania, we have carried out a comparative analysis of public infrastructure for electric vehicles in 18 Lithuanian cities and resorts. For the quantitative analysis, we proposed eight criteria describing such an infrastructure. As perception of the infrastructure by owners of electric cars depends on complex factors, we used multiple criteria evaluation methods (MCDM for evaluation of the current state of its development by four such methods: EDAS, SAW, TOPSIS, and PROMETHEE II. Based on the evaluation results, prominent and lagging factors were understood, and proposals for effective development of public infrastructure of electric vehicles were proposed for improvement of the infrastructure.

  17. College Students' Evaluation of Effective Teaching: Developing an Instrument and Assessing Its Psychometric Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodeen, Hamzeh

    2013-01-01

    Students' evaluations of teaching (SETs) are currently the most commonly used method for evaluating teaching effectiveness in higher education institutions. They aid in evaluating the quality of faculty teaching and provide useful information for administrators, faculty, and students. The majority of SET instruments were developed based on faculty…

  18. Evaluation of epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory features and mortality of 144 HIV/AIDS cases in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Burcu; Yetkin, Meltem A; Bastug, Aliye; But, Ayşe; Aslaner, Halide; Akinci, Esragul; Bodur, Hurrem

    2018-03-22

    Background The number of HIV/AIDS cases in Turkey is increasing rapidly, as is the number of cases worldwide. The aim of this study is to evaluate the characteristics of the clinical and laboratory findings and epidemiological features of HIV/AIDS patients to obtain useful data on the epidemic type and transmission routes associated with Turkey and to identify risk factors for mortality. Methods The patient records of 144 HIV-infected patients who were admitted to our clinic between 2000 and 2015 were analyzed retrospectively. Results Most of the cases (55%) were diagnosed due to the detection of anti-HIV-positive individuals without clinical symptoms. The mean CD4 + lymphocyte count on first admission was 108 cells/μL for those admitted before 2009 and 265 cells/μL for those admitted after 2009 (p = 0.003). When the pre- and post-2009 groups were compared for the status of the disease, 55.6 and 44.4% of patients were in the AIDS stage, respectively (p = 0.04). The most noted opportunistic infection was mycobacterial, and throughout the follow-up, 31.2% of the cases were fatal. Conclusions Early diagnosis of HIV infection can have a direct impact on prognosis and survival. Therefore, screening laboratory investigations should be extended, particularly in high-risk groups.

  19. Monitor, a Vibrotactile Aid for Environmental Perception: A Field Evaluation by Four People with Severe Hearing and Vision Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parivash Ranjbar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitor is a portable vibrotactile aid to improve the ability of people with severe hearing impairment or deafblindness to detect, identify, and recognize the direction of sound-producing events. It transforms and adapts sounds to the frequency sensitivity range of the skin. The aid was evaluated in the field. Four females (44–54 years with Usher Syndrome I (three with tunnel vision and one with only light perception tested the aid at home and in traffic in three different field studies: without Monitor, with Monitor with an omnidirectional microphone, and with Monitor with a directional microphone. The tests were video-documented, and the two field studies with Monitor were initiated after five weeks of training. The detection scores with omnidirectional and directional microphones were 100% for three participants and above 57% for one, both in their home and traffic environments. In the home environment the identification scores with the omnidirectional microphone were 70%–97% and 58%–95% with the directional microphone. The corresponding values in traffic were 29%–100% and 65%–100%, respectively. Their direction perception was improved to some extent by both microphones. Monitor improved the ability of people with deafblindness to detect, identify, and recognize the direction of events producing sounds.

  20. Monitor, a vibrotactile aid for environmental perception: a field evaluation by four people with severe hearing and vision impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar, Parivash; Stenström, Ingeborg

    2013-01-01

    Monitor is a portable vibrotactile aid to improve the ability of people with severe hearing impairment or deafblindness to detect, identify, and recognize the direction of sound-producing events. It transforms and adapts sounds to the frequency sensitivity range of the skin. The aid was evaluated in the field. Four females (44-54 years) with Usher Syndrome I (three with tunnel vision and one with only light perception) tested the aid at home and in traffic in three different field studies: without Monitor, with Monitor with an omnidirectional microphone, and with Monitor with a directional microphone. The tests were video-documented, and the two field studies with Monitor were initiated after five weeks of training. The detection scores with omnidirectional and directional microphones were 100% for three participants and above 57% for one, both in their home and traffic environments. In the home environment the identification scores with the omnidirectional microphone were 70%-97% and 58%-95% with the directional microphone. The corresponding values in traffic were 29%-100% and 65%-100%, respectively. Their direction perception was improved to some extent by both microphones. Monitor improved the ability of people with deafblindness to detect, identify, and recognize the direction of events producing sounds.

  1. Evaluations of the Overjustification Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Kerri P.; Vollmer, Timothy R.

    2014-01-01

    The utility of reinforcement-based procedures has been well established in the behavior analysis literature and is commonly used in educational settings. However, the overjustification effect is one commonly cited criticism of programs that use tangible items as reinforcers. In the current studies, we evaluated the effects of tangible rewards…

  2. Evaluation of a Decision Aid for Women with Epilepsy Who Are Considering Pregnancy: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Amanda; Sharpe, Louise; Lah, Suncica; Parratt, Kaitlyn

    2017-07-01

    For many women with epilepsy (WWE), decision making about pregnancy is complicated by considerations such as the potential teratogenicity of antiepileptic drugs, offspring risk of epilepsy, seizure occurrence during pregnancy, and the challenges of parenting amidst poorly controlled seizures. This proof-of-concept, randomized controlled trial aimed to evaluate a decision aid (DA) developed to help WWE decide if they should start or enlarge their families. Seventy-nine WWE of childbearing age were recruited from Epilepsy Action Australia between October and November 2013 and randomized to receive the intervention (the DA) or not, and to complete a set of questionnaires pre- and post- intervention. The DA, delivered as a PDF booklet, provided balanced evidence-based information about options, risks and benefits, including probabilities; as well as steps for clarifying values and considering options within one's personal situation. Compared with the control group, the DA group had statistically significant improvements in knowledge about pregnancy and epilepsy (Cohen's d = 1.24; 95%CI = 0.77 to 1.83) and reduced decisional conflict (Cohen's d = 0.59; 95%CI = 0.21 to 0.99). Changes in decision self-efficacy, certainty of choice, patient-practitioner communication abilities and value congruence with choice were comparable between the DA and control group. Importantly, women's decisions about motherhood were not biased towards either direction, and there were no adverse effects on depression or anxiety. All women who received the DA indicated they would recommend it to other WWE. The DA has the potential to serve as a useful support tool for WWE who are considering motherhood. Future research is needed to test the DA in clinical settings with guidance from a health professional. The trial was registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ID ACTRN12613001082796).

  3. Evaluation of the iPad as a low vision aid for improving reading ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haji SA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Shamim A Haji, Kumar Sambhav, Sandeep Grover, Kakarla V Chalam Department of Ophthalmology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Jacksonville, FL, USA Purpose: To evaluate the effect of the iPad as a low vision aid in improving the reading ability of low vision patients (LVPs. Methods: In this study, 228 consecutive patients that came for their routine eye care examination at the University of Florida, Jacksonville eye clinic, were enrolled. Patients met inclusion criteria if they had best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA of 20/100 or worse in the best corrected eye and were willing to participate in the study. The patient’s reading ability was assessed both with the patient’s own spectacles and an iPad. Patients were encouraged to enlarge the reading material as well as change the contrast until they could read comfortably. The number of patients able to read the text comfortably was recorded. Results: Out of the total 228 participants who qualified, 103 (45% were male and 125 (55% were female. Only 22% could read standard newsprint-sized text (N8 without the help of an iPad. With the help of an iPad, 94% participants with impaired vision were able to read standard newsprint-sized text (N8 or smaller text (P<0.01. Conclusion: The iPad, a new portable electronic media device, can be adapted by LVPs to improve their reading ability. Keywords: low vision devices, low vision patient, LVP, iPad

  4. AIDS knowledge and sexual activity among Flemish secondary school students: a multilevel analysis of the effects of type of education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rossem, Ronan; Berten, Hans; Van Tuyckom, Charlotte

    2010-01-21

    The behavior of adolescents puts them at an increased risk for HIV and other STIs, and their knowledge about HIV/AIDS is often inadequate. An understanding of how AIDS knowledge and sexual activity co-vary among Flemish secondary school students and of how education type, specifically, affects these students is limited. This study addresses the question of whether the effects of education type on HIV/AIDS knowledge and sexual activity are independent of the socio-demographic characteristics of the students. Data from the Flemish Educational Assessment survey, which collected data from a large representative sample of third- and fifth-grade high school students (N = 11,872), were used. Data were analyzed using multilevel logistic and Poisson regression techniques. There is an indication that type of education affects both an adolescent's sexual activity and his/her AIDS knowledge; these effects prove robust for differences in socio-economic backgrounds. Students in lower status education types are more likely to be sexually active and to have poorer AIDS knowledge. The relationship between AIDS knowledge and sexual activity is, however, more complex. Although students in education types with poorer AIDS knowledge are more sexually active, within each of these groups the sexually active have better AIDS knowledge than the non-sexually active. There is also evidence of active information seeking by sexually active students, which leads to improved AIDS knowledge. These findings are consistent with the literature on the role of the educational system in the reproduction of social inequalities. Students from lower status education types are at increased sexual risk compared to those from higher status types. There is also evidence of active information seeking by sexually active students, which leads to improved AIDS knowledge.

  5. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of computer and other electronic aids for smoking cessation: a systematic review and network meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y-F; Madan, J; Welton, N; Yahaya, I; Aveyard, P; Bauld, L; Wang, D; Fry-Smith, A; Munafò, M R

    2012-01-01

    Smoking is harmful to health. On average, lifelong smokers lose 10 years of life, and about half of all lifelong smokers have their lives shortened by smoking. Stopping smoking reverses or prevents many of these harms. However, cessation services in the NHS achieve variable success rates with smokers who want to quit. Approaches to behaviour change can be supplemented with electronic aids, and this may significantly increase quit rates and prevent a proportion of cases that relapse. The primary research question we sought to answer was: What is the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of internet, pc and other electronic aids to help people stop smoking? We addressed the following three questions: (1) What is the effectiveness of internet sites, computer programs, mobile telephone text messages and other electronic aids for smoking cessation and/or reducing relapse? (2) What is the cost-effectiveness of incorporating internet sites, computer programs, mobile telephone text messages and other electronic aids into current nhs smoking cessation programmes? and (3) What are the current gaps in research into the effectiveness of internet sites, computer programs, mobile telephone text messages and other electronic aids to help people stop smoking? For the effectiveness review, relevant primary studies were sought from The Cochrane Library [Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL)] 2009, Issue 4, and MEDLINE (Ovid), EMBASE (Ovid), PsycINFO (Ovid), Health Management Information Consortium (HMIC) (Ovid) and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (EBSCOhost) from 1980 to December 2009. In addition, NHS Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED) and Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE) were searched for information on cost-effectiveness and modelling for the same period. Reference lists of included studies and of relevant systematic reviews were examined to identify further potentially relevant studies. Research registries

  6. Computer-aided dispatch--traffic management center field operational test final evaluation plan : WSDOT deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-22

    This document presents the Evaluation Teams plan for conducting the evaluation of the FOT in Washington State. A companion document exists for the evaluation of the Utah deployment. This plan includes the experimental design for testing hypotheses...

  7. In vivo evaluation of zirconia ceramic in the DexAide right ventricular assist device journal bearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Diyar; Shalli, Shanaz; Fumoto, Hideyuki; Ootaki, Yoshio; Horai, Tetsuya; Anzai, Tomohiro; Zahr, Roula; Horvath, David J; Massiello, Alex L; Chen, Ji-Feng; Dessoffy, Raymond; Catanese, Jacquelyn; Benefit, Stephen; Golding, Leonard A R; Fukamachi, Kiyotaka

    2010-06-01

    Zirconia is a ceramic with material properties ideal for journal bearing applications. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of zirconium oxide (zirconia) as a blood journal bearing material in the DexAide right ventricular assist device. Zirconia ceramic was used instead of titanium to manufacture the DexAide stator housing without changing the stator geometry or the remaining pump hardware components. Pump hydraulic performance, journal bearing reliability, biocompatibility, and motor efficiency data of the zirconia stator were evaluated in six chronic bovine experiments for 14-91 days and compared with data from chronic experiments using the titanium stator. Pump performance data including average in vivo pump flows and speeds using a zirconia stator showed no statistically significant difference to the average values for 16 prior titanium stator in vivo studies, with the exception of a 19% reduction in power consumption. Indices of hemolysis were comparable for both stator types. Results of coagulation assays and platelet aggregation tests for the zirconia stator implants showed no device-induced increase in platelet activation. Postexplant evaluation of the zirconia journal bearing surfaces showed no biologic deposition in any of the implants. In conclusion, zirconia ceramic can be used as a hemocompatible material to improve motor efficiency while maintaining hydraulic performance in a blood journal bearing application.

  8. Study on effectiveness of gemcitabine, dexamethasone, and cisplatin (GDP) for relapsed or refractory AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Dong Ta; Shi, Chun Mei; Chen, Qiang; Huang, Jing Ze; Liang, Jian Gang

    2012-11-01

    Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) remains the second most common malignant complication in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Even though NHL is commonly chemosensitive to primary treatment, failure or relapse still occurs in a large number of patients. We conducted this retrospective study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of gemcitabine, dexamethasone, and cisplatin (GDP) for relapsed or refractory AIDS-related NHL (AIDS-NHL). Forty-eight patients with relapsed or refractory AIDS-NHL were treated with intravenous combination chemotherapy with GDP. The overall objective response rate was 54.1% (95% confidence interval, CI, 40.1-68.3%), with 10 complete responses and 16 partial responses. The 2-year overall survival rate (OS) was 70.8% (95% CI 58.0-83.7%), and the 5-year OS was 41.7% (95% CI 27.7-55.6%). The 2-year progression-free survival rate (PFS) was 37.5% (95% CI 23.8-51.2%), and the 5-year PFS was 25.0% (95% CI 12.8-37.3%). The median progression-free survival was 8.8 months (95% CI 0-20.3 months), and the median overall survival was 40.6 months (95% CI 22.6-58.6 months). Patients with B cell tumors who relapsed but had no B symptoms were clinical stage I/II, had infiltration fewer than two extranodal sites, had CD4⁺ counts >200 cells/μL, and had lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) less than the upper limit of normal benefited from GDP. The level of LDH had a significant impact on the response rate to chemotherapy with GDP (P = 0.015). Myelosuppression was the main side effect; the incidence of grade 3-4 anemia was 8.3%; leukopenia, 37.5%; and thrombocytopenia, 48.3%. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine variables for OS and PFS. This study confirms that GDP is an effective and safe salvage regimen in relapsed or refractory AIDS-NHL, was associated with modest declines in CD4⁺ lymphocyte counts, and did not promote HIV-1 viral replication.

  9. Effect of Computer-Aided Detection on Mammographic Performance: Experimental Study on Readers with Different Levels of Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hukkinen, K.; Vehmas, T.; Pamilo, M.; Kivisaari, L.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of computer-aided detection (CAD) on the reader's performance. Material and Methods: Four screening radiologists, two novice radiologists, and two residents with no prior experience in CAD read films of 200 women without and with CAD. The films, including 16 screen-detected cancers and 35 cancers 'missed' on prior screening, were divided into two rollers: A (free time schedule) and B (prompted time schedule). Reading times were noted. Individual readings without and with CAD were compared, sensitivities and specificities were calculated. Results: The sensitivity of CAD was 70.6% and specificity 15.8%. In 408 cancer readings, the screeners found 10 and other readers 7 new cancers with the aid of CAD. The screeners changed their opinion four times and others six times from true positive to false negative when CAD was negative. CAD output produced 12 versus 13 new false-positive findings respectively after 2352 readings. CAD did not significantly affect the reader's sensitivities/specificities regardless of the time limit (P = not significant). The use of CAD increased mean time for roller reading from 56 to 63 min (P = 0.053). Conclusion: Screening radiologists benefited slightly more from CAD than other readers did, but no statistical significant difference was found in personal readings without and with CAD

  10. Exploring Ivorian perspectives on the effectiveness of the current Ivorian science curriculum in addressing issues related to HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ado, Gustave Firmin

    School-based HIV/AIDS science education has the potential to impact students when integrated into the science curriculum. However, this mixed method study shows that school-based HIV/AIDS science education is often not infused into career subjects such as science education but integrated into civics education and taught by teachers who lack the skills, knowledge, and the training in the delivery of effective school HIV/AIDS education. Since science is where biological events take place, it is suggested that HIV/AIDS science merits being taught in the science education classroom. This study took place in nine public middle schools within two school districts in Abidjan, Ivory Coast, one major urban city in the southern region. The study utilized triangulation of multiple data sources---both qualitative and quantitative. To substantiate the claims made in this study, a range of qualitative methods such as field notes and individual interviews with 39 teachers, 63 sixth grade students, 8 school administrators, and 20 community elders were used. For the quantitative portion 140 teachers and 3510 sixth grade students were surveyed. The findings from the study prioritize science education that includes HIV/AIDS science education for all, with emphasis on HIV/AIDS prevention in Ivory Coast. The factors that influence the implementation of HIV/AIDS curricula within the Ivorian sixth grade classrooms are discussed. Interview and survey data from students, teachers, school administrators, and community elders indicate that in the Ivorian school setting, "gerontocratic" cultural influences, religious beliefs, personal cultural beliefs, and time spent toward the discourse on HIV/AIDS have led to HIV/AIDS education that is often insufficient to change either misconceptions about HIV/AIDS or risky practices. It was also found that approaches to teaching HIV/AIDS does not connect with youth cultures. By reframing and integrating current HIV/AIDS curricula into the science

  11. Effect of Premolar Axial Wall Height on Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Assisted Manufacture Crown Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Curt; Harris, Ashley; DuVall, Nicholas; Wajdowicz, Michael; Roberts, Howard Wayne

    2018-03-28

    To evaluate the effect of premolar axial wall height on the retention of adhesive, full-coverage, computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacture (CAD/CAM) restorations. A total of 48 premolar teeth randomized into four groups (n = 12 per group) received all-ceramic CAD/CAM restorations with axial wall heights (AWH) of 3, 2, 1, and 0 mm and 16-degree total occlusal convergence (TOC). Specimens were restored with lithium disilicate material and cemented with self-adhesive resin cement. Specimens were loaded to failure after 24 hours. The 3- and 2-mm AWH specimens demonstrated significantly greater failure load. Failure analysis suggests a 2-mm minimum AWH for premolars with a TOC of 16 degrees. Adhesive technology may compensate for compromised AWH.

  12. Coaching patients in the use of decision and communication aids: RE-AIM evaluation of a patient support program

    OpenAIRE

    Belkora, Jeff; Volz, Shelley; Loth, Meredith; Teng, Alexandra; Zarin-Pass, Margot; Moore, Dan; Esserman, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Background Decision aids educate patients about treatment options and outcomes. Communication aids include question lists, consultation summaries, and audio-recordings. In efficacy studies, decision aids increased patient knowledge, while communication aids increased patient question-asking and information recall. Starting in 2004, we trained successive cohorts of post-baccalaureate, pre-medical interns to coach patients in the use of decision and communication aids at our university-based br...

  13. Evaluation of simulation-based training on the ability of birth attendants to correctly perform bimanual compression as obstetric first aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreatta, Pamela; Gans-Larty, Florence; Debpuur, Domitilla; Ofosu, Anthony; Perosky, Joseph

    2011-10-01

    Maternal mortality from postpartum hemorrhage remains high globally, in large part because women give birth in rural communities where unskilled (traditional birth attendants) provide care for delivering mothers. Traditional attendants are neither trained nor equipped to recognize or manage postpartum hemorrhage as a life-threatening emergent condition. Recommended treatment includes using uterotonic agents and physical manipulation to aid uterine contraction. In resource-limited areas where Obstetric first aid may be the only care option, physical methods such as bimanual uterine compression are easily taught, highly practical and if performed correctly, highly effective. A simulator with objective performance feedback was designed to teach skilled and unskilled birth attendants to perform the technique. To evaluate the impact of simulation-based training on the ability of birth attendants to correctly perform bimanual compression in response to postpartum hemorrhage from uterine atony. Simulation-based training was conducted for skilled (N=111) and unskilled birth attendants (N=14) at two regional (Kumasi, Tamale) and two district (Savelugu, Sene) medical centers in Ghana. Training was evaluated using Kirkpatrick's 4-level model. All participants significantly increased their bimanual uterine compression skills after training (p=0.000). There were no significant differences between 2-week delayed post-test performances indicating retention (p=0.52). Applied behavioral and clinical outcomes were reported for 9 months from a subset of birth attendants in Sene District: 425 births, 13 postpartum hemorrhages were reported without concomitant maternal mortality. The results of this study suggest that simulation-based training for skilled and unskilled birth attendants to perform bi-manual uterine compression as postpartum hemorrhage Obstetric first aid leads to improved applied procedural skills. Results from a smaller subset of the sample suggest that these skills

  14. Costs and cost-effectiveness analysis of 2015 GESIDA/Spanish AIDS National Plan recommended guidelines for initial antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenguer, Juan; Rivero, Antonio; Blasco, Antonio Javier; Arribas, José Ramón; Boix, Vicente; Clotet, Bonaventura; Domingo, Pere; González-García, Juan; Knobel, Hernando; Lázaro, Pablo; López, Juan Carlos; Llibre, Josep M; Lozano, Fernando; Miró, José M; Podzamczer, Daniel; Tuset, Montserrat; Gatell, Josep M

    2016-01-01

    GESIDA and the AIDS National Plan panel of experts suggest a preferred (PR), alternative (AR) and other regimens (OR) for antiretroviral treatment (ART) as initial therapy in HIV-infected patients for 2015. The objective of this study is to evaluate the costs and the effectiveness of initiating treatment with these regimens. Economic assessment of costs and effectiveness (cost/effectiveness) based on decision tree analyses. Effectiveness was defined as the probability of reporting a viral load de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  15. An evaluation of the potential impacts of the 'gas aid'; Uma avaliacao dos impactos potenciais do 'auxilio gas'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biazotto, Ana Lidia; Anuatti Neto, Francisco [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Economia, Administracao e Contabilidade

    2004-07-01

    In May of 2001, the prices to the final consumer of GLP were set free in the whole country; this procedure had the intention, to continue process of deregulation in the fuel sector, in accord with the Oil Law. The release of the prices of sale and shipping subsidies elimination, along with the elimination of the crossed subsidy, required the adoption of a 'gas aid' social program, aimed to guarantee the low profit families necessities attendance that would pay the additional fuel costs. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the gas aid program as its covering level and the economic and distributive efficiency. The study encloses the metropolitans regions investigated in the IBGE Family Budget Research of 1996. With base in the previously identification of the potential beneficiary of the program, and with them consumption profile, it was possible to evaluate the potential impact of the withdrawal of the subsidy in the hypothesis of the family be or not beneficiary of the program. Assuming that the targeting is perfect, it is compared the transference politics to the low profit families in relation to the previous politics of subsidize crossed. (author)

  16. Evaluation of a computer aided X-ray fluorographic system: Part II - image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, S.F.; Cocking, S.J.

    1981-12-01

    The TV imagery from a computer aided X-ray fluorographic system has been digitally processed with an I 2 S model 70E image processor, controlled by a PDP 11/60 minicomputer. The image processor allowed valuable processing for detection of defects in cast components to be carried out at television frame rates. Summation of TV frames was used to reduce noise, and hence improve the thickness sensitivity of the system. A displaced differencing technique and interactive contrast enhancement were then used to improve the reliability of inspection by removing spurious blemishes and interference lines, while simultaneously enhancing the visibility of real defects. The times required for these operations are given, and the benefits provided for X-ray fluorography are illustrated by the results from inspection of aero engine castings. (author)

  17. Evaluation of disease patterns, treatment and prognosis of tuberculosis in AIDS patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atomiya Angela Naomi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Patterns of disease, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of tuberculosis in 100 patients co-infected with AIDS at Casa da AIDS clinic was studied. Demographic characteristics were as follows: 76 male patients, 24 female patients, 67 caucasian, average 35.8 years-old (SD ± 8.5. Sexual transmission of HIV was reported in 68 patients. Pulmonary tuberculosis was seen in 40 patients, extrapulmonary in 11, and combined in 49 patients. In 63 patients, TCD4+ counts were below 200/mm³ when tuberculosis was diagnosed. Fifty-five patients had their diagnoses confirmed by bacteriological identification of Mycobacterium; either through direct observation and/or culture. Tuberculosis was treated with rifampin, isoniazid and pyrazinamide in 60 patients, reinforced treatment in 14 and alternative treatment in the other 13 patients. Tuberculosis therapy lasted up to 9 months in 66% of the patients. Fifty-four patients were treated with a two-drug antiretroviral regimen and the remaining 46 patients received a triple regimen, which included a protease inhibitor. Among the latter, 35 patients were co-treated with rifampin. The occurrence of hepatic liver enzyme abnormalities was statistically related to alternative antiretroviral regimens (p = 0.01 and to the co-administration of rifampin and protease inhibitor (p = 0.019. Clinical resolution of tuberculosis was obtained in 74 patients. Twelve patients died during tuberculosis treatment. Resolution of tuberculosis was statistically significant related to antituberculosis treatment adherence (p = 0.001. The risk of no response to the treatment was 1.84 times more frequent among patients treated with alternative regimens regardless of the duration of the therapy. We conclude that the characteristics of tuberculosis in HIV infected patients requires that special attention be directed to the types and duration of both antiretroviral and anti-TB therapy in order to achieve the highest level of care.

  18. Evaluation of computer aided volumetry for simulated small pulmonary nodules on computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Do, Kyung Hyun; Goo, Jin Mo; Lee, Kyung Won; Im, Jung Gi; Chung, Myung Jin

    2004-01-01

    To determine the accuracy of automated computer aided volumetry for simulated small pulmonary nodules at computed tomography using various types of phantoms Three sets of synthetic nodules (small, calcified and those adjacent to vessels) were studied. The volume of the nodules in each set was already known, and using multi-slice CT, volumetric data for each nodule was acquired from the three-dimensional reconstructed image. The volume was calculated by applying three different threshold values using Rapidia software (3D-Med, Seoul, Korea). Relative errors in the measured volume of synthetic pulmonary nodules were 17.3, 2.9, and 11.5% at -200, -400, and -600 HU, respectively, and there was good correlation between true volume and measured volume at -400 HU (r=0.96, p<0.001). For calcified nodules, relative errors in measured volume were 10.9, 5.3, and 16.5% at -200, -400, and -600 HU, respectively, and there was good correlation between true volume and measured volume at -400 HU (r=1.03, p<0.001). In cases involving synthetic nodules adjacent to vessels, relative errors were 4.6, 16.3, and 31.2% at -200, -400, and -600 HU, respectively. There was good correlation between true volume and measured volume at -200 HU (r=1.1, p<0.001). Using computer-aided volumetry, the measured volumes of synthetic nodules correlated closely with their true volume. Measured volumes were the same at each threshold level, regardless of window setting

  19. Evaluation of computer aided volumetry for simulated small pulmonary nodules on computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goo, Jin Mo; Lee, Kyung Won; Im, Jung Gi; Do, Kyung Hyun; Chung, Myung Jin

    2004-01-01

    To determine the accuracy of automated computer aided volumetry for simulated small pulmonary nodules at computed tomography using various types of phantoms. Three sets of synthetic nodules (small, calcified and those adjacent to vessels) were studied. The volume of the nodules in each set was already known, and using multi-slice CT, volumetric data for each nodule was acquired from the three-dimensional reconstructed image. The volume was calculated by applying three different threshold values using Rapidia software (3D-Med, Seoul, Korea). Relative errors in the measured volume of synthetic pulmonary nodules were 17.3, 2.9, and 11.5% at -200, -400, and --600 HU, respectively, and there was good correlation between true volume and measured volume at -400 HU (r=0.96, p<0.001). For calcified nodules, relative errors in measured volume were 10.9, 5.3, and 16.5% at -200, -400, and -600 HU, respectively, and there was good correlation between true volume and measured volume at -400 HU (r=1.03, p<0.001). In cases involving synthetic nodules adjacent to vessels, relative errors were 4.6, 16.3, and 31.2 % at -200, -400, and -600 HU, respectively. There was good correlation between true volume and measured volume at -200 HU (r=1.1, p<0.001). Using computer-aided volumetry, the measured volumes of synthetic nodules correlated closely with their true volume. Measured volumes were the same at each threshold level, regardless of window setting

  20. Using GREENSCOPE Indicators for Sustainable Computer-Aided Process Evaluation and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manufacturing sustainability can be increased by educating those who design, construct, and operate facilities, and by using appropriate tools for process evaluation and design. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's GREENSCOPE methodology and tool, for evaluation and design ...

  1. The effect of aided language stimulation on vocabulary acquisition in children with little or no functional speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dada, Shakila; Alant, Erna

    2009-02-01

    To describe the nature and frequency of the aided language stimulation program and determine the effects of a 3-week-long aided language stimulation program on the vocabulary acquisition skills of children with little or no functional speech (LNFS). Four children participated in this single-subject, multiple-probe study across activities. The aided language stimulation program comprised 3 activities: arts and crafts, food preparation, and story time activity. Each activity was repeated over the duration of 5 subsequent sessions. Eight target vocabulary items were taught within each activity. The acquisition of all 24 target items was probed throughout the duration of the 3-week intervention period. The frequency and nature of the aided language stimulation provided met the criterion of being used 70% of the time and providing aided language stimulation with an 80:20 ratio of statements to questions. The results indicated that all 4 participants acquired the target vocabulary items. There were, however, variations in the rate of acquisition. This study explores the impact of aided language stimulation on vocabulary acquisition in children. The most important clinical implication of this study is that a 3-week intervention program in aided language stimulation was sufficient to facilitate the comprehension of at least 24 vocabulary items in 4 children with LNFS.

  2. The Effects of Unilateral Adaptation of Hearing Aids on Symptoms of Depression and Social Activity Constraints of Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos, Fernanda Dutra dos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Hearing loss is one of the most common problems in the elderly population. Besides compromising oral communication, it directly affects social relations and prevents elderly patients from living actively in society, possibly leading to the onset of depression or other conditions. Objective To analyze the effects of unilateral adaptation of hearing aids on symptoms of depression and the social activity constraints of elderly subjects with hearing impairment. Methods The sample consisted of elderly subjects with hearing loss who did not use hearing aids. Data were collected in two phases. Initially, all participants underwent an audiological assessment and answered the Hearing Handicap Inventory for Elderly (summarized version and the Geriatric Depression Scale. All subjects participated in the selection and hearing aid adaptation processes and became monaural hearing aid users. After 30 days of hearing aid use, they were assessed with the same instruments. The results of the questionnaires before and after hearing aid adaptation were compared. Results The sample consisted of 13 individuals, between 60 and 90 years old (mean 72.85 ± 11.05 years. Data analysis showed that there was significant improvement in social activity constraints (p < 0.001 and in symptoms of depression (p = 0.031. Conclusion Results show that, in the sample studied, unilateral hearing aid adaptation reduced social activity constraints and depression symptoms.

  3. Evaluating IAQ effects on people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wyon, David; Tham, K. W.; Sekhar, C.

    2003-01-01

    "conclusive". From them, a small number of conclusions were drawn, and some very large gaps in our knowledge of this important area of research were identified. Taking these as the starting point, this paper formulates a strategy for evaluating IAQ effects on people. It formulates some critical hypotheses...

  4. A single-blind randomised controlled trial of the effects of a web-based decision aid on self-testing for cholesterol and diabetes. study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ickenroth Martine HP

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-tests, tests on body materials to detect medical conditions, are widely available to the general public. Self-testing does have advantages as well as disadvantages, and the debate on whether self-testing should be encouraged or rather discouraged is still ongoing. One of the concerns is whether consumers have sufficient knowledge to perform the test and interpret the results. An online decision aid (DA with information on self-testing in general, and test specific information on cholesterol and diabetes self-testing was developed. The DA aims to provide objective information on these self-tests as well as a decision support tool to weigh the pros and cons of self-testing. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of the online decision aid on knowledge on self-testing, informed choice, ambivalence and psychosocial determinants. Methods/Design A single blind randomised controlled trial in which the online decision aid 'zelftestwijzer' is compared to short, non-interactive information on self-testing in general. The entire trial will be conducted online. Participants will be selected from an existing Internet panel. Consumers who are considering doing a cholesterol or diabetes self-test in the future will be included. Outcome measures will be assessed directly after participants have viewed either the DA or the control condition. Weblog files will be used to record participants' use of the decision aid. Discussion Self-testing does have important pros and cons, and it is important that consumers base their decision whether they want to do a self-test or not on knowledge and personal values. This study is the first to evaluate the effect of an online decision aid for self-testing. Trial registration Dutch Trial Register: NTR3149

  5. Effect of different breathing aids on ventilation distribution in adults with cystic fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Wettstein

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We investigated the effect of different breathing aids on ventilation distribution in healthy adults and subjects with cystic fibrosis (CF. METHODS: In 11 healthy adults and 9 adults with CF electrical impedance tomography measurements were performed during spontaneous breathing, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP and positive expiratory pressure (PEP therapy randomly applied in upright and lateral position. Spatial and temporal ventilation distribution was assessed. RESULTS: The proportion of ventilation directed to the dependent lung significantly increased in lateral position compared to upright in healthy and CF. This effect was enhanced with CPAP but neutralised with PEP, whereas the effect of PEP was larger in the healthy group. Temporal ventilation distribution showed exactly the opposite with homogenisation during CPAP and increased inhomogeneity with PEP. CONCLUSIONS: PEP shows distinct differences to CPAP with respect to its impact on ventilation distribution in healthy adults and CF subjects EIT might be used to individualise respiratory physiotherapy.

  6. Humanizing HIV/AIDS and its (re)stigmatizing effects: HIV public 'positive' speaking in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Mark; Sarangi, Srikant

    2009-01-01

    Social stigma has been inextricably linked with HIV and AIDS since the epidemic erupted in the early 1980s. The stigma that has built up around HIV and AIDS is generally regarded as having a negative impact on the quality of life of HIV-positive people and on general prevention efforts. Current attempts to combat HIV-related stigma focus on increasing the acceptance of HIV among the stigmatizing public and stigmatized individuals alike. In this, the global HIV-positive community is being increasingly called upon to ;humanize' the virus, not least through public displays of HIV 'positive' health and public ;positive' speaking. This article critically explores the constitutive effects and inherent power relations of HIV Positive Speakers' Bureaus (PSBs) as a platform for such a display. Adopting a post-structuralist discourse analytic approach, we explore accounts of positive-speaking and HIV health from HIV-related non-government organizations in India and in PSB training manuals. In particular, we highlight ways in which positive-speaking in India can be seen to have significant (re)stigmatizing effects by way of ambivalent and hyper-real configurations of HIV 'positive' identity and life.

  7. Effectiveness of touch and feel (TAF) technique on first aid measures for visually challenged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary, Helen; Sasikalaz, D; Venkatesan, Latha

    2013-01-01

    There is a common perception that a blind person cannot even help his own self. In order to challenge that view, a workshop for visually-impaired people to develop the skills to be independent and productive members of society was conceived. An experimental study was conducted at National Institute of Visually Handicapped, Chennai with the objective to assess the effectiveness of Touch and Feel (TAF) technique on first aid measures for the visually challenged. Total 25 visually challenged people were selected by non-probability purposive sampling technique and data was collected using demographic variable and structured knowledge questionnaire. The score obtained was categorised into three levels: inadequate (0-8), moderately adequate (8 - 17), adequate (17 -25). The study revealed that most of the visually challenged (40%) had inadequate knowledge, and 56 percent had moderately adequate and only few (4%) had adequate knowledge in the pre-test, whereas most (68%) of them had adequate knowledge in the post-test which is statistically significant at p TAF technique was effective for the visually challenged. There was no association between the demographic variables and their level of knowledge regarding first aid.

  8. Source credibility and evidence format: examining the effectiveness of HIV/AIDS messages for young African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Lesa Hatley; Coleman, Renita

    2012-01-01

    Using experimental methodology, this study tests the effectiveness of HIV/AIDS prevention messages tailored specifically to college-aged African Americans. To test interaction effects, it intersects source role and evidence format. The authors used gain-framed and loss-framed information specific to young African Americans and HIV to test message effectiveness between statistical and emotional evidence formats, and for the first time, a statistical/emotional combination format. It tests which source--physician or minister--that young African Americans believe is more effective when delivering HIV/AIDS messages to young African Americans. By testing the interaction between source credibility and evidence format, this research expands knowledge on creating effective health messages in several major areas. Findings include a significant interaction between the role of physician and the combined statistical/emotional format. This message was rated as the most effective way to deliver HIV/AIDS prevention messages.

  9. The effectiveness of chocolate milk as a post-climbing recovery aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, J; Fuller, B

    2015-12-01

    Recovery is essential to effective performance in climbing competitions which often involve repeated bouts, and sport climbing where climbers may work a route over a number of days prior to a complete ascent. This study employed a cross-over design to compare water with chocolate milk as recovery aids following an exhaustive bout of high intensity endurance climbing. Ten male climbers (age: 22±1 years; height: 178.5±7.9 cm; mass: 74.7±11.3 kg) climbed a Tredwall (Brewer Ledge M6) until volitional exhaustion. The participants consumed either water or chocolate milk 20 minutes after the climb and then again with their evening meal. The exercise protocol was repeated 24 hours after the original climb. The second condition was completed 7 days later. Workload indicators of heart rate, rate of perceived exertion (RPE), blood lactate and muscle soreness scores were recorded alongside climbing performance measures of duration and distance of the climb. A improved performance was found after the consumption of chocolate milk, with both a greater distance climbed (F(1,9)=11.704, P=0.008) and duration (F(1,9) =10.922, P=0.009), there were no differences in end of climb heart rate or RPE. Muscle soreness scores were lower three days after exercise following chocolate milk (t(8)=3.773, P=0.005). Chocolate milk as a recovery drink resulted in further sustained climbing, a decrease in muscle soreness, compared to water. It may be pertinent for climbers to consider its use as a recovery aid during repeated climbing bouts. Chocolate milk is a relatively unexplored recovery aid and warrants further attention.

  10. A meta-analysis of development aid allocation:  The effects of income level and population size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Martin

    The effect on aid allocation of the income level and population size in the recipient country is  analyzed. The data show that both variables have a significant and robust negative effect, but  they explain only a small part of the variation. The main thrust of the paper is a meta-analysis of the......The effect on aid allocation of the income level and population size in the recipient country is  analyzed. The data show that both variables have a significant and robust negative effect, but  they explain only a small part of the variation. The main thrust of the paper is a meta...

  11. The effects of supplemental online learning aids on student performance and student engagement in Medical Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kimberly

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of online learning aids on student performance and engagement. The thirty-five participants of the current study were students enrolled in two sections of a junior level Medical Microbiology laboratory. The experimental section was required to spend ten minutes each week on an online learning aid. The online program, StudyMate(TM), was used to present text and images in the form of flash cards, multiple choice questions, matching, and crossword puzzles. Both groups completed the Index of Learning Style survey, an initial engagement survey at the start of the course, and a final engagement survey at the end of the course. Statistical analysis showed no significant differences between the groups at the start of the course or after the course was completed for learning style, science grade point average, overall grade point average, initial engagement or final engagement. A moderate correlation was found between microbiology course and laboratory grades and a reflective learning style.

  12. Direct and indirect effects of enablers on HIV testing, initiation and retention in antiretroviral treatment and AIDS related mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarnejad, Ali; Izazola-Licea, Jose-Antonio

    2017-01-01

    An enabling environment is believed to have significant and critical effects on HIV and AIDS program implementation and desired outcomes. This paper estimates the paths, directionality, and direct and indirect associations between critical enablers with antiretroviral treatment (ART) coverage and to AIDS-related mortality. Frameworks that consider the role of enablers in HIV and AIDS programs were systematically reviewed to develop a conceptual model of interaction. Measurements for constructs of the model were pooled from the latest publicly available data. A hypothetical model, including latent/unobserved factors and interaction of enablers, program activities and outcomes, was analyzed cross-sectionally with structural equation modeling. Coefficients of the model were used to estimate the indirect associations of enablers to treatment coverage and the subsequent associated impact on AIDS related mortality. The model's fit was adequate (RMSEA = 0·084, 90% CI [0·062, 0·104]) and the indirect effects of enablers on outcomes were measured. Enablers having significant associations with increased ART coverage were social/financial protection, governance, anti-discrimination, gender equality, domestic AIDS spending, testing service delivery, and logistics. Critical enablers are significantly correlated to outcomes like ART coverage and AIDS related mortality. Even while this model does not allow inference on causality, it provides directionality and magnitude of the significant associations.

  13. Direct and indirect effects of enablers on HIV testing, initiation and retention in antiretroviral treatment and AIDS related mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Safarnejad

    Full Text Available An enabling environment is believed to have significant and critical effects on HIV and AIDS program implementation and desired outcomes. This paper estimates the paths, directionality, and direct and indirect associations between critical enablers with antiretroviral treatment (ART coverage and to AIDS-related mortality.Frameworks that consider the role of enablers in HIV and AIDS programs were systematically reviewed to develop a conceptual model of interaction. Measurements for constructs of the model were pooled from the latest publicly available data. A hypothetical model, including latent/unobserved factors and interaction of enablers, program activities and outcomes, was analyzed cross-sectionally with structural equation modeling. Coefficients of the model were used to estimate the indirect associations of enablers to treatment coverage and the subsequent associated impact on AIDS related mortality.The model's fit was adequate (RMSEA = 0·084, 90% CI [0·062, 0·104] and the indirect effects of enablers on outcomes were measured. Enablers having significant associations with increased ART coverage were social/financial protection, governance, anti-discrimination, gender equality, domestic AIDS spending, testing service delivery, and logistics.Critical enablers are significantly correlated to outcomes like ART coverage and AIDS related mortality. Even while this model does not allow inference on causality, it provides directionality and magnitude of the significant associations.

  14. Do Visual Aids Really Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Fish

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Educational webcasts or video lectures as a teaching tool and a form of visual aid have become widely used with the rising prevalence of online and blended courses and with the increase of web-based video materials. Thus, research pertaining to factors enhancing the effectiveness of video lectures, such as number of visual aids, is critical. This study compared student evaluations before and after embedding additional visual aids throughout video lectures in an online course. Slide transitions occurred on average every 40 seconds for the pre-treatment group with approximately 600 visuals total, compared to slide transitions every 10 seconds for the post-treatment group with approximately 2,000 visuals total. All students received the same audio recordings. Research questions addressed are: (1 Are student perceptions of the effectiveness of examples used to illustrate concepts affected by number of visual aids? (2 Is the extent to which students feel engaged during the lectures affected by number of visual aids? (3 Are students’ perceived overall learning experiences affected by number of visual aids? Surprisingly, results indicate that for questions #1 and #3, student ratings of those who viewed videos with fewer visuals rated their experiences higher than students who viewed more visuals. There was no significant difference found for question #2. Conclusion: Although some visuals have been shown to enhance learning, too many visuals may be a deterrent to learning.

  15. Computer-aided sperm analysis: a useful tool to evaluate patient's response to varicocelectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariagno, Julia I; Mendeluk, Gabriela R; Furlan, María J; Sardi, M; Chenlo, P; Curi, Susana M; Pugliese, Mercedes N; Repetto, Herberto E; Cohen, Mariano

    2017-01-01

    Preoperative and postoperative sperm parameter values from infertile men with varicocele were analyzed by computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA) to assess if sperm characteristics improved after varicocelectomy. Semen samples of men with proven fertility (n = 38) and men with varicocele-related infertility (n = 61) were also analyzed. Conventional semen analysis was performed according to WHO (2010) criteria and a CASA system was employed to assess kinetic parameters and sperm concentration. Seminal parameters values in the fertile group were very far above from those of the patients, either before or after surgery. No significant improvement in the percentage normal sperm morphology (P = 0.10), sperm concentration (P = 0.52), total sperm count (P = 0.76), subjective motility (%) (P = 0.97) nor kinematics (P = 0.30) was observed after varicocelectomy when all groups were compared. Neither was significant improvement found in percentage normal sperm morphology (P = 0.91), sperm concentration (P = 0.10), total sperm count (P = 0.89) or percentage motility (P = 0.77) after varicocelectomy in paired comparisons of preoperative and postoperative data. Analysis of paired samples revealed that the total sperm count (P = 0.01) and most sperm kinetic parameters: curvilinear velocity (P = 0.002), straight-line velocity (P = 0.0004), average path velocity (P = 0.0005), linearity (P = 0.02), and wobble (P = 0.006) improved after surgery. CASA offers the potential for accurate quantitative assessment of each patient's response to varicocelectomy.

  16. Evaluation of a computer aided X-ray fluorographic system: part 1 - system analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, S.F.; Cocking, S.J.

    1982-02-01

    A computer aided, X-ray fluorographic (CAF) system has been assembled for application in non-destructive testing. The fluorographic hardware comprises a rare earth phosphor viewed with a low-light level SIT (Silicon intensifier target) TV camera, suitable for real time imaging in an industrial environment. A digital image processor allows integration to reduce noise and hence increase the thickness sensitivity. It also provides image modification for optimum visual detection of defects. Measurements of the resolution of the system and the noise on the fluorographic images are presented. Observations of wire type IQIs gave subjective thickness sensitivities of 2 to 4% for steel specimens up to 9mm thick. The observed noise was caused primarily by the camera rather than by the fundamental limit expected from X-ray photon statistics. The present system has, in practical applications, shown a capability to detect small (0.5mm) volumetric defects in castings. Further developments of the system are also discussed. It is concluded that a micro-focus X-ray set should be used with the existing hardware to investigate projection magnification fluoroscopy. (author)

  17. An alternative mechanism for international health aid: evaluating a Global Social Protection Fund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Sanjay; Stuckler, David; McKee, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Several public health groups have called for the creation of a global fund for 'social protection'-a fund that produces the international equivalent of domestic tax collection and safety net systems to finance care for the ill and disabled and related health costs. All participating countries would pay into a global fund based on a metric of their ability to pay and withdraw from the common pool based on a metric of their need for funds. We assessed how alternative strategies and metrics by which to operate such a fund would affect its size and impact on health system financing. Using a mathematical model, we found that common targets for health funding in low-income countries require higher levels of aid expenditures than presently distributed. Some mechanisms exist that may incentivize reduction of domestic health inequalities, and direct most funds towards the poorest populations. Payments from high-income countries are also likely to decrease over time as middle-income countries' economies grow.

  18. Cerebral toxoplasmosis in AIDS - computerized tomography evaluation; Toxoplasmose cerebral na SIDA - avaliacao por tomografia computadorizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Regina Coeli Fonseca [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Hospital Universitario Antonio Pedro. Servico de Radiologia; Narchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia

    1999-06-01

    Cerebral toxoplasmosis is a disease that affects many AIDS's patients. FOr this paper 46 patients with confirmed cases of cerebral toxoplasmosis who did a CT scan between March, 1994 and September, 1997 were examined. Single lesions were found in 28.3% of the patients. The lesions were more frequently detected in the basal ganglia and the frontal lobes. No lesion was larger than 4 cm. As regards the contrast enhancing of the lesions on a CT scan we observed that 54.5% of the lesions had a ring-like contrast enhancing, 36.4% had a nodular contrast enhancing and 6% had a heterogeneous form. After the 21st day of treatment we noticed an improvement in the aspect of the patients'lesions. The improvement of the lesions could be seen through a reduction of the edematous halo, a reduction of the lesion size and a modification in the contrast enhancing on the CT scan. The CT scan was an important method to demonstrate the lesions compatibility enhancing on the CT scan. The CT scan was an important method to demonstrate the lesions compatibility with cerebral toxoplasmosis, as well as to monitor these patients during treatment. (author)

  19. Evaluating the Performance of a Visually Guided Hearing Aid Using a Dynamic Auditory-Visual Word Congruence Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roverud, Elin; Best, Virginia; Mason, Christine R; Streeter, Timothy; Kidd, Gerald

    2017-12-15

    The "visually guided hearing aid" (VGHA), consisting of a beamforming microphone array steered by eye gaze, is an experimental device being tested for effectiveness in laboratory settings. Previous studies have found that beamforming without visual steering can provide significant benefits (relative to natural binaural listening) for speech identification in spatialized speech or noise maskers when sound sources are fixed in location. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the performance of the VGHA in listening conditions in which target speech could switch locations unpredictably, requiring visual steering of the beamforming. To address this aim, the present study tested an experimental simulation of the VGHA in a newly designed dynamic auditory-visual word congruence task. Ten young normal-hearing (NH) and 11 young hearing-impaired (HI) adults participated. On each trial, three simultaneous spoken words were presented from three source positions (-30, 0, and 30 azimuth). An auditory-visual word congruence task was used in which participants indicated whether there was a match between the word printed on a screen at a location corresponding to the target source and the spoken target word presented acoustically from that location. Performance was compared for a natural binaural condition (stimuli presented using impulse responses measured on KEMAR), a simulated VGHA condition (BEAM), and a hybrid condition that combined lowpass-filtered KEMAR and highpass-filtered BEAM information (BEAMAR). In some blocks, the target remained fixed at one location across trials, and in other blocks, the target could transition in location between one trial and the next with a fixed but low probability. Large individual variability in performance was observed. There were significant benefits for the hybrid BEAMAR condition relative to the KEMAR condition on average for both NH and HI groups when the targets were fixed. Although not apparent in the averaged data, some

  20. A mental health first aid training program for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples: description and initial evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanowski, Len G; Jorm, Anthony F; Hart, Laura M

    2009-01-01

    Background Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) training was developed in Australia to teach members of the public how to give initial help to someone developing a mental health problem or in a mental health crisis situation. However, this type of training requires adaptation for specific cultural groups in the community. This paper describes the adaptation of the program to create an Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Mental Health First Aid (AMHFA) course and presents an initial evaluation of its uptake and acceptability. Methods To evaluate the program, two types of data were collected: (1) quantitative data on uptake of the course (number of Instructors trained and courses subsequently run by these Instructors); (2) qualitative data on strengths, weaknesses and recommendations for the future derived from interviews with program staff and focus groups with Instructors and community participants. Results 199 Aboriginal people were trained as Instructors in a five day Instructor Training Course. With sufficient time following training, the majority of these Instructors subsequently ran 14-hour AMHFA courses for Aboriginal people in their community. Instructors were more likely to run courses if they had prior teaching experience and if there was post-course contact with one of the Trainers of Instructors. Analysis of qualitative data indicated that the Instructor Training Course and the AMHFA course are culturally appropriate, empowering for Aboriginal people, and provided information that was seen as highly relevant and important in assisting Aboriginal people with a mental illness. There were a number of recommendations for improvements. Conclusion The AMHFA program is culturally appropriate and acceptable to Aboriginal people. Further work is needed to refine the course and to evaluate its impact on help provided to Aboriginal people with mental health problems. PMID:19490648

  1. Evaluation of the potential benefit of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) for lung cancer screening using photofluorography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Tsuneo; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Nakanishi, Takashi; Doi, Kunio; Kano, Akiko.

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate the potential benefit of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) in lung cancer screenings using photofluorographic films, we performed an observer test with 12 radiologists. We used 60 photofluorographic films obtained from a lung cancer screening program in Yamaguchi Prefecture (30 contained cancerous nodules and 30 had no nodules). In these cases, our current automated detection scheme achieved a sensitivity of 80%, but yielded an average of 11 false-positives per image. The observer study consisted of three viewing conditions: 1) only the original image (single reading), 2) the original image and computer output obtained from the current CAD scheme (CAD 1), 3) the original image and computer output obtained from a simulated improved CAD scheme with the same 80% true-positive rate, but with an average of one false-positive per image (CAD 2). Compared with double reading using independent interpretations, which is based on a higher score between two single readings, CAD 2 was more sensitive in subtle cases. The specificity of CAD was superior to that of double reading. Although CAD 1 (Az=0.805) was inferior to double reading (Az=0.837) in terms of the ROC curve, CAD 2 (Az=0.872) significantly improved the ROC curve and also significantly reduced observation time (p<0.05). If the number of false positives can be reduced, computer-aided diagnosis may play an important role in lung cancer screening programs. (author)

  2. Taking a "Snapshot": Evaluation of a Conversation Aid for Identifying Psychosocial Needs in Young Adults with Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poort, Hanneke; Souza, Phoebe M; Malinowski, Paige K; MacDougall, Katelyn M; Barysauskas, Constance M; Lau Greenberg, Teresa; Tulsky, James A; Fasciano, Karen M

    2018-05-21

    Young adults (YAs) aged 18-35 years with cancer often experience unmet psychosocial needs. We aimed to evaluate a conversation aid ("Snapshot") that offered a framework for discussing YA-specific psychosocial concerns between patients and clinicians. We developed and implemented Snapshot between 2014 and 2016 as part of a quality improvement initiative at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute. We extracted pre- and postimplementation data from chart documentation of psychosocial concerns. YAs and social workers provided qualitative feedback on the use of Snapshot in clinical care. Postintervention chart reviews revealed a significant increase in the median number of topics documented in charts after implementation of Snapshot (preintervention median = 9 [range: 1-15] vs. postintervention median = 11 [range 6-15]; p = 0.003). Overall, YAs and social workers reported that using Snapshot improved communication and consistency of psychosocial care, with documented improvement in the following domains: understanding illness (p psychosocial needs assessment among YAs with cancer. Implementation was successful in reducing variability identified in the preintervention cohort and increasing the number of YA-specific psychosocial topics discussed. A standardized conversation aid has the potential to improve quality of care for YAs by enabling early identification and intervention of psychosocial issues for all patients.

  3. Evaluating the Effect of a Television Public Service Announcement about Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martiniuk, Alexandra L. C.; Secco, Mary; Yake, Laura; Speechley, Kathy N.

    2010-01-01

    Public service announcements (PSAs) are non-commercial advertisements aiming to improve knowledge, attitudes and/or behavior. No evaluations of epilepsy PSAs exist. This study sought to evaluate a televised PSA showing first aid for a seizure. A multilevel regression analysis was used to determine the effect of the PSA on epilepsy knowledge and…

  4. Antimicrobial and toxicological evaluation of the leaves of Baissea axillaries Hua used in the management of HIV/AIDS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agoreyo Freddy O

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Persistent diarrhea is a common endemic disease with high incidence among the Africans including Nigerians. It also represents a frequent opportunistic disease in people living with HIV. Diarrhea represents one of the most distressful and persistent symptoms of HIV/AIDS, which may or may not be accompanied by an infection. The leaves decoction of Baissea axillaries Hua (Apocynaceae is used by traditional herbalists in Edo state, Nigeria for the management of people living with HIV/AIDS. Determination of its antimicrobial activity and toxicological profile will provide supportive scientific evidence in favour of its continuous usage. Method Chemical and chromatographic tests were employed in phytochemical investigations. Inhibitory activities of aqueous and ethanolic extracts against clinical strains of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus faecalis were compared with Togamycin (Spectinomycin. Our report includes minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC against the test organisms. Toxicological evaluation was determined by administering 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg of extracts on male Wister rats for 14 days with normal saline as control. The kidneys, liver, heart and testis tissues were examined. Results Phytochemical studies revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, and cyanogenetic glycosides. The extracts inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus to varying extents, but only the ethanolic extract inhibited growth in Streptococcus faecalis. The LD50 of the extract in mice was above 5000 mg/kg body weight when administered intraperitoneally. Toxicological evaluation showed mere ballooning degeneration of the liver at 250 mg/kg while at 500 mg/kg there was tissue necrosis. The low and high doses showed ill-defined leydig cells in the testis and no remarkable changes in the heart and kidneys. Conclusion Extracts of Baissea axillaries have

  5. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 309 (FGE.309): Sodium Diacetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate sodium diacetate [FL-no: 16.073] in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 309, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. However, although...

  6. Effects of Training Programme on HIV/AIDS Prevention among Primary Health Care Workers in Oyo State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajuwon, Ademola; Funmilayo, Fawole; Oladepo, Oladimeji; Osungbade, Kayode; Asuzu, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to train primary health care workers to be trainers and implementers of community-based AIDS prevention activities in Oyo State, Nigeria, by describing an evaluation of the project. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 148 primary health care workers recruited from the 33 local government areas (LGA) of the…

  7. An Automated Evaluation and Critiquing Aid for User Interface Design, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We will leverage our prior work on Adaptive Information Management (AIM) to provide a core reasoning capability for use in an interactive and quantitative evaluation...

  8. Effect of health education on trainee teachers' knowledge, attitudes, and first aid management of epilepsy: An interventional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eze, Christian N; Ebuehi, Olufunke M; Brigo, Francesco; Otte, Willem M; Igwe, Stanley C

    2015-12-01

    High rates of poor knowledge of, and negative attitudes towards people with epilepsy (PWE) are generally found among school teachers. Their first aid epilepsy management skills are poor. It remains unknown if this is different among trainee teachers and whether educational intervention might reduce these rates. We examined the effect of health education on the knowledge, attitudes, and first aid management of epilepsy on trainee teachers in Nigeria. Baseline data and socio-demographic determinants were collected from 226 randomly selected trainee teachers, at the Federal College of Education, Lagos, Nigeria, with self-administered questionnaires. They received a health intervention comprising an hour and half epilepsy lecture followed by a discussion. Baseline knowledge of, and attitudes towards PWE and their first aid epilepsy management skills were compared to post-interventional follow-up data collected twelve weeks later with similar questionnaires. At baseline the majority (61.9%) and largest proportion (44.2%) of respondents had negative attitudes and poor knowledge of epilepsy, respectively. The knowledge of, and attitudes towards epilepsy, and the first aid management skill increased in most respondents, post-intervention. The proportion of respondents with poor knowledge and negative attitudes dropped by 15.5% (pfirst aid management skills increased by 25.0% (pfirst aid management. This emphasizes the potential benefit of incorporating an epilepsy tailored intervention programme into teachers' training curricula. Copyright © 2015 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of grinding aid fly ash blended mortar effect on bond strength of masonry prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaraj, L.; Ravichandran, P. T.; Sagadevan, Suresh

    2018-04-01

    The aim of the present work is to study the effect of particle size reduction by applying top-down nanotechnology such as ball mill grinding process with the addition of amine-based grinding aids. The particle size reduction in synthesis process and its characterization were investigated for fly ash particles. The Rosin-Rammler-Bennet (RRB) distribution model using mathematical formulations were studied for fly ash ground particles. The hardened properties of grinding aid fly ash composite mortar were studied using compressive strength test. The optimum grinding time was 120 min identified through the particle size distribution analysis. The mean particle size decreased from 92.09 μm to 10.5 μm in which there is 89% reduction in particle size due to the grinding of fly ash particle with grinding aids. The compressive strength results show that substitutions of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) mortar by Amine-based Grinding aid Fly Ash (AGFA) 15% gives 12, 23% and at 30% gives 6, 8% of higher strength compare to the substitutions of raw fly ash. The addition of grinding aids in grinding process gives more advantages to reduce the particle size without changing chemical composition. The AGFA sample shows better performance in compressive strength and bond strength behavior of masonry prism. It may suggest that amine based grinding aids play a vital role and feasible to use in fly ash grinding process.

  10. Effects of hearing-aid dynamic range compression on spatial perception in a reverberant environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassager, Henrik Gert; Wiinberg, Alan; Dau, Torsten

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of fast-acting hearing-aid compression on normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners’ spatial perception in a reverberant environment. Three compression schemes—independent compression at each ear, linked compression between the two ears, and “spatially ideal......” compression operating solely on the dry source signal—were considered using virtualized speech and noise bursts. Listeners indicated the location and extent of their perceived sound images on the horizontal plane. Linear processing was considered as the reference condition. The results showed that both...... independent and linked compression resulted in more diffuse and broader sound images as well as internalization and image splits, whereby more image splits were reported for the noise bursts than for speech. Only the spatially ideal compression provided the listeners with a spatial percept similar...

  11. [Effect of rehabilitation for prelingual deaf children who use cochlear implants in conjunction with hearing aids in the opposite ears].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yanjing; Zhou, Huifang; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Dong; Xu, Yi; Guo, Yuxi

    2012-10-01

    To compare the effect of rehabilitation of prelingual deaf children who used a cochlear implant (CI) in one ear and a hearing aids in the opposite ear while the hearing level of the opposite ears are different. Hearing ability, language ability and learning ability was included in the content. The aim of this research is to investigate better style of rehabilitation, and to offer the best help to the prelingual deaf children. Accord ing to the hearing level of the ear opposite to the one wearing a cochlear implant and whether the opposite ear wear a hearing aid or not, 30 prelingual deaf children were divided into three groups, including cochlear implant with opposite severe hearing loss and hearing aid ear (CI+SHA), cochlear implant with opposite profound hearing loss and hearing aid ear (CI+PHA), cochlear implant only (CI). The effect of rehabilitation was assessed in six different times (3,6,9,12,15 and 18 months after the cochlear implants and hearing aids began to work). The longer time the rehabilitation spends, the better the hearing ability,language ability and the learning ability were. The hearing ability of CI+SHA was better than those of CI+PHA (Pdeaf children should take much more time on rehabilitation. The effect of rehabilitation for prelingual deaf children who used cochlear implant in one ear and hearing aid in the other depend on the residual hearing level of the other ear. If a prelingual deaf children still has any residual hearing level in the ear opposite to the cochlear implant ear, it is better for him/her to wear a hearing aid in the ear.

  12. Determining a cost effective intervention response to HIV/AIDS in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Robert W; Iglesias, David; Cáceres, Carlos F; Miranda, J Jaime

    2009-01-01

    Background The HIV epidemic in Peru is still regarded as concentrated - sentinel surveillance data shows greatest rates of infection in men who have sex with men, while much lower rates are found in female sex workers and still lower in the general population. Without an appropriate set of preventive interventions, continuing infections could present a challenge to the sustainability of the present programme of universal access to treatment. Determining how specific prevention and care strategies would impact on the health of Peruvians should be key in reshaping the national response. Methods HIV/AIDS prevalence levels for risk groups with sufficient sentinel survey data were estimated. Unit costs were calculated for a series of interventions against HIV/AIDS which were subsequently inputted into a model to assess their ability to reduce infection transmission rates. Interventions included: mass media, voluntary counselling and testing; peer counselling for female sex workers; peer counselling for men who have sex with men; peer education of youth in-school; condom provision; STI treatment; prevention of mother to child transmission; and highly active antiretroviral therapy. Impact was assessed by the ability to reduce rates of transmission and quantified in terms of cost per DALY averted. Results Results of the analysis show that in Peru, the highest levels of HIV prevalence are found in men who have sex with men. Cost effectiveness varied greatly between interventions ranging from peer education of female commercial sex workers at $US 55 up to $US 5,928 (per DALY averted) for prevention of mother to child transmission. Conclusion The results of this work add evidence-based clarity as to which interventions warrant greatest consideration when planning an intervention response to HIV in Peru. Cost effectiveness analysis provides a necessary element of transparency when facing choices about priority setting, particularly when the country plans to amplify its

  13. Determining a cost effective intervention response to HIV/AIDS in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cáceres Carlos F

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The HIV epidemic in Peru is still regarded as concentrated - sentinel surveillance data shows greatest rates of infection in men who have sex with men, while much lower rates are found in female sex workers and still lower in the general population. Without an appropriate set of preventive interventions, continuing infections could present a challenge to the sustainability of the present programme of universal access to treatment. Determining how specific prevention and care strategies would impact on the health of Peruvians should be key in reshaping the national response. Methods HIV/AIDS prevalence levels for risk groups with sufficient sentinel survey data were estimated. Unit costs were calculated for a series of interventions against HIV/AIDS which were subsequently inputted into a model to assess their ability to reduce infection transmission rates. Interventions included: mass media, voluntary counselling and testing; peer counselling for female sex workers; peer counselling for men who have sex with men; peer education of youth in-school; condom provision; STI treatment; prevention of mother to child transmission; and highly active antiretroviral therapy. Impact was assessed by the ability to reduce rates of transmission and quantified in terms of cost per DALY averted. Results Results of the analysis show that in Peru, the highest levels of HIV prevalence are found in men who have sex with men. Cost effectiveness varied greatly between interventions ranging from peer education of female commercial sex workers at $US 55 up to $US 5,928 (per DALY averted for prevention of mother to child transmission. Conclusion The results of this work add evidence-based clarity as to which interventions warrant greatest consideration when planning an intervention response to HIV in Peru. Cost effectiveness analysis provides a necessary element of transparency when facing choices about priority setting, particularly when the country

  14. An index for staging facial lipoatrophy and evaluation of the efficacy of the treatment with polymethylmethacrylate in HIV/AIDS patients: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, M S; Oyafuso, L K; Trope, B M; Munhoz Leite, O H; Ramos-e-Silva, M

    2013-08-01

    Treatment of facial lipoatrophy of HIV/AIDS patients is mandatory by law in Brazil due to its negative impact on their quality of life. The index for facial lipoatrophy (ILA) is used as one of the inclusion criteria for patient treatment. To define a correct diagnosis and staging of facial lipoatrophy, by employing the ILA. This is an observational study of a series of case reports from patients submitted to facial lipoatrophy evaluation through ILA and treated with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) fillers. Facial lipoatrophy was classified in grades from I to IV, corresponding to mild, moderate, severe and very severe stage, according to ILA. Response to the treatment was defined as excellent (≥ 91%), good (71-90%), moderate (51-70%) and insufficient (≤ 50%). A total of 20 patients were included in this study: 18 men and two women. Median age was 49 years (35-61) and average ILA was 9.9 (7.2-16.8). Ten patients presented facial lipoatrophy grade II (moderate), 5 grade III (severe) and 5 grade IV (very severe). The average volume of PMMA used was 13 mL (5.5-22 mL). All patients showed good or excellent response, with a median of 86% (74-100%). The most typical adverse effect was local oedema but there were no late adverse effects. The ILA is an excellent method for evaluation of facial lipoatrophy and also for the assessment of the response to therapy. Facial filling with PMMA showed efficacy and safety in the treatment of facial lipoatrophy in HIV/AIDS patients. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2012 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  15. Aid and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    2006-01-01

    evolved since World War II in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. I review the aid process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of aid and categorize some of the key goals, principles and institutions of the aid system. The evidence on whether aid has...... been effective in furthering economic growth and development is discussed in some detail. I add perspective and identify some critical unresolved issues. I finally turn to the current development debate and discuss some key concerns, I believe should be kept in mind in formulating any agenda for aid...

  16. Communication skills training in a nursing home: effects of a brief intervention on residents and nursing aides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprangers, Suzan; Dijkstra, Katinka; Romijn-Luijten, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Effective communication by nursing home staff is related to a higher quality of life and a decrease in verbal and physical aggression and depression in nursing home residents. Several communication intervention studies have been conducted to improve communication between nursing home staff and nursing home residents with dementia. These studies have shown that communication skills training can improve nursing aides’ communication with nursing home residents. However, these studies tended to be time-consuming and fairly difficult to implement. Moreover, these studies focused on the communicative benefits for the nursing home residents and their well-being, while benefits and well-being for the nursing aides were neglected. The current study focused on implementing a brief communication skills training program to improve nursing aides’ (N=24) communication with residents with dementia (N=26) in a nursing home. The effects of the training on nursing aides’ communication, caregiver distress, and job satisfaction and residents’ psychopathology and agitation were assessed relative to a control group condition. Nursing aides in the intervention group were individually trained to communicate effectively with residents during morning care by using short instructions, positive speech, and biographical statements. Mixed ANOVAs showed that, after training, nursing aides in the intervention group experienced less caregiver distress. Additionally, the number of short instructions and instances of positive speech increased. Providing nursing aides with helpful feedback during care aids communication and reduces caregiver burden, even with a brief intervention that requires limited time investments for nursing home staff. PMID:25653513

  17. Critical evaluation as an aid to improved report writing: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Mirabelle; Williams, Judith

    2014-05-01

    Report writing is an important employability skill for Engineers and Technologists, and this case study describes how a Technology degree module took a novel approach to developing students' report writing skills. Students learned how to use a criterion-referenced critical evaluation framework for reports and other technological documents. They were given opportunities to practise using the framework both through exemplars and through evaluating the work of their peers. They also carried out self-assessment. The authors' analysis of this novel approach shows that most students responded well to it and benefited from it. Lessons are drawn from this work for others who wish to improve their students' report writing skills.

  18. The effects of national and international HIV/AIDS funding and governance mechanisms on the development of civil-society responses to HIV/AIDS in East and Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Kevin J; Birdsall, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The study takes stock of the exponential growth in the number of new civil-society organisations (CSOs) working in the HIV/AIDS field in East and Southern Africa during the period 1996-2004. We researched this development through a survey of 439 CSOs in six countries and case studies focused on the evolution of community responses to HIV/AIDS in specific communities in eight countries. We describe the types of CSOs that emerged, their relationships with governments and donors, and their activities, organisational characteristics and funding requirements. The data presented show that the vision of social mobilisation of HIV/AIDS responses through community-level organisations has faced strong external challenges. Evidence from survey data, national HIV/AIDS spending assessments and case studies shows that in some respects the changing international aid environment undermines the prospects for development of the civil-society sector's contributions in HIV/AIDS responses. Of particular interest is to understand how the "Three Ones" and the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness have reshaped international funding for HIV/AIDS responses. There has been relatively little attention paid to the impact of the new management and funding modalities--including national performance frameworks, general budget support, joint funding arrangements and basket funds--on civil-society agencies at the forefront of community HIV/AIDS responses. Evidence is presented to show that in important respects the new modalities limit the unique contribution that CSOs can make to national HIV/AIDS responses. It is also shown that the drive to rapidly intensify the scale of HIV/AIDS responses has involved using community organisations as service providers for externally formulated programmes. We discuss this as a strong threat to the development of sustainable civil-society economies as well as to CSOs' diversity and responsiveness. The ways in which CSOs are responding to these challenges are

  19. Educational aids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenkeit, S.

    1989-01-01

    Educational aids include printed matter, aural media, visual media, audiovisual media and objects. A distinction is made between learning aids, which include blackboards, overhead projectors, flipcharts, wallcharts and pinboards, and learning aids, which include textbooks, worksheets, documentation and experimental equipment. The various aids are described and their use explained. The aids available at the School for Nuclear Technology of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Centre are described

  20. The effectiveness of linguistic plays on the grammatical skills of hearing-impaired children with hearing aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Mohammad Esmaeilzadeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Grammatical skills development of hearing-impaired children depends on using appropriate educational rehabilitation programs. This study aims to investigate the effectiveness of linguistic plays on the grammatical skills in hearing-impaired children with hearing aids.Methods: Ten hearing-impaired children with hearing aids, aged between 5 and 7, were randomly assigned to two groups (5 children in each group. Each treatment group received 12 sessions on linguistic plays. The grammatical skills of these children were evaluated via the TOLD-P: 3 (Persian version; in addition, their level of intelligence was assessed by the Raven test.Results: The difference between the scores of both control and treatment groups revealed a statistically significant difference in grammatical skills (t=7.61, p=0.001 and three subskills of the children who participated in the linguistic plays. These subskills include syntactic understanding (t=3.16, p=0.013, sentence imitation (t=1.71, p=0.006, and morphological completion (t=6.55, p=0.001. In other words, the findings suggest that linguistic plays have a significant impact on the improvement of the aforementioned skills in hearing-impaired children.Conclusion: Results suggest that it would be beneficial to include linguistic plays as part of routine rehabilitation programs as a means of improving the grammatical difficulties of children. After partaking in linguistic plays, children significantly improved their ability to comprehend the meaning of sentences and also to recognize, understand, and use common Persian morphological forms.

  1. Critical Evaluation as an Aid to Improved Report Writing: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Mirabelle; Williams, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Report writing is an important employability skill for Engineers and Technologists, and this case study describes how a Technology degree module took a novel approach to developing students' report writing skills. Students learned how to use a criterion-referenced critical evaluation framework for reports and other technological documents. They…

  2. Evaluating the financial performance of agri-food firms: a multicriteria decision-aid approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalogeras, N.; Baourakis, G.; Zopounidis, C.; Dijk, van G.

    2005-01-01

    Food economists and financial researchers have long been preoccupied by the issue of evaluating the performance of agri-food firms. As the financial restructuring of the agri-business sector during the past two decades or so reflects sweeping changes that have occurred worldwide, questions have

  3. EVALUATION OF A COMPUTER-AIDED SEMEN ANALYSIS SYSTEM WITH SPERM TAIL DETECTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIJCHMAN, JG; DEWOLF, BTHM; JAGER, S

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the Stroemberg-Mika cell motion analyser (SM-CMA) which uses tail detection in order to discriminate between immotile spermatozoa and other particles. Analysis of the spermatozoa by the SM-CMA can easily be checked on a video monitor. The semen samples were from

  4. Integrated Computer-aided Framework for Sustainable Chemical Product Design and Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalakul, Sawitree; Cignitti, Stefano; Zhang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    This work proposes an integrated model-based framework for chemical product design and evaluation based on which the software, VPPD-Lab (The Virtual Product-Process Design Laboratory) has been developed. The framework allows the following options: (1) design a product using design templates...

  5. Evaluation involvement of local HIV/AIDS non-governmental organisations in Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice T. Agonnoude

    2016-11-01

    Conclusion: This study provides funding agencies, NGO leaders and all those interested in developing evaluation capacity in these NGOs to understand the extent of the task in this area. They must keep in mind that there is no solution for all, but that solutions must be adapted to the developmental level of each organisation.

  6. Avaliação das metas de recursos previstos na declaração sobre HIV/Aids das Nações Unidas Evaluation of the United Nations Declaration on HIV/AIDS resource targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Teixeira

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O estudo teve por objetivo avaliar as metas do capítulo sobre recursos da Declaração de Compromisso da UNGASS. A premissa adotada é que para alcançar tais metas é preciso envidar esforços em três frentes: redução de custos de insumos e serviços; aumento da eficiência no acesso e no uso dos financiamentos; e canalização de novos recursos. Foram analisados os dados provenientes de estudos sobre Contas Nacionais em HIV/Aids para a América Latina e Caribe e informações disponíveis na literatura recente sobre a situação global do fluxo de recursos para o HIV/Aids. O conceito econômico de bem público global permeia o artigo. Foram discutidos os fatores que exercerão fortes pressões sobre o financiamento, exigindo a adoção de novas estratégias, tais como: as dificuldades para se manter a mesma tendência declinante nos custos de itens de peso no gasto com a epidemia no Brasil, a incorporação de milhares de pessoas que necessitam de tratamento anti-retroviral a cada ano, o aumento da sobrevida dos pacientes e a ampliação da testagem necessária para o controle do HIV/Aids. Conclui-se que visando garantir a alocação de mais recursos para a luta contra a Aids, faz-se necessário que a discussão sobre financiamento enfoque não apenas o aumento da participação de recursos para a Aids no âmbito do Ministério da Saúde, mas principalmente o incremento de recursos para a saúde como um todo. Quanto aos recursos externos, o reconhecimento de que o controle da epidemia é um bem público global deverá possibilitar aumentos na assistência oficial para o desenvolvimento.This study evaluates the targets of the United Nations Declaration on HIV/AIDS Resource Targets, the attainment of which are premised on promoting three fronts: reduction of material and services costs, increased efficiency in access to and management of funds, and the channeling of new funds. Data were derived from studies of National Accounts of HIV/AIDS

  7. Avaliação oftalmológica em pacientes com AIDS e neurotoxoplasmose Ophthalmological evaluation of patients with AIDS and neurotoxoplasmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Mary Alves

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Descrever os achados fundoscópicos em pacientes com AIDS e neurotoxoplasmose em fase ativa. MÉTODOS: Foi desenvolvido estudo prospectivo tipo série de casos incluindo 70 pacientes, de ambos os sexos, com idade variando de 20 a 63 anos, internados nas enfermarias de três hospitais públicos da Cidade do Recife, Pernambuco, com diagnósticos de AIDS e neurotoxoplasmose firmados segundo os critérios do Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (1992, no período de janeiro a outubro de 2008. Os pacientes se caracterizavam por: primeiro episódio de neurotoxoplasmose (65; 92,9% ou recidiva (5; 7,1%; desconhecimento de ter AIDS (23; 32,9%, contagem média de linfócitos T CD4 de 139,8 ± 3,04 células/mm3 e carga viral média igual a 137.080 ± 39.380 cópias/mL. Todos foram submetidos a exame oftalmológico, consistindo de: inspeção ocular; aferição da acuidade visual; investigação da função muscular extrínseca ocular e fundoscopia, empregando oftalmoscópio indireto binocular (modelo OHN 3.5 (Eyetec® e lente externa de 20 dioptrias (Volk®. RESULTADOS: Os achados consistiram em: exsudatos algodonosos retinianos (8,6%, constricção arteriolar difusa leve (8,6%; lesões de retinocoroidite cicatricial, características de toxoplasmose ocular (5,7%, atrofia do epitélio pigmentar retiniano (2,9%, descolamento da retina (2,9%, aumento de escavação papilar (1,4%, degeneração periférica retiniana (1,4%, macroaneurisma (1,4%, papiledema bilateral (1,4%, tração vítreo-retiniana (1,4%. CONCLUSÕES: Pacientes com AIDS e neurotoxoplasmose podem apresentar alterações fundoscópicas características da toxoplasmose ocular, na forma ativa ou cicatricial, relacionadas ao HIV ou, ainda, a outras doenças oportunistas ou sistêmicas, podendo ser de grande auxílio num tratamento integral do paciente por uma equipe multiprofissional.INTRODUCTION: To describe fundoscopic findings among patients with AIDS and active

  8. Effectiveness of computer-aided learning in oral health among patients and caregivers: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ab Malik, Normaliza; Zhang, Jiaguan; Lam, Otto Lok Tao; Jin, Lijian; McGrath, Colman

    2017-01-01

    Computer-aided learning (CAL) offers enormous potential in disseminating oral health care information to patients and caregivers. The effectiveness of CAL, however, remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to systematically review published evidence on the effectiveness of CAL in disseminating oral health care information to patients and caregivers. A structured comprehensive search was undertaken among 7 electronic databases (PUBMED, CINAHL Plus, EMBASE, SCOPUS, WEB of SCIENCE, the Cochrane Library, and PsycINFO) to identify relevant studies. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies were included in this review. Papers were screened by 2 independent reviewers, and studies that met the inclusion criteria were selected for further assessment. A total of 2915 papers were screened, and full texts of 53 potentially relevant papers (κ = 0.885) were retrieved. A total of 5 studies that met the inclusion criteria (1 RCT, 1 quasi-experimental study, and 3 post-intervention studies) were identified. Outcome measures included knowledge, attitude, behavior, and oral health. Significant improvements in clinical oral health parameters (P effectiveness of CAL interventions for oral health care among patients and caregivers. Synthesis of the data suggests that CAL has positive impacts on knowledge, attitude, behavior, and oral health. Further high- quality studies on the effectiveness of CAL in promoting oral health are warranted. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. EFFECTIVENESS OF CHITOSAN AS NATURAL COAGULANT AID IN TREATING TURBID WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bina ، M. H. Mehdinejad ، M. Nikaeen ، H. Movahedian Attar

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, there has been a concern about the relation between aluminum residuals in treated water and Alzheimer disease, and more interest has been considered on the development of natural coagulants such as chitosan. Chitosan, a natural linear biopolyaminosaccharide, is obtained by alkaline deacetylation of chitin. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of alum as coagulant in conjunction with chitosan as coagulant aid on the removal of turbidity, hardness and Escherichia coli from water. A conventional jar test apparatus was employed for the tests. The optimum pH was observed between 7 to 7.5 for all turbidities. The optimum doses of alum and chitosan when used in conjunction, were 10mg/L and 1mg/L, 5mg/L and 0.5mg/L, and 5mg/L and 0.5mg/L in low, medium and high turbidities, respectively. Turbidity removal efficiency was resulted between %74.3 to %98.2 by alum in conjunction with chitosan. Residual Al+3 in treated water was less than 0.2 mg/L, meeting the international guidelines. The results showed that turbidity decrease provided also a primary Escherichia coli reduction of 2-4 log units within the first 1 to 2 hr of treatment. Hardness removal efficiency decreased when the total hardness increased from 102 to 476mg/L as CaCO3. At low initial turbidity, chitosan showed marginally better performance on hardness, especially at the ranges of 100 to 210 mg/L as CaCO3. In conclusion, coagulant aid showed a useful method for coagulation process. By using natural coagulants, considerable savings in chemicals and sludge handling cost may be achieved.

  10. An objective procedure for evaluation of adaptive antifeedback algorithms in hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Daniel J; Soli, Sigfrid D

    2006-08-01

    This study evaluated the performance of nine adaptive antifeedback algorithms. There were two goals: first, to identify objective procedures that are useful for evaluating these algorithms, and second, to identify strengths and weaknesses of existing algorithms. The algorithms were evaluated in behind-the-ear implementations on the Knowles Electronics Manikin for Acoustic Research (KEMAR). Different acoustic conditions were created by placing a telephone handset or a hat on KEMAR. Electroacoustic techniques were devised to measure the following performance aspects of each algorithm: (1) additional gain made available before oscillation, (2) gain lost in specific frequency regions, (3) reduction of suboscillatory peaks in the frequency response, (4) speed of adaptation to changing acoustic conditions, and (5) robustness in the presence of tonal input signals. For each measurement, performance varied widely across algorithms. No single algorithm was clearly superior or inferior to the others. Generally, the feedback cancellation algorithms were less likely to sacrifice gain in specific frequency regions and better at reducing suboscillatory peaks, whereas the algorithms that used noncancellation techniques were more tolerant of tonal input signals. For those algorithms equipped with special operational modes intended for music listening, the music mode improved the response to tonal inputs but sometimes sacrificed other performance aspects. Algorithms that required an acoustic measurement for initialization purposes tended to perform poorly in acoustic conditions dissimilar to the condition in which initialization was performed. The objective methods devised for this study appear useful for evaluating the performance of adaptive antifeedback algorithms. Currently available algorithms demonstrate a wide range of performance, and further research is required to develop new algorithms that combine the best features of existing algorithms.

  11. Efficient Server-Aided Secure Two-Party Function Evaluation with Applications to Genomic Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-14

    sense that they can be used to securely evaluate arbitrary functions and offer attrac- tive performance compared to the state of the art . We apply the...seconds. The performance favor- ably compares to the state of the art (as detailed in section 7), in some cases achieving orders of magnitude...148 Table 1. Complexity of constructions in prior and our work. Party Communication Sym. key/hash op . Public key operations Security model [38], A O

  12. Computer-aided evaluation of waste disposal cavern construction methods. ISBN 3-9801713-0-2.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knissel, W.; Fahlbusch, M.

    1991-01-01

    The disposal of hazardous radioactive and toxic wastes in deep geological formations is considered the safest solution in many countries. The Federal Republic of Germany prefers salt formations for underground disposal on account of the special advantages of the rock salt. Calculation methods are presented for the mathematical description of mining techniques for the construction of waste disposal salt caverns. The developed calculation model allows one to evaluate different construction methods with regard to expenses and time. (orig./DG) [de

  13. The Effects of Computer-Aided Design Software on Engineering Students' Spatial Visualisation Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kösa, Temel; Karakus, Fatih

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of computer-aided design (CAD) software-based instruction on the spatial visualisation skills of freshman engineering students in a computer-aided engineering drawing course. A quasi-experimental design was applied, using the Purdue Spatial Visualization Test-Visualization of Rotations…

  14. How do you build hope and strength? Bringing effective HIV/AIDS ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-02-25

    Feb 25, 2011 ... IDRC-supported researchers are working with the Government of Free ... “The AIDS issue has become more than a health issue, much more than a ... for nearly 70% of all global HIV infections and 90% of deaths from AIDS. .... student named Donald Ray was studying rural settlement schemes in Zambia.

  15. HIV/AIDS Content Knowledge and Presentation Strategies in Biology for Effective Use in Everyday Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnguni, Lindelani; Abrie, Mia

    2012-01-01

    HIV/AIDS education should empower students to create knowledge using everyday life experiences. Such knowledge should then be used to construe experience and resolve social problems such as risk behaviour that leads to infection. In South Africa, attempts to reduce the spread of HIV include incorporating HIV/AIDS education in the biology…

  16. Cashing In or Cashing Out: Tools for Measuring the Effectiveness & Outcomes of Financial Aid Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Brianna; Oliverez, Paz M.; Tierney, William G.

    2007-01-01

    Financial aid-related information and services are provided to students and families in a variety of ways. The timing of when information is shared with these groups also varies. Financial aid information is typically provided through events sponsored by high schools, colleges and universities, and multiple community and government-sponsored…

  17. Nursing Aides' Attitudes to Elder Abuse in Nursing Homes: The Effect of Work Stressors and Burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinan-Altman, Shiri; Cohen, Miri

    2009-01-01

    Background: Nursing aides' attitudes condoning elder abuse are a possible risk factor for executing abusive behaviors against elder residents of long-term care facilities but have been studied infrequently. Purpose: The purpose of the study was to assess nursing aides' attitudes that condone abusive behaviors toward elderly people, as well as the…

  18. The Effect of Foreign Aid on Economic Growth in Ghana | Appiah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper uses time series data from 1972 to 2012 on Ghana to test the hypothesis that foreign aid can promote growth in developing countries. The ARDL approach to cointegration (bounds test) was employed to examine both the long run and short run relationships between aid and economic growth. The results of the ...

  19. The development of an observational screening tool to assess safe, effective and appropriate walking aid use in people with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitzen, Abby; Finlayson, Marcia; Carolan-Laing, Leanne; Nacionales, Arthur Junn; Walker, Christie; O'Connor, Josephine; Asano, Miho; Coote, Susan

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify potential items for an observational screening tool to assess safe, effective and appropriate walking aid use among people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Such a tool is needed because of the association between fall risk and mobility aid use in this population. Four individuals with MS were videotaped using a one or two straight canes, crutches or a rollator in different settings. Seventeen health care professionals from Canada, Ireland and the United States were recruited, and viewed the videos, and were then interviewed about the use of the devices by the individuals in the videos. Interview questions addressed safety, effectiveness and appropriateness of the device in the setting. Data were analyzed qualitatively. Coding consistency across raters was evaluated and confirmed. Nineteen codes were identified as possible items for the screening tool. The most frequent issues raised regardless of setting and device were "device used for duration/abandoned", "appropriate device", "balance and stability", "device technique", "environmental modification" and "hands free." With the identification of a number of potential tool items, researchers can now move forward with the development of the tool. This will involve consultation with both healthcare professionals and people with MS. Implications for rehabilitation Falls among people with multiple sclerosis are associated with mobility device use and use of multiple devices is associated with greater falls risk. The ability to assess for safe, effective and efficient use of walking aids is therefore important, no tools currently exist for this purpose. The codes arising from this study will be used to develop a screening tool for safe, effective and efficient walking aid use with the aim of reducing falls risk.

  20. An effective AIDS vaccine based on live attenuated vesicular stomatitis virus recombinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, N F; Marx, P A; Luckay, A; Nixon, D F; Moretto, W J; Donahoe, S M; Montefiori, D; Roberts, A; Buonocore, L; Rose, J K

    2001-09-07

    We developed an AIDS vaccine based on attenuated VSV vectors expressing env and gag genes and tested it in rhesus monkeys. Boosting was accomplished using vectors with glycoproteins from different VSV serotypes. Animals were challenged with a pathogenic AIDS virus (SHIV89.6P). Control monkeys showed a severe loss of CD4+ T cells and high viral loads, and 7/8 progressed to AIDS with an average time of 148 days. All seven vaccinees were initially infected with SHIV89.6P but have remained healthy for up to 14 months after challenge with low or undetectable viral loads. Protection from AIDS was highly significant (p = 0.001). VSV vectors are promising candidates for human AIDS vaccine trials because they propagate to high titers and can be delivered without injection.

  1. Qualitative evaluation of a colorectal cancer education CD-ROM for Community Health Aides/practitioners in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueva, Melany; Dignan, Mark; Lanier, Anne; Kuhnley, Regina

    2014-12-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is an important contributor to the cancer burden among Alaska Native people. CRC is the leading incident cancer and the second leading cause of cancer mortality among Alaska Native people. Completing recommended CRC screening procedures has the potential to reduce both CRC incidence and mortality. "Taking Action Colorectal Health," a multidimensional audiovisual, interactive CD-ROM, incorporates adult education learning principles to provide Alaska's Community Health Aides/Practitioners with timely, medically accurate, and culturally relevant CRC place-based education. Providing this resource on CD-ROM empowers learning within communities and places where people live or choose to learn. The dynamic process of developing, implementing, and evaluating this CRC CD-ROM was informed by a sociocultural approach to share health messages. Within this approach, cultural values, beliefs, and behaviors are affirmed as a place of wisdom and resilience and built upon to provide context and meaning for health messaging. Alaska Native values that honor family, relationships, the land, storytelling, and humor were included in CD-ROM content. Between January and May 2012, 20 interviews were conducted with individuals who had used the CD-ROM. Four categorical themes emerged from analysis of interview transcripts: likeability, utilization, helpfulness, and behavior change. As a result of self-paced learning through stories, movies, and interactive games, respondents reported healthy behavior changes they were making for themselves, with their families and in their patient care practices. This CD-ROM is a culturally based practical course that increased knowledge and activities around colorectal cancer screening by Community Health Aides/Practitioners in Alaska.

  2. Evaluating the content and development of decision aid tools for the management of menopause: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siyam, Tasneem; Sultani, Humirah; Ross, Sue; Chatterley, Trish; Yuksel, Nese

    2017-12-01

    Decision-making during menopause (especially surgical menopause) can be complex given the variability in risk-benefit perceptions of menopausal treatments. Decision aid tools (DATs) help women participate in decision-making about options. Our objective is to identify and evaluate the content and development of DATs for managing menopause, with a special focus on surgical menopause. We systematically searched electronic databases, including MEDLINE and EMBASE, from inception to March 2017 for relevant records. The principal inclusion criterion was that papers reported studies on DATs for managing menopause. Search terms were derived from two concepts: menopause and DATs. Data extracted were presented in written evidence tables and narrative summaries. Our search yielded 18,801 records. Of these, 26 records met our inclusion criteria, which gave rise to 12 DATs from peer-reviewed literature and 6 from grey literature. Seventeen DATs were focused on natural menopause and two targeted surgical menopause, both identified from grey literature. More than half were published before the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) publication and 70% before the release of the International Patient Decision Aid Standards (IPDAS). Very few studies reported the full development of the DAT involved, and less than half of DATs were informed by a needs assessment to identify the decisional needs of their target population. Most DATs focused on hormone therapy as a treatment option and did not provide a comprehensive overview of other options. None of the DATs reported the steps involved in finding, appraising and summarizing scientific content of the tool. This review highlights several limitations in the content and development of DATs for managing menopause. No peer-reviewed DATs were identified for surgical menopause. A need for a complete, evidence-based DAT in the context of surgical menopause is identified. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Decision aiding model for the evaluation of agricultural countermeasures after an accidental release of radionuclides to the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcanu, C.

    2009-01-01

    Implementation of remedial actions after a radiological contamination of the environment has to take into account, alongside with radiological and feasibility criteria, also the acceptability of the countermeasures, ethical and environmental considerations, as well as the spatial variation and the needs of people in urban, rural and industrial environments. This highlights multi-criteria analysis as a suitable tool, since it is able to structure discussions and to facilitate a common understanding of the decision problem, with the values and priorities of the actors involved. The related theoretical framework, multi-criteria decision aid (MCDA), has emerged from the operational research field as an answer given to a couple of important questions encountered in complex decision problems. Firstly, the aim is not to replace the decision maker with a mathematical model, but to support him to construct his solution by describing and evaluating his options. Secondly, instead of using a unique criterion capturing all aspects of the problem, in MCDA one seeks to build multiple criteria, representing several points of view. The methods belonging to MCDA can be classified as multi-attribute utility/value methods, outranking methods and interactive methods. Past attempts to apply multi-criteria analysis in the context of nuclear emergency management have highlighted however the need to better integrate the operational and socio-political context of the decision-making process into the tools and models developed for decision-support. This PhD project had two main objectives: 1) to develop a multi-criteria decision aid model for the decision problem on countermeasures for contaminated milk, that better accommodates the nuclear crisis management context in Belgium and 2) to build prototype tools implementing and demonstrating the methodology developed

  4. The effectiveness of aided augmented input techniques for persons with developmental disabilities: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Anna A; Schlosser, Ralf W; Brock, Kristofer L; Shane, Howard C

    2017-09-01

    When working with individuals with little or no functional speech, clinicians often recommend that communication partners use the client's augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) device when speaking to the client. This is broadly known as "augmented input" and is thought to enhance the client's learning of language form and content. The purpose of this systematic review was to determine the effects of augmented input on communication outcomes in persons with developmental disabilities and persons with childhood apraxia of speech who use aided AAC. Nineteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Each included study was reviewed in terms of participant characteristics, terminology used, symbol format, augmented input characteristics, outcomes measured, effectiveness, and study quality. Results indicate that augmented input can improve single-word vocabulary skills and expression of multi-symbol utterances; however, comprehension beyond the single word level has not been explored. Additionally, it is difficult to form conclusions about the effect of augmented input on specific diagnostic populations. Directions for future research are posited.

  5. Thermodynamic and economic evaluation of a solar aided sugarcane bagasse cogeneration power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burin, Eduardo Konrad; Vogel, Tobias; Multhaupt, Sven; Thelen, Andre; Oeljeklaus, Gerd; Görner, Klaus; Bazzo, Edson

    2016-01-01

    This work evaluated the integration of Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) with a sugarcane bagasse cogeneration plant located in Campo Grande (Brazil). The plant is equipped with two 170 t/h capacity steam generators that provide steam at 67 bar/525 °C. Superheated steam is expanded in a backpressure and in a condensing-extraction turbine. The evaluated hybridization layouts were: (layout 1) solar feedwater pre-heating; (layout 2) saturated steam generation with solar energy and post superheating in biomass steam generators and (layout 3) superheated steam generation in parallel with biomass boilers. Linear Fresnel and parabolic trough were implemented in layouts 1 and 2, while solar tower in layout 3. The exportation of electricity to the grid was increased between 1.3% (layout 1/linear Fresnel) and 19.8% (layout 3) in comparison with base case. The levelized cost of additional electricity was accounted between 220 US$/MWh (layout 3) and 628 US$/MWh (layout 1/linear Fresnel). The key factor related to layout 3 was the improvement of solar field capacity factor due to the solar-only operation of this approach. These aspects demonstrate that the combination of solar and bagasse resources might be the key to turn CSP economically feasible in Brazil. - Highlights: • The integration of CSP and a sugarcane bagasse cogeneration plant was here evaluated. • Additional hours of operation during off-season were achieved due to hybridization. • The part load performance of plant was predicted as solar thermal load was increased. • The electricity exportation to the grid could be increased between 1.3 and 19.8%. • The LCOE of additional electricity produced was ranged between 220 and 628 US$/MWh.

  6. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2013. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 76, Revision 1 (FGE.76Rev1)

    OpenAIRE

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Lund, Pia; Nørby, Karin Kristiane

    2013-01-01

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to consider evaluations of flavouring substances assessed since 2000 by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), and to decide whether further evaluation is necessary, as laid down in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. The present opinion concerns a group of 26 sulphur-containing heterocyclic compounds evaluated by the JECFA at the 59th m...

  7. Development and evaluation of 'briefing notes' as a novel knowledge translation tool to aid the implementation of sex/gender analysis in systematic reviews: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doull, Marion; Welch, Vivian; Puil, Lorri; Runnels, Vivien; Coen, Stephanie E; Shea, Beverley; O'Neill, Jennifer; Borkhoff, Cornelia; Tudiver, Sari; Boscoe, Madeline

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing recognition of sex/gender differences in health and the importance of identifying differential effects of interventions for men and women. Yet, to whom the research evidence does or does not apply, with regard to sex/gender, is often insufficiently answered. This is also true for systematic reviews which synthesize results of primary studies. A lack of analysis and reporting of evidence on sex/gender raises concerns about the applicability of systematic reviews. To bridge this gap, this pilot study aimed to translate knowledge about sex/gender analysis (SGA) into a user-friendly 'briefing note' format and evaluate its potential in aiding the implementation of SGA in systematic reviews. Our Sex/Gender Methods Group used an interactive process to translate knowledge about sex/gender into briefing notes, a concise communication tool used by policy and decision makers. The briefing notes were developed in collaboration with three Cochrane Collaboration review groups (HIV/AIDS, Hypertension, and Musculoskeletal) who were also the target knowledge users of the briefing notes. Briefing note development was informed by existing systematic review checklists, literature on sex/gender, in-person and virtual meetings, and consultation with topic experts. Finally, we held a workshop for potential users to evaluate the notes. Each briefing note provides tailored guidance on considering sex/gender to reviewers who are planning or conducting systematic reviews and includes the rationale for considering sex/gender, with examples specific to each review group's focus. Review authors found that the briefing notes provided welcome guidance on implementing SGA that was clear and concise, but also identified conceptual and implementation challenges. Sex/gender briefing notes are a promising knowledge translation tool. By encouraging sex/gender analysis and equity considerations in systematic reviews, the briefing notes can assist systematic reviewers in ensuring the

  8. Development and evaluation of 'briefing notes' as a novel knowledge translation tool to aid the implementation of sex/gender analysis in systematic reviews: a pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Doull

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is increasing recognition of sex/gender differences in health and the importance of identifying differential effects of interventions for men and women. Yet, to whom the research evidence does or does not apply, with regard to sex/gender, is often insufficiently answered. This is also true for systematic reviews which synthesize results of primary studies. A lack of analysis and reporting of evidence on sex/gender raises concerns about the applicability of systematic reviews. To bridge this gap, this pilot study aimed to translate knowledge about sex/gender analysis (SGA into a user-friendly 'briefing note' format and evaluate its potential in aiding the implementation of SGA in systematic reviews. METHODS: Our Sex/Gender Methods Group used an interactive process to translate knowledge about sex/gender into briefing notes, a concise communication tool used by policy and decision makers. The briefing notes were developed in collaboration with three Cochrane Collaboration review groups (HIV/AIDS, Hypertension, and Musculoskeletal who were also the target knowledge users of the briefing notes. Briefing note development was informed by existing systematic review checklists, literature on sex/gender, in-person and virtual meetings, and consultation with topic experts. Finally, we held a workshop for potential users to evaluate the notes. RESULTS: Each briefing note provides tailored guidance on considering sex/gender to reviewers who are planning or conducting systematic reviews and includes the rationale for considering sex/gender, with examples specific to each review group's focus. Review authors found that the briefing notes provided welcome guidance on implementing SGA that was clear and concise, but also identified conceptual and implementation challenges. CONCLUSIONS: Sex/gender briefing notes are a promising knowledge translation tool. By encouraging sex/gender analysis and equity considerations in systematic reviews, the

  9. Effective communication of risks to young adults: using message framing and visual aids to increase condom use and STD screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Retamero, Rocio; Cokely, Edward T

    2011-09-01

    Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)-including HIV/AIDS-are among the most common infectious diseases in young adults. How can we effectively promote prevention and detection of STDs in this high risk population? In a two-phase longitudinal experiment we examined the effects of a brief risk awareness intervention (i.e., a sexual health information brochure) in a large sample of sexually active young adults (n = 744). We assessed the influence of gain- and loss-framed messages, and visual aids, on affective reactions, risk perceptions, attitudes, behavioral intentions, and reported behaviors relating to the prevention and detection of STDs. Results indicate that gain-framed messages induced greater adherence for prevention behaviors (e.g., condom use), whereas loss-framed messages were more effective in promoting illness-detecting behaviors (e.g., making an appointment with a doctor to discuss about STD screening). The influence of the framed messages on prevention and detection of STDs was mediated by changes in participants' attitudes toward the health behaviors along with changes in their behavioral intentions. Moreover, when visual aids were added to the health information, both the gain- and loss-framed messages became equally and highly effective in promoting health behaviors. These results converge with other data indicating that well-constructed visual aids are often among the most highly effective, transparent, fast, memorable, and ethically desirable means of risk communication. Theoretical, economic, and public policy implications of these results are discussed. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Artificial neural network aided non-invasive grading evaluation of hepatic fibrosis by duplex ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Li

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Artificial neural networks (ANNs are widely studied for evaluating diseases. This paper discusses the intelligence mode of an ANN in grading the diagnosis of liver fibrosis by duplex ultrasonogaphy. Methods 239 patients who were confirmed as having liver fibrosis or cirrhosis by ultrasound guided liver biopsy were investigated in this study. We quantified ultrasonographic parameters as significant parameters using a data optimization procedure applied to an ANN. 179 patients were typed at random as the training group; 60 additional patients were consequently enrolled as the validating group. Performance of the ANN was evaluated according to accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, Youden’s index and receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis. Results 5 ultrasonographic parameters; i.e., the liver parenchyma, thickness of spleen, hepatic vein (HV waveform, hepatic artery pulsatile index (HAPI and HV damping index (HVDI, were enrolled as the input neurons in the ANN model. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the ANN model for quantitative diagnosis of liver fibrosis were 95.0%, 85.0% and 88.3%, respectively. The Youden’s index (YI was 0.80. Conclusions The established ANN model had good sensitivity and specificity in quantitative diagnosis of hepatic fibrosis or liver cirrhosis. Our study suggests that the ANN model based on duplex ultrasound may help non-invasive grading diagnosis of liver fibrosis in clinical practice.

  11. The detailed evaluation of supernumerary teeth with the aid of cone beam computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumen, E.C.; Yavuz, I.; Atakul, F.; Tumen, D.S.; Hamamci, N.; Berber, G.; Uysal, E.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the application of a recently developed three-dimensional imaging system, cone beam computed tomography, in the detailed evaluation of supernumerary teeth. Two-hundred and twenty three patients with supernumerary teeth (68 females and 155 males) were included in this study. Patients ranged in age from 12 to 25 years. Supernumerary teeth were detected by clinical examination and traditional radiographies. Moreover, careful investigation for more details was made with the cone beam computed tomography. Supernumerary teeth which were detected with the examinations of the cone beam computed tomography images were classified according to the number, location, shape and eruption rate. The prevalence of supernumerary teeth was determined to be 1.45% of the study population. Males were affected more than females in a ratio of 2.3:1. Supernumerary teeth were most frequently located in 86.2% of the cases in the maxilla; 10.1% in the mandible and 3.7% both in the maxilla and mandible. Supernumerary teeth were most commonly conical in shape (68.8%). One supernumerary tooth was present in 67.7% of the patients, 30.9% had two, and 1.4% had three supernumeraries. Definite and early diagnosis of the supernumerary teeth is very important. Detailed examinations and evaluations of these teeth with three-dimensional images is very beneficial in terms of treatment planning and preventing complications which may occur.

  12. Improving health aid for a better planet: The planning, monitoring and evaluation tool (PLANET).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Devi; Car, Josip; Chopra, Mickey; Campbell, Harry; Woods, Ngaire; Rudan, Igor

    2015-12-01

    International development assistance for health (DAH) quadrupled between 1990 and 2012, from US$ 5.6 billion to US$ 28.1 billion. This generates an increasing need for transparent and replicable tools that could be used to set investment priorities, monitor the distribution of funding in real time, and evaluate the impact of those investments. In this paper we present a methodology that addresses these three challenges. We call this approach PLANET, which stands for planning, monitoring and evaluation tool. Fundamentally, PLANET is based on crowdsourcing approach to obtaining information relevant to deployment of large-scale programs. Information is contributed in real time by a diverse group of participants involved in the program delivery. PLANET relies on real-time information from three levels of participants in large-scale programs: funders, managers and recipients. At each level, information is solicited to assess five key risks that are most relevant to each level of operations. The risks at the level of funders involve systematic neglect of certain areas, focus on donor's interests over that of program recipients, ineffective co-ordination between donors, questionable mechanisms of delivery and excessive loss of funding to "middle men". At the level of managers, the risks are corruption, lack of capacity and/or competence, lack of information and /or communication, undue avoidance of governmental structures / preference to non-governmental organizations and exclusion of local expertise. At the level of primary recipients, the risks are corruption, parallel operations / "verticalization", misalignment with local priorities and lack of community involvement, issues with ethics, equity and/or acceptability, and low likelihood of sustainability beyond the end of the program's implementation. PLANET is intended as an additional tool available to policy-makers to prioritize, monitor and evaluate large-scale development programs. In this, it should complement

  13. Evaluating research and impact: a bibliometric analysis of research by the NIH/NIAID HIV/AIDS clinical trials networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott R Rosas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Evaluative bibliometrics uses advanced techniques to assess the impact of scholarly work in the context of other scientific work and usually compares the relative scientific contributions of research groups or institutions. Using publications from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID HIV/AIDS extramural clinical trials networks, we assessed the presence, performance, and impact of papers published in 2006-2008. Through this approach, we sought to expand traditional bibliometric analyses beyond citation counts to include normative comparisons across journals and fields, visualization of co-authorship across the networks, and assess the inclusion of publications in reviews and syntheses. Specifically, we examined the research output of the networks in terms of the a presence of papers in the scientific journal hierarchy ranked on the basis of journal influence measures, b performance of publications on traditional bibliometric measures, and c impact of publications in comparisons with similar publications worldwide, adjusted for journals and fields. We also examined collaboration and interdisciplinarity across the initiative, through network analysis and modeling of co-authorship patterns. Finally, we explored the uptake of network produced publications in research reviews and syntheses. Overall, the results suggest the networks are producing highly recognized work, engaging in extensive interdisciplinary collaborations, and having an impact across several areas of HIV-related science. The strengths and limitations of the approach for evaluation and monitoring research initiatives are discussed.

  14. Transitioning a Large Scale HIV/AIDS Prevention Program to Local Stakeholders: Findings from the Avahan Transition Evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Bennett

    Full Text Available Between 2009-2013 the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation transitioned its HIV/AIDS prevention initiative in India from being a stand-alone program outside of government, to being fully government funded and implemented. We present an independent prospective evaluation of the transition.The evaluation drew upon (1 a structured survey of transition readiness in a sample of 80 targeted HIV prevention programs prior to transition; (2 a structured survey assessing institutionalization of program features in a sample of 70 targeted intervention (TI programs, one year post-transition; and (3 case studies of 15 TI programs.Transition was conducted in 3 rounds. While the 2009 transition round was problematic, subsequent rounds were implemented more smoothly. In the 2011 and 2012 transition rounds, Avahan programs were well prepared for transition with the large majority of TI program staff trained for transition, high alignment with government clinical, financial and managerial norms, and strong government commitment to the program. One year post transition there were significant program changes, but these were largely perceived positively. Notable negative changes were: limited flexibility in program management, delays in funding, commodity stock outs, and community member perceptions of a narrowing in program focus. Service coverage outcomes were sustained at least six months post-transition.The study suggests that significant investments in transition preparation contributed to a smooth transition and sustained service coverage. Notwithstanding, there were substantive program changes post-transition. Five key lessons for transition design and implementation are identified.

  15. Evaluating spatial patterns of dioxins in sediments to aid determination of potential implications for marine reptiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermanussen, S.; Gaus, C. [National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology, Brisbane (Australia); Limpus, C.J. [Queensland Environmental Protection Agency, Brisbane (Australia); Paepke, O. [ERGO Forschungsgesellschaft mbH, Hamburg (Germany); Blanshard, W. [Sea World, Gold Coast (Australia); Connell, D. [School of Public Health, Griffith Univ., Brisbane (Australia)

    2004-09-15

    Recent investigations have identified elevated concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (dioxins) in marine sediments and wildlife of Queensland, Australia. While it has been demonstrated that the contamination is widespread and predominantly land-based, limited information exists on the pathways and fate of these compounds within the near-shore marine system. This environment supports unique and threatened species including green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas). Adult green turtles are predominantly herbivorous, feeding on seagrass and algae. Apart from initial migration to feeding grounds (at {proportional_to}10 years of age) and intermittent migrations to breeding grounds (at {proportional_to}30-50 years and thereafter), green turtles remain and feed within relatively small home ranges. Long life-span (50 years or more), near-shore feeding grounds and highly specialized food requirements render green turtles potentially vulnerable to contaminant exposure. Recent studies have shown a relationship between PCDD/F concentrations found in herbivorous marine wildlife and concentrations in sediments of their habitats. Hence, the spatial evaluation of sediment PCDD/F distribution may assist the assessment of green turtle exposure and its potential implications. The present study provides baseline information on green turtle PCDD/F concentrations in Queensland, Australia and investigates exposure pathways. In addition, spatial distribution of PCDD/Fs in sediments from known green turtle feeding regions is assessed using geographic information systems. This represents the first stage of a large scale investigation into the exposure and sensitivity of marine reptiles to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds and to evaluate whether poor health status observed in some populations may be related to contaminant exposure.

  16. Effective method of treatment of effluents from production of bitumens under basic pH conditions using hydrodynamic cavitation aided by external oxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boczkaj, Grzegorz; Gągol, Michał; Klein, Marek; Przyjazny, Andrzej

    2018-01-01

    Utilization of cavitation in advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) is a promising trend in research on treatment of industrial effluents. The paper presents the results of investigations on the use of hydrodynamic cavitation aided by additional oxidation processes (O 3 /H 2 O 2 /Peroxone) to reduce the total pollution load in the effluent from the production of bitumens. A detailed analysis of changes in content of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for all processes studied was also performed. The studies revealed that the most effective treatment process involves hydrodynamic cavitation aided by ozonation (40% COD reduction and 50% BOD reduction). The other processes investigated (hydrodynamic cavitation+H 2 O 2 , hydrodynamic cavitation+Peroxone and hydrodynamic cavitation alone) ensure reduction of COD by 20, 25 and 13% and reduction of BOD by 49, 32 and 18%, respectively. The results of this research revealed that most of the VOCs studied are effectively degraded. The formation of byproducts is one of the aspects that must be considered in evaluation of the AOPs studied. This work confirmed that furfural is one of the byproducts whose concentration increased during treatment by hydrodynamic cavitation alone as well as hydrodynamic cavitation aided by H 2 O 2 as an external oxidant and it should be controlled during treatment processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of decision aid for breast cancer prevention on decisional conflict in women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation: a multisite, randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Kelly A; Dennis, Cindy-Lee; Poll, Aletta; Armel, Susan; Demsky, Rochelle; Carlsson, Lindsay; Nanda, Sonia; Kiss, Alexander; Narod, Steven A

    2017-03-01

    Women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation are at high risk for breast cancer and must make important decisions about breast cancer prevention and screening. In the current study, we report a multisite, randomized, controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of a decision aid for breast cancer prevention in women with a BRCA mutation with no previous diagnosis of cancer. Within 1 month of receiving a positive BRCA result, women were randomized to receive either usual care (control group) or decision aid (intervention group). Participants were followed at 3, 6, and 12 months; were asked about preventive measures; and completed standardized questionnaires assessing decision making and psychosocial functioning. One hundred fifty women were randomized. Mean cancer-related distress scores were significantly lower in the intervention group compared with the control group at 6 months (P = 0.01) and at 12 months postrandomization (P = 0.05). Decisional conflict scores declined over time for both groups and at no time were there statistical differences between the two groups. The decision aid for breast cancer prevention in women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation is effective in significantly decreasing cancer-related distress within the year following receipt of positive genetic test results.Genet Med 19 3, 330-336.

  18. Systematic review and meta-analysis of Mental Health First Aid training: Effects on knowledge, stigma, and helping behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Amy J; Ross, Anna; Reavley, Nicola J

    2018-01-01

    To provide an up-to-date assessment of the effectiveness of the Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) training program on improving mental health knowledge, stigma and helping behaviour. Systematic review and meta-analysis. A systematic search of electronic databases was conducted in October 2017 to identify randomised controlled trials or controlled trials of the MHFA program. Eligible trials were in adults, used any comparison condition, and assessed one or more of the following outcomes: mental health first aid knowledge; recognition of mental disorders; treatment knowledge; stigma and social distance; confidence in or intentions to provide mental health first aid; provision of mental health first aid; mental health of trainees or recipients of mental health first aid. Risk of bias was assessed and effect sizes (Cohen's d) were pooled using a random effects model. Separate meta-analyses examined effects at post-training, up to 6 months post-training, and greater than 6 months post-training. A total of 18 trials (5936 participants) were included. Overall, effects were generally small-to-moderate post-training and up to 6 months later, with effects up to 12-months later unclear. MHFA training led to improved mental health first aid knowledge (ds 0.31-0.72), recognition of mental disorders (ds 0.22-0.52) and beliefs about effective treatments (ds 0.19-0.45). There were also small reductions in stigma (ds 0.08-0.14). Improvements were also observed in confidence in helping a person with a mental health problem (ds 0.21-0.58) and intentions to provide first aid (ds 0.26-0.75). There were small improvements in the amount of help provided to a person with a mental health problem at follow-up (d = 0.23) but changes in the quality of behaviours offered were unclear. This review supports the effectiveness of MHFA training in improving mental health literacy and appropriate support for those with mental health problems up to 6 months after training. PROSPERO (CRD42017060596).

  19. [Evaluation of production and clinical working time of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) custom trays for complete denture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, L; Chen, H; Zhou, Y S; Sun, Y C; Pan, S X

    2017-02-18

    To compare the technician fabrication time and clinical working time of custom trays fabricated using two different methods, the three-dimensional printing custom trays and the conventional custom trays, and to prove the feasibility of the computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) custom trays in clinical use from the perspective of clinical time cost. Twenty edentulous patients were recruited into this study, which was prospective, single blind, randomized self-control clinical trials. Two custom trays were fabricated for each participant. One of the custom trays was fabricated using functional suitable denture (FSD) system through CAD/CAM process, and the other was manually fabricated using conventional methods. Then the final impressions were taken using both the custom trays, followed by utilizing the final impression to fabricate complete dentures respectively. The technician production time of the custom trays and the clinical working time of taking the final impression was recorded. The average time spent on fabricating the three-dimensional printing custom trays using FSD system and fabricating the conventional custom trays manually were (28.6±2.9) min and (31.1±5.7) min, respectively. The average time spent on making the final impression with the three-dimensional printing custom trays using FSD system and the conventional custom trays fabricated manually were (23.4±11.5) min and (25.4±13.0) min, respectively. There was significant difference in the technician fabrication time and the clinical working time between the three-dimensional printing custom trays using FSD system and the conventional custom trays fabricated manually (Pmanufacture custom trays by three-dimensional printing method, there is no need to pour preliminary cast after taking the primary impression, therefore, it can save the impression material and model material. As to completing denture restoration, manufacturing custom trays using FSD system is worth being

  20. Effects of audio-visual aids on foreign language test anxiety, reading and listening comprehension, and retention in EFL learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shu-Ping; Lee, Shin-Da; Liao, Yuan-Lin; Wang, An-Chi

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the effects of audio-visual aids on anxiety, comprehension test scores, and retention in reading and listening to short stories in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classrooms. Reading and listening tests, general and test anxiety, and retention were measured in English-major college students in an experimental group with audio-visual aids (n=83) and a control group without audio-visual aids (n=94) with similar general English proficiency. Lower reading test anxiety, unchanged reading comprehension scores, and better reading short-term and long-term retention after four weeks were evident in the audiovisual group relative to the control group. In addition, lower listening test anxiety, higher listening comprehension scores, and unchanged short-term and long-term retention were found in the audiovisual group relative to the control group after the intervention. Audio-visual aids may help to reduce EFL learners' listening test anxiety and enhance their listening comprehension scores without facilitating retention of such materials. Although audio-visual aids did not increase reading comprehension scores, they helped reduce EFL learners' reading test anxiety and facilitated retention of reading materials.

  1. Evaluation of a Tool for Producing and Presenting Interactive Videodisc Job Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    effective as traditional classroom presentations ( Whittington , 1987). However, most television presentations do not allow the student to interact with...presentation of the visual material. He indicated that he had come to rely on viewing the motion video and felt deprived when it was not provided. Subject 2...media in instruction (NPRDC-TR-93-4). San Diego, CA: Navy Personnel Research and Development Center. (AD-A264 228) Whittington , N. (1987). Is

  2. Clinical and virological effects of high-dose recombinant interferon-alpha in disseminated AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, R.; Schattenkerk, J. K.; Boucher, C. A.; Bakker, P. J.; Veenhof, K. H.; Danner, S. A.

    1988-01-01

    The effectiveness and antiretroviral activities of interferon-alpha in AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma was assessed in a non-randomised, phase-II clinical trial. 28 patients were treated with high-dose (27-36 MU) human recombinant interferon-alpha 2a subcutaneously every day for 8 weeks. In patients

  3. Effects of a Theory-Based Audio HIV/AIDS Intervention for Illiterate Rural Females in Amhara, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogale, Gebeyehu W.; Boer, Henk; Seydel, Erwin R.

    2011-01-01

    In Ethiopia the level of illiteracy in rural areas is very high. In this study, we investigated the effects of an audio HIV/AIDS prevention intervention targeted at rural illiterate females. In the intervention we used social-oriented presentation formats, such as discussion between similar females and role-play. In a pretest and posttest…

  4. Effectiveness of Mental Health First Aid training in Denmark: a randomized trial in waitlist design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kamilla B; Morthorst, Britt Reuter; Vendsborg, Per B; Hjorthøj, Carsten; Nordentoft, Merete

    2016-04-01

    To examine the effect of the Australian educational intervention Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) in a Danish context. Primary outcome was improvement concerning confidence in help-giving behavior towards people suffering from mental illness. Secondary outcomes were increased knowledge and ability to recognize mental illness and improved positive attitudes towards people suffering from mental health problems. Study design was a randomized trial with a waitlist control group. The intervention group was compared with the control group at 6-month follow-up. Both groups completed at baseline and at 6-month follow-up. A significant difference was found between employees trained in the intervention group compared to the control group at 6-month follow-up on the items of confidence in making contact to (Cohen's d 0.17), talking to (Cohen's d 0.18) and providing help to (Cohen's d 0.31) people suffering from a mental health illness. Further, participants improved in knowledge (Cohen's d depression vignette 0.40/Cohen's d schizophrenia vignette 0.32) and in the ability to recognize schizophrenia OR = 1.75 (95 % CI 1.00-3.05), p = 0.05. A significant difference between the intervention group and control group at follow-up concerning actual help offered was not found. Changes in attitudes were limited. The MHFA training was effective in a Danish context.

  5. Effects of key factors on solar aided methane steam reforming in porous medium thermochemical reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Fuqiang; Tan, Jianyu; Ma, Lanxin; Leng, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Effects of key factors on chemical reaction for solar methane reforming are studied. • MCRT and FVM method coupled with UDFs is used to establish numerical model. • Heat and mass transfer model coupled with thermochemical reaction is established. • LTNE model coupled with P1 approximation is used for porous matrix solar reactor. • A formula between H 2 production and conductivity of porous matrix is put forward. - Abstract: With the aid of solar energy, methane reforming process can save up to 20% of the total methane consumption. Monte Carlo Ray Tracing (MCRT) method and Finite Volume Method (FVM) combined method are developed to establish the heat and mass transfer model coupled with thermochemical reaction kinetics for porous medium solar thermochemical reactor. In order to provide more temperature information, local thermal non-equilibrium (LTNE) model coupled with P1 approximation is established to investigate the thermal performance of porous medium solar thermochemical reaction. Effects of radiative heat loss and thermal conductivity of porous matrix on temperature distribution and thermochemical reaction for solar driven steam methane reforming process are numerically studied. Besides, the relationship between hydrogen production and thermal conductivity of porous matrix are analyzed. The results illustrate that hydrogen production shows a 3 order polynomial relation with thermal conductivity of porous matrix

  6. The global security perspective on the effects of executive cognitive function on complex behavioral screening intervention and HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Suk-Hee

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study is to understand the global security perspective on the effects of executive cognitive function (ECF) on Complex Behavioral Screening Intervention and HIV/AIDS. The HIV/AIDS pandemic is as much a social, political, economic, and cultural problem as a biomedical one. HIV/AIDS is associated centrally with the collapse not just of communities and families but potentially of states, with some of the largest public health interventions ever and enormous questions about governance, a huge population of orphans, and deep questions about intergenerational relations and cultural transmission. This study also is to develop a screening instrument that improves quality of life for individuals with executive cognitive impairments and behavior problems in our communities and the global society.

  7. Computer-aided system of evaluation for population-based all-in-one service screening (CASE-PASS): from study design to outcome analysis with bias adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Sheng; Yen, Amy Ming-Fang; Duffy, Stephen W; Tabar, Laszlo; Lin, Wen-Chou; Chen, Hsiu-Hsi

    2010-10-01

    Population-based routine service screening has gained popularity following an era of randomized controlled trials. The evaluation of these service screening programs is subject to study design, data availability, and the precise data analysis for adjusting bias. We developed a computer-aided system that allows the evaluation of population-based service screening to unify these aspects and facilitate and guide the program assessor to efficiently perform an evaluation. This system underpins two experimental designs: the posttest-only non-equivalent design and the one-group pretest-posttest design and demonstrates the type of data required at both the population and individual levels. Three major analyses were developed that included a cumulative mortality analysis, survival analysis with lead-time adjustment, and self-selection bias adjustment. We used SAS AF software to develop a graphic interface system with a pull-down menu style. We demonstrate the application of this system with data obtained from a Swedish population-based service screen and a population-based randomized controlled trial for the screening of breast, colorectal, and prostate cancer, and one service screening program for cervical cancer with Pap smears. The system provided automated descriptive results based on the various sources of available data and cumulative mortality curves corresponding to the study designs. The comparison of cumulative survival between clinically and screen-detected cases without a lead-time adjustment are also demonstrated. The intention-to-treat and noncompliance analysis with self-selection bias adjustments are also shown to assess the effectiveness of the population-based service screening program. Model validation was composed of a comparison between our adjusted self-selection bias estimates and the empirical results on effectiveness reported in the literature. We demonstrate a computer-aided system allowing the evaluation of population-based service screening

  8. Evaluation of location and number of aid post for sustainable humanitarian relief using agent based modeling (ABM) and geographic information system (GIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khair, Fauzi; Sopha, Bertha Maya

    2017-12-01

    One of the crucial phases in disaster management is the response phase or the emergency response phase. It requires a sustainable system and a well-integrated management system. Any errors in the system on this phase will impact on significant increase of the victims number as well as material damage caused. Policies related to the location of aid posts are important decisions. The facts show that there are many failures in the process of providing assistance to the refugees due to lack of preparation and determination of facilities and aid post location. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the number and location of aid posts on Merapi eruption in 2010. This study uses an integration between Agent Based Modeling (ABM) and Geographic Information System (GIS) about evaluation of the number and location of the aid post using some scenarios. The ABM approach aims to describe the agents behaviour (refugees and volunteers) in the event of a disaster with their respective characteristics. While the spatial data, GIS useful to describe real condition of the Sleman regency road. Based on the simulation result, it shows alternative scenarios that combine DERU UGM post, Maguwoharjo Stadium, Tagana Post and Pakem Main Post has better result in handling and distributing aid to evacuation barrack compared to initial scenario. Alternative scenarios indicates the unmet demands are less than the initial scenario.

  9. Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) of subsolid nodules: Evaluation of a commercial CAD system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benzakoun, Joseph; Bommart, Sébastien; Coste, Joël; Chassagnon, Guillaume; Lederlin, Mathieu; Boussouar, Samia

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • CAD sensitivity is still limited for automated detection of subsolid nodules. • CAD detection rate is higher for part-solid than for pure ground-glass nodules. • Part-solid nodule detection is not better for nodules with larger solid component. - Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate the performance of a commercially available CAD system for automated detection and measurement of subsolid nodules. Materials and methods: The CAD system was tested on 50 pure ground-glass and 50 part-solid nodules (median diameter: 17 mm) previously found on standard-dose CT scans in 100 different patients. True nodule detection and the total number of CAD marks were evaluated at different sensitivity settings. The influence of nodule and CT acquisition characteristics was analyzed with logistic regression. Software and manually measured diameters were compared with Spearman and Bland-Altman methods. Results: With sensitivity adjusted for 3-mm nodule detection, 50/100 (50%) subsolid nodules were detected, at the average cost of 17 CAD marks per CT. These figures were respectively 26/100 (26%) and 2 at the 5-mm setting. At the highest sensitivity setting (2-mm nodule detection), the average number of CAD marks per CT was 41 but the nodule detection rate only increased to 54%. Part–solid nodules were better detected than pure ground glass nodules: 36/50 (72%) versus 14/50 (28%) at the 3-mm setting (p < 0.0001), with no influence of the solid component size. Except for the type (i.e. part solid or pure ground glass), no other nodule characteristic influenced the detection rate. High-quality segmentation was obtained for 79 nodules, which for automated measurements correlated well with manual measurements (rho = 0.90[0.84–0.93]). All part-solid nodules had software-measured attenuation values above −671 Hounsfield units (HU). Conclusion: The detection rate of subsolid nodules by this CAD system was insufficient, but high-quality segmentation was obtained in 79% of

  10. Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) of subsolid nodules: Evaluation of a commercial CAD system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benzakoun, Joseph, E-mail: benzakoun.joseph@gmail.com [Hôpital Hôtel-Dieu, 1 parvis Notre-Dame, 75004 Paris (France); Université Paris Descartes, 12 rue de l’Ecole de Médecine, 75006 Paris (France); Bommart, Sébastien, E-mail: s-bommart@chu-montpellier.fr [CHU de Montpellier, 191 avenue du Doyen Gaston Giraud, 34000 Montpellier (France); INSERM U 1046, 371 avenue du Doyen G. Giraud, 34000 Montpellier (France); Coste, Joël, E-mail: joel.coste@htd.aphp.fr [Hôpital Hôtel-Dieu, 1 parvis Notre-Dame, 75004 Paris (France); Université Paris Descartes, 12 rue de l’Ecole de Médecine, 75006 Paris (France); Chassagnon, Guillaume, E-mail: gchassagnon@gmail.com [Université Paris Descartes, 12 rue de l’Ecole de Médecine, 75006 Paris (France); Hôpital Cochin, Radiologie, 27 rue du Faubourg Saint Jacques, 75014 Paris (France); Lederlin, Mathieu, E-mail: mathieu.lederlin@chu-rennes.fr [CHU de Rennes, Radiologie, 2 Rue Henri le Guilloux, 35000 Rennes (France); Université de Rennes 1, 9 Rue Jean Macé, 35000 Rennes (France); Boussouar, Samia, E-mail: samiaboussouar@gmail.com [Université Paris Descartes, 12 rue de l’Ecole de Médecine, 75006 Paris (France); Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, 20 Rue Leblanc, 75015 Paris (France); and others

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • CAD sensitivity is still limited for automated detection of subsolid nodules. • CAD detection rate is higher for part-solid than for pure ground-glass nodules. • Part-solid nodule detection is not better for nodules with larger solid component. - Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate the performance of a commercially available CAD system for automated detection and measurement of subsolid nodules. Materials and methods: The CAD system was tested on 50 pure ground-glass and 50 part-solid nodules (median diameter: 17 mm) previously found on standard-dose CT scans in 100 different patients. True nodule detection and the total number of CAD marks were evaluated at different sensitivity settings. The influence of nodule and CT acquisition characteristics was analyzed with logistic regression. Software and manually measured diameters were compared with Spearman and Bland-Altman methods. Results: With sensitivity adjusted for 3-mm nodule detection, 50/100 (50%) subsolid nodules were detected, at the average cost of 17 CAD marks per CT. These figures were respectively 26/100 (26%) and 2 at the 5-mm setting. At the highest sensitivity setting (2-mm nodule detection), the average number of CAD marks per CT was 41 but the nodule detection rate only increased to 54%. Part–solid nodules were better detected than pure ground glass nodules: 36/50 (72%) versus 14/50 (28%) at the 3-mm setting (p < 0.0001), with no influence of the solid component size. Except for the type (i.e. part solid or pure ground glass), no other nodule characteristic influenced the detection rate. High-quality segmentation was obtained for 79 nodules, which for automated measurements correlated well with manual measurements (rho = 0.90[0.84–0.93]). All part-solid nodules had software-measured attenuation values above −671 Hounsfield units (HU). Conclusion: The detection rate of subsolid nodules by this CAD system was insufficient, but high-quality segmentation was obtained in 79% of

  11. Evaluation of inadequate anti-retroviral treatment in patients with HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Carvalho da Fonseca

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Since the emergence of antiretroviral therapy, the survival of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus has increased. Non-adherence to this therapy is directly related to treatment failure, which allows the emergence of resistant viral strains. METHODS: A retrospective descriptive study of the antiretroviral dispensing records of 229 patients from the Center for Health Care, University Hospital, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Brazil, was conducted between January and December 2009. RESULTS: The study aimed to evaluate patient compliance and determine if there was an association between non-adherence and the therapy. Among these patients, 63.8% were men with an average age of 44.0 ± 9.9 years. The most used treatment was a combination of 2 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors with 1 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (55.5% or with 2 protease inhibitors (28.8%. It was found that patients taking lopinavir/ritonavir with zidovudine and lamivudine had a greater frequency of inadequate treatment than those taking atazanavir with zidovudine and lamivudine (85% and 83.3%, respectively. Moreover, when the combination of zidovudine/ lamivudine was used, the patients were less compliant (χ2 = 4.468, 1 degree of freedom, p = 0.035. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of patients failed to correctly adhere to their treatment; therefore, it is necessary to implement strategies that lead to improved compliance, thus ensuring therapeutic efficacy and increased patient survival.

  12. AIDS (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), and is a syndrome that ... life-threatening illnesses. There is no cure for AIDS, but treatment with antiviral medicine can suppress symptoms. ...

  13. Primary effect of chemotherapy on the transcription profile of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuyl, Antoinette C van der; Burg, Remco van den; Zorgdrager, Fokla; Dekker, John T; Maas, Jolanda; Noesel, Carel JM van; Goudsmit, Jaap; Cornelissen, Marion

    2002-01-01

    Drugs & used in anticancer chemotherapy have severe effects upon the cellular transcription and replication machinery. From in vitro studies it has become clear that these drugs can affect specific genes, as well as have an effect upon the total transcriptome. Total mRNA from two skin lesions from a single AIDS-KS patient was analyzed with the SAGE (Serial Analysis of Gene Expression) technique to assess changes in the transcriptome induced by chemotherapy. SAGE libraries were constructed from material obtained 24 (KS-24) and 48 (KS-48) hrs after combination therapy with bleomycin, doxorubicin and vincristine. KS-24 and KS-48 were compared to SAGE libraries of untreated AIDS-KS, and to libraries generated from normal skin and from isolated CD4+ T-cells, using the programs USAGE and HTM. SAGE libraries were also compared with the SAGEmap database. In order to assess the primary response of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma (AIDS-KS) to chemotherapy in vivo, we analyzed the transcriptome of AIDS-KS skin lesions from a HIV-1 seropositive patient at two time points after therapy. The mRNA profile was found to have changed dramatically within 24 hours after drug treatment. There was an almost complete absence of transcripts highly expressed in AIDS-KS, probably due to a transcription block. Analysis of KS-24 suggested that mRNA pool used in its construction originated from poly(A) binding protein (PABP) mRNP complexes, which are probably located in nuclear structures known as interchromatin granule clusters (IGCs). IGCs are known to fuse after transcription inhibition, probably affecting poly(A)+RNA distribution. Forty-eight hours after chemotherapy, mRNA isolated from the lesion was largely derived from infiltrating lymphocytes, confirming the transcriptional block in the AIDS-KS tissue. These in vivo findings indicate that the effect of anti-cancer drugs is likely to be more global than up- or downregulation of specific genes, at least in this single patient with

  14. Effects of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor on leucopenia in zidovudine-treated patients with AIDS and AIDS related complex, a phase I/II study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wouw, P. A.; van Leeuwen, R.; van Oers, R. H.; Lange, J. M.; Danner, S. A.

    1991-01-01

    Twelve male patients, eight with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and four with AIDS related complex (ARC), who had zidovudine associated neutropenia (less than 1 x 10(9) neutrophils/l) were treated with recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in a phase I/II

  15. Evaluating the utility of a patient decision aid for potential participants of a prostate cancer trial (RAVES-TROG 08.03)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundaresan, Puma; Turner, Sandra; Kneebone, Andrew; Pearse, Maria; Butow, Phyllis

    2011-01-01

    Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) can be hampered by poor patient accrual and retention. Decision aids (DAs) containing simple, evidence-based information, may assist patients with decision-making regarding trial participation. The current DA was of use for 95% of participants. Further evaluation of the DA in a RCT is currently underway.

  16. Aid Supplies Over Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Edward Samuel

    2015-01-01

    of data spanning nearly 50 years, this paper uses panel cointegration techniques to consider these issues. The analysis provides clear evidence for heterogeneity both between donors and over time, bandwagon effects, and a growing influence of security considerations in aid provision. Domestic...... macroeconomic shocks have a moderate but delayed effect on aid disbursements....

  17. Aid and Income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lof, Matthijs; Mekasha, Tseday Jemaneh; Tarp, Finn

    2015-01-01

    to nonrandom omission of a large proportion of observations. Furthermore, we show that NDHKM’s use of co-integrated regressions is not a suitable empirical strategy for estimating the causal effect of aid on income. Evidence from a Panel VAR model estimated on the dataset of NDHKM, suggests a positive...... and statistically significant long-run effect of aid on income....

  18. Features of undiagnosed breast cancers at screening breast MR imaging and potential utility of computer-aided evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Mirinae; Cho, Nariya; Bea, Min Sun; Koo, Hye Ryoung; Kim, Won Hwa; Lee, Su Hyun; Chu, A Jung [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    To retrospectively evaluate the features of undiagnosed breast cancers on prior screening breast magnetic resonance (MR) images in patients who were subsequently diagnosed with breast cancer, as well as the potential utility of MR-computer-aided evaluation (CAE). Between March 2004 and May 2013, of the 72 consecutive pairs of prior negative MR images and subsequent MR images with diagnosed cancers (median interval, 32.8 months; range, 5.4-104.6 months), 36 (50%) had visible findings (mean size, 1.0 cm; range, 0.3-5.2 cm). The visible findings were divided into either actionable or under threshold groups by the blinded review by 5 radiologists. MR imaging features, reasons for missed cancer, and MR-CAE features according to actionability were evaluated. Of the 36 visible findings on prior MR images, 33.3% (12 of 36) of the lesions were determined to be actionable and 66.7% (24 of 36) were underthreshold; 85.7% (6 of 7) of masses and 31.6% (6 of 19) of non-mass enhancements were classified as actionable lesions. Mimicking physiologic enhancements (27.8%, 10 of 36) and small lesion size (27.8%, 10 of 36) were the most common reasons for missed cancer. Actionable findings tended to show more washout or plateau kinetic patterns on MR-CAE than underthreshold findings, as the 100% of actionable findings and 46.7% of underthreshold findings showed washout or plateau (p = 0.008). MR-CAE has the potential for reducing the number of undiagnosed breast cancers on screening breast MR images, the majority of which are caused by mimicking physiologic enhancements or small lesion size.

  19. Assessing the Effectiveness of Defensive Aid Suite Technology Using a Field Trial and Modelling and Simulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fournier, Pierre

    2002-01-01

    ...) community that Defensive Aid Suite (DAS) technologies can improve the protection of LAVs. A prototype DAS system was developed by DRDC Valcartier and tested in field trials held in 1995 and 1999...

  20. [AIDS prevention in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pott, E

    2007-04-01

    In 1987 the national AIDS prevention campaign "Gib AIDS keine Chance" (Don't give AIDS a chance) was started in Germany. After a very difficult and controversial political debate about a probably successful response to AIDS, in the end a political decision was made in favour of the implementation of a long term "social learning strategy". Thus, since then the Bundeszentrale für gesundheitliche Aufklärung (Federal Centre for Health Education, BZgA) has been running the campaign on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Health. The result of this prevention program is a low rate of infections. In Germany there were 2600 newly diagnosed infections in 2005: 59 % in homosexual men, 16 % by heterosexual contacts, 17 % in people from high prevalence countries and 7 % in i.v. drug users. In comparison to the international situation Germany has a relatively low HIV-prevalence even nowadays. However, Germany has also been confronted with an increasing number of newly diagnosed infections in the last few years. When the prevention program was started it was very important to build new structures for a successful implementation of the campaign. That meant for instance to build up an effective infrastructure for cooperation between the governmental and the nongovernmental sector, including organising the coordinated action among the partners at the federal, regional and local levels. Likewise, international networking was of great importance. A key element, relevant for the success of the campaign was the close cooperation at the federal level between the BZgA and the Deutsche AIDS Hilfe (German AIDS Help, DAH), to combine the highreach intervention in low-prevalence populations with intensive interventions for high prevalence groups. An effective national AIDS prevention campaign must reach the whole population; inform the public about the main risks of infection, about methods of protection and about what is not infectious. Moreover groups with a higher level of risk of

  1. The Effect of Alternative Savings Approaches on College Aid. Opportunity and Ownership Facts. Number 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maag, Elaine

    2009-01-01

    To pay for college, many low- and moderate-income students and their families rely on financial aid and savings. How students and families save--and in whose name--affects both the tax consequences and the impact of savings on financial aid. Choosing the wrong way to save can raise the out-of-pocket costs of college by thousands of dollars.…

  2. Effect of HIV/AIDS on the agricultural workforce. Implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV/AIDS has over the years, become a serious health hazard. It is today not strictly an health problem, but one that has serious octopoidal implications. It has reached a height where other sectors of the economy have to take more active roles. It is in this regard therefore, that this paper tends to look at HIV/AIDS as it affects ...

  3. Radiographic imaging of aids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, Mohammed Bashir

    2002-07-01

    The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has impacted the civilized world like no other disease. This research aimed to discuss some of the main aids-related complications and their detection by radiology tests, specifically central nervous system and musculoskeletal system disorders. The objectives are: to show specific characteristics of various diseases of HIV patient, to analyze the effect of pathology in patients by radiology, to enhance the knowledge of technologists in aids imaging and to improve communication skills between patient and radiology technologists

  4. A Novel Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Assisted Manufacture Method for One-Piece Removable Partial Denture and Evaluation of Fit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Hongqiang; Li, Xinxin; Wang, Guanbo; Kang, Jing; Liu, Yushu; Sun, Yuchun; Zhou, Yongsheng

    2018-02-15

    To investigate a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) process for producing one-piece removable partial dentures (RPDs) and to evaluate their fits in vitro. A total of 15 one-piece RPDs were designed using dental CAD and reverse engineering software and then fabricated with polyetheretherketone (PEEK) using CAM. The gaps between RPDs and casts were measured and compared with traditional cast framework RPDs. Gaps were lower for one-piece PEEK RPDs compared to traditional RPDs. One-piece RPDs can be manufactured by CAD/CAM, and their fits were better than those of traditional RPDs.

  5. Achieving effective hearing aid fitting within one month after identification of childhood permanent hearing impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastanza, G; Gallus, R; De Carlini, M; Picciotti, P M; Muzzi, E; Ciciriello, E; Orzan, E; Conti, G

    2016-02-01

    Diagnosis of child permanent hearing impairment (PHI) can be made with extreme timeliness compared to the past thanks to improvements in PHI identification through newborn hearing screening programmes. It now becomes essential to provide an effective amplification as quickly as possible in order to restore auditory function and favour speech and language development. The early fitting of hearing aids and possible later cochlear implantation indeed prompts the development of central auditory pathways, connections with secondary sensory brain areas, as well as with motor and articulatory cortex. The aim of this paper is to report the results of a strategic analysis that involves identification of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats regarding the process of achieving early amplification in all cases of significant childhood PHI. The analysis is focused on the Italian situation and is part of the Italian Ministry of Health project CCM 2013 "Preventing Communication Disorders: a Regional Program for Early Identification, Intervention and Care of Hearing Impaired Children". © Copyright by Società Italiana di Otorinolaringologia e Chirurgia Cervico-Facciale.

  6. THE MODERNISATION OF STATE AID CONTROL AND ITS OBJECTIVES: CLARITY, RELEVANCE, EFFECTIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Di Bucci

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available On 8 May 2012, the Commission adopted its Communication on State aid modernisation. Two years later, most elements of the reform have come into force. This was the most comprehensive overhaul in the history of State aid control. First, the Council quickly agreed to amendments of the Enabling Regulation, enlarging the scope of measures that can be exempted from notification, and of the Procedural Regulation, enhancing the investigative powers of the Commission and introducing the possibility for the Commission to intervene in national litigation. Second, the Commission issued new versions, based on a common structure, of its horizontal guidelines and frameworks: regional aid, risk finance, environmental protection with the addition of energy, research and development and innovation, rescuing and restructuring of undertakings in difficulty, a new document concerning important projects of common European interest, and some important sectorial instruments (broadband, aviation. Third, the Commission adopted a new de minimis regulation and a new, comprehensive block exemption regulation, intended to cover the majority of national aid measures. Fourth, a new notice on the notion of aid, yet to be finally adopted, should provide interpretative guidance. The result of the exercise is a considerable clarification of the rules, an improvement of the procedural tools and a limitation of the obligation to notify State aid projects. In turn, this should allow the Commission to work more efficiently, to reduce the duration of its procedures and to focus on the most distortive measures.

  7. Tablet-Aided BehavioraL intervention EffecT on Self-management skills (TABLETS) for Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Cheryl P; Williams, Joni S; J Ruggiero, Kenneth; G Knapp, Rebecca; Egede, Leonard E

    2016-03-22

    Multiple randomized controlled trials (RCTs) show that behavioral lifestyle interventions are effective in improving diabetes management and that comprehensive risk factor management improves cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes. The role of technology has been gaining strong support as evidence builds of its potential to improve diabetes management; however, evaluation of its impact in minority populations is limited. This study intends to provide early evidence of a theory-driven intervention, Tablet-Aided BehavioraL intervention EffecT on Self-management skills (TABLETS), using real-time videoconferencing for education and skills training. We examine the potential for TABLETS to improve health risk behaviors and reduce CVD risk outcomes among a low-income African American (AA) population with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes. The study is a two-arm, pilot controlled trial that randomizes 30 participants to the TABLETS intervention and 30 participants to a usual care group. Blinded outcome assessments will be completed at baseline, 2.5 months (immediate post-intervention), and 6.5 months (follow-up). The TABLETS intervention consists of culturally tailored telephone-delivered diabetes education and skills training delivered via videoconferencing on tablet devices, with two booster sessions delivered via tablet-based videoconferencing at 3 months and 5 months to stimulate ongoing use of the tablet device with access to intervention materials via videoconferencing slides and a manual of supplementary materials. The primary outcomes are physical activity, diet, medication adherence, and self-monitoring behavior, whereas the secondary outcomes are HbA1c, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), BP, CVD risk, and quality of life. This study provides a unique opportunity to assess the feasibility and efficacy of a theory-driven, tablet-aided behavioral intervention that utilizes real-time videoconferencing technology for education and skills training on self

  8. Single Mothers and the Effects of Intensive Aid on the Quality of their Lives : the Examples of the Netherlands and Cyprus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anne van den Berg; Maria Michailidis

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study is to illuminate the effects of intensive aid on the self-reliance and independence of single mothers, and to show what is and what can be done to improve the empowerment of this group. Firstly the paper focuses on the effects of intensive social aid on the self-reliance

  9. An impact evaluation of the safe motherhood promotion project in Bangladesh: evidence from Japanese aid-funded technical cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Yusuke; Yoshimura, Yukie; Islam, Mohammad Tajul

    2013-04-01

    This paper reports the findings from a quasi-experimental impact evaluation of the Safe Motherhood Promotion Project (SMPP) conducted in the Narsingdi district of Bangladesh. SMPP is a Japanese aid-funded technical cooperation project aimed at developing local capacities to tackle maternal and newborn health problems in rural areas. We assessed whether the project interventions, in particular, community-based activities under the Model Union approach, had a favorable impact on women's access to and knowledge of maternal health care during pregnancy and childbirth. The project comprises a package of interlinked interventions to facilitate safe motherhood practices at primary and secondary care levels. The primary-level activities focused on community mobilization through participatory approaches. The secondary-level activities aimed at strengthening organizational and personnel capacities for delivering emergency obstetric care (EmOC) at district and sub-district level hospitals. The project impact was estimated by difference-in-differences logistic regressions using two rounds of cross-sectional household survey data. The results showed that the project successfully increased the utilization of antenatal visits and postpartum EmOC services and also enhanced women's knowledge of danger signs during pregnancy and delivery. The project also reduced income inequalities in access to antenatal care. In contrast, we found no significant increase in the use of skilled birth attendants (SBA) in the project site. Nonetheless, community mobilization activities and the government's voucher scheme played a complementary role in promoting the use of SBA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation on real-time dynamic performance of BDS in PPP, RTK, and INS tightly aided modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhouzheng; Li, Tuan; Zhang, Hongping; Ge, Maorong; Schuh, Harald

    2018-05-01

    Since China's BeiDou satellite navigation system (BDS) began to provide regional navigation service for Asia-Pacific region after 2012, more new generation BDS satellites have been launched to further expand BDS's coverage to be global. In this contribution, precise positioning models based on BDS and the corresponding mathematical algorithms are presented in detail. Then, an evaluation on BDS's real-time dynamic positioning and navigation performance is presented in Precise Point Positioning (PPP), Real-time Kinematic (RTK), Inertial Navigation System (INS) tightly aided PPP and RTK modes by processing a set of land-borne vehicle experiment data. Results indicate that BDS positioning Root Mean Square (RMS) in north, east, and vertical components are 2.0, 2.7, and 7.6 cm in RTK mode and 7.8, 14.7, and 24.8 cm in PPP mode, which are close to GPS positioning accuracy. Meanwhile, with the help of INS, about 38.8%, 67.5%, and 66.5% improvements can be obtained by using PPP/INS tight-integration mode. Such enhancements in RTK/INS tight-integration mode are 14.1%, 34.0%, and 41.9%. Moreover, the accuracy of velocimetry and attitude determination can be improved to be better than 1 cm/s and 0.1°, respectively. Besides, the continuity and reliability of BDS in both PPP and RTK modes can also be ameliorated significantly by INS during satellite signal missing periods.

  11. A model based on feature objects aided strategy to evaluate the methane generation from food waste by anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Meijuan; Zhao, Mingxing; Huang, Zhenxing; Xi, Kezhong; Shi, Wansheng; Ruan, Wenquan

    2018-02-01

    A model based on feature objects (FOs) aided strategy was used to evaluate the methane generation from food waste by anaerobic digestion. The kinetics of feature objects was tested by the modified Gompertz model and the first-order kinetic model, and the first-order kinetic hydrolysis constants were used to estimate the reaction rate of homemade and actual food waste. The results showed that the methane yields of four feature objects were significantly different. The anaerobic digestion of homemade food waste and actual food waste had various methane yields and kinetic constants due to the different contents of FOs in food waste. Combining the kinetic equations with the multiple linear regression equation could well express the methane yield of food waste, as the R 2 of food waste was more than 0.9. The predictive methane yields of the two actual food waste were 528.22 mL g -1  TS and 545.29 mL g -1  TS with the model, while the experimental values were 527.47 mL g -1  TS and 522.1 mL g -1  TS, respectively. The relative error between the experimental cumulative methane yields and the predicted cumulative methane yields were both less than 5%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2013. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 21, Revision 4 (FGE.21Rev4)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 59 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 21, Revision 4, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. This revision...... of these flavouring substances, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been considered. Adequate specifications including complete purity criteria and identity for the materials of commerce have been provided for all 41 candidate substances...

  13. Gender and HIV/AIDS: Exploring Men and Vulnerability Towards Effective HIV/AIDS Policy Interventions and Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogochukwu Nzewi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the dynamics between HIV/Aids gender policy strategies and the socio-political demands on HIV/Aids interventions in sub-Saharan Africa. Gender in HIV/Aids intervention seems inescapable. Nowhere else is this more marked than in the social dimensions of HIV/Aids prevention in sub-Saharan Africa. This has resulted in prevention strategies, which are encumbered by the reality of poverty, gender, access, power and the various debates on behavioural change. The social constructions of gender roles and power relations play a significant role in the region’s HIV /Aids dynamic. To this end, the mainstreaming of gender issues into national political, social and economic agenda and policies has been championed by international development and economic institutions. In developing HIV/Aids intervention policies, gender has also been mainstreamed, especially where epidemiological data show the disparity in infection rates between men and women, where women are seen as more susceptible to infection. The gendered approach to HIV/Aids appears to typecast women as the vulnerable and suffering face of HIV/Aids, while men, as ‘the other’, are generally regarded as the perpetuators and spreaders of the virus. While there is no doubt that women’s vulnerability in this milieu has been proven within known research evidence to exist, the neglect of institutional (social, cultural and economic and historical vulnerabilities of African men’s realities are sometimes overlooked. Recently, greater focus has shifted to curbing infection rates in men based on new scientific evidence that shows that risk of transmission in circumcised men is reduced. The article argues that such movement towards showing areas of men’s vulnerability as a focus in HIV/Aids policy interventions may have the potential to shift the observed burden that current HIV/Aids policy thrusts inadvertently place on African women. The article will put forward an argument for

  14. The effect of treatment with zidovudine with or without acyclovir on HIV p24 antigenaemia in patients with AIDS or AIDS-related complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C; Cooper, D A; Brun-Vézinet, F

    1992-01-01

    with AIDS, AIDS-related complex (ARC) or Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). DESIGN: Double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial of less than or equal to 6 months' therapy. SETTING: Samples were obtained from patients attending teaching hospital outpatient clinics in seven European countries and Australia....... SUBJECTS: One hundred and ninety-seven HIV-infected patients (60 with AIDS and 137 with ARC or KS). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Serum HIV p24-antigen levels measured using the Abbott HIV solid-phase enzyme immunoassay. RESULTS: Of 76 ARC/KS patients who were initially HIV p24-antigen-positive, one out of 25...

  15. Perceptions of secondary technical schools students in Assiut, upper Egypt, about AIDS: Effect of an educational intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohei El-Din A Selim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS is a great threat to the youth. The aim is to assess the knowledge of secondary technical schools students on AIDS, identify related misconceptions, and measure the effect of a short health education program on their level of knowledge. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental study was done on 575 secondary technical schools students in Assiut City, recruited through a two-stage stratified cluster sampling. A self-administered anonymous questionnaire was used to collect data. A health education program was implemented, and its effect assessed through pre-post testing. Results: The age range of the students was 16 to 20 years, with more girls (57.0%. Only 30.8% had satisfactory knowledge about AIDS in the pretest. Statistically significant improvements in knowledge were revealed after program implementation (P<0.001. Students who were Muslim, of urban residence, and had mobile phones had significantly higher scores (P=0.037, 0.004, 0.038 respectively. The most common misconceptions were the definition of AIDS according to transmission, and phobias related to transmission, which decreased after the intervention. Multivariate analysis showed that the statistically significant independent predictors of the change in knowledge score after the intervention were age, religion and the health education program. Conclusion: Secondary technical schools students in Assiut city have a major deficiency in knowledge and many misconceptions regarding AIDS. The educational intervention had a positive impact on their knowledge, but a less marked effect on misconceptions. Knowledge was affected by age and religious belief. It is recommended that more health educational efforts tailored to needs and with approaches suitable to community cultures and values be introduced.

  16. Perceptions of secondary technical schools students in Assiut, upper Egypt, about AIDS: Effect of an educational intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selim, Mohei El-Din A; El-Shereef, Etemad A A

    2010-01-01

    Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a great threat to the youth. The aim is to assess the knowledge of secondary technical schools students on AIDS, identify related misconceptions, and measure the effect of a short health education program on their level of knowledge. This quasi-experimental study was done on 575 secondary technical schools students in Assiut City, recruited through a two-stage stratified cluster sampling. A self-administered anonymous questionnaire was used to collect data. A health education program was implemented, and its effect assessed through pre-post testing. The age range of the students was 16 to 20 years, with more girls (57.0%). Only 30.8% had satisfactory knowledge about AIDS in the pretest. Statistically significant improvements in knowledge were revealed after program implementation (PStudents who were Muslim, of urban residence, and had mobile phones had significantly higher scores (P=0.037, 0.004, 0.038 respectively). The most common misconceptions were the definition of AIDS according to transmission, and phobias related to transmission, which decreased after the intervention. Multivariate analysis showed that the statistically significant independent predictors of the change in knowledge score after the intervention were age, religion and the health education program. Secondary technical schools students in Assiut city have a major deficiency in knowledge and many misconceptions regarding AIDS. The educational intervention had a positive impact on their knowledge, but a less marked effect on misconceptions. Knowledge was affected by age and religious belief. It is recommended that more health educational efforts tailored to needs and with approaches suitable to community cultures and values be introduced.

  17. The Effects of Peer Education on The Behaviors Regarding HIV/AIDS Transmission Prevention Among Street Children in Bandung City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Meilianingsih

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available All adolescents are vulnerable to HIV/AIDS, including street children. The behaviors of street children are much influenced by their peers. Peer education can enhance knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and skills and empower children to be responsible for protecting the health of themselves and their peers (Wahyuni, 2012. This study aims to determine the effects of peer health education on the HIV/AIDS Preventive Behaviors of Street Children in Bandung City in 2015. The research employed a quasi-experimental method with the pre-post-test control group design. The sample was 26 people for the treatment group and 26 people for the control group, respectively, taken with purposive sampling technique. Interventions began with peer educator training and then the peer educators provided health education on HIV/AIDS transmission prevention through small group discussions for 2 days. The data in this study were not normally distributed. The paired or dependent data were analyzed using the Wilcoxon test, while the unpaired or independent data using Mann-Whitney test. The results of the research show that peer health education had effects on the knowledge and attitudes of the street children (p values 0.00 and 0.00, respectively; however, there was no effect of peer health education on the actions regarding HIV/AIDS transmission prevention among the street children (p value 0.09. Hence, it is advisable to conduct health promotion with peer health education method in an effort of increasing knowledge and attitudes regarding HIV/AIDS transmission prevention among street children that is sustainable and integrated with the existing programs at puskesmas (Community Health Center.

  18. Sub-national assessment of aid effectiveness: A case study of post-conflict districts in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ssengooba, Freddie; Namakula, Justine; Kawooya, Vincent; Fustukian, Suzanne

    2017-06-13

    In post-conflict settings, many state and non-state actors interact at the sub-national levels in rebuilding health systems by providing funds, delivering vital interventions and building capacity of local governments to shoulder their roles. Aid relationships among actors at sub-national level represent a vital lever for health system development. This study was undertaken to assess the aid-effectiveness in post-conflict districts of northern Uganda. This was a three district cross sectional study conducted from January to April 2013. A two stage snowball approach used to construct a relational-network for each district. Managers of organizations (ego) involved service delivery were interviewed and asked to list the external organizations (alters) that contribute to three key services. For each inter-organizational relationship (tie) a custom-made tool designed to reflect the aid-effectiveness in the Paris Declaration was used. Three hundred eighty four relational ties between the organizations were generated from a total of 85 organizations interviewed. Satisfaction with aid relationships was mostly determined by 1) the extent ego was able to negotiate own priorities, 2) ego's awareness of expected results, and 3) provision of feedback about ego's performance. Respectively, the B coefficients were 16%, 38% and 19%. Disaggregated analysis show that satisfaction of fund-holders was also determined by addressing own priorities (30%), while provider satisfaction was mostly determined by awareness of expected results (66%) and feedback on performance (23%). All results were significant at p-value of 0.05. Overall, the regression models in these analyses accounted for 44% to 62% of the findings. Sub-national assessment of aid effectiveness is feasible with indicators adapted from the global parameters. These findings illustrate the focus on "results" domain and less on "ownership" and "resourcing" domains. The capacity and space for sub-national level authorities to

  19. Creating contexts for effective homebased care of people living with HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Campbell

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Home-based care (HBC plays a vital role in the care of people living with AIDS. Most carers perform their arduous role in adverse conditions. Yet little is known about how to facilitate contexts that maximise the effectiveness of carers. This paper reviews existing research into home-based care in sub-Saharan Africa to highlight gaps in understanding and to outline new conceptual frameworks for future research. Current research identifies multi-level factors that undermine carers in performing their role. These include e.g. lack of knowledge, skills and support - both at the individual and organisational levels; physical and psychological burnout; the destruction of household economies in the face of the demands of care; community stigma and rejection. Research and policy documents repeatedly advocate ‘partnerships’ or ‘linkages’ between carers/ patients and more powerful groupings (locally, nationally and/or internationally as a solution to these problems. Yet they give no indication as how best to mobilise already over-burdened carers and their terminally ill charges. Furthermore, partnerships between poor communities and more influential groupings and agencies are notoriously difficult to promote and sustain. If partnerships are indeed to play such a key role in supporting carers and their patients, there is an urgent need for systematic research into the effectiveness of various partnership styles and strategies. The concepts of bonding, bridging and linking social capital - within a framework sensitive to the interaction between social capital and poverty - are put forward as a valuable starting point for the development of better understandings of the types of networks and partnerships most likely to support carers and their local communities.

  20. Aid and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn; Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel

    inputs. We take as our point of departure a growth accounting analysis and review both intended and unintended effects of aid. Mozambique has benefited from sustained aid inflows in conflict, post-conflict and reconstruction periods. In each of these phases aid has made an unambiguous, positive...... contribution both enabling and supporting rapid growth since 1992. At the same time, the proliferation of donors and aid-supported interventions has burdened local administration and there is a distinct need to develop government accountability to its own citizens rather than donor agencies. In ensuring...

  1. Aid and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    evolved since World War II in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. I review the aid process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of aid and categorize some of the key goals, principles and institutions of the aid system. The evidence on whether aid has...... been effective in furthering economic growth and development is discussed in some detail. I add perspective and identify some critical unresolved issues. I finally turn to the current development debate and discuss some key concerns, which I believe should be kept in mind in formulating any agenda...

  2. The development of an effective performance indicator program aids management effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelm, R.R.

    1989-01-01

    One problem that has plagued nuclear security departments has been the failure to adequately develop accurate and effective means of tracking and trending computer-based security system performance data at nuclear power facilities. The purpose of this paper is twofold: to provide information on the development and uses of one system employed by the Detroit Edison Company that has proven to be an effective performance indicator system to track security system data and to explain how management makes use of the system data. The performance indicator system has had a remarkable effect on the department's performance. The system's users have become more effective in isolating problems with security system components. The data have been utilized as part of the cost/benefit analysis for justifying improvements or equipment upgrades, clearly documenting cost savings. Finally, security management at all levels is able to promptly identify individual problems or trends. The time, money, and hours devoted to system development have greatly contributed to Detroit Edison's nuclear security department achieving a SALP 1 rating

  3. Effect of Preparation Depth on the Marginal and Internal Adaptation of Computer-aided Design/Computer-assisted Manufacture Endocrowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaintantzopoulou, M D; El-Damanhoury, H M

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of preparation depth and intraradicular extension on the marginal and internal adaptation of computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacture (CAD/CAM) endocrown restorations. Standardized preparations were made in resin endodontic tooth models (Nissin Dental), with an intracoronal preparation depth of 2 mm (group H2), with extra 1- (group H3) or 2-mm (group H4) intraradicular extensions in the root canals (n=12). Vita Enamic polymer-infiltrated ceramic-network material endocrowns were fabricated using the CEREC AC CAD/CAM system and were seated on the prepared teeth. Specimens were evaluated by microtomography. Horizontal and vertical tomographic sections were recorded and reconstructed by using the CTSkan software (TView v1.1, Skyscan).The surface/void volume (S/V) in the region of interest was calculated. Marginal gap (MG), absolute marginal discrepancy (MD), and internal marginal gap were measured at various measuring locations and calculated in microscale (μm). Marginal and internal discrepancy data (μm) were analyzed with nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance by ranks with Dunn's post hoc, whereas S/V data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and Bonferroni multiple comparisons (α=0.05). Significant differences were found in MG, MD, and internal gap width values between the groups, with H2 showing the lowest values from all groups. S/V calculations presented significant differences between H2 and the other two groups (H3 and H4) tested, with H2 again showing the lowest values. Increasing the intraradicular extension of endocrown restorations increased the marginal and internal gap of endocrown restorations.

  4. Accounting for institutional change in health economic evaluation: a program to tackle HIV/AIDS and gender violence in Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Stephen; Pronyk, Paul; Kim, Julia

    2008-02-01

    There has been growing interest in the application of institutionalist perspectives in the health economics literature. This paper investigates the institutionalist notion of social value and its use in economic evaluation with particular reference to a program to address HIV/AIDS and gender violence in Southern Africa (IMAGE). Institutions are the rules that govern the conduct between individuals, groups and organisations. Their social value stems from their capacity to reduce the uncertainty in human interactions thereby both reducing transaction costs and, importantly, enabling the initiation and sustainability of various activities (instrumental value). Furthermore, institutions tend to be formed around certain ethical positions and as a consequence, act in binding future decision making to these positions (intrinsic value). Incorporating such notions of social value within a conventional welfare-based measure of benefit is problematic as institutional development is not necessarily consistent with individual utility. An institutionalist approach allows for these additional domains to be factored into economic evaluation. IMAGE is an intervention to reduce gender violence and HIV through microfinance, health education and community development, and involves significant initial investment in institution-building activities, notably through training activities with program staff and community members. The key to employing an institutionalist approach to the evaluation of IMAGE is in understanding the nature of those actions that can be seen as institution-building and determining: (1) the instrumental value of follow-up activities by appropriate amortisation of transaction costs over an horizon that reflects the economies gained from the intervention; and (2) the intrinsic value of any transformation in the community through a cost-consequences approach informed by an a priori conceptual model. This case study highlights how health sector interventions can effect

  5. Drivers for the effective management of HIV and AIDS in the South African construction industry--a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harinarain, Nishani; Haupt, Theo Conrad

    2014-09-01

    Different industries manage the threats presented by HIV and AIDS in different ways. The construction industry is particularly vulnerable to the pandemic because of its large unskilled labour force, high labour turnover and the migratory nature of the workforce. The study reported on in this paper, the first of its kind in the South African construction industry, aimed to identify the important drivers needed for the effective management of HIV and AIDS and to understand their impact on the construction industry. The aim was achieved in two stages. The first stage involved an extensive literature review to determine the factors that drive corporate response in the management of HIV and AIDS in the South African construction sector. Six drivers, namely legal requirements, social pressures, business costs, voluntary regulation, visibility of the disease, and individuals within companies with a total of 87 items were identified. An iterative Delphi technique with a panel of experts was used to validate the factors identified in the literature review and formed the second stage of this research. The Delphi method was used as it provided a systematic approach to achieve consensus on the six drivers for effective management of HIV and AIDS management in the construction industry. An expert panel responded to three iterations of questionnaires to achieve consensus. The experts reached consensus on 56 items categorised under the 6 drivers. This study found that the legal driver was considered most important but only second in terms of impact. The second most important driver was the visibility of the disease and was regarded as the driver with the highest impact. Internal agents ranked third in terms of importance and impact. This study can be used for further research to assist the construction industry in helping fight HIV and AIDS.

  6. The Relationship Between Core Members' Social Capital and Perceived and Externally Evaluated Prestige and Cooperation Among HIV/AIDS-Related Civil Society Organizations in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Danni; Xu, Xiaoru; Mei, Guangliang; Ma, Ying; Chen, Ren; Qin, Xia; Hu, Zhi

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the core members' social capital was associated with individually perceived and externally evaluated prestige and cooperation among the HIV/AIDS-related civil society organizations (CSOs). To accomplish this, a cross-sectional study using multistage sampling was carried out in eight provinces of China. Data were collected from the 327 core members via questionnaires and self-evaluated performance of the respondents were evaluated and measured. The interviews were conducted with all core members and the supervisory staff of the local Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that social support (adjusted odds ratio [a OR] = 1.87) and organizational commitment (a OR = 1.57) were significantly associated with a higher odds of prestige performance in self-evaluation. Furthermore, social support (a OR = 1.65), trust (a OR = 1.33), and organizational commitment (a OR = 1.52) were significantly correlated with cooperation performance. Trust was positively associated with the cooperation performance on external evaluation. These findings may provide a new perspective on challenges that the CSOs face in response to a growing HIV/AIDS epidemic in China. Social capital may increase performance and accelerate organizational growth, ultimately improving HIV/AIDS prevention and care.

  7. Assessing effects of a media campaign on HIV/AIDS awareness and prevention in Nigeria: results from the VISION Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Joseph; Meekers, Dominique; Adewuyi, Alfred

    2006-05-03

    In response to the growing HIV epidemic in Nigeria, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) initiated the VISION Project, which aimed to increase use of family planning, child survival, and HIV/AIDS services. The VISION Project used a mass-media campaign that focused on reproductive health and HIV/AIDS prevention. This paper assesses to what extent program exposure translates into increased awareness and prevention of HIV/AIDS. This analysis is based on data from the 2002 and 2004 Nigeria (Bauchi, Enugu, and Oyo) Family Planning and Reproductive Health Surveys, which were conducted among adults living in the VISION Project areas. To correct for endogeneity, two-stage logistic regression is used to investigate the effect of program exposure on 1) discussion of HIV/AIDS with a partner, 2) awareness that consistent condom use reduces HIV risk, and 3) condom use at last intercourse. Exposure to the VISION mass media campaign was high: 59%, 47%, and 24% were exposed to at least 1 VISION radio, printed advertisement, or TV program about reproductive health, respectively. The differences in outcome variables between 2002 baseline data and the 2004 follow-up data were small. However, those with high program exposure were almost one and a half (Odds Ratio [O.R.] = 1.47, 95% Confidence Interval [C.I.] 1.01-2.16) times more likely than those with no exposure to have discussed HIV/AIDS with a partner. Those with high program exposure were over twice (O.R. = 2.20, C.I. 1.49-3.25) as likely as those with low exposure to know that condom use can reduce risk of HIV infection. Program exposure had no effect on condom use at last sex. The VISION Project reached a large portion of the population and exposure to mass media programs about reproductive health and HIV prevention topics can help increase HIV/AIDS awareness. Programs that target rural populations, females, and unmarried individuals, and disseminate information on where to obtain condoms, are needed to reduce

  8. Assessing effects of a media campaign on HIV/AIDS awareness and prevention in Nigeria: results from the VISION Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adewuyi Alfred

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In response to the growing HIV epidemic in Nigeria, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID initiated the VISION Project, which aimed to increase use of family planning, child survival, and HIV/AIDS services. The VISION Project used a mass-media campaign that focused on reproductive health and HIV/AIDS prevention. This paper assesses to what extent program exposure translates into increased awareness and prevention of HIV/AIDS. Methods This analysis is based on data from the 2002 and 2004 Nigeria (Bauchi, Enugu, and Oyo Family Planning and Reproductive Health Surveys, which were conducted among adults living in the VISION Project areas. To correct for endogeneity, two-stage logistic regression is used to investigate the effect of program exposure on 1 discussion of HIV/AIDS with a partner, 2 awareness that consistent condom use reduces HIV risk, and 3 condom use at last intercourse. Results Exposure to the VISION mass media campaign was high: 59%, 47%, and 24% were exposed to at least 1 VISION radio, printed advertisement, or TV program about reproductive health, respectively. The differences in outcome variables between 2002 baseline data and the 2004 follow-up data were small. However, those with high program exposure were almost one and a half (Odds Ratio [O.R.] = 1.47, 95% Confidence Interval [C.I.] 1.01–2.16 times more likely than those with no exposure to have discussed HIV/AIDS with a partner. Those with high program exposure were over twice (O.R. = 2.20, C.I. 1.49–3.25 as likely as those with low exposure to know that condom use can reduce risk of HIV infection. Program exposure had no effect on condom use at last sex. Conclusion The VISION Project reached a large portion of the population and exposure to mass media programs about reproductive health and HIV prevention topics can help increase HIV/AIDS awareness. Programs that target rural populations, females, and unmarried individuals, and

  9. Evaluation of the attitude toward aging in women aged 50 years or more with HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana de Souza Orlandi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to assess the attitudes toward aging in women aged 50 years or more with HIV / AIDS, through the Attitudes to Aging Questionnaire (AAQ. This is a descriptive cross-sectional. All ethical guidelines were followed. Among the areas assessed by the AAQ, the domain Physical Changes was presented the worst perceptions about aging, indicating how difficult it is to grow old with an incurable and stigmatizing disease such as HIV / AIDS.

  10. The Macroeconomics of Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addison, Tony; Morrissey, Oliver; Tarp, Finn

    2017-01-01

    This Special Issue explores macroeconomic effects of aid from various perspectives through a blend of studies, both conceptual and empirical in nature. The overall aim is to enhance the understanding of the macroeconomic dimensions of aid in the policy and research communities, and to inspire...

  11. Marketing Financial Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddleston, Thomas, Jr.; Batty, Burt F.

    1978-01-01

    Student financial assistance services are becoming a major part of the institutional marketing plan as traditional college-age students decline in numbers and price competition among institutions increases. The effect of financial aid on enrollment and admissions processes is discussed along with the role of the financial aid officer. (Author/LBH)

  12. Using eye tracking technology to compare the effectiveness of malignant hyperthermia cognitive aid design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Roderick; Hanhan, Jaber; Harrison, T Kyle; Kou, Alex; Howard, Steven K; Borg, Lindsay K; Shum, Cynthia; Udani, Ankeet D; Mariano, Edward R

    2018-05-15

    Malignant hyperthermia is a rare but potentially fatal complication of anesthesia, and several different cognitive aids designed to facilitate a timely and accurate response to this crisis currently exist. Eye tracking technology can measure voluntary and involuntary eye movements, gaze fixation within an area of interest, and speed of visual response and has been used to a limited extent in anesthesiology. With eye tracking technology, we compared the accessibility of five malignant hyperthermia cognitive aids by collecting gaze data from twelve volunteer participants. Recordings were reviewed and annotated to measure the time required for participants to locate objects on the cognitive aid to provide an answer; cumulative time to answer was the primary outcome. For the primary outcome, there were differences detected between cumulative time to answer survival curves (P typescript with minimal use of single color blocking.

  13. Combining principles of Cognitive Load Theory and diagnostic error analysis for designing job aids: Effects on motivation and diagnostic performance in a process control task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Annette; Grauel, Britta; Burkolter, Dina

    2013-03-01

    Two studies are presented in which the design of a procedural aid and the impact of an additional decision aid for process control were assessed. In Study 1, a procedural aid was developed that avoids imposing unnecessary extraneous cognitive load on novices when controlling a complex technical system. This newly designed procedural aid positively affected germane load, attention, satisfaction, motivation, knowledge acquisition and diagnostic speed for novel faults. In Study 2, the effect of a decision aid for use before the procedural aid was investigated, which was developed based on an analysis of diagnostic errors committed in Study 1. Results showed that novices were able to diagnose both novel faults and practised faults, and were even faster at diagnosing novel faults. This research contributes to the question of how to optimally support novices in dealing with technical faults in process control. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Nd:YAG Laser-aided ceramic brackets debonding: Effects on shear bond strength and enamel surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xianglong; Liu, Xiaolin; Bai, Ding; Meng, Yao; Huang, Lan

    2008-11-01

    In order to evaluate the efficiency of Nd:YAG laser-aided ceramic brackets debonding technique, both ceramic brackets and metallic brackets were bonded with orthodontic adhesive to 30 freshly extracted premolars. The specimens were divided into three groups, 10 in each, according to the brackets employed and the debonding techniques used: (1) metallic brackets with shear debonding force, (2) ceramic brackets with shear debonding force, and (3) ceramic brackets with Nd:YAG laser irradiation. The result showed that laser irradiation could diminish shear bond strength (SBS) significantly and produce the most desired ARI scores. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy investigation displayed that laser-aided technique induced little enamel scratch or loss. It was concluded that Nd:YAG laser could facilitate the debonding of ceramic brackets and diminish the amount of remnant adhesive without damaging enamel structure.

  15. Nd:YAG Laser-aided ceramic brackets debonding: Effects on shear bond strength and enamel surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Xianglong; Liu Xiaolin; Bai Ding; Meng Yao; Huang Lan

    2008-01-01

    In order to evaluate the efficiency of Nd:YAG laser-aided ceramic brackets debonding technique, both ceramic brackets and metallic brackets were bonded with orthodontic adhesive to 30 freshly extracted premolars. The specimens were divided into three groups, 10 in each, according to the brackets employed and the debonding techniques used: (1) metallic brackets with shear debonding force, (2) ceramic brackets with shear debonding force, and (3) ceramic brackets with Nd:YAG laser irradiation. The result showed that laser irradiation could diminish shear bond strength (SBS) significantly and produce the most desired ARI scores. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy investigation displayed that laser-aided technique induced little enamel scratch or loss. It was concluded that Nd:YAG laser could facilitate the debonding of ceramic brackets and diminish the amount of remnant adhesive without damaging enamel structure

  16. Nd:YAG Laser-aided ceramic brackets debonding: Effects on shear bond strength and enamel surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han Xianglong [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Department of Orthodontics, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Liu Xiaolin [Department of Orthodontics, Stomatology Hospital, Dalian University, Dalian 116021 (China); Bai Ding [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Department of Orthodontics, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China)], E-mail: baiding88@hotmail.com; Meng Yao; Huang Lan [Department of Orthodontics, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2008-11-15

    In order to evaluate the efficiency of Nd:YAG laser-aided ceramic brackets debonding technique, both ceramic brackets and metallic brackets were bonded with orthodontic adhesive to 30 freshly extracted premolars. The specimens were divided into three groups, 10 in each, according to the brackets employed and the debonding techniques used: (1) metallic brackets with shear debonding force, (2) ceramic brackets with shear debonding force, and (3) ceramic brackets with Nd:YAG laser irradiation. The result showed that laser irradiation could diminish shear bond strength (SBS) significantly and produce the most desired ARI scores. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy investigation displayed that laser-aided technique induced little enamel scratch or loss. It was concluded that Nd:YAG laser could facilitate the debonding of ceramic brackets and diminish the amount of remnant adhesive without damaging enamel structure.

  17. Online, Interactive Option Grid Patient Decision Aids and their Effect on User Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalia, Peter; Durand, Marie-Anne; Kremer, Jan; Faber, Marjan; Elwyn, Glyn

    2018-01-01

    Randomized trials have shown that patient decision aids can modify users' preferred healthcare options, but research has yet to identify the attributes embedded in these tools that cause preferences to shift. The aim of this study was to investigate people's preferences as they used decision aids for 5 health decisions and, for each of the following: 1) determine if using the interactive Option Grid led to a pre-post shift in preferences; 2) determine which frequently asked questions (FAQs) led to preference shifts; 3) determine the FAQs that were rated as the most important as users compared options. Interactive Option Grid decision aids enable users to view attributes of available treatment or screening options, rate their importance, and specify their preferred options before and after decision aid use. The McNemar-Bowker paired test was used to compare stated pre-post preferences. Multinomial logistic regressions were conducted to investigate possible associations between covariates and preference shifts. Overall, 626 users completed the 5 most-used tools: 1) Amniocentesis test: yes or no? ( n = 73); 2) Angina: treatment options ( n = 88); 3) Breast cancer: surgical options ( n = 265); 4) Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) test: yes or no? ( n = 82); 5) Statins for heart disease risk: yes or no? ( n = 118). The breast cancer, PSA, and statins Option Grid decision aids generated significant preference shifts. Generally, users shifted their preference when presented with the description of the available treatment options, and the risk associated with each option. The use of decision aids for some, but not all health decisions, was accompanied by a shift in user preferences. Users typically valued information associated with risks, and chose more risk averse options after completing the interactive tool.

  18. The Evaluator Effect in Usability Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Niels Ebbe; Hertzum, Morten; John, Bonnie E.

    1998-01-01

    Usability tests are applied in industry to evaluate systems and in research as a yardstick for other usability evaluation methods. However, one potential threat to the reliability of usability tests has been left unaddressed: the evaluator effect. In this study, four evaluators analyzed four vide...

  19. Evaluation of alveolar bone grafting in unilateral cleft lip and palate patients using a computer-aided diagnosis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutthiprapaporn, Pipop; Kongsomboon, Supaporn; Limmonthol, Saowaluck; Pisek, Poonsak; Keinprasit, Chutimaporn; Tanimoto, Keiji; Nakamoto, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the trabecular bone changes after alveolar bone grafting in unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) patients using a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system. The occlusal radiographs taken from 50 UCLP patients were surveyed retrospectively. The images were categorized as: 50 images in group 0 (before bone grafting), 33 images in group 1 (one month after bone grafting), 24 images in group 2 (2-4 months after bone grafting), 15 images in group 3 (5-7 months after bone grafting), and 21 images in group 4 (8 or more months after bone grafting). Each image was grouped as either 'non-cleft side' or 'cleft side'. The CAD system was used five times for each side to calculate the pixel area based on the mathematical morphology. Significant differences were found using a Wilcoxon signed ranks test or paired samples t test. The pixel area showed a significant difference between the 'non-cleft side' and 'cleft side' in group 0 (404.27±103.72/117.73±92.25; p=0.00), group 1 (434.29±86.70/388.31±109.51; p=0.01), and group 4 (430.98±98.11/366.71±154.59; p=0.02). No significant differences were found in group 2 (423.57±98.12/383.47±135.88; p=0.06) or group 3 (433.02±116.07/384.16±146.55; p=0.19). Based on the design of this study, alveolar bone grafting was similar to normal bone within 2-7 months postoperatively.

  20. Evaluation of a Computer-aided Lung Auscultation System for Diagnosis of Bovine Respiratory Disease in Feedlot Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mang, A V; Buczinski, S; Booker, C W; Timsit, E

    2015-01-01

    A computer-aided lung auscultation (CALA) system was recently developed to diagnose bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in feedlot cattle. To determine, in a case-control study, the level of agreement between CALA and veterinary lung auscultation and to evaluate the sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of CALA to diagnose BRD in feedlot cattle. A total of 561 Angus cross-steers (initial body weight = 246 ± 45 kg) were observed during the first 50 day after entry to a feedlot. Case-control study. Steers with visual signs of BRD identified by pen checkers were examined by a veterinarian, including lung auscultation using a conventional stethoscope and CALA that produced a lung score from 1 (normal) to 5 (chronic). For each steer examined for BRD, 1 apparently healthy steer was selected as control and similarly examined. Agreement between CALA and veterinary auscultation was assessed by kappa statistic. CALA's Se and Sp were estimated using Bayesian latent class analysis. Of the 561 steers, 35 were identified with visual signs of BRD and 35 were selected as controls. Comparison of veterinary auscultation and CALA (using a CALA score ≥2 as a cut off) revealed a substantial agreement (kappa = 0.77). Using latent class analysis, CALA had a relatively high Se (92.9%; 95% credible interval [CI] = 0.71-0.99) and Sp (89.6%; 95% CI = 0.64-0.99) for diagnosing BRD compared with pen checking. CALA had good diagnostic accuracy (albeit with a relatively wide CI). Its use in feedlots could increase the proportion of cattle accurately diagnosed with BRD. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  1. Evaluation of alveolar bone grafting in unilateral cleft lip and palate patients using a computer-aided diagnosis system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutthiprapaporn, Pipop; Kongsomboon, Supaporn; Limmonthol, Saowaluck; Pisek, Poonsak; Keinprasit, Chutimaporn [Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen (Thailand); Tanimoto, Keiji; Nakamoto, Takashi [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2012-09-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the trabecular bone changes after alveolar bone grafting in unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) patients using a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system. The occlusal radiographs taken from 50 UCLP patients were surveyed retrospectively. The images were categorized as: 50 images in group 0 (before bone grafting), 33 images in group 1 (one month after bone grafting), 24 images in group 2 (2-4 months after bone grafting), 15 images in group 3 (5-7 months after bone grafting), and 21 images in group 4 (8 or more months after bone grafting). Each image was grouped as either 'non-cleft side' or 'cleft side'. The CAD system was used five times for each side to calculate the pixel area based on the mathematical morphology. Significant differences were found using a Wilcoxon signed ranks test or paired samples t test. The pixel area showed a significant difference between the 'non-cleft side' and 'cleft side' in group 0 (404.27{+-}103.72/117.73{+-}92.25; p=0.00), group 1 (434.29{+-}86.70/388.31{+-}109.51; p=0.01), and group 4 (430.98{+-}98.11/366.71{+-}154.59; p=0.02). No significant differences were found in group 2 (423.57{+-}98.12/383.47{+-}135.88; p=0.06) or group 3 (433.02{+-}116.07/384.16{+-}146.55; p=0.19). Based on the design of this study, alveolar bone grafting was similar to normal bone within 2-7 months postoperatively.

  2. [Evaluating the accuracy of three-dimensional reconstruction of the intercuspal position for dentition casts aided by a mechanical appliance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Z W; Li, W W; Zhang, X Y; Fan, B L; Wang, Y; Sun, Y C

    2016-08-01

    To develop a aided mechanical appliance for rapid reconstruction of three-dimensional(3D)relationship of dentition model after scanning and evaluation of its accuracy. The appliance was designed by forward engineering software and fabricated by a high precision computer numerical control(CNC)system. It contained upper and lower body, magnetic pedestal and three pillars. Nine 3 mm diameter hemispheres were distributed equally on the axial surface of each pedestal. Faro Edge 1.8m was used to directly obtain center of each hemisphere(contact method), defined as known center. A pair of die-stone standard dentition model were fixed in intercuspal position and then fixed on the magnetic pedestals with low expansion ratio plaster. Activity 880 dental scanner was used to scan casts after the plaster was completely set. In Geomagic 2012, the centers of each hemisphere were fitted and defined as scanning centers. Scanning centers were aligned to known centers by reference point system to finish the 3D reconstruction of the intercuspal occlusion for the dentition casts. An observation coordinate system was interactively established. The straight-line distances in the X(coronal), Y(saggital), and Z(vertical)between the remaining 6 pairs of center points derived from contact method and fitting method were measured respectively and analyzed using a paired t-test. The differences of the straight-line distances of the remaining 6 pairs of center points between the two methods were X:(-0.05±0.10)mm, Y:(0.02±0.06)mm, and Z:(0.01 ± 0.05)mm. The results of paired t-test showed no significant differences(P>0.05). The mechanical appliance can help to reconstruct 3D jaw relation by scanning single upper and lower dentition model with usual commercial available dental cast scanning system.

  3. Music and hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Sara M K; Moore, Brian C J

    2014-10-31

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Music and Hearing Aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M. K. Madsen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems.

  5. The harmful effects of sintering aids in Pr:LuAG optical ceramic scintillator

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shen, Y.; Shi, Y.; Feng, X.; Pan, Y.; Li, J.; Zeng, J.-Y.; Nikl, Martin; Krasnikov, A.; Vedda, A.; Moretti, F.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 7 (2012), s. 2130-2132 ISSN 0002-7820 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12185 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : scintillator * optical ceramics * sintering aids * luminescence Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.107, year: 2012

  6. The effects of HIV/AIDS on medical schemes in South Africa | Da ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... not necessarily representative of the medical-scheme population. The intention is therefore to develop a methodology for producing indicative results to inform management decisions. The opportunity to lower costs related to HIV/AIDS through proactive risk management is investigated. South African Actuarial Journal Vol.

  7. Exploring the Effects of Financial Aid on the Gap in Student Dropout Risks by Income Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rong; DesJardins, Stephen L.

    2008-01-01

    Using national survey data and discrete-time logit modeling, this research seeks to understand whether student aid mediates the relationship between parental income and student dropout behavior. Our analysis confirms that there is a gap in dropout rates for low-income students compared with their upper income peers, and suggests that some types of…

  8. Computer-aided Detection of Lung Cancer on Chest Radiographs: Effect on Observer Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hoop, Bartjan; de Boo, Diederik W.; Gietema, Hester A.; van Hoorn, Frans; Mearadji, Banafsche; Schijf, Laura; van Ginneken, Bram; Prokop, Mathias; Schaefer-Prokop, Cornelia

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To assess how computer-aided detection (CAD) affects reader performance in detecting early lung cancer on chest radiographs. Materials and Methods: In this ethics committee-approved study, 46 individuals with 49 computed tomographically (CT)-detected and histologically proved lung cancers

  9. Effectiveness of Foreign Aid on the Growth of the Agricultural Sector ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contrary to expectation, the parameter estimate of foreign aid has a negative and insignificant relationship with agricultural output in the short and long run. On the contrary, savings and technological trend are significant and have positive relationship with agricultural output both in the short run and long run. A major policy ...

  10. The effect of HIV/AIDS on sexuality among HIV positive females ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The impact and stigma associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) has led to different sexual behaviours in affected individuals the resultant lack of proper sexual information and various accompanying misconception has led to a high transmission of HIV ...

  11. The Effects of HIV/AIDS on the Retention of Black Women in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Wilma J.

    2013-01-01

    Although only contributing approximately 12% to the United States population, Black Americans account for the majority (51%) of new HIV/AIDS diagnoses in this country. Black women in college between the ages of 18 and 24 fall directly in the center of these alarming statistics. These young women are faced with the psychosocial manifestations of…

  12. The role of HIV/AIDS committees in effective workplace governance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jocelyn R Vass

    2008-03-26

    Mar 26, 2008 ... the occupational health (OH) nurse. In two companies, the operational director was also interviewed. As part of the larger research project, separate focus groups ..... This might perpetuate the stereotype that HIV/AIDS was a predominantly “black” disease and did not affect other (white or skilled) employees.

  13. The Effects of Computer-Aided Concept Cartoons and Outdoor Science Activities on Light Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Güliz

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to create an awareness of light pollution on seventh grade students via computer aided concept cartoon applications and outdoor science activities and to help them develop solutions; and to determine student opinions on the practices carried out. The study was carried out at a middle school in Mugla province of Aegean…

  14. Aid and sectoral growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selaya, Pablo; Thiele, Rainer

    2010-01-01

    This article examines empirically the proposition that aid to poor countries is detrimental for external competitiveness, giving rise to Dutch disease type effects. At the aggregate level, aid is found to have a positive effect on growth. A sectoral decomposition shows that the effect is (i......) significant and positive in the tradable and the nontradable sectors, and (ii) equally strong in both sectors. The article thus provides no empirical support for the hypothesis that aid reduces external competitiveness in developing countries. A possible reason for this finding is the existence of large idle...

  15. Aid and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn; Mekasha, Tseday Jemaneh

    2013-01-01

    Recent litterature in the meta-analysis category where results from a range of studies are brought together throws doubt on the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth and development. This article assesses what meta-analysis has to contribute to the litterature on the effectiveness...... of foreign aid in terms of growth impact. We re-examine key hypotheses, and find that the effect of aid on growth is positive and statistically significant. This significant effect is genuine, and not an artefact of publication selection. We also show why our results differ from those published elsewhere....

  16. Aid and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mekasha, Tseday Jemaneh; Tarp, Finn

    Some recent literature in the meta-analysis category where results from a range of studies are brought together throws doubt on the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth and development. This paper assesses what meta-analysis has to say about the effectiveness of foreign aid in terms...... of the growth impact. We re-examine key hypotheses, and find that the effect of aid on growth is positive and statistically significant. This significant effect is genuine, and not an artefact of publication selection. We also show why our results differ from those published elsewhere....

  17. Does Corruption Cause Aid Fatigue?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauhr, Monika; Charron, Nicholas; Nasiritousi, Naghmeh

    2013-01-01

    Does perceived corruption in recipient countries reduce support for foreign aid in donor countries? This under-explored yet salient question is examined using the 2009 Eurobarometer survey for the 27 EU countries. We suggest that perceived corruption can cause aid fatigue but that this relationship...... is highly contextualized. The results show that perceptions about corruption in developing countries reduce overall support for aid among respondents in donor countries. However, this effect is mitigated by country and contextual-level effects and different understandings of what we call the “aid-corruption...... paradox,” namely that the need for foreign aid is often the greatest in corrupt environments. Three different dynamics of the aid-corruption paradox influence support for aid: moral, pragmatic, and strategic understandings. In EU-15 countries, the effect of perceived corruption in recipient states on aid...

  18. Evaluating Process Effectiveness to Reduce Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Christena C.

    2017-01-01

    security; loss of confidence in government; failure of publicly funded projects; damage to the environment; ethics violations, and the list goes on; with local, national and even international consequences. The Plan-Do-Check-Act process, also known as the "process approach" can be used at any time to establish and standardize a process, and it can also be used to check periodically for "process creep" (i.e., informal, unauthorized changes that have occurred over time), any necessary updates and improvements. While ISO 9001 compliance is not mandated for all government agencies, if interpreted correctly, it can be useful in establishing a framework and implementing effective management systems and processes.4 Another method that can be used to evaluate effectiveness is the scorecard definitions in Mallory's Process Management Standard5 as a basis for evaluating work on the process level on effective, and continuously improved and improving processes. With processes on the lower end of the scale, agencies are vulnerable to a great many risks, with employees and managers making up many of the rules as they go, leading to the above listed negative results. Without clear guidance for nominal operations, off-nominal situations can, and do, increase the likelihood of chaos. In an increasingly technical environment, with inter-agency communication and collaboration becoming the norm, agencies need to come to grips with the fact that processes can become rapidly outdated, and that the technical community should take on an increased role in the maturation of the agency's processes. Industry has long known that effective processes are also efficient, and process improvement methods such as Kaizen, Lean, Six Sigma, 5S, and mistake proofing lead to increased productivity, improved quality, and decreased cost. Again, government agencies have different concerns, but inefficiencies and mistakes can have dire and wide reaching consequences for the public that they serve. While no one goes

  19. Real-world effectiveness of e-cigarettes when used to aid smoking cessation: a cross-sectional population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jamie; Beard, Emma; Kotz, Daniel; Michie, Susan; West, Robert

    2014-09-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are rapidly increasing in popularity. Two randomized controlled trials have suggested that e-cigarettes can aid smoking cessation, but there are many factors that could influence their real-world effectiveness. This study aimed to assess, using an established methodology, the effectiveness of e-cigarettes when used to aid smoking cessation compared with nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) bought over-the-counter and with unaided quitting in the general population. A large cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of the English population. The study included 5863 adults who had smoked within the previous 12 months and made at least one quit attempt during that period with either an e-cigarette only (n = 464), NRT bought over-the-counter only (n = 1922) or no aid in their most recent quit attempt (n = 3477). The primary outcome was self-reported abstinence up to the time of the survey, adjusted for key potential confounders including nicotine dependence. E-cigarette users were more likely to report abstinence than either those who used NRT bought over-the-counter [odds ratio (OR) = 2.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.70-2.93, 20.0 versus 10.1%] or no aid (OR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.08-1.76, 20.0 versus 15.4%). The adjusted odds of non-smoking in users of e-cigarettes were 1.63 (95% CI = 1.17-2.27) times higher compared with users of NRT bought over-the-counter and 1.61 (95% CI = 1.19-2.18) times higher compared with those using no aid. Among smokers who have attempted to stop without professional support, those who use e-cigarettes are more likely to report continued abstinence than those who used a licensed NRT product bought over-the-counter or no aid to cessation. This difference persists after adjusting for a range of smoker characteristics such as nicotine dependence. © 2014 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  20. Brand Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano

    A critical account of the rise of celebrity-driven “compassionate consumption” Cofounded by the rock star Bono in 2006, Product RED exemplifies a new trend in celebrity-driven international aid and development, one explicitly linked to commerce, not philanthropy. Brand Aid offers a deeply informed...