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Sample records for evaluate emphysematous rat

  1. The effects of sleep hypoxia on coagulant factors and hepatic inflammation in emphysematous rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Feng

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available To develop a sleep hypoxia (SH in emphysema (SHE rat model and to explore whether SHE results in more severe hepatic inflammation than emphysema alone and whether the inflammation changes levels of coagulant/anticoagulant factors synthesized in the liver.Seventy-five rats were put into 5 groups: SH control (SHCtrl, treated with sham smoke exposure (16 weeks and SH exposure (12.5% O(2, 3 h/d, latter 8 weeks; emphysema control (ECtrl, smoke exposure and sham SH exposure (21% O(2; short SHE (SHEShort, smoke exposure and short SH exposure (1.5 h/d; mild SHE (SHEMild, smoke exposure and mild SH exposure (15% O(2; standard SHE (SHEStand, smoke exposure and SH exposure. Therefore, ECtrl, SHEShort, SHEMild and SHEStand group were among emphysematous groups. Arterial blood gas (ABG data was obtained during preliminary tests. After exposure, hepatic inflammation (interleukin -6 [IL-6] mRNA and protein, tumor necrosis factor α [TNFα] mRNA and protein and liver coagulant/anticoagulant factors (antithrombin [AT], fibrinogen [FIB] and Factor VIII [F VIII] were evaluated. SPSS 11.5 software was used for statistical analysis.Characteristics of emphysema were obvious in emphysematous groups and ABGs reached SH criteria on hypoxia exposure. Hepatic inflammation parameters and coagulant factors are the lowest in SHCtrl and the highest in SHEStand while AT is the highest in SHCtrl and the lowest in SHEStand. Inflammatory cytokines of liver correlate well with coagulant factors positively and with AT negatively.When SH is combined with emphysema, hepatic inflammation and coagulability enhance each other synergistically and produce a more significant liver-derivative inflammatory and prothrombotic status.

  2. The effects of sleep hypoxia on coagulant factors and hepatic inflammation in emphysematous rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jing; Wang, Qing-shan; Chiang, Ambrose; Chen, Bao-yuan

    2010-10-06

    To develop a sleep hypoxia (SH) in emphysema (SHE) rat model and to explore whether SHE results in more severe hepatic inflammation than emphysema alone and whether the inflammation changes levels of coagulant/anticoagulant factors synthesized in the liver. Seventy-five rats were put into 5 groups: SH control (SHCtrl), treated with sham smoke exposure (16 weeks) and SH exposure (12.5% O(2), 3 h/d, latter 8 weeks); emphysema control (ECtrl), smoke exposure and sham SH exposure (21% O(2)); short SHE (SHEShort), smoke exposure and short SH exposure (1.5 h/d); mild SHE (SHEMild), smoke exposure and mild SH exposure (15% O(2)); standard SHE (SHEStand), smoke exposure and SH exposure. Therefore, ECtrl, SHEShort, SHEMild and SHEStand group were among emphysematous groups. Arterial blood gas (ABG) data was obtained during preliminary tests. After exposure, hepatic inflammation (interleukin -6 [IL-6] mRNA and protein, tumor necrosis factor α [TNFα] mRNA and protein) and liver coagulant/anticoagulant factors (antithrombin [AT], fibrinogen [FIB] and Factor VIII [F VIII]) were evaluated. SPSS 11.5 software was used for statistical analysis. Characteristics of emphysema were obvious in emphysematous groups and ABGs reached SH criteria on hypoxia exposure. Hepatic inflammation parameters and coagulant factors are the lowest in SHCtrl and the highest in SHEStand while AT is the highest in SHCtrl and the lowest in SHEStand. Inflammatory cytokines of liver correlate well with coagulant factors positively and with AT negatively. When SH is combined with emphysema, hepatic inflammation and coagulability enhance each other synergistically and produce a more significant liver-derivative inflammatory and prothrombotic status.

  3. Emphysematous Cystitis:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Because clinical symptoms are not specific, the diagnosis is often made incidentally on radiography. We report the case of a 34-year-old woman who presented with fever, frequency, urgency and gross hematuria. CT scan of the pelvis revealed emphysematous cystitis which resolved after antibiotic treatment and bladder ...

  4. Bilateral type emphysematous pyelonephritis: imaging evaluation; Pielonefritis enfisematosa bilateral tipo I. Evaluacion por la imagen

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    Salvador Cueto-Alvarez, L.; Piriz-Campos, E.; Ruiz-Garcia, T.; Roldan-Lora, F. [Hospital Universitario Virgen Macarena. Sevilla (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    Emphysematous pyelonephritis (EPN) is a serious infectious disease that occurs more frequently in diabetic patients. Radiological studies are indispensable for distinguishing between the two types since each is associated with a markedly different prognosis. We present a case of bilateral EPN diagnosed as type I on the basis of computed tomography findings, differentiating it from type II EPN, taking into account the prognostic value of this distinction. Type I EPN is characterized by the destruction of the renal parenchyma, a mottled or linear gas pattern and the absence of renal and perirenal fluid collection. Type II EPN is characterized by a loculated or bubbly gas pattern, the existence of fluid collection and less marked renal destruction. Type I is more aggressive and is associated with high rate of mortality. (Author) 7 refs.

  5. Incomplete fissures in severe emphysematous patients evaluated with MDCT: Incidence and interobserver agreement among radiologists and pneumologists

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    Koenigkam-Santos, Marcel, E-mail: marcelk46@yahoo.com.br [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Heidelberg, Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Chest Clinic (Thoraxklinik), University of Heidelberg, Amalienstr. 5,69126 Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Radiology, University Hospital of the School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto - University of Sao Paulo, Av. Bandeirantes 3900, Campus Universitario Monte Alegre, 14048 900 Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Puderbach, Michael [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Heidelberg, Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Chest Clinic (Thoraxklinik), University of Heidelberg, Amalienstr. 5,69126 Heidelberg (Germany); Gompelmann, Daniela; Eberhardt, Ralf; Herth, Felix [Chest Clinic (Thoraxklinik), University of Heidelberg, Amalienstr. 5,69126 Heidelberg (Germany); Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Heidelberg, Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Heussel, Claus Peter [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Heidelberg, Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Chest Clinic (Thoraxklinik), University of Heidelberg, Amalienstr. 5,69126 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    Objective: Pulmonary fissures completeness predicts efficacy in endobronchial valves (EBV) implantation, a new lobar volume reduction therapy for severe emphysematous patients. We assessed the incidence of incomplete fissures and the interobserver agreement in its evaluation with MDCT, in severe emphysematous patients prior to EBV implantation. Materials and Methods: Volumetric thin-section CT scans of 35 patients (CODP GOLD 3/4, heterogeneous emphysema) were retrospectively reviewed by 2 pneumologists, 1 general and 2 experienced chest radiologists, independently and blinded for treatment outcome, and the pulmonary fissures were classified as either complete or incomplete. Interobserver agreement was assessed with Kappa index (KI). Results: Agreement between all readers for the left oblique, right oblique and horizontal fissure was, respectively, moderate (KI = 0.53), fair (KI = 0.37) and moderate (KI = 0.42). Highest agreement (99/105 fissures) was observed among experienced radiologists, being for left oblique, right oblique and horizontal, respectively, almost perfect (KI = 0.79), perfect (KI = 1.0) and moderate (KI = 0.52). These 2 reviewers found that all of 35 patients had at least one incomplete fissure, with a proportion of incomplete fissures assigned as 74/65%, 85/85% and 91/88%, respectively for the left oblique, right oblique and horizontal fissures. Conclusions: Pneumologists and radiologists agreed fairly to moderately in fissures analysis, while the experienced chest radiologists reached the highest clinically adequate agreement of 94%. We believe that clinical routine visual analysis of the fissures integrity can be done with a good degree of confidence in MDCT images, and experienced readers might be required. Also, a higher than expected incidence of incomplete fissures was described in our studied population.

  6. Quantification and evaluation of the role of antielastin autoantibodies in the emphysematous lung.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Low, Teck Boon

    2012-02-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may be an autoimmune disease. Smoking causes an imbalance of proteases and antiproteases in the lung resulting in the generation of elastin peptides that can potentially act as autoantigens. Similar to COPD, Z alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (Z-A1ATD) and cystic fibrosis (CF) are associated with impaired pulmonary antiprotease defences leading to unopposed protease activity. Here, we show that there is a trend towards higher bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) antielastin antibody levels in COPD and Z-A1ATD and significantly lower levels in CF compared to control BALF; the lower levels in CF are due to the degradation of these antibodies by neutrophil elastase. We also provide evidence that these autoantibodies have the potential to induce T cell proliferation in the emphysematous lung. This study highlights that antielastin antibodies are tissue specific, can be detected at elevated levels in COPD and Z-A1ATD BALF despite their being no differences in their levels in plasma compared to controls, and suggests a therapeutic role for agents targeting these autoantibodies in the lungs.

  7. Quantification and Evaluation of the Role of Antielastin Autoantibodies in the Emphysematous Lung

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    Teck Boon Low

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD may be an autoimmune disease. Smoking causes an imbalance of proteases and antiproteases in the lung resulting in the generation of elastin peptides that can potentially act as autoantigens. Similar to COPD, Z alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (Z-A1ATD and cystic fibrosis (CF are associated with impaired pulmonary antiprotease defences leading to unopposed protease activity. Here, we show that there is a trend towards higher bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF antielastin antibody levels in COPD and Z-A1ATD and significantly lower levels in CF compared to control BALF; the lower levels in CF are due to the degradation of these antibodies by neutrophil elastase. We also provide evidence that these autoantibodies have the potential to induce T cell proliferation in the emphysematous lung. This study highlights that antielastin antibodies are tissue specific, can be detected at elevated levels in COPD and Z-A1ATD BALF despite their being no differences in their levels in plasma compared to controls, and suggests a therapeutic role for agents targeting these autoantibodies in the lungs.

  8. Endobronchial valves in severe emphysematous patients: CT evaluation of lung fissures completeness, treatment radiological response and quantitative emphysema analysis

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    Koenigkam-Santos, Marcel, E-mail: marcelk46@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: marcelk46@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (HCFMRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina; Paula, Wagner Diniz de [University of Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Brasilia University Hospital; Gompelmann, Daniela [University of Heidelberg (Germany). Department of Pneumology and Respiratory Medicine of the Chest Clinic (Thoraxklinik); Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [University of Heidelberg (Germany). Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Heussel, Claus Peter; Puderbach, Michael [University of Heidelberg (Germany). Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology with Nuclear Medicine of the Chest Clinic (Thoraxklinik)

    2013-01-15

    Objective: To evaluate lung fissures completeness, post-treatment radiological response and quantitative CT analysis (QCTA) in a population of severe emphysematous patients submitted to endobronchial valves (EBV) implantation. Materials and Methods: Multi-detectors CT exams of 29 patients were studied, using thin-section low dose protocol without contrast. Two radiologists retrospectively reviewed all images in consensus; fissures completeness was estimated in 5% increments and post-EBV radiological response (target lobe atelectasis/volume loss) was evaluated. QCTA was performed in pre and post-treatment scans using a fully automated software. Results: CT response was present in 16/29 patients. In the negative CT response group, all 13 patients presented incomplete fissures, and mean oblique fissures completeness was 72.8%, against 88.3% in the other group. QCTA most significant results showed a reduced post-treatment total lung volume (LV) (mean 542 ml), reduced EBV-submitted LV (700 ml) and reduced emphysema volume (331.4 ml) in the positive response group, which also showed improved functional tests. Conclusion: EBV benefit is most likely in patients who have complete interlobar fissures and develop lobar atelectasis. In patients with no radiological response we observed a higher prevalence of incomplete fissures and a greater degree of incompleteness. The fully automated QCTA detected the post-treatment alterations, especially in the treated lung analysis. (author)

  9. Endobronchial valves in severe emphysematous patients: CT evaluation of lung fissures completeness, treatment radiological response and quantitative emphysema analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Koenigkam-Santos

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate lung fissures completeness, post-treatment radiological response and quantitative CT analysis (QCTA in a population of severe emphysematous patients submitted to endobronchial valves (EBV implantation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Multi-detectors CT exams of 29 patients were studied, using thin-section low dose protocol without contrast. Two radiologists retrospectively reviewed all images in consensus; fissures completeness was estimated in 5% increments and post-EBV radiological response (target lobe atelectasis/volume loss was evaluated. QCTA was performed in pre and post-treatment scans using a fully automated software. RESULTS: CT response was present in 16/29 patients. In the negative CT response group, all 13 patients presented incomplete fissures, and mean oblique fissures completeness was 72.8%, against 88.3% in the other group. QCTA most significant results showed a reduced post-treatment total lung volume (LV (mean 542 ml, reduced EBV-submitted LV (700 ml and reduced emphysema volume (331.4 ml in the positive response group, which also showed improved functional tests. CONCLUSION: EBV benefit is most likely in patients who have complete interlobar fissures and develop lobar atelectasis. In patients with no radiological response we observed a higher prevalence of incomplete fissures and a greater degree of incompleteness. The fully automated QCTA detected the post-treatment alterations, especially in the treated lung analysis.

  10. Emphysematous gastritis after acute pancreatitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Bloodworth, L. L.; Stevens, P E; Bury, R. F.; Arm, J P; Rainford, D J

    1987-01-01

    A case of emphysematous gastritis associated with extensive gastric infarction after acute pancreatitis and acute renal failure is described. This complication was diagnosed on a plain abdominal radiograph and confirmed endoscopically. Extensive gastric and hepatic infarction was seen at necropsy.

  11. EMPHYSEMATOUS CYSTITIS — A CASE REPORT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rogenic bladder and vesical diverticula. Emphysematous ureteritis, nephritis and adrenalitis may coexist with emphysematous cystitis'. The extension of gas up to the kid- neys and adrenals is accompanied by an ap- preciable mortality rates. Like our patient, emphysematous cystitis patients may complain of irritative voiding.

  12. Emphysematous pyelonephritis: a rare presentation.

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    Jain S

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Emphysematous pyelonephritis is a rare life threatening infection in diabetes characterised by suppurative infection of renal parenchyma and perirenal tissues. It usually presents with fever, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, shock, lethargy, and confusion. Diabetic ketoacidosis is an uncommon presentation. In the present case, an elderly female presented with abdominal pain, fever, vomiting, and altered sensorium. She was diagnosed to have diabetic ketoacidosis with metabolic encephalopathy with right emphysematous pyelonephritis. She had an excellent response to medical treatment alone and was later discharged on oral hypoglycaemic agents.

  13. Emphysematous cholecystitis Colecistite enfisematosa

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    Renato Micelli Lupinacci

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Emphysematous cholecystitis is life-threatening condition characterized by gas-forming infection of the gallbladder. It is mostly seems in old male patients with systemic, specially diabetes and vascular diseases. CASE REPORT: - A 30-year-old man without previous diseases was admitted because of right upper quadrant pain and nausea. On admission the patient was febrile (38.7o with normal bilirubin levels. The white blood count was 26700/µl and reactive protein C was 470. Axial sections of single slice computed tomography imaging (section thickness 5 mm, revealed gallbladder wall enhancement after i.v. contrast, as well as dilatation of the gallbladder with intraluminal air. The patient underwent open cholecystectomy. The culture of the bile showed clostridium perfringes. The postoperative course of the patient was uneventful. CONCLUSION: This is a rare form of cholecystitis that carries a high mortality and usually present insidious clinical signs. CT is the most accurate imaging technique. Antibiotic therapy should begin quickly and include coverage of common pathogens, particularly Clostridia. Surgical intervention should take place as early as possible.INTRODUÇÃO: Colecistite enfisematosa é uma condição de risco de vida caracterizada por infecção da vesícula biliar por agentes produtores de gás. Na sua apresentação mais comum atinge preferencialmente homens idosos portadores de doenças sistêmicas em especial diabetes e vasculopatias. RELATO DO CASO: Paciente do sexo masculino, 30 anos de idade e sem co-morbidades que se apresenta ao pronto-socorro com história de dor abdominal em hipocôndrio direito há cinco dias, febre (38,7o e náuseas. Os exames laboratoriais mostravam leucocitose (26700/µl e elevação dos marcadores de inflamação (proteína C reativa, PCR 470. A tomografia computadorizada do abdome revelou realce da parede vesicular após injeção de contraste i.v., bem como dilatação da vesícula com a

  14. Surviving Emphysematous Gastritis after Hepatectomy

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    Harry Hok Yee Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Emphysematous gastritis is a rare variant of phlegmonous gastritis due to invasion of stomach wall by gas-forming bacteria. It is characterised by abnormal presence of gas in the stomach by imaging, in association with clinical sepsis. Patients suffering from this condition usually present with an underlying pathology. We are reporting a middle-aged Chinese male with hepatitis B virus related hepatocellular carcinoma. He underwent partial hepatectomy and was diagnosed with emphysematous gastritis 4 days after index operation. Emergency laparotomy, including upper endoscopy, was performed. He was managed with antibiotics and discharged 18 days after second operation. This paper shows a review of the literature about the disease, with particular attention to pathology, clinical features, and management.

  15. [Emphysematous gastritis with concomitant portal venous air].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Min Yeong; Kim, Jin Il; Kim, Jae Young; Kim, Hyun Ho; Jo, Ik Hyun; Seo, Jae Hyun; Kim, Il Kyu; Cheung, Dae Young

    2015-02-01

    Emphysematous gastritis is a rare form of gastritis caused by infection of the stomach wall by gas forming bacteria. It is a very rare condition that carries a high mortality rate. Portal venous gas shadow represents elevation of intestinal luminal pressure which manifests as emphysematous gastritis or gastric emphysema. Literature reviews show that the mortality rate is especially high when portal venous gas shadow is present on CT scan. Until recently, the treatment of emphysematous gastritis has been immediate surgical intervention. However, there is a recent trend of avoiding surgery because of the frequent occurrence of post-operative complications such as anastomosis leakage. In addition, aggressive surgical treatment has failed to show significant improvement in prognosis. Recently, the authors experienced a case of emphysematous gastritis accompanied by portal venous gas which was treated successfully by conservative treatment without immediate surgical intervention. Herein, we present a case of emphysematous gastritis with concomitant portal venous air along with literature review.

  16. Emphysematous prostatic abscess with rectoprostatic fistula

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    Po-Cheng Chen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Emphysematous prostatic abscess is a rare but relatively serious infectious disease, and its association with rectoprostatic fistula is extremely unusual. The reported risk factors for this condition include diabetes mellitus, immunosuppression, and prostate surgery. We report a rare case of emphysematous prostatic abscess successfully treated by transurethral drainage. Nonetheless, a rectoprostatic fistula was found postoperatively. The fistula healed spontaneously without fasting or fecal diversion after suprapubic cystostomy and placement of a urethral catheter. This case highlights the importance of surgical drainage for the treatment of an emphysematous prostatic abscess and that conservative treatment can be a safe and effective approach for an associated rectoprostatic fistula.

  17. Emphysematous cystitis--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meira, Carla; Jerónimo, Ana; Oliveira, Carlos; Amaro, Augusta; Granja, Cristina

    2008-12-01

    Emphysematous Cystitis is a primary infection of the bladder with production of gas by bacteria. The infection is uncommon, still has obvious clinical importance due to its morbidity and mortality potential, as the following case enlightens. We report a clinical case of a patient admitted with acute myocardial infarction who developed an acute emphysematous cystitis, a further complication in his long and complex period of hospitalization.

  18. Retraction: Plagiarism in the article Emphysematous cystitis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Retraction: Plagiarism in the article Emphysematous cystitis and emphysematous pyelitis: a clinically misleading association. Mustapha Ahsaini et al. The Pan African Medical Journal. 2013;16:18. (doi:10.11604/pamj.2013.16.18.2505)

  19. Emphysematous epididymo-orchitis: A rare entity

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    Alok Mathur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Emphysematous epididymo-orchitis is a rare cause of an acute scrotum and is a surgical emergency. Diagnosis is clinically difficult, and sonography with a high-frequency probe is useful to pick up gas shadows in the scrotal wall or testicular substance. A diabetic patient presented with fever, urinary tract infection, and an acute scrotal swelling. The patient needed orchidectomy and scrotal debridement. As in emphysematous pyelonephritis, this condition occurs in diabetics, and patients may need surgery. There is a need to perform sonography in all diabetic patients with an acutely inflamed scrotum, because detection of gas shadows makes surgical intervention more likely.

  20. Conservative management of emphysematous pyelonephritis in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M.M. Gargouri

    Three weeks after initial diagnosis, an ureteroscopy plus ballistic lithotripsy of ureteral calculus was realized. A double J stent was inserted and the nephrostomy tube was taken out. The stent was removed after four weeks and the patient had uneventful evolution. Discussion. Emphysematous pyelonephritis (EPN) is a ...

  1. Bilateral Psoas Muscle Abscess Associated with Emphysematous Cystitis

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    Jae-Ki Choi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Psoas muscle abscess associated with emphysematous urinary tract infection is very rare. There were very few reports about urinary tract infections such as renal abscess, perinephric abscess, and emphysematous pyelonephritis complicated with psoas muscle abscess; however, psoas muscle abscess associated with emphysematous cystitis has not yet been reported. Here, we report a case of bilateral posas muscle abscess following emphysematous cystitis in an 81-year-old nondiabetic man, who was treated successfully with prolonged antibiotic therapy and supportive care. Early recognition of psoas muscle abscess can prevent aggressive interventional procedure and warrant good prognosis.

  2. [Emphysematous gastritis secondary to gastric mucormycosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Lezama, Julio; Espinosa-González, Omar; García-Cano, Eugenio; Sánchez-Córdova, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    Mucormycosis is a rare fungal infection of the mucorales order, which affects mostly immunocompromised patients. The association with emphysematous gastritis is rare and often fatal produced by gas -forming bacteria. We report the case of a trauma patient with type 1 diabetes mellitus, and diabetic ketoacidosis complicated with gastric mucormycosis associated with emphysematous gastritis. A male aged 32 who is involved in a car accident, who suffered head trauma, is admitted to the Intensive Care Unit, presenting diabetic ketoacidosis and upper gastrointestinal bleeding. An endoscopy was performed and an erosive esophagitis Class C, ischemia and gastric necrosis was found. A computed tomography scan showed emphysematous gastritis and gastric necrosis. He underwent total gastrectomy with a histopathology report of gastric mucormycosis. After the surgical procedure the patient died because of sepsis secondary to pulmonary mucormycosis Mucormycosis is a rare fungical disease which infrequently affects the gastrointestinal tract, being the stomach the most affected site. The mortality is high if the diagnosis is not done promptly and appropriate treatment is given. Suspecting its existence is necessary in patients with immunocompromised status to diagnose and provide timely treatment to increase survival, because of its high mortality. Copyright © 2015. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A.

  3. Emphysematous and xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis: rare diagnosis

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    Lya Duarte Ramos

    Full Text Available Pyelonephritis is a pyogenic infection of renal parenchyma that involves the renal pelvis. It is generally of easy diagnosis. The present case report aims to describe two different manifestations of this infection: xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis and emphysematous pyelonephritis, which have poor prognosis and require a more effective treatment. The two cases were women in the fiftieth and sixtieth decade of life, with diabetes mellitus and history of weight loss. The diagnosis of the renal infection was established through computed tomography and the treatment was based in surgical procedure, with favorable outcome.

  4. A rare cause of acute lower abdominal pain: Emphysematous cystitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergün, Tarkan; Eldem, Halil Olcay; Lakadamyalı, Hatice

    2014-01-01

    Emphysematous cystitis is a relatively rare infection characterized by the accumulation of air within the urinary bladder wall and bladder lumen. Diabetes mellitus and neurogenic bladder are the major risk factors of emphysematous cystitis. The clinical presentation varies from asymptomatic to fatal disease state. Computed tomography is the best diagnostic imaging modality. Here, we present a case of an 81-year-old woman with poorly controlled type II diabetes mellitus who had acute lower abdominal pain after a percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty which demonstrated emphysematous cystitis caused by Escherichia coli that resolved with antibiotic treatment. PMID:26328151

  5. Fatal Clostridium perfringens sepsis due to emphysematous gastritis and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvari, Karoly Peter; Vasas, Bela; Kiss, Ildiko; Lazar, Andrea; Horvath, Istvan; Simon, Marianna; Peto, Zoltan; Urban, Edit

    2016-08-01

    A 76-year-old female patient was admitted to the Level I Emergency Department of University of Szeged with severe abdominal pain and vomiting. The clinical assessment with laboratory tests and radiological investigations confirmed severe sepsis associated with intravascular hemolysis and multiorgan failure and acute pancreatitis. On the abdominal CT, besides of other abnormalities, the presence of gas bubbles in the stomach, small intestines and liver were seen. The gastric alterations pointed to emphysematous gastritis. Despite of the medical treatment, the patient's condition quickly deteriorated and eight hours after admission the patient died. The autopsy evaluation revealed systemic infection of abdominal origin caused by gas-producing Gram-positive bacteria, and the post-mortem microbiological cultures confirmed the presence of Cloctridium perfringens in many abdominal organs. Emphysematous gastritis seemed to be the primary infectious focus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Emphysematous pyelonephritis in a patient with polycystic kidney ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. A case report demonstrating the plain film and CT findings of emphysematous pyelonephritis in a patient with polycystic kidney disease, an extremely rare occurrence. South African Journal of Radiology Vol. 10 (3) 2006: pp. 30-32 ...

  7. Emphysematous pyometra secondary to Enterococcus avium infection in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, An-Chi; Cheng, Ching-Chang; Wang, Hsien-Chi; Lee, Wei-Ming; Shyu, Ching-Lin; Lin, Cheng-Chung; Chen, Kuan-Sheng

    2016-06-16

    A 5-year-old female intact Mastiff dog was presented with a history of vaginal discharge for 1 day. Physical examination revealed a sanguineo-purulent vaginal discharge and systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Abdominal radiographs showed several dilated and gas- filled tubular loops. The differential diagnoses included emphysematous pyometra or small intestinal mechanical ileus. Surgical exploration of the abdomen demonstrated a severely dilated and gas-filled uterus, and emphysematous pyometra was confirmed. The patient's clinical signs resolved after ovariohysterectomy. Histopathology revealed mild endometrial cystic hyperplasia with infiltration of inflammatory cells in the superficial endometrial epithelia. Enterococcus avium, an α-hemolytic gram-positive coccus, was isolated from the uterus. This paper highlights the radiographic features of emphysematous pyometra and a pathogen that has never been reported to be associated with canine pyometra previously.

  8. Emphysematous gastritis -- case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocepek, A; Skok, P; Virag, M; Kamenik, B; Horvat, M

    2004-08-01

    Emphysematous gastritis is a rare form of phlegmonous gastritis caused by invasion of the stomach wall by gas-forming bacteria. This clinical entity was first described by Fraenkel in 1889. The authors report the case of a 58-year-old patient with end-stage renal failure under treatment with hemodialysis for the past year. He was admitted on account of pain in the lower abdomen. During the diagnostic procedure, emphysematous gastritis and acute cholecystitis were confirmed. An acute abdomen developed and an emergency laparotomy was performed. During the procedure, the necrotic gallbladder was removed. The patient died on the following day due to multiorgan failure and septic shock. According to the literature, emphysematous gastritis is generally a fatal disease. Air in the wall of the stomach is a rare finding with a broad differential diagnosis.

  9. A Rare Case of Septic Shock Secondary to Emphysematous Hepatitis

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    Khaled M. Nada

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To describe a case of emphysematous hepatitis which is a rare clinical entity, characterized by a fatal, rapidly progressive infection of the liver with a radiological appearance simulating emphysematous pyelonephritis and to help provide more data about the causative organisms and precipitating factors of this pathology. Data Sources and Synthesis. Relevant literature was reviewed and, to the best of our knowledge, there is limited data regarding the pathogenesis, causative organisms, and management of this condition. Conclusion. Emphysematous hepatitis is a rapidly progressive infection that can be fatal in the absence of appropriate therapeutic intervention. Initial clinical manifestations are usually subtle and thus high clinical suspicion is required for early diagnosis and management of this condition to help decrease the mortality rates.

  10. A Rare Case of Septic Shock Secondary to Emphysematous Hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nada, Khaled M; El Husseini, Ibrahim; Abu Hishmeh, Mohammad E; Shah, Neerav S; Ibragimova, Nadezhda; Basir, Riyad

    2017-01-01

    To describe a case of emphysematous hepatitis which is a rare clinical entity, characterized by a fatal, rapidly progressive infection of the liver with a radiological appearance simulating emphysematous pyelonephritis and to help provide more data about the causative organisms and precipitating factors of this pathology. Relevant literature was reviewed and, to the best of our knowledge, there is limited data regarding the pathogenesis, causative organisms, and management of this condition. Emphysematous hepatitis is a rapidly progressive infection that can be fatal in the absence of appropriate therapeutic intervention. Initial clinical manifestations are usually subtle and thus high clinical suspicion is required for early diagnosis and management of this condition to help decrease the mortality rates.

  11. Emphysematous pyelonephritis presenting as a sonologically absent kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirag Patel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Emphysematous pyelonephritis is an acute necrotizing infection of the kidney caused by gas-producing organisms. It is being increasingly recognized as an underlying cause of sepsis. We present a case of emphysematous pyelonephritis where the affected kidney was filled with extensive gas. This made the detection of the kidney difficult by ultrasound. Also, this case presents the dilemma of managing a septic patient medically and the risks entailed in surgical intervention in such cases. Most often, these patients have underlying diabetes mellitus with underlying co-morbidities, making indicated surgical management difficult as illustrated by our patient.

  12. CASE REPORT CASE Emphysematous pyelonephritis in a patient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    polycystic kidney disease, an extremely rare occurrence. Introduction. Emphysematous pyelonephritis is a rare, complicated pyelonephritis that is considered life-threatening.1,2. It is extremely rare in the literature in combination with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. We present such a case with pertinent ...

  13. A near-fatal case of emphysematous pyelonephritis: Embracing the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A. Adam

    2017-01-17

    Jan 17, 2017 ... Septic shock. Abstract. Introduction: Emphysematous pyelonephritis (EPN) is a rare, acute, severe infection of the renal parenchyma and its surrounding tissues and is associated with a significant morbidity and mortality. Underlying diabetes is the most commonly associated risk factor. Observation: We ...

  14. A case report of emphysematous cholecystitis associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Emphysematous cholecystitis is an uncommon variant of acute cholecystitis that could be life threatening if not promptly diagnosed and managed. Case report: We report a 65 year old male diabetic who wasadmitted through the surgical emergency unit of Trauma and Surgical Centre, Ondo City on account of ...

  15. Computed tomography in emphysematous pyelonephritis | Ünlüer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... infiltration outlining the right perirenal space (B). Right kidney also had increased attenuation comparing to the left one. The patient was admitted to the urology department with the diagnose of sepsis due to emphysematous pyelonephritis. Right nephrectomy was recommended to the patient with intravenous antibiotics ...

  16. Treatment of a giant pulmonary emphysematous cyst with primary bronchoalveolar papillary carcinoma in a Shih Tzu dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jiyoung; Lee, Hae-Beom; Jeong, Seong Mok

    2017-01-01

    To report the surgical treatment of a pulmonary emphysematous cyst concurrent with primary pulmonary bronchoalveolar papillary carcinoma in a dog. Clinical case report. 12-year-old 6.4 kg spayed female Shih Tzu dog. The dog presented for surgical treatment of pulmonary emphysema. Radiography revealed that more than half of the left caudal lung lobe was enlarged and hyperlucent and computed tomography (CT) confirmed the presence of an emphysematous space. Thoracoscopic lung lobectomy was attempted but was converted to an intercostal thoracotomy due to poor visualization and pleural adhesions. A left caudal total lung lobectomy was performed using a self-cutting endoscopic stapler. The dog recovered uneventfully and a postoperative histopathologic diagnosis of pulmonary cystic bronchoalveolar papillary carcinoma was made. Re-evaluation using a CT scan with contrast study on postoperative days 27 and 177 revealed no evidence of residual, metastatic, or recurrent lesions. The dog has been doing well since surgery during the 11 month follow-up period. This case report suggests a potential relationship between pulmonary emphysematous diseases and primary lung tumors in dogs. © 2016 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  17. Extensive bilateral emphysematous pyelonephritis with calculi managed conservatively with antibiotics and DJ stent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhulika Mahashabde

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Emphysematous pyelonephritis is a life threatening, necrotizing upper urinary tract infection associated with gas within the kidney and/or perinephric space. To prevent mortality from this fulminant infection, early diagnosis is essential. CT scan should be done early in patients with suspected emphysematous pyelonephritis. Here, we present a case of Type II Diabetes Mellitus complicated with left obstructive ureteric calculi, diagnosed on CT scan to have extensive bilateral emphysematous pyelonephritis of class 4. We treated conservatively with antibiotics and DJ stent. The patient responded and a repeat CT scan was done after 4 weeks which showed no evidence of emphysematous pyelonephritis.

  18. A case of emphysematous cystitis caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolazco, José Ignacio; González, Matías Ignacio; Favre, Gabriel; Gueglio, Guillermo; Tejerizo, Juan Carlos

    2017-08-01

    Emphysematous cystitis is a rare type of urinary tract infection that is characterized by air pockets within the bladder wall and lumen, which come from gas that is mainly produced by gram-negative bacteria, notably Escherichia coli. This infection is more common in older women with poorly controlled diabetes. An abdominal computerized tomography (CT) scan is the gold standard method to make the diagnosis. The infection can be life-threatening, so prompt treatment is essential. We present a case of a 39-year-old woman with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes who developed emphysematous cystitis after a bilateral adrenalectomy. The infection was diagnosed by a CT scan that revealed gas in the bladder wall. A urine culture revealed 106 colonies/mL of Klebsiella pneumoniae. After a month of treatment with intravenous antibiotics (vancomycin plus meropenem plus colistin), bladder drainage, and strict glycemic control, the patient had a good outcome.

  19. Hemolytic-uremic syndrome associated with emphysematous cholecystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babott, D; Brozinsky, S; Esseesse, I; Suster, B

    1980-03-01

    A 34-year old man presented with jaundice, nausea and vomiting. He had previously been in good health but was a chronic drug abuser and regularly consumed large amounts of wine. Emphysematous cholecystitis was diagnosed by abdominal radiography. Examination of the peripheral blood smear, blood count and serum chemistries revealed a microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and renal insufficiency. He was treated with antibiotics and intravenous fluids and had clinical, hematologic and biochemical improvement over the course of the next four weeks. At surgery, a chronically inflamed gallbladder, containing multiple stones, was resected. There was no evidence of vasculitis. Although emphysematous cholecystitis associated with hemolytic-uremic syndrome is most unusual, other diseases of infectious etiology have been reported in association with the hemolytic-uremic syndrome. The possible etiologic role of endotoxin is discussed, as are the importance of recognizing the hemolytic-uremic syndrome in patients with underlying or concurrent bacterial infections and the problem of management in such a case.

  20. The inspiratory capacity/total lung capacity ratio as a predictor of survival in an emphysematous phenotype of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Aimee; Balfe, David; Mirocha, James M; Falk, Jeremy A; Mosenifar, Zab

    2015-01-01

    Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) grades severity of COPD and predicts survival. We hypothesize that the inspiratory capacity/total lung capacity (IC/TLC) ratio, a sensitive measure of static lung hyperinflation, may have a significant association with survival in an emphysematous phenotype of COPD. To access the association between IC/TLC and survival in an emphysematous phenotype of COPD. We performed a retrospective analysis of a large pulmonary function (PF) database with 39,050 entries, from April 1978 to October 2009. Emphysematous COPD was defined as reduced FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC), increased TLC, and reduced diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide (DLCO; beyond 95% confidence intervals [CIs]). We evaluated the association between survival in emphysematous COPD patients and the IC/TLC ratio evaluated both as dichotomous (≤25% vs >25%) and continuous predictors. Five hundred and ninety-six patients had reported death dates. Univariate analysis revealed that IC/TLC ≤25% was a significant predictor of death (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.39, P<0.0001). Median survivals were respectively 4.3 (95% CI: 3.8-4.9) and 11.9 years (95% CI: 10.3-13.2). Multivariable analysis revealed age (HR: 1.19, 95% CI: 1.14-1.24), female sex (HR: 0.69, 95% CI: 0.60-0.83), and IC/TLC ≤25% (HR: 1.69, 95% CI: 1.34-2.13) were related to the risk of death. Univariate analysis showed that continuous IC/TLC was associated with death, with an HR of 1.66 (95% CI: 1.52-1.81) for a 10% decrease in IC/TLC. Adjusting for age and sex, IC/TLC ≤25% is related to increased risk of death, and IC/TLC as a continuum, is a significant predictor of mortality in emphysematous COPD patients.

  1. Emphysematous cystitis: An unusual disease of the Genito-Urinary system suspected on imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarna Pawanjit S

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Emphysematous cystitis is a rare disease entity caused by gas fermenting bacterial and fungal pathogens. Clinical symptoms are nonspecific and diagnostic clues often arise from the unanticipated imaging findings. We report a case of 52-year-old male who presented with fever, dysuria and gross hematuria who was found to have emphysematous cystitis.

  2. Teflon strip pneumostasis for excision of giant emphysematous bullae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, J M; Hubbard, W G; Matthews, H R

    1987-01-01

    Excision of giant emphysematous bullae commonly results in a persistent air leak that requires prolonged intercostal drainage and delays recovery. To minimise this we have used Teflon (polytetrafluoroethylene) strips to buttress the suture line and secure pneumostasis. During 1976-84 eight bullae were excised in seven patients. One patient had bilateral staged thoracotomies. All chest drains were removed within eight days (mean 4.5 days) and no patient developed pulmonary complications. At long term follow up (1-9 years, mean 5.5 years) no complications attributable to the Teflon felt have been identified. Images PMID:3324378

  3. The emphysematous lung is abnormally sensitive to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis

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    Milot Julie

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alveolar apoptosis is increased in the emphysematous lung. However, mechanisms involved are not fully understood. Recently, we demonstrated that levels of TRAIL receptor 1 and 2, levels of p53, and Bax/Bcl-xL ratio were elevated in the lung of subjects with emphysema, despite smoking cessation. Thus, we postulate that due to chronic pulmonary oxidative stress, the emphysematous lung would be abnormally sensitive to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. Methodology A549 cells were exposed to rTRAIL, cigarette smoke extract, and/or H2O2 prior to caspase-3 activity measurement and annexin V staining assessment. In addition, freshly resected lung samples were obtained from non-emphysematous and emphysematous subjects and exposed ex vivo to rTRAIL for up to 18 hours. Lung samples were harvested and levels of active caspase-3 and caspase-8 were measured from tissue lysates. Results Both cigarette smoke extract and H2O2 were able to sensitize A549 cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. Moreover, following exposure to rTRAIL, caspase-3 and -8 were activated in lung explants from emphysematous subjects while being decreased in lung explants from non-emphysematous subjects. Significance of the study Alveolar sensitivity to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis is strongly increased in the emphysematous lung due to the presence of oxidative stress. This might be a new mechanism leading to increased alveolar apoptosis and persistent alveolar destruction following smoking cessation.

  4. Post-ERCP Emphysematous Cholecystitis in a Young Woman: A Rare and Potentially Fatal Complication

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    Roisin Stack

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 45-year-old woman with suspected Functional Biliary Sphincter Disorder (FBSD developed Clostridium perfringens related emphysematous cholecystitis after ERCP. A low index of suspicion for emphysematous cholecystitis in this young, otherwise healthy woman led to a significant delay in making the correct diagnosis, and air in the gallbladder was wrongly attributed to a possible gallbladder perforation. ERCP is associated with significant risks, particularly in patients with FBSD, where diagnostic uncertainty renders the balance of risk versus benefit even more critical. Post-ERCP emphysematous cholecystitis secondary to Clostridium perfringens is a rare but potentially fatal complication.

  5. Emphysematous Pyelonephritis and Cystitis: Unusual Adverse Events during Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy for Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Yokoyama

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Various adverse events can occur during antineoplastic therapy. A 67-year-old diabetic woman developed an emphysematous urinary tract infection (UTI associated with chemoradiotherapy for lung cancer. She had received weekly carboplatin plus paclitaxel with thoracic radiotherapy and developed a fever on day 19. Computed tomography showed a large quantity of gas within the urinary tract. She was therefore diagnosed with emphysematous UTI. Poor diabetes control due to the weekly administration of dexamethasone, an existing urinary tract obstruction, and bone marrow suppression were involved in her serious infection. The potential development of emphysematous UTI during chemoradiotherapy should be considered in at-risk patients.

  6. Emphysematous Cystitis During Treatment of Suspected Nonconvulsive Status Epilepticus in Type 2 Diabetic Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Jung Wu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Emphysematous cystitis is a rare disorder and complication of urinary tract infection (UTI, characterized by spontaneous gas formation in the urinary bladder because of bacterial fermentation. We present a case of emphysematous cystitis during treatment of suspected nonconvulsive status epilepticus in a patient with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. The patient recovered satisfactorily after 27 days of hospitalization. Treatment of emphysematous cystitis consisted of adequate urinary drainage, empirical antibiotic therapy, and strict blood glucose control. Diabetic patients are susceptible to an increased incidence of UTI and its complications. An early and correct diagnosis of UTI in diabetic patients followed by adequate treatment will prevent the disease from developing into a serious or life-threatening condition, such as emphysematous cystitis, or progressing to septic shock.

  7. Oral Gavage in Rats: Animal Welfare Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Patricia V.; Vaughn, Elizabeth; Sunohara-Neilson, Janet; Ovari, Jelena; Leri, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    The effect of chronic daily orogastric gavage with water (5 mL/kg) on behavior and physiology was evaluated in male Sprague–Dawley rats. Treatment groups included: unmanipulated control, restraint control, dry gavage, and gavage, with all rats singly housed (n = 9 or 10 per group). In addition, a group of pair-housed rats (n = 18) was included to determine whether social housing affected response to gavage. Weekly body weights and food consumption were recorded as well as use of a nylon chew ...

  8. Spontaneous Resolution of Emphysematous Gastritis with Vaso-occlusive Disease–A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Nair, Rajesh; Agrawal, Saurabh; Nayal, Bhavna

    2013-01-01

    Emphysematous gastritis secondary to vaso-occlusive disease is a surgical emergency. It is a rare yet severe form of widespread phlegmonous gastritis. It is caused by corrosive ingestion, alcohol abuse, and on rare occasions, infections. The clinical presentation is diagnostic with supportive information from contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) of the abdomen and gastroduodenoscopy. Here, we describe a case of emphysematous gastritis with spontaneous vaso-occlusive disease that was s...

  9. Non-emphysematous chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is associated with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersh, Craig P; Make, Barry J; Lynch, David A; Barr, R Graham; Bowler, Russell P; Calverley, Peter M A; Castaldi, Peter J; Cho, Michael H; Coxson, Harvey O; DeMeo, Dawn L; Foreman, Marilyn G; Han, MeiLan K; Harshfield, Benjamin J; Hokanson, John E; Lutz, Sharon; Ramsdell, Joe W; Regan, Elizabeth A; Rennard, Stephen I; Schroeder, Joyce D; Sciurba, Frank C; Steiner, Robert M; Tal-Singer, Ruth; van Beek, Edwin; Silverman, Edwin K; Crapo, James D

    2014-10-24

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been classically divided into blue bloaters and pink puffers. The utility of these clinical subtypes is unclear. However, the broader distinction between airway-predominant and emphysema-predominant COPD may be clinically relevant. The objective was to define clinical features of emphysema-predominant and non-emphysematous COPD patients. Current and former smokers from the Genetic Epidemiology of COPD Study (COPDGene) had chest computed tomography (CT) scans with quantitative image analysis. Emphysema-predominant COPD was defined by low attenuation area at -950 Hounsfield Units (LAA-950) ≥10%. Non-emphysematous COPD was defined by airflow obstruction with minimal to no emphysema (LAA-950 diabetes was more frequent in non-emphysematous COPD (OR 2.13, p definition of diabetes based on medication use. The association between diabetes and non-emphysematous COPD was replicated in the ECLIPSE study. Non-emphysematous COPD, defined by airflow obstruction with a paucity of emphysema on chest CT scan, is associated with an increased risk of diabetes. COPD patients without emphysema may warrant closer monitoring for diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia and vice versa. Clinicaltrials.gov identifiers: COPDGene NCT00608764, ECLIPSE NCT00292552.

  10. Medical image of the week: infected emphysematous bulla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatty N

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A 65 year-old man with chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD, hypertension and alcohol abuse presented to the emergency department with complaints of feeling unwell and shortness of breath. He was tachycardic but otherwise hemodynamically stable, afebrile, and requiring 3 liters/min supplemental oxygen. Pertinent initial laboratory findings revealed a neutrophilic predominant leukocytosis (WBC 37.8 x 103 micro/L with lactic acidosis (2.7 mMol/L. Chest radiograph showed a dense opacity within the region of the lingula (Figure 1. Follow-up CT chest confirmed a consolidation likely representing lobar pneumonia in the setting of severe bullous emphysema (Figure 2. A large fluid-containing emphysematous bulla (Figure 3 was present which was not visualized one year prior. He was started on broad spectrum antibiotics after peripheral blood cultures were drawn which revealed Streptococcus pneumoniae. Broad spectrum antibiotics were discontinued and patient was started on intravenous ceftriaxone 2g every 24 hours. He improved clinically and was discharged home …

  11. Emphysematous pyelonephritis: an 8-year retrospective review across four acute hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsu, James Hok-Leung; Chan, Chun-Ki; Chu, Ringo Wing-Hong; Law, In-Chak; Kong, Chi-Kwan; Liu, Pak-Ling; Cheung, Fu-Keung; Yiu, Ming-Kwong

    2013-07-01

    To retrospectively review our experience of managing patients with emphysematous pyelonephritis (EPN). Case notes of patients with EPN were reviewed. The patients' demographic data, clinical presentation, investigation findings, treatment, and outcome were studied. Twelve patients were diagnosed with EPN. Majority (66.7%) of them had diabetes mellitus. All patients had been evaluated by computed tomography (CT). Using the classification proposed by Wan et al, five patients had type 1 EPN, whereas six, two, and four patients had Huang and Tseng CT class 2, 3a, and 3b EPN, respectively. Immediate nephrectomy was performed in six patients, whereas conservative treatment was adopted in the other six. In the nephrectomy group, one patient died of disseminated sepsis after a protracted course. Conservative treatment failed in three patients, who succumbed despite salvage nephrectomy in two of them. Analysis revealed that severe hyperglycemia and radiological CT class (both Wan and Huang systems) were significant predictors of mortality from EPN. Severe hyperglycemia and CT class of EPN are significant risk factors for death. CT is the investigation of choice for correct diagnosis of EPN. Additional intervention should be offered to EPN patients with Wan type 1 and Huang and Tseng class 3 CT features. Copyright © 2013, Asian Surgical Association. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC. All rights reserved.

  12. Emphysematous gastritis causing gastric and esophageal necrosis in a young boy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Nitin; Kumar, Sunil; Sharma, Mriganka Sekhar; Agrawal, Ritesh; Joshi, Mohit

    2009-01-01

    Emphysematous gastritis is a rapidly fatal and rare type of infectious gastritis. It may lead to involvement of esophagus, and organ necrosis, in its severe form. A 16-year-old, previously healthy, boy presenting with acute abdomen was diagnosed to have emphysematous gastritis on CT scan. During laparotomy, there was complete necrosis of the stomach, with patchy esophageal involvement. Aggressive management in the form of total gastrectomy, and later, transthoracic esophagectomy was done. However, it failed to alter the course of the illness, and the patient succumbed to the illness. Emphysematous gastritis is rare in young patients without known risk factors. Also, only two previous cases have been reported with esophageal involvement. We have presented this case with a brief review of literature.

  13. Emphysematous pyelonephritis: A consequence of adenocarcinoma of urinary bladder in a nondiabetic patient

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    Singh I

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Emphysematous pyelonephritis (EP is a life threatening condition of acute necrotising renal parenchymal infection that encompasses a much wider spectrum of complicated urinary tract infections such as renal abscesses, emphysematous pyelitis, pyelonephritis, acute renal papillary necrosis, and sepsis. We report an unusual case of adenocarcinoma bladder in a middle aged nondiabetic patient, presenting with EP. Emphysematous pyelonephritis was the initial symptom in this case with an underlying carcinoma of the bladder. The role of imaging is prime in management of such cases, if an early diagnosis is to be made and a potentially devastating outcome is to be avoided. The literature regarding EP has been reviewed and discussed. The goals of managing EP should be (1 early institution of parenteral antibiotics and a (2 a staged nephrectomy (preceded by a temporary percutaneous drainage particularly with antibiotic resistant septicemia so as to maximize survival rather than proceeding directly to emergency nephrectomy.

  14. Imaging in emphysematous epididymo-orchitis: A rare cause of acute scrotum

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    Anitha Mandava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Emphysematous epididymo-orchitis is an uncommon, acute inflammatory process of epididymis and testis characterized by the presence of air within the tissue. Patient presents with fever, acute pain, swelling and tenderness in the scrotum. Imaging is needed for rapid accurate diagnosis and to differentiate it from other causes of acute scrotum such as testicular torsion. We report a case of emphysematous epididymo-orchitis with imaging findings on plain radiography, ultrasound, CT and MRI and a brief review of the literature.

  15. [A case of emphysematous gastritis in a patient with end-stage renal disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Geun Jun; Park, Koung Suk; Park, Tae Woon; Woo, Meung Yeul; Han, Ki Jun; Lee, Sang Cheul; Cho, Jae Hee

    2011-07-01

    Emphysematous gastritis is a rare infection of the stomach wall with high mortality rate. It is caused by gas forming organisms and may arise by local spread through the mucosa or hematogenous dissemination from distant focus. Clinical manifestation includes acute abdomen with systemic toxicity, and diagnosis is based on radiologic demonstration of gas within the gastric wall. Treatment should be aimed to cover gram-negative organisms and anaerobes using wide-spectrum intravenous antibiotics, and sometimes surgical management may be needed in order to enhance survival. Herein, we report a case of emphysematous gastritis in a patient with end stage renal disease on hemodialysis.

  16. Pathology of emphysematous pyelonephritis: A study of 11 cases

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    Archana Laxman Khade

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective was to study the pathological features of emphysematous pyelonephritis (EPN. Materials and Methods: A total of 11 nephrectomy specimens of EPN received in the surgical pathology section of a tertiary hospital in a metropolis city during the period 2005-2014 are included in this study. Clinical details were obtained from the patients′ records. All the patients had undergone total nephrectomy. All the specimens were fixed in 10% buffered formalin and processed for paraffin wax sectioning. The sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin stain. Results: The most common symptoms were fever and costovertebral pain. Diabetes mellitus was present in 9 out of 11 cases and one case had calculus in the pelvis. One patient had underlying diabetes which was undiagnosed during the nephrectomy. Diagnosis of EPN was confirmed by the presence of gas and fluid in the renal tissue by computed tomography. The left kidney (nine cases, 81% was more frequently affected than the right kidney (two cases, 19%. EPN occurred in 40-60 years of age (mean age 51.5%, and out of 11 patients, 8 (81% were female. Escherichia coli was the commonly isolated organism from urine. Eight cases were of Type II EPN and three cases were Type I EPN. Histopathologic examination of all the cases of EPN showed acute suppurative (necrotizing inflammation of renal parenchyma and perirenal tissues associated with vasculitis of vessels and infarction. Conclusion: EPN is most commonly seen in patients with diabetes mellitus, and E. coli is the most common causative organism.

  17. Oral Gavage in Rats: Animal Welfare Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Patricia V; Vaughn, Elizabeth; Sunohara-Neilson, Janet; Ovari, Jelena; Leri, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    The effect of chronic daily orogastric gavage with water (5 mL/kg) on behavior and physiology was evaluated in male Sprague–Dawley rats. Treatment groups included: unmanipulated control, restraint control, dry gavage, and gavage, with all rats singly housed (n = 9 or 10 per group). In addition, a group of pair-housed rats (n = 18) was included to determine whether social housing affected response to gavage. Weekly body weights and food consumption were recorded as well as use of a nylon chew toy for enrichment. Feces were collected biweekly at the end of the light and dark phases for fecal corticoid metabolite determinations. After 28 d of treatment, animals underwent conditioned place preference testing to evaluate sensitivity to motivational properties of the anxiolytic drug chlordiazepoxide (5.6 mg/kg SC). Brain and paired adrenal gland weights were collected at necropsy. Week 2 total fecal corticosterone levels were elevated in all groups and attributed to a fire alarm accidentally tripped during building renovations. No differences occurred in body weight or food consumption between any groups. All groups used a nylon chew toy given for enrichment and demonstrated mild preference for the drug-associated chamber. Fecal weights and corticoid metabolite levels were similar between all groups at week 4 and showed normal diurnal variation. No biologically significant variations were noted in brain or paired adrenal gland to body weight ratios. We conclude that orogastric gavage of aqueous solutions at 5 mL/kg does not negatively affect the welfare of laboratory rats acclimated to handling. PMID:22330864

  18. Radiological evidences from emphysematous cholecystitis. Manifestaciones radiologicas de la colecistitis enfisematosas

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    Martin Garcia, V.; Ganado Diaz, T.; Cabeza Martinez, B.; Montoro Martos, E.; Contreras Cecilia, E. (Hospital Clinico Universitario ' ' San Carlos' ' . Servicio de Radiodiagnostico. Madrid (Spain))

    1993-05-01

    Emphysematous cholecystitits is an uncommon clinical disorder, the diagnosis of which is based on the demonstration of the presence of gas in the vesicular wall and/or lumen. We present 9 cases studied by means of simple radiography, ultrasonography and abdominal CT scan. The diagnosis was based in every case on imaging methods and was confirmed surgically. (Author)

  19. Five-year cohort study: emphysematous progression of indium-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Makiko; Omae, Kazuyuki; Uchida, Kazuhiko; Michikawa, Takehiro; Yoshioka, Noriyuki; Hirata, Miyuki; Tanaka, Akiyo

    2014-11-01

    Dose-dependent adverse lung effects due to indium exposure have been reported in a cross-sectional study. This is a 5-year longitudinal cohort study of indium-exposed and unexposed workers, assessing indium exposure levels and its clinical lung effects. From 2008 to 2011, a 5-year follow-up study was conducted on 40 unexposed and 240 workers formerly or currently exposed to indium at 11 factories. Indium exposure was assessed by serum indium (In-S) (μg/L). Lung effects were assessed by subjective symptoms, serum biomarkers, spirometry, and chest high-resolution CT scan. Effect biomarkers used were Krebs von den Lungen and surfactant protein D. Mean values of In-S, Krebs von den Lungen, and surfactant protein D among the workers exposed to indium at baseline declined during the 5-year follow-up by 29.8%, 27.2%, and 27.5%, respectively. Of the exposed subjects with In-S levels > 20 μg/L, 26.3% experienced emphysematous progression on high-resolution CT scan. Ninety percent (18 of 20) of workers with emphysematous progression during follow-up were current smokers at baseline, and a trend of increasing incidence of emphysematous progression at higher In-S levels was observed among the smokers (P = .005). Emphysematous changes among subjects with In-S levels > 20 μg/L were likely to progress, after adjusting for age, mean duration since initial indium exposure, and smoking history (OR = 10.49, 95% CI = 1.54-71.36). Long-term adverse effects on emphysematous changes were observed. The results suggest workers exposed to indium with In-S levels > 20 μg/L should be immediately removed from exposure.

  20. Acute bilateral emphysematous pyelonephritis successfully managed by medical therapy alone: A case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calleja Juan

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bilateral emphysematous pyelonephritis is a life threatening condition usually occurring in diabetics. Management of this condition has traditionally been aggressive and surgery is considered mandatory. However, this is itself a hazardous intervention in a septic, unstable patient with circulatory or liver failure. When bilateral disease is present, the need for long-term dialysis is obviously unavoidable. Case presentation We herein report one of the few cases of bilateral emphysematous pyelonephritis successfully managed by non-surgical treatment.

  1. A 16-year-old boy with emphysematous gastritis and oesophageal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusef, Daniel; Waran, Ariane; Vamvakiti, Ekaterini

    2014-09-11

    Emphysematous gastritis is a rare and frequently fatal condition caused by invasion of gas-forming bacteria into the gastric wall. There have only been a handful of reported cases in the paediatric population, and none of these have evidence of candidal infection or mucormycosis. Patients typically present with abdominal pain, vomiting, malaena and haematemesis. Risk factors for emphysematous gastritis are those that interfere with the natural barriers to infection in the stomach. Diagnosis is made on the basis of typical appearances on abdominal CT. Treatment is generally conservative with surgery reserved for failed medical management or later complications. Antimicrobial cover should be broad with a low threshold for antifungals. It is important to look for predisposing factors for this condition, perhaps including an assessment of the patient's immunocompetency. We present a 16-year-old boy with global developmental delay who presented with this condition associated with candidal infection. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  2. Successful medical management of emphysematous gastritis with concomitant portal venous air: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiss Stan L

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The causes of diffuse abdominal pain following pelvic surgery are numerous. We present a rare case of acute abdominal pain in a woman in the post-partum period. Case presentation A 25-year-old Caucasian woman with neurofibromatosis type 1 presented to our hospital with diffuse abdominal pain immediately after a cesarean section. The patient was acutely ill and toxic with a fever of 38.8°C, a pulse of 120 beats per minute and a distended abdomen with absent bowel sounds. A computed tomography scan showed air in the wall of the stomach and portal venous system. The patient was successfully treated with intravenous antibiotics, bowel rest and total parenteral nutrition. Conclusion It is rare for a case of emphysematous gastritis associated with portal venous air to be treated successfully without surgery. To the best of our knowledge, to date there has been no reported association of emphysematous gastritis with neurofibromatosis.

  3. Emphysematous pyelitis and cystitis associated with vesicoureteral reflux in a diabetic dog

    OpenAIRE

    Fabbi, Martina; Manfredi, Sabrina; Bianchi, Ezio; Gnudi, Giacomo; Miduri, Francesca; Volta, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    A 12-year-old female dog with a 3-month history of poor response to diabetes treatment had an acute worsening of symptoms, including weakness and blindness. The dog had elevated blood glucose, alkaline phosphatase and urea concentration, hyposthenuria, glycosuria, hematuria, and pyuria. Escherichia coli was isolated from the urine. Radiographs and ultrasound examination showed that the dog had unilateral emphysematous pyelitis and concurrent cystitis associated with vesicoureteral reflux.

  4. A rare occurrence of hepatic portal venous gas in emphysematous pyelonephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debraj Sen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic portal venous gas (HPVG is an uncommon radiological sign and often portends significant underlying abdominal disease. A number of conditions may produce this sign and identifying the underlying etiology is essential for management. The advent of ultrasonography-color Doppler imaging and computerized tomography has led to more frequent recognition of this condition. This article describes the very rare association of HPVG in a patient with emphysematous pyelonephritis.

  5. [Emphysematous pyelonephritis: report of a case and review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco Díez, A; Barbagelata López, A; Fernández Rosado, E; Casas Muíño, R; Chantada Abal, V; González Martín, M

    2003-10-01

    Emphysematous pyelonephritis is a necrotizing renal parenquima infection, which is diabetes mellitus related in almost all cases. This is life threatening and has a high mortality rates despite aggressive management. The most important thing in management is a high diagnostic suspicious and also a rapid treatment, which means nephrectomy. We expose a case giving especial importance to clinical and image diagnose as treatment and evolution. We also make a literature review trying to understand this entity and find pathways for its therapeutic management.

  6. Giant to small emphysematous bullae induced by Sephadex beads and carrageenan.

    OpenAIRE

    Mitsuhashi, T.; Shimazaki, M.; Chanoki, Y.; Kuwahara, H.; Masuda, H.; Sakai, T.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of disturbances of the pulmonary circulation on the formation of pulmonary emphysematous bullae in rabbits were studied with the use of changes in the parenchyma of lungs insulted by both pulmonary embolization with Sephadex beads and carrageenan-induced pneumonia. Rabbits given one of the larger doses of Sephadex and then carrageenan in solution had giant bullous lesions in the lobe treated with those agents 2 months later. More animals had bullous lesions in the groups given the...

  7. Evaluation of the Ramazzini Foundation Study of Methanol in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaluation of the Ramazzini Foundation Study of Methanol in Rats: A Comparison of Diagnoses by the RF Study Pathologist and a Recent NTP Review Team, summarized by George Cruzan and submitted to the Methanol Institute

  8. Frühe bildgebende Diagnostik der emphysematösen Pyelonephritis mit gangräneszierender Destruktion und Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loewenhardt B

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Die ein- oder beidseitige emphysematöse Pyelonephritis gehört zu den potentiell lebensbedrohlichen Komplikationen bei Diabetes mellitus und anderen immunsupprimierenden Erkrankungen. Bei bekannter hoher Mortalität ist eine frühe und eindeutige Diagnosesicherung mittels Computertomographie zur Einleitung einer effektiven Therapie erforderlich. Wir berichten über eine 77-jährige Diabetikerin, die trotz Nephrektomie und Breitbandantibiose sowie intensivmedizinischer Behandlung im septischen Multiorganversagen verstarb. Die CT zeigte die typischen intrarenalen und retroperitonealen Gaseinschlüsse als Ausdruck eines Stadiums III der emphysematösen Pyelonephritis.

  9. Emphysematous pyelonephritis: A rare life-threatening complication after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Su Ho; Chung, Dong Jin; Yeo, Dong Myung; Sonh, Dong Wan; Hahn, Sung Tae [Yeouido St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Emphysematous pyelonephritis (EPN), caused by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), has not been reported in the literature; and the mechanism of this disease is unknown. Although many studies have conjectured about the various causes of EPN, ESWL was not one of them. The patient in this report was a 65-year-old woman with a past medical history of diabetes; the patient underwent an ESWL that caused the EPN. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an EPN case that was caused by ESWL.

  10. Construction and evaluation of rats' tolerogenic dendritic cells (DC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Construction and evaluation of rats' tolerogenic dendritic cells (DC) induced by NF-κB ... Department of Clinical Laboratory Hematology, Affiliated Hospital of Guiyang Medical College, Guiyang Medical ... through detection of specific markers OX-62; 4) Evaluation of mature state of DC via the determination of the expression.

  11. Emphysematous Cystitis Occurred in the Case Treated with Steroid for Autoimmune Hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tateki Yoshino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Emphysematous cystitis is a rare clinically entity, more commonly seen in diabetic, immunocompromised patients, which was characterized by air within the bladder wall and lumen. A 83-year-old woman was introduced to our department with fever elevation and abnormal findings of computed tomography (CT. She took orally prednisolone for autoimmune hepatitis. Pelvic CT revealed diffuse air throughout the bladder wall. Urinalysis showed combined hematuria and pyuria. Escherichia coli was detected in blood culture. Abnormal findings of complete blood count and laboratory examination included an elevated WBC count (12,200/L, C-reactive protein (11.7 mg/dL, and creatinine (1.07 mg/dL. Cystoscopy confirmed diffuse submucosal emphysema throughout. On the basis of diagnosis with emphysematous cystitis, she was treated with antibiotics based on the results of blood culture and indwelling Foley catheter. After treatment, the improvement of inflammatory findings and submucosal emphysema on cystoscopy and CT were achieved.

  12. Ablation of weak emphysematous visceral pleura by an ultrasonically activated device for spontaneous pneumothorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funai, Kazuhito; Suzuki, Kazuya; Shimizu, Kei; Shiiya, Norihiko

    2011-06-01

    Staple bullectomy is widely performed for the thoracoscopic treatment of spontaneous pneumothorax. When weak emphysematous change was observed to extend to the whole pleura around the localized bulla, weak emphysematous pleura always remain around the stapler after bullectomy. Such cases along with weak pleural surfaces around staplers belong to the groups at high risk of postoperative recurrence. We performed thoracoscopic ablation using an ultrasonically activated device (USAD) for such lesions and studied the efficacy. From April 2002 to December 2006, a total of 85 surgeries for spontaneous pneumothorax were performed in this hospital, of which 34 cases underwent ablation with a USAD for a weak pleural surface. No complications due to ablation were observed. Recurrence was observed in four subjects, but the cause of recurrence was the regeneration of a bulla outside the range of the ablation and was unrelated to the ablation itself. Moreover, significant white pleural thickening was observed at the ablation sites, demonstrating a stiffening effect of the weak visceral pleura. Ablation using a USAD is a safe and easy operative method, and it is an appropriate operative system as a stiffening procedure for a visceral pleura.

  13. Rectal dexmedetomidine in rats: evaluation of sedative and mucosal effects

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    Volkan Hanci

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In this study, we investigated the anesthetic and mucosal effects of the rectal application of dexmedetomidine to rats. METHODS: Male Wistar albino rats weighing 250-300 g were divided into four groups: Group S (n = 8 was a sham group that served as a baseline for the normal basal values; Group C (n = 8 consisted of rats that received the rectal application of saline alone; Group IPDex (n = 8 included rats that received the intraperitoneal application of dexmedetomidine (100 µg kg-1; and Group RecDex (n = 8 included rats that received the rectal application of dexmedetomidine (100 µg kg-1. For the rectal drug administration, we used 22 G intravenous cannulas with the stylets removed. We administered the drugs by advancing the cannula 1 cm into the rectum, and the rectal administration volume was 1 mL for all the rats. The latency and anesthesia time (min were measured. Two hours after rectal administration, 75 mg kg-1 ketamine was administered for intraperitoneal anesthesia in all the groups, followed by the removal of the rats' rectums to a distal distance of 3 cm via an abdominoperineal surgical procedure. We histopathologically examined and scored the rectums. RESULTS: Anesthesia was achieved in all the rats in the Group RecDex following the administration of dexmedetomidine. The onset of anesthesia in the Group RecDex was significantly later and of a shorter duration than in the Group IPDEx (p < 0.05. In the Group RecDex, the administration of dexmedetomidine induced mild-moderate losses of mucosal architecture in the colon and rectum, 2 h after rectal inoculation. CONCLUSION: Although 100 µg kg-1 dexmedetomidine administered rectally to rats achieved a significantly longer duration of anesthesia compared with the rectal administration of saline, our histopathological evaluations showed that the rectal administration of 100 µg kg-1 dexmedetomidine led to mild-moderate damage to the mucosal structure of the

  14. A Case of Complicated Urinary Tract Infection: Klebsiella pneumoniae Emphysematous Cystitis presenting as Abdominal Pain in the Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhingra, Kapil R

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes an atypical presentation of an atypical disease entity: Emphysematous Cystitis, a rapidly progressive, ascending urinary tract infection, in an emergency department (ED patient whose chief complaint was abdominal pain and who had a urinalysis not consistent with the diagnosis of cystitis.

  15. Pharmacological Evaluation and Antifertility Activity of Jatropha gossypifolia in Rats

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    Sachin Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Pharmacological and antifertility activity evaluation of Jatropha gossypifolia in rats. Methods. The antifertility activity of the extracts of Jatropha gossypifolia in rats was evaluated using two experimental animal models. Estrogenic activity was evaluated in immature female rats using ethinyl estradiol as standard. Anti-implantation and early abortifacient activity was performed in female Wistar rats by determining the number of implantations and implantation resorptions. Results. In estrogenic activity evaluations, the ethanolic and aqueous extracts offered significant estrogen-like activity at 400 mg kg−1 p.o. by increasing the uterine weight compared to vehicle control group. Ethanolic extract (400 mg kg−1, p.o. treatment significantly decreased the number of implants and increased the number of resorptions compared to vehicle control group. Conclusion. The results of the present study provide the evidence of the anti-fertility activity of Jatropha gossypifolia as claimed in the traditional use. The results are consistent with the literature reports related to the antifertility effect of flower extracts of Jatropha gossypifolia.

  16. Haematological evaluation of Wistar rats exposed to chronic doses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cadmium and mercury present in the environment, cause blood disorders. This study was conducted to evaluate the influence of cadmium, mercury and their combination on hematological parameters of Wistar rats. For this purpose, two different doses of each metal and their combination were administered orally for 28 ...

  17. Safety evaluation studies of Citrullus colocynthis for diabetes in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K Atole

    Full Text Available An experiment conducted in the department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Nagpur Veterinary College, Nagpur reported Citrullus colocynthis to posses antidiabetic effect in rats at the rate of 50 mg/kg b.w and 100mg/kg b.w. So it was decided to also evaluate the safety of Citrullus colocynthis in rats at its antidiabetic dose. The experiment was conducted for 28 days .18 wistar rats were divided into three groups containing six rats in each group. Group T1 was maintained as normal control, whereas groups T2 and T3 received aqueous extract of Citrullus colocynthis @ 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight. Haematological and Biochemical estimations were done at the end of experiment i.e. on 29th day by using standard kits. Rats were then sacrificed and histopathological examinations were done. The results obtained showed that Citrullus colocynthis is safe at its antidiabetic dose and is safe for use as an antidiabetic remedy. [Vet World 2009; 2(11.000: 423-425

  18. Work performance evaluation using the exercising rat model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stavert, D.M.; Lehnert, B.E.

    1987-01-01

    A treadmill-metabolic chamber system and a stress testing protocol have been developed to evaluate aerobic work performance on exercising rats that have inhaled toxic substances. The chamber with an enclosed treadmill provides the means to measure the physiologic status of rats during maximal work intensities in terms of O/sub 2/ consumption (V/sub 02/) and CO/sub 2/ production (V/sub c02/). The metabolic chamber can also accommodate instrumented rats for more detailed analyses of their cardiopulmonary status, e.g., ECG, cardiac output, arterial blood gases and pH, and arterial and venous blood pressures. For such studies, an arterial/venous catheter preparation is required. Because of the severe metabolic alterations after such surgery, a post surgical recovery strategy using hyperalimentation was developed to ensure maximal performance of instrumented animals during stress testing. Actual work performance studies are conducted using an eight minute stress test protocol in which the rat is subjected to increasing external work. The metabolic state of the animal is measured from resting levels to maximum oxygen consumption (V/sub 02max/). V/sub 02max/ has been shown to be reproducible in individual rats and is a sensitive indicator of oxidant gas-induced pulmonary damage. 3 tabs.

  19. Recombinant Human Keratinocyte Growth Factor Induces Akt Mediated Cell Survival Progression in Emphysematous Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash Muyal, Jai; Kumar, Dhananjay; Kotnala, Sudhir; Muyal, Vandana; Kumar Tyagi, Amit

    2015-07-01

    Emphysema has been associated with decreased VEGF and VEGFR-2 expression and the presence of high numbers of apoptotic alveolar cells. Keratinocyte growth factor stimulates VEGF synthesis which in turn confers normal lung structure maintenance via the Akt pathway. In this study the potential role of rHuKGF in the improvement of deregulated Akt mediated cell survival pathway in emphysematous mice was investigated. Three experimental groups, i.e., emphysema, treatment and control groups, were prepared. Lungs of mice were treated on 3 occasions by oropharyngeal instillation of 10mg rHuKGF per kg body weight after induction of emphysema with porcine pancreatic elastase. Subsequently, lung tissues from mice were collected for histopathology and molecular biology studies. Histopathology photomicrographs and destructive index analysis have shown that elastase-induced airspace enlargement and loss of alveoli recovered in the treatment group. rHuKGF stimulates VEGF production which in turn induces the Akt mediated cell survival pathway in emphysematous lungs. mRNA expression of VEGF, VEGFR, PI3K and Akt was significantly increased while Pten, Caspase-9 and Bad was notably decreased in treatment group when compared with emphysema group, being comparable with the control group. Moreover, VEGF protein expression was in accordance with that found for mRNA. Therapeutic rHuKGF supplementation improves the deregulated Akt pathway in emphysema, resulting in alveolar cell survival through activation of the endogenous VEGF-dependent cell survival pathway. Hence rHuKGF may prove to be a potential drug in the treatment of emphysema. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Espana.

  20. Evaluation of developmental neurotoxicity of polysorbate 80 in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ema, Makoto; Hara, Hiroaki; Matsumoto, Mariko; Hirata-Koizumi, Mutsuko; Hirose, Akihiko; Kamata, Eiichi

    2008-01-01

    The developmental neurotoxicity of polysorbate 80 (PS80) was evaluated in rats. Crl:CD(SD) rats were given drinking water containing PS80 at 0, 0.018, 0.13, 1.0, or 7.5% (0, 0.035, 0.245, 1.864, or 16.783ml/kgbw/day) on day 0 of pregnancy through day 21 after delivery. Pregnant rats were allowed to deliver spontaneously. Potential adverse effects of pre- and post-natal exposure on the development and function of the nervous system in offspring of rats given PS80 were examined. Maternal body weight was lowered at 7.5%. Number of pups born was lowered at 7.5%. There were no compound-related effects on locomotor activity of offspring on postnatal days (PNDs) 14-15, 17-18, 20-21 and 33-37. No compound-related changes were found in developmental landmarks, sexual maturation, or reflex responses. Although decreased rate of avoidance responses was noted on PNDs 23-27 in male and female offspring at 7.5%, no compound-related changes were found in performance in the conditioned avoidance response on PNDs 60-67. Histopathological examinations of the brain revealed no toxicological changes. Lowered body weight was observed in male and female offspring at 7.5%. The NOAEL in this study was considered to be 1.0% (1.864ml/mg/kgbw/day).

  1. Subchronic toxicity evaluation of potassium bromate in Fischer 344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Darol E; Layko, Debra K; Cantwell, Katherine E; Willson, Gabrielle A; Thomas, Russell S

    2013-11-01

    Male F344 rats were exposed to potassium bromate (KBrO₃) in drinking water at concentrations of 0, 5, 20, 100, 200, or 400 mg/L for 2 or 13 weeks. Endpoints evaluated included clinical observations, body weights, serum chemistry, gross pathology, organ weights, and select tissue histopathology (kidney, lung, liver, thyroid, and tunica vaginalis). Weekly body weight and water consumption means were similar between KBrO₃ and control groups throughout the study. Increases in kidney weights were observed in rats of the 400 mg/L group following 2- or 13-weeks exposure. Hyaline droplets were observed in renal tubules of rats of the 200 and 400 mg/L groups following 2 weeks exposure and in rats of the 400 mg/L group at 13 weeks. There were no KBrO₃-related microscopic findings in the lung, liver, thyroid, and tunica vaginalis at the 2- and 13-week time points. A no observed effect level of 100 mg/L KBrO₃ (8.1 mg/kg/day) was selected based on the absence of microscopic alterations in the kidney. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of obesity and tobacco smoke exposure on inflammatory mediators and matrix metalloproteinases in rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel, Ana Laura; Pérez-Ramos, J; Cisneros, J; Herrera, I; Rivera-Rosales, R; Montaño, M; Ramos, C

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is characterized by hypertrophy of adipose tissue and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by lung damage; both diseases are associated with systemic low-grade inflammation. There are no animal models combining obesity and COPD; therefore, these diseases were induced simultaneously in rats to analyze their effects on the expression of inflammatory mediators and enzymes involved in lung tissue remodeling. Obesity was induced with sucrose (30%) for 4 months concomitant with tobacco smoke exposure (20 cigarettes/day, 5 days/wk) for the last 2 months. Were evaluated: body weight, abdominal fat, dyslipidemia, glucose tolerance test (GTT), histology, inflammatory mediators with qPCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2), MMP-9, MMP-12, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 through qRT-PCR, and MMP-2 and MMP-9 by gelatin zymography. The rats on a sucrose diet exhibited increased body weight, abdominal fat, triglycerides, GTT, and plasma levels of insulin, adiponectin, leptin, resistin, IL-6, IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and IFN-γ, upregulated lung IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α and IFN-γ, showing hyperplastic bronchial and alveolar epithelium. The animals exposed to sucrose and tobacco smoke exhibited decreased body weight, abdominal fat and plasma levels of leptin, resistin, IL-1β and IFN-γ, reducing inflammation but showing emphysematous lesions. Expression of gelatinases and MMP-12 augmented in the rats exposed to tobacco smoke alone or combined with sucrose. Zymography showed prominent gelatinases activity in all the experimental groups. These results suggest that simultaneous exposure to sucrose and tobacco smoke decreases inflammation but results in emphysematous lesions similar to those observed with tobacco smoke exposure, suggesting that obesity does not confer any protective effect against lung damage.

  3. Evaluation of the developmental toxicity of annatto in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paumgartten, F J R; De-Carvalho, R R; Araujo, I B; Pinto, F M; Borges, O O; Souza, C A M; Kuriyama, S N

    2002-11-01

    Annatto, a dye extracted from Bixa orellana seeds, is used as a color additive in butter, cheese and in a variety of other foods as well as in drugs and cosmetics. Toxicological data on annatto and on its main carotenoid pigment bixin are still scarce. In this study we evaluated the developmental toxicity of annatto (28% of bixin). Annatto (0, 31.2, 62.5, 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight/day) was given by gavage to Wistar rats on days 6-15 of pregnancy. Ceasarean sections were performed on day 21. Implantations, living and dead fetuses and resorptions were recorded. Fetuses were weighed and examined for externally-visible anomalies. One-third of fetuses from each litter was examined for visceral anomalies by a microsectioning technique. The remaining fetuses were cleared and stained with Alizarin Red S for skeleton evaluation. No adverse effect of annatto on the mothers was noted. No increase in embryolethality and no reduction of fetal body weight were observed among annatto-exposed rats. Annatto did not induce any increase in the incidence of externally-visible, visceral or skeletal anomalies in the exposed offspring. These findings suggest that annatto was neither maternally toxic nor embryotoxic in the rat. Therefore, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for annatto-induced maternal and developmental toxicity was 500 mg/kg body weight/day or greater (or > or = 140 mg bixin/kg body weight/day) by the oral route.

  4. A Novel Method for Evaluating Postoperative Adhesions in Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bove, Geoffrey M; Chapelle, Susan L.; Boyle, Eleanor

    2017-01-01

    Purpose/Aim: Postoperative adhesions remain an undesirable and commonly symptomatic side effect of abdominopelvic surgeries. Animal models of postoperative adhesions typically yield heterogeneous adhesions throughout the abdominal cavity and are not easily quantified. Here we present a novel method...... of postoperative adhesion assessment and report its reliability and measurement error. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A model of cecal abrasion with partial sidewall attachment was performed on female rats. After 1, 2, 4, or 7 days of recovery, the rats were euthanized and their abdominopelvic cavities were systematically...... evaluated for postoperative adhesions. The necropsy was recorded through the surgical microscope. Four raters were trained to use a ballot to capture key factors of the adhesions as they viewed the recordings. Their ratings were compared for measurement error and reliability (using Bland-Altman plots...

  5. Evaluation of ceftiofur–PHBV microparticles in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilos C

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cristian Vilos,1,3 Luis Constandil,2,3 Paula I Rodas,1,3 Mario Cantin,4,5 Katherine Zepeda,1 Natalia Herrera,1 Luis A Velasquez1,3 1Center for Integrative Medicine and Innovative Science (CIMIS, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Andres Bello, Santiago, 2Laboratory of Neurobiology, Department of Biology, Faculty of Chemistry and Biology, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Santiago, 3Centro para el Desarrollo de la Nanociencia y Nanotecnología, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Ecuador, Santiago, 4CIMA, Department of Integral Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco, 5Center of Research in Biomedical Sciences, Universidad Autónoma de Chile, Temuco, Chile Abstract: Despite the high number of antibiotics used for the treatment of infectious disease in animals, the development of slow release formulations presents a significant challenge, particularly in using novel biomaterials with low cost. In this report, we studied the pharmacokinetics, toxicity, and therapeutic activity of ceftiofur–PHBV (ceftiofur–poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate in rats. The pharmacokinetic study demonstrated a sustained release of ceftiofur into the bloodstream, with detectable levels over the minimum inhibitory concentration for at least 17 days after a single intramuscular injection of ceftiofur–PHBV (10 mg/kg weight. In addition, the toxicological evaluation of biochemical, hematological, and coagulation blood parameters at the therapeutic dose demonstrated the safety of ceftiofur–PHBV, with no adverse effects. In addition, ceftiofur–PHBV exhibited a therapeutic effect for a longer time period than the nonencapsulated ceftiofur in rats challenged with Salmonella Typhimurium. The slow release of ceftiofur from the ceftiofur–PHBV, its low toxicity in the blood parameters evaluated, and the efficacy in the rats infected with Salmonella Typhimurium make ceftiofur–PHBV a strong candidate for biotechnological applications in

  6. Pielite enfisematosa unilateral: relato de caso Unilateral emphysematous pyelitis: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Gonçalves

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se um caso de paciente de 22 anos de idade, gênero feminino, que foi admitida no pronto-socorro com lombalgia aguda, disúria, vômitos e febre (38,5ºC. Os achados de exames de urina e tomografia computadorizada demonstraram infecção no trato urinário associada a gás no sistema coletor, configurando pielite enfisematosa unilateral por Gram-negativo. O presente relato enfatiza a ocorrência deste agravo como complicação de infecção no trato urinário.The present report describes the case of a 22-year-old female patient admitted to the emergency room with acute low back pain, dysuria, vomiting and fever (38.5ºC. Urinalysis and computed tomography findings revealed urinary tract infection associated with presence of gas in the collecting system, characterizing unilateral emphysematous pyelitis caused by Gram-negative bacteria. The present case report emphasizes the occurrence of this disease as a urinary tract infection complication.

  7. Sarcomatoid Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Renal Pelvis Masquerading as Emphysematous Pyelonephritis with Staghorn Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivlin, Dana; Tong, Carmen; Friedlander, Justin; Perosio, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Staghorn calculi are well-established risk factors for recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) and subsequent renal deterioration. Less commonly, long-term urothelial irritation from a calculus may also pose a risk of malignant transformation. Case Presentation: A 77-year-old male with multiple medical comorbidities presented with a chronic right renal pelvic staghorn calculus and findings concerning for emphysematous pyelonephritis. He was subsequently taken to the operating room for a planned laparoscopic right nephrectomy. Final pathology analysis revealed sarcomatoid squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the renal pelvis with superimposed pyelonephritis and renal abscesses. Preoperative imaging was not suggestive of malignancy. Conclusion: Although SCC of the urothelium can be caused by chronic irritation, its presentation is usually isolated to the lower urinary tract and is rarely encountered in the renal pelvis. Our patient's presentation with sarcomatoid SCC is an even rarer entity. Chronic staghorn calculi must be considered as a potential risk factor for the development of both UTI and malignant urothelial transformation. PMID:27579427

  8. A case report of emphysematous gastritis in a diabetic patient: favorable outcome with conservative measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asad Jehangir

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Emphysematous gastritis (EG is a rare cause of abdominal pain, which should be differentiated from gastric emphysema. It is hypothesized to result from air-producing microorganisms in patients with underlying predisposing factors. Because of the non-specific presentation of EG, it is diagnosed radiographically. CT scan is the diagnostic modality of choice that typically reveals irregular, mottled appearance of the air in the thickened gastric wall and in the portal vein in the liver. We report a rare case of EG in a male with a history of diabetes mellitus who presented to the emergency department with diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and epigastric pain. On examination, he was hypotensive and had mild tenderness in the epigastrium. Laboratory tests revealed leukocytosis, elevated lactate, anion gap metabolic acidosis, and acute kidney injury. A non-contrast CT abdomen revealed findings consistent with EG. Even though mortality rate in access of 60% have been reported without prompt surgical intervention in EG, recent literature suggests favorable prognosis with conservative measures in patients without an overt surgical indication. Our patient was also managed conservatively with IV antibiotics and gradual advancement of diet and had complete resolution of symptoms over the ensuing few days. The factors that correlate with a poor prognosis include elevated serum lactate, serum creatinine, and concomitant pneumatosis in small bowel and colon.

  9. Evaluation of hydroxypropyl-b-cyclodextrin in the treatment of aldicarb poisoning in rats : short communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Verster

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Cyclodextrins are ring-shaped oligosaccharides with a hydrophilic exterior and a hydrophobic interior. The interior cavity is capable of complexing fat-soluble molecules small enough to fit inside. Sprague-Dawley rats were used to evaluate the efficacy of hydroxypropyl-b-cyclodextrin as treatment of aldicarb poisoning in rats. Survival times in the majority of rats dosed with aldicarb and receiving intravenous cyclodextrin were longer compared with the control rats only dosed with aldicarb per os.

  10. Isoproterenol effects evaluated in heart slices of human and rat in comparison to rat heart in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Julia E.; Heale, Jason; Bieraugel, Mike; Ramos, Meg [Drug Safety Evaluation, Allergan Inc., 2525 Dupont Dr, Irvine, CA 92612 (United States); Fisher, Robyn L. [Vitron Inc., Tucson, AZ (United States); Vickers, Alison E.M., E-mail: vickers_alison@allergan.com [Drug Safety Evaluation, Allergan Inc., 2525 Dupont Dr, Irvine, CA 92612 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Human response to isoproterenol induced cardiac injury was evaluated by gene and protein pathway changes in human heart slices, and compared to rat heart slices and rat heart in vivo. Isoproterenol (10 and 100 μM) altered human and rat heart slice markers of oxidative stress (ATP and GSH) at 24 h. In this in vivo rat study (0.5 mg/kg), serum troponin concentrations increased with lesion severity, minimal to mild necrosis at 24 and 48 h. In the rat and the human heart, isoproterenol altered pathways for apoptosis/necrosis, stress/energy, inflammation, and remodeling/fibrosis. The rat and human heart slices were in an apoptotic phase, while the in vivo rat heart exhibited necrosis histologically and further progression of tissue remodeling. In human heart slices genes for several heat shock 70 kD members were altered, indicative of stress to mitigate apoptosis. The stress response included alterations in energy utilization, fatty acid processing, and the up-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase, a marker of increased oxidative stress in both species. Inflammation markers linked with remodeling included IL-1α, Il-1β, IL-6 and TNFα in both species. Tissue remodeling changes in both species included increases in the TIMP proteins, inhibitors of matrix degradation, the gene/protein of IL-4 linked with cardiac fibrosis, and the gene Ccl7 a chemokine that induces collagen synthesis, and Reg3b a growth factor for cardiac repair. This study demonstrates that the initial human heart slice response to isoproterenol cardiac injury results in apoptosis, stress/energy status, inflammation and tissue remodeling at concentrations similar to that in rat heart slices. - Highlights: • Human response to isoproterenol induced cardiac injury evaluated in heart slices. • Isoproterenol altered apoptosis, energy, inflammation and remodeling pathways. • Human model verified by comparison to rat heart slices and rat heart in vivo. • Human and rat respond to isoproterenol

  11. Tibial and fibular nerves evaluation using intraoperative electromyography in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepomuceno, André Coelho; Politani, Elisa Landucci; Silva, Eduardo Guandelini da; Salomone, Raquel; Longo, Marco Vinicius Losso; Salles, Alessandra Grassi; Faria, José Carlos Marques de; Gemperli, Rolf

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate a new model of intraoperative electromyographic (EMG) assessment of the tibial and fibular nerves, and its respectives motor units in rats. Eight Wistar rats underwent intraoperative EMG on both hind limbs at two different moments: week 0 and week 12. Supramaximal electrical stimulation applied on sciatic nerve, and compound muscle action potential recorded on the gastrocnemius muscle (GM) and the extensor digitorum longus muscle (EDLM) through electrodes at specifics points. Motor function assessment was performaced through Walking Track Test. Exposing the muscles and nerves for examination did not alter tibial (p=0.918) or fibular (p=0.877) function between the evaluation moments. Electromyography of the GM, innervated by the tibial nerve, revealed similar amplitude (p=0.069) and latency (p=0.256) at week 0 and at 12 weeks, creating a standard of normality. Meanwhile, electromyography of the EDLM, innervated by the fibular nerve, showed significant differences between the amplitudes (p=0.003) and latencies (p=0.021) at the two different moments of observation. Intraoperative electromyography determined and quantified gastrocnemius muscle motor unit integrity, innervated by tibial nerve. Although this study was not useful to, objectively, assess extensor digitorum longus muscle motor unit, innervated by fibular nerve.

  12. CT demonstration of the extensive extension of the emphysematous gangrene of the lower extremity extending to the body : a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hak Soo; Rhim, Hyun Chul; Kim, Yong Soo; Song, Soon Young; Koh, Byung Hee; Cho, On Koo; Joo, Kyung Bin [Hanyang Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-08-01

    Emphysematous gangrene of the lower extremity in a diabetic patient due to minor trauma is being presented. The gas originating from the extremity extended along the fascial planes into the pelvic cavity, scrotal region, retroperitoneal space, and abdominal wall. CT demonstrated the pathways of upward extension of emphysematous gangrene. anatomic pathways of the spread of the disease are insertions of the iliopsoas, piriformis and obturator internus muscles, and their fascial investments, and the endopelvic fascia. Anatomic pathways on CT and the role of CT are discussed.

  13. Evaluation of the cardiovascular effects of varenicline in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selçuk, Engin Burak; Sungu, Meltem; Parlakpinar, Hakan; Ermiş, Necip; Taslıdere, Elif; Vardı, Nigar; Yalçınsoy, Murat; Sagır, Mustafa; Polat, Alaaddin; Karatas, Mehmet; Kayhan-Tetik, Burcu

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among tobacco users. Varenicline is widely used worldwide to help smoking cessation, but some published studies have reported associated cardiovascular events. To determine the cardiovascular toxicity induced by varenicline in rats. We randomly separated 34 rats into two groups: 1) the control group (given only distilled water orally, n=10) and the varenicline group (given 9 μg/kg/day varenicline on days 1-3, 9 μg/kg twice daily on days 4-7, and 18 μg/kg twice daily on days 8-90 [total 83 days], n=24). Each group was then subdivided equally into acute and chronic subgroups, and all rats in these groups were euthanized with anesthesia overdose on days 45 and 90, respectively. Body and heart weights, hemodynamic (mean oxygen saturation, mean blood pressure, and heart rate, electrocardiographic (PR, QRS, and QT intervals) biochemical (oxidants and antioxidants), and histopathological analyses (including immunostaining) were performed. Acute varenicline exposure resulted in loss of body weight, while chronic varenicline exposure caused heart weight loss and decreased mean blood pressure, induced lipid peroxidation, and reduced antioxidant activity. Both acute and chronic varenicline exposure caused impairment of mean oxygen saturation. QT interval was prolonged in the chronic varenicline group, while PR interval prolongation was statistically significant in both the control and acute varenicline groups. Caspase-9 activity was also significantly increased by chronic exposure. Moreover, histopathological observations revealed severe morphological heart damage in both groups. Adverse effects of chronic varenicline exposure on cardiovascular tissue were confirmed by our electrocardiographic, biochemical, and histopathological analyses. This issue needs to be investigated with new experimental and clinical studies to evaluate the exact mechanism(s) of the detrimental effects of varenicline

  14. Evaluation of Effects of Zingiber officinale on Salivation in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goli Chamani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available There are some herbal plants in Iranian traditional system of medicine which are believed to be excellent remedies to alleviate the symptoms of xerostomia. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of systemic administration of seven different herbal extracts on the rate of salivation in rats. The extracts of 7 herbs; Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae, Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck (Rutaceae, Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae, Cichorium intybus L. (Asteraceae, Pimpinella anisum L.(Apiaceae, Portulaca oleracea L.(Portulacaceae, Tribulus terrestris L. (Zygophyllaceae were prepared. Nine groups of animals (including negative and positive control groups were used and seven rats were tested in each group. After the injection of extracts, saliva volume was measured gravimetrically in four continuous seven-minute intervals. The results showed that after injection of ginger extracts salivation was significantly higher as compared to the negative control group and other herbal extracts in all of the four intervals (P<0.01. The peak action of the ginger was during the first 7-minute interval and following this, salivation decreased to some extent. The present study suggests that the extract of Zingiber offiicianle can increase the rate of salivation significantly in animal model. Further investigations on different constituents of ginger seem to be essential to identify the responsible constituent for stimulation of saliva secretion.

  15. Biocompatibility evaluation of biodentine in subcutaneous tissue of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Graziela Garrido; Teixeira, Ligia Moraes; de Oliveira, Danilo Louzada; Jacomini, Larissa Menegucci; da Silva, Sindinéia Rodrigues

    2014-09-01

    Biodentine (Septodont, St-Maur-des-Fossés, France) is a new material suitable for various clinical situations in endodontics, such as perforation repair, retrograde filling, pulp capping, and others. Because it is a new material, its properties should be analyzed before routine clinical use. Thus, this study evaluated the biocompatibility of Biodentine in the subcutaneous tissue of rats. This study was conducted on 15 male rats. Two incisions were made on the dorsal region of each animal for the introduction of 4 tubes. One tube was empty, 1 was filled with zinc oxide-eugenol cement, 1 was filled with mineral trioxide aggregate, and the last tube was filled with Biodentine. After 7, 14, and 30 days, the animals were sacrificed, and the specimens were submitted to histotechnical preparation. The histologic sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and analyzed using light microscopy. Scores were established according to the inflammatory process and were statistically compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test (P Biodentine; however, at 14 and 30 days, the inflammatory process was mild or nonsignificant. Biodentine was biocompatible with tissue after the 14th day. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Pielonefritis enfisematosa aguda bilateral: Un desafío terapéutico Acute bilateral emphysematous pyelonephritis: A therapeutic challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo J. Melero

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available La pielonefritis enfisematosa es una forma poco común de infección renal, caracterizada por la presencia de bacterias coliformes productoras de gas que afecta preferentemente a los pacientes diabéticos. Comunicamos el caso de una mujer diabética de 57 años de edad que ingresó en el hospital por un shock séptico, signos de pielonefritis enfisematosa aguda bilateral y cetoacidosis diabética. En los cultivos de las muestras de orina y sangre desarrolló Escherichia coli. La paciente fue tratada exitosamente con antibióticos de amplio espectro por un tiempo prolongado, control diabético y medidas de sostén solamente. No fue necesario el drenaje con catéteres o la nefrectomía para superar esta situación potencialmente letal.Emphysematous pyelonephritis is a rare form of kidney infection characterized by the presence of gas-forming coliform bacteria which affects more frequently diabetic subjects. We report the case of a 57-years-old diabetic woman, who was admitted in septic shock, signs of acute bilateral emphysematous pyelonephritis, and diabetic ketoacidosis. Both blood and urine cultures yielded Escherichia coli. The patient was successfully treated using long-term broad-spectrum antibiotics, diabetic control and supportive measures alone. Catheter drainage and nephrectomy were not necessary to overcome this life threatening situation.

  17. Critical evaluation of colon submucosal microdialysis in awake, mobile rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Cibicek

    Full Text Available Sensors able to record large bowel physiology and biochemistry in situ in awake rodents are lacking. Microdialysis is a mini-invasive technique that may be utilized to continuously deliver or recover low-molecular substances from various tissues. In this experiment we evaluated the feasibility of in vivo microdialysis to monitor extracellular fluid chemistry in the descending colon submucosa of conscious, freely moving rodents. Following surgical implantation of a microdialysis probe, male Wistar rats were housed in metabolic cages where they were analgized and clinically followed for four days with free access to standard diet and water. To assess local microcirculation and probe function, glucose, lactate, glucose-to-lactate ratio and urea clearance were determined in the dialysates from the three postoperative days with focus on the final 24-h period. In an attempt to mitigate the expected tissue inflammatory response, one group of animals had the catheters perfused with 5-aminosalicylic acid-enriched medium with final concentration 1 μmol/L. For verification of probe position and the assessment of the surrounding foreign body reaction, standard histological and immunohistochemical methods were employed. Microdialysis of rat gut is associated with considerable technical challenges that may lead to the loss of probe function and high drop-out rate. In this setting, limited data did not allow to draw any firm conclusion regarding local anti-inflammatory effectiveness of 5-aminosalicylic acid perfusion. Although intestinal microdialysis may be suitable for larger anesthetized animals, low reproducibility of the presented method compromises its routine experimental use in awake and freely moving small-sized rodents.

  18. Fetal rat pancreas transplantation in BB rats: immunohistochemical and functional evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yderstræde, Knud Bonnet; Starklint, Henrik; Steinbrüchel, Daniel Andreas

    1993-01-01

    Spontaneously diabetic BB/Wor rats received either a syngeneic fetal pancreas transplant or adult islets. In the former, 4-8 fetal pancreases were transplanted, and in the latter, 3-5000 islets. Transplantation was performed by transferring a blood clot containing the pancreases or islets...... to the renal subcapsular space. Insulin therapy was undertaken postoperatively, except in one experiment with adult islets. Of the fetal pancreas transplanted BB rats, 52% became normoglycaemic, and 21% remained so throughout an observation period of 10 months. Nephrectomy caused a prompt return of diabetes....... The histological appearance of the grafts transplanted to the diabetic animals closely resembled that of grafts transplanted to normal rats in a parallel series. For comparison a group of BB rats received a syngeneic transplant of isolated adult islets from WF rats or BBW rats. Following adult islet...

  19. Evaluation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in the Wistar Audiogenic Rat (WAR) Strain

    OpenAIRE

    Rubens Fazan; Carlos Alberto A Silva; José Antônio Cortes Oliveira; Helio Cesar Salgado; Nicola Montano; Norberto Garcia-Cairasco

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Risk factors for life-threatening cardiovascular events were evaluated in an experimental model of epilepsy, the Wistar Audiogenic Rat (WAR) strain. Methods We used long-term ECG recordings in conscious, one year old, WAR and Wistar control counterparts to evaluate spontaneous arrhythmias and heart rate variability, a tool to assess autonomic cardiac control. Ventricular function was also evaluated using the pressure-volume conductance system in anesthetized rats. Results Basal R...

  20. Tratamento operatório das bolhas pulmonares gigantes Surgical treatment of giant emphysematous lung bullae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Botter

    2007-06-01

    in Brazil led us to perform the current work to describe the historical evolution and to analyze results of the surgical treatment of Giant Emphysematous Lung Bullae at the Santa Casa de São Paulo. METHODS: We have retrospectively assessed, between January 1979 and June 2005, the medical records of 83 patients submitted to one of four surgical modalities: the thoracoscopic bullectomy, VATS bullectomy, VATS bullae drainage and bullae drainage with local anesthesia, totaling 92 surgeries. Parameters analyzed were hospitalization time, post-surgical complications, perioperative and late mortality in addition to clinical and functional pre- and post- surgical parameters. RESULTS: Morbidity was 40.2% and early post-surgical mortality 4.3%. Post-surgical complications were associated to the patient's morbid history. Factors such as diffuse pulmonary emphysema, multiple bullae and age did not influence early complications. There was an improvement in the symptomatology and functional results in 94.5% of the patients. There was no return on he operated bullae. Mortality five years after surgery was of 18.3% and arose, primarily from clinical progression of the diffuse pulmonary emphysema. CONCLUSIONS: Several surgical modalities were performed to treat the emphysematous lung bullae, from bullectomy to thoracotomy, at the initial phase until drainage of the bullae with local anesthesia and sprayed talc, the currently preferred modality. Regardless of the method used, however, notwithstanding the relatively high morbidity, post-surgical results are highly favorable with low mortality and uncontestable clinical-functional improvement of the operated patients.

  1. Functional evaluation of peripheral nerve regeneration in the rat : walking track analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varejao, ASP; Meek, MF; Patricio, JAB; Cabrita, AMS

    2001-01-01

    The experimental model of choice for many peripheral nerve investigators is the rat. Walking track analysis is a useful tool in the evaluation of functional peripheral nerve recovery in the rat. This quantitative method of analyzing hind limbs performance by examining footprints, known as the

  2. Evaluation of selected parameters of rat liver and kidney function ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of administration of yohimbine, an aphrodisiac on some functional parameters of rat liver and kidney were investigated. White male albino rats weighing between 200-250g were grouped into two such that one group was orally administered with 14mg/kg body weight on daily basis for 15days while the control ...

  3. Evaluation of genotoxicity induced by repetitive administration of local anaesthetics: an experimental study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Alborghetti Nai

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Previous studies regarding the effects of some local anaesthetics have suggested that these agents can cause genetic damage. However, they have not been tested for genotoxicity related to repetitive administration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic potential of local anaesthetics upon repetitive administration. METHODS: 80 male Wistar rats were divided into: group A - 16 rats intraperitoneally injected with lidocaine hydrochloride 2%; group B - 16 rats IP injected with mepivacaine 2%; group C - 16 rats intraperitoneally injected with articaine 4%; group D - 16 rats IP injected with prilocaine 3% (6.0 mg/kg; group E - 8 rats subcutaneously injected with a single dose of cyclophosphamide; and group F - 8 rats intraperitoneally injected with saline. Eight rats from groups A to D received a single dose of anaesthetic on Day 1 of the experiment; the remaining rats were dosed once a day for 5 days. RESULTS: The median number of micronuclei in the local anaesthetics groups exposed for 1 or 5 days ranged from 0.00 to 1.00, in the cyclophosphamide-exposed group was 10.00, and the negative control group for 1 and 5 days was 1.00 and 0.00, respectively (p 0.05. CONCLUSION: No genotoxicity effect was observed upon repetitive exposure to any of the local anaesthetics evaluated.

  4. Evaluation of the teratogenic potential of chemicals in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, H; Giese, K

    1990-01-01

    On the basis of the results of a variety of teratogenicity studies in Sprague-Dawley-derived albino rats, carried out over several years in our laboratory, an appraisal of the principal experimental procedures is set forth. Various categories of chemicals were used for the evaluation of dosage-related teratogenic potency. Salicylate, prednisolone, cyclophosphamide, 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), glycinonitrile, and dimethylformamide have proven to be teratogenic under certain of the experimental conditions used. Particular differences in the embryotropic effects of acetylsalicylic acid were caused by qualitative and quantitative changes of the vehicle. Fetal morphological abnormalities, classified either as 'malformations' or as 'anomalies', may occur independently of overt maternal toxicity and/or embryotoxicity. Further, they may be closely correlated with general inhibitory effects on growth. Drugs may affect developing tissues and organs selectively due to their pharmacological activity and/or specific organ toxicity. The limitation of maternal treatment to a very short period of gestation may disclose a specific susceptibility of developmental stages of the embryo or fetus. Finally, the importance of data collected from a historical control population to the interpretation of teratogenicity data is emphasised.

  5. Behavioral match evaluation of spatial cognition in rats and robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Alejandra; Weitzenfeld, Alfredo

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present a comparative behavioral analysis of spatial cognition in rats and robots by contrasting a similar goal-oriented task in a cyclical maze, where a computational system-level model of rat spatial cognition is used integrating kinesthetic and visual information to produce a cognitive map of the environment and drive robot experimentation. A discussion of experiments in rats and robots is presented contrasting learning latency while characterizing behavioral procedures such as body rotations during navigation and election of routes to the goal.

  6. The in vivo rat skin photomicronucleus assay: Phototoxicity and photogenotoxicity evaluation of six fluoroquinolones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reus, A.A.; Usta, M.; Kenny, J.D.; Clements, P.J.; Pruimboom-Brees, I.; Aylott, M.; Lynch, A.M.; Krul, C.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    An in vivo photomicronucleus test (MNT) using rat skin, the target organ for photoirritancy and carcinogenicity, was recently described. The assay was evaluated using fluoroquinolone (FQ) antibiotics with varying degrees of phototoxic potency (i.e. sparflocacin [SPFX], lomefloxacin [LOFX],

  7. Fetal rat pancreas transplantation in BB rats: immunohistochemical and functional evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yderstraede, K B; Starklint, H; Steinbruchel, D; Jørgensen, T W; Gotfredsen, C F

    1993-01-01

    Spontaneously diabetic BB/Wor rats received either a syngeneic fetal pancreas transplant or adult islets. In the former, 4-8 fetal pancreases were transplanted, and in the latter, 3-5000 islets. Transplantation was performed by transferring a blood clot containing the pancreases or islets to the renal subcapsular space. Insulin therapy was undertaken postoperatively, except in one experiment with adult islets. Of the fetal pancreas transplanted BB rats, 52% became normoglycaemic, and 21% remained so throughout an observation period of 10 months. Nephrectomy caused a prompt return of diabetes. The histological appearance of the grafts transplanted to the diabetic animals closely resembled that of grafts transplanted to normal rats in a parallel series. For comparison a group of BB rats received a syngeneic transplant of isolated adult islets from WF rats or BBW rats. Following adult islet transplantation, 5 out of 6 animals became hyperglycaemic after a median of 20.5 days when no insulin was given post-transplantation. Four out of 5 animals became hyperglycaemic after a median of 23 days when supportive insulin therapy was administered after the transplantation. The results indicate that recurrent diabetes is not inevitable following syngeneic fetal pancreas transplantation to spontaneously diabetic BB rats. Recurrent diabetes was only occasionally associated with mononuclear cell infiltration. Transplanted tissue was well-preserved and vascularized; mega-islets were a constant finding.

  8. High levels of indium exposure relate to progressive emphysematous changes: a 9-year longitudinal surveillance of indium workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amata, Atsuko; Chonan, Tatsuya; Omae, Kazuyuki; Nodera, Hiroshi; Terada, Jiro; Tatsumi, Koichiro

    2015-11-01

    During the last decade it has been clarified that the inhalation of indium compounds can evoke alveolar proteinosis, cholesterol granuloma, pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the characteristics and time course of pulmonary disorders among indium workers using comprehensive pulmonary examinations at an indium-processing factory. Data for 84 male workers who underwent the examinations for nine consecutive years from 2002 to 2010 were analysed regarding their symptoms, serum indium concentration (sIn), serum markers of interstitial pneumonia, pulmonary function test parameters and high-resolution CT (HRCT) findings of the lungs. In association with improvements in the work environment and work practice, the sIn levels decreased with significant reductions in the KL-6 and surfactant protein D (SP-D) levels. Regarding the HRCT findings, the interstitial lesions regressed partially, whereas emphysematous lesions increased progressively in the workers with high sIn values. FEV1/FVC decreased with the years and the rate of decrease was significantly greater in those with high sIn. The biological half-life of sIn was estimated to be 8.09 years. The present findings suggest that the sIn, SP-D, KL-6 levels and radiological interstitial changes can be reduced in indium workers by alleviating exposure to indium, whereas emphysematous lesions can progress among those with a history of heavy exposure. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Haematotoxic evaluation of crude Cannabis resin in rats | Obonga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    /kg) to Spraque-Dawley albino rats for 21 days, the changes in various haematological indices such as packed cell volume (PVC), total leukocyte count, differential leukocyte count, red blood cell (RBC) count, absolute lymphocyte count, ...

  10. Evaluation of androgenic activity of Mucuna pruriens in male rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methanolic extract of Mucuna pruriens seed was tested for their possible androgenic activity in Wister male albino rats. The methanolic extract of M. pruriens plant was gavaged separately into 2 group of rat at similar doses of 1000 mg/kg b.wt and 1500 mg/kg b.wt for 30 days. At the end of the treatment, the animals were ...

  11. Experimental intraperitoneal infusion of OK-432 in rats: Evaluation of peritoneal complications and pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Wook [Department of Radiology, Busan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hak Jin, E-mail: hakjink@pusan.ac.k [Department of Radiology, Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan National University College of Medicine, Medical Research Institute, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jun Woo [Department of Radiology, Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan National University College of Medicine, Medical Research Institute, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    Purpose: OK-432 is known to be a potent sclerosant of cystic lesions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate both its safety and pathologic effects after the infusion of OK-432 into the peritoneal cavity of rats. Materials and methods: Twenty male rats were used in this study. Twelve rats were infused intraperitoneally with 0.2 Klinishe Einheit of OK-432 melted in 2 mL of normal saline (group 1: the treated group); four rats each were infused intraperitoneally with 0.5 mL of 99% ethanol (group 2) and normal saline (group 3), and served as the control groups. An abdominal ultrasonographic examination was performed both before and after the infusions in all rats. Three rats in group 1 and one rat in each of groups 2 and 3 were sacrificed each week following the infusion. Gross and microscopic evaluations of the peritoneum and abdominal cavity were performed on each rat. Results: In group 1, the abdomen was clear on gross inspection and the peritoneum was unremarkable on microscopic examination. In group 2, mild-to-moderate peritoneal adhesions were revealed grossly, and inflammation and fibrosis of the peritoneum were demonstrated microscopically. In group 3, no specific abnormalities were noted on gross or microscopic examinations. Conclusion: Leakage or abnormal infusion of OK-432 solution into the peritoneal cavity during sclerotherapy of intra-abdominal or retroperitoneal cystic lesions does not result in any significant complications.

  12. The comparative evaluation of apoptosis produced by leuprolide or orchiectomy on rat prostate tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basri Cakiroglu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Organisms are constantly in a balance meaning that while new cells are produced, some of the older ones die which takes place in 2 ways: necrosis or apoptosis. Apoptosis is the programmed cellular death triggered by intrinsic or extrinsic stimuli. In this study we have evaluated the apoptosis of prostate tissue generated by surgical or medical orchiectomy. Material and Method: In this experimental study, we used 36 adult male rats that were evaluated in 3 groups. The first group (Group 1 consisted of 12 rats that had bilateral orchiectomy; the second group (Group 2 included 12 rats that were given leuprolide acetate and the third group (Group 3 consisted of 12 control rats. Immunohistochemical staining of the prostate of all rats was performed and the presence of glandular atrophy and apoptosis were evaluated in the three groups. The statistical differences between the two groups were evaluated by the Fisher exact test. Results: Glandular atrophy was not determined in any rat of the control group, and the apoptotic staining was in the normal limits in all the control rats. In Leuprolide group, glandular atrophy was mild in 7 cases, and moderate in 3 rats. In 2 rats of the Leuprolide group, atrophy was not demonstrated. In surgical orchiectomy group, glandular atrophy was present in all cases. Atrophy was observed as cystic atrophy. Statistical analysis with the Fisher exact test revealed that glandular atrophy was statistically significantly more common in surgical orchiectomy group compared with Leuprolide group (p = 0,012. Conclusion: If the aim of treatment in androgen dependent prostatic adenocarcinoma or benign prostate hypertrophy is the construction of a robust apoptosis, bilateral orchiectomy generates a more powerful apoptosis compared with Leuprolide.

  13. Chronic toxicity and carcinogenic evaluation of diisononyl phthalate in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lington, A W; Bird, M G; Plutnick, R T; Stubblefield, W A; Scala, R A

    1997-03-01

    Groups of 110 Fischer 344 rats/sex were fed diisononyl phthalate (DINP) at dietary levels of 0, 0.03, 0.3, and 0.6 wt% for periods up to 2 years. Interim sacrifices of 10 predesignated rats/sex/dose were at 6, 12, and 18 months with surviving animals sacrificed at 24 months. At study termination, survival was in excess of 60% for every group. At the mid or high dose, the following biological effects were noted: slight decreases in food consumption and body weight; slight increase in mortality; a dose-related increase in relative organ weights of liver and kidney; and some slight effects on urinalysis, hematologic, and clinical chemistry parameters. No peroxisome induction was observed in livers of treated rats compared with controls. No clear treatment-related nonneoplastic or neoplastic lesions were found. However, mononuclear cell leukemia (MNCL) and changes known to be associated with an increased incidence of MNCL were seen in the mid-dose and high-dose groups. A literature review suggests that MNCL is a common finding in aging F344 rats and that this increased incidence in rats treated with DINP is not relevant to man. A clear no-observed-effect level was demonstrated for all biological end points at a dietary level of 0. 03 wt% or approximately 17 mg/kg/day of DINP.

  14. Anti-diarrhoeal evaluation of Clerodendrum phlomidis Linn. leaf extract in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, S; Ahamed, N; Rajaram, S; Saluja, R; Thenmozhi, S; Murugesan, T

    1999-12-15

    A study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of methanolic extract of leaves of Clerodendrum phlomidis Linn. (MECP) (Family: Verbenaceae) for its anti-diarrhoeal potential against several experimental models of diarrhoea in Wistar albino rats. MECP showed significant inhibitory activity against castor oil induced diarrhoea and PGE2 induced enteropooling in rats. The extract also showed a significant reduction in gastrointestinal motility in charcoal meal test in rats. The results obtained establish the efficacy and substantiated the folklore claim as an anti-diarrhoeal agent.

  15. Reproduction and evaluation of a rat model of inhalation lung injury caused by black gunpowder smog

    OpenAIRE

    Yi-fan LIU; Hong-wei TANG; Xiao-li WU; Yin-jing XIE; Hong-rui ZHANG; Jin-yan DUAN; Dai-jun XIANG; Xiao-mei LAN; Mian-yang LI; Cheng-bin WANG; Deng-qing LI

    2013-01-01

    Objective To reproduce and evaluate a rat model of inhalation lung injury caused by black gunpowder smog. Methods The smog composition was analyzed and a rat model of inhalation lung injury was reproduced. Forty two healthy male Wistar rats were randomly divided into normal control (NC) group and 1h, 2h, 6h, 24h, 48h and 96h after inhalation group (n=6). The arterial blood gas, wet to dry weight ratio (W/D) of lung, leukocyte count, and protein concentration in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (...

  16. Evaluation of two experimental models of hepatic encephalopathy in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. García-Moreno

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The serious neuropsychological repercussions of hepatic encephalopathy have led to the creation of several experimental models in order to better understand the pathogenesis of the disease. In the present investigation, two possible causes of hepatic encephalopathy, cholestasis and portal hypertension, were chosen to study the behavioral impairments caused by the disease using an object recognition task. This working memory test is based on a paradigm of spontaneous delayed non-matching to sample and was performed 60 days after surgery. Male Wistar rats (225-250 g were divided into three groups: two experimental groups, microsurgical cholestasis (N = 20 and extrahepatic portal hypertension (N = 20, and a control group (N = 20. A mild alteration of the recognition memory occurred in rats with cholestasis compared to control rats and portal hypertensive rats. The latter group showed the poorest performance on the basis of the behavioral indexes tested. In particular, only the control group spent significantly more time exploring novel objects compared to familiar ones (P < 0.001. In addition, the portal hypertension group spent the shortest time exploring both the novel and familiar objects (P < 0.001. These results suggest that the existence of portosystemic collateral circulation per se may be responsible for subclinical encephalopathy.

  17. Evaluation of lymphatic regeneration in rat incisional wound healing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: During the wound healing process, lymphatic regeneration in the injured skin has not been fully investigated. This work was designed to study the regeneration of lymphatic vessels in rat incisional wounds in relation to the duration after the wound infliction. Material and methods: We studied the regeneration of ...

  18. Evaluation of lymphatic regeneration in rat incisional wound healing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nevine M.F. El Deeb

    2014-06-20

    Jun 20, 2014 ... Abstract Objective: During the wound healing process, lymphatic regeneration in the injured skin has not been fully ... Material and methods: We studied the regeneration of lymphatic vessels in the rat skin incisional wounds (sutured ... lymphatic vessels sprouting in experimental rabbit ear wounds.9The ...

  19. Histological evaluation of the prefrontal cortex of infantile Wistar rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exposure to nicotine in utero is neuroteratogenic, predisposing the developing brain to cell injury and many forms of neurological and neurobehavioural problems that persist after birth. The current study examined some of the histological effects of prenatal nicotine exposure on the prefrontal cortex of infantile rats.

  20. Immunological evaluation of Aeromonas infection in albino rats | El ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aeromonas hydrophila is the most common bacterial species causing an acute self limiting diarrheal illness in mammals. Albino rats were categorized into treated and control groups. Treated groups were injected daily intraperitoneally with 0.2ml of bacterial suspension containing 6x106 cells/ml of 0.9% NaCl, while the ...

  1. Evaluation of the subchronic toxicity of kefir by oral administration in Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Damiana Diniz Rosa; Maria do Carmo Gouveia Peluzio; Tania Pérez Bueno; Ernesto Vega Cañizares; Lilian Sánchez Miranda; Betty Mancebo Dorbignyi; Dainé Chong Dubí; Ivette Espinosa Castaño; Łukasz Marcin Grześkowiak; Célia Lucia de Luces Fortes Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Kefir is obtained by fermentation of milk with complex microbial populations present in kefir grains. Several health-promoting benefits have been attributed to kefir consumption. Objective: The objective of this work was to conduct a subchronic toxicity study, offering the rats normal or high-doses of kefir and evaluating growth, hematology and blood chemistry, as well as assessing bacterial translocation and the integrity of the intestinal mucosa of animals. Methods: Wistar rat...

  2. Evaluation of skeletal muscle relaxant activity of aqueous extract of Nerium oleander flowers in Albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Jayasree Tirumalasetti; Maulik Patel; Ubedulla Shaikh; Harini, K.; Shankar, J

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Nerium oleander is traditionally used in various diseases because of its medicinal properties. One of its uses is in musculoskeletal disorder. The aim of the study was to evaluate the skeletal muscle relaxant activity of the aqueous extract of Nerium oleander flowers (AENOF) in albino rats in comparison with diazepam. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 Swiss albino rats aged 6-7 weeks, of either sex, weighing about 100-150 g, were taken, and after acute toxicity studies two ...

  3. Histopathologic Evaluation of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Hypothyroidism-Induced Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Demir, Şule; Ünübol, Mustafa; Aypak, Serap Ünübol; İpek, Emrah; Aktaş, Serdar; Ekren, Gamze Sevri; Yılmaz, Murat; Tunca, Recai; Güney, Engin

    2016-01-01

    It is speculated that thyroid hormones may be involved in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) pathogenesis. A literature scan, however, demonstrated conflicting results from studies investigating the relationship between hypothyroidism and NAFLD. Therefore, our study aims to evaluate NAFLD, from the histopathologic perspective, in hypothyroidism-induced rats. Wistar rats were divided into 2 groups: the experimental group consumed water containing methimazole 0.025% (MMI, Sigma, USA) for ...

  4. Evaluating the effects of pentoxifylline administration on experimental pressure sores in rats by biomechanical examinations

    OpenAIRE

    Velaei, Kobra; Bayat, Mohammad; Torkman, Giti; Rezaie, Fatemealsadat; Amini, Abdollah; Noruzian, Mohsen; Tavassol, Azaedh; Bayat, Mehernoush

    2012-01-01

    This study used a biomechanical test to evaluate the effects of pentoxifylline administration on the wound healing process of an experimental pressure sore induced in rats. Under general anesthesia and sterile conditions, experimental pressure sores generated by no. 25 Halsted mosquito forceps were inflicted on 12 adult male rats. Pentoxifylline was injected intraperitoneally at a dose of 50 mg/kg daily from the day the pressure sore was generated, for a period of 20 days. At the end of 20 da...

  5. A semiquantitative scoring tool to evaluate eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage in trained rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rizo-Roca

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Unaccustomed eccentric exercise is a well-documented cause of exercise-induced muscle damage. However, in trained subjects muscle injury involves only light or moderate tissue damage. Since trained rats are widely used as a model for skeletal muscle injury, here we propose a semiquantitative scoring tool to evaluate muscle damage in trained rats. Twenty male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained fortwo weeks following a two-week preconditioning period, and randomly divided into two groups: control rats (CTL; n=5 and rats with eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage (INJ; n=15. Injured rats were sacrificed at three time points: 1, 3 and 7 days post injury (n=5 each. Transverse sections from the right soleus were cut (10 µm and stained with haematoxylin-eosin. Samples were evaluated by two groups of observers (four researchers experienced in skeletal muscle histopathology and four inexperienced using the proposed tool, which consisted of six items organised in three domains: abnormal fibre morphology, necrotic/(redegenerating fibres (muscle fibre domain, endomysial and perimysial infiltration (inflammatory state domain and endomysium and perimysium distension (interstitial compartment domain. We observed the expected time course in the six evaluated items. Furthermore, agreement among observers was evaluated by measuring the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC. Within the experienced group, items from the muscle fibre and interstitial compartment domains showed good agreement and the two items from the infiltration compartment domain showed excellent agreement. in conclusion, the proposed tool allowed quick and correct evaluation of light to moderate muscle damage in trained rats with good agreement between observers.

  6. Evaluating resveratrol as a therapeutic bone agent: preclinical evidence from rat models of osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tou, Janet C

    2015-08-01

    Resveratrol (RSV) is a naturally occurring plant polyphenol that has potential to attenuate osteoporosis with distinct pathologies. This review evaluates preclinical evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of RSV as a therapeutic bone agent using different rat models. Limitations of these animal models are discussed, and suggestions for strengthening the experimental design of future studies are provided. The ovariectomized rat model of postmenopausal osteoporosis reported that RSV supplementation attenuated estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss and trabecular structural deterioration. RSV safety was indicated by the absence of stimulation of estrogen-sensitive tissue. Providing RSV to rats aged >6 months attenuated age-related bone mass loss and structural deterioration but produced inconsistent effects on bones in rats aged osteoporosis reported that RSV attenuated bone loss in old rats, but higher doses and longer duration supplementation before mechanical loading were required for younger rats. Limitations common to studies using rat models of osteoporosis include requirements to include animals that are skeletally mature, longer study durations, and to adjust for potential confounding effects due to altered body weight and endocrine function. Strengthening experimental design can contribute to translation of animal results to clinically relevant recommendations for humans. Published 2015. This article is U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  7. Evaluation of Chromosomal Instability in Diabetic Rats Treated with Naringin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh A. Bakheet

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We used the bone marrow DNA strand breaks, micronucleus formations, spermatocyte chromosomal aberrations, and sperm characteristic assays to investigate the chromosomal instability in somatic and germinal cells of diabetic rats treated with multiple doses of naringin. The obtained results revealed that naringin was neither cytotoxic nor genotoxic for the rats at all tested doses. Moreover, naringin significantly reduced the diabetes-induced chromosomal instability in somatic and germinal cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, diabetes induced marked biochemical alterations characteristic of oxidative stress including enhanced lipid peroxidation, accumulation of oxidized glutathione, reduction in reduced glutathione, and accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species. Treatment with naringin ameliorated these biochemical markers dose-dependently. In conclusion, naringin confers an appealing protective effect against diabetes-induced chromosomal instability towards rat somatic and germinal cells which might be explained partially via diminishing the de novo free radical generation induced by hyperglycemia. Thus, naringin might be a good candidate to reduce genotoxic risk associated with hyperglycemia and may provide decreases in the development of secondary malignancy and abnormal reproductive outcomes risks, which seems especially important for diabetic patients.

  8. A simple, rapid, and sensitive system for the evaluation of anti-viral drugs in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaoguang [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine/Division of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Department of Medical Microbiology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China); Center for AIDS Research, Kumamoto University, 2-2-1 Honjo, Kumamoto 860-0811 (Japan); Qian, Hua [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine/Division of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Center for AIDS Research, Kumamoto University, 2-2-1 Honjo, Kumamoto 860-0811 (Japan); Miyamoto, Fusako [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine/Division of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Naito, Takeshi [Laboratory of Virus Control, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, 53 Kawaramachi, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Kawaji, Kumi [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine/Division of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Kajiwara, Kazumi [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); JST Innovation Plaza Kyoto, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Nishigyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8245 (Japan); Hattori, Toshio [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine/Division of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Matsuoka, Masao [Laboratory of Virus Control, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, 53 Kawaramachi, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Watanabe, Kentaro; Oishi, Shinya; Fujii, Nobutaka [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); and others

    2012-07-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We established a novel, simple and rapid in vivo system for evaluation of anti-HIV-1 drugs with rats. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The system may be applicable for other antiviral drugs, and/or useful for initial screening in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In this system, TRI-1144 displayed the most potent anti-HIV-1 activity in vivo. -- Abstract: The lack of small animal models for the evaluation of anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) agents hampers drug development. Here, we describe the establishment of a simple and rapid evaluation system in a rat model without animal infection facilities. After intraperitoneal administration of test drugs to rats, antiviral activity in the sera was examined by the MAGI assay. Recently developed inhibitors for HIV-1 entry, two CXCR4 antagonists, TF14016 and FC131, and four fusion inhibitors, T-20, T-20EK, SC29EK, and TRI-1144, were evaluated using HIV-1{sub IIIB} and HIV-1{sub BaL} as representative CXCR4- and CCR5-tropic HIV-1 strains, respectively. CXCR4 antagonists were shown to only possess anti-HIV-1{sub IIIB} activity, whereas fusion inhibitors showed both anti-HIV-1{sub IIIB} and anti-HIV-1{sub BaL} activities in rat sera. These results indicate that test drugs were successfully processed into the rat sera and could be detected by the MAGI assay. In this system, TRI-1144 showed the most potent and sustained antiviral activity. Sera from animals not administered drugs showed substantial anti-HIV-1 activity, indicating that relatively high dose or activity of the test drugs might be needed. In conclusion, the novel rat system established here, 'phenotypic drug evaluation', may be applicable for the evaluation of various antiviral drugs in vivo.

  9. In vitro evaluation, biodistribution in rats of radiolabeled raloxifene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayrak, Elif [Ege University, Institute of Nuclear Science, Department of Nuclear Applications, Bornova, 35100 Izmir (Turkey); Lambrecht, Fatma Yurt [Ege University, Institute of Nuclear Science, Department of Nuclear Applications, Bornova, 35100 Izmir (Turkey)], E-mail: Fatma.yurt.lambrecht@ege.edu.tr; Durkan, Kubra [Ege University, Institute of Nuclear Science, Department of Nuclear Applications, Bornova, 35100 Izmir (Turkey); Yilmaz, Osman [Department of Animal Research Center, Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey)

    2010-01-15

    Raloxifene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator that produces both estrogen agonistic effects on bone and lipid metabolism and estrogen-antagonistic effects on uterine endometrium and breast tissue. In the present study, raloxifene was labeled with I-131 by iodogen method and investigated for its radiopharmaceutical potential. Radiolabeling yield is 91{+-}0.7%, as determined by radio thin layer chromatography (RTLC). Results of in vitro study indicated {sup 131}I-raloxifene has high stability (4 h) in serum. Biodistribution study was carried out with Albino wistar female rats. The result has shown that the radioiodinated raloxifene has higher uptake in uterus than breast and ovarian.

  10. [Evaluation of bone architecture and biomechanic properties by peripheral quantitative computed tomography in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Xiao-ping; Xia, Wei-bo; Meng, Xun-wu; Zhou, Xue-ying; Hu, Ying-ying; Liu, Huai-cheng

    2003-05-10

    To evaluate the value of peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) in measuring bone architecture and biomechanic properties. 50 virgin female Wistar rats six months old were randomly divided into 4 groups: (1) 8 rats were killed as baseline group; (2) 8 rats underwent sham operation and then were killed 14 weeks after (sham operation group); (3) 16 rats underwent bilateral ovariectomy (OVX) without further intervention. Six and 14 weeks after the operation each 8 rats were killed (OVX group); and (4) 18 rats underwent OVX too. After the OVX 9 of the 18 rats were treated with 17beta-estradiol 20 micro g/kg/d IH and 9 rats were treated with estradiol valerate 800 micro g/kg/d po for 8 weeks respectively. Then the 18 rats were killed (OVX plus estrogen group, O + E group). The right tibiae of the rats were taken for histomorphometric analysis, and the right femora were prepared for pQCT scanning and bone biomechanical measurement with indentation test and three-point bending test. Histomorphometric analysis showed that the trabecular volume of proximal tibia (Cn-BV/TV) in the OVX group was 8.1 +/- 1.4%, significantly lower than that in the sham operation group (19.5 +/- 1.5%, P biomechanic properties in measured by three point test after OVX and estrogen treatment. A significant positive correlation was shown between Trab BMD and Cn-TV/BV and between Trab BMD and Tb N (r = 0.88 and 0.73, both P < 0.01). Similarly, both Trab BMC and Trab BMD of the femur were significantly correlated with the Can load and Can Stiff determined by indentation test (r = 0.47 - 0.68, all P < 0.01). There was also a significant correlation of parameters measured by pQCT in cortical bone with the maximal load and stiffness for the femur midshaft, and the best correlation was found between the maximal load of femur midshaft and Crt BMC and Crt A (both r = 0.76 and P < 0.01). The geometric, densitometric and mechanical properties in cortical and trabecular bones of rat can be well

  11. Evaluation of bioimpedance spectroscopy for the measurement of body fluid compartment volumes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lufei; Maslanik, Tom; Zerebeckyj, Mykolai; Plato, Craig F

    2012-03-01

    Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) has been used in human and large animal research to assess body fluid compartment volumes (BFC) such as total body water (TBW), extracellular fluid volume (ECFV), and intracellular fluid volume (ICFV). To date, the application of BIS for determination of BFC in small research animals has been limited. We sought to evaluate the sensitivity and consistency of BIS for the determination of BFC in male SD rats. Thus, in separate series of experiments, we a) compared BFC values determined using BIS to BFC values obtained using radioisotope indicator dilution methods; b) examined day-to-day intra- and inter-rat BFC variability in small (267.8±5.4 g) and large (372.6±5.6 g) rats (n=8/group) as compared to empirical normative mammalian values; c) evaluated the sensitivity of BIS to detect time-dependent responses to repeated administration of a potent diuretic; and d) compared empirically generated BFC data to predicted osmotically-induced ECFV and ICFV shifts in response to i.v. administration of hypotonic (0.3%), isotonic (0.9%) or hypertonic (3.0%) saline (n=6/concentration). BFC values generated using radioisotope dilution agreed with those generated using BIS. BIS reliably detected differences between small and large rats (pmeasurements of BFC in rats of a) differing sizes, b) in response to therapeutic agents known to influence renal sodium handling and c) in response to osmotic challenge. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Interlaboratory evaluation of embryotoxicity in the postimplantation rat embryo culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piersma, A H; Attenon, P; Bechter, R; Govers, M J; Krafft, N; Schmid, B P; Stadler, J; Verhoef, A; Verseil, C

    1995-01-01

    The embryotoxicity of eight xenobiotic compounds in rat postimplantation whole embryo culture was blindly tested in four laboratories according to a standard protocol. The results show that the four nonteratogens amaranth, penicillin, isoniazid, and saccharin did not affect embryogenesis apart from general toxicity at very high concentrations in culture for amaranth and isoniazid. There was good concordance of results across the laboratories. The four teratogens (retinoic acid, 6-aminonicotinamide, acetylsalicylic acid, and vincristine) induced a variety of specific embryotoxic effects, which were in most cases similar in all laboratories. These results indicate that the definition for specific embryotoxicity used, as well as the culture duration and embryonic age are crucial for concordant scoring. Other methodologic differences did not significantly influence scoring of embryotoxicity. Therefore, within the limits of the end points and embryonic stage represented in the method, embryo culture appears as a useful method for embryotoxicity screening, which can be reproducibly applied in different laboratories.

  13. Safety evaluation of Sapindus laurifolius leaf extract in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. N. Santhosh Kumar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives:The present work was aimed to study the phytochemical composition of the Sapindus laurifolius leaves andtoxicological effect of the Sapindus laurifolius leaf extract in a systematic way using Wistar albino rats as a model animal.Materials and Methods :The identification of phytoconstituents present in the leaf extract was performed using Highperformance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC. In toxicity studies, the acute oral toxicity study was conducted as per theguidelines of Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD 423 Acute Toxic Class Method for testingof chemicals. In repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity study (OECD 407, methanolic leaf extract administered at the dose of 50,200 and 800 mg/kg BWand limit dose of 1000 mg/kg BW.Results: Saponins, flavanoids, glycosides and bitter principles were the major phytoconstituents identified. In acute toxicitystudy, the LD cut-off values were found to be more than 2g/kg in leaf extract. In repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity, significant 50(P<0.05 increase in AST, ALT, BUN and creatinine, significant (P<0.05 increase in total protein was noticed. Thehistopathological changes confined to liver, kidney and intestine, revealed mild to moderate hepatotoxicity, severenephrotoxicity and increased goblet cell activity. The changes were found to correlate with increased dose of leaf extract.Conclusion:The phytochemical analysis of Sapindus laurifolius revealed the presence of saponins, glycosides, flavonoidsand bitter principles.The acute oral toxicity study of S. laurifolius methanolic leaf extract in rats resulted in no toxicity even atthe highest dose, but in repeated 28-day oral toxicity study revealed mild to moderate hepatotoxicity, severe nephrotoxicityand intestinal damage.

  14. OBJECTIVE EVALUATION OF HYPERACTIVATED MOTILITY IN RAT SPERMATOZA USING COMPUTER-ASSISTED SPERM ANALYSIS (CASA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective evaluation of hyperactivated motility in rat spermatozoa using computer-assisted sperm analysis.Cancel AM, Lobdell D, Mendola P, Perreault SD.Toxicology Program, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.The aim of this study was t...

  15. Construction and evaluation of rats' tolerogenic dendritic cells (DC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The following methods were employed to phenotype DC: 1) Observation of cell morphology; 2) Evaluation of cell viability using trypan blue staining; 3) Purity determination of DC through detection of specific markers OX-62; 4) Evaluation of mature state of DC via the determination of the expression of CD80 and CD86; ...

  16. Neurobehavioral evaluations of rats gestationally exposed to gasoline vapors

    Science.gov (United States)

    As the US fuel supply is moving towards blends with higher ethanol levels, there are questions regarding effects of these fuel vapors in the developing fetus. As part of a project evaluating gasoline-ethanol blends of different proportions. we included an evaluation of inhaled pu...

  17. Neurofunctional evaluation of young male offspring of rat dams with diabetes induced by streptozotocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delascio Lopes, Carla; Sinigaglia-Coimbra, Rita; Mazzola, Jacqueline; Camano, Luiz; Mattar, Rosiane

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a complex disease, being one of the most prevalent diseases worldwide. As a consequence, pregnancy-associated diabetes is increasingly common. Given the numerous studies about the influence of diabetes on offspring of diabetic rat dams, the neurological outcome is of outmost importance. This paper aimed at evaluating the neurofunctional performance of young male offspring of rat dams with diabetes induced by streptozotocin. Diabetes was induced in Wistar female rats by streptozotocin administration, while control groups received vehicle injection. At two-month survival period, male offspring from each group were randomized to the water maze Morris test, in order to assess their neurofunctional status. There was no significant difference between the groups as assessed by the Morris water maze test for spatial reference task. Our results point to the need of further investigation on the offspring neurofunctional performance.

  18. Neurofunctional Evaluation of Young Male Offspring of Rat Dams with Diabetes Induced by Streptozotocin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delascio Lopes, Carla; Sinigaglia-Coimbra, Rita; Mazzola, Jacqueline; Camano, Luiz; Mattar, Rosiane

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a complex disease, being one of the most prevalent diseases worldwide. As a consequence, pregnancy-associated diabetes is increasingly common. Given the numerous studies about the influence of diabetes on offspring of diabetic rat dams, the neurological outcome is of outmost importance. This paper aimed at evaluating the neurofunctional performance of young male offspring of rat dams with diabetes induced by streptozotocin. Diabetes was induced in Wistar female rats by streptozotocin administration, while control groups received vehicle injection. At two-month survival period, male offspring from each group were randomized to the water maze Morris test, in order to assess their neurofunctional status. There was no significant difference between the groups as assessed by the Morris water maze test for spatial reference task. Our results point to the need of further investigation on the offspring neurofunctional performance. PMID:22363880

  19. Evaluation of Honey as a Topical Therapy for Intraoral Wound Healing in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamani, Goli; Zarei, Mohammad Reza; Mehrabani, Mitra; Mehdavinezhad, Ali; Vahabian, Mehrangiz; Ahmadi-Motamayel, Fatemah

    2017-03-01

    Honey is one of the oldest known medicines. Its medical and therapeutic importance has been recently rediscovered. Honey is an effective treatment for infected wounds and ulcers. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of honey as a topical therapy for intraoral wound healing in rats. Thirty-two male rats were divided into experimental and control groups (consisting of 16 rats, 4 animals in each group). A 2-mm mucosal defect was made to the depth of the periosteum using punch biopsy. Honey was applied to the wound every day, and the ulcer size was measured daily. On days 2, 4, 6, and 8, four rats were euthanized from each group (experimental and control groups), and tissues were histopathologically evaluated. Healing processes were studied as follows: the size of ulcer, inflammatory response, reepithelialization, and granulation tissue formation. The mean rank of wound size was significantly reduced in the honey group (2.50), as compared to the control group (6.50). Reepithelialization and granulation tissue formation mean rank were significantly higher in the honey group (6.50) than in the control group (2.50). Inflammation mean rank was statistically lower in the honey group (2.63) compared with the control group (6.38). Honey was shown to have a beneficial effect on the healing of oral ulcers in rats in this model. Further research may shed light on the effects of honey on different types of ulcers in humans.

  20. Evaluation of the toxic effect of star fruit on serum biochemical parameters in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Z Y; Teh, C C; Rao, N K; Chin, J H

    2010-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the toxic effect of Averrhoa carambola (star fruit) juice at different storage conditions in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Twenty female rats weighing 180 +/- 20 g were randomly assigned into four groups with five rats per group (n = 5). First group served as the control group, fed with distilled water (vehicle). Second, third and fourth groups were orally treated with juice of A. carambola stored for 0, 1 and 3 h respectively for 14 days. Cage-side observations were done daily after each treatment. Body weight, food consumption and water intake were recorded on day-0, day-3, day-7 and day-14. All rats were fasted overnight prior to blood collection through cardiac puncture on day-15. The levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), urea and creatinine in blood serum were measured. Data were analyzed using Dunnett's test. From the results obtained, there was no lethality found and LD(50) could not be determined. Increment of ALT levels (Pcarambola juice stored for 3 h. On the basis of these results, we can conclude that A. carambola juice stored for 0 hand 1 h are safe to be consumed. However, juice stored for 3 h exerts toxic effect on rat liver at hepatocellular level.

  1. Histopathological evaluation of the effect of vitamin E on rat kidney after complete unilateral urethral obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.h Mousavi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin E is an important antioxidant, which plays a vital role in preventing free radical induced reperfusion injuries. Any disorder in the normal urinary flow is termed obstructive nephropathy which could ultimately lead to hydronephrosis, atrophy and complete impairment of renal function. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of vitamin E on renal tissue following complete unilateral urethral obstruction in the rat. In this experimental study, 30 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups each containing 10 rats. The first group was considered as the control group. Following Unilateral urethral obstruction (UUO, rats in the second group received olive oil intraperitoneally for 15 days starting one day before surgery. Group three rats were given 50 Iu/kg of Vitamin E intraperitoneally for 15 days starting one day before unilateral obstruction (UUO-Vit E. Rats were euthanized at day 14 after surgery for histopathological evaluation and their left kidneys were collected and fixed in formalin and stained with Hematoxylen and Eosin, Trichrome-masson and Periodic Acid Schiff techniques. Histopathological evaluation revealed dilation of the Bowman’s capsule, severe glomerular and tubular atrophy, periglomerular sclerosis, interstitial infiltration of mononuclear cells, severe diffuse tubular degeneration, epithelial thickening of Bowman’s capsule, perivascular edema, interstitial fibrosis, hemorrhage and sub capsular fibrosis in the UUO group. Vitamin E administration in the UUO-Vit E group significantly decreased renal tissue lesions and fibrosis. The result of the present study indicated that urethral obstruction leads to severe renal fibrosis and tissue damage and concurrent administration of Vitamin E decreases tissue lesions and fibrosis resulting from the obstruction.

  2. Evaluation of Cholesterol-lowering Activity of Standardized Extract of Mangifera indica in Albino Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gururaja, G M; Mundkinajeddu, Deepak; Kumar, A Senthil; Dethe, Shekhar Michael; Allan, J Joshua; Agarwal, Amit

    2017-01-01

    Cholesterol lowering activity of Mangifera indica L. has been determined by earlier researchers and kernel, leaf and bark have shown significant activity. However, the specific cholesterol lowering activity of leaf methanol extract has not been determined. The present study involved evaluation of cholesterol lowering potential of methanol extract of M. indica leaves using high cholesterol diet model in albino Wistar rats. The acute oral toxicity at a dose of 5000 mg/ kg body weight was also determined in female albino Wistar rats. Phytoconstituents Iriflophenone 3-C-β-D-glucoside and mangiferin were quantified in methanol extracts of different varieties of mango leaves using high performance liquid chromatography. Significant cholesterol lowering activity was observed with methanol extract of M. indica leaves, at dose of 90 mg/kg body weight in rats and it was also found to be safe at dose of 5000 mg/kg rat body. Iriflophenone 3-C-β-D-glucoside and mangiferin were found to be in the range of 1.2 to 2.8% w/w and 3.9 to 4.6% w/w, respectively which along with 3 β taraxerol and other sterols could be contributing to the cholesterol lowering activity of mango leaves extract. The phytosterols rich extract of Mangifera indica leaves is a good source of nutraceutical ingredient that have the potential to lower serum cholesterol levels. The Mangifera indica leaves methanolic extract showed significant cholesterol lowering activity in high cholesterol diet induced hypercholesterolaemia model in rats when evaluated at a dose of 90 mg/kg rat body weight. The extract was found to contain Iriflophenone 3-C-β-D-glucoside and mangiferin which along with 3 β taraxerol and other sterols could be contributing to the cholesterol lowering activity.

  3. In Vivo Evaluation of Anti Diabetic, Hypolipidemic, Antioxidative Activities of Saudi Date Seed Extract on Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Marghoob; Mohieldein, Abdelmarouf

    2016-03-01

    Phoenix dactylifera (date palm) is major fruit of gulf region. In folk medicine; dates have been traditionally use. The date seed is used as hypoglycaemic, expectorant, tonic, aphrodisiac, antidiarrheic and mouth hygiene. This study intended to evaluate the anti-diabetic, hypolipidaemic and antioxidative activities of date seed extract in diabetes-induced rats. Total of seven groups of rats, consisting of control rats and streptozotocin induced diabetic rats treated with aqueous seed extract in concentration of 100g/L in dosage of 10ml/day/rat. To evaluate the anti-diabetic property, glucose and weight was analysed weekly and at the end of eight week all rats were sacrificed. To evaluate the hypolipidaemic and antioxidative activities, serum cholesterol, triglyceride, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine were estimated. Liver enzymes and kidney function tests were performed. Moreover to verify the glycaemic effect; glycated haemoglobin and serum insulin was performed. Aqueous seed extract in concentration of 100 gm/L in dosage of 10ml/day/rat brings a significant reduction of blood glucose levels in diabetic rats in comparison of control rats. There were significant differences in the investigated clinical chemistry and oxidative stress parameters between control and diabetic rats with both seed extract of Ajwa and Sukkari dates. Present study verifies the antidiabetic property, of aqueous seed extracts of two different varieties of dates namely Ajwa and Sukkari of Kingdom of Saudi on streptozotocin induced Diabetic rats. Prolong treatments with the extract restores the function of liver and kidney and balance the oxidative stress condition in diabetic treated rats.

  4. The cytotoxic evaluation of mineral trioxide aggregate and bioaggregate in the subcutaneous connective tissue of rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Gözde; Yalcin, Yagmur; Dindar, Seckin; Sancakli, Hande; Erdemir, Ugur

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the cytotoxic effects of ProRoot MTA and DiaRoot BA, a bioceramic nanoparticulate cement, on subcutaneous rat tissue. Study Design: Fifty Sprouge Dawley rats were used in this study. Polyethylene tubes filled with ProRoot MTA and DiaRoot BioAggregate, along with a control group of empty, were implanted into dorsal connective tissue of rats for 7, 15, 30, 60, and 90 days. After estimated time intervals the rats were sacrificed. The specimens were fixed, stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and then evaluated under a light microscope for inflammatory reactions and mineralization. Results: All groups evoked a severe to moderate chronic inflammatory reaction at 7 and 15 days, which decreased with time. Both the MTA and BioAggregate groups showed similar inflammatory reactions, except at 90 days when MTA showed statistically significant greater inflammation (p>0.05). The MTA group showed foreign body reaction at all times. Compared to BioAggregate, MTA showed significantly more foreign body reaction at 60 and 90 days (p0.05). Conclusions: Since DiaRoot BioAggregate showed significantly better results than MTA, we can conclude that it is more biocompatible. However, further studies are required to confirm this result. Key words:Biocompatibility, mineral trioxide aggregate, bioAggregate. PMID:23722144

  5. The rat as a model to evaluate the gastric irritation potential of alkaline products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauers, L J; Maurer, J K; Reer, P J

    1994-01-01

    Animal models historically used to assess the acute gastric irritation potential of accidental ingestion of consumer products include the dog, pig, rabbit, and cat. In looking at alternative methods that are of shorter duration and more cost-effective, the rat is being evaluated as a potential model. Acute gastric irritation is known to increase as the reserve alkalinity of the formulation increases. In initial experiments to assess the rat as a potential model, animals were dosed via oral gavage with 1 of 4 formulations ranging in reserve alkalinity from 4.0 to 10.8. Necropsies were performed at 15 and 60 min after dosing. Macroscopic and microscopic evaluations of the stomach revealed morphological differences in the various treatment groups that distinguish granular formulations having either a low (R.A. = 4.0), moderate (R.A. = 7.1), or higher (R.A. = 10.8) reserve alkalinity. Additionally, it was observed that the acute gastric changes in rats dosed with a liquid formulation having a low (R.A. = 4.2) reserve alkalinity were similar to those in rats dosed with a granular formulation having a moderate reserve alkalinity (R.A. = 7.1). This suggests that other factors such as types of ingredients, pH, and physical form influence the extent of acute gastric irritation and demonstrates that an evaluation of only reserve alkalinity is not sufficient to ensure the safety of these products. This preliminary work supports the rat as a potential model to assess the acute gastric irritation potential of alkaline formulations or substances.

  6. Methods to evaluate functional nerve recovery in adult rats : walking track analysis, video analysis and the withdrawal reflex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, [No Value; Meek, MF; Robinson, PH; Gramsbergen, A

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare different methods for the evaluation of functional nerve recovery. Three groups of adult male Wistar rats were studied. In group A, a 12-mm gap between nerve ends was bridged by an autologous nerve graft; in rats of group B we performed a crush lesion of the

  7. Anticoagulant activity of isolated coumarins (suberosin and suberenol) and toxicity evaluation of Ferulago carduchorum in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golfakhrabadi, Fereshteh; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Ardakani, Mohammad Reza Shams; Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Akbarzadeh, Tahmineh; Ahmadabadi, Amir Nili; Ebrahimi, Azin; Yousefbeyk, Fatemeh; Hassanzadeh, Alireza; Khanavi, Mahnaz

    2014-10-01

    Ferulago carduchorum Boiss. & Hausskn. (Apiaceae) is known as Chavil in Persian which grows in west of Iran. Local people add Chavil to dairy and oil ghee as a natural preservative to extend the expiration date. The goal of this survey is the safety evaluation of the total extract of F. carduchorum in rats by determining both oral acute and subchronic toxicities; furthermore, the anticoagulant activity of isolated coumarins was evaluated. The aerial parts of F. carduchorum were extracted by the percolation method. The anticoagulant activity of isolated coumarins was evaluated and the total extract was used to investigate acute and subchronic toxicity in rats. In the subchronic toxicity model, doses of 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg of the extract were administered to treated groups for 30 consecutive days by gavage. According to the results of acute toxicity, the LD50 of Chavil extract was more than 2000 mg/kg. The subchronic study showed no significant difference (p > 0.05) between the groups treated with extract and control groups in hematological (erythrocyte, total and differential leukocyte, hematocrit, hemoglobin, platelet count) and biochemical parameter (glucose, albumin, cholesterol, triglycerides, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase) evaluations. The isolated coumarins (suberosin and suberenol) prolonged the prothrombin time (PT) at doses of 3 and 6 mg/kg compared with control (p coumarins showed anticoagulant effect in rats.

  8. Evaluation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in the Wistar Audiogenic Rat (WAR Strain.

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    Rubens Fazan

    Full Text Available Risk factors for life-threatening cardiovascular events were evaluated in an experimental model of epilepsy, the Wistar Audiogenic Rat (WAR strain.We used long-term ECG recordings in conscious, one year old, WAR and Wistar control counterparts to evaluate spontaneous arrhythmias and heart rate variability, a tool to assess autonomic cardiac control. Ventricular function was also evaluated using the pressure-volume conductance system in anesthetized rats.Basal RR interval (RRi was similar between WAR and Wistar rats (188 ± 5 vs 199 ± 6 ms. RRi variability strongly suggests that WAR present an autonomic imbalance with sympathetic overactivity, which is an isolated risk factor for cardiovascular events. Anesthetized WAR showed lower arterial pressure (92 ± 3 vs 115 ± 5 mmHg and exhibited indices of systolic dysfunction, such as higher ventricle end-diastolic pressure (9.2 ± 0.6 vs 5.6 ± 1 mmHg and volume (137 ± 9 vs 68 ± 9 μL as well as lower rate of increase in ventricular pressure (5266 ± 602 vs 7320 ± 538 mmHg.s-1. Indices of diastolic cardiac function, such as lower rate of decrease in ventricular pressure (-5014 ± 780 vs -7766 ± 998 mmHg.s-1 and a higher slope of the linear relationship between end-diastolic pressure and volume (0.078 ± 0.011 vs 0.036 ± 0.011 mmHg.μL, were also found in WAR as compared to Wistar control rats. Moreover, Wistar rats had 3 to 6 ventricular ectopic beats, whereas WAR showed 15 to 30 ectopic beats out of the 20,000 beats analyzed in each rat.The autonomic imbalance observed previously at younger age is also present in aged WAR and, additionally, a cardiac dysfunction was also observed in the rats. These findings make this experimental model of epilepsy a valuable tool to study risk factors for cardiovascular events in epilepsy.

  9. Evaluation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in the Wistar Audiogenic Rat (WAR) Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazan, Rubens; Silva, Carlos Alberto A; Oliveira, José Antônio Cortes; Salgado, Helio Cesar; Montano, Nicola; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto

    2015-01-01

    Risk factors for life-threatening cardiovascular events were evaluated in an experimental model of epilepsy, the Wistar Audiogenic Rat (WAR) strain. We used long-term ECG recordings in conscious, one year old, WAR and Wistar control counterparts to evaluate spontaneous arrhythmias and heart rate variability, a tool to assess autonomic cardiac control. Ventricular function was also evaluated using the pressure-volume conductance system in anesthetized rats. Basal RR interval (RRi) was similar between WAR and Wistar rats (188 ± 5 vs 199 ± 6 ms). RRi variability strongly suggests that WAR present an autonomic imbalance with sympathetic overactivity, which is an isolated risk factor for cardiovascular events. Anesthetized WAR showed lower arterial pressure (92 ± 3 vs 115 ± 5 mmHg) and exhibited indices of systolic dysfunction, such as higher ventricle end-diastolic pressure (9.2 ± 0.6 vs 5.6 ± 1 mmHg) and volume (137 ± 9 vs 68 ± 9 μL) as well as lower rate of increase in ventricular pressure (5266 ± 602 vs 7320 ± 538 mmHg.s-1). Indices of diastolic cardiac function, such as lower rate of decrease in ventricular pressure (-5014 ± 780 vs -7766 ± 998 mmHg.s-1) and a higher slope of the linear relationship between end-diastolic pressure and volume (0.078 ± 0.011 vs 0.036 ± 0.011 mmHg.μL), were also found in WAR as compared to Wistar control rats. Moreover, Wistar rats had 3 to 6 ventricular ectopic beats, whereas WAR showed 15 to 30 ectopic beats out of the 20,000 beats analyzed in each rat. The autonomic imbalance observed previously at younger age is also present in aged WAR and, additionally, a cardiac dysfunction was also observed in the rats. These findings make this experimental model of epilepsy a valuable tool to study risk factors for cardiovascular events in epilepsy.

  10. Subchronic and genetic safety evaluation of a calcium fructoborate in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marone, Palma Ann; Heimbach, James T; Nemzer, Boris; Hunter, John M

    2016-09-01

    A branded calcium fructoborate product, a nature-identical calcium salt of bis (fructose) ester of boric acid found in plants and a natural source of boron in the human diet and sold under the trade name FruiteX-B(®) Brand Calcium Fructoborate ("FrxB"), was evaluated in a 90-day dietary toxicity study and two genotoxicity studies. In the 90-day study, four groups of 10 male and 10 female Crl:SD CD(®) IGS rats were fed diets with FrxB admixtures of 0.56, 1.12, and 1.68% dietary concentration, providing mean overall daily intakes of FrxB in male rats of 385.8, 774.9, and 1161.3 mg/kg bw/day, and 392.1, 784.4, and 1171.1 mg/kg bw/day in female rats. There were no mortalities, no clinical or ophthalmologic signs, body weight, body weight gain, food consumption, food efficiency, Functional Observational Battery (FOB), or Motor Activity (MA) findings associated with the administration of FrxB. There were no adverse changes in hematology, coagulation, clinical chemistry, or urinalysis parameters in male or female rats considered the result of test substance administration. At necropsy, there were no macroscopic, histopathological findings, or organ weight changes deemed related to administration of the test substance. Under the conditions of this study, based on the toxicological endpoints evaluated, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for FrxB in the diet was 1161.3 and 1171.1 mg/kg bw/day in male and female rats, respectively. Bacterial mutagenicity studies and a micronucleus test using Chinese hamster V79 cells demonstrated no mutagenic or genotoxic potential of the tested brand of calcium fructoborate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation for effect of hypothermia on the disposition of 4-nitrophenol in rats by in-vitro metabolism study and rat liver perfusion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Hirotaka; Matsueda, Satoshi; Komori, Kotaro; Fumoto, Shintaro; Nakashima, Mikiro; Yoshikawa, Naoki; Hirata, Haruna; Shimokawa, Kenta; Ohwaki, Yuichi; Nishida, Koyo

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hypothermia on the in-vivo pharmacokinetics of 4-nitrophenol (4NP) using rat liver homogenate and rat liver perfusion system. Rat liver homogenate was incubated with 4NP, which is mainly metabolized by cytochrome P450 2E1, at 37, 34, 32 or 28°C. The Michaelis constant (Km ) and maximum elimination velocity (Vmax ) of 4NP were calculated by a Hanes-Woolf plot. The hepatic extraction ratio (Eh ) of 4NP was evaluated in a rat liver perfusion study at 37, 34, 32 or 28°C. Moreover, the plasma concentration profiles of 4NP after its intravenous (i.v.) administration to rats were analysed by the moment theory and were compared with in-vitro parameters. While the Km of 4NP was not changed, the Vmax and Eh were reduced at low temperatures. The plasma concentrations of 4NP after its i.v. administration to rats were significantly increased at 28°C. Changes in the pharmacokinetics of 4NP under hypothermic conditions were caused by alterations in Vmax and Eh . We may be able to predict the disposition of a drug by in-vitro studies. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  12. Evaluation of effects of photooxidized Vespa orientalis venom on memory and learning in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mukund, H; SP Gawade

    2011-01-01

    Wasp venom is mixture of complex proteins that have several physical and pharmacological properties. The photochemical detoxification of Vespa orientalis venom is expected to generate photooxidized venom sac extract (PVSE). Antigenically active PVSE is obtained by exposing the venom sac extract (VSE) of Vespa orientalis to ultraviolet radiation in the presence of methylene blue. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of PVSE on learning and memory of rats. Detoxification of PV...

  13. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of Mangifera indica leaves in albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    A. Sudha Madhuri; Rajalakshmi Mohanvelu; S. Ramabhimaiah

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mangifera indica (MI) commonly known as mango belongs to the family anacardiaceae, distributed in rural and semi urban parts of India. According to Ayurveda, various medical properties are attributed to different parts of the mango tree. The purpose of the study was to evaluate anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of Mangifera indica leaves. Methods: Aqueous extract of Mangifera indica leaves was prepared and tested for anti-inflammatory activity in albino rats weighin...

  14. Employment of a noninvasive magnetic method for evaluation of gastrointestinal transit in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Quini, Caio C; Américo, Madileine F; Corá, Luciana A; Calabresi, Marcos FF; Alvarez, Matheus; Oliveira, Ricardo B; Miranda, Jose Ricardo A

    2012-01-01

    AC Biosusceptometry (ACB) was previously employed towards recording gastrointestinal motility. Our data show a reliable and successful evaluation of gastrointestinal transit of liquid and solid meals in rats, considering the methods scarcity and number of experiments needed to endorsement of drugs and medicinal plants. ACB permits real time and simultaneous experiments using the same animal, preserving the physiological conditions employing both meals with simplicity and accuracy. © 2012 Quin...

  15. Evaluation of the subchronic toxicity of kefir by oral administration in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz Rosa, Damiana; Gouveia Peluzio, Maria do Carmo; Pérez Bueno, Tania; Vega Cañizares, Ernesto; Sánchez Miranda, Lilian; Mancebo Dorbignyi, Betty; Chong Dubí, Dainé; Espinosa Castaño, Ivette; Marcin Grzes Kowiak, Lukasz; Fortes Ferreira, Célia Lucia de Luces

    2014-06-01

    Kefir is obtained by fermentation of milk with complex microbial populations present in kefir grains. Several health-promoting benefits have been attributed to kefir consumption. The objective of this work was to conduct a subchronic toxicity study, offering the rats normal or high-doses of kefir and evaluating growth, hematology and blood chemistry, as well as assessing bacterial translocation and the integrity of the intestinal mucosa of animals. Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups (n = 6/group): control group received 0.7 mL of water, kefir group received 0.7 mL/day of kefir, (normodose), and Hkefir group received 3.5 mL/day of kefir (fivefold higher dose). Feeding was carried out by gavage. The animals were housed in individual cages and maintained under standard conditions for 4 weeks. The normodose and high-dose of kefir supplementation did not harm the animals since growth, hematology and blood chemistry in rats, as well as the potential pathogenicity in tissues were within normal limits, demonstrating that consumption of normodose and highdose of kefir are safe. In addition, administration of the normodose of kefir reduced cholesterol levels and improved the intestinal mucosa of the rats. These results demonstrate that the consumption of kefir is safe. Importantly, while damages are not seen for the high-dose, the normodose consumption is recommended due to the pronounced beneficial effects, as safety is concerned. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of postpartum behaviour in rats treated with Hypericum perforatum during gestation

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    Vinícius A. Vieira

    Full Text Available Gestational depression is detrimental to the health of the mother and the offspring and contributes to the appearance of depressive and anxiety symptoms during the postnatal period. Traditional antidepressants have undesirable side effects when utilised during gestation, but Hypericum perforatum has been characterised as an efficient and safe antidepressant that prevents the recurrence of symptoms. This study verified the effects of Hypericum perforatumon the behaviour of Wistar rats that were treated during gestation and evaluated 10 and 60 days post-treatment. Pregnant Wistar rats were divided into four groups of ten animals each: one control group that received distilled water and three treatment groups that were treated orally with 36, 72 or 144 mg/kg Hypericum perforatumextract. At 10 and 60 days after parturition and post-treatment, the rats were submitted to the holeboard, the tail suspension, and the forced swim tests. The animals treated with 144 mg/kg Hypericum perforatumexhibited greater head-dipping activity in the hole-board test and reduced immobility in the tail suspension and forced swim tests, suggesting less anxiety and depression 10 and 60 days post-treatment.The results indicated that treating rats with Hypericum perforatumduring the gestational period decreased depressive behaviour and anxiety 10 and 60 days post-treatment.

  17. Evaluation of histological changes after tracheal occlusion at different gestational ages in a fetal rat model

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    Rodrigo Melo Gallindo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the histological changes of tracheal cartilage and epithelium caused by tracheal occlusion at different gestational ages in a fetal rat model. METHODS: Rat fetuses were divided into two groups: a External control, composed of non-operated rats, and b Interventional group, composed of rats operated upon on gestational day 18.5 (term = 22 days, divided into triads: 1 Tracheal occlusion, 2 Internal control and 3 Sham (manipulated but not operated. Morphological data for body weight, total lung weight and total lung weight/body weight ratio were collected and measured on gestational days 19.5, 20.5 and 21.5. Tracheal samples were histologically processed, and epithelial, chondral and total tracheal thicknesses were measured on each gestational day. RESULTS: The tracheal occlusion group exhibited an increase in total lung weight/body weight ratio (p<0.001. Histologically, this group had a thicker epithelial thickness (p<0.05 and thinner chondral (p<0.05 and total tracheal thicknesses (p<0.001. These differences were more prominent on gestational days 20.5 and 21.5. CONCLUSION: Tracheal occlusion changed tracheal morphology, increased epithelial thickness and considerably decreased total tracheal thickness. These changes in the tracheal wall could explain the development of tracheomegaly, recently reported in some human fetuses subjected to tracheal occlusion.

  18. Evaluation of tenoxicam on prevention of arachnoiditis in rat laminectomy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cemil, Berker; Kurt, Gokhan; Aydın, Cansel; Akyurek, Nalan; Erdogan, Bulent; Ceviker, Necdet

    2011-08-01

    Post laminectomy arachnoiditis has been shown by experiments with rats and post operative radiological imaging in humans. The purpose of this experimental study was to determine the efficacy of tenoxicam in preventing arachnoiditis in rats. Twenty-four Wistar rats were divided into two groups, and L3 laminectomy was performed. In the tenoxicam group, 0.5 mg/kg tenoxicam was applied intraperitoneally. Normal saline was applied intraperitoneally in the control group. Later, the rats were killed at weeks 3 and 6, and the laminectomy sites were evaluated pathologically for arachnoiditis. The results showed that 6 weeks after surgery, the tenoxicam group showed lowest arachnoiditis grades. However, statistically significant difference was not found in arachnoiditis between the control group and the tenoxicam group. Based on these findings it is concluded that application of the tenoxicam after lumbar laminectomy did not effectively reduce arachnoiditis. Performing the most effective surgical technique without damage around tissue in a small surgical wound and having meticulous hemostasis in surgery seem to be the key for preventing arachnoiditis effectively.

  19. Histopathologic Evaluation of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Hypothyroidism-Induced Rats

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    Şule Demir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is speculated that thyroid hormones may be involved in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD pathogenesis. A literature scan, however, demonstrated conflicting results from studies investigating the relationship between hypothyroidism and NAFLD. Therefore, our study aims to evaluate NAFLD, from the histopathologic perspective, in hypothyroidism-induced rats. Wistar rats were divided into 2 groups: the experimental group consumed water containing methimazole 0.025% (MMI, Sigma, USA for 12 weeks and the control group consumed tap water. At the end of week 12, serum glucose, ALT, AST, triglyceride, HDL, LDL, TSH, fT4, fT3, visfatin, and insulin assays were performed. Sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and “Oil Red-O” for histopathologic examination of the livers. In our study, we detected mild hepatosteatosis in all hypothyroidism-induced rats. There was statistically significant difference with respect to obesity between the two groups (p0.05. In conclusion, we found that hypothyroidism-induced rats had mild hepatosteatosis as opposed to the control group histopathologically. Our study indicates that hypothyroidism can cause NAFLD.

  20. Histopathologic Evaluation of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Hypothyroidism-Induced Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Şule; Ünübol, Mustafa; Aypak, Serap Ünübol; İpek, Emrah; Aktaş, Serdar; Ekren, Gamze Sevri; Yılmaz, Murat; Tunca, Recai; Güney, Engin

    2016-01-01

    It is speculated that thyroid hormones may be involved in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) pathogenesis. A literature scan, however, demonstrated conflicting results from studies investigating the relationship between hypothyroidism and NAFLD. Therefore, our study aims to evaluate NAFLD, from the histopathologic perspective, in hypothyroidism-induced rats. Wistar rats were divided into 2 groups: the experimental group consumed water containing methimazole 0.025% (MMI, Sigma, USA) for 12 weeks and the control group consumed tap water. At the end of week 12, serum glucose, ALT, AST, triglyceride, HDL, LDL, TSH, fT4, fT3, visfatin, and insulin assays were performed. Sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and “Oil Red-O” for histopathologic examination of the livers. In our study, we detected mild hepatosteatosis in all hypothyroidism-induced rats. There was statistically significant difference with respect to obesity between the two groups (p hypothyroidism-induced group and 102.63 ± 15.51 mg/dL in the control group, with a statistically significant difference between the groups (p = 0.032). The two groups did not differ statistically significantly with respect to visfatin levels (p > 0.05). In conclusion, we found that hypothyroidism-induced rats had mild hepatosteatosis as opposed to the control group histopathologically. Our study indicates that hypothyroidism can cause NAFLD. PMID:27143968

  1. Histomorphometric Evaluation of the Small Coronary Arteries in Rats Exposed to Industrial Noise

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    Ana Lousinha

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Morphological changes induced by industrial noise (IN have been experimentally observed in several organs. Histological observations of the coronary arteries showed prominent perivascular tissue and fibrosis among IN-exposed rats. The effects on the small arteries are unknown. Objective: To evaluate the histomorphometric changes induced by IN on rat heart small arteries. Methods: Twenty Wistar rats exposed to IN during a maximum period of seven months and 20 age-matched controls were studied. Hearts were transversely sectioned from ventricular apex to atria and a mid-ventricular fragment was selected for analysis. The histological images were obtained with an optical microscope using 400× magnifications. A total of 634 arterial vessels (298 IN-exposed and 336 controls were selected. The mean lumen-to-vessel wall (L/W and mean vessel wall-to-perivascular tissue (W/P ratios were calculated using image J software. Results: There were no differences between exposed and control animals in their L/W ratios (p = 0.687 and time variations in this ratio were non-significant (p = 0.110. In contrast, exposed animals showed lower W/P ratios than control animals (p < 0.001, with significant time variations (p = 0.004. Conclusions: Industrial noise induced an increase in the perivascular tissue of rat small coronary arteries, with significant development of periarterial fibrosis.

  2. Evaluation of Anti-ulcer Activity of Echinops Persicus on Experimental Gastric Ulcer Models in Rats

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    Ahmad Farajzadeh-Sheikh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Extract of Echinops persicus is traditionally used for a long time in Iran for treatment of cough and constipation. This extract is produced by activity of bug (Situphilus spp. on the plant. We documented its anti-tussive effect in rats in our previous study.The aim of this study was to assess the anti-ulcer effect of Echinops persicus in an animal model. In this study we evaluated anti-ulcer effect of Echinops persicus by Shay's method in rats. In 3 groups of rats, pylorus was ligatured under anesthesia. The rats were euthanized after 19 hours later and number and level of ulcer in stomach was measured. In group 2 the extract was orally administered 45 minutes before pyloric ligature, and in group 3, it was administered intraperitoneally 20 minutes before pyloric ligature. The number of ulcers in stomach was significantly low in group 2 (P = 0.01 and 3 (P = 0.037 in comparison with group 1. The level of ulcer was significantly decreased in group 2 (P = 0.047 with comparison to group 1. We conclude that, Echinops extract can exhibit potentially cytoprotective and anti-ulcer activity.

  3. Evaluation of neuroprotective effect of quercetin with donepezil in scopolamine-induced amnesia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattanashetti, Laxmi Adiveppa; Taranalli, Ashok D; Parvatrao, Vinay; Malabade, Rohit H; Kumar, Dushyant

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of quercetin with donepezil in scopolamine-induced amnesia in rats. Five groups of adult male Wistar rats (12 months old) weighing 180-200 g (n = 6) were used. The normal control group received normal saline and test group animals were pretreated orally with quercetin (25 mg/kg), donepezil (3 mg/kg), and a combination of quercetin (25 mg/kg) with donepezil (3 mg/kg), respectively, dosed at every 24 h interval for 14 consecutive days, afterward amnesia was induced by scopolamine (3 mg/kg) on the 14th day through intraperitoneal route. Cognitive performance was assessed by the Morris water maze, elevated plus maze, and passive avoidance paradigm. Acetylcholinesterase enzyme (AchE) level, biochemical markers such as lipid peroxidase (LPO), glutathione (GSH), β amyloid1-42level, and histopathological study of rat brain were estimated. Statistical analysis was done by one-way analysis of variance, followed by Dunnett's post hoc test. P ≥ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Pretreatment with quercetin, donepezil, and their combination showed a significant increase in escape latency, step-through latency, and decreased transfer latency in respective cognitive models of the Morris water maze, passive avoidance test, and elevated plus maze. Further coadministration significantly decreased AchE level, β amyloid1-42level as compared to individual therapy. Biochemical markers such as elevated GSH, decreased LPO were observed, and histopathological studies revealed the reversal of neuronal damage in the treatment group (P amnesia in rats. The improved cognitive memory could be due to the synergistic effect of the drugs by decreasing AchE level, β amyloid1-42level, and antioxidant action in rat brain.

  4. An improved strategy for evaluating the extent of chronic arterial baroreceptor denervation in conscious rats

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    M. Rodríguez-Martínez

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available There is no index or criterion of aortic barodenervation, nor can we differentiate among rats that have suffered chronic sham, aortic or sino-aortic denervation. The objective of this study was to develop a procedure to generate at least one quantitative, reproducible and validated index that precisely evaluates the extent of chronic arterial barodenervation performed in conscious rats. Data from 79 conscious male Wistar rats of about 65-70 days of age with diverse extents of chronic arterial barodenervation and used in previous experiments were reanalyzed. The mean arterial pressure (MAP and the heart rate (HR of all rats were measured systematically before (over 1 h and after three consecutive iv bolus injections of phenylephrine (PHE and sodium nitroprusside (SNP. Four expressions of the effectiveness of barodenervation (MAP lability, PHE ratio, SNP ratio, and SNP-PHE slope were assessed with linear fixed models, three-level average variance, average separation among levels, outlier box plot analysis, and overlapping graphic analysis. The analysis indicated that a neither MAP lability nor SNP-PHE slope was affected by the level of chronic sodium intake; b even though the Box-Cox transformations of both MAP lability [transformed lability index (TLI] and SNP-PHE slope [transformed general sensitivity index (TGSI, {((3-(ΔHRSNP-ΔHRPHE/ΔMAPSNP-ΔMAPPHE-0.4-1/-0.04597}] could be two promising indexes, TGSI proved to be the best index; c TLI and TGSI were not freely interchangeable indexes for this purpose. TGSI ranges that permit differentiation between sham (10.09 to 11.46, aortic (8.40 to 9.94 and sino-aortic (7.68 to 8.24 barodenervated conscious rats were defined.

  5. Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Kondrashov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to perform a chemical analysis of both Alibernet red wine and an alcohol-free Alibernet red wine extract (AWE and to investigate the effects of AWE on nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production as well as blood pressure development in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. Total antioxidant capacity together with total phenolic and selected mineral content was measured in wine and AWE. Young 6-week-old male WKY and SHR were treated with AWE (24,2 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks. Total NOS and SOD activities, eNOS and SOD1 protein expressions, and superoxide production were determined in the tissues. Both antioxidant capacity and phenolic content were significantly higher in AWE compared to wine. The AWE increased NOS activity in the left ventricle, aorta, and kidney of SHR, while it did not change NOS activity in WKY rats. Similarly, increased SOD activity in the plasma and left ventricle was observed in SHR only. There were no changes in eNOS and SOD1 expressions. In conclusion, phenolics and minerals included in AWE may contribute directly to increased NOS and SOD activities of SHR. Nevertheless, 3 weeks of AWE treatment failed to affect blood pressure of SHR.

  6. Microscopic qualitative evaluation of fixation time and decalcification media in rat maxillary periodontium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Marilene Issa; Gaio, Eduardo José; Rosing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker; Oppermann, Rui Vicente; Rado, Pantelis Varvaki

    2007-01-01

    The rat model is widely used in periodontal research and the quality of histological sections is essential. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the histological characteristics of periodontal tissues in Wistar rat maxillae, with different times of fixation and decalcified by nitric acid or formic acid (Anna Morse Solution). Fifteen rats were used. Fixation was performed for 24, 48 and 72 hours. The maxillae were hemi-sectioned and each part was decalcified either in nitric acid for 7 days or in Anna Morse solution for 35 days. Two trained and blinded examiners performed the evaluation. Fourty eight hours of fixation and decalcification with Anna Morse solution showed more clear characteristics of the epithelium-connective tissue interface and of the periodontal structures. Mean measurements between the cementum-enamel junction and the bone crest varied in the different experimental times from 176.5 (+/- 60.45) to 210.94 (+/- 39.33) pixels on the buccal aspect, and from 199.69 (+/- 38.33) to 298.55 (+/-70.81) pixels on the palatal aspect, with no statistically significant differences (ANOVA, p > 0.05). In the same fixation period, decalcification with nitric acid or Anna Morse solution did not display any statistically significant differences. It may be concluded that for a qualitative histological analysis, fixation should preferably be for 48 hours and the demineralization should be made by Anna Morse solution. For a histomorphometric analysis, the decalcification solution does not interfere in the results.

  7. Evaluation of wound healing activity of Acacia leucophloea bark in rats

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    Sembian Suriyamoorthy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Wound healing activity of the bark extracts of Acacia leucophloea Willd., Fabaceae, was investigated by excision and incision wound healing models in Wistar male rats. Ethanolic extract based ointment of A. leucophloea bark (2 and 5% (w/w was formulated and evaluated for its wound healing in Wistar male rats. In comparision with a standard wound healing ointment betadine. A. leucophloea ethanolic extract ointment exhibited marked wound healing activity and significantly enhanced the wound contraction and the period of epithelialization as assessed by wound contraction rate, tensile strength, increasing of DNA, collagen and protein synthesis and histopathological examination. The formulated ointment might well find use as skin repair agent without hazard to human health based on these results.

  8. Exclusion of emphysematous lung from dose-volume estimates of risk improves prediction of radiation pneumonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Yasuki; Tsugawa, Takuya; Tanaka-Mizuno, Sachiko; Noma, Kazuo; Aoki, Ken; Shigemori, Wataru; Nakagawa, Hiroaki; Kinose, Daisuke; Yamaguchi, Masafumi; Osawa, Makoto; Ogawa, Emiko; Nakano, Yasutaka

    2017-10-02

    The risk factors for radiation pneumonitis (RP) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are unclear. Mean lung dose (MLD) and percentage of irradiated lung volume are common predictors of RP, but the most accurate dosimetric parameter has not been established. We hypothesized that the total lung volume irradiated without emphysema would influence the onset of RP. We retrospectively evaluated 100 patients who received radiotherapy for lung cancer. RP was graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (version 4.03). We quantified low attenuation volume (LAV) using quantitative computed tomography analysis. The association between RP and traditional dosimetric parameters including MLD, volume of the lung receiving a dose of ≥2 Gy, ≥ 5 Gy, ≥ 10 Gy, ≥ 20 Gy, and ≥30 Gy, and counterpart measurements of the lung without LAV, were analyzed by logistic regression. We compared each dosimetric parameter for RP using multiple predictive performance measures including area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI). Of 100 patients, RP of Grades 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 was diagnosed in 24, 12, 13, 1, and 1 patients, respectively. Compared with traditional dosimetric parameters, counterpart measurements without LAV improved risk prediction of symptomatic RP. The ratio of the lung without LAV receiving ≥30 Gy to the total lung volume without LAV most accurately predicted symptomatic RP (AUC, 0.894; IDI, 0.064). Irradiated lung volume without LAV predicted RP more accurately than traditional dosimetric parameters.

  9. Evaluating the best time to intervene acute liver failure in rat models induced by d-galactosamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Éboli, Lígia Patrícia de Carvalho Batista; Netto, Alcides Augusto Salzedas; Azevedo, Ramiro Antero de; Lanzoni, Valéria Pereira; Paula, Tatiana Sugayama de; Goldenberg, Alberto; Gonzalez, Adriano Miziara

    2016-12-01

    To describe an animal model for acute liver failure by intraperitoneal d-galactosamine injections in rats and to define when is the best time to intervene through King's College and Clichy´s criteria evaluation. Sixty-one Wistar female rats were distributed into three groups: group 1 (11 rats received 1.4 g/kg of d-galactosamine intraperitoneally and were observed until they died); group 2 (44 rats received a dose of 1.4 g/kg of d-galactosamine and blood and histological samples were collected for analysis at 12 , 24, 48 , 72 and 120 hours after the injection); and the control group as well (6 rats) . Twelve hours after applying d-galactosamine, AST/ALT, bilirubin, factor V, PT and INR were already altered. The peak was reached at 48 hours. INR > 6.5 was found 12 hours after the injection and factor V acute liver failure animal model.

  10. Retrospective evaluation of alpha 2u-globulin accumulation in male rat kidneys following high doses of diisononyl phthalate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, D J; Eldridge, S R; Lington, A W; McKee, R H

    1999-09-01

    Diisononyl phthalate (DINP), a widely used plasticizer, has been evaluated in two chronic studies in rats and one in mice. In the early 1980s, Exxon found no carcinogenic potential at the estimated maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of 0.6% (307 mg/kg/ day for male rats) administered in the diet of rats for 2 years. A recent study conducted at dietary levels up to 1.2% DINP (733 mg/kg/d for male rats) reported kidney tumors in male rats at the high treatment level, but not in female rats nor mice of either sex. Because these tumors occurred only in male rats, and only at high doses, the male rat-specific alpha 2u-globulin (alpha2UG) mechanism of action was investigated. Technological advances in immunohistochemical staining and computerized image analysis techniques permitted measuring the accumulation of alpha2UG in archived kidneys from the earlier Exxon study. Using archived tissue obtained at the 12-month interim sacrifice, we identified a dose-dependent accumulation of alpha2UG in specific regions of male rat kidneys only. An increase in cell proliferation was confirmed by immunohistochemical detection of proliferating-cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and was confined to the areas of alpha2UG accumulation. H and E-stained sections revealed tubular epithelial hypertrophy and regeneration, consistent with the immunohistopathology findings. These findings are consistent with the alpha2UG mechanism of tumorigenesis, which is not regarded as relevant for humans. Thus, exposure to DINP produced a dose-dependent alpha2UG accumulation in male rat kidneys, significant at a dietary level of 0.6% and a likely mechanism for the kidney tumors seen only in male rats administered higher dietary levels of DINP.

  11. Evaluation of analgesic, antipyretic activity and toxicity study of Bryonia laciniosa in mice and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, T; Perumal, P; Kumar, R Sambath; Vamsi, M L M; Gomathi, P; Mazumder, U K; Gupta, M

    2004-01-01

    Analgesic, antipyretic activity and toxicity study of the leaves of Bryonia laciniosa Linn. (Family: Cucurbitaceae) was evaluated in the standard animal models. The methanol extract of Bryonia laciniosa (MEBL) was evaluated by hot plate and acetic acid-induced writhing methods to assess analgesic activity. The antipyretic activity of the extract was also evaluated by normal body temperature and yeast-induced hyperpyrexia. The extract showed significant analgesic and antipyretic activity. The MEBL was further evaluated for toxicity at the doses of 125 and 250 mg/kg administered orally for 14 days in rats. At the end of experiments, the blood, liver function and kidney metabolism were observed. The hematological profile and different biochemical parameters such as SGOT, SGPT and ALP were estimated. The present study revealed that MEBL exhibited significant analgesic and antipyretic activity in the tested experimental animal models. The toxicity study indicates that the extract is not toxic at the tested doses.

  12. Evaluation of the Hypoglycaemic Activity of Petiveria alliacea (Guinea Hen Weed) Extracts in Normoglycaemic and Diabetic Rat Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, S-L; Levy, A

    2013-11-01

    Petiveria alliacea (P alliacea) has ethno-traditional use as a hypoglycaemic agent in Jamaica and is yet to be scientifically validated as such. Therefore, extracts of aerial parts of the plant were evaluated for hypoglycaemic activity in normoglycaemic and diabetic rats. Aqueous and hexane extracts prepared from leaves of P alliacea were tested for hypoglycaemic activity. An acute administration of the extracts (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight) was evaluated in normoglycaemic rats. Additionally, the hypoglycaemic effect of sub-chronic administration was assessed in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Blood glucose was recorded using a glucometer and test strips. Data were analysed using Student's t-test (p ≤ 0.05). The aqueous and hexane extracts demonstrated no significant reduction of fasting blood glucose (FBG) and no significant improvement of glucose tolerance in normal rats. The aqueous extract (400 mg/kg body weight) increased FBG from 4.75 ± 0.28 mmol/L to 5.88 ± 0.46 when compared to control (p ≤ 0.001). In diabetic rats, the hexane extract (400 mg/kg body weight) caused reduction of FBG after two weeks of treatment (p ≤ 0.010), but this was not sustained. The aqueous extract showed no reduction of FBG in diabetic rats. The aqueous extract of P alliacea demonstrated a hyperglycaemic effect in normoglycaemic rats and showed no hypoglycaemic activity in diabetic rats. The hexane extract caused no hypoglycaemic action in normal rats and failed to sustain an initial hypoglycaemic action in diabetic rats. This study presents evidence that does not support significant hypoglycaemic activity of P alliacea; this could hold significant implications for its use in ethno-traditional medicine.

  13. Evaluation of Antioxidant, Hypolipidemic, and Antiatherogenic Property of Lycopene and Astaxanthin in Atherosclerosis-induced Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Salwe, Kartik Janardan; Kumarappan, Manimekalai

    2017-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in the world. Antioxidants play a major role in prophylaxis and prevention of progression and complications of atherosclerosis. In this study, we are evaluating the antiatherosclerotic effect of two antioxidants such as astaxanthin and lycopene. After acclimatization, 24 male SD rats, 8-10 weeks old, 150 ± 10 g, maintained as per CPCSEA guidelines were divided into four groups of six rats each. Baseline values of weight lipid profile and 2-Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) assay were taken. All the rats were fed with high cholesterol diet (HCD). HCD only, HCD + atorvastatin (50 mg/kg), HCD + lycopene (50 mg/kg), and HCD + astaxanthin (50 mg/kg) were given to control, standard, lycopene, and astaxanthin groups, respectively, through oral gavage for 45 days. The rats were sacrificed at the end of the study, blood sample collected from aorta, and then aorta was dissected for histopathology. The lipid profile showed lycopene and astaxanthin decreased total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), very LDL-C, and triglycerides and increased high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol level significantly (P antioxidant, antihyperlipidemic, and antiatherosclerotic property. This warrants further study for including them in the treatment of atherosclerosis. Antioxidants play a major role in prophylaxis and prevention of progression and complications of atherosclerosis.Lycopene and Astaxanthin are suitable candidates for further research in cardiovascular disease and there is paucity of studies evaluating their role in prevention of atherosclerosis.The effect of lycopene and Astaxanthin for anti-atherosclerotic property was evaluated in high cholesterol diet fed rats.The lipid profile showed lycopene and Astaxanthin decreased TC, LDL-C, VLDL-C and triglycerides and increased HDL-C level significantly (P < 0.05) compared to the control but less than atorvastatin.The TBARS value of

  14. Evaluation of wound healing activity of Thunbergia laurifolia supercritical carbon dioxide extract in rats with second-degree burn wounds

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    Juthaporn Kwansang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thunbergia laurifolia Lindl (TL has been traditionally used as an antidote, anti-inflammatory, and anti-drug addiction. This study investigated the burn wound healing activity of TL leaf extract (TLL from supercritical CO 2 extraction in rats. The extract was prepared to 2.5%, 5%, and 10% gel (TLL gel. Rats were induced to second-degree burn wounds. They were randomly divided into six groups (six rats/group, which five groups were topically applied gel base, 1% silver sulfadiazine gel, 2.5%, 5%, and 10% TLL gel, respectively, for 14 days. Six untreated burn rats were used as the control group. The rats in each group were evaluated for wound healing rate, histological parameters, and wound collagen content. Rats treated with 10% TLL gel had a higher wound healing rate than rats in the control and untreated groups. An increase in collagen content, which indicates good regeneration of wound skin, was observed in the TLL treated rats from a pathological study by Masson′s trichrome and collagen content assay. The results from this study suggest that T. laurifolia leaf extract obtained by supercritical CO 2 extraction promotes the recovery of wound skin by shortening the inflammation phase, increasing collagen content, and stimulating fibroblasts proliferation and migration in wound healing.

  15. Establishment of rat model of central venous catheter (CVC): associated infection and evaluation of the virulence of bacterial biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lian-Hua; Huang, Yun-Chao; Guo, Feng-Li; Liu, Xin; Zhao, Guang-Qiang; Duan, Lin-Can; Jin, Cong-Guo

    2014-09-01

    In this study, a central venous catheter (CVC)-associated infection model was established in rats to investigate and evaluate the effect of biofilms on the virulence of the pathogens. Twenty-four adult SD rats were randomly divided into biofilm positive (BF+) and biofilm negative (BF-) groups to be challenged with strains of S.epidermidis. Serum levels of inflammatory cytokines were measured and the infection rate and counts of bacteria cells were studied. Compared to rats of BF- group, the serum level of TNF and IL-6 significantly increased in rats of BF+ group (P infection rate and bacterial counts in tissues and blood of rats of BF + group were significantly higher than those of rats of BF- group (P associated infection model can be successfully reproduced in rats by injecting 5 × 10(6) CFU of S.epidermidis. Biofilm formation can significantly enhance the virulence of the bacteria, leading to uncontrolled infection. The serum level of inflammatory cytokines, infection rate and the extent of inflammatory cell infiltration are important markers for evaluating the virulence of biofilm.

  16. Evaluation of rat C6 malignant glioma using spectral computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianli; Zhou, Junlin; Li, Jie; Zhang, Lingyan; Zhang, Peili; Liu, Bin

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the use of multi-parameter spectral computed tomography (CT) for the evaluation of rat C6 glioma, 15 male Wistar rats were seeded with C6 glioma cells into the right basal ganglia and scanned 12 days later using spectral CT. Brain sections corresponding to scanned regions were immunostained for proliferation marker protein Ki67 (Ki67). Pearson's correlation coefficients between spectral CT parameters and Ki67 expression were determined. Thirteen rats survived 12 days and developed tumors. Optimal contrast-to-noise ratio achieved was 65 keV. Brain regions containing liquefactive necrosis, solid tumor, peripheral tumor and normal tissue differed significantly with regard to the spectral curve slope (0.24±0.46, 1.81±1.09, 0.8±0.43 and 0.11±0.27, respectively; Pspectral curve slope (r=0.821; PSpectral CT can detect microstructural changes within malignant gliomas and potentially provide important information regarding tumor proliferation and the extent of the invasion.

  17. Evaluation of perlite, wood shavings and corncobs for bedding material in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Fatih; Yildirim, Betül A; Yildiz, Ahmet; Kapakin Terim, Kübra A; Cengiz, Seyda; Özdemir, Selçuk

    2017-03-30

    Bedding material, which is a significant part of rodent housing, affects the health and well-being of laboratory animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate perlite as a bedding material for rodents and to compare it with wood shavings, expanded perlite and corncobs. The animals used in this experiment were 48 male and 48 female Sprague-Dawley rats. The bedding materials collected from experimental groups were analysed microbiologically. Blood samples from rats were subjected to biochemical analysis for catalase, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, malondialdehyde, superoxide and dismutase, and foot pad skins of rats were subjected to histopathological examination. Body weight was determined at the end of the 30-day period. Perlite as the only bedding material had no effect on body weight, and it resulted in less microbial activity compared with the wood shavings, expanded perlite and corncobs. However, using perlite alone had negative effects on the skin, the moisture percentage of bedding and stress parameters. A wood shavingsperlite combination gave better results than perlite alone and appropriate perlite and other bedding material mixtures may result in bedding materials conducive to animal health and welfare. The frequency of changing the bedding material should be limited to once weekly.

  18. A composite neurobehavioral test to evaluate acute functional deficits after cerebellar haemorrhage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Devin W; Nowrangi, Derek; Kaur, Harpreet; Wu, Guangyong; Huang, Lei; Lekic, Tim; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, John H

    2017-01-01

    Cerebellar haemorrhage accounts for 5-10% of all intracerebral haemorrhages and leads to severe, long-lasting functional deficits. Currently, there is limited research on this stroke subtype, which may be due to the lack of a suitable composite neuroscoring system specific for cerebellar injury in rodents. The purpose of this study is to develop a comprehensive composite neuroscore test for cerebellar injury using a rat model of cerebellar haemorrhage. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to either sham surgery or cerebellar haemorrhage. Twenty-four hours post-injury, neurological behaviour was evaluated using 17 cost-effective and easy-to-perform tests, and a composite neuroscore was developed. The composite neuroscore was then used to assess functional recovery over seven days after cerebellar haemorrhage. Differences in the composite neuroscore deficits for the mild and moderate cerebellar haemorrhage models were observed for up to five days post-ictus. Until now, a composite neuroscore for cerebellar injury was not available for rodent studies. Herein, using mild and moderate cerebellar haemorrhage rat models a composite neuroscore for cerebellar injury was developed and used to assess functional deficits after cerebellar haemorrhage. This composite neuroscore may also be useful for other cerebellar injury models.

  19. Biochemical Evaluation of Withania somnifera Root Powder on Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis in Rats

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    Mahaboobkhan Rasool

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the biochemical effect of Withania somnifera Linn. Solanaceae, commonly known as ashwagandha on adjuvant induced arthritic rats. Results were compared to Indomethacin, a non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Arthritis was induced by an intra dermal injection of Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (0.1 ml into the right hind paw of Wistar albino rats. Withania somnifera root powder (1000 mg/kg/day and Indomethacin (3 mg/kg/day were orally administered for 8 days (from 11th to 18th day after adjuvant injection. After the experimental period, all the animals were sacrificed and serum, liver and spleen samples were collected for further biochemical analysis. A significant increase in the activities of gluconeogenic enzymes, tissue marker enzymes, blood glucose level, WBC, platelet count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and acute phase proteins (hyaluronic acid, fibrinogen and ceruloplasmin was observed in adjuvant-induced arthritic rats, whereas the activities of glycolytic enzymes, body weight, levels of hemoglobin, RBC count, and packed cell volume were found to be decreased. These biochemical alterations observed in arthritic animals were ameliorated significantly after the administration of Withania somnifera root powder (1000 mg/kg/b.wt and Indomethacin (3 mg/kg/b.wt. Our results suggest that Withania somnifera root powder is capable of rectifying the above biochemical changes in adjuvant arthritis and it may prove to be useful in treating rheumatoid arthritis.

  20. Evaluation of perlite, wood shavings and corncobs for bedding material in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Yildirim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bedding material, which is a significant part of rodent housing, affects the health and well-being of laboratory animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate perlite as a bedding material for rodents and to compare it with wood shavings, expanded perlite and corncobs. The animals used in this experiment were 48 male and 48 female Sprague-Dawley rats. The bedding materials collected from experimental groups were analysed microbiologically. Blood samples from rats were subjected to biochemical analysis for catalase, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, malondialdehyde, superoxide and dismutase, and foot pad skins of rats were subjected to histopathological examination. Body weight was determined at the end of the 30-day period. Perlite as the only bedding material had no effect on body weight, and it resulted in less microbial activity compared with the wood shavings, expanded perlite and corncobs. However, using perlite alone had negative effects on the skin, the moisture percentage of bedding and stress parameters. A wood shavingsperlite combination gave better results than perlite alone and appropriate perlite and other bedding material mixtures may result in bedding materials conducive to animal health and welfare. The frequency of changing the bedding material should be limited to once weekly.

  1. MRI evaluation of frequent complications after intra-arterial transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namestnikova, D.; Gubskiy, I.; Gabashvili, A.; Sukhinich, K.; Melnikov, P.; Vishnevskiy, D.; Soloveva, A.; Vitushev, E.; Chekhonin, V.; Gubsky, L.; Yarygin, K.

    2017-08-01

    Intra-arterial transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is an effective delivery route for treatment of ischemic brain injury. Despite significant therapeutic effects and targeted cells delivery to the brain infraction, serious adverse events such as cerebral embolism have been reported and may restrict potential clinical applications of this method. In current study, we evaluate potential complications of intra-arterial MSCs administration and determine the optimum parameters for cell transplantation. We injected SPIO-labeled human MSCs via internal carotid artery with different infusion parameters and cell dose in intact rats and in rats with the middle cerebral occlusion stroke model. Cerebrovascular complications and labeled cells were visualized in vivo using MRI. We have shown that the incidence of cerebral embolic events depends on such parameters as cell dose, infusion rate and maintenance of blood flow in the internal carotid artery (ICA). Optimal parameters were considered to be 5×105 hMSC in 1 ml of PBS by syringe pump with velocity 100 μ/min and maintenance of blood flow in the ICA. Obtained data should be considered before planning experiments in rats and, potentially, can help in planning clinical trials in stroke patients.

  2. Rat white matter injury model induced by endothelin-1 injection: technical modification and pathological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Hideaki; Imai, Hideaki; Miyawaki, Satoru; Nakatomi, Hirofumi; Saito, Nobuhito

    2016-01-01

    White matter injury is an important cause of functional disability of the brain. We comprehensively analyzed a modified endothelin-1 (ET‑1) injection-induced white matter injury model in the rat which is very valuable for investigating the underlying mechanisms of subcortical ischemic stroke. ET-1 was stereotactically injected into the internal capsule of the rat. To avoid complications with leakage of ET-1 into the lateral ventricle, the safest trajectory angle to the target was established. Rats with white matter injury were extensively evaluated for structural changes and functional sequelae, using motor function tests, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, histopathology evolution, volume estimation of the lesion, and neuroanatomical identification of affected neurons using the retrograde tracer hydroxystilbamidine. Optimization of the trajectory of the ET-1 injection needle provided excellent survival rate. MR imaging visualized the white matter injury 2 days after surgery. Motor function deficit appeared temporarily after the operation. Histological studies confirmed damage of axons and myelin sheaths followed by inflammatory reaction and gliosis similar to lacunar infarction, with lesion volume of less than 1% of the whole brain. Hydroxystilbamidine injected into the lesion revealed wide spatial distribution of the affected neuronal population. Compared with prior ET-1 injection models, this method induced standardized amount of white matter damage and temporary motor function deficit in a reproducible and safe manner. The present model is valuable for studying the pathophysiology of not only ischemia, but a broader set of white matter damage conditions in the lissencephalic brain.

  3. Evaluation of the efficacy of curcumin in experimentally induced acute sinusitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdane, Leman; Cingi, Cemal; Muluk, Nuray Bayar; San, Turhan; Burukoglu, Dilek

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the possible beneficial effects of curcumin (CMN) in the treatment of sinusitis. An experimentally induced sinusitis model was created in rats, and the results were evaluated histologically. Thirty-two healthy, female Sprague Dawley rats weighing 270 to 310 g each, were randomly divided into four groups. Group 1 was the control group. In Groups 2 to 4, experimentally induced acute sinusitis was developed, and the rats in those groups were given saline, sulbactam-ampicillin, and CMN, respectively, for 10 days. Then all rats were dissected, and samples of sinus mucosa were taken. Histologic examination was performed via light microscopy. In the sinusitis + antibiotic group, values of inflammation, vascular congestion, vascular dilatation, and subepithelial glandular atrophy were significantly higher; and values of mucosal damage and cilia loss, and hyperplasia of goblet cells, were not significantly different from those in the control group. In the sinusitis + CMN group, values of inflammation, vascular congestion, and vascular dilatation were significantly higher; and values of mucosal damage and cilia loss, hyperplasia of goblet cells, and subepithelial glandular atrophy were not significantly different from those of the control group. Histologic examination revealed that in the sinusitis + CMN group, a nearly normal appearance of the epithelial tissue and reduced cellular inflammation in connective tissue were observed. Minimal vascular congestion in connective tissue remained. The efficacy of CMN in acute sinusitis may be related to its potent anti-inflammatory effects on modulation of various inflammatory cytokines. When low side effects are taken into account, CMN therapy may be a promising option in the treatment of acute sinusitis.

  4. Reproduction and evaluation of a rat model of inhalation lung injury caused by black gunpowder smog

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    Yi-fan LIU

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To reproduce and evaluate a rat model of inhalation lung injury caused by black gunpowder smog. Methods The smog composition was analyzed and a rat model of inhalation lung injury was reproduced. Forty two healthy male Wistar rats were randomly divided into normal control (NC group and 1h, 2h, 6h, 24h, 48h and 96h after inhalation group (n=6. The arterial blood gas, wet to dry weight ratio (W/D of lung, leukocyte count, and protein concentration in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF were determined. Macroscopic and microscopic changes in lung tissue were observed. Results The composition of black gunpowder smog was composed mainly of CO2 and CO, and their concentrations remained stable within 12 minutes. Smog inhalation caused a significant hypoxemia, the concentration of blood COHb reached a peak value 1h, and the W/D of lung reached peak value 2h after inhalation (P<0.05. The amount of leukocytes and content of protein in BALF increased significantly within 24h after inhalation (P<0.05. Histopathological observation showed diffuse hemorrhage, edema and inflammatory cell infiltration in lung tissue as manifestations of acute lung injury, and the injury did not recover at 96h after inhalation. Conclusion The rat model of inhalation lung injury can be reproduced using black gunpowder smog, and it has the advantages of its readiness for reproduction, reliability and stability, and it could be used for the experiment of inhalation injury in a battlefield environment.

  5. Safety evaluation of Bon-santé cleanser® polyherbal in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, O E; Awodele, O

    2016-07-07

    The potential harm of medicinal herbs has been recently observed following herbal toxicity studies after ingestion of polyherbal remedies. This was the rationale for the food and drug regulatory agency decision for thorough safety evaluation of herbal medicines. Androgenic, antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory potentials as well as chemical compositions of extracts of massularia acuminata, terminalia ivorensis, anogeissus leiocarpus and macuna pruriens respectively have been documented. Thus, Bon-santé cleanser® (BSC) is formulated from these medicinal plants with the intention to boost body hormones and energizes the body. Considering the wide usage of BSC, we investigated on its safety in male Wistar rats. Thirty-two male Wistar rats weighing 201.9 ± 7.5 g were grouped into four treatment groups of eight per group. Group I, (control) received distilled water (10 ml/kg). Groups II-IV received 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg of BSC per oral respectively. Each group was treated for sixty days. Acute toxicity test, in male Wistar albino mice, showed that LD50 was 600 mg/kg via i.p. while 4 g/kg was nonlethal after oral administration in mice. Hepatic and renal biomarker enzymes were unaltered in all rats. Increased in PCV (p 0.05). BSC at 1000 mg/kg caused mild inflammation of the liver and heart but not kidneys histologically. BSC has been found to be relatively safe in Wistar rats. Although, our findings indicate that herbal therapy with BSC should be done with caution as a mild alteration in the liver and heart architectures were observed.

  6. Antioxidant activity of pomegranate juice reduces emphysematous changes and injury secondary to cigarette smoke in an animal model and human alveolar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husari, Ahmad; Hashem, Yasmine; Bitar, Hala; Dbaibo, Ghassan; Zaatari, Ghazi; El Sabban, Marwan

    2016-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoke (CS) increases oxidative stress (OS) in the lungs. Pomegranate juice (PJ) possesses potent antioxidant activities, attributed to its polyphenols. This study investigates the effects of PJ on the damaging effects of CS in an animal model and on cultured human alveolar cells (A549). Methods Male C57BL/6J mice were divided into the following groups: Control, CS, CS + PJ, and PJ. Acute CS exposure was for 3 days, while chronic exposure was for 1 and 3 months (5 days of exposure/week). PJ groups received daily 80 μmol/kg via bottle, while other groups received distilled water. At the end of the experiments, different parameters were studied: 1) expression levels of inflammatory markers, 2) apoptosis, 3) OS, and 4) histopathological changes. In vitro, A549 cells were pretreated for 48 hours with either PJ (0.5 μM) or vehicle. Cells were then exposed to increasing concentrations of CS extracted from collected filters. Cell viability was assessed by counting of live and dead cells with trypan blue staining. Results Acutely, a significant increase in interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α expression, apoptosis, and OS was noted in CS when compared to Control. PJ significantly attenuated the expression of inflammatory mediators, apoptosis, and OS. Chronically (at 1 and 3 months), increased expression of TNF-α was observed, and lung sections demonstrated emphysematous changes when compared to Control. PJ supplementation to CS animals attenuated the increased expression of TNF-α and normalized lung cytoarchitecture. At the cellular level, CS extract reduced cellular proliferation and triggered cellular death. Pretreatment with PJ attenuated the damaging effects of CS extract on cultured human alveolar cells. Conclusion The expression of inflammatory mediators associated with CS exposure and the emphysematous changes noted with chronic CS exposure were reduced with PJ supplementation. In vitro, PJ attenuated the damaging

  7. Jumping in aquatic environment after sciatic nerve compression: nociceptive evaluation and morphological characteristics of the soleus muscle of Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Malanotte, Jéssica Aline; Kakihata,Camila Mayumi Martin; Karvat, Jhenifer; Brancalhão, Rose Meire Costa; Ribeiro,Lucinéia de Fátima Chasko; Bertolini, Gladson Ricardo Flor

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the effect of jumping in aquatic environment on nociception and in the soleus muscle of trained and not trained Wistar rats, in the treatment of compressive neuropathy of the sciatic nerve. Methods Twenty-five Wistar rats were distributed into five groups: Control, Lesion, Trained + Lesion, Lesion + Exercise, and Trained + Lesion + Exercise. The training was jumping exercise in water environment for 20 days prior to injury, and treatment after the injury. No...

  8. Morphological evaluation of the quality of decellularized esophagus in rat

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    R. Z. Nakokhov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of our investigation was analysis and optimization of the existing protocols of esophagus decellularization in rats, identification of parameters affecting the quality of decellularization and intactness of the native properties of esophageal extracellular matrix (ECM. Materials and methods. We developed a modified decellularization protocol based on detergent-enzymatic method using sodium deoxycholate and DNAse. Results. Morphological evaluation of the obtained decellularized matrices demonstrated the absence of cells and cell elements while mechanical properties of ECM were preserved. Conclusion. The developed protocol of esophagus decellularization is a potential basis for obtaining of tissue-engineered esophagus scaffold constructions.

  9. The evaluation of cardiac changes following endurance training in male Wistar rats

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    mohammad Fathi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was accurate evaluation of cardiac responses to endurance training using two presented methods of m-mode and weigh in rats, and also evaluation of training induced changes in heart and left ventricular in the proporation of body weight, tibia length and body surface area. Materials and Methods: 20 male Wistar rats (209–231 g were selected they were randomly divided into two groups, and housed in a standard condition. Trained group completed an endurance protocol (14 weeks. The dimensions and weight of heart were measured by ultrasound and balance respectively and were relatively evaluated based on tibia length, body surface area and body weight. Statistical differences between the groups were calculated by independent t test, and the minimal significance level was established at P ≤ .05. Results: The left ventricular end diastole diameter in trained group was significantly more than control group, in compounded parameters, only the FS and SV were significantly different. With normalizing, the differences have become more marked. Conclusion: It seems to assess cardiac adaptations induced by endurance activities, m-mode method is more reliable, in addition to normalization of weight indexes, body weight and BSA which are associated with the energy consumption are proposed.

  10. Computed tomography in the evaluation of abdominal fat distribution associated with a hyperlipidic diet in previously undernourished rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Carlos Alberto Soares da [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas. Program of Post-graduation in Clinical and Experimental Physiopathology; Alves, Erika Gomes; Gonzalez, Gabriele Paula; Barbosa, Thais Barcellos Cortez; Lima, Veronica Demarco; Nascimento, Renata; Moura, Egberto Gaspar de; Saba, Celly Cristina Alves do Nascimento [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Dept. of Physiological Sciences]. E-mail: cellysaba@terra.com.br; Monteiro, Alexandra Maria Vieira [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas

    2007-09-15

    Objective: To study, by means of computed tomography, the repercussion of post-weaning dietary supplementation with soy oil or canola oil on the abdominal fat distribution in previously undernourished rats. Materials and methods: Dams submitted to 50% food restriction (FR) compared with dams receiving a standard diet (C). After weaning, undernourished rats received a diet supplemented with 19% soy oil (19% FR-soy) or 19% canola oil (19% FR-canola). Rats in the control group received a diet with 7% soy oil (7% C-soy) until the end of the experimental period. At the age of 60 days old, the rats were submitted to computed tomography for evaluation of total abdominal and visceral fat area. The rats' length and body mass were evaluated and, after their sacrifice, the abdominal fat depots were excised weighted. The data are reported as mean {+-} mean standard error, with p < 0.05 considered as significance level. Results: Rats in the group 19% FR presented similar length, body weight and visceral fat mass. As a whole, the evaluations have shower results significantly lower in relation to the control group (7% C-soy). However, computed tomography has found significant differences in abdominal fat distribution for the groups 19% FR-soy and 19% FR-canola. Conclusion: Computed tomography has demonstrated that the abdominal fat distribution may be dependent on the type of vegetable oil included in the diet. (author)

  11. Ex vivo evaluation of the serotonin 1A receptor partial agonist [³H]CUMI-101 in awake rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palner, Mikael; Underwood, Mark D; Kumar, Dileep J S

    2011-01-01

    [³H]CUMI-101 is a 5-HT(1A) partial agonist, which has been evaluated for use as a positron emission tracer in baboon and humans. We sought to evaluate the properties of [³H]CUMI-101 ex vivo in awake rats and determine if [³H]CUMI-101 can measure changes in synaptic levels of serotonin after...

  12. Cardiac impairment evaluated by transesophageal echocardiography and invasive measurements in rats undergoing sinoaortic denervation.

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    Raquel A Sirvente

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sympathetic hyperactivity may be related to left ventricular (LV dysfunction and baro- and chemoreflex impairment in hypertension. However, cardiac function, regarding the association of hypertension and baroreflex dysfunction, has not been previously evaluated by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE using intracardiac echocardiographic catheter. METHODS AND RESULTS: We evaluated exercise tests, baroreflex sensitivity and cardiovascular autonomic control, cardiac function, and biventricular invasive pressures in rats 10 weeks after sinoaortic denervation (SAD. The rats (n = 32 were divided into 4 groups: 16 Wistar (W with (n = 8 or without SAD (n = 8 and 16 spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR with (n = 8 or without SAD (SHRSAD (n = 8. Blood pressure (BP and heart rate (HR did not change between the groups with or without SAD; however, compared to W, SHR groups had higher BP levels and BP variability was increased. Exercise testing showed that SHR had better functional capacity compared to SAD and SHRSAD. Echocardiography showed left ventricular (LV concentric hypertrophy; segmental systolic and diastolic biventricular dysfunction; indirect signals of pulmonary arterial hypertension, mostly evident in SHRSAD. The end-diastolic right ventricular (RV pressure increased in all groups compared to W, and the end-diastolic LV pressure increased in SHR and SHRSAD groups compared to W, and in SHRSAD compared to SAD. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that baroreflex dysfunction impairs cardiac function, and increases pulmonary artery pressure, supporting a role for baroreflex dysfunction in the pathogenesis of hypertensive cardiac disease. Moreover, TEE is a useful and feasible noninvasive technique that allows the assessment of cardiac function, particularly RV indices in this model of cardiac disease.

  13. Quantitative evaluation of CART-containing cells in urinary bladder of rats with renovascular hypertension

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    I. Janiuk

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent biological advances make it possible to discover new peptides associated with hypertension. The cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART is a known factor in appetite and feeding behaviour. Various lines of evidence suggest that this peptide participates not only in control of feeding behaviour but also in the regulation of the cardiovascular and sympathetic systems and blood pressure. The role of CART in blood pressure regulation led us to undertake a study aimed at analysing quantitative changes in CART-containing cells in urinary bladders (UB of rats with renovascular hypertension. We used the Goldblatt model of arterial hypertension (two-kidney, one clip to evaluate quantitative changes. This model provides researchers with a commonly used tool to analyse the renin-angiotensin system of blood pressure control and, eventually, to develop drugs for the treatment of chronic hypertension. The study was performed on sections of urinary bladders of rats after 3-, 14-, 28-, 42 and 91 days from hypertension induction. Immunohistochemical identification of CART cells was performed on paraffin for the UBs of all the study animals. CART was detected in the endocrine cells, especially numerous in the submucosa and muscularis layers, with a few found in the transitional epithelium and only occasionally in serosa. Hypertension significantly increased the number of CART-positive cells in the rat UBs. After 3 and 42 days following the procedure, statistically significantly higher numbers of CART-positive cells were identified in comparison with the control animals. The differences between the hypertensive rats and the control animals concerned not only the number density of CART-immunoreactive cells but also their localization. After a 6-week period, each of the rats subjected to the renal artery clipping procedure developed stable hypertension. CART appeared in numerous transitional epithelium cells. As this study provides novel findings

  14. Evaluation of acute and subacute toxicity of aqueous extract of Crassocephalum rubens leaves in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewale, Olusola B; Onasanya, Amos; Anadozie, Scholastica O; Abu, Miriam F; Akintan, Idowu A; Ogbole, Catherine J; Olayide, Israel I; Afolabi, Olakunle B; Jaiyesimi, Kikelomo F; Ajiboye, Bashir O; Fadaka, Adewale O

    2016-07-21

    Crassocephalum rubens is found throughout tropical Africa including the Indian Ocean islands. The leaves are commonly eaten in form of soups and sauces in South-Western Nigeria, also in other humid zones of Africa. Traditionally, it is used as an antidote against any form of poisoning; used to treat stomach and liver complaints; and externally to treat burns, sore eyes, earache, leprosy and breast cancer. In this study, acute and subacute toxicity of aqueous extract of C. rubens leaves was evaluated in rats in order to assess its safety profile. In acute toxicity study, rats were given a single oral administration of aqueous extract of C. rubens leaves at graded doses (250-5000mg/kg). The animals were monitored for behavioural changes and possible mortality over a period of 24h and thereafter, for 14 days. In the subacute toxicity study, rats of both sexes were administered C. rubens orally at doses of 250mg/kg, 500mg/kg, 750mg/kg and 1000mg/kg body weight daily, for 28 days. Rats were observed weekly for any changes in general behaviour and body weights. In addition, other relevant parameters were assayed at the end of the main and reversibility study periods. There was no observed adverse effect; including mortality in the animals. The extract caused no significant difference in the body weights as well as organs weights of treated groups when compared with the control groups. Haematological and biochemical parameters also revealed no toxic effects of the extract on rats. Histological assessments were normal in liver and kidney. It can therefore be suggested based on the results from this study that aqueous extract of C. rubens leaves, at dosage levels up to 1000mg/kg, is non-toxic and could also offer protection on some body tissues. Aqueous extract of C. rubens could therefore, be considered safe. This study supports the application of Crassocephalum rubens in traditional medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of sciatic nerve damage following intraneural injection of bupivacaine, levobupivacaine and lidocaine in rats

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    Oznur Sen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: The local anesthetics may cause neurotoxicity. We aimed to compare the neurotoxic potential of different local anesthetics, local anesthetic induced nerve damage and pathological changes of a peripheral nerve. METHODS: Sixty Wistar rats weighing 200-350 g were studied. Rats were assigned into 3 groups and 26-gauge needle was inserted under magnification into the left sciatic nerve and 0.2 mL of 0.5% bupivacaine, 5% levobupivacaine, and 2% lidocaine were injected intraneurally. An individual who was blind to the specifics of the injection monitored the neurologic function on postoperative 1st day, and daily thereafter. Neurologic examination included assessment for the presence and severity of nociception and grasping reflexes. At the 7th day sciatic nerve specimen was taken for evaluation of histopathologic changes. RESULTS: There was no statistical difference detected among groups regarding grasping reflex and histopathologic evaluation. Two cases in bupivacaine group, 1 case in levobupivacaine group and 2 cases in lidocaine group had slight grasping, while 1 case in lidocaine group had no grasping reflex on the seventh day. Severe axonal degeneration was observed in all groups, respectively in bupivacaine group 4 (20%, levobupivacaine group 3 (15%, and lidocaine group 6 (30%. CONCLUSION: In all groups, histopathological damage frequency and severity were more than the motor deficiency.

  16. Evaluation of sciatic nerve damage following intraneural injection of bupivacaine, levobupivacaine and lidocaine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Oznur; Sayilgan, Nevzat Cem; Tutuncu, Ayse Cigdem; Bakan, Mefkur; Koksal, Guniz Meyanci; Oz, Huseyin

    2016-01-01

    The local anesthetics may cause neurotoxicity. We aimed to compare the neurotoxic potential of different local anesthetics, local anesthetic induced nerve damage and pathological changes of a peripheral nerve. Sixty Wistar rats weighing 200-350g were studied. Rats were assigned into 3 groups and 26-gauge needle was inserted under magnification into the left sciatic nerve and 0.2mL of 0.5% bupivacaine, 5% levobupivacaine, and 2% lidocaine were injected intraneurally. An individual who was blind to the specifics of the injection monitored the neurologic function on postoperative 1st day, and daily thereafter. Neurologic examination included assessment for the presence and severity of nociception and grasping reflexes. At the 7th day sciatic nerve specimen was taken for evaluation of histopathologic changes. There was no statistical difference detected among groups regarding grasping reflex and histopathologic evaluation. Two cases in bupivacaine group, 1 case in levobupivacaine group and 2 cases in lidocaine group had slight grasping, while 1 case in lidocaine group had no grasping reflex on the seventh day. Severe axonal degeneration was observed in all groups, respectively in bupivacaine group 4 (20%), levobupivacaine group 3 (15%), and lidocaine group 6 (30%). In all groups, histopathological damage frequency and severity were more than the motor deficiency. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Enalapril maleate orally disintegrating tablets: tableting and in vivo evaluation in hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfeek, Hesham M; Faisal, Waleed; Soliman, Ghareb M

    2017-05-29

    The aim of this study was to develop orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) for enalapril maleate (EnM) to facilitate its administration to the elderly or other patients having dysphagia. Compatibility between EnM and various excipients was studied using differential scanning calorimetry. ODTs of EnM were prepared by direct compression of EnM mixtures with various superdisintegrants. The tablets were evaluated for physical properties including drug content, hardness, friability, disintegration time, wetting time, and drug release. The antihypertensive effect of the optimum EnM ODTs was evaluated in vivo in hypertensive rats and compared with commercial EnM formulation. EnM ODTs had satisfactory results in terms of drug content and friability. Tablet wetting and disintegration were fast and dependent on the used superdisintegrant where croscarmellose showed the fastest wetting and disintegration time of ∼7 s. EnM release from the tablets was rapid where complete release was obtained in 10-15 min. Selected EnM ODTs rapidly and efficiently reduced the rat's blood pressure to its normal value within 1 h, compared with 4 h for EnM commercial formulation. These results confirm that EnM ODTs could find application in the management of hypertension in the elderly or other patients having dysphagia.

  18. Evaluation of Decalcification Techniques for Rat Femurs Using HE and Immunohistochemical Staining

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    Haixia Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. In routine histopathology, decalcification is an essential step for mineralized tissues. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of different decalcification solutions on the morphological and antigenicity preservation in Sprague Dawley (SD rat femurs. Materials and Methods. Four different decalcification solutions were employed to remove the mineral substances from rat femurs, including 10% neutral buffered EDTA, 3% nitric acid, 5% nitric acid, and 8% hydrochloric acid/formic acid. Shaking and low temperature were used to process the samples. The stainings of hematoxylin-eosin (HE and immunohistochemical (IHC were employed to evaluate the bone morphology and antigenicity. Key Findings. Different decalcification solutions may affect the quality of morphology and the staining of paraffin-embedded sections in pathological examinations. Among four decalcifying solutions, 3% nitric acid is the best decalcifying agent for HE staining. 10% neutral buffered EDTA and 5% nitric acid are the preferred decalcifying agents for IHC staining. Significance. The current study investigated the effects of different decalcifying agents on the preservation of the bone structure and antigenicity, which will help to develop suitable protocols for the analyses of the bony tissue.

  19. Toxicopathological evaluation in Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) following repeated oral exposure to acephate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadaniya, Amit R; Kalariya, Vinay A; Joshi, Dilip V; Patel, Bakor J; Chaudhary, Sandhya; Patel, Hitesh B; Patel, Jignesh M; Patel, Urvesh D; Patel, Harshad B; Ghodasara, Sanjay N; Savsani, Harish H

    2015-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of exposure at different doses of acephate on hematology, blood biochemistry, oxidative stress and immune system of Wistar rats. The experiment was carried out on 40 Wistar rats, which were divided in four groups. Animals of the three treatment groups were given with different sublethal doses (1/40th, 1/20th, 1/10th of lethal dose 50 value) of acephate by oral gavage. The hematology, blood biochemistry, oxidative stress marker, humoral immune response and cell-mediated immunity were evaluated following acephate exposure. Significant alteration in hematological parameters was not observed following different doses of acephate; however, significant alteration in alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyl transferase, acetyl cholinesterase, lipid peroxidase and superoxide dismutase was observed in medium- and high-dose group animals. Nonsignificant decrease in antibody titer in animals exposed to high dose has been observed compared with animals of control group. However, significant alteration in cell-mediated immunity was not observed in animals treated with acephate at different doses. © The Author(s) 2012.

  20. Evaluation of wound healing activity of Ammannia baccifera and Blepharis maderaspatensis leaf extracts on rats

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    Aiyalu Rajasekaran

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Wound healing activity of the leaf extracts of Ammannia baccifera L., Lythraceae, and Blepharis maderaspatensis (L. B.Heyne ex Roth., Acanthaceae, was investigated by excision and incision wound healing models in rats. A phytochemical screening was done to determine the major constituents of the chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethanolic fractions of ethanolic leaf extracts. The excision and incision models were used to assess the effect of the plant extracts on wound healing in rats. Phytochemical screening reveals the presence of tannins, saponins, steroids, terpenoids, and flavonoids in the extract. The wound healing effect was comparatively evaluated with a standard drug Framycetin cream. Significant wound healing activity was observed for the creams prepared with 5% ethanol fraction of B. maderaspatensis and 5% chloroform fraction of A. baccifera ethanolic leaf extracts. The results of histopathological evaluation supported the outcome of both incision and excision wound models. Ethanolic fraction of B. maderaspatensis and chloroform fraction of A. baccifera exhibited marked wound healing activity. B. maderaspatensis extract displayed a remarkable wound healing activity compared to A. baccifera.

  1. Evaluation of ATC as an Orally Administered Drug in Treatment of Cadmium Toxicity of Rat Organs

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    S. Nabilaldine Fatemi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of N-tetramethylene dithiocarbamate (ATC as a chelating agent on the excretion of cadmium was evaluated in cadmium-poisoned Wistar rats following administration through food and drink. The present research aimed to characterize the potential efficiency of ATC as an orally administered chelator drug after cadmium administration for 60 days. This chelator significantly enhanced the urinary and biliary excretion of cadmium and restored the altered levels of iron. Cadmium and iron concentrations in different tissues were determined by graphite furnace and flame atomic absorption spectrometry (GF AAS and F AAS methods, respectively. The chelation therapy results show that ATC is able to remove cadmium ions from different tissues while iron concentration returned to the normal level and the clinical symptoms were also reduced. In summary, we conclude that ATC is able to mobilize and promote the excretion of cadmium in rat organs and reduce the side effects and general symptoms of toxicity caused by cadmium and might be useful for preliminary testing of the efficacy of chelating agents in human body. However, these results should be confirmed in different experimental models before extrapolation to other systems. This testing procedure of course does not provide all the relevant answers for evaluating the efficiency of chelating agents in cadmium toxicity.

  2. Evaluation of Pulmonary Reperfusion Injury in Rats Undergoing Mesenteric Ischemia and Reperfusion and Protective Effect of Postconditioning on this Process

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    Carlos Henrique Marques dos Santos

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Some publications have demonstrated the presence of lung reperfusion injury in mesenteric ischemia and reperfusion (I/R, but under to diverse methods. Postconditioning has been recognized as effective in preventing reperfusion injury in various organs and tissues. However, its effectiveness has not been evaluated in the prevention of lung reperfusion injury after mesenteric ischemia and reperfusion. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the presence of pulmonary reperfusion injury and the protective effect of ischemic postconditioning on lung parenchyma in rats submitted to mesenteric ischemia and reperfusion. METHODS: Thirty Wistar rats were distributed into three groups: group A (10 rats, which was held mesenteric ischemia (30 minutes and reperfusion (60 minutes; group B (10 rats, ischemia and reperfusion, interspersed by postconditioning with two alternating cycles of reperfusion and reocclusion, for two minutes each; and group C (10 rats, ischemia and reperfusion interleaved by postconditioning with four alternating cycles of reperfusion and reocclusion of 30 seconds each. Finally, it was resected the upper lung lobe for histological analysis. RESULTS: There were mild lung lesions (grade 1 in all samples. There was no statistical difference between groups 1 and 2 (P >0.05. CONCLUSION: The mesenteric ischemia and reperfusion in rats for thirty and sixty minutes, respectively, caused mild reperfusion injury in lung. Postconditioning was not able to minimize the remote reperfusion injury and there was no difference comparing two cycles of two minutes with four cycles of 30 seconds.

  3. In vivo evaluation method of the effect of nattokinase on carrageenan-induced tail thrombosis in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Seitaro; Hagimori, Masayori; Ogasawara, Masayoshi; Arakawa, Masayuki

    2010-01-01

    Thrombosis is characterized by congenital and acquired procatarxis. Nattokinase inhibits thrombus formation in vitro. However, in vivo evaluation of the therapeutic efficacy of nattokinase against thrombosis remains to be conducted. Subcutaneous nattokinase injections of 1 or 2 mg/ml were administered to the tails of rats. Subsequently, κ-carrageenan was intravenously administered to the tails at 12 h after nattokinase injections. The mean length of the infarcted regions in the tails of rats was significantly shorter in rats administered 2 mg/ml of nattokinase than those in control rats. Nattokinase exhibited significant prophylactic antithrombotic effects. Previously, the in vitro efficacy of nattokinase against thrombosis had been reported; now our study has revealed the in vivo efficacy of nattokinase against thrombosis. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Protective effect of ginger volatile oil against acetic acid-induced colitis in rats: a light microscopic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidian, Amir; Mehrzadi, Saeed; Ghannadi, Ali Reza; Mahzooni, Parvin; Sadr, Samira; Minaiyan, Mohsen

    2014-03-01

    Ulcerative colitis is a chronically recurrent inflammatory bowel disease of unknown origin. In the present study, the effect of ginger (rhizome of Zingiber officinale Roscoe) volatile oil on a rat model of colitis was evaluated. Volatile oil of ginger with doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, prednisolone (4 mg/kg), or vehicle were administered orally to groups of male Wistar rats (n = 6) for 5 d. Animals were randomly divided into 6 groups, each group consisting of 6 rats. Colitis was induced by intracolonic instillation of 2 mL of 4% (v/v) acetic acid solution. All rats were sacrificed 24 h later and the tissue injuries were assessed macroscopically and histopathologically. Ginger volatile oil with all doses reduced colon weight/length ratio (P microscopic scores showed that the dose of 400 mg/kg of volatile oil was effective to reduce inflammation severity (P colitis in a dose-dependent manner.

  5. Evaluation of gastric tolerability, antinociceptive and antiinflammatory activity of combination NSAIDs in rats

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    Kalra Bhupinder

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are one of the most commonly prescribed drugs in clinical practice. Presently, several varieties of fixed dose combinations (FDCs of NSAIDs are available over the counter and are being prescribed too. There is paucity of literature regarding comparative efficacy of these combinations against their individual component. Various clinical studies have documented increased incidence of gastric ulcerations with usage of more than one NSAID simultaneously. Objectives : To study gastric tolerability, antinociceptive and antiinflammatory activity of combination NSAIDs in rats. Materials and Methods : Gastric tolerability of different NSAIDs was observed after administration of drugs for 7 days orally. On 7 th day, 4 h after drug administration, rats were sacrificed and stomach mucosa was examined for ulcerations. Analgesic or antinociceptive activity of single and combination NSAIDs was evaluated using Writhing test model. For induction of writhing, 4% normal saline (hypertonic saline was injected (0.1 ml/10 gm intraperitoneally. Evaluation of antiinflammatory activity for FDCs of NSAIDs was done by using rat paw edema model with the aid of plethysmometer. Paw edema was induced by injecting 0.1 ml of 1% formalin in sub-planter region of hind paw. Results : Analgesic activity was found to be enhanced or significant only in the group pretreated with combination of nimesulide with ibuprofen as compared to ibuprofen-alone group (P = 0.01. Decrease in mean paw edema (antiinflammatory activity was not significant in rats pretreated with combination NSAIDs as compared to NSAID-alone group. Mean gastric ulcer index was significant in groups pretreated with diclofenac alone (P = 0.03 and in combination groups of nimesulide with diclofenac and ibuprofen with paracetamol as compared to control (P = 0.03, P = 0.007. Conclusion : Addition of ibuprofen to paracetamol and combining diclofenac to nimesulide

  6. Renal toxicological evaluations of sulphonated nanocellulose from Khaya sengalensis seed in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewuyi, Adewale; Otuechere, Chiagoziem A; Adebayo, Olusegun L; Anazodo, Chibuzo; Pereira, Fabiano V

    2018-02-16

    Nanocellulose is currently gaining attention due to its unique properties. This attention includes its application as building blocks for developing novel functional materials, plant drug and also in drug delivery systems. However, its safety remains largely untested or less understood. Thus, sulphonated nanocellulose (KSS) was prepared from cellulose (KSC) isolated from Khaya senegalensis seed (KS). KS, KSC and KSS were characterized using Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TG), particle size distribution (PSD), zeta potential and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The impact of KSS on selected renal markers of oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis in Wistar rats was also investigated. Thus, male rats were randomly assigned to four groups of five animals each and were treated with KSS (0, 50, 75 and 100 mg/kg BW) for 14 days. Thereafter, biomarkers of renal oxidative damage, inflammation and immunohistochemical expressions of iNOS, COX-2, Bcl-2 and p53 were evaluated. The results revealed KSS to have crystallinity of 70.40%, it was monomodal and has a flaky surface with agglomerations. KSS had no effect on markers of kidney function and oxidative damage, although there was a generalized hypernatremia after 14 days of exposure. Lastly, KSS enhanced the antioxidant status and immunohistochemical expressions of iNOS and COX-2 in the kidney of the rats. While the biomedical applications of KSS may appear plausible, our data suggests that it could induce renal toxicity via the combined impacts of electrolyte imbalance and inflammation. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Immunohistochemical evaluation of proliferation, apoptosis and steroidogenic enzymes in the ovary of rats with polycystic ovary

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    Leonardo Augusto Lombardi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of proliferative, apoptotic and steroidogenic enzyme markers in the ovaries of rats with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. Methods: twenty rats were divided into two groups: GCtrl - estrous phase, and PCOS - with polycystic ovaries. The GCtrl animals were subjected to a lighting period from 7 am to 7 pm, while the animals with PCOS group remained with continuous lighting for 60 days. Subsequently, the animals were anesthetized, the ovaries were removed and fixed in 10% formaldehyde, prior to paraffin embedding. Sections were stained using H.E. or subjected to immunohistochemical methods for the detection of Ki-67, cleaved caspase-3, CYP11A1, CYP17A1 and CYP19A1. The results were analyzed using Student's t-test (p < 0,05. Results: morphological results showed evidence of interstitial cells originating from the inner theca cells of degenerating ovarian cysts in PCOS. Immunoexpression of Ki-67 was higher in the granulosa cells in GCtrl, and the theca interna cells in PCOS, while cleaved caspase-3 was higher in granulosa cells of ovarian cysts from PCOS and in the theca interna cells of GCtrl. Immunoreactivity of CYP11A1 in the theca interna, granulosa and interstitial cells was similar between the two groups, while CYP17A1 and CYP19A1 were higher in the granulosa and interstitial cells in the PCOS group. Conclusion: the results indicate that the interstitial cells are derived from the theca interna and that enzymatic changes occur in the theca interna and interstitial cells in ovaries of rats with PCOS, responsible for the high levels of androgens and estradiol.

  8. Evaluation of the Dermal Bioavailability of Aqueous Xylene in F344 Rats and Human Volunteers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thrall, Karla D.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Woodstock, Angie D.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

    2003-07-11

    Xylene is a clear, colorless liquid used as a solvent in the printing, rubber, and leather industries and is commonly found in paint thinners, paints, varnishes, and adhesives. Although humans are most likely to be exposed to xylene via inhalation, xylene is also found in well and surface water. Therefore, an assessment of the dermal contribution to total xylene uptake is useful for understanding human exposures. To evaluate the significance of these exposures, the dermal absorption of o-xylene was assessed in F344 male rats and human volunteers using a combination of real-time exhaled breath analysis and physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling. Animals were exposed to o-xylene dermally. Immediately following the initiation of exposure, individual animals were placed in a glass off-gassing chamber and exhaled breath was monitored. Human volunteers participating in the study placed both legs into a stainless steel hydrotherapy tub containing an initial concentration of approximately 500 g/L o-xylene. Exhaled breath was continually analyzed from each volunteer before, during, and post-exposure to track absorption and subsequent elimination of the compound in real time. In both animal and human studies, a PBPK model was used to estimate the dermal permeability coefficient (Kp) to describe each set of exhaled breath data. Rat skin was found to be approximately 12 times more permeable to aqueous o-xylene than human skin. The estimated human and rat aqueous o-xylene Kp values were 0.005+/- 0.001 cm/hr and 0.058+/- 0.009 cm/hr, respectively.

  9. Safety evaluation of an Ayurvedic medicine, Arogyavardhini vati on brain, liver and kidney in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Gajendra; Srivastava, Amita; Sharma, S K; Gupta, Y K

    2012-03-06

    Arogyavardhini vati, an Ayurvedic polyherbal formulation has been used for liver and skin disorders in the Ayurvedic system of medicine. However, toxicity due to the presence of heavy metals in this traditional medicine is a matter of concern. To evaluate the safety of Arogyavardhini vati on brain, liver and kidney in rats. Arogyavardhini vati at doses of 50, 250 and 500mg/kg (1, 5 and 10 times of human equivalent dose respectively), mercury chloride (1mg/kg) and normal saline were administered orally to male Wistar rats for 28 days. Behavioral parameters were assessed on day 1, 7th, 14th and 28th using Morris water maze, passive avoidance, elevated plus maze and rota rod. Biochemical parameters (acetyl-cholinesterase activity, malondialdehyde, reduced glutathione), histopathology and mercury level in brain, liver, kidney were assessed at the end of the experiment. There was no significant change in behavioral parameters, acetyl-cholinesterase activity, liver function (ALT, AST, ALP and bilirubin) and kidney (serum urea and creatinine) function tests at all doses of Arogyavardhini vati (50, 250 and 500mg/kg) as compared to normal control. However, significant change was observed in mercury chloride treated group. Mercury chloride treated group as well as Arogyavardhini vati treated groups (50, 250 and 500mg/kg) showed increased levels of mercury in brain, liver and kidney as compared to normal control. Histopathological results showed significant cytoarchitectural changes in brain, liver and kidney architecture in mercury chloride treated group. Whereas, normal cytoarchitecture was observed at all doses of Arogyavardhini vati. The finding of the present study suggests that Arogyavardhini vati in the doses equivalent up to 10 times of the human dose administered to rats for 28 days does not have appreciable toxicological effects on brain, liver and kidney. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of antiulcer activity of Boswellia serrata bark extracts using aspirin induced ulcer model in albino rats

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    Khaja Zeeyauddin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of bark extracts of Boswellia serrata (Family Bursera-ceae was evaluated in aspirin induced ulceration (200mg/kg in albino rats. Antiulcer activity was evaluated by measuring ulcer index and percentage of ulcer healing. The petroleum ether (250mg/kg and aqueous extracts (250mg/kg of bark of Boswellia serrata plant showed significant antiulcer activity as evidenced by the data obtained. Histopathological findings also confirm the anti-ulcer activity of Boswellia serrata bark extracts in albino rats.

  11. Evaluation of the Effects of Bismuth Subgallate on Wound Healing in Rats. Histological Findings

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    Santos, Rafaela Mabile Ferreira dos

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Bismuth subgallate (BS is a yellow and odorless powder that has hemostatic astringent properties. Some otorhinolaryngologists and dentists currently use this substance to enhance wound healing. Objective The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of bismuth subgallate on wound healing, through the analysis of inflammatory process, collagen production, and angiogenesis. Method A standard wound was made on the back of 60 male Wistar rats, using a biopsy punch. We created two groups: the experimental group, which underwent daily application of 0.5mg BS over the entire wound, and the control group, which underwent daily application of sodium chloride 0.9%. We performed a qualitative evaluation of the tissue on the third, seventh, and fourteenth day. We assessed inflammatory markers using Hematoxylin and Eosin (HE stain, used Picrosirius stain for collagen analysis, and immunohistochemistry was used for angiogenesis analysis through evaluation of smooth muscle proliferation. Results Statistically, we found no significant differences between groups regarding inflammatory response on the third (p = 1, seventh (p = 0.474, and fourteenth day (p = 0.303. Also, collagen type I and III production showed no statistical differences between groups on the third (p = 0.436, seventh (p = 0.853, and fourteenth day (p = 0.436 of analysis. Immunohistochemistry did not present differences on angiogenesis between experimental and control group on the third (p = 0.280, seventh (p = 0.971, and fourteenth day (p = 0.218. Conclusion BS does not promote significant changes in inflammatory response, collagen, and angiogenesis. Thus, it does not influence healing on skin wounds on rats.

  12. Evaluation of effects of photooxidized Vespa orientalis venom on memory and learning in rats

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    H Mukund

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wasp venom is mixture of complex proteins that have several physical and pharmacological properties. The photochemical detoxification of Vespa orientalis venom is expected to generate photooxidized venom sac extract (PVSE. Antigenically active PVSE is obtained by exposing the venom sac extract (VSE of Vespa orientalis to ultraviolet radiation in the presence of methylene blue. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of PVSE on learning and memory of rats. Detoxification of PVSE was evident since treated mice had longer survival time than the group of mice treated with VSE. Photooxidized VSE of V. orientalis revealed enhancement on learning and memory by shortening the time to reach food (TRF in T-maze. In a 28-day study with rats, we observed that PVSE significantly decreased transfer latency (TL in elevated plus maze (EPM, significantly increased step down latency (SDL, diminished step down errors (SDE and time spent in shock zone (TSS in step down avoidance test. Thus, we concluded that although there is a possibility of employing PVSE in the treatment of Alzheimer, dementia or neurodegenerative illness as a non-herbal and non-synthetic alternative for patients who do not respond to available therapy, further investigation is still required.

  13. Evaluation of the sub-chronic toxicity of a standardized flavonoid extract of safflower in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhilin; Liu, Runzhe; Pu, Xiaoping; Sun, Yi; Zhao, Xin

    2017-04-01

    Carthamus tinctorius L., or safflower, is an annual herbaceous crop belonging to the family Asteraceae, which is cultivated throughout China and used as a traditional Chinese medicine. Our previous study revealed anti-Parkinson's disease effects of an isolated standardized safflower flavonoid extract (SAFE). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the potential sub-chronic toxicity of SAFE. Male and female Sprague Dawley rats received three doses of SAFE (100, 300, and 500 mg/kg) q.d. by gavage for four weeks. Body weights were measured during the experiment, and blood samples were collected once per week for hematological and serum biochemical parameters. Major organs were examined after execution and histopathological analyses were performed. Body weight gain in the administration groups showed no decline compared to the control group. However, there were changes in values of aspartate transaminase (p < 0.05), alanine transaminase (p < 0.05), and blood glucose (p < 0.05) between treatments. SAFE influenced parameters related to platelets in rats receiving SAFE for both sexes under different dosages (p < 0.05). No histopathological changes were observed. SAFE might have influence on conglomeration of platelets, transaminases, and blood glucose. SAFE caused no significant toxicity and further studies may be needed to ensure safety of SAFE. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of Marine Microalga Diacronema vlkianum Biomass Fatty Acid Assimilation in Wistar Rats

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    Cristina de Mello-Sampayo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Diacronema vlkianum is a marine microalgae for which supposed health promoting effects have been claimed based on its phytochemical composition. The potential use of its biomass as health ingredient, including detox-shakes, and the lack of bioavailability studies were the main concerns. In order to evaluate the microalgae-biomass assimilation and its health-benefits, single-dose (CD1-mice studies were followed by 66-days repeated-dose study in Wistar rats with the highest tested single-dose of microalgae equivalent to 101 mg/kg eicosapentaenoic acid + docosahexaenoic acid (EPA+DHA. Microalgae-supplementation modulated EPA and docosapentaenoic acid enrichment at arachidonic acid content expenditure in erythrocytes and liver, while increasing EPA content of heart and adipose tissues of rats. Those fatty acid (FA changes confirmed the D. vlkianum-biomass FA assimilation. The principal component analyses discriminated brain from other tissues, which formed two other groups (erythrocytes, liver, and heart separated from kidney and adipose tissues, pointing to a distinct signature of FA deposition for the brain and for the other organs. The improved serum lipid profile, omega-3 index and erythrocyte plasticity support the cardiovascular benefits of D. vlkianum. These results bolster the potential of D. vlkianum-biomass to become a “heart-healthy” food supplement providing a safe and renewable source of bioavailable omega-3 FA.

  15. Evaluation of pain behavior and bone destruction in two arthritic models in guinea pig and rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeirsch, Hilde; Biermans, Ria; Salmon, Philip L; Meert, Theo F

    2007-01-01

    The primary aim of the study was to describe and correlate pain behavior and changes in bone morphology in animal models of arthritis both in rats and guinea pigs. Either complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) or mono-iodoacetate (MIA) solution was injected into the left knee joint to obtain a model for rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis, respectively. Subsequently, animals were behaviorally tested during a period of 12 days after CFA injection and at least 19 days after MIA injection. During these observation periods increasing pain behavior was observed, characterized by decreased von Frey mechanical thresholds and weight bearing on the affected limb. In Hargreaves' paw flick test slightly increased thermal hypersensitivity was observed in some instances in guinea pigs. In rats there was also decreased limb-use during forced ambulation. To evaluate bone destruction mu-computed tomography scans of the arthritic knee were taken on the last experimental day. Different bone parameters indicative of osteolysis and decreased trabecular connectivity were significantly correlated with the observed pain behavior. Detailed description of morphological changes in arthritic joints better characterizes the different animal models and might add to the knowledge on the working mechanisms of analgesic compounds that have an influence on bone structures in arthritis.

  16. Evaluation of skeletal muscle relaxant activity of aqueous extract of Nerium oleander flowers in Albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirumalasetti, Jayasree; Patel, Maulik; Shaikh, Ubedulla; Harini, K; Shankar, J

    2015-01-01

    Nerium oleander is traditionally used in various diseases because of its medicinal properties. One of its uses is in musculoskeletal disorder. The aim of the study was to evaluate the skeletal muscle relaxant activity of the aqueous extract of Nerium oleander flowers (AENOF) in albino rats in comparison with diazepam. A total of 20 Swiss albino rats aged 6-7 weeks, of either sex, weighing about 100-150 g, were taken, and after acute toxicity studies two different doses were selected. The animals were divided into four different groups. The first group was kept as the control (normal saline), second as the standard (diazepam) and the remaining two groups as Test I and Test II, and given different doses of the AENOF. Skeletal muscle relaxant activity (motor coordination) on Rotarod and locomotor activity on photoactometer was performed. Statistical analysis was carried out by using analysis of variance, followed by Dunnett's multiple comparison tests. The result from the Actophotometer test and Rotarod test showed that the extract of AENOF significantly reduced (P < 0.05) the motor coordination of the tested animals. Our data indicates that AENOF possesses skeletal muscle relaxant activities.

  17. Safety evaluations of the aqueous extract of Acacia karroo stem bark in rats and mice

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    Adeolu A. Adedapo

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous extract from the shoot of Acacia karroo was evaluated for its acute toxicity by the oral route in mice and for the sub acute effect on haematological, biochemical and histological parameters in rats. In the acute toxicity test, A. karroo extract caused death in animals that received 1600 and 3200 mg/kg doses. Oral treatments in rats with this extract at 800 mg/kg did not cause any significant change in the red blood cell count (RBC, packed cell volume (PCV, haemoglobin concentration (HB, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC, mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH, white blood cells and its differentials. It, however, caused a significance decrease in the levels of platelets. In the biochemical parameters, the extract caused a significant decrease in the levels of total protein, albumin, globulin, aspartate amino transferase (AST, alanine amino transferase (ALT, total and unconjugated bilirubin. Changes were also noted in the body weights but no significant changes were observed in the levels of some electrolytes (sodium, potassium and chloride. Clinico-pathologically, starry hair coat, respiratory distress and mortality were recorded. Lung with multiple abscess, kidney and liver with mild congestion were also observed histopathologically. The study concluded that caution must be exercised in the use of the plant for medicinal purposes .

  18. Evaluation of the Aesthetics of Physical Methods of Euthanasia of Anesthetized Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Debra L; Johnson, Steven W

    2011-01-01

    Dissection of living brain tissue for in vitro experiments requires the use of a rapid euthanasia method. However, the method must not subject animals to unnecessary pain and must be aesthetically acceptable to experimenters. The purposes of the current study were to assess the aesthetics of 6 euthanasia methods, measure the procedure duration, and evaluate brain for pathology after each procedure. We digitally recorded euthanasia of isoflurane-anesthetized rats by 6 physical methods: anesthetic overdose, cardiac exsanguination, decapitation, closed intrathoracic transection of the great vessels and heart, thoracic percussion, and thoracotomy with rupture of great vessels. Volunteer researchers and animal caretakers watched the video and completed an associated questionnaire. Anesthetic overdose and cardiac exsanguinations were rated most aesthetically pleasing, although these procedures took the longest to complete. In contrast, decapitation and thoracic percussion were the least aesthetically pleasing, but these methods were the quickest. No demographic factor was identified that could predict whether a given euthanasia procedure would be favored for aesthetic reasons, and participants provided a wide variety of rationales for the aesthetic ratings they assigned. Although all of these euthanasia methods meet the criteria of approved methods of euthanasia of anesthetized rats as defined by the AVMA, aesthetic features and the scientific need for rapid euthanasia are both considerations in selecting a method. PMID:22330717

  19. Histomorphometric evaluation of periodontal compression and tension sides during orthodontic tooth movement in rats

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    Rodrigo Castellazzi Sella

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the thickness of the periodontal ligament of rat molars during orthodontic tooth movement (OTM. METHODS: Thirty Wistar rats were divided into three groups of 10 animals each: GI, GII and GIII and the mice were euthanized at 7, 14 and 21 days, respectively. Experimental subjects were compared to their respective controls by the Mann-Whitney test. Comparison of values between compression and tension sides were performed during the same and different time periods through Analysis of Variance (ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis test and, subsequently, Tukey's test. RESULTS: Groups GI and GII showed decreased PDL size in the apical regions of the mesiobuccal root and in the cervical region of the distobuccal root. There was also an increased PDL in the cervical regions of the mesiobuccal root, apical region of the distobuccal root and middle region of both roots. CONCLUSION: The reduction and increase in PDL size were seen in the same root, which characterizes tooth inclination. The apical, middle and cervical regions were compared with one another in each time period and at three times: 7, 14 and 21 days. They were also compared in each region, confirming a tipping movement in GI and GII and a gradual decreased intensity between GI to GII, reaching normal dimension in GIII.

  20. Serum based fluorescent assay for evaluating dipeptidyl peptidase I activity in collagen induced arthritis rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoqian; Wang, Jingjing; Chu, Yi; Zhou, Xiaoying

    2017-04-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase I (DPPI) is a lysosomal cysteine protease and derived from immune granule cells. It has been suggested playing an important role in the development of rheumatoid arthritis. In this study, a coumarin based fluorescent probe (GF-AFC) was designed and synthesized to evaluate DPPI activity in serum or tissue homogenates of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rats, an inflammatory arthropathy model. It was revealed that the fluorescent intensity was significantly increased in a very short time after specific substrate GF-AFC reacted with the DPPI. The fluorophore (AFC) was released to shine after the cleavage reaction which was examined by 19F NMR spectroscopy. It has been shown that DPPI hydrolyzed the GF-AFC in a robust, linear, and time dependent manner at a significant high rate. A serum-based DPPI activity assay was validated by spiking and gradient dilution methods, there were no interferences or auto-fluorescence observed. The Coefficient of Variance calculated for serum-based DPPI activity assays indicates the good reproducibility. The good correlation has been seen between serum DPPI levels and the severity of arthritis during RA development in CIA rats. Our study has demonstrated a new serum based diagnostic assay for detecting DPPI activity using coumarin conjugated fluorescent (GF-AFC) as a substrate. The successful implementation of the case would provide beneficial experience in rheumatoid arthritis research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of acute and sub-acute toxicity of Pinus eldarica bark extract in Wistar rats

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    Akram Ghadirkhomi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pinus eldarica (P. eldarica is one of the most common pines in Iran which has various bioactive constituents and different uses in traditional medicine. Since there is no documented evidence for P. eldarica safety, the acute and sub-acute oral toxicities of hydroalcoholic extract of P. eldarica bark were investigated in male and female Wistar rats in this study. Materials and Methods: In the acute study, a single dose of extract (2000 mg/kg was orally administered and animals were monitored for 7 days. In the sub-acute study, repeated doses (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day of the extract were administered for 28 days and biochemical, hematological and histopathological parameters were evaluated. Results: Our results showed no sign of toxicity and no mortality after single or repeated administration of P. eldarica. The median lethal dose (LD50 of P. eldarica was determined to be higher than 2000 mg/kg. The mean body weight and most of the biochemical and hematological parameters showed normal levels.  There were only significant decreases in serum triglyceride levels at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg of the extract in male rats (pConclusion: Oral administration of the hydroalcoholic extract of P. eldarica bark may be considered as relatively non-toxic particularly at the doses of 125 and 250 mg/kg.

  2. Evaluation of the effect of formic acid and sodium formate on hair reduction in rat

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    Banihashemi M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Mahnaz Banihashemi1,2, Abolfazl Khajavi Rad2, Seyed Abbas Tabatabaee Yazdi2, Hasan Rakhshande2, Vahid Mashayekhi Ghoyonlo1,2, Zahra Zabihi3, Hadis Yousefzadeh41Research Center for Skin Diseases and Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, Ghaem Hospital, 2School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences (MUMS, Mashad, Iran; 3Neishabour Medical University, Neishabour, Iran; 4Young Researchers Club, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad Branch, Mashhad, IranAbstract: Hirsutism is a common problem in dermatology that imposes high socioeconomical costs on medical care. Consequently, researchers are actively searching for cheaper and safer methods for therapeutic treatment. The objective of the present study is to evaluate formic oil, enriched from formic acid, for the removal of unwanted hair. In this study, 32 female rats (150–200 g were randomly divided into four groups and maintained with normal water and food availability. A patch of skin was shaved on each rat for application of test solutions. The control group was treated with local once-daily applications of normal saline. The formic acid, acetic acid, and sodium formate groups were treated with once-daily applications of formic acid (pH 5.5, acetic acid (pH 5.5, or sodium formate, respectively. After 2 weeks, horizontally cut sample biopsies were removed, and the numbers of hair follicles were counted under high field microscopy by a specialist blinded to the treatments. Kolmogorov–Smirnov test results indicated a nonparametric distribution for the rat groups. ANOVA analysis indicated no statistically significant differences between groups (P < 0.05. There weren't any side effects or evidence for toxicity during the study period. However, hair follicle counts showed a descending order of control, acetic acid, formic acid, and sodium formate. Although the sodium formate group had the lowest hair follicle numbers, the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05. Formic acid was not

  3. Evaluation of the Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF rat as a model for human disease based on urinary peptidomic profiles.

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    Justyna Siwy

    Full Text Available Representative animal models for diabetes-associated vascular complications are extremely relevant in assessing potential therapeutic drugs. While several rodent models for type 2 diabetes (T2D are available, their relevance in recapitulating renal and cardiovascular features of diabetes in man is not entirely clear. Here we evaluate at the molecular level the similarity between Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF rats, as a model of T2D-associated vascular complications, and human disease by urinary proteome analysis. Urine analysis of ZDF rats at early and late stages of disease compared to age- matched LEAN rats identified 180 peptides as potentially associated with diabetes complications. Overlaps with human chronic kidney disease (CKD and cardiovascular disease (CVD biomarkers were observed, corresponding to proteins marking kidney damage (eg albumin, alpha-1 antitrypsin or related to disease development (collagen. Concordance in regulation of these peptides in rats versus humans was more pronounced in the CVD compared to the CKD panels. In addition, disease-associated predicted protease activities in ZDF rats showed higher similarities to the predicted activities in human CVD. Based on urinary peptidomic analysis, the ZDF rat model displays similarity to human CVD but might not be the most appropriate model to display human CKD on a molecular level.

  4. Evaluation of tenoxicam on prevention of arachnoiditis in rat laminectomy model

    OpenAIRE

    Cemil, Berker; Kurt, Gokhan; Aydın, Cansel; Akyurek, Nalan; Erdogan, Bulent; Ceviker, Necdet

    2011-01-01

    Post laminectomy arachnoiditis has been shown by experiments with rats and post operative radiological imaging in humans. The purpose of this experimental study was to determine the efficacy of tenoxicam in preventing arachnoiditis in rats. Twenty-four Wistar rats were divided into two groups, and L3 laminectomy was performed. In the tenoxicam group, 0.5 mg/kg tenoxicam was applied intraperitoneally. Normal saline was applied intraperitoneally in the control group. Later, the rats were killed...

  5. Morbilidad y mortalidad en la cirugía de las bullas enfisematosas Morbidity and mortality in the surgery of emphysematous bullae

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    Kai Cheng Hung

    2008-03-01

    compared with that occasioned by the impossibility of breathing adequately. The aim of this paper was to study the pulmonary bullous disease treated with surgery, according to the working algorithm created at "Comandante Manuel Fajardo" Hospital. METHODS. 36 patients operated on from 1995 to 2004 were prospectively studied. To clinically determine the state of the patients in the preoperative and postoperative, it was used the dyspnea index recommended by the American Thorax Society. Surgical risk was assessed according to the classification of the American Society of Anesthesia and the Goldman's index for cardiac risk in non-cardiac surgery. RESULTS. The main indications of the surgical treatment in the patients with emphysematous bullae were the giant bullae and the bullous pneumothorax (92 %. The morbidity of surgical interventions was very high (61.1 %. Most of them were not important. The air leak was the most frequent of the complications (22.2 %, followed by seroma of the surgical wound (11.1 %. Mortality was low (2.8 %, with only one dead due to an acute respiratory failure. CONCLUSIONS. Bullectomy with atypical resection is the preferred surgical technique to preserve the greatest amount of functional pulmonary tissue. The dyspnea index showed a remarkable improvement between the pre- and postoperative evaluations of the pulmonary function. We considered that this indicator is higher than the forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1 for the assessment of surgery effectivity and that it is also an excellent marker of the improvement of the quality of life of the patients

  6. Evaluation of the anti-diabetic property of Morinda lucida leaves in streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olajide, O A; Awe, S O; Makinde, J M; Morebise, O

    1999-11-01

    The hypoglycaemic and anti-hyperglycaemic activities of a methanol extract of Morinda lucida Benth. (Rubiaceae) leaves were studied in normal and streptozotocin-diabetic rats. In normal rats, the extract demonstrated a significant (P Morinda lucida have a strong glucose lowering property when administered to streptozotocin-treated rats.

  7. Evaluation of antisecretory, gastroprotective and in-vitro antacid capacity of Fumaria indica in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Phool; Kishore, Kamal; Ghosh, Ashoke Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Fumaria indica is used for its anthelmintic, antidyspeptic, cholagogue, diaphoretic, diuretic, laxative, stomachic, tonic properties and claimed to possess various properties for the ailments of blood, skin, gastrointestinal systems and central nervous system. The present study was undertaken to evaluate antisecretory, gastroprotective and in-vitro antacid capacity of ethanol extract from F. indica in rats. Evaluation of F. indica extract as antisecretory was carried out by pyloric ligation induced ulcer model. The gastroprotective effect was carried out by absolute ethanol induced ulcer model. Integrity of gastric mucosa was evaluated by estimation of GSH and gastric mucus level. The in-vitro antacid capacity was evaluated by titration method. Ethanol extract of F. indica at 200 mg kg(-1), orally showed inhibition of secretion in pyloric ligation model. GSH level (1.67 μg mg(-1) protein), gastricwall mucus (240.76 μg g(-1) wet glandular tissue) and percentage protection (77.59%) of ulcer were significantly (P indica was compared with the standard. Conclusively, it appears that F. indica possess antisecretory (inhibition of acid secretion), gastroprotective (potentiation of defensive factors) and in-vitro antacid activity.

  8. Acute and subacute toxicity evaluation of ethanolic extract from fruits of Schinus molle in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Adriana; Minetti, Alejandra; Bras, Cristina; Zanetti, Noelia

    2007-09-25

    Ethanolic and hexanic extracts from fruits and leaves of Schinus molle showed ability to control several insect pests. Potential vertebrate toxicity associated with insecticidal plants requires investigation before institutional promotion. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acute and subacute toxicity of ethanolic extracts from fruits of Schinus molle in rats. The plant extract was added to the diet at 2g/kg body weight/day during 1 day to evaluate acute toxicity and at 1g/kg body weight/day during 14 days to evaluate subacute toxicity. At the end of the exposure and after 7 days, behavioral and functional parameters in a functional observational battery and motor activity in an open field were assessed. Finally, histopathological examinations were conducted on several organs. In both exposures, an increase in the arousal level was observed in experimental groups. Also, the landing foot splay parameter increased in the experimental group after acute exposure. Only the subacute exposure produced a significant increase in the motor activity in the open field. All these changes disappeared after 7 days. None of the exposures affected the different organs evaluated. Our results suggest that ethanolic extracts from fruits and leaves of Schinus molle should be relatively safe to use as insecticide.

  9. Evaluation of the Effect of Two Systemic Doses of HESA-A on Prevention of Induced Tongue Neoplasm in Rats

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    Masoumeh Mehdipour

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. The aim of the present study was to compare the inhibitory effects of two systemic doses of HESA-A on prevention of 4-NQO-induced tongue neoplasms in rats. This study evaluated weight and histopathological changes. Materials and methods. Forty-eight male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups of A, B, C and D of each 12 rats. The rats in groups B to D received 30 ppm of 4-Nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO in drinking water for 12 weeks. When feeding with 4-NQO was initiated, the rats in groups B and C received HESA-A at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg, respectively, 3 times a week. Body weights were measured three times a week. At the end, the rats were euthanized and the tongue was removed. Histological evaluations for carcinogenesis were carried out under a light microscope. Results. The mean body weights of rats in groups B, C and D were significantly lower than that in group A (P < 0.05. There were no significant differences in weight changes between groups B, C and D. In the present study, after 12 weeks of treatment, Tongue specimens in groups B and C did not exhibit severe dysplastic changes; however, concurrent hyperplasia, without atypia and mild-to-moderate dysplastic changes were detected. These changes were significantly less than those in group D, with significant differences between group D and groups A, B and C (P<0.001, P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively. Conclusion. HESA-A has dose-dependent inhibitory effects on the development of neoplasms of the tongue.

  10. Evaluation of acute and subacute toxicity of hydroethanolic extract of Dolichandra unguis-cati L. leaves in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calil Brondani, Juliana; Reginato, Fernanda Ziegler; da Silva Brum, Evelyne; de Souza Vencato, Marina; Lima Lhamas, Cibele; Viana, Carine; da Rocha, Maria Izabel Ugalde Marques; de Freitas Bauermann, Liliane; Manfron, Melânia Palermo

    2017-04-18

    Dolichandra unguis-cati L. is a native climbing plant of Brazil, popularly known as "unha de gato". It has been traditionally used mainly as an antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor agent, yet little toxicological information is found in the literature. To identify the chemical composition of the hydroethanolic extract obtained from the leaves of Dolichandra uniguis-cati and to evaluate the acute and subacute toxicity in male and female rats, in order to assess the safety profile of this plant. In the acute study, a single dose (2000mg/kg) of the extract was orally administered to male and female rats. In the subacute study, the extract was orally administered to male and female rats at doses 100, 200 and 400mg/kg for 28 days. Behavioral changes, catalase and tbars evaluations, biochemical, hematological and histopathological analysis were determined. The extract' chemical composition was accessed through UHPLC/MS. Chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, vanillinic acid, p-coumaric acid, rosmarinic acid, trans-cinnamic acid, luteolin, apigenin, quercitrin and quercetin were identified in the extract. In the acute treatment, the extract was classified as safe (category 5), according to the OECD guide. In relation to the subacute study, females showed a reduction in AST (100, 200 and 400mg/kg), ALT (200mg/kg) and BUN (100 and 200mg/kg) levels, while male rats 400mg/kg presented an increase in AST levels. The Chol dosage significantly decreased in female rats in a dose-dependent manner, whereas for male rats this parameter showed no statistically significant reductions. No behavioral and histopathological changes were recorded. Our results indicate that the hydroethanolic extract of Dolichandra unguis-cati leaves did not present relevant toxic effects when administered orally to male and female rats. The extract also showed a potential hypocholesterolemic activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of sphingolipids in Wistar rats treated to prolonged and single oral doses of fumonisin b₁.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direito, Glória M; Almeida, Adriana P; Aquino, Simone; dos Reis, Tatiana Alves; Pozzi, Claudia Rodrigues; Corrêa, Benedito

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate sphingolipid levels (sphingosine-So and sphinganine-Sa) and to compare the Sa/So ratio in liver, serum and urine of Wistar rats after prolonged administration (21 days) of fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)). In parallel, the kinetics of sphingolipid elimination in urine was studied in animals receiving a single dose of FB(1). Prolonged exposure to FB(1) caused an increase in Sa levels in urine, serum and liver. The most marked effect on sphingolipid biosynthesis was observed in animals treated with the highest dose of FB(1). Animals receiving a single dose of FB(1) presented variations in Sa and So levels and in the Sa/So ratio.

  12. Antioxidant activity of pomegranate juice reduces emphysematous changes and injury secondary to cigarette smoke in an animal model and human alveolar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husari A

    2016-02-01

    demonstrated emphysematous changes when compared to Control. PJ supplementation to CS animals attenuated the increased expression of TNF-α and normalized lung cytoarchitecture. At the cellular level, CS extract reduced cellular proliferation and triggered cellular death. Pretreatment with PJ attenuated the damaging effects of CS extract on cultured human alveolar cells. Conclusion: The expression of inflammatory mediators associated with CS exposure and the emphysematous changes noted with chronic CS exposure were reduced with PJ supplementation. In vitro, PJ attenuated the damaging effects of CS extract on cultured human alveolar cells. Keywords: reactive oxygen species, antioxidants, acute lung injury, emphysema, pomegranate extract, cigarette smoke, inflammatory mediators

  13. Evaluation of the estrogenic activity of Indian medicinal plants in immature rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamat, Sandhya K; Barde, Prajakt J; Raut, Sanket B

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the estrogenic activity of four Indian medicinal plants Saraca indica (Si), Symplocos racemosa (Sr), Cyperus rotundus (Cr), Terminalia arjuna (Ta), a marketed preparation of Si (Aśokāriṣṭa) and a combination of Si + Sr using an experimental model of estrogenicity. After approval of the institutional animal ethics committee, 22 day old female rats (n = 54) were randomly allocated to 9 groups - Group 1 and Group 2: Vehicle controls, Group 3: Ethinyl estradiol, Group 4: Si (270 mg/kg), Group 5: Sr (270 mg/kg), Group 6: Cr (540 mg/kg), Group 7: Ta (270 mg/kg), Group 8: Ashokarishta (4 ml/kg), Group 9: Si + Sr (135 mg/kg). Variables studied were: Body weight, uterine weight, relative uterine weight, presence of vaginal opening, histomorphology of the uterus and total uterine glycogen content. Parametric data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and the categorical data were analyzed using Chi-square test. All animals in the ethinyl estradiol group showed a significant change in all the variables. None of the individual test drugs, neither the marketed preparation produced change in any of the variables. The plant drug combination also did not produce a change in any of the variables studied except in histomorphology wherein it caused a slight increase in the height of the luminal epithelium of the uterus (P < 0.05 vs. Group 1). The plant drugs Si, Sr, Cr, Ta and Aśokāriṣṭa did not demonstrate estrogenic activity in the immature rat model. The plant drug combination Si + Sr showed questionable estrogenic activity which needs to be evaluated in further studies.

  14. Evaluation of {sup 99m}Tc-Pheophorbide-a use in infection imaging: A rat model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocakoglu, Kasim [Advanced Technologies Research and Application Center, Mersin University, TR 33343 Yenisehir, Mersin (Turkey); Bayrak, Elif; Onursal, Mehmet [Department of Nuclear Applications, Institute of Nuclear Science, Ege University, Bornova 35100, Izmir (Turkey); Yilmaz, Osman [Department of Animal Research Center, Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey); Yurt Lambrecht, Fatma, E-mail: fatma.yurt.lambrecht@ege.edu.tr [Department of Nuclear Applications, Institute of Nuclear Science, Ege University, Bornova 35100, Izmir (Turkey); Holzwarth, Alfred R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Bioanorganische Chemie, Stiftstrasse 34-36, D-45470, Muelheim an der Ruhr (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    This study aims to prepare {sup 99m}Technetium Pheophorbide-a ({sup 99m}Tc-PH-A) complex and evaluate its efficiency as an infection imaging agent. First, PH-A was obtained from Spirulina maxima algae, and the product compound was confirmed using {sup 1}H NMR and MS (ESI) methods. The PH-A was then labeled with {sup 99m}Tc using the tin chloride method and its biological efficacy as a potential radiotracer for Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infection was evaluated in bacterially infected and sterile inflamed rats. The radiochemical stability of the {sup 99m}Tc-PH-A in human serum was determined by thin-layer radiochromatography (TLRC). The radiochemical purity was 87{+-}3.2% and remained constant at more than 80{+-}0.1% even in serum for 120 min after radiolabeling. These experiments indicated that the ratio of {sup 99m}Tc-PH-A uptake in bacterially infected muscle, as compared to normal muscle, [target/non-target (T/NT)=5.6 at 1 h] was over four times higher than that in sterile inflamed muscle (T/NT=1.29 at 1 h). Disappearance of activity from the kidney and liver indicated that the urinary and hepatobiliary systems were the normal routes of excretion of the complex. {sup 99m}Technetium Pheophorbide prepared with high yield is able to localize well in the bacterially infected muscle of the rats and {sup 99m}Tc-PH-A may be developed as a radiopharmaceutical agent to distinguish infection from inflammation by nuclear imaging.

  15. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory effect of Salvadora persica in IBD-induced rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nomani*

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD are among the most prevalent diseases in developed countries. In general, IL-6 and TNF-α are considered as the main causes of tissue damage in the intestine. Salvadora persica is a domestic and abundant plant growing in some central and southern areas of Iran. The main objective of the current study was to evaluate the potential anti-inflammatory effect of the hydro-alcoholic extract of Salvadora persica in a rat model of IBD. Methods: Acute colitis was induced by intra-rectal administration of 100 mg/kg TNBS dissolved in a total volume of 0.25 mL of 50% ethanol. Twenty-four h after colitis induction, saline, S. persica extracts (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg and sulfasalazine (100 mg/kg were orally administered to the corresponding groups of animals. The dose administration was repeated daily for seven consecutive days. Aftewards, body weight changes, macroscopic and microscopic lesions were assessed by dissecting 8 cm of the distal colons of the animals. TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA expression were also evaluated by real-time PCR. Results: The obtained results showed that sulfasalazine and S. persica extracts were significantly able to reduce the body weight loss, macroscopic and microscopic lesions compared to the untreated control. Additionally, they were able to decrease the expression of TNF-α mRNA in the colon tissue. Conclusion: The findings of this study indicated that Salvadora persica extract had an acceptable anti-inflammatory effect on the induced colitis in rat, and one of its notable mechanisms could be through TNF-α pathway.

  16. Toxicity evaluation of chlorinated organic compounds using immortalized rat hepatocytes; Fushika rat kansaibo wo mochiita yuki enso kagobutsu no dokusei hyoka no kokoromi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sone, H.; Nakajima, M.; Yonemoto, J. [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-11-10

    Chlorinated organic compounds has high priority for toxicity screening among environmental hazardous chemicals. In the present study, we used immortalized rat hepatocytes as a liver model in vitro to evaluate the toxicity of nine chlorinated organic compounds. Toxicity of nine chlorinated organic compounds were evaluated to cellular viability of immortalized rat hapatocytes. The potency of the toxicity based on 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) value was in the following order: triclocalban>triclosan>3,4-dichloroaniline>2,5-diclorophenol> 2,5-dichloroanisole>p-dichlorobenzene> p-chloroaniline>o-dichlorobenzene=tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate. The rank order of cytotoxic potency of nine chemicals was compared with toxicity information using animals. The rank order of cytotoxic potency did not relative to the order referenced mean lethal dose (LD50) as an index of acute toxicity of rats or mice. However, the rank order of cytotoxic potency relatively correlated non-observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) under the exposure duration adjusted for chronic toxicity in vivo. These data suggests that the origin of testing cell had better to make match target organ of toxic chemicals for extrapolation from data of bioassay in vitro to in vivo. 16 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. In vivo biocompatibility evaluation of some Bidens tripartita extracts in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandu, R B; Tarţău, L; Miron, A; Zagnat, M; Ghiciuc, C M; Lupuşoru, C E

    2013-01-01

    Adaptogens represent a class of herbs frequently used as a unique and natural alternative medicine and herbal remedy for treating the many forms of stress and different other pathological conditions. Bidens tripartite, a flowering plant from the genus Bidens, family Compositae, subfamily Asteroideae was widely used in traditional medicine for its antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, astringent, diuretic, febrifuge, narcotic and sedative effects. Phytochemical analysis of this plant has revealed the presence of flavonoids, xanthophylls, volatile oil, acetylene and polyacetylene, sterols, aurones, chalcones, caffeine and tannins. The in vivo biocompatibility evaluation of two extracts from Bidens tripartita plant in rats. The vegetable product used for the study was obtained after maceration and extraction in alcohol. Flower powder was dissolved in absolute chloroform, re-extracted and filtered. After a complete dryness the product was extracted by the addition of ethanol then evaporated. The chemical composition of the extracts was determined. The administered dose of Bidens tripartita retained was 1/20 of lethal dose 50 (LD50). The experiment was carried out on white male Wistar rats (200-250g) divided into 3 groups of 7 animals each treated intraperitoneally as follows: Group I (Control): distilled water 0.1ml/10g weight; Group II (coded BT-alcoholic): 200mg/kbw alcoholic Bidens tripartita extract; Group III (coded BT-aqueous): 250mg/kbw aqueous Bidens tripartita extract. The biocompatibility properties of alcoholic and aqueous extracts from Bidens tritartita were studied by assessing their effects on blood count and serum biochemical tests. The following immune parameters: phagocytic capacity of peripheral neutrophils (NBT test) and serum complement activity were also evaluated. The data were presented as +/- SD and significance was tested by SPSS for Windows version 13.0 and ANOVA method. Experimental protocol was implemented according to the

  18. Evaluation of sperm superoxide anion production and Mitochondrial Membrane Potential: flowcytometry in rats with experimental varicocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafari A

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Varicocele is a major cause of male infertility, but its pathophysiology is unclear. Recent studies declare that fertile varicocele people with normal semen analysis are also at risk of loss of infertility. The exact mechanism by which varicocele damages spermatogenesis is still unknown. Some studies have reported increased Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS is a major factor in semen of men with varicocele. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the source of elevated ROS is intracellular or not. In addition, we studied Mitochondrial Membrane Potential (MMP, viability, antioxidant activity, sperm count and motility in these rats."n"n Methods: The study group consisted of 28 male rats divided in four groups: control, sham, varicocele 1, varicocele 2, Experimental varicocele was established by partial ligation of the left renal vein in last two groups. Animals were sacrificed two and six months after surgery and dilation of the internal spermatic veins was observed. Then, superoxide anion production and Mitochondrial Membrane Potential were evaluated by Flow cytometry sperm characteristics were evaluated by Flow cytometry. Sperm superoxide anion production was assessed by the dihydroethidium and

  19. 90-day subchronic toxicity study in rats and mice fed N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) including neurotoxicity evaluation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malley, L A; Kennedy, G L; Elliott, G S; Slone, T W; Mellert, W; Deckardt, K; Gembardt, C; Hildebrand, B; Parod, R J; McCarthy, T J; Griffiths, J C

    1999-08-01

    In mice, there were no effects on body weight or food consumption. As observed in rats, mice fed 2,500 or 7,500 ppm exhibited a change in urine coloration which was not associated with morphological changes in cholesterol, triglycerides, calcium, and alkaline phosphatase occurred at 28 days but not 90 days. These changes are thus assessed as being of minor toxicological relevance. Liver weights were elevated in males fed 2,500 or 7,500 ppm and centrilobular hypertrophy was seen in both sexes fed 7,500 ppm. These changes may be regarded as an adaptation process but are clearly related to NMP exposure. Other toxicological endpoints examined were unaffected by NMP. The NOAEL was 3,000 ppm for both sexes of rats based on body weight effects and changes in 3 neurobehavioral parameters (males only) at higher feeding levels. In mice, the NOAEL was 1,000 ppm based on liver responses to higher concentrations.

  20. Evaluation of the immunotoxicological effects of Dimorphandra mollis Benth., Fabaceae, in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássia A. O. Feres

    Full Text Available Dimorphandra mollis Benth., Fabaceae, also known as "faveira" or "fava-d'anta", is a plant common to the central woodsy meadow region of Brazil. It is well known for its antioxidant, antiplatelet and, principally, vasoprotective properties. Its principal component is rutin. The objective of this study is the evaluation of the safety of the use of the dried D. mollis extract in rodents. The rutin content of the standardized extract was 76.0±3%. With respect to the biochemical and hematological parameters evaluated, no alterations in the groups of rats that received 1000 and 2000 mg/kg doses of D. mollis were observed, but an increase in eosinophiles occurred. Hyperactivity of the white splenic pulp was detected in the group that received the 2000 mg/kg dose of D. mollis. In the evaluation of the lymphproliferative response with 1000 and 2000 mg/kg, no alterations were observed, and a decrease in IgG was only observed in the studies with a 2000 mg/kg dose. The results obtained with rodents suggest that no toxicity exists with the administration of dried D. mollis extract in a 1000 mg/kg dose.

  1. Evaluation of antiulcer activity of Boswellia serrata bark extracts using aspirin induced ulcer model in albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Khaja Zeeyauddin; Mohammed Ibrahim; Muna Abid; Mangamoori Lakshmi Narsu

    2011-01-01

    The effect of bark extracts of Boswellia serrata (Family Bursera-ceae) was evaluated in aspirin induced ulceration (200mg/kg) in albino rats. Antiulcer activity was evaluated by measuring ulcer index and percentage of ulcer healing. The petroleum ether (250mg/kg) and aqueous extracts (250mg/kg) of bark of Boswellia serrata plant showed significant antiulcer activity as evidenced by the data obtained. Histopathological findings also confirm the anti-ulcer activity of Boswellia serrata bark ext...

  2. Reproduction of a rat model of acute high-altitude sickness and evaluation of its related indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi WANG

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To reproduce a rat model of acute mountain sickness by using a hypobaric chamber to simulate the plateau environment, and to study the related physiological parameters. Methods A total of 70 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into normal control (NC group, and 6 hypobaric hypoxia groups (10 each in which rats were housed in a hypobaric chamber and exposed to the enviroment simulating high altitude of 5000m and 6000m for 12h, 24h and 48h respectively. Memory Morris water maze test was conducted to evaluate the changes in working memory of rats in space. Histological changes in lung and brain tissue were observed. Blood from abdominal aorta was collected to analyze the parameters of blood gas. The histopathological changes in lung and cerebrum were observed, and their wet/dry ratios were calculated. Results Reduction in activity or even death was found in hypobaric hypoxia groups, and arterial PaO2 was significantly decreased in all rats of hypobaric hypoxia groups. Compared with NC group, rats exposed to a simulated altitude of 5000m for longer than 24h and 6000m for longer than 12h exhibited longer latency period in finding the hidden platform, shorter expedition time for target quadrant, and less frequency of platform crossing in the Morris water maze test (P<0.05. After exposure to simulated altitudes of both 5000m and 6000m for 48h, pathological changes were observed in lung and cerebrum, and wet/dry ratio of lung and brain was significantly increased compared with that of NC group. Conclusion Indexes of rat model of acute mountain sickness by using a hypobaric chamber show different changes at respective time points. Therefore the changes in multiple physiological indexes of mountain sickness can be assessed by using this animal model. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.09.06

  3. Evaluating the MoA/human relevance framework for F-344 rat liver epithelioid granulomas with mineral oil hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adenuga, David; Goyak, Katy; Lewis, R Jeffrey

    2017-10-01

    Toxicology feeding studies of mineral oil hydrocarbons (MOHs), within the carbon number range C22-C28, results in species-specific epithelioid granulomas in the liver of F-344 rats but not in other rat strains, or species. While MOH has been detected, and some pathological effects have been shown to occur in other organs/tissues of F-344 rats and other rat strains/species, it is generally accepted that the effect of toxicological concern is species-specific inflammatory liver granuloma. As oil retention and other MOH-related nontoxic pathological changes in the liver are observed in humans, some have hypothesized that the potential for oil accumulation over a lifetime, through dietary sources, may predispose humans to similar liver effects as observed in F-344 rats. To address this concern, a mode of action/human relevance framework (MoA/HRF) analysis for MOH-induced epithelioid granuloma in the F-344 rat model was developed. The key events for the development of liver epithelioid granulomas were identified as increased MOH intestinal absorption, preferential tissue retention and ultimately formation of necrotic granulomas encased by infiltrating inflammatory lymphocytes. The hypothesized MoA was evaluated using the modified Bradford Hill considerations for causality and was considered to be established in the F-344 rodent model. However, key strain/species differences in the rate of intestinal absorption, tissue retention of MOH and inflammatory response to MOH in the liver were identified. Overall, the F-344 rat MoA was not considered to be relevant to humans, consistent with data showing no evidence for the formation of epithelioid granulomas with humans even in cases of massive ingestion of MOHs.

  4. Toxicological evaluation of chronic oral administration of Melissa officinalis hydro-ethanol extract in Sprague-Dawley rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hashemnia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Melissa officinalis is a plant that has been widely used as an herbal medicine in many countries. Unfortunately, despite the prevalent medicinal uses of the plant, there are no reports on the possible toxic effects of M. officinalis. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of long-term administration of hydro-alcoholic extract of M. officinalis on some biochemical and hematological parameters and histopathology of organs. Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated to three equal groups. The animals in groups A and B received 600 and 1200 mg/kg M. officinalis extract, respectively, for 30 days. The rats in group C were given gavaged saline as control. The animals were euthanized at the end of experiment and the blood samples were collected for biochemical and hematology analysis. Additionally, appropriate tissue samples were collected from kidney, liver, spleen, heart and lung for light microscopic examination. M. officinalis caused a significant increase in the alanine aminotransferase level in the treated rats. Although the increase in creatine phosphokinase and lactate dehydrogenase levels were observed in group A and B, respectively, but there were no significant differences. A significant decrease was observed in the total protein and albumin concentrations in serum of treated rats as compared to the control group. The creatinine concentrations were significantly higher in the group B when compared to the other groups. There were no significant differences in cholesterol, triglyceride and urea concentrations between all groups of rats. The main histopathologic findings in the liver were included hepatocyte degeneration, congestion and dilation of sinusoids, proliferation of bile ducts and infiltration of mononuclear cells around the portal area. Histopathologic examination of the kidneys showed a tubular degeneration and necrosis, tubular and glomerular atrophy and congestion. These lesions were more prominent in the high dose treated

  5. Effects of electromagnetic radiation produced by 3G mobile phones on rat brains: magnetic resonance spectroscopy, biochemical, and histopathological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, M; Turtay, M G; Oguzturk, H; Samdanci, E; Turkoz, Y; Tasdemir, S; Alkan, A; Bakir, S

    2012-06-01

    The effects of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) produced by a third-generation (3G) mobile phone (MP) on rat brain tissues were investigated in terms of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), biochemistry, and histopathological evaluations. The rats were randomly assigned to two groups: Group 1 is composed of 3G-EMR-exposed rats (n = 9) and Group 2 is the control group (n = 9). The first group was subjected to EMR for 20 days. The control group was not exposed to EMR. Choline (Cho), creatinin (Cr), and N-acetylaspartate (NAA) levels were evaluated by MRS. Catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) enzyme activities were measured by spectrophotometric method. Histopathological analyses were carried out to evaluate apoptosis in the brain tissues of both groups. In MRS, NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, and NAA/Cho ratios were not significantly different between Groups 1 and 2. Neither the oxidative stress parameters, CAT and GSH-Px, nor the number of apoptotic cells were significantly different between Groups 1 and 2. Usage of short-term 3G MP does not seem to have a harmful effect on rat brain tissue.

  6. Evaluation of radioprotective effect of aloe vera and zinc/copper compounds against salivary dysfunction in irradiated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejaim, Yuri; I V Silva, Amaro; V Vasconcelos, Taruska; J N L Silva, Emmanuel; M de Almeida, Solange

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the radioprotective and reparative effects of compounds based on aloe vera, zinc, and copper against salivary gland dysfunction in Wistar rats. A total of 150 Wistar rats were randomly divided into 12 groups, in which the animals received aloe vera and/or zinc and copper. In eight of these groups the animals were also subjected to irradiation before or after administration of the substances. After 27 days, sialometry tests were performed. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and the Tukey test (P aloe vera before or after irradiation showed a significantly higher salivary flow rate than rats that had been simply irradiated. When both substances were administered, a statistically significant difference in the salivary flow rate was observed in comparison with the irradiation alone group seven days after irradiation. The present results suggest that aloe vera exerts positive protective and reparative effects, and can be considered a potential radioprotective substance.

  7. Evaluation of the pharmacokinetics and cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin in rat receiving nilotinib

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Zhi-yong [Department of Pharmacy, Affiliated Sixth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200233 Shanghai (China); School of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200240 Shanghai (China); Wan, Li-li; Yang, Quan-jun; Han, Yong-long; Li, Yan; Yu, Qi [Department of Pharmacy, Affiliated Sixth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200233 Shanghai (China); Guo, Cheng, E-mail: guochengphd@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Pharmacy, Affiliated Sixth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200233 Shanghai (China); School of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200240 Shanghai (China); Li, Xiao, E-mail: lixiao3326@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Hematology, Affiliated Sixth people' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200233 Shanghai (China)

    2013-10-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a potent chemotherapy drug with a narrow therapeutic window. Nilotinib, a small-molecule Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor, was reported to reverse multidrug resistance (MDR) mediated by P-glycoprotein (P-gp) transmembrane transporters. The present study aimed to investigate nilotinib's affection on the steady-state pharmacokinetics, disposition and cardiotoxicity of DOX. A total of 24 male Sprague–Dawley rats were randomized into four groups (6 in each) and received the following regimens: saline, intravenous DOX (5 mg/kg) alone, and DOX co-administrated with either 20 or 40 mg/kg nilotinib. Blood was withdrawn at 12 time points till 72 h after DOX injection and the concentrations of DOX and its metabolite doxorubicinol (DOXol) in serum and cardiac tissue were assayed by LC–MS–MS method. To determine the cardiotoxicity, the following parameters were investigated: creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, malondialdehyde, and superoxide dismutase. Histopathological examination of heart section was carried out to evaluate the extent of cardiotoxicity after treatments. The results showed that pretreatment of 40 mg/kg nilotinib increased the AUC{sub 0–t} and C{sub max} of DOX and DOXol. However, their accumulation in cardiac tissue was significantly decreased when compared with the group that received DOX alone. In addition, biochemical and histopathological results showed that 40 mg/kg nilotinib reduced the cardiotoxicity induced by DOX administration. In conclusion, co-administration of nilotinib increased serum exposure, but significantly decreased the accumulation of DOX in cardiac tissue. Consistent with in vitro profile, oral dose of 40 mg/kg nilotinib significantly decreased the cardiotoxicity of DOX in rat by enhancing P-gp activity in the heart.

  8. Evaluation of low level laser therapy irradiation parameters on rat muscle inflammation through systemic blood cytokines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantineo, Matias; Pinheiro, João. P.; Morgado, António M.

    2014-02-01

    Low level laser therapy (LLLT) has been used for inflammation treatment. Here, we evaluate the effect of different doses, using continuous (830 and 980 nm) and pulsed illumination (830 nm), in the treatment of inflammation induced in the gastrocnemius muscle of Wistar rats, through cytokines concentration in systemic blood and histological analysis of muscle tissue. Animals were randomly divided into five groups per wavelength (5 animals per group: 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mW) plus a control group. LLLT was applied during five days, with constant exposure time and irradiated area (3 minutes; 0.5026 cm2). Blood was collected on days 0, 3 and 6. TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-2 and IL-6 cytokines were quantified by ELISA. Rats were killed on day 6. Muscle inflammatory cells were counted using optical microscopy. Treatment effects occurred for all applied doses (largest effect at 40 mW: 7.2 J, 14 J/cm2 per irradiation), with reduction of proinflammatory TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 cytokines and lower number of inflammatory cells. Results were better for 830 nm. Identical methodology was used with pulsed illumination. Average power (40 mW) and duty cycle were kept constant (80%) at five frequencies (5, 25, 50, 100 and 200 Hz). Treatment effects were observed at higher frequencies, with no significant differences between them. However, the treatment effect was lower than for continuous illumination. LLLT effect on inflammation treatment can be monitored by measuring systemic blood cytokines. A larger treatment effect was observed with continuous illumination, where results seem to be compatible with a biphasic dose response.

  9. Cardiorespiratory evaluation of juvenile rats experimentally envenomed with Tityus serrulatus venom

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    MCL Pinto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Accidental envenomation caused by Tityus serrulatus scorpions is very common in Brazil and may result in serious cardiorespiratory alterations that are frequently fatal to children. In the present study, the effects of T. serrulatus venom on the cardiorespiratory system of recently weaned male Wistar rats were evaluated. Fifteen animals were distributed into three groups (n = 5. The control group A received 400 μL ultrapure water by subcutaneous injection, while the experimental groups B and C were injected with scorpion venom (100 and 450 μg, respectively, in 400 μL water. Electrocardiogram (ECG traces were obtained prior to the experiment, at five-minute intervals up to 30 minutes after treatment. At 40 minutes after envenomation, the animals had severe acute symptoms and were subsequently anesthetized for blood collection by means of intracardiac puncture. Biochemical profiles for the cardiac muscle were established by colorimetric analysis of creatine kinase (CK and CK-MB isoenzyme. Semiquantitative analysis of troponin was performed using the immunochromatographic assay. Following euthanasia, the lungs and hearts were removed and subjected to histopathological examination. All experimental animals had ECG alterations compatible with electrolytic imbalance, myocarditis and alterations of the cardiac conduction system. Envenomed animals had accentuated bradycardia at 25 and 30 minutes after venom inoculation. All experimental animals had myocardial lesions, which were confirmed by increased serum levels of CK and CK-MB, although there were no alterations in the serum concentration of troponin. Pulmonary hemorrhage was detected in whole lungs and microscopically confirmed by the presence of congested capillaries and erythrocytes in the alveolar parenchyma. In conclusion, T. serrulatus venom caused great cardiorespiratory damage to weaned rats.

  10. Evaluation of anti-diabetic activity of Glucova Active Tablet on Type I and Type II diabetic model in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Hardik; Patel, Sejal; Patel, Ghanshyam; Paranjape, Archana

    2014-04-01

    Glucova Active Tablet is a proprietary Ayurvedic formulation with ingredients reported for anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hyperlipidemic activity and antioxidant properties. Evaluation of anti-diabetic activity of Glucova Active Tablet on Type I and Type II diabetic model in rats. Experimental Type I diabetes was induced in 24 albino rats with intra-peritoneal injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg). Type II diabetes was induced in 18 albino rats by intra-peritoneal injection of streptozotocin (35 mg/kg) along with high fat diet. The rats were divided in 5 groups for Type I model and 4 groups for Type II model. Normal control group was kept common for both experimental models. Glucova Active Tablet (108 mg/kg) treatment was provided for 28 days twice daily orally. Fasting blood glucose level, serum lipid profile and liver anti-oxidant parameters like superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione was carried out in both experimental models. Pancreas histopathology was also done. Statistical analysis were done by 'analysis of variance' test followed by post hoc Tukey's test, with significant level of P anti-diabetic activity in Type I and Type II diabetic rats. It was also found showing good anti-hyperlipidemic activity and anti-oxidant property.

  11. Evaluation of the healing activity of therapeutic clay in rat skin wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dário, Giordana Maciel; da Silva, Geovana Gomes; Gonçalves, Davi Ludvig; Silveira, Paulo; Junior, Adilson Teixeira; Angioletto, Elidio; Bernardin, Adriano Michael

    2014-10-01

    The use of clays for therapeutic practice is widespread in almost all regions of the world. In this study the physicochemical and microbiological healing characteristics of a clay from Ocara, Brazil, popularly used for therapeutic uses, were analyzed. The presence of Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, and Si was observed, which initially indicated that the clay had potential for therapeutic use. The average particle size of the clay (26.3 μm) can induce the microcirculation of the skin and the XRD analysis shows that the clay is formed by kaolinite and illite, a swelling clay. During the microbiological evaluation there was the need to sterilize the clay for later incorporation into the pharmaceutical formula. The accelerated stability test at 50°C for 3 months has showed that the pharmaceutical formula remained stable with a shelf life of two years. After the stability test the wound-healing capacity of the formulation in rats was evaluated. It was observed that the treatment made with the formulation containing the Ocara clay showed the best results since the formula allowed greater formation of collagen fibers and consequent regeneration of the deep dermis after seven days of treatment and reepithelialization and continuous formation of granulation tissue at the 14th day. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of some Samoan and Peruvian medicinal plants by prostaglandin biosynthesis and rat ear oedema assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunstan, C A; Noreen, Y; Serrano, G; Cox, P A; Perera, P; Bohlin, L

    1997-06-01

    In our ongoing program to find new anti-inflammatory compounds, 58 extracts from 46 different medicinal plant species, used in treatment of inflammatory disorders-38 plants from the traditional medicine of Western Samoa and eight originating from the indigenous medicine of the Shipibo-Conibo tribe of Peruvian Amazonia-ere evaluated. The ability of all extracts to inhibit cyclooxygenase-1 catalysed prostaglandin biosynthesis in vitro was examined. Of the plant species tested 14 showed moderate to strong inhibition; including 11 Samoan and three Peruvian species. Further, 12 Samoan and all eight Peruvian species were investigated on their inhibitory activity of ethyl phenylpropiolate induced rat ear oedema in vivo. Significant activity was shown by 10 of the Samoan and by all eight Peruvian species. An additional evaluation of the most active species was provided through a compilation of existing literature documenting traditional medicinal uses, pharmacological activity and chemical constituents. Several known cyclooxygenase-1 inhibitors were reported to which the observed pharmacological activity can be attributed at least partly. The combination of chemical and pharmacological literature data and our experimental data may help to explain the anti-inflammatory use of these species in indigenous medicine.

  13. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of grapevine leaves extracts (Vitis labrusca in liver of Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    THAYS K. SCHAFFER

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotection of organic and conventional grapevine leaves extract (Vitis labrusca. The total polyphenol content and the isolate polyphenols by HPLC were evaluate. The animals received intraperitoneal injections of saline or extracts (conventional or organic - 30 mg/kg for 14 days. On day 15, the rats received carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 or mineral oil (i.p.. After 4h, the animals were euthanized. The analysis of the liver enzymes activity (AST, ALT, GGT was performed using serum, obtained by blood and the levels of lipid peroxidation (TBARS, protein oxidation (carbonyl, and the activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase were analyzed in the liver. The results showed that the organic extract is richer in polyphenol and resveratrol than the conventional one. Both extracts prevent lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation generated by CCl4. Moreover, the extracts demonstrated ability to modulate the activity of SOD and CAT, as well as to establish a balance in the ratio of SOD/CAT. We also found that the CCl4 increased the levels of AST and GGT, and that both extracts prevent this. These results indicate that grapevine leaves extracts, both, organic and conventional, can prevent liver disorders.

  14. Evaluation of gastrointestinal transit after infection with different loads of Strongyloides venezuelensis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjos-Ramos, L; Gama, L A; Mati, V L T; Corá, L A; Fujiwara, R T; Americo, M F

    2016-04-01

    The aim was to correlate the gastrointestinal transit profile in rats, evaluated by a biomagnetic technique, in response to infection with different loads of Strongyloides venezuelensis. Eggs per gram, intestinal number of worms and fecundity, and also gastric emptying time, cecum arrival time, small intestinal transit time and stool weight were determined. Assessments occurred at 0 (control), 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 21 days post infection (dpi) with three infective loads (400, 2000, and 10,000 L). Gastric emptying was faster (p=0.0001) and the intestinal transit was significantly slower (p=0.001) during the infection time course. Also, linear mixed-effects models showed significantly changes in small intestinal transit after three parasite load over time. Cecum arrival was not influenced by infection time course or parasite load. As indirect effect, stool weight decreased accompanied a strong oviposition peak at 9 dpi in 400 L and 2000 L. In several motor function instances, neuromuscular dysfunction persists after mucosal inflammation has decreased. Our approach could be very helpful to evaluate gastrointestinal motor abnormalities in vivo after parasite infection. Despite parasitological data progressively decreased after 15 dpi, small intestinal transit worse over time and according to burden. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Optical density evaluation around the zirconia granules used as graft in rat calvaria

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    Carolina Silva Farinazzo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the optical density of the zirconia granules used as a graft in a rat calvarium model. Forty animals (Rattus Novergicus, albinus, Wistar were divided into control and experimental groups and submitted to bone detects in the cranial cap using a trephine type burr 6 mmin diameter. The control group had the defect filled with blood coagulum, and the experimental group was filled with zirconia granules of 300 to 850 µm. The animals were sacrificed at intervals of 7, 14, 30, and 60 days. Digital images were obtained from the bone defect region, and optical density of the zirconia granules was measured using the Image Tool® 3.0. software (UTHSCSA,San Antonio, EUA. The histological analysis of the specimens was also evaluated. The values obtained were analyzed by statistical methods: Analysis of Variance, Welch’s Anova, and F Test. It was verified that the mean optical density of the bone repair process differs in all analyzed regions, irrespective of time (p < 0.0001. In the region with the zirconia graft, the mean density was always higher than the other regions analyzed, and the control group showed the same behavior of the experimental groups, but for the region with zirconia graft, the average density is always greater.

  16. Immunohistochemical evaluation of microvascular rarefaction in hypertensive humans and in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiardi, Silvia; Rodella, Luigi F; De Ciuceis, Carolina; Porteri, Enzo; Boari, Gianluca E M; Rezzani, Rita; Rizzardi, Nicola; Platto, Caterina; Tiberio, Guido A M; Giulini, Stefano M; Rizzoni, Damiano; Agabiti-Rosei, Enrico

    2009-01-01

    No data are presently available about changes in capillary density in the skeletal muscle and in the brain of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) in relation to the development of hypertension. We have investigated 4 week-old and 12 week-old SHR and age-matched normotensive Wistar-Kyoto controls (WKY). Microvessel density (MVD) in the cerebral cortex and in a skeletal muscle were evaluated in sections stained for CD31. We also evaluated MVD in the dermal tissue of normotensive subjects and essential hypertensive patients. Subcutaneous small resistance arteries were dissected and mounted in a micromyograph and the media to lumen ratio (M/L) was measured. A significant reduction in MVD in the skeletal muscle and in the brain of SHR was clearly observed at 12 weeks of age, after the development of hypertension, but not at 4 weeks of age (pre-hypertensive condition). In hypertensive patients a significant reduction in the dermal MVD and an inverse correlation between M/L and MVD was observed. Our results suggest that, in the brain and skeletal muscle of adult SHR after the development of hypertension, and in the derma of adult essential hypertensive patients microvascular rarefaction may occur.

  17. Evaluation of the Antihyperglycemic Effect of Minor Steviol Glycosides in Normoglycemic and Induced-Diabetic Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda-González, Irma; Moguel-Ordóñez, Yolanda; Chel-Guerrero, Luis; Segura-Campos, Maira; Betancur-Ancona, David

    2016-09-01

    Steviol glycosides are a family of compounds found in Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni that are responsible for sweetness capacity. The antihyperglycemic effect of the two major steviol glycosides, Rebaudioside A and Stevioside, has been studied and it has been found that despite having the same common structure, only Stevioside exerts an antihyperglycemic effect. Although other steviol derivatives are found in smaller amounts (minor steviol glycosides) in S. rebaudiana, whether or not they possess antihyperglycemic activity has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antihyperglycemic effect of minor steviol glycosides in normoglycemic and diabetic (streptozotocin/nicotinamide) Wistar rats. Rats were subjected to an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) both before and after chronic treatment (28 days). After 6 h of fasting, IPGTT was conducted in pentobarbital-anesthetized rats using 1 g/kg of glucose plus 20 mg/kg of the minor glycoside (Dulcoside A, Rebaudioside B, C, D, or Steviolbioside) or control treatment (distilled water, glibenclamide, or metformin); the blood of the tip of the tail was collected at time 0, 15, 30, 60, and 120 min.; and blood glucose was measured, and its net area under the curve (AUCnet) was calculated. After 28-day chronic oral administration, IPGTT was again performed. Differences were considered significant at P diabetic Wistar rats. Considering the dose tested, it is unlikely that these glycosides have an effect on glucose in diabetic or normoglycemic humans.

  18. The Evaluation of Osseointegration of Dental Implant Surface with Different Size of TiO2 Nanotube in Rats

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    Young-Ah Yi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of nanotechnology, many researches have shown that nanometer-scaled materials especially TiO2 nanotube have a positive effect on cellular behavior and surface characteristics of implant, which are considered to be crucial factors in osseointegration. However, it has not yet been verified which nanotube size is effective in osseointegration in vivo. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of implant surface-treated with different size of TiO2 nanotubes on osseointegration in rat femur. The customized implants (threaded and nonthreaded type, surface-treated with different diameter of TiO2 nanotubes (30 nm, 50 nm, 70 nm, and 100 nm nanotube, were placed on both sides of the femur of 50 male Sprague-Dawley rats (6 weeks old. Rats were sacrificed at 2 and 6 weeks following surgery; then the specimens were collected by perfusion fixation and the osseointegration of implants was evaluated by radiographic and histologic analyses and removal torque value test. The mean of bone area (% and the mean of removal torque were different in each group, indicating that the difference in TiO2 nanotube size may influence new bone formation and osseointegration in rats.

  19. Pharmacokinetic and toxicodynamic evaluation of oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy and hematological toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yukako; Kobuchi, Shinji; Shimizu, Risa; Katsuyama, Yosuke

    2018-01-01

    Oxaliplatin (L-OHP) is a third-generation, platinum-based chemotherapeutic agent and is widely used in gastroenterological cancer regimens. It is important to complete chemotherapy cycles to improve treatment efficacy for cancer patients. However, undesirable side effects, including acute and chronic neuropathies, and myelosuppression, lead to the discontinuation of chemotherapy in some treatment regimens. To predict and prevent the onset of side effects, and to establish appropriate dose adjustment, pharmacokinetic and toxicodynamic studies were performed to investigate the effects of L-OHP in rats. Rats were administered intravenous L-OHP, once a week for 4 weeks, at doses of 3, 5, or 8 mg/kg. Pharmacokinetic profiles were observed on Day 1 and Day 22. Acute and chronic neuropathies were evaluated over 4 weeks; cold allodynia was evaluated using an acetone test and mechanical allodynia using the von Frey test. Hematological parameters were also investigated during the same period. The mean AUC0-∞ values for L-OHP were 0.4 ± 0.2, 2.4 ± 0.4, and 3.5 ± 0.9 ng h/mL, increasing dose-dependently on Day 1. The accumulation of L-OHP on Day 22 was observed after repeated administration of L-OHP, as shown by mean AUC0-∞ values of 0.6 ± 0.2, 4.0 ± 1.0, and 14.1 ± 9.8 ng·h/mL, for the three doses. Cold allodynia was observed from Day 3 in the 5 and 8 mg/kg groups, and the extent of this response was dose-dependent. Mechanical allodynia was also observed from Day 10 in the 5 and 8 mg/kg groups. Moreover, the platelet count was the most sensitive among the hematological parameters. These results provide useful experimental data for clinical cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy, to establish a pharmacokinetic and toxicodynamic model of L-OHP for adequate dose adjustment.

  20. Evaluation of novel resorbable membranes for bone augmentation in a rat model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeng, N.; van Leeuwen, A.C.; Yuan, Huipin; Bos, R.R.M.; Grijpma, Dirk W.; Kuijer, R.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Our study compared two novel, biodegradable poly(trimethylene carbonate) (PTMC) barrier membranes to clinically applied barrier membranes in maintaining volume of block autologous bone grafts in a rat mandible model. Material and methods Two hundred and forty rats were included in this

  1. Prediction and evaluation of route dependent dosimetry of BPA in rats at different life stages using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiaoxia, E-mail: Xiaoxia.Yang@fda.hhs.gov; Doerge, Daniel R.; Fisher, Jeffrey W.

    2013-07-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) has received considerable attention throughout the last decade due to its widespread use in consumer products. For the first time a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed in neonatal and adult rats to quantitatively evaluate age-dependent pharmacokinetics of BPA and its phase II metabolites. The PBPK model was calibrated in adult rats using studies on BPA metabolism and excretion in the liver and gastrointestinal tract, and pharmacokinetic data with BPA in adult rats. For immature rats the hepatic and gastrointestinal metabolism of BPA was inferred from studies on the maturation of phase II enzymes coupled with serum time course data in pups. The calibrated model predicted the measured serum concentrations of BPA and BPA conjugates after administration of 100 μg/kg of d6-BPA in adult rats (oral gavage and intravenous administration) and postnatal days 3, 10, and 21 pups (oral gavage). The observed age-dependent BPA serum concentrations were partially attributed to the immature metabolic capacity of pups. A comparison of the dosimetry of BPA across immature rats and monkeys suggests that dose adjustments would be necessary to extrapolate toxicity studies from neonatal rats to infant humans. - Highlights: • A PBPK model predicts the kinetics of bisphenol A (BPA) in young and adult rats. • BPA metabolism within enterocytes is required for fitting of oral BPA kinetic data. • BPA dosimetry in young rats is different than adult rats and young monkeys.

  2. Hepatotoxicity evaluation of dextran stabilized iron oxide nanoparticles in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easo, Sheeja Liza; Mohanan, P V

    2016-07-25

    Cellular and organ responses to nanoparticles are relevant in the context of use of nanoparticles for biomedical applications. The purpose of the present study was to determine the potential of dextran stabilized iron oxide nanoparticles (DIONPs) to influence hepatic uptake and consequently induce hepatotoxic response in rats following intravenous administration. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy analysis revealed that DIONPs are rapidly taken up into the liver, progressively broken down to iron constituents and exported into blood, with a part of it being retained in the liver. The potential of DIONPs to induce oxidative stress response was determined by evaluating the time-dependent redox defense status. Maximum alterations in antioxidant activities were observed to occur within a period of 7days. However, this effect was not followed by significant increase in lipid peroxidation or modulation of hepatic enzymes such as alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and bilirubin levels. Overall, these data imply that the liver retains functional integrity with a dose of 10mg/kg DIONPs, although with brief activation of redox defenses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A Potential Solution to Minimally Invasive Device for Oral Surgery: Evaluation of Surgical Outcomes in Rat

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    Keng-Liang Ou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present research was to investigate the thermal injury in the brain after minimally invasive electrosurgery using instruments with copper-doped diamond-like carbon (DLC-Cu surface coating. The surface morphologies of DLC-Cu thin films were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Three-dimensional brain models were reconstructed using magnetic resonance imaging to simulate the electrosurgical operation. In adult rats, a monopolar electrosurgical instrument coated with the DLC-Cu thin film was used to generate lesions in the brain. Animals were sacrificed for evaluations on postoperative days 0, 2, 7, and 28. Data indicated that the temperature decreased significantly when minimally invasive electrosurgical instruments with nanostructure DLC-Cu thin films were used and continued to decrease with increasing film thickness. On the other hand, the DLC-Cu-treated device created a relatively small thermal injury area and lateral thermal effect in the brain tissues. These results indicated that the DLC-Cu thin film minimized excessive thermal injury and uniformly distributed the temperature in the brain. Taken together, our study results suggest that the DLC-Cu film on copper electrode substrates is an effective means for improving the performance of electrosurgical instruments.

  4. Evaluation of a metalloporphyrin (THPPMnCl) for necrosis-affinity in rat models of necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Liu, Xuejiao; Zhang, Dongjian; Lou, Bin; Peng, Fei; Wang, Xiaoning; Shan, Xin; Jiang, Cuihua; Gao, Meng; Sun, Ziping; Ni, Yicheng; Huang, Dejian; Zhang, Jian

    2015-12-01

    The combination of an (13I)I-labeled necrosis-targeting agent (NTA) with a vascular disrupting agent is a novel and potentially powerful technique for tumor necrosis treatment (TNT). The purpose of this study was to evaluate a NTA candidate, THPPMnCl, using (131)I isotope for tracing its biodistribution and necrosis affinity. (131)I-THPPMnCl was intravenously injected in rat models with liver, muscle, and tumor necrosis and myocardial infarction (MI), followed by investigations with macroscopic autoradiography, triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) histochemical staining, fluorescence microscopy and H&E stained histology for up to 9 days. (131)I-THPPMnCl displayed a long-term affinity for all types of necrosis and accumulation in the mononuclear phagocytic system especially in the liver. Autoradiograms and TTC staining showed a good targetability of (131)I-THPPMnCl for MI. These findings indicate the potential of THPPMnCl for non-invasive imaging assessment of necrosis, such as in MI. However, (13I)I-THPPMnCl is unlikely suitable for TNT due to its long-term retention in normal tissues.

  5. Evaluation of psoralen ethosomes for topical delivery in rats by using in vivo microdialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-Tai; Shen, Li-Na; Zhao, Ji-Hui; Feng, Nian-Ping

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to improve skin permeation and deposition of psoralen by using ethosomes and to investigate real-time drug release in the deep skin in rats. We used a uniform design method to evaluate the effects of different ethosome formulations on entrapment efficiency and drug skin deposition. Using in vitro and in vivo methods, we investigated skin penetration and release from psoralen-loaded ethosomes in comparison with an ethanol tincture. In in vitro studies, the use of ethosomes was associated with a 6.56-fold greater skin deposition of psoralen than that achieved with the use of the tincture. In vivo skin microdialysis showed that the peak concentration and area under the curve of psoralen from ethosomes were approximately 3.37 and 2.34 times higher, respectively, than those of psoralen from the tincture. Moreover, it revealed that the percutaneous permeability of ethosomes was greater when applied to the abdomen than when applied to the chest or scapulas. Enhanced permeation and skin deposition of psoralen delivered by ethosomes may help reduce toxicity and improve the efficacy of long-term psoralen treatment.

  6. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of in vivo SD-OCT measurement of rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yijing; Harsan, Laura-Adela; Bienert, Thomas; Kirch, Robert D; von Elverfeldt, Dominik; Hofmann, Ulrich G

    2017-02-01

    OCT has been demonstrated as an efficient imaging modality in various biomedical and clinical applications. However, there is a missing link with respect to the source of contrast between OCT and other modern imaging modalities, no quantitative comparison has been demonstrated between them, yet. We evaluated, to our knowledge, for the first time in vivo OCT measurement of rat brain with our previously proposed forward imaging method by both qualitatively and quantitatively correlating OCT with the corresponding T1-weighted and T2-weighted magnetic resonance images, fiber density map (FDM), and two types of histology staining (cresyl violet and acetylcholinesterase AchE), respectively. Brain anatomical structures were identified and compared across OCT, MRI and histology imaging modalities. Noticeable resemblances corresponding to certain anatomical structures were found between OCT and other image profiles. Correlation was quantitatively assessed by estimating correlation coefficient (R) and mutual information (MI). Results show that the 1-D OCT measurements in regards to the intensity profile and estimated attenuation factor, do not have profound linear correlation with the other image modalities suggested from correlation coefficient estimation. However, findings in mutual information analysis demonstrate that there are markedly high MI values in OCT-MRI signals.

  7. Radiological and histopathological evaluation of experimentally-induced periapical lesion in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Cordeiro Teixeira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated experimentally-induced periapical bone loss sites using digital radiographic and histopathologic parameters. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-seven Wistar rats were submitted to coronal opening of their mandibular right first molars. They were radiographed at 2, 15 and 30 days after the operative procedure by two digital radiographic storage phosphor plates (Digora®. The images were analyzed by creating a region of interest at the periapical region of each tooth (ImageJ and registering the corresponding pixel values. After the sacrifice, the specimens were submitted to microscopic analysis in order to confirm the pulpal and periapical status of the tooth. RESULTS: There was significant statistically difference between the control and test sides in all the experimental periods regarding the pixel values (two-way ANOVA; p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: The microscopic analysis proved that a periapical disease development occurred during the experimental periods with an evolution from pulpal necrosis to periapical bone resorption.

  8. The Evaluation and Quantitation of Dihydrogen Metabolism Using Deuterium Isotope in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyspler, Radomir; Ticha, Alena; Schierbeek, Henk; Galkin, Alexander; Zadak, Zdenek

    2015-01-01

    Despite the significant interest in molecular hydrogen as an antioxidant in the last eight years, its quantitative metabolic parameters in vivo are still lacking, as is an appropriate method for determination of hydrogen effectivity in the mammalian organism under various conditions. Intraperitoneally-applied deuterium gas was used as a metabolic tracer and deuterium enrichment was determined in the body water pool. Also, in vitro experiments were performed using bovine heart submitochondrial particles to evaluate superoxide formation in Complex I of the respiratory chain. A significant oxidation of about 10% of the applied dose was found under physiological conditions in rats, proving its antioxidant properties. Hypoxia or endotoxin application did not exert any effect, whilst pure oxygen inhalation reduced deuterium oxidation. During in vitro experiments, a significant reduction of superoxide formation by Complex I of the respiratory chain was found under the influence of hydrogen. The possible molecular mechanisms of the beneficial effects of hydrogen are discussed, with an emphasis on the role of iron sulphur clusters in reactive oxygen species generation and on iron species-dihydrogen interaction. According to our findings, hydrogen may be an efficient, non-toxic, highly bioavailable and low-cost antioxidant supplement for patients with pathological conditions involving ROS-induced oxidative stress.

  9. The Evaluation and Quantitation of Dihydrogen Metabolism Using Deuterium Isotope in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radomir Hyspler

    Full Text Available Despite the significant interest in molecular hydrogen as an antioxidant in the last eight years, its quantitative metabolic parameters in vivo are still lacking, as is an appropriate method for determination of hydrogen effectivity in the mammalian organism under various conditions.Intraperitoneally-applied deuterium gas was used as a metabolic tracer and deuterium enrichment was determined in the body water pool. Also, in vitro experiments were performed using bovine heart submitochondrial particles to evaluate superoxide formation in Complex I of the respiratory chain.A significant oxidation of about 10% of the applied dose was found under physiological conditions in rats, proving its antioxidant properties. Hypoxia or endotoxin application did not exert any effect, whilst pure oxygen inhalation reduced deuterium oxidation. During in vitro experiments, a significant reduction of superoxide formation by Complex I of the respiratory chain was found under the influence of hydrogen. The possible molecular mechanisms of the beneficial effects of hydrogen are discussed, with an emphasis on the role of iron sulphur clusters in reactive oxygen species generation and on iron species-dihydrogen interaction.According to our findings, hydrogen may be an efficient, non-toxic, highly bioavailable and low-cost antioxidant supplement for patients with pathological conditions involving ROS-induced oxidative stress.

  10. Evaluation criteria of rat hepatocytes transcriptome analysis under the influence of interferon alpha by DNA microarray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuklin A. V.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The changes induced in transcriptome of rat hepatocytes treated with interferon alpha (IFN during three and six hours were analyzed by DNA microarray. Aim. To conduct a stepwise analysis of the results of microarray experiment and to determine whether they meet/fail to the conventional requirements. Methods. The files obtained after scanning microarrays were subjected to the analysis in statistical environment R by Bioconductor’s packages «affy», «simpleaffy», «affyPLM» and BRB Array Tools software for paired T-test. Results. All microarrays had quality metrics lying within recommended ranges, passed quality control, were normalized and are comparable with each other. The T-test revealed 28 and 124 differentially expressed genes after three and six hours of cells cultivation with IFNα , respectively. Conclusions. The obtained data meet the conventional criteria of quality and are applicable for further evaluation of their biological significance. The R-codes used in this study can be used for the analysis of the microarrays data.

  11. Evaluation of hepatoprotective potential of Erythrina indica leaves against antitubercular drugs induced hepatotoxicity in experimental rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujahid, Mohd; Hussain, Talib; Siddiqui, Hefazat Hussain; Hussain, Arshad

    Erythrina indica Lam. traditionally used in the treatment of laxative, diuretic, worm infestation, liver ailment and joints pain. To evaluate the antihepatotoxic potential of Erythrina indica against isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RIF) induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Liver toxicity was induced by antitubercular drugs (INH+ RIF) at dose level of 50 mg/kg each, p.o for 28 days. 50% methanolic extract of Erythrina indica (100 and 200 mg/kg) were administered orally once daily for 28 days. The hepatoprotective activity was assessed using various biochemical parameters SGOT, SGPT, ALP, bilirubin, total protein, albumin and LDH. Meanwhile, in vivo antioxidant activities as SOD, CAT, GSH and, LPO were measured in liver homogenate also histological examinations were carried out to assess hepatoprotective activity. The values were subjected to one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey multiple compare test. Results were considered statistically significant when P indica (E. indica) significantly prevented drug induced increase in serum levels of hepatic enzymes. Furthermore, Erythrina indica significantly reduced the lipid peroxidation (P indica attenuated the hepatocellular necrosis, regeneration and repair of cells toward normal. The results of this study strongly indicate the protective effect of Erythrina indica against liver injury which may be attributed to its hepatoprotective activity, and there by scientifically support its traditional use. Copyright © 2016 Transdisciplinary University, Bangalore and World Ayurveda Foundation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of registration strategies for multi-modality images of rat brain slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Christoph; Vieten, Andrea; Salber, Dagmar; Pietrzyk, Uwe

    2009-05-01

    In neuroscience, small-animal studies frequently involve dealing with series of images from multiple modalities such as histology and autoradiography. The consistent and bias-free restacking of multi-modality image series is obligatory as a starting point for subsequent non-rigid registration procedures and for quantitative comparisons with positron emission tomography (PET) and other in vivo data. Up to now, consistency between 2D slices without cross validation using an inherent 3D modality is frequently presumed to be close to the true morphology due to the smooth appearance of the contours of anatomical structures. However, in multi-modality stacks consistency is difficult to assess. In this work, consistency is defined in terms of smoothness of neighboring slices within a single modality and between different modalities. Registration bias denotes the distortion of the registered stack in comparison to the true 3D morphology and shape. Based on these metrics, different restacking strategies of multi-modality rat brain slices are experimentally evaluated. Experiments based on MRI-simulated and real dual-tracer autoradiograms reveal a clear bias of the restacked volume despite quantitatively high consistency and qualitatively smooth brain structures. However, different registration strategies yield different inter-consistency metrics. If no genuine 3D modality is available, the use of the so-called SOP (slice-order preferred) or MOSOP (modality-and-slice-order preferred) strategy is recommended.

  13. Applying the erythrocyte Pig-a assay concept to rat epididymal sperm for germ cell mutagenicity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zhiying; LeBaron, Matthew J

    2017-08-01

    The Pig-a assay, a recently developed in vivo somatic gene mutation assay, is based on the identification of mutant erythrocytes that have an altered repertoire of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored cell surface markers. We hypothesized that the erythrocyte Pig-a assay concept could be applied to rat cauda epididymal spermatozoa (sperm) for germ cell mutagenicity evaluation. We used GPI-anchored CD59 as the Pig-a mutation marker and examined the frequency of CD59-negative sperm using flow cytometry. A reconstruction experiment that spiked un-labeled sperm (mutant-mimic) into labeled sperm at specific ratios yielded good agreement between the detected and expected frequencies of mutant-mimic sperm, demonstrating the analytical ability for CD59-negative sperm detection. Furthermore, this methodology was assessed in F344/DuCrl rats administered N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU), a prototypical mutagen, or clofibrate, a lipid-lowering drug. Rats treated with 1, 10, or 20 mg/kg body weight/day (mkd) ENU via daily oral garage for five consecutive days showed a dose-dependent increase in the frequency of CD59-negative sperm on study day 63 (i.e., 58 days after the last ENU dose). This ENU dosing regimen also increased the frequency of CD59-negative erythrocytes. In rats treated with 300 mkd clofibrate via daily oral garage for consecutive 28 days, no treatment-related changes were detected in the frequency of CD59-negative sperm on study day 85 (i.e., 57 days after the last dose) or in the frequency of CD59-negative erythrocytes on study day 29. In conclusion, these data suggest that the epidiymal sperm Pig-a assay in rats is a promising method for evaluating germ cell mutagenicity. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 58:485-493, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Comet assay evaluation of six chemicals of known genotoxic potential in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Cheryl A; Recio, Leslie; Streicker, Michael; Boyle, Molly H; Tanaka, Jin; Shiga, Atsushi; Witt, Kristine L

    2015-07-01

    As a part of an international validation of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay (comet assay) initiated by the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM) we examined six chemicals for potential to induce DNA damage: 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF), N-nitrosodimethylamine (DMN), o-anisidine, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (1,2-DMH), sodium chloride, and sodium arsenite. DNA damage was evaluated in the liver and stomach of 7- to 9-week-old male Sprague Dawley rats. Of the five genotoxic carcinogens tested in our laboratory, DMN and 1,2-DMH were positive in the liver and negative in the stomach, 2-AAF and o-anisidine produced an equivocal result in liver and negative results in stomach, and sodium arsenite was negative in both liver and stomach. 1,2-DMH and DMN induced dose-related increases in hedgehogs in the same tissue (liver) that exhibited increased DNA migration. However, no cytotoxicity was indicated by the neutral diffusion assay (assessment of highly fragmented DNA) or histopathology in response to treatment with any of the tested chemicals. Therefore, the increased DNA damage resulting from exposure to DMN and 1,2-DMH was considered to represent a genotoxic response. Sodium chloride, a non-genotoxic non-carcinogen, was negative in both tissues as would be predicted. Although only two (1,2-DMH and DMN) out of five genotoxic carcinogens produced clearly positive results in the comet assay, the results obtained for o-anisidine and sodium arsenite in liver and stomach cells are consistent with the known mode of genotoxicity and tissue specificity exhibited by these carcinogens. In contrast, given the known genotoxic mode-of-action and target organ carcinogenicity of 2-AAF, it is unclear why this chemical failed to convincingly increase DNA migration in the liver. Thus, the results of the comet assay validation studies conducted in our laboratory were considered appropriate for five out of the six test chemicals. Copyright © 2015

  15. Evaluation of cationic polyamidoamine dendrimers' dermal toxicity in the rat skin model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winnicka, Katarzyna; Wroblewska, Magdalena; Sosnowska, Katarzyna; Car, Halina; Kasacka, Irena

    2015-01-01

    Polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers are multi-branched, three-dimensional polymers with unique architecture, which makes these molecules attractive for medical and pharmaceutical applications. Using PAMAM as drug carriers for topical delivery might be beneficial as they only produce a transient effect without skin irritation. To evaluate the dermal toxicity of cationic PAMAM dendrimers generation 2 and generation 3, skin irritation studies were performed in vivo in the rat skin model. After 10 days topical application of various concentrations of PAMAM-NH2 (0.3 mg/mL, 3 mg/mL, 6 mg/mL, 30 mg/mL, 300 mg/mL), skin irritation was evaluated by visual, histopathological, and immunohistochemical examination. Microscopic assessment after hematoxylin-eosin staining revealed significant morphological changes of epidermal cells after application of PAMAM-NH2 at a concentration of ≥6 mg/mL. Morphological alterations of epidermal cells included cytoplasmic vacuolization of keratinocytes in the basal and spinous layers. Cytomorphological changes in keratinocytes, overall picture of the epidermis, and histopathological changes in the dermis were dose dependent. Detected alterations concerned hyperplasia of connective tissue fibers and leukocyte infiltration. Visible granulocyte infiltration in the upper dermis and sockets formed by necrotic, cornified cells in the hyperplastic foci of epithelium were also noted. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that increased nuclear immunoreactivity to PCNA correlated with the concentration of PAMAM-NH2, but no significant differences in the cell proliferation activity in skin treated with PAMAM-NH2 generation 2 or generation 3 were observed. Significantly higher expression of PCNA extended throughout the skin layers might suggest abnormal cell proliferation, which, as a consequence, might even lead to neoplastic changes.

  16. Evaluation of wound healing activity of Commiphoramyrrha extract compared with silver sulfadiazine on experimental skin burn healing in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    orly yadegar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Myrrh, a traditional herbal medicine,is derived from Commiphoramyrrha (Nees Engl. (Burseraceae and various other species of Commiphora. It has widely been used in different diseases in India, China, Italy and Greece. Pharmacological studies also have showed that myrrh possesses multiple activities, including anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic, anesthetic, and antimicrobial effects.  There has been no report on the effectiveness of commiphoramyrrha in treating burn wound. Therefore, in this study, we compared the healing times of full thickness burn wounds in rats that received commiphoramyrrha treatment or the standard SSD treatment. This study was carried out on sixty male Wistar albino rats. Grade 3 burn wounds were created on the back of all rats. The animals were randomly divided into four groups, the first group of rats received no medication, the second group received eucerin (negative control, the third group received topical SSD group and the fourth group received 2.5% Commiphoramyrrha in eucerin base.Histological samplings were done on 7th, 14th and 21st days in each group, then all samples transported to the laboratory and H&E and trichrom staining was done. Histopatological evaluation on the 7th, 14th and 21st days showed burn healing to be better in the group which had received CommiphoraMyrrha with respect to other groups, in addition wound healing was significantly better in this group (p

  17. Safety Evaluation of Oral Toxicity of Carica papaya Linn. Leaves: A Subchronic Toxicity Study in Sprague Dawley Rats

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    Zakiah Ismail

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The subchronic toxicity effect of the leaf extract of Carica papaya Linn. in Sprague Dawley (SD rats was investigated in this study. The extract was prepared by dissolving the freeze dried extract of the leaves in distilled water and was administered orally to SD rats (consisted of 10 rats/sex/group at 0 (control, 0.01, 0.14, and 2 g/kg body weight (BW for 13 weeks. General observation, mortality, and food and water intake were monitored throughout the experimental period. Hematological and biochemical parameters, relative organ weights, and histopathological changes were evaluated. The study showed that leaf extract when administered for 13 weeks did not cause any mortality and abnormalities of behavior or changes in body weight as well as food and water intake. There were no significant differences observed in hematology parameters between treatment and control groups; however significant differences were seen in biochemistry values, for example, LDH, creatinine, total protein, and albumin. However, these changes were not associated with histopathological changes. In conclusion, the results suggested that daily oral administration of rats with C. papaya leaf extract for 13 weeks at a dose up to fourteen times the levels employed in traditional medicine practice did not cause any significant toxic effect.

  18. EVALUATION OF DIPYRIDAMOLE ON ACUTE AND SUBACUTE MODELS OF INFLAMMATION IN MALE WISTAR RATS: AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

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    Angadi Netravathi B, Hiremath Shrishail V , Suranagi Vijayalakshmi V.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Atherosclerosis and its complications remains the major cause of death and premature disability. Atherogenesis involves elements of inflammation, a process that now provides a unifying theme in the pathogenesis of the disease. Anti-platelet drugs are currently used in the treatment of atherosclerosis and its complications. Our study evaluated the influence of dipyridamole on acute and sub-acute models of inflammation in male Wistar rats. Methods: Male Wistar rats (150-200g were divided into three groups i.e. control, Aspirin and dipyridamole (n=6 animals in each group. The effect of dipyridamole, administered orally, on inflammation was studied using acute (carrageenan induced rat paw edema and sub-acute (cotton pellet granuloma and histopathological examination of grass piths models. Experiment was conducted according to the Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision on Experiments on Animals (CPCSEA guidelines. Analysis was done using one way ANOVA followed by Post Hoc Test of Dunnets. P<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: Dipyridamole showed significant inhibition of rat paw edema in acute model (P<0.01 and granuloma dry weight, in sub acute model of inflammation when compared to control (P<0.01. Histopathological examination of grass pith revealed markedly reduced fibroblasts, granulation tissue, fibrous tissue and collagen in dipyridamole group when compared to control. Conclusion: Dipyridamole exhibited a significant anti inflammatory activity in acute and sub-acute models of inflammation.

  19. Radiographic evaluation of the effect of obesity on alveolar bone in rats with ligature-induced periodontal disease

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    do Nascimento CM

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cassiane Merigo do Nascimento,1 Tiago Cassol,2 Fernanda Soares da Silva,3 Maria Lucia Bonfleur,4 Carlos Augusto Nassar,5 Patricia Oehlmeyer Nassar5 1Biologica Science and Health Center, State University of West Paraná (UNIOESTE, Cascavel, Paraná, Brazil; 2State University of West Paraná (UNIOESTE, Cascavel, Paraná, Brazil; Department of 3Pharmacy, 4Fisiology, 5Periodontology, Dental School, State University of West Paraná (UNIOESTE, Cascavel, Paraná, Brazil Abstract: There is evidence that the lack of metabolic control of obese patients may accelerate periodontitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate radiographically the effect of cafeteria-diet-induced obesity on alveolar bone loss in rats subjected to periodontal disease. Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: 1 control group, 2 control and ligature group; 3 cafeteria group; and 4 cafeteria and ligature group. The animals were evaluated for obesity and euthanized, and the mandible of each rat was removed to perform a radiographic evaluation of alveolar bone loss and its effect on diet-induced obesity. The results showed greater alveolar bone loss in the mice in Group 4 (P<0.01. Thus, we concluded that obese mice, on average, showed greater radiographic evidence of alveolar bone loss than mice undergoing induction of obesity. Keywords: periodontal disease, radiography, obesity

  20. Fluorodopa is a Promising Fluorine-19 MRI Probe for Evaluating Striatal Dopaminergic Function in a Rat Model of Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagisawa, Daijiro; Oda, Keisuke; Inden, Masatoshi; Morikawa, Shigehiro; Inubushi, Toshiro; Taniguchi, Takashi; Hijioka, Masanori; Kitamura, Yoshihisa; Tooyama, Ikuo

    2017-07-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra projecting to the striatum. It has been estimated that approximately 80% of the striatal dopamine and 50% of nigral dopaminergic neurons are lost before the onset of typical motor symptoms, indicating that early diagnosis of PD using noninvasive imaging is feasible. Fluorine-19 (19 F) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) represents a highly sensitive, easily available, low-background, and cost-effective approach to evaluate dopaminergic function using non-radioactive fluorine-containing dopaminergic agents. The aim of this study was to find a potent 19 F MRI probe to evaluate dopaminergic presynaptic function in the striatum. To select candidates for 19 F MRI probes, we investigated the following eight non-radioactive fluorine-containing dopaminergic agents: fluorodopa (F-DOPA), F-tyrosine, haloperidol, GBR13069 duhydrochloride, GBR12909 duhydrochloride, 3-bis-(4-fluorophenyl) methoxytropane hydrochloride, flupenthixol, and fenfluramine. In 19 F nuclear magnetic resonance measurements, F-tyrosine and F-DOPA displayed a relatively higher signal-to-noise ratio value in brain homogenates than in others. F-DOPA, but not F-tyrosine, induced the rotational behavior in a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced hemiparkinsonian rat model. In addition, a significantly high amount of F-DOPA accumulated in the ipsilateral striatum of hemiparkinsonian rats after the injection. We performed 19 F MRI in PC12 cells and isolated rat brain using a 7T MR scanner. Our findings suggest that F-DOPA is a promising 19 F MRI probe for evaluating dopaminergic presynaptic function in the striatum of hemiparkinsonian rats. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Histological evaluation of the effects of corticotomy on induced orthodontic movement in rats

    OpenAIRE

    SCHNEIDER, Patrícia Pigato; SILVA, Lais Pavan; Carvalho, Fernando José Lopes de Campos [UNESP; Lon, Luís Filipe Siu; Gandini Júnior, Luiz Gonzaga

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Introduction: Alveolar corticotomy is a surgical procedure used to increase the velocity of tooth movement. Objective Identify histological evidence of the effect of corticotomy on orthodontic movement in rats. Material and method Forty-five Wistar rats (Rattusnorvegicus Albinus) were equally divided into three groups: Control Group (CG) - no tooth movement or corticotomy; Movement Group (MG) - tooth orthodontic movement only; and Corticotomy and Movement Group (CMG) - tooth ortho...

  2. Cosmos caudatus enhances fracture healing in ovariectomised rats: A preliminary biomechanical evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Pamela Godspower Rufus; Norazlina Mohamed; Ahmad Nazrun Shuid

    2015-01-01

    Summary. Osteoporotic fractures occur in osteoporotic states and affect patients’ quality of life. Cosmos caudatus (ulam raja) is a local plant known for its high calcium content and anti-oxidant properties. The present study aimed to investigate the fracture healing properties of C. caudatus water extract in ovariectomised rats by studying the biomechanical properties of tibia. Twenty-four female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups: (i) sham operated (ii) ovariectomised control (i...

  3. Endoscopic Evaluation of Esophago-Gastro-Jejunostomy in Rat Model of Barrett’s Esophagus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shaoying; Lowe, Anson W; Triadafilopoulos, George; Hsiung, Pei-Lin; Hao, Ying; Crawford, James M; Wang, Thomas D

    2011-01-01

    Background and aims Endoscopy can be used to monitor the onset of metaplastic transformation and to observe the progression of neoplasia in small animal models of Barrett’s esophagus. By avoiding animal sacrifice, the natural history of this disease can be studied in a longitudinal fashion. We aim to characterize the endoscopic features of esophageal mucosa at various stages of the metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence in a rat reflux model of Barrett’s for comparison with histology. Methods Acid and bile reflux was produced by introducing a side-to-side esophago-gastro-jejunostomy in Sprague-Dawley rats. Endoscopic examination of the distal esophagus was performed in 24 surgically-altered and 4 control rats, between weeks 24 to 36 after the operation in 4 week intervals, and all rats were biopsied and sacrificed at 36 weeks. Endoscopic images were classified based on the surface mucosal patterns of the distal esophagus and then compared to histology. The endoscopic appearance were classified as: 1) normal, characterized by a smooth surface; 2) intestinal metaplasia, defined as elevated plaques/ridges, deep grooves and thin linear folds; 3) dysplasia, indicated by coarse folds/grooves, mesh-like villi, and foveolar appearance, and 4) carcinoma, suggested by irregular shaped mass lesions with ulcerations. Results The endoscopic criteria for intestinal metaplasia yielded a sensitivity of 100% in comparison to histology. Intestinal metaplasia with high-grade dysplasia was found in 2 rats and with low-grade dysplasia in 3 rats. Both focally-invasive squamous cell carcinoma and invasive adenocarcinoma were found in 1 rat. Conclusions Small animal endoscopy in a rat model of Barrett’s esophagus can be used to perform surveillance, classify mucosal patterns, observe the onset of intestinal metaplasia, and monitor the progression of neoplastic transformation, representing a useful tool for studying the natural history of this disease. PMID:19473210

  4. Evaluation of Musa (Paradisiaca Linn. cultivar)--"Puttubale" stem juice for antilithiatic activity in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, K V; Bharathi, K; Srinivasan, K K

    1993-10-01

    The fresh juice of Musa stem (Puttubale) was tested for its antilithiatic activity. Zinc discs were implanted in the urinary bladder of albino rats to induce urolithiasis. The stones formed were mainly of magnesium ammonium phosphate with traces of calcium oxalate. Musa stem juice (3 mL/rat/day orally) was found to be effective in reducing the formation and also in dissolving the pre-formed stones.

  5. Evaluation of anaerobic threshold in non-pregnant and pregnant rats

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    ALINE OLIVEIRA NETTO

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Several studies present different methodologies and results about intensity exercise, and many of them are performed in male rats. However, the impact of different type, intensity, frequency and duration of exercise on female rats needs more investigation. From the analysis of blood lactate concentration during lactate minimum test (LacMin in the swimming exercise, the anaerobic threshold (AT was identified, which parameter is defined as the transition point between aerobic and anaerobic metabolism. LacMin test is considered a good indicator of aerobic conditioning and has been used in prescription of training in different exercise modalities. However, there is no evidence of LacMin test in female rats. The objective was to determine AT in non-pregnant and pregnant Wistar rats. The LacMin test was performed and AT defined for mild exercise intensity was from a load equivalent to 1% of body weight (bw, moderate exercise as carrying 4% bw and severe intensity as carrying 7% bw. In pregnant rats, the AT was reached at a lower loading from 5.0% to 5.5% bw, while in non-pregnant the load was from 5.5% to 6.0% bw. Thus, this study was effective to identify exercise intensities in pregnant and non-pregnant rats using anaerobic threshold by LacMin test.

  6. Comparative evaluation of torasemide and furosemide on rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, Somasundaram; Sreedhar, Remya; Miyashita, Shizuka; Karuppagounder, Vengadeshprabhu; Thandavarayan, Rajarajan A; Giridharan, Vijayasree V; Pitchaimani, Vigneshwaran; Afrin, Rejina; Harima, Meilei; Suzuki, Kenji; Watanabe, Kenichi

    2014-08-01

    Nephropathy is one of the complications of diabetes mellitus in human and experimental animals. There are various pathological renal remodeling processes leading to diabetic nephropathy because of the chronic hyperglycemia during diabetes mellitus. Various reports suggest the involvement of oxidative stress, inflammation and fibrosis during this progression. As antihypertensive drugs are reported to provide renoprotection in various animal models and clinical studies, we have carried out this study to identify the effect of torasemide, a loop diuretic, against streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy and compare with furosemide. Here we have performed the measurement of blood and urine parameters and renal protein expression levels for measuring the disease severity in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats treated torasemide or furosemide and compared with the vehicle treated rats. Furosemide treatment significantly increased the urinary protein excretion when compared with the normal rats. Torasemide treatment has reduced the expression of mineralocorticoid receptor and oxidative stress marker p67phox levels with improved mRNA levels of heme oxygenase-1 in the kidneys. In addition, torasemide treated diabetic rats showed significantly reduced expression of renal fibrosis related proteins when compared with the vehicle treated diabetic rats. Although furosemide treatment has produced improvement, its effects are comparably less than that of torasemide. Thus with the present results, we can suggest that torasemide treatment can improve the diabetic kidney disease in this rat model and which is superior to furosemide against renal fibrotic remodeling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Interactions between delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol as evaluated by drug discrimination procedures in rats and pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiltunen, A J; Järbe, T U

    1986-02-01

    Animals (rats and pigeons) were trained to discriminate between the presence and absence of delta 9-THC; the training doses were, respectively: 0.56 mg/kg (pigeons) and 3.0 mg/kg (rats). Once the drug discrimination was mastered, the pigeons were tested repeatedly after a single intramuscular (i.m.) injection of delta 9-THC (0.56 mg/kg) at the following intervals 0.5, 1.5, 4.5 and 9 hr after the injection. These results were compared with data from a separate procedure, i.e. where the various intervals after injection were examined only once per injection and both procedures yielded essentially the same outcome. Thus, less than 50% appropriate responding to THC was observed at 0.5 and 9 hr after injection, whereas greater than 90% responding to THC occurred at 1.5 and 4.5 hr. The two procedures have previously been compared in rats (Järbe, Swedberg and Mechoulam, 1981). The repeated tests procedure was then used to evaluate combinations of delta 9-THC and cannabidiol in both species. Cannabidiol prolonged the cue effects of 1 mg/kg of delta 9-THC (intraperitoneal route of administration) in rats but did not change the time-effect curve for delta 9-THC in pigeons (dose range examined: 0.10--0.56 mg/kg); the challenge doses of cannabidiol were, respectively: 30.0 mg/kg (i.p.) and 17.5 mg/kg (i.m.). The rate of responding did not differ in tests with combinations of delta 9-THC and cannabidiol as compared to delta 9-THC given alone in pigeons. Subcutaneously administered 3-PPP, a dopamine pre-synaptic blocker, did not induce responding appropriate for delta 9-THC in rats.

  8. Evaluation of the bioavailability and metabolism in the rat of punicalagin, an antioxidant polyphenol from pomegranate juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdá, Begoña; Llorach, Rafael; Cerón, José J; Espín, Juan Carlos; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A

    2003-01-01

    Punicalagin is an antioxidant ellagitannin of pomegranate juice. This compound is responsible for the high antioxidant activity of this juice. Nothing is known about the bioavailability and metabolism of punicalagin or other food ellagitannins. The present work aims to evaluate the bioavailability and metabolism of punicalagin in the rat as an animal model. Two groups of rats were studied. One fed with standard rat diet (n = 5) and another with the same diet plus 6 % punicalagin (n = 5). Samples of urine and faeces were taken during 37 days and plasma every week. The different metabolites were analysed by HPLC-MS-MS. The daily intake of punicalagin ranged from 0.6 to 1.2 g. Values around 3-6 % the ingested punicalagin were excreted as identified metabolites in faeces and urine. In faeces, punicalagin is transformed to hydrolysis products and partly metabolites by the rat microflora to 6H-dibenzo[b,d]pyran-6-one derivatives. In plasma, punicalagin was detected at concentrations around 30 microg/mL, and glucuronides of methyl ether derivatives of ellagic acid were also detected. 6H-Dibenzo[b,d]pyran-6-one derivatives were also detected especially during the last few weeks of the experiment. In urine, the main metabolites observed were the 6H-dibenzo[b,d]pyran-6-one derivatives, as aglycones or glucuronides. As only 3-6 % of the ingested punicalagin was detected as such or as metabolites in urine and faeces, the majority of this ellagitannin has to be converted to undetectable metabolites (i. e. CO(2)) or accumulated in non-analysed tissues, however with only traces of punicalagin metabolites being detected in liver or kidney. This is the first report on the absorption of an ellagitannin and its presence in plasma. In addition, the transformation of ellagic acid derivatives to 6H-dibenzo[b,d]pyran-6-one derivatives in the rat is also confirmed.

  9. Evaluation of surgical anti-adhesion products to reduce postsurgical intra-abdominal adhesion formation in a rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long-Xiang Lin

    Full Text Available Adhesions frequently occur after abdominal surgery. Many anti-adhesion products have been used in clinic. However, the evidences are short for surgeons to reasonably choose the suitable anti-adhesion produces in clinical practice. This study provided such evidence by comparing the efficiency of five products to prevent abdominal adhesion formation in a rat model.Fifty-six Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into seven groups: sham-operation group, adhesion group, and five product groups (n = 8. The abdomens of rats were opened. The injuries were created on abdominal wall and cecum in the adhesion and product groups. The wounds on abdominal wall and cecum of rats in the adhesion group were not treated before the abdomens were closed. The wounds on abdominal wall and cecum of rats in the product groups were covered with anti-adhesion product: polylactic acid (PLA film, Seprafilm®, medical polyethylene glycol berberine liquid (PEG, medical sodium hyaluronate gel (HA, or medical chitosan (Chitosan. Fourteen days after surgery, the adhesions were evaluated by incidence, severity, adhesion area on abdominal wall and adhesion breaking strength.The application of PLA film and Seprafilm® significantly reduced the incidence, severity, adhesion area and breaking strength of cecum-abdomen adhesion (P0.05. The statistical significances in the incidence and severity of abdomen-adipose adhesion between adhesion group and the product groups were not achieved. However, Seprafilm® was more effective to reduce abdomen-adipose adhesion than PLA film. Furthermore, it was found that the products tested in this study did not effectively reduce cecum-adipose adhesion. The application of PEG could result in abdomen-small intestine adhesion.Based on the results of this study, the preference order of anti-adhesion products used to reduce postsurgical intra-abdominal adhesion formation is Seprafilm > PLA >> HA > Chitosan > PEG.

  10. Evaluation of anti-diabetic activity of Glucova Active Tablet on Type I and Type II diabetic model in rats

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    Hardik Soni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Glucova Active Tablet is a proprietary Ayurvedic formulation with ingredients reported for anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hyperlipidemic activity and antioxidant properties. Objective: Evaluation of anti-diabetic activity of Glucova Active Tablet on Type I and Type II diabetic model in rats. Materials and Methods: Experimental Type I diabetes was induced in 24 albino rats with intra-peritoneal injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg. Type II diabetes was induced in 18 albino rats by intra-peritoneal injection of streptozotocin (35 mg/kg along with high fat diet. The rats were divided in 5 groups for Type I model and 4 groups for Type II model. Normal control group was kept common for both experimental models. Glucova Active Tablet (108 mg/kg treatment was provided for 28 days twice daily orally. Fasting blood glucose level, serum lipid profile and liver anti-oxidant parameters like superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione was carried out in both experimental models. Pancreas histopathology was also done. Statistical analysis were done by ′analysis of variance′ test followed by post hoc Tukey′s test, with significant level of P < 0.05.Results and Discussion: Glucova Active Tablet showed significant effect on fasting blood glucose level. It also showed significant alteration in lipid profile and antioxidant parameters. Histopathology study revealed restoration of beta cells in pancreas in Glucova Active Tablet treated group. Conclusion: Finding of this study concludes that Glucova Active Tablet has shown promising anti-diabetic activity in Type I and Type II diabetic rats. It was also found showing good anti-hyperlipidemic activity and anti-oxidant property.

  11. Comparative evaluation of photodynamic therapy induced by two different photosensitizers in rat experimental candidiasis

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    Heidar Khademi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antimicrobial efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT depends on both the photosensitizer (PS and laser parameters. In the present study, antimicrobial effectiveness of PDT with different concentrations of two PSs was compared. Materials and Methods: In this study, we employed fifty-nine 6-week-old male Wistar rats. All except the negative and overall control groups were immunosuppressed and then orally inoculated with a suspension of Candida albicans (9 × 10 8 CFU/ml. At 4 days after oral inoculation, swabbing of tongue dorsum was performed to recover yeast from the tongue before treatment; on the next day, PDT was carried out on tongue dorsums by use of different concentrations of methylene blue (MB or poly-L-lysine-chlorine (e6 conjugate (pL-ce6 as PS; followed by a 10 min diode laser illumination at 660 nm (n = 6 each. Then, sampling was again performed. The difference between yeast recovery before and after treatment was compared between the groups by one-way analysis of variance test (α = 0.05. After sacrificing the animals, their tongues were surgically removed and processed for histological evaluation of the presence of yeast and tissue reaction. Results: PDT mediated by both PSs, regardless of the type and their concentration, resulted in a significant microbiological and histological reduction in C. albicans counts in comparison with positive control group (P < 0.001. There was no difference in epithelial lesions and inflammatory responses between groups. Conclusion: PDT mediated MB or pL-ce6 is a promising approach for treatment of oral candidiasis.

  12. Evaluation of snail mucin motifs as rectal absorption enhancer for insulin in non-diabetic rat models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adikwu, Michael Umale

    2005-09-01

    The use of snail mucin motifs as rectal absorption enhancer for insulin has been evaluated. The mucin motifs were extracted from the giant African snail Archachatina marginata by differential precipitation with acetone. The mucin motifs were found to have a molecular weight of 5780 Da and an isoelectric point of 3.4. At the concentrations evaluated, the mucin exhibited rectal absorption enhancing property for the administration of insulin in rats. The % basal blood glucose level of the rats that received the batch of suppositories containing no mucin were consistently above 100% except at the ninetieth minute when it came down slightly to 97.2%. Rats dosed with the batch containing 7%w/w suppositories showed the greatest blood glucose reduction with mean % basal blood glucose concentration of 61.2%. Batches of the suppository containing 5% and 7% mucin showed more marked and consistent lowering in blood glucose concentration than the other batches containing lower amounts of the rectal absorption enhancer. The batch with 7% mucin reduced the basal glucose level to 44% within 2 h of administration of the glycero-gelatin suppository loaded mucin.

  13. Evaluation of osteoinduction properties of the demineralized bovine foetal growth plate powder as a new xenogenic biomaterial in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigham, A S; Shadkhast, M; Bigham Sadegh, A; Shafiei, Z; Lakzian, A; Khalegi, M R

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was evaluation of osteoinductive properties of demineralized bovine foetal growth plate in submuscular transplantation (ectopic osteoinduction) as a new xenogenic biomaterial in rat model. Demineralized bovine foetal growth plate was ectopically implanted in 18 male Sprague-Dawley rats. In 18 of the animals under aseptic conditions two submuscular pouches were created between external and internal oblique abdominal muscles in the two flanks: the right was left empty (sham) and the left was filled with 20mg of demineralized bovine foetal growth plate powder. Radiographs were taken in 2, 4 and 6 weeks after the surgery, then six animals were pharmacologically euthanized after 2, 4 and 6 weeks for histopathological evaluation. Results showed: (1) osteoinductivity of xenogenic demineralized bovine foetal growth plate powder, and (2) earlier mineralization of ectopically implanted demineralized bovine foetal growth plate in the submuscular implanted area. Our results show that submuscular implantation of xenogenic demineralized bovine foetal growth plate has osteoinductive properties in a rat model. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of rat alveolar bone response to Angelus MTA or experimental light-cured mineral trioxide aggregate using fluorochromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes-Filho, João Eduardo; de Moraes Costa, Mariana Machado Teixeira; Cintra, Luciano Tavares Angelo; Duarte, Paulo Carvalho Tobias; Takamiya, Aline Satie; Lodi, Carolina Simonetti; Bernabé, Pedro Felício Estrada

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the rat alveolar bone response after the implantation of experimental light-cured mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) or Angelus MTA (Angelus, Londrina, Paraná, Brazil) by histological and fluorescence analysis. Thirty Wistar Albino rats were divided into three groups. In the control group, empty polyethylene tubes were inserted into the rat alveolar sockets immediately after extraction. In the other groups, the tubes were filled with light-cured MTA or Angelus MTA. Five animals from each group were injected with calcein on day 7, alizarin on day 14, and oxytetracycline on day 21. On day 30, these animals were killed, and the right hemimaxillas were removed and histologically processed. Half of the maxillas were processed and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The remaining maxillas were processed for fluorescence analysis and stained with Stevenel blue and alizarin red. New bone was histomorphometrically evaluated using a Merz grid. The light-cured MTA presented a similar response when compared with Angelus MTA; it was characterized by a mild inflammatory response and complete bone healing. In the light-cured MTA group, the fluorescence areas were more evident at 21 days, showing an increase in bone formation. However, dystrophic mineralization was observed only with Angelus MTA. It was concluded that both materials present a similar inflammatory response and bone healing, but dystrophic mineralization was observed only with Angelus MTA. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The influence of rifamycin decontamination on incorporation of autologous onlay bone grafts in rats: A histometric and immunohistochemical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taşdemir, Ufuk; Özeç, İlker; Esen, Haci Hasan; Avunduk, M Cihat

    2015-05-01

    Although it has been shown that rifamycin is an effective agent for bone graft decontamination, no information exists on the effects of rifamycin decontamination on bone graft incorporation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of rifamycin decontamination on the incorporation of autologous onlay bone grafts quantitatively. In 30 rats, a standardized 5.0-mm-diameter bone graft was harvested from the right mandibular angle, contaminated with saliva, decontaminated with rifamycin solution, and augmented to the left as an onlay graft. Ten animals were sacrificed at 7, 14, and 21 days after surgery. In the control group (10 rats), the onlay grafts were neither contaminated nor decontaminated, and the rats were sacrificed at 21 days after surgery. Histological slides were prepared from each grafted site for both immunohistochemistry analysis (bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antibodies) and histometric analysis. Images obtained from the graft incorporation area with the light microscope were transferred to a PC, and they were evaluated using Clemex PE 3.5 image analysis software. The grafts were fully incorporated in all specimens. The results showed that rifamycin decontamination has no detrimental effect on graft incorporation and the findings revealed a tendency for earlier revascularization and osteogenesis in the decontamination group. Data were analyzed using variance analysis and Tukey's test. Rifamycin decontamination has no detrimental effect on autogenous graft incorporation, and it can be used for graft decontamination with confidence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mammary Gland Evaluation in Juvenile Toxicity Studies: Temporal Developmental Patterns in the Male and Female Harlan Sprague Dawley Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filgo, Adam J.; Foley, Julie F.; Puvanesarajah, Samantha; Borde, Aditi R.; Midkiff, Bentley R.; Reed, Casey E.; Chappell, Vesna A.; Alexander, Lydia B.; Borde, Pretish R.; Troester, Melissa A.; Hayes Bouknight, Schantel A.; Fenton, Suzanne E.

    2016-01-01

    There are currently no reports describing mammary gland development in the Harlan Sprague Dawley (HSD) rat, the current strain of choice for National Toxicology Program (NTP) testing. Our goals were to empower the NTP, contract labs and other researchers in understanding and interpretation of chemical effects in this rat strain. To delineate similarities/differences between the female and male mammary gland, data were compiled starting on embryonic day 15.5 through postnatal day 70. Mammary gland whole mounts, histology sections, and immunohistochemically-stained tissues for estrogen, progesterone and androgen receptors were evaluated in both sexes; qualitative and quantitative differences are highlighted using a comprehensive visual timeline. Research on endocrine disrupting chemicals in animal models has highlighted chemically-induced mammary gland anomalies which may potentially impact human health. In order to investigate these effects within the HSD strain, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo p-dioxin, diethylstilbestrol or vehicle control was gavage dosed on gestation day 15 and 18 to demonstrate delayed, accelerated and control mammary gland growth in offspring, respectively. We provide illustrations of normal and chemically altered mammary gland development in HSD male and female rats to help inform researchers unfamiliar with the tissue and may facilitate enhanced evaluation of both male and female mammary glands in juvenile toxicity studies. PMID:27613106

  17. The Risk Evaluation of Tungsten Oxide Nanoparticles in Cultured Rat Liver Cells for Its Safe Applications in Nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Turkez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Tungsten (VI oxide (WO3 nanoparticles (NPs are used for many industrial purposes in everyday life. However, their effects on human health have not been sufficiently evaluated. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the toxicity potentials of various concentrations (0 to 1000 ppm of WO3NPs (<100 nm particle size in cultured primary rat hepatocytes. The results of cell viability assay showed that the higher concentrations of dispersed WO3 NPs (300, 500 and 1000 ppm caused significant (p<0.05 decreases of cell viability. Also, dose dependent negative alterations were observed in oxidative status and antioxidant capacity levels after the application of WO3 in cultured rat primary hepatocytes. The results of genotoxicity tests revealed that these NPs did not cause significant increases of micronucleated hepatocytes (MNHEPs but increased 8-oxo-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG levels as compared to the control culture.

  18. Evaluation of anti-diabetic activity of glycyrrhizin-loaded nanoparticles in nicotinamide-streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Ruma; Dahiya, Shakti; Dhingra, Dinesh; Dilbaghi, Neeraj; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kumar, Sandeep

    2017-08-30

    Glycyrrhizin is an active constituent of the roots and rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza glabra and has anti-hyperglycemic effects. In this study, nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with glycyrrhizin or metformin were evaluated in vivo for their anti-hyperglycemic potency towards type-II diabetes in rats. The NPs were produced via the ionotropic gelation method using the biocompatible polymers chitosan and gum arabic. The polymer concentration was optimized using the 32 factorial method to acquire both minimum particle size and maximum encapsulation efficiency. The NPs were then characterized with respect to particle size, encapsulation efficiency, stability, chemical interactions, and in vitro drug dissolution profiles using spectroscopic and microscopic analysis. Furthermore, glycyrrhizin and metformin and their nanoformulations were administered for 21 successive days to diabetic rats. Glycyrrhizin-loaded NPs had significant anti-diabetic effects even though they contained approximately one quarter of the dosage relative to the pure form. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparative evaluation of the effect of silicone and teflon in prevention of epidural fibrosis after laminectomy in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh Rezaei A

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available There are many studies about epidural fibrosis after surgical manipulation of the spine. We have studied formation of the post laminectomy epidural fibrosis after application of two materials (Silicone and Teflon in this report. This expriment is on two groups of rats. Two separated laminectomies were done in each rat, one serving as control while in the other laminectomy spaces Silicone was used in group A and Teflon in group B. Laminectomy spaces were evaluated with gross dissection and histologic studies after 6 weeks. Silicone decreased intermuscular scar, deep scar, dural adhesion and collagen fiber density in epidural space. Teflon decreased dural adhesion and collagen fiber density but did not decrease intermuscular and deep scar formation in epidural space.

  20. Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of different Tripterygium preparations on collagen-induced arthritis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xianjin; Zhang, Jie; Huo, Rongfen; Lin, Jinpiao; Zhou, Zhou; Sun, Yue; Wu, Pinru; Li, Huidan; Zhai, Tianhang; Shen, Baihua; Li, Ningli

    2014-12-02

    Tripterygium preparations (TPs), a traditional Chinese Medicines extracted from Tripterygium wilfordii Hook f., are widely used for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, TPs from different Pharmaceutical factory have different efficacy and side effects for RA treatment. The purpose of the current study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of four TPs from different Pharmaceutical factory in china on the treatment of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rats and provide a theoretical and experimental basis for the individualized use of TPs. The model of wistar rats of CIA was made, and the rats were perfused a stomach with four TPs for 3 weeks continuously. Then arthritis severity was determined by visual examination of the paws and histopathologic changes of joint, liver, kidney and testis were determined by hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining. The expression of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-17 and IL-6) in the joint was analyzed by real-time PCR, and the count and motion parameters (sperm motility and progressive sperm) of sperm in cauda epididymis were assessed with computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) system. Routine blood tests were conducted using automated hematology analyzer, and the aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities, creatinine (Cr), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) in serum of CIA rats were measured using a UniCel DxC 880i autoanalyzer. All of tested TPs could reduce inflammatory score, histopathological arthritis severity and joint׳s inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-17 and IL-6) expression in CIA rats, however, TP-D showed stronger inhibitory effect for inflammatory score compared with other three TPs in vivo. All of tested TPs did not show hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity and also had little effect for the concentration of hemoglobin (Hb) and the count of white blood cell (WBC). Analysis of red blood cell (RBC) number showed that TP-C and TP-D could reverse lower RBC number in

  1. Toxicity evaluation of petroleum blending streams: inhalation subchronic toxicity/neurotoxicity study of a light alkylate naphtha distillate in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, C; Lapadula, E; Breglia, R; Bui, Q; Burnett, D; Koschier, F; Podhasky, P; White, R; Mandella, R; Hoffman, G

    1998-10-23

    A 13-wk inhalation study was conducted with Sprague-Dawley CD rats (12/sex/group) were exposed by inhalation for 13 weeks to a light alkylate naphtha distillate (LAND-2, C4-C10; average molecular weight 89.2) at actual average concentrations of 0 (room air), 668, 2220, or 6646 ppm, 6 h/d, 5 d/wk; 12 additional rats/sex in the control and high dose groups were held after final exposure for a 4-wk recovery period. The highest exposure concentration was 75% of the lower explosive limit. Standard parameters of subchronic toxicity were measured throughout the study; at necropsy, organs were weighed and tissues processed for microscopic evaluation. Neurotoxicity evaluations consisted of motor activity (MA) and a functional operational battery (FOB) measured pretest, during 5, 9, and 14 wk of the study, and after the 4-wk recovery period. Whole-body perfusion and microscopic examination of selected organs and nervous tissue from the control and high dose rats were conducted at the end of exposure. No test-related mortality or effects on physical signs, body weight, or food consumption were observed. Statistically significant increases in absolute and relative kidney weights in high-exposure males correlated with microscopically observed hyaline droplet formation and renal nephropathy, effects in male rats that are not toxicologically significant for humans. Increased liver weights in both sexes at the highest dose had no microscopic correlate and appeared reversible after the 4-wk recovery period. Exposure to LAND-2 at any dose did not produce neurotoxicity measured by MA, FOB, or neuropathology. The no-observed-effects level (NOEL) for LAND-2 was 2220 ppm for subchronic toxicity and > or =26646 ppm for neurotoxicity.

  2. Evaluation of acute toxicity of water extract of Azadirachta indica leaves and seeds in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakr, Shori Amal

    2013-07-15

    This study 'in vivo' was applied on rats "Rattus norvegicus" to determine the acute toxicity of water extracts of Azadirachta indica leaves and seeds during 48 hours and the 50% lethal dose (LD50) values were calculated. Different doses of A. indica water extracts of leaves and seeds were injected to the rats (Rattus norvegicus) and the percentage of death was recorded during 48 hours. The present study, found that the percentage of death in all treated rats with A. indica leaves and seeds water extracts were increased by doses increased (R2 = 0.9). Rats injected with higher doses of water extract ofA. indica leaves (0.1 and 0.092 g mL(-1)) and seeds (0.2 g mL(-1)) showed 100% death. The LD50 of water extract of A. indica leaves and seeds were 6.2, 9.4 mL kg(-1), respectively. Based on these results, it may be concluded that doses of water extract of A. indica leaves and seeds injected to rats showed significant acute toxicity.

  3. Clinical and histopathological evaluation of MDP/collagen induced arthritis rat model (MCIA) after treatment with Urtica dioica, plantago major and Hypericum perforatum L herbal mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifeh, Mohammad S; Hananeh, Wael; Al-Rukibat, Raida; Okour, Omar; Boumezrag, Assia

    2008-04-01

    This study was done to assess the effects of Urtica dioica, Plantago major and Hypericum perforatum L herbal mixture in the MCIA rat model. In addition, a new pathological and clinical arthritis lesion assessment was developed. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were immunized with bovine type II collagen and muramyl dipeptide (MDP). Commercial herbal extracts were administered daily to the rats after the immunization for the course of experiment (90 days). Rats were boosted with a second collagen-MDP emulsion 60 days after the first immunization. Paws were daily evaluated macroscopically for redness, swelling, distortion, or ankylosis of the joints. On the day of sacrifice, rat paws were assessed for histopathologic changes. Herbal mixture administration decreased the clinical lesion manifestation in the MCIA rat model and led to development of similar or slightly more severe histopathological lesions compared to rats that did not receive the treatment. The clinical arthritis signs appeared as early as 13 days after the first MDP/collagen injection and with peak incidence at 20 days post-immunization. Histopathologically, animals showed changes ranging from mild to very severe. Administration of the herbal mixture used in this study had a clinical therapeutic effect on the course of the clinical manifestations in the MCIA model, but the herbal treatment had no such effect on the histopathological lesion development and even led to slightly more severe lesions. Rats in the MCIA model developed prominent clinical and histopathological changes that were comparable to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) lesions in humans.

  4. [Comparative evaluation of Leningrad-3 mumps vaccine virus neurovirulence in a neonatal rat model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignat'ev, G M; Otrashevskaia, E V; Rubin, S A

    2011-01-01

    The neurovirulence and replication potential of several mumps virus strains, including Leningrad-3 mumps vaccine virus (FSUE SIC "Microgen", Russia) and wild type strains isolated in the Novosibirsk Region (Russia), were assessed in rat tests. The mean neurovirulence scores of the Leningrad-3 virus (mumps vaccine strains (usually ranging from 0 to 5). In general, the relative ability of the viruses to replicate in the rat brain tracked with their neurovirulence scores. These results indicate a low neurovirulence potential of the Leningrad-3 mumps vaccine virus for humans.

  5. Evaluation of tensile strength resistance of different biomaterials in calvarial rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sanada,Jefferson Tomio; Ribeiro, Ingrid Webb Josephson; Ribeiro, Cristiane Machado; Kapczinski,Myriam Pereira; do VALLE, Accácio Lins

    2015-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different grafting materials on bone tensile strength after 6-month wound healing. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Non-critical size defects (3-mm diameter) were created in calvarium of 30 three-month-old Wistar rats. Animals were divided into 3 groups (n=10) treated with different grafting materials: GenOx® (Group 1A); GenMix® (Group 1B); no treatment (blood clot, Group 3). Six months after the surgery, rats were sacrificed; bone specimens were...

  6. Biological Parameters for Evaluating the Toxic Potency of Petroleum Ether Extract of Wattakaka volubilis in Wistar Female Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velmani Gopal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study investigated the toxic properties of petroleum ether extract of Wattakaka (W. volubilis in Wistar female rats. Methods: An in vitro brine shrimp lethality bioassay was studied in A. Salina nauplii, and the lethality concentrations were assessed for petroleum ether extract of W. volubilis. A water soluble portion of the test extract was used in different concentrations from 100-1000 μg/mL of 1 mg/mL stock solution. A 24-hours incubation with a 1-mL aliquot in 50 mL of aerated sea water was considered to calculate the percentage rate of dead nauplii with test extract administration against a potassium-dichromate positive control. The acute and the sub-acute toxicities of petroleum ether extract of W. volubilis were evaluated orally by using gavage in female Wistar rats. Food and water intake, body weight, general behavioral changes and mortality of animals were noted. Toxicity or death was evaluated following the administration of petroleum ether extract for 28 consecutive days in the female rats. Serum biochemical parameters, such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, bilirubin, total cholesterol, triglyceride, total protein, glucose, urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium and α-amylase levels, were measured in the toxicity evaluations. Pathological changes in isolated organs, such as the liver, kidneys, and pancreas, were also examined using hematoxylin and eosin dye fixation after the end of the test extract’s administration. Results: The results of the brine-shrimp assay indicate that the evaluated concentrations of petroleum ether extract of W. volubilis were found to be non-toxic. In the acute and the sub-acute toxicity evaluations, no significant differences were observed between the control animals and the animals treated with extract of W. volubilis. No abnormal histological changes were observed in any of the animal groups treated with petroleum ether extract of W. volubilis

  7. A sub-chronic toxicity evaluation of a natural astaxanthin-rich carotenoid extract of Paracoccus carotinifaciens in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toyohisa Katsumata

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Astaxanthin is believed to be beneficial to human health because it possesses strong antioxidant properties. A natural astaxanthin-rich carotenoid extract (ARE was produced by a well-controlled fermentation of a natural bacteria Paracoccus carotinifaciens, followed by the extraction and enrichment of the final product comprising mixture of carotenoids that is predominantly astaxanthin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sub-chronic toxicity of the ARE using 6 week old Sprague-Dawley SPF rats [Crl:CD(SD]. The test article was suspended in olive oil and administered daily to the rats by oral gavage for 13 weeks at doses of 0 (olive oil, 250, 500 or 1000 mg/kg/day. Each group consisted of 10 animals of each sex. No deaths occurred and no treatment-related changes were observed in the detailed clinical observations, manipulative tests, grip strength, motor activity, body weights, food consumption, ophthalmology, urinalysis, hematology, blood chemistry, organ weight, necropsy or histopathology. Dark-red feces were observed throughout the administration period in all treated groups due to excretion of the colored test article. Based on these results, it was concluded that the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL for ARE was at least 1000 mg/kg/day for male and female rats, respectively.

  8. Neuroprotective and memory enhancing effects of auraptene in a rat model of vascular dementia: Experimental study and histopathological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbarabadi, Mustafa; Iranshahi, Mehrdad; Amoueian, Sakineh; Mehri, Soghra; Motamedshariaty, Vahideh Sadat; Mohajeri, Seyed Ahmad

    2016-06-03

    Vascular dementia and Alzheimer disease are most common type of dementia. These diseases have been associated with cognitive decline and affected personal behavioral activities. Moreover, the pattern of cerebral blood flow in mild cognitive disorder has appeared as a predictive indication for the development into Alzheimer's disease. Permanent, bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries (2VO) is a standard animal model to study vascular dementia and chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. In present study neuroprotective and memory enhancing effects of auraptene (AUR), a citrus coumarin, were studied in 2VO rats. Different doses (25, 8 & 4mg/kg) of AUR were administered orally. The spatial memory performance was tested with Morris water maze after 2VO induction. Biochemical experiments and histopathological evaluations were also applied to investigate the neuroprotective effect of AUR in brain tissue. In comparison with 2VO group, AUR could significantly decrease the scape latency time in treated rats. Also AUR increased the percentage of time spent and traveled pathway in target quadrant on final trial test day. All behavioral results were confirmed by biochemical and histopathological data. Biochemical data indicated that AUR could decrease malondialdehyde (MDA), as lipid peroxidation indicator, and increase glutathione (GSH) content in cortex and hippocampus tissues. Histopathological data showed that AUR could protect cerebrocortical and hippocampus neurons against ischemia. This study demonstrated the memory enhancing effect and neuroprotective activity of AUR after induction of brain ischemia in a rat model of vascular dementia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of anti-diabetic effects of hydroalcoholic extract of green tea and cinnamon on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem Shokri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Today diabetes is one of the most common diseases in the world that affects half of the world population. The use of medicinal herbs especially green tea and cinnamon has been taken into consideration for relieving the symptoms of diabetes, but there were some different ideas about their effectiveness. So, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of cinnamon and green tea extract, individually and in combination, on blood glucose and weight loss in diabetic mice with Streptozotocin (STZ. The experiment was performed on 50 Wistar rats.  A total of 50 rats were divided into 10 groups of 5 and STZ was injected at the dose of 40 mg/kg/day for 5 days intraperitoneally. After diabetes induction, three groups received, 50, 100 and 200 mg doses of green tea extract,  three groups received 50, 100 and 200 mg doses of cinnamon extract  and three final groups received 50, 100 and 200 mg doses of  cinnamon  and green tea in combination by gavages daily for 6 weeks. After each period of treatments, blood glucose and the weight of animals were determined. At the end of the sixth week, blood glucose and weight loss were improved in diabetic rats in a dose-dependent manner and the dose of 200 mg/kg extract cinnamon with green tea had the most appropriate synergic effect.

  10. A sub-chronic toxicity evaluation of a natural astaxanthin-rich carotenoid extract of Paracoccus carotinifaciens in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsumata, Toyohisa; Ishibashi, Takashi; Kyle, David

    2014-01-01

    Astaxanthin is believed to be beneficial to human health because it possesses strong antioxidant properties. A natural astaxanthin-rich carotenoid extract (ARE) was produced by a well-controlled fermentation of a natural bacteria Paracoccus carotinifaciens, followed by the extraction and enrichment of the final product comprising mixture of carotenoids that is predominantly astaxanthin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sub-chronic toxicity of the ARE using 6 week old Sprague-Dawley SPF rats [Crl:CD(SD)]. The test article was suspended in olive oil and administered daily to the rats by oral gavage for 13 weeks at doses of 0 (olive oil), 250, 500 or 1000 mg/kg/day. Each group consisted of 10 animals of each sex. No deaths occurred and no treatment-related changes were observed in the detailed clinical observations, manipulative tests, grip strength, motor activity, body weights, food consumption, ophthalmology, urinalysis, hematology, blood chemistry, organ weight, necropsy or histopathology. Dark-red feces were observed throughout the administration period in all treated groups due to excretion of the colored test article. Based on these results, it was concluded that the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) for ARE was at least 1000 mg/kg/day for male and female rats, respectively.

  11. Acute and sub-chronic toxicity evaluations of aqueous extract from stem bark of Grewia mollis (Malvaceae in rats

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    Pongri Adarki

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Different parts of Grewia mollis Juss. (Malvaceae are commonly used in folk medicine to treat several ailments, including diarrhea, ulcers, rickets, cough and fever. Although several studies have proved its therapeutic effectiveness, there are very few toxicological studies on the plant. Objectives: This study was carried out to evaluate the acute and sub-chronic toxicity of the aqueous extract of G. mollis stem bark (GM in animals. Methods: In the acute study, rats were orally administrated with GM at doses of 150, 300, 600, 1200, 2400, 4800 and 9600 mg/kg to determine the oral medial lethal dose (LD50. In the chronic study, rats received three doses of GM (150, 300 and 600 mg/kg for 28 days. After the treatments, food intake, body weights, biochemical, hematological and histopathological parameters were analyzed. Results: The LD50 was estimated to be >9600 mg/kg. No significant alterations in the animal’s body weight gain, relative organs weight, serum biochemical analysis, hematological or histopathological analyses of liver, kidneys, lungs, heart and spleen were observed. Conclusions: The results of this study provided evidence that oral administration of GM at dose of 600 mg/kg is relatively safe in rats and may not exert severe toxic effects.

  12. Evaluating Nuclear Factor NF-κB Activation following Bone Trauma: A Pilot Study in a Wistar Rats Model.

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    Marcos Barbosa Salles

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the moment of peak NF-kB activation and its dissipation in the cortical bone in the femur of Wistar rat stimulated by surgical trauma. Sixty-five Wistar rats were divided into 13 groups (n = 5 per group: eight experimental groups (expG 1-8 divided based on the euthanasia time point (zero, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h, 6 h, 8 h, 12 h and 24 h and five sham control groups (conG 1-5 killed at zero, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h and 6 h, respectively. A 1.8-mm-diameter defect was generated 0.5 mm from the femur proximal joint using a round bur to induce the surgical trauma. Overall, the activation peak of NF-κB in the cortical bone was 6 h (expG5 group independent of the evaluated position; this peak was significantly different compared to those in the other groups (p < 0.05. The surgical trauma resulted in a spread of immune markings throughout the cortical bone with an accentuation in the knee region. The present study provides the first evidence that the NF-κB activation peak was established after 6 hours in the cortical bone of Wistar rats. The signs from a surgical trauma can span the entire cortical bone and are not limited to the damaged region.

  13. Evaluation of the effects of ischemic preconditioning on the hematological parameters of rats subjected to intestinal ischemia and reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Muhammad; Arshid, Samina; Heimbecker, Ana Maria C; Castro, Mariana S; Souza Montero, Edna Frasson de; Fontes, Belchor; Fontes, Wagner

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal ischemia/reperfusion often leads to acute lung injury and multiple organ failure. Ischemic preconditioning is protective in nature and reduces tissue injuries in animal and human models. Although hematimetric parameters are widely used as diagnostic tools, there is no report of the influence of intestinal ischemia/reperfusion and ischemic preconditioning on such parameters. We evaluated the hematological changes during ischemia/reperfusion and preconditioning in rats. Forty healthy rats were divided into four groups: control, laparotomy, intestinal ischemia/reperfusion and ischemic preconditioning. The intestinal ischemia/reperfusion group received 45 min of superior mesenteric artery occlusion, while the ischemic preconditioning group received 10 min of short ischemia and reperfusion before 45 min of prolonged occlusion. A cell counter was used to analyze blood obtained from rats before and after the surgical procedures and the hematological results were compared among the groups. The results showed significant differences in hematimetric parameters among the groups. The parameters that showed significant differences included lymphocyte, white blood cells and granulocyte counts; hematocrit; mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration; red cell deviation width; platelet count; mean platelet volume; plateletcrit and platelet distribution width. The most remarkable parameters were those related to leukocytes and platelets. Some of the data, including the lymphocyte and granulocytes counts, suggest that ischemic preconditioning attenuates the effect of intestinal ischemia/reperfusion on circulating blood cells. Our work contributes to a better understanding of the hematological responses after intestinal ischemia/reperfusion and IPC, and the present findings may also be used as predictive values.

  14. Evaluation of the influence of chloroacetic acids on the pharmacokinetics of trihalomethanes in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Pierre, Annie; Krishnan, Kannan; Tardif, Robert

    2003-12-12

    Chloroacetic acids (monochloroacetic acid [MCA], dichloroacetic acid [DCA], and trichloroacetic acid [TCA]) and trihalomethanes (THMs: chloroform [CHCl(3)], bromodichloromethane [BDCM], dibromochloromethane [DBCM], and bromoform [TBM]) are common by-products of the chlorination of drinking water. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of chloroacetic acids on the pharmacokinetics of trihalomethanes in the male Sprague-Dawley rat. In the first series of studies, groups of 5 animals were given, by intravenous injections, a single dose of 0.125 mmol/kg of one of the four THMs. Additional groups received a binary mixture containing 0.125 mmol/kg of a THM plus 0.125 mmol/kg of a chloroacetic acid. The venous blood concentrations of unchanged THMs were measured by headspace gas chromatography from 5 min to 6 h postadministration. The areas under the blood concentration versus time curves (AUCs) of CHCl(3), BDCM, and DBCM were increased by a factor of 3.5, 1.6, and 2, respectively, by coadministration of TCA. DCA coadministration resulted in an increase in the AUC of DBCM (x2.5) and TBM (x1.3), whereas MCA modified the Cmax (x1.5) and AUC (x1.8) of BDCM and the AUC of DBCM (x2.5). In the second series of experiments, animals received either a single dose of 0.03125 mmol/kg of one of the four THMs, a mixture containing 0.03125 mmol/kg of each of the four THMs (total dose = 0.125 mmol/kg), or a mixture containing 0.03125 mmol/kg of each of the four THMs plus 0.125 mmol/kg of either TCA or DCA. Results indicated that the AUCs of CHCl(3), BDCM, DBCM, and TBM were increased during coadministration compared to single administrations (+2.5-fold). Combined administration of the four THMs with TCA, and not DCA, resulted in an increase of the AUCs of THMs (CHCl(3): x11.7; BDCM, DBCM, and TBM: x3.9) and an increase in the Cmax of CHCl(3) (x1.9). Overall, these results indicate that, at the dose levels tested in this study, TCA alters the blood concentration profiles

  15. Evaluation of In Vitro Uterotonic Activities of Fruit Extracts of Ficus asperifolia in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Watcho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the uterotonic activities of Ficus asperifolia and investigate its mechanism. The effects of aqueous and methanol extracts of the dried fruits of F. asperifolia (0.05–1.60 mg mL−1 were evaluated on estrogenized isolated rat uterus in the presence and absence of atropine (1.73–55.27 nM, pyrilamine maleate (1.25 × 10−3 to 40 × 10−3 M, indomethacin (0.06 × 10−5 to 2.00 × 10−5 M or hexamethonium (0.66 × 10−4 to 21.43 × 10−4 M. Aqueous (EC50, 0.36 mg mL−1 and methanol (EC50, 0.22 mg mL−1 extracts as well as oxytocin (EC50, 0.02 nM, acetylcholine (EC50, 7.87 nM and histamine (EC50, 0.76 nM evoked concentration-dependent contractions of the uterus. Atropine, pyrilamine maleate and indomethacin concentration dependently blocked the response of the uterus to acetylcholine (IC50, 4.82 nM, histamine (IC50, 2.49 nM and oxytocin (IC50, 0.07 nM, respectively, and to aqueous extract. Hexamethonium produced graded decreases in oxytocin-induced uterine contractions (IC50, 0.37 μM, but did not prevent the contractile effects of the aqueous extract (IC50, 9.88 μM. These results suggest that F. asperifolia-induced uterotonic effect is related to the release of prostaglandins and contraction of the myometrial cells through muscarinic, oxytocic and H1 histamine receptors. These data further give added value to the ethnic use of F. asperifolia for its abortificient and contraceptive properties.

  16. Evaluation of Ki-67 antigen expression in the vaginal epithelium of castrated female rats treated with raloxifene and tamoxifen: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura-Leal, Adinaide C; de Sousa, João Macedo; de Moura-Leal, Heyder; de Sousa, Gabriela V; Alencar, Airlane P; Borges, Umbelina Soares; Pinto, Giovanny R; da Silva, Benedito B

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of raloxifene and tamoxifen on Ki-67 antigen expression in the vaginal epithelium of castrated rats. Thirty-nine virgin, adult, castrated female Wistar-Hannover rats were randomly divided into three groups: Group I (control, n = 13), Group II (raloxifene, n  = 13) and Group III (tamoxifen, n = 13). After confirmation of their hypoestrogenic state, the rats were given 0.5 ml of propylene glycol (vehicle), 750 μg of raloxifene or 250 μg of tamoxifen, respectively, by gavage, for 30 days. On the 31st day, the rats were euthanized and their vaginas removed and fixed in 10% buffered formalin for of Ki-67 immunohistochemical evaluation. Data were analyzed using Levene's test and Tukey's method (p raloxifene and control groups.

  17. 18F-FDG-labeled red blood cell PET for blood-pool imaging: preclinical evaluation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsusaka, Yohji; Nakahara, Tadaki; Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Iwabuchi, Yu; Nishime, Chiyoko; Kajimura, Mayumi; Jinzaki, Masahiro

    2017-12-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) labeled with single-photon emitters have been clinically used for blood-pool imaging. Although some PET tracers have been introduced for blood-pool imaging, they have not yet been widely used. The present study investigated the feasibility of labeling RBCs with 18F-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (18F-FDG) for blood-pool imaging with PET. RBCs isolated from venous blood of rats were washed with glucose-free phosphate-buffered saline and labeled with 18F-FDG. To optimize labeling efficiency, the effects of glucose deprivation time and incubation (labeling) time with 18F-FDG were investigated. Post-labeling stability was assessed by calculating the release fraction of radioactivity and identifying the chemical forms of 18F in the released and intracellular components of 18F-FDG-labeled RBCs incubated in plasma. Just after intravenous injection of the optimized autologous 18F-FDG-labeled RBCs, dynamic PET scans were performed to evaluate in vivo imaging in normal rats and intraabdominal bleeding models (temporary and persistent bleeding). The optimal durations of glucose deprivation and incubation (labeling) with 18F-FDG were 60 and 30 min, respectively. As low as 10% of 18F was released as the form of 18F-FDG from 18F-FDG-labeled RBCs after a 60-min incubation. Dynamic PET images of normal rats showed strong persistence in the cardiovascular system for at least 120 min. In the intraabdominal bleeding models, 18F-FDG-labeled RBC PET visualized the extravascular blood clearly and revealed the dynamic changes of the extravascular radioactivity in the temporary and persistent bleeding. RBCs can be effectively labeled with 18F-FDG and used for blood-pool imaging with PET in rats.

  18. Evaluation of behavioural and antioxidant activity of Cytisus scoparius Link in rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harisudhan Thanukrishnan

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various human diseases have oxidative stress as one of their component. Many herbs have been reported to exhibit properties that combat oxidative stress through their active constituents such as flavonoids, tannins, phenolic compounds etc. Cytisus scoparius (CS Link, (Family: Leguminosae, also called Sarothamnus scoparius, has been shown in invitro experiments to be endowed with anti-diabetic, hypnotic and sedative and antioxidant activity. Therefore this study was carried out to evaluate CS for its anxiolytic, antidepressant and anti-oxidant activity in stressed rats. Methods 60% methanolic extract of CS was quantified for phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteau's method. Chronic unpredictable mild stress (CMS was employed to induce stress in rats. CS (125 and 250 mg/kg, p.o and diazepam (DZM (2 mg/kg, p.o was administered during the 21 day stress exposure period. Anxiolytic and antidepressant activities of CS were assessed in open field exploratory and behavioural despair paradigms, respectively. Plasma glucose and total lipids; endogenous antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT; non-enzymic-ascorbic acid and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS levels were measured in brain, kidneys and adrenals using standard protocols to assess the effect of CS. Results Total phenolic content of CS was found to be 8.54 ± 0.16% w/w. CMS produced anxiogenic and depressive behaviour in experimental rats with metabolic disturbance. Significant decrease in SOD, CAT levels and increase in lipid peroxidation level was observed in stressed rats. CS administration for 21 days during stress exposure significantly increased the ambulatory behaviour and decreased the freezing time in open field behaviour. In behavioural despair test no significant alteration in the immobility period was observed. CS also improved SOD, CAT, and ascorbic acid level and controlled the lipid peroxidation in different tissues

  19. Potential therapeutic benefit of C1-esterase inhibitor in neuromyelitis optica evaluated in vitro and in an experimental rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukmanee Tradtrantip

    Full Text Available Neuromyelitis optica (NMO is an autoimmune demyelinating disease of the central nervous system in which binding of anti-aquaporin-4 (AQP4 autoantibodies (NMO-IgG to astrocytes causes complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC and inflammation resulting in oligodendrocyte and neuronal injury. There is compelling evidence for a central role of complement in NMO pathogenesis. Here, we evaluated the potential of C1-esterase inhibitor (C1-inh for complement-targeted therapy of NMO. C1-inh is an anti-inflammatory plasma protein with serine protease inhibition activity that has a broad range of biological activities on the contact (kallikrein, coagulation, fibrinolytic and complement systems. C1-inh is approved for therapy of hereditary angioedema (HAE and has been studied in a small safety trial in acute NMO relapses (NCT 01759602. In vitro assays of NMO-IgG-dependent CDC showed C1-inh inhibition of human and rat complement, but with predicted minimal complement inhibition activity at a dose of 2000 units in humans. Inhibition of complement by C1-inh was potentiated by ∼10-fold by polysulfated macromolecules including heparin and dextran sulfate. In rats, intravenous C1-inh at a dose 30-fold greater than that approved to treat HAE inhibited serum complement activity by <5%, even when supplemented with heparin. Also, high-dose C1-inh did not reduce pathology in a rat model of NMO produced by intracerebral injection of NMO-IgG. Therefore, although C1r and C1s are targets of C1-inh, our in vitro data with human serum and in vivo data in rats suggest that the complement inhibition activity of C1-inh in serum is too low to confer clinical benefit in NMO.

  20. A 90 days oral toxicity of imidacloprid in female rats: morphological, biochemical and histopathological evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Shipra; Srivastava, M K; Kapoor, Upasana; Srivastava, L P

    2010-05-01

    A 90 days oral toxicity study of imidacloprid was conducted in female rats with doses of 0, 5, 10, 20mg/kg/day. Decrease in the body weight gain was observed at 20mg/kg/day and at necropsy the relative body weights of liver, kidney and adrenal was also significantly increased at this dose level. No mortality occurred during treatment period while food intake was reduced at high dose level. In clinical chemistry parameters high dose of imidacloprid has caused significant elevation of serum GOT, GPT, glucose and BUN and decreased the activity of AChE in serum and brain. The spontaneous locomotor activity was also decreased at highest dose exposure where as there were no significant changes in hematological and urine parameters. The brain, liver and kidney of rats exposed with high dose of imidacloprid had showed mild pathological changes. Based on the morphological, biochemical, hematological and neuropathological studies it is evident that imidacloprid has not produced any significant effects at 5 and 10mg/kg/day doses but induced toxicological effects at 20mg/kg/day to female rats. Hence, 10mg/kg/day dose may be considered as no observed effect level (NOEL) for female rats. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Triclosan enhances the uterine response to ethynyl estradiol: A dose response evaluation in the weanling rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triclosan (TCS) is an antimicrobial agent found in personal care products, such as soaps and toothpaste. TCS has been detected in human breast milk, blood and urine and has been reported to decrease thyroxine and testosterone in rats; thus, rising concerns that this endocrine dis...

  2. Microwave irradiation and instrumental behavior in rats: unitized irradiation and behavioral evaluation facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebovitz, R.M.; Seaman, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    A facility for the exposure of small animals to pulse-modulated microwave radiation (PM MWR) concurrent with their performance of operant behavioral tasks is described. The computer-managed facility comprises an array of 32 individual waveguide exposure cells, each enclosing instrumental conditioning apparatus within a plastic subhousing. The distribution of the microwave electric field intensity within the waveguide was measured by a nonperturbing probe and the modifications induced by the behavioral apparatus and animal within the waveguide determined. Input and interior voltage standing-wave ratios are presented to characterize the design of the chambers and to demonstrate the suitability of the chambers for whole-body irradiation of rat. The specific absorption rate (SAR) is presented utilizing data derived from incremental thermometric examination of saline loads and of selected sites in rat carcasses. This is compared with the whole-body SAR derived from the input/output energy balance equation for the waveguide. The results of continuous monitoring of the SAR by the latter method, while unrestrained rats were engaged in operant and exploratory behavior within the waveguide, are utilized to derive a relationship between chamber input power and the dose rate for adult rats behaviorally active within the waveguide. From these data, we conclude that the experimental array provides a practical method for exposing a large number of animals to PM MWR for long periods of time and coincident with the establishment and/or performance of complex operant behavior.

  3. Evaluation of the mobile phone electromagnetic radiation on serum iron parameters in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çetkin, Murat; Demirel, Can; Kızılkan, Neşe; Aksoy, Nur; Erbağcı, Hülya

    2017-03-01

    Electromagnetic fields (EMF) created by mobile phones during communication have harmful effects on different organs. It was aimed to investigate the effects of an EMF created by a mobile phone on serum iron level, ferritin, unsaturated iron binding capacity and total iron binding capacity within a rat experiment model. A total of 32 male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into the control, sham, mobile phone speech (2h/day) and stand by (12 h/day) groups. The speech and stand by groups were subjected to the EMF for a total of 10 weeks. No statistically significant difference was observed between the serum iron and ferritin values of the rats in the speech and stand by groups than the control and sham groups (p>0.05). The unsaturated iron binding capacity and total iron capacity values of the rats in the speech and stand by groups were significantly lower in comparison to the control group (pEMF created by mobile phones affected unsaturated iron binding capacity and total iron binding capacity negatively.

  4. Evaluation of androgenic activity of allium cepa on spermatogenesis in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaki, A; Fathiazad, F; Nouri, M; Khaki, A A; Khamenehi, H J; Hamadeh, M

    2009-02-01

    Allium cepa (onion) has a beneficial effect on disease treatment worldwide and has been used since ancient times as a medicinal and food source. Recently several reports have shown that onion has high antioxidant activity. As antioxidants have an essential effect on sperm health parameters, we investigated the effect of the fresh juice of onion bulbs on the spermatogenesis cycle in rats. Wistar male rats (n = 30) were allocated into 3 groups, control (n = 10) and two test groups (each of 10). The animals in the test groups were subdivided into groups of 2 that received fresh onion juice equivalent to 0.5 and 1 g/rat/ /day of fresh onion. The fresh onion juice was administered by gavage for 20 consecutive days. The animals were kept in standard conditions. On the twentieth day, the testes of rats in all groups were removed and sperm was collected from the epididymis and was prepared for analysis. Serum total testosterone significantly increased in all the test groups (p onion juice (p onion juice (p onion juice significantly affected the sperm number, percentage of viability, and motility; it seems that using 4 g/kg of freshly prepared onion juice is effective in sperm health parameters.

  5. Vivosorb (R) as a barrier membrane in rat mandibular defects. An evaluation with transversal microradiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeveen, E. J.; Gielkens, P. F. M.; Schortinghuis, J.; Ruben, J. L.; Huysmans, M-C D. N. J. M.; Stegenga, B.

    Vivosorb(R) is a new degradable membrane composed of poly(DL-lactide-epsilon-caprolactone) (PDLLCL). The aim of this study was to appraise its performance in guided bone regeneration procedures. In 192 rats a 5.0 mm defect was drilled in the mandibular angle. The defects were covered with a membrane

  6. Evaluation of Pax6 mutant rat as a model for autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiko Umeda

    Full Text Available Autism is a highly variable brain developmental disorder and has a strong genetic basis. Pax6 is a pivotal player in brain development and maintenance. It is expressed in embryonic and adult neural stem cells, in astrocytes in the entire central nervous system, and in neurons in the olfactory bulb, amygdala, thalamus, and cerebellum, functioning in highly context-dependent manners. We have recently reported that Pax6 heterozygous mutant (rSey(2/+ rats with a spontaneous mutation in the Pax6 gene, show impaired prepulse inhibition (PPI. In the present study, we further examined behaviors of rSey(2/+ rats and revealed that they exhibited abnormality in social interaction (more aggression and withdrawal in addition to impairment in rearing activity and in fear-conditioned memory. Ultrasonic vocalization (USV in rSey(2+ rat pups was normal in male but abnormal in female. Moreover, treatment with clozapine successfully recovered the defects in sensorimotor gating function, but not in fear-conditioned memory. Taken together with our prior human genetic data and results in other literatures, rSey(2/+ rats likely have some phenotypic components of autism.

  7. an evaluation of the toxic effects of hyptis suaveolens in rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... were found to include saponin, tannin and flavonoids. Histopathological examination of the liver revealed fatty changes and congestion of the central vein as the major indicator of hepatic damage. Key Words: Hyptis suaveolens; Labiatae; rats; toxicity. Nigerian Journal of Natural Products and Medicine Vol.7 2003: 49-52 ...

  8. Micro-CT evaluation of the radioprotective effect of resveratrol on the mandibular incisors of irradiated rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Lopes DE REZENDE BARBOSA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this study was to perform a microcomputed tomographic evaluation of the radioprotective effect of resveratrol on the volume of mandibular incisors of irradiated rats. A second aim was to make a quantitative assessment of the effect of x-ray exposure on these dental tissues. Twenty adult male rats were divided into four groups: control, irradiated control, resveratrol, and irradiated resveratrol. The resveratrol groups received 100 mg/kg of resveratrol, whereas the irradiated groups were exposed to 15 Gy of irradiation. The animals were sacrificed 30 days after the irradiation procedure, and their mandibles were removed and scanned in a microcomputed tomography unit. The images were loaded into Mimics software to allow segmentation of the mandibular incisor and assessment of its volume. The results were compared by One-way ANOVA and Tukey’s post hoc test, considering a 5% significance level. The irradiated groups showed significantly diminished volumes of the evaluated teeth, as compared with the control group (p < 0.05. The resveratrol group presented higher values than those of the irradiated groups, and volumes similar to those of the control group. High radiation doses significantly affected tooth formation, resulting in alterations in the dental structure, and thus lower volumes. Moreover, resveratrol showed no effective radioprotective impact on dental tissues. Future studies are needed to evaluate different concentrations of this substance, in an endeavor to verify its potential as a radioprotector for these dental tissues.

  9. Evaluation of the antitumor activity of platinum nanoparticles in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma induced in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medhat, Amina; Mansour, Somaya; El-Sonbaty, Sawsan; Kandil, Eman; Mahmoud, Mustafa

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the antitumor activity of platinum nanoparticles compared with cis-platin both in vitro and in vivo in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma induced in rats. The treatment efficacy of platinum nanoparticles was evaluated by measuring antioxidant activities against oxidative stress caused by diethylnitrosamine in liver tissue. The measurements included reduced glutathione content and superoxide dismutase activity, as well as malondialdehyde level. Liver function tests were also determined, in addition to the evaluation of serum alpha-fetoprotein, caspase-3, and cytochrome c in liver tissue. Total RNA extraction from liver tissue samples was also done for the relative quantification of B-cell lymphoma 2, matrix metallopeptidase 9, and tumor protein p53 genes. Histopathological examination was also performed for liver tissue. Results showed that platinum nanoparticles are more potent than cis-platin in treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma induced by diethylnitrosamine in rats as it ameliorated the investigated parameters toward normal control animals. These findings were well appreciated with histopathological studies of diethylnitrosamine group treated with platinum nanoparticles, suggesting that platinum nanoparticles can serve as a good therapeutic agent for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma which should attract further studies.

  10. Micro-CT evaluation of the radioprotective effect of resveratrol on the mandibular incisors of irradiated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezende Barbosa, Gabriella Lopes de; Almeida, Solange Maria de, E-mail: gabriellalopes@live.com [Universidade de Campinas (UNICAMP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola de Odontologia. Departmento de Diagnostico Oral; Pimenta, Luiz Andre [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, School of Dentistry, Department of Dental Ecology, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to perform a micro computerized tomographic evaluation of the radioprotective effect of resveratrol on the volume of mandibular incisors of irradiated rats. A second aim was to make a quantitative assessment of the effect of x-ray exposure on these dental tissues. Twenty adult male rats were divided into four groups: control, irradiated control, resveratrol, and irradiated resveratrol. The resveratrol groups received 100 mg/kg of resveratrol, whereas the irradiated groups were exposed to 15 Gy of irradiation. The animals were sacrificed 30 days after the irradiation procedure, and their mandibles were removed and scanned in a micro computerized tomography unit. The images were loaded into Mimics software to allow segmentation of the mandibular incisor and assessment of its volume. The results were compared by One-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test, considering a 5% significance level. The irradiated groups showed significantly diminished volumes of the evaluated teeth, as compared with the control group (p < 0.05). The resveratrol group presented higher values than those of the irradiated groups, and volumes similar to those of the control group. High radiation doses significantly affected tooth formation, resulting in alterations in the dental structure, and thus lower volumes. Moreover, resveratrol showed no effective radioprotective impact on dental tissues. Future studies are needed to evaluate different concentrations of this substance, in an endeavor to verify its potential as a radioprotector for these dental tissues. (author)

  11. Evaluation of ameliorative effect of curcumin on imidacloprid-induced male reproductive toxicity in wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonare, Milindmitra; Kumar, Manoj; Raut, Sachin; More, Amar; Doltade, Sagar; Badgujar, Prarabdh; Telang, Avinash

    2016-10-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the toxic effects of imidacloprid (IM) on male reproductive system and ameliorative effect of curcumin (CMN) in male Wistar rats. For this purpose, IM (45 and 90 mg/kg, body weight) and CMN (100 mg/kg, body weight) were administered orally to the rats either alone or in combinations for a period of 28 days. At the end of experiment, male reproductive toxicity parameters (total sperm count and sperm abnormalities), testosterone level, steroidal enzymatic activity [3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) and 17β-HSD], and oxidative stress indicators were estimated in testis and plasma. IM treatments resulted in significant decrease (p < 0.05) in total epididymal sperm count, sperm motility, live sperm count, and increase (p < 0.05) in sperm abnormalities. Activities of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, lactate dehydrogenase-x, and sorbitol dehydrogenase were significantly increased (p < 0.05), while, 3β-HSD and 17β-HSD enzymatic activity along with testosterone concentration in testis and plasma were decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in IM-treated rats. IM exposure resulted in significant increase (p < 0.05) in LPO and decrease (p < 0.05) in GSH level along with decreased activities of CAT, SOD, GPx, and GST. IM-treated rats showed histopathological alterations in testis and epididymis. However, the reproductive toxicity parameters, oxidative stress indicators, and histopathological changes were minimized and functional restorations were noticed by co-administration of CMN in IM-treated rats. The results of this study suggest that IM-induced male reproductive toxic effects could be ameliorated by CMN supplementation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 1250-1263, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Evaluation of Krebs cycle enzymes in the brain of rats after chronic administration of antidepressants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaini, Giselli; Santos, Patricia M; Benedet, Joana; Rochi, Natália; Gomes, Lara M; Borges, Lislaine S; Rezin, Gislaine T; Pezente, Daiana P; Quevedo, João; Streck, Emilio L

    2010-05-31

    Several works report brain impairment of metabolism as a mechanism underlying depression. Citrate synthase and succinate dehydrogenase are enzymes localized within cells in the mitochondrial matrix and are important steps of Krebs cycle. In addition, citrate synthase has been used as a quantitative enzyme marker for the presence of intact mitochondria. Thus, we investigated citrate synthase and succinate dehydrogenase activities from rat brain after chronic administration of paroxetine, nortriptiline and venlafaxine. Adult male Wistar rats received daily injections of paroxetine (10mg/kg), nortriptiline (15mg/kg), venlafaxine (10mg/kg) or saline in 1.0mL/kg volume for 15 days. Twelve hours after the last administration, the rats were killed by decapitation, the hippocampus, striatum and prefrontal cortex were immediately removed, and activities of citrate synthase and succinate dehydrogenase were measured. We verified that chronic administration of paroxetine increased citrate synthase activity in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, striatum and cerebral cortex of adult rats; cerebellum was not affected. Chronic administration of nortriptiline and venlafaxine did not affect the enzyme activity in these brain areas. Succinate dehydrogenase activity was increased by chronic administration of paroxetine and nortriptiline in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, striatum and cerebral cortex of adult rats; cerebellum was not affected either. Chronic administration of venlafaxine increased succinate dehydrogenase activity in prefrontal cortex, but did not affect the enzyme activity in cerebellum, hippocampus, striatum and cerebral cortex. Considering that metabolism impairment is probably involved in the pathophysiology of depressive disorders, an increase in these enzymes by antidepressants may be an important mechanism of action of these drugs. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of [(11)C]CB184 for imaging and quantification of TSPO overexpression in a rat model of herpes encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vállez Garcia, David; de Vries, Erik F J; Toyohara, Jun; Ishiwata, Kiichi; Hatano, Kentaro; Dierckx, Rudi A J O; Doorduin, Janine

    2015-06-01

    Evaluation of translocator protein (TSPO) overexpression is considered an attractive research tool for monitoring neuroinflammation in several neurological and psychiatric disorders. [(11)C]PK11195 PET imaging has been widely used for this purpose. However, it has a low sensitivity and a poor signal-to-noise ratio. For these reasons, [(11)C]CB184 was evaluated as a potentially more sensitive PET tracer. A model of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) was induced in male Wistar rats. On day 6 or 7 after virus inoculation, [(11)C]CB184 PET scans were acquired followed by ex vivo evaluation of biodistribution. In addition, [(11)C]CB184 and [(11)C]PK11195 PET scans with arterial blood sampling were acquired to generate input for pharmacokinetic modelling. Differences between the saline-treated control group and the virus-treated HSE group were explored using volumes of interest and voxel-based analysis. The biodistribution study showed significantly higher [(11)C]CB184 uptake in the amygdala, olfactory bulb, medulla, pons and striatum (p HSE rats than in control rats, and the voxel-based analysis showed higher bilateral uptake in the pons and medulla (p HSE rats and the control rats. In HSE rats BPND for [(11)C]CB184 was significantly higher (p HSE. Our results suggest that [(11)C]CB184 PET is a good alternative for imaging of neuroinflammatory processes.

  14. Evaluation of the therapeutic effect of hydroxyapatite particles labeled with Ho sub 1 sub 6 sub 6 in rats with acute and chronic arthritis

    CERN Document Server

    Mendoza-Lopez, P

    2002-01-01

    with significantly statistical values (p<=0,01). This therapeutic effect was evident too when evaluating the measure of the articular perimeter in acute and chronic arthritis groups through the time with significantly statistical values (p<=0,01). In conclusion the hydroxyapatite particles labeled with Holmium-166 are biologically stable in vivo and have a therapeutic effect in the treatment of acute and chronic arthritis in rats. The therapeutic effect of an intraarticular injection of hydroxyapatite particles labeled with Holmium-166 ( Ho sub 1 sub 6 sub 6 HA) was evaluated. For this evaluation 72 antigen-induced arthritis rats; the arthritis was induced by an intraarticular injection of a suspension of ovoalbumin and Freund's adjuvant complete. The 72 rats were divided in three groups: control group, acute arthritis group and chronic arthritis group. The evaluation of the therapeutic effect was achieved by the measuring of the perimeter of the arthritic knee joint in different days after the intraart...

  15. Evaluation of (antigenotoxic activities of Phyllanthus niruri L. in rat bone marrow using the micronucleus test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Márlisson de Queiroz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Phyllanthus niruri L. (Euphorbiaceae, known as "quebra-pedra" (Portuguese for "stonebreaker", is an herb used for kidney disorders. In light of its frequent use by the population, the present study aimed to investigate the genotoxic, antigenotoxic and cytotoxic activities of a standardized P. niruri extract in bone marrow rats. Three groups of 12 animals were treated daily by gavage over a period of 30 days, with 50, 150 or 250 mg/kg of P. niruri extract aqueous solution. The control group (n = 12 received tap water. At the end of treatment (day 31, groups were divided into two minor subgroups (n=6/group and received cyclophosphamide (50 mg/kg, i.p. or saline 0.9% (i.p.. After 24 hours, we evaluated the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes for each animal (MNPCE at 1000 PCE. Cytotoxicity was evaluated with the PCE/NCE ratio (NEC = normochromatic erythrocytes. General toxicity was assessed during treatment using the parameters of body weight gain, ration and water consumption. The dry extract did not provoke changes in body weight, weight gain, ration and water intake or changes in the frequency of MNPCE or cytotoxicity in bone marrow. We propose that the P. niruri extract used here showed no genotoxic, antigenotoxic and cytotoxic activities under the experimental conditions.Phyllanthus niruri L. (Euphorbiaceae, conhecida como "quebra-pedra", é uma planta medicinal utilizada frequentemente pela população no tratamento de problemas renais. Foram avaliadas as atividades genotóxicas, antigenotóxicas e citotóxicas de um extrato padronizado dessa espécie em ratos. Três grupos de doze animais foram tratados durante trinta dias, por gavagem, com 50, 150 ou 250 mg/kg/dia de solução aquosa do extrato de P. niruri e um grupo controle (n=12 recebeu água destilada pela mesma via. No final do tratamento os grupos foram divididos em dois subgrupos (6 animais/grupo e receberam uma dose única de ciclofosfamida (50 mg/kg, i.p. ou de

  16. Ex situ evaluation of the composition of protein corona of intravenously injected superparamagnetic nanoparticles in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakulkhu, Usawadee; Maurizi, Lionel; Mahmoudi, Morteza; Motazacker, Mahdi; Vries, Marcel; Gramoun, Azza; Ollivier Beuzelin, Marie-Gabrielle; Vallée, Jean-Paul; Rezaee, Farhad; Hofmann, Heinrich

    2014-09-01

    It is now well recognized that the surfaces of nanoparticles (NPs) are coated with biomolecules (e.g., proteins) in a biological medium. Although extensive reports have been published on the protein corona at the surface of NPs in vitro, there are very few on the in vivo protein corona. The main reason for having very poor information regarding the protein corona in vivo is that separation of NPs from the in vivo environment has not been possible by using available techniques. Knowledge of the in vivo protein corona could lead to better understanding and prediction of the fate of NPs in vivo. Here, by using the unique magnetic properties of superparamagnetic iron oxide NPs (SPIONs), NPs were extracted from rat sera after in vivo interaction with the rat's physiological system. More specifically, the in vivo protein coronas of polyvinyl-alcohol-coated SPIONs with various surface charges are defined. The compositions of the corona at the surface of various SPIONs and their effects on the biodistribution of SPIONs were examined and compared with the corona composition of particles incubated for the same time in rat serum.It is now well recognized that the surfaces of nanoparticles (NPs) are coated with biomolecules (e.g., proteins) in a biological medium. Although extensive reports have been published on the protein corona at the surface of NPs in vitro, there are very few on the in vivo protein corona. The main reason for having very poor information regarding the protein corona in vivo is that separation of NPs from the in vivo environment has not been possible by using available techniques. Knowledge of the in vivo protein corona could lead to better understanding and prediction of the fate of NPs in vivo. Here, by using the unique magnetic properties of superparamagnetic iron oxide NPs (SPIONs), NPs were extracted from rat sera after in vivo interaction with the rat's physiological system. More specifically, the in vivo protein coronas of polyvinyl

  17. Model studies for evaluating the neurobehavioral effects of complex hydrocarbon solvents. II. Neurobehavioral effects of white spirit in rat and human

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, J.H.C.M.; Emmen, H.H.; Muijser, H.; Hoogendijk, E.M.G.; McKee, R.H.; Owen, D.E.; Kulig, B.M.

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the neurobehavioral effects of hydrocarbon solvents and to establish a working model for extrapolating animal test data to humans, studies were conducted which involved inhalation exposure of rats and humans to white spirit (WS). The specific objectives of these studies were to evaluate

  18. Oral 1-Generation Rat Reproduction Study of Isobornyl Acetate: An Evaluation Through Sexual Maturity in the F1 Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politano, Valerie T; Lewis, Elise M; Hoberman, Alan M; Diener, Robert M; Api, Anne Marie; Patel, Atish

    Reproductive toxicity of isobornyl acetate (IA), a widely used fragrance ingredient, was investigated in a 1-generation reproduction study in which 25 Crl: CD (Sprague-Dawley) rats/sex/group were gavaged with dosages of 0 (corn oil vehicle), 30, 100, or 300 mg/kg/d during premating, mating, gestation, and lactation. After weaning, 25 F1 generation pups/sex/dosage group were randomly selected for evaluation until sexual maturity. The following parameters were evaluated in P generation males and females: viability, clinical signs, body weights, feed consumption, mating and fertility, organ weights, gross and microscopic observations, sperm assessments (motility and concentration), natural delivery and litter observations, and ovarian follicle counts. In F1 generation pups, viability, body weights, sexual maturation, anogenital distance (days 1 and 22 postpartum), nipple eruption (day 12 postpartum), and gross necropsy observations were recorded. Isobornyl acetate did not adversely affect any of the investigated parameters. Based on the results of this investigation, the no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL) for toxicity of IA is considered to be 300 mg/kg/d. Increased incidences of excess salivation occurred in P generation male and female rats at 100 and/or 300 mg/kg/d throughout the dosage period, and low incidences of urine-stained abdominal fur were seen in females at 300 mg/kg/d during the gestation period. These clinical signs were not considered as adverse effects of IA administration. Thus, the NOAEL for reproductive toxicity in the P generation rats and the NOAEL for viability and growth of the F1 generation offspring is considered to be ≥300 mg/kg/d.

  19. Evaluation of (68)Ga-labeled peptide tracer for detection of gelatinase expression after myocardial infarction in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiugel, Max; Kytö, Ville; Saanijoki, Tiina; Liljenbäck, Heidi; Metsälä, Olli; Ståhle, Mia; Tuomela, Johanna; Li, Xiang-Guo; Saukko, Pekka; Knuuti, Juhani; Roivainen, Anne; Saraste, Antti

    2016-12-02

    Matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 (MMP-2/9) play a role in extracellular matrix remodeling after an ischemic myocardial injury. We evaluated (68)Ga-DOTA-peptide targeting MMP-2/9 for the detection of gelatinase expression after myocardial infarction (MI) in rat. Rats were injected with 43 ± 7.7 MBq of (68)Ga-DOTA-peptide targeting MMP-2/9 at 7 days (n = 7) or 4 weeks (n = 8) after permanent coronary ligation or sham operation (n = 5 at both time points) followed by positron emission tomography (PET). The left ventricle was cut in frozen sections for autoradiography and immunohistochemistry 30 minutes after tracer injection. Immunohistochemical staining showed MMP-2 and MMP-9 expressing cells, CD31-positive endothelial cells, and CD68-positive macrophages in the infarcted myocardium. Autoradiography showed increased tracer uptake in the infarcted area both at 7 days and 4 weeks after MI (MI-to-remote area ratio 2.5 ± 0.46 and 3.1 ± 1.0, respectively). Tracer uptake in damaged tissue correlated with the amount of CD68-positive macrophages at 7 days after MI, and CD31-positive endothelial cells at 7 days and 4 weeks after MI. The tracer was rapidly metabolized, radioactivity in the blood exceeded that of the myocardium, and tracer accumulation in the heart was not detectable by in vivo PET. (68)Ga-DOTA-peptide targeting MMP-2/9 accumulates in the damaged rat myocardium after an ischemic injury, but tracer instability and slow clearance in vivo make it unsuitable for further evaluation.

  20. Evaluation of the novel TSPO radiotracer [18F] VUIIS1008 in a preclinical model of cerebral ischemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulagam, Krishna R; Colás, Lorena; Padro, Daniel; Plaza-García, Sandra; Gómez-Vallejo, Vanessa; Higuchi, Makoto; Llop, Jordi; Martín, Abraham

    2017-11-25

    In vivo positron-emission tomography (PET) imaging of transporter protein (TSPO) expression is an attractive and indispensable tool for the diagnosis and therapy evaluation of neuroinflammation after cerebral ischemia. Despite several radiotracers have shown an excellent capacity to image neuroinflammation, novel radiotracers such as [18F] VUIIS1008 have shown promising properties to visualize and quantify the in vivo expression of TSPO. Longitudinal in vivo magnetic resonance (MRI) and PET imaging studies with the novel TSPO radiotracer 2-(5,7-diethyl-2-(4-(2-[18F] fluoroethoxy) phenyl) pyrazolo [1,5-a] pyrimidin-3-yl)-N, N-diethylacetamide ([18F] VUIIS1008), and (N, N-diethyl-2-(2-[4-(2-fluoroethoxy)-phenyl]-5,7-dimethyl-pyrazolo [1,5-a] yrimidin-3-yl)-acetamide ([18F] DPA-714) were carried out before and at days 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 following the transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats. MRI images showed the extension and evolution of the brain infarction after ischemic stroke in rats. PET imaging with [18F] VUIIS1008 and [18F] DPA714 showed a progressive increase in the ischemic brain hemisphere during the first week, peaking at day 7 and followed by a decline from days 14 to 28 after cerebral ischemia. [18F] DPA714 uptake showed a mild uptake increase compared to [18F] VUIIS1008 in TSPO-rich ischemic brain regions. In vivo [18F] VUIIS1008 binding displacement with VUIIS1008 was more efficient than DPA714. Finally, immunohistochemistry confirmed a high expression of TSPO in microglial cells at day 7 after the MCAO in rats. Altogether, these results suggest that [18F] VUIIS1008 could become a valuable tool for the diagnosis and treatment evaluation of neuroinflammation following ischemic stroke.

  1. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory and gastric anti-ulcer activity of Phyllanthus niruri L. (Euphorbiaceae) leaves in experimental rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostofa, Ronia; Ahmed, Shanta; Begum, Mst Marium; Sohanur Rahman, Md; Begum, Taslima; Ahmed, Siraj Uddin; Tuhin, Riazul Haque; Das, Munny; Hossain, Amir; Sharma, Manju; Begum, Rayhana

    2017-05-16

    The medicinal plants signify a massive basin of potential phytoconstituents that could be valuable as a substitute to allopathic drugs or considered as an analogue in drug development. Phyllanthus niruri L. (Euphorbiaceae) is generally used in traditional medicine to treat ulcer and inflammation. In this project we investigated the methanolic extract of leaves of Phyllanthus niruri for anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcer activity. The anti-inflammatory activity of methanol extract of Phyllanthus niruri leaves was evaluated at the doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o. while using ibuprofen (20 mg/kg, p.o) as the standard drug. The animals used were Swiss albino rats. Inflammation was induced by injecting 0.1 ml carrageenan (1% w/v) into the left hind paw. Paw tissues from the different groups were examined for inflammatory cell infiltration. On the other hand, antiulcer activity of methanolic extract of P. niruri leaves at the doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o. were examined against ethanol-acid induced gastric mucosal injury in the Swiss albino rats - keeping omeprazole (20 mg/kg, p.o.) as reference. The rats were dissected and the stomachs were macroscopically examined to identify hemorrhagic lesions in the glandular mucosa. P. niruri significantly (p gastric mucosal injury in the rats. Administration of the extract's doses (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) demonstrated a significant (p gastric erosion in all the experimental groups when compared to the control. The methanolic extract at the higher dose (400 mg/kg) resulted in better inhibition of ethanol-acid induced gastric ulcer as compare to omeprazole (20 mg/kg). Histological studies of the gastric wall revealed that toxic control rats revealed mucosal degeneration, ulceration and migration of numerous inflammatory cells throughout the section. On the other hand, MEPN treatment groups showed significant regeneration of mucosal layer and significantly prevented the formation of hemorrhage and edema. The

  2. [Metabolomic approach to evaluating the effect of the mixed decoction of kelp and licorice on system metabolism of SD rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Run-bin; Yu, Xiao-yi; Mao, Yong; Ge, Chun; Yang Na; A, Ji-ye; Tang, Yu-ping; Duan, Jin-ao; Ma, Zi-teng; Wu, Xu-tong; Zhu, Xuan-xuan; Wang, Guang-ji

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the effects of the single and mixed decoction of Thallus laminariae (kelp) and Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) on the metabolism and their difference. The mixed decoction of kelp and licorice and the single decoction were made and intragastrically administered to the SD rats. The effect on system metabolism, the toxicity of liver and kidney were assessed by GC-MS profiling of the endogenous molecules in serum, routine biochemical assays and histographic inspection of tissues from SD rats, separately. The mixed decoction of kelp and licorice induced more obvious pathological abnormalities in SD rats than a single decoction of kelp, while the extracts of licorice did not show any pathological change. Neither the mixed, nor the single decoction showed abnormal histopathology. After intragastric administration of extracts for 5 days, the mixed decoction induced a decrease of ALT (no significant change in the groups of single decoction) and an increase of BUN (so did the single decoction of kelp). Metabolomic profile of the molecules in serum revealed that the metabolic patterns were all obviously affected for the three groups, i.e., the mixed and single decoction of kelp and licorice. The rats given with the single decoction of kelp showed a similar pattern to that of the mixed decoction, indicating that the kelp primarily contributed the perturbation of metabolism for the mixed decoction. All three groups induced a decrease of branched chain amino acids, TCA cycle intermediates and glycolysis intermediates (e.g., pyruvic acid and lactic acid) and an increase of 3-hydroxybutyric acid. Kelp decoction showed stronger potential in reducing TCA cycle intermediates and glycolysis intermediates than the other two groups, while the levels of branched chain amino acids were the lowest after licorice extracts were given. These results suggested that the effect of the mixed decoction on metabolism was closely associated with both kelp and

  3. Evaluation of anti-asthmatic and antioxidant potential of Boerhavia procumbens in toluene diisocyanate (TDI) treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokhari, Jasia; Khan, Muhammad Rashid

    2015-08-22

    Asthma is an ailment of airways characterized by activation of the T helper (Th) 2 lymphocytes and subsequent movement of inflammatory cells. Boerhavia procumbens of family Nyctaginaceae is locally used for the treatment of asthma, cough, hemorrhoids, dropsy, cardiac, eyes and kidney problems. We have evaluated its methanol extract (BPM) as a therapeutic candidate for asthma against toluene diisocyanate (TDI) allergic model in rat. The BPM extract was obtained from the whole plant of B. procumbens in methanol. Sprague-Dawley male 36 rats (200-250 g) were categorized into 6 groups having six rats in each category. The animals were provoked (10%) and sensitized (5%) by TDI. Animals of groups I-III were vehicle control (ethyl acetate), diseased control (TDI) and reference control (TDI+dexamethasone {2.5mg/kg bw}), respectively. Animals of group IV (TDI+200mg/kg bw) and group V (TDI+400mg/kg bw) were administered with BPM whereas group VI was administered with 400mg/kg bw alone of BPM. Protective effects of BPM were determined by counting the number of leucocytes and estimation of interleukines in blood, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and in in vitro culture of spleen cells. Estimation of antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxides and H2O2 and histopathology of lungs were carried out for antioxidant potential of plant extract used. Methanol extract of B. procumbens suppressed the asthmatic symptoms and inhibited the infiltration of eosinophils and lymphocytes in lungs of TDI provoked rats. Administration of BPM to TDI provoked rats, dose dependently, inhibited the release of interleukins (IL)-2 in serum and IL-4, IL-6 interferon gamma (IFN-γ) in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and in in vitro culture of spleen cells, and ameliorated the oxidative stress in lung tissues. Quantitative scoring of the lung histopathology exhibited protective effects of BPM and the inflammation, mucus, thickening of peribronchial smooth muscle layer and subepithelial deposition of collagen induced

  4. Prediction and evaluation of route dependent dosimetry of BPA in rats at different life stages using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoxia; Doerge, Daniel R; Fisher, Jeffrey W

    2013-07-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) has received considerable attention throughout the last decade due to its widespread use in consumer products. For the first time a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed in neonatal and adult rats to quantitatively evaluate age-dependent pharmacokinetics of BPA and its phase II metabolites. The PBPK model was calibrated in adult rats using studies on BPA metabolism and excretion in the liver and gastrointestinal tract, and pharmacokinetic data with BPA in adult rats. For immature rats the hepatic and gastrointestinal metabolism of BPA was inferred from studies on the maturation of phase II enzymes coupled with serum time course data in pups. The calibrated model predicted the measured serum concentrations of BPA and BPA conjugates after administration of 100μg/kg of d6-BPA in adult rats (oral gavage and intravenous administration) and postnatal days 3, 10, and 21 pups (oral gavage). The observed age-dependent BPA serum concentrations were partially attributed to the immature metabolic capacity of pups. A comparison of the dosimetry of BPA across immature rats and monkeys suggests that dose adjustments would be necessary to extrapolate toxicity studies from neonatal rats to infant humans. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Nutritive value evaluated on rats of new cultivars of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) released in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yañez, E; Zacarias, I; Aguayo, M; Vasquez, M; Guzman, E

    1995-06-01

    Five new cultivars of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) recently released were analyzed for their proximate chemical composition and protein biological quality. The crude protein content in these cultivars ranged from 21.9 percent in cultivar Arroz 3 to 26.9 percent in cultivar Tórtola Diana (dry matter basis). Rats fed cultivar Tórtola INIA gained more weight, had a higher protein intake and registered higher PER and NPR than Tórtola corriente. On the other hand, rats consuming cultivars Arroz 3 and Fleetwood had lower weight gain, lower protein intake and lower PER and NPR than cultivar Coscorrón corriente. However, all these cultivars have a relatively good protein value as compared to other plant protein sources.

  6. Evaluation of the effects of ozone therapy on Escherichia coli-induced cytitis in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasdemir, C; Tasdemir, S; Vardi, N; Ates, B; Onal, Y; Erdogan, S; Yucel, A; Aglamis, E; Yakupogullari, Y; Altıntas, R; Karaman, A

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of ozone on oxidative/nitrosative stress and bladder injury caused by Escherichia coli in rat bladder. Twenty-one Wistar-Albino-type female rats included in the study were divided into three groups of equal number: (1) sham operation (control), (2) E. coli-only (EC), (3) EC + ozone. After ozone therapy for 3 days, urine and tissue samples were obtained for biochemical, microbiological, and histopathological analysis. Tissue malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and nitric oxide (NO) level were increased, whereas superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity was decreased in the EC group. MDA, MPO, and NO levels were decreased, whereas SOD, GPx activity was increased in the ozone-treated group. Also, there was no bacterial translocation in this group. The results of the present study suggest that ozone may be used as an agent to protect the bladder from oxidative/nitrosative stress occurring in cystitis.

  7. Evaluation of the Toxicity of Pradosia huberi Extract during the Preimplantation in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldeíde de Oliveira Batista Rocha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment during the embryonic preimplantation phase of Wistar rats with the Pradosia huberi extract did not interfere with the water and feed consumption, as well as upon the body-weight gain. However, it has expressed a decrease of the uterine implant number, followed by the preimplantation losses at all applied doses (1.22, 6.1, and 30.5 mg/kg, and the number of embryonic resorptions in the two highest doses (6.1 and 30.5 mg/kg. After the organ weighing (hypophysis, ovaries, and uterus, only the relative weight of the hypophysis was raised at the different doses (1.22, 6.1, and 30.5 mg/kg. It was concluded that the hydroalcoholic extract of Pradosia huberi compromises the reproductive ability during the embryonic preimplantation phase, suggesting a possible toxic effect upon the reproductive system of Wistar rats.

  8. Evaluation of training dose in male Sprague-Dawley rats trained to discriminate 4-methylmethcathinone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berquist, Michael D; Thompson, Nathyn A; Baker, Lisa E

    2017-11-01

    Although the synthetic cathinone 4-methylmethcathinone (4-MMC, mephedrone) has been a subject of intensive research investigation, the pharmacological mechanisms involved in its interoceptive stimulus effects have yet to be fully characterized. The present study employed drug discrimination methods in rats to compare the interoceptive stimulus properties of two different training doses of 4-MMC to other substances with similar pharmacological actions. Sixteen male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to discriminate either 1.0 mg/kg (N = 8) or 3.0 mg/kg (N = 8) 4-MMC from saline. Substitution tests were conducted with drugs that increase extracellular monoamine levels (d-amphetamine, (+)-methamphetamine, 4-MMC, MDMA, MDPV, and (-)-cocaine), a serotonin releaser (+)-fenfluramine, and a serotonergic (5-HT 2A ) hallucinogen (+)-LSD. Stimulus control was established in fewer sessions in the subjects trained with 3.0 mg/kg compared to those trained with 1.0 mg/kg 4-MMC. Cocaine, MDMA, and d-amphetamine produced full substitution in the 1.0 mg/kg 4-MMC-trained rats at doses that did not decrease response rate. However, doses of test drugs that engendered > 80% 4-MMC-lever selection concurrently produced rate-decreasing effects in rats trained to discriminate 3.0 mg/kg 4-MMC. These findings further characterize the interoceptive stimulus effects of 4-MMC and indicate that these effects vary little with training dose; however, qualitative differences in substitutability of test drugs were observed between training groups. This study expands existing knowledge regarding the psychopharmacology of 4-MMC and the potential neurochemical substrates contributing to its subjective effects.

  9. Evaluation of Premarin in a Rat Model of Mild and Severe Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-04

    administration by field medics or even the warfighter him/herself or a buddy is possible with intraosseous auto - injectors .  The therapy works...cumulative account of our research findings for the DARPA SBL program. Our rat model system enabled us to assess the effects of various soluble estrogens... PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAMES AND ADDRESSES U.S. Army Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 15. SUBJECT TERMS

  10. A Rat Model of Sytemic Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer to Evaluate and Treat Chemobrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    hippocampal neurogenesis in depression. Nat Neurosci 10:1110-1115. Saxe MD, Malleret G, Vronskaya S, Mendez I, Garcia AD, Sofroniew MV, Kandel ER, Hen R...learning with delayed reinforcement but induce impulsive choice in rats. BMC Neurosci 6:36. Cosolo W, Christophidis N (1987) Blood-brain barrier... Neurosci 16:2027-2033. 42 Linden CJ (1990) Response to doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide of a human pleural mesothelioma clinically and as a xenograft

  11. Evaluation of protective effect of vitamin e on acrylamide induced testicular toxicity in wister rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahangadale, Santosh; Jangir, Babu Lal; Patil, Manoj; Verma, Trupti; Bhandarkar, Arun; Sonkusale, Prashant; Kurkure, Nitin

    2012-05-01

    Male wistar rats (weighting 160-180 g) were divided in six groups of 6 animals per group. Group A and F served as control. Groups B, C, D and E received acrylamide at 20 mg/kg body weight for 28 days and groups C and E received additionally vitamin E (50 IU/kg body weight) for 1 to 28 days and 29 - 42(nd) days of experiment, respectively. The animals from groups A, B, and C were sacrificed on day 28(th) of experiment and from groups D, E, and F on 42(nd) day of experiment, respectively. There was significant decrease in the total sperm count and significant increase in the dead sperm count on day 28(th) of study due to acrylamide toxicity. At recovery period, there was significant increase in the total sperm count of vitamin-E-treated group of animals as compared to untreated toxicated rats. But, values were significantly lower than control animals. Microscopically, the lesions in the testes of acrylamide intoxicated rats at 28(th) day revealed destruction of seminiferous tubules at periphery. No spermatid and spermatocytes were seen in the seminiferous tubules. Detachment of spermatogonial cells started at periphery of seminiferous tubules. Atrophy of seminiferous tubules was a constant finding. Some tubules showed vacuolar degenerative changes in germinal epithelium. During the recovery period, destruction of seminiferous tubules, detachment of spermatogonial cells, and atrophy of seminiferous tubules were observed in group D and E. Few sections revealed only spermatogonial cells. At recovery period vitamin-E-treated rats revealed somewhat better architecture of the seminiferous tubules. Late spermatids were seen in few seminiferous tubules and other revealed starting of spermatogenesis. Thus, it appears that Vitamin E is not able to protect testes from acrylamide toxicity during active feeding, but after cessation of acrylamide feeding treatment with vitamin E revealed faster recovery as compare to not treated group.

  12. Evaluation of protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of saffron petals in prevention of acetaminophen-induced renal damages in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Omidi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years more attention has been given to herbal drugs in the treatment and prevention of drug toxicity because of the harmful effects of chemical drugs. In this study, directed for this purpose, research was conducted on the protective effect of hydro-ethanolic extract of saffron petals (SPE against acetaminophen (APAP induced acute nephrotoxicity. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were distributed into four groups of six each. Group I, as a control group, received normal saline (0.09% orally (PO. Group II, as an intoxicated group was treated with APAP, PO (600 mg/kg. In the groups III and IV, SPE in a dose of 10 and 20 mg/kg along with APAP (600 mg/kg was administered, respectively. At the end of the trial (8th day, blood was taken from the heart of rats for assessment of biochemical parameters and the right kidney was placed in 10% buffered formalin for histopathological evaluations. In the APAP treatment group, higher serum creatinine and uric acid were observed. SPE in a dose of 20 mg/kg significantly reduced serum creatinine and uric acid. In pathologic evaluation, a dose of 20 mg/kg of SPE prevented the kidney injuries induced by APAP. Tissues changes were in accordance with biochemical findings. It is likely that the SPE contributed to the prevention of acute nephrotoxicity induced by APAP.

  13. Effects of chronic consumption of green tea on weight and body fat distribution of Wistar rats evaluated by computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raso, Renata Attademo, E-mail: luizronaldoa@yahoo.com.br [Instituto de Ensino e Pesquisa da Santa Casa, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Paim, Rebecca Rodrigues Bergamaschini; Pinheiro, Sergio Veloso Brant; Tavares Junior, Wilson Campos; Vasconcellos, Leonardo de Souza; Alberti, Luiz Ronaldo [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-05-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the effects of chronic consumption of green tea on body weight and distribution of visceral fat by Computed tomography in female Wistar rats. Methods: Wistar rats were divided into control group (n = 5), which received water and feed ad libitum, and green tea group (n = 8), in which water has been replaced by green tea. The animals were weighed weekly and Computed Tomography was used at the beginning (1{sup st} week) and end (18{sup th} week) of the experiment for evaluating the distribution of visceral fat. The animals were followed for 18 weeks. Results: There was no significant difference in body weight between the groups. However, there was significant difference in visceral fat area. The green tea group had less visceral fat area at the end of the experiment, 3.67 ± 1.2 cm 2 , while the control group showed an area of 6.25 ± 2.2 cm (p = 0.00). Conclusions: Chronic consumption of green tea leads to decreased visceral adipose tissue area. (author)

  14. Effects of chronic consumption of green tea on weight and body fat distribution of Wistar rats evaluated by computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raso, Renata Attademo; Paim, Rebecca Rodrigues Bergamaschini; Pinheiro, Sérgio Veloso Brant; Tavares, Wilson Campos; Vasconcellos, Leonardo de Souza; Alberti, Luiz Ronaldo

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the effects of chronic consumption of green tea on body weight and distribution of visceral fat by Computed tomography in female Wistar rats. Wistar rats were divided into control group (n = 5), which received water and feed ad libitum, and green tea group (n = 8), in which water has been replaced by green tea. The animals were weighed weekly and Computed Tomography was used at the beginning (1st week) and end (18th week) of the experiment for evaluating the distribution of visceral fat. The animals were followed for 18 weeks. There was no significant difference in body weight between the groups. However, there was significant difference in visceral fat area. The green tea group had less visceral fat area at the end of the experiment, 3.67 ± 1.2 cm2, while the control group showed an area of 6.25 ± 2.2 cm (p = 0.00). Chronic consumption of green tea leads to decreased visceral adipose tissue area.

  15. Evaluation of the effects of ozone therapy in the treatment of intra-abdominal infection in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Yglesio Moyses; Fontes, Belchor; Martins, Joilson O; Sannomiya, Paulina; Brito, Glacus S.; Younes, Riad N.; Rasslan, Samir

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The antibacterial effect of ozone (O3) has been described in the extant literature, but the role of O3 therapy in the treatment of certain types of infection remains controversial. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the effect of intraperitoneal (i.p.) O3 application in a cecal ligation/puncture rat model on interleukins (IL-6, IL-10) and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC)-1 serum levels, acute lung injury and survival rates. METHODS Four animal groups were used for the study: a) the SHAM group underwent laparotomy; b) the cecal ligation/puncture group underwent cecal ligation/puncture procedures; and c) the CLP+O2 and CLP+O3 groups underwent CLP+ corresponding gas mixture infusions (i.p.) throughout the observation period. IL-6, CINC-1 and IL-10 concentrations were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Acute lung injury was evaluated with the Evans blue dye lung leakage method and by lung histology. POzone therapy modulated the inflammatory response and acute lung injury in the cecal ligation/puncture infection model in rats, although there was no improvement on survival rates. PMID:20186304

  16. Evaluation of cell proliferation and apoptosis in placentas of rats with severe diabetes

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    Marilza Vieira Cunha Rudge

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to analyze the cell proliferation and apoptosis indexes on the 18th and 21st days of pregnancy of diabetic rats and to correlate with maternal glycemia and perinatal outcomes. Placentas from 20 Wistar rats were collected and divided into four experimental groups: control and diabetic of 18 and 21 days of pregnancy. The cell proliferation was analyzed using the PCNA expression and apoptosis by the TUNEL method. It was observed that PCNA and TUNEL indexes decreased from day 18 to 21 of pregnancy in the placentas of diabetic rats and these values were lower than control groups. Diabetic dams presented higher percentage of small for pregnancy age (SPA fetuses. However, there was no difference between the PCNA and TUNEL indexes in SPA and N-SPA fetuses in all the groups and these indexes were not correlated to maternal glycemic. Thus, placental cell proliferation and apoptosis did not interfere in the intrauterine growth restriction.

  17. Evaluation of subchronic toxicity of pet food contaminated with melamine and cyanuric acid in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kun-Chao; Liao, Chen-Wei; Cheng, Fen-Pang; Chou, Chi-Chung; Chang, Shih-Chien; Wu, Jhaol-Huei; Zen, Jyh-Myng; Chen, Yng-Tay; Liao, Jiunn-Wang

    2009-12-01

    Outbreaks of food-associated renal failure in pets occurred in Asia and the United States of America in 2004 and 2007. They were related to the combined intoxication of cyanuric acid and melamine. Our aims were to investigate cyanuric acid and melamine contamination of pet food and to examine subchronic toxicity in rats. Levels of 10%, 20%, 50%, and 50%-100% (w/w) of contaminated pet food were fed to rats for three months. Analytical results revealed that the tainted food contained significant levels of cyanuric acid and melamine in a ratio of 1:6.8. Rats fed the diet of 50%-100% for three months exhibited elevated serum blood urea nitrogen and creatinine, as well as dose-dependent melamine/cyanuric acid crystal-induced nephrotoxicity. The melamine/cyanuric acid crystals of various sizes were mixed with necrotic cell debris and inflammatory cells, accompanied by tubular dilation and interstitial fibrosis. The immunohistochemistry index of proliferative cellular nuclear antigen and osteopontin in the kidney of the 50%-100% group were elevated, indicating regeneration of renal cells and the formation of crystals. In conclusion, the combination ratio of cyanuric acid to melamine and the acidic urine content were two factors that, upon repeated exposure, determined the severity of the nephrotoxicity.

  18. Histological evaluation of the periodontal ligament from aged wistar rats supplemented with ascorbic acid

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    Jacqueline N. Zanoni

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ascorbic acid (AA is able to neutralize reactive oxygen species and is essential for collagen synthesis. In aging process oxidative stress is elevated. This study aims to investigate the effects of AA supplementation on the periodontal ligament (PL of rats during aging. Twenty five rats were used and divided into groups: J90 (90-day-old control, E345 (345-day-old control, E428 (428-day-old control, EA345 (345-day-old supplemented with AA from 90-day-old on and EA428 (428-day-old supplemented with AA from 90-day-old on. We analyzed the thickness, density of fibroblasts and blood vessels and collagen fibers types in the PL. In group J90 there was predominantly type III collagen fibers (87.64%. In animals supplemented with AA, the area filled by type I fibers (group EA345: 65.67%, group EA428: 52.23% was higher than type III fibers. PL in group EA428 was thicker than the one observed in group E428 (P < 0.05. During natural aging process, AA promoted the maturation of collagen fibers and enhanced angiogenesis in periodontal ligament. One can conclude that the supplementation with AA represented a beneficial factor for the development of PL in aged rats.

  19. Microscopic evaluation of induced tooth movement after subluxation trauma: an experimental study in rats

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    Mauro Carlos Agner Busato

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the histological alterations that occurred in the periodontal area of rat molars submitted to induced tooth movement (ITM right after an intentional trauma (subluxation. METHODS: Forty adult male Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus were selected. The animals were divided into eight groups (n = 5, according to the combination of variables: Group 1 - control (neither trauma nor ITM; Group 2 - ITM; Groups 3, 4, 5 and 6 - dentoalveolar trauma groups corresponding, respectively, to 1, 3, 8 and 10 days after trauma; Groups 7 and 8 - the animals' molars were subjected to a 900 cN impact and, one and three days after the trauma event, tooth movement was induced. The rats' maxillary first molars were mesially moved during seven days with a closed coil (50 cN. After the experimental period of each group, the animals were sacrificed by anesthetic overdose and the right maxillas were removed and processed for histological analysis under light microscopy. RESULTS: In the animals of group 3, 4, 5 and 6, the histological alterations were not very significant. Consequently, the effect of induced tooth movement right after a subluxation event (groups 7 and 8 was very similar to those described for Group 2. CONCLUSION: There was no difference in the quality of periodontal repair when ITM was applied to teeth that had suffered a subluxation trauma.

  20. Gait cycle analysis: parameters sensitive for functional evaluation of peripheral nerve recovery in rat hind limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Jing; Runge, M Brett; Spinner, Robert J; Yaszemski, Michael J; Windebank, Anthony J; Wang, Huan

    2014-10-01

    Video-assisted gait kinetics analysis has been a sensitive method to assess rat sciatic nerve function after injury and repair. However, in conduit repair of sciatic nerve defects, previously reported kinematic measurements failed to be a sensitive indicator because of the inferior recovery and inevitable joint contracture. This study aimed to explore the role of physiotherapy in mitigating joint contracture and to seek motion analysis indices that can sensitively reflect motor function. Data were collected from 26 rats that underwent sciatic nerve transection and conduit repair. Regular postoperative physiotherapy was applied. Parameters regarding step length, phase duration, and ankle angle were acquired and analyzed from video recording of gait kinetics preoperatively and at regular postoperative intervals. Stride length ratio (step length of uninjured foot/step length of injured foot), percent swing of the normal paw (percentage of the total stride duration when the uninjured paw is in the air), propulsion angle (toe-off angle subtracted by midstance angle), and clearance angle (ankle angle change from toe off to midswing) decreased postoperatively comparing with baseline values. The gradual recovery of these measurements had a strong correlation with the post-nerve repair time course. Ankle joint contracture persisted despite rigorous physiotherapy. Parameters acquired from a 2-dimensional motion analysis system, that is, stride length ratio, percent swing of the normal paw, propulsion angle, and clearance angle, could sensitively reflect nerve function impairment and recovery in the rat sciatic nerve conduit repair model despite the existence of joint contractures.

  1. Toxicological evaluation of Yulangsan polysaccharide in Wistar rats: A 26-week oral gavage study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chunxia; Nong, Zhihuan; Meng, Mingyu; Wen, Qingwei; Lin, Xing; Qin, Feizhang; Huang, Jianchun; Huang, Renbin

    2016-01-01

    Although numerous studies have proven the medicinal values of Yulangsan polysaccharide (YLSP), the toxicity of this active ingredient is unknown. In the acute toxicity study, a single oral administration of 24 g/kg YLSP caused neither toxicological symptoms nor mortality, and the LD50 was estimated >24 g/kg. In the chronic toxicity study, we administered doses of 0, 0.6, 1.2 and 2.4 g/kg YLSP in rats by oral gavage for 26 weeks followed by a 3-week recovery period. There was no mortality or remarkable clinical signs observed during this 26-week study. Additionally, there were no toxic differences in the following parameters: body weight, food consumption, hematology, clinical biochemistry, organ weight, and macroscopic findings. There were no adverse effects on histopathology observed in males or female rats treated with YLSP. Based on the results, the no-observed-adverse-effect-level of YLSP in rats is greater than 2.4 g/kg when administered orally for 26 consecutive weeks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Toxicological Evaluation of β-Caryophyllene Oil: Subchronic Toxicity in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, D; Levy, R; Carroll, B

    2016-09-01

    In a subchronic toxicity study, administration of β-caryophyllene (BCP) oil by oral gavage to Wistar rats at dosages of 0, 150, 450, or 700 mg/kg/d for 90 days, including a 21-day recovery period, did not produce any significant toxicologic manifestations. The study design also included a 28-day interim sacrifice in the control and high-dose groups. The BCP oil test article was well tolerated as evidenced by the absence of major treatment-related changes in the general condition and appearance of the rats, neurobehavioral end points, growth, feed and water intake, ophthalmoscopic examinations, routine hematology and clinical chemistry parameters, urinalysis, and necropsy findings. The no observed adverse effect level was the highest dosage level administered of 700 mg/kg body weight/d for both male and female rats. The study was conducted as part of an investigation to examine the safety of BCP oil for its proposed use in medical food products. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Evaluation of Carrot Pomace (Daucus carota L. as Hypocholesterolemic and Hypolipidemic Agent on Albino Rats

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    Abd El-Moneim M.R. AFIFY

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The current study examined the attenuating influence of dietary carrot pomace powder (CaPP on hypercholesterolemia and various oxidative stress-associated with biochemical parameters in hypercholesterolemic rats. Thirty two male albino rats weighing 110±10 g were divided into four groups, the first group received the basal diet only and served as (negative control, the second group received the hypercholesterolemic diet and served as positive control, the other groups received hypercholesterolemic diet supplemented with 10%, 20% CaPP for six weeks. The obtained results revealed that groups supplemented with 10% and 20% CaPP significantly decrease total lipid, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, liver enzymes: alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase compared to positive and negative groups. Organs weight, body weight gain significantly decreased compared with positive control. Moreover dietary carrot pomace powder can used to reduce the body weight and reducing hypercholesterolemic complications. In addition, dietary carrot pomace powder serves to improve the blood picture and to reduce the blood glucose level in hypercholesterolemic rats and could use in obese people for body loss. Data of kidney function (Urea record an increase in CaPP 20% level (26.9±2.96 but this increase was non significant with the negative control group (26.6±3.1.

  4. Evaluating the Ameliorative Potential of Quercetin against the Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis in Wistar Rats

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    Ramesh Verma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study deals with the effect of a dietary flavanoid quercetin on fibrotic lung tissue in rats. Bleomycin was administered by single intratracheal instillation to Wistar rats to induce lung fibrosis. The pathologies associated with this included significantly reduced antioxidant capacity, ultimately leading to protracted inflammation of the lung tissue. The hallmark of this induced fibrosis condition was an excessive collagen deposition in peribronchial and perialveolar regions of the lung. Oral quercetin treatment over a period of twenty days resulted in significant reversal of the pathologies. The antioxidant defense in lung tissue was revived. Moreover, activity of the collagenase MMP-7, which was high in fibrotic tissue, was seen restored after quercetin administration. Trichome staining of lung tissue sections showed high collagen deposition in fibrotic rats, which may be a direct result of increased mobilization of collagen by MMP-7. This was appreciably reduced in quercetin treated animals. These results point towards an important protective role of quercetin against idiopathic lung fibrosis, which remains a widely prevalent yet incurable condition in the present times.

  5. Histomorphometric evaluation of maxillary molar roots and surrounding periodontium following molar intrusion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Y J; Kim, K H; Lee, K J; Chung, C J; Park, Y C

    2015-02-01

    To investigate periodontal tissue changes during and after molar intrusion in rats. The Department of Orthodontics at Yonsei University. Thirty 12-week-old male rats were assigned to 1 control and 5 experimental groups (n = 5 each). In the experimental groups, two maxillary molars were intruded for 2 weeks; the control group underwent the same procedures without the intrusion force. After 2 weeks of intrusion, rats in one of the experimental groups and in the control group were killed. In the other four experimental groups, the new molar positions were either retained or not retained with an occlusal bite block for 1 or 2 weeks prior to euthanization. Histomorphometric analysis was performed for sulcus depth, osteoclast number per unit alveolar bone length, and root resorption area per unit root surface length. Sulcus depth increased during intrusion (P intrusion (P intrusion, irrespective of the retention regimen, relative to that of the control group (P intrusion and that the surrounding periodontium remodeled accordingly as tooth positions were altered, regardless of retention regime. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Radiographic evaluations of molar intrusion and changes with or without retention in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoon Jeong; Kim, Kyung-Ho; Lee, Kee-Joon; Chung, Chooryung J; Park, Young-Chel

    2011-05-01

    To describe radiographic changes caused by molar intrusion with or without retention methods in rats. Thirty 12-week-old male rats were assigned to six groups (n  =  5 each). Molar intrusion was achieved with an intrusion spring to two maxillary molars for 2 weeks. The control group underwent the same experimental conditions, but without the intrusion spring. The intrusion and control groups were then euthanized. In four groups, the intrusion spring was disengaged after intrusion and the new molar positions were either retained or not with an occlusal bite-block for 1 or 2 weeks. Radiographic changes were measured in the cusp tip, root apices, and alveolar crests. After 2 weeks of intrusion, the cusp tip and root apices had moved apically compared with the control group. However, the alveolar crests were similar in the intrusion and control groups. With retention bite-block, the new position of the intruded cusp tip was maintained, but the root apices had moved occlusally, and the alveolar crest between the two intruded molars had moved apically. Without retention, the cusp tip and root apices had moved occlusally, and the alveolar crest between the intruded molar and unintruded molars had moved occlusally compared with the intrusion group. Rat molars were successfully intruded and maintained at the altered position with retention bite-block. However, the apical root resorption was observed as an instant response. The alveolar crest adjacent to the intruded molars was repositioned apically, but that was a delayed response compared to root resorption.

  7. Ex situ evaluation of the composition of protein corona of intravenously injected superparamagnetic nanoparticles in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakulkhu, Usawadee; Maurizi, Lionel; Mahmoudi, Morteza; Motazacker, Mahdi; Vries, Marcel; Gramoun, Azza; Ollivier Beuzelin, Marie-Gabrielle; Vallée, Jean-Paul; Rezaee, Farhad; Hofmann, Heinrich

    2014-10-07

    It is now well recognized that the surfaces of nanoparticles (NPs) are coated with biomolecules (e.g., proteins) in a biological medium. Although extensive reports have been published on the protein corona at the surface of NPs in vitro, there are very few on the in vivo protein corona. The main reason for having very poor information regarding the protein corona in vivo is that separation of NPs from the in vivo environment has not been possible by using available techniques. Knowledge of the in vivo protein corona could lead to better understanding and prediction of the fate of NPs in vivo. Here, by using the unique magnetic properties of superparamagnetic iron oxide NPs (SPIONs), NPs were extracted from rat sera after in vivo interaction with the rat's physiological system. More specifically, the in vivo protein coronas of polyvinyl-alcohol-coated SPIONs with various surface charges are defined. The compositions of the corona at the surface of various SPIONs and their effects on the biodistribution of SPIONs were examined and compared with the corona composition of particles incubated for the same time in rat serum.

  8. Nuclear phenotype evaluation in skeletal muscle from Wistar rats exposed to low-level lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, L. G.; Sergio, L. P. S.; Vicentini, S. C.; Mencalha, A. L.; Paoli, F.; Fonseca, A. S.

    2017-03-01

    Low-level laser therapy includes devices emitting red and near-infrared radiation with output power below 100 mW. These devices are successfully used for the treatment of injuries and to improve exercise performance based on their biomodulatory effect. Despite the wide use of clinical protocols based on these lasers, the laser-induced effects on DNA are still disputed. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate chromatin organization, ploidy degrees, and DNA fragmentation in skeletal muscle tissue from Wistar rats exposed to low-level red and infrared lasers. Wistar rats were exposed to low-level red and infrared lasers (25, 50, and 100 J cm-2, 100 mW, continuous-wave emission mode) and, after 24h, samples of this tissue were withdrawn for the analysis of chromatin organization, ploidy degrees, and DNA fragmentation by Feulgen reaction detection of micronucleus, and apoptosis by TUNEL assay. Data obtained show that low-level red and infrared lasers alter geometric and densitometric parameters as well ploidy degree in muscle nuclei from Wistar rats, but do not induce DNA fragmentation, chromatin loss, and apoptosis at fluences taken out from clinical protocols.

  9. Histologic evaluation of the effects of Emdogain gel on injured root apex in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Noriyoshi; Minakami, Masahiko; Hatakeyama, Junko; Haruna, Chieko; Morotomi, Takahiko; Izumi, Toshio; Anan, Hisashi

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of Emdogain gel (EMD) on the injured open apex within periapical lesions. Periapical lesions were induced in rats by opening the pulp chambers of the mandibular first molars and filing the apical foramen through the distal root canal with #25 K-files to make an open apex. The teeth were exposed to the oral environment for 7 days. Then we irrigated the distal root canals and divided them into EMD-treated and propylene glycol alginate-treated groups. The rats were killed 7, 14, and 28 days after treatment and examined histochemically. In the EMD-treated rats, more cells expressed transforming growth factor-β1 or bone morphogenetic protein-2 at 7 days after treatment, and the regeneration of cementum and bone was observed around the root apex at 14 days after treatment. Conversely, in the propylene glycol alginate-treated group, few cells expressed transforming growth factor-β1 or bone morphogenetic protein-2, and apical periodontal tissue recovery was rarely seen within the periapical lesions throughout the experiment. These results suggest that EMD does not irritate injured periapical tissue and may create a favorable environment that promotes the healing of destroyed periapical tissues. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Safety evaluation of repeated intravenous infusion of sinoporphyrin with and without PDT in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Rui; Lin, Xiaoqi; Zhang, Jingxuan; Jin, Hongtao; Wang, Aiping; Wei, Jinfeng

    2016-11-02

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising antineoplastic modality in the oncology field. We assessed the safety of repeated intravenous administrations of sinoporphyrin, a porphyrin derivative, with and without illumination in rats. Toxicokinetic studies of single and multiple administrations of sinoporphyrin were also carried out. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to the dark-toxicity and PDT groups. Animals in the dark toxicity group received an i.v. infusion of sinoporphyrin at 3 doses: 2 mg kg -1 , 6 mg kg -1 , and 18 mg kg -1 . The PDT group included 2 doses of sinoporphyrin (2 mg kg -1 and 18 mg kg -1 ), and the rats received 60 J of 630 nm laser illumination 24 h after photosensitizer infusion. The treatments were repeated every 7 days for 5 cycles and were followed by a 14-day recovery period. Systematic analyses were conducted at the end of treatment and recovery periods. Blood samples were obtained 5 min, 30 min, 2 h, 8 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, and 96 h after the first and fifth treatments for toxicokinetic studies. Sinoporphyrin-PDT led to the death of one out of 270 rats; the dead animal had been treated with 18 mg kg -1 sinoporphyrin and died at the end of the fifth PDT treatment. Liver injury, the primary toxicity observed in the study, was identified using biochemical tests, necropsy, and histopathology. Elevated white blood cell and neutrophil counts were found in the rats in both the dark toxicity and PDT groups. Skin lesions at the illumination site were obvious in the PDT group. Pigment deposits were detected in multiple organs such as the liver, spleen, lymph nodes, and ovaries in the 6 mg kg -1 and 18 mg kg -1 groups. No other abnormalities were observed. The toxicokinetic parameters of single and multiple sinoporphyrin administrations were calculated and compared. Repeated sinoporphyrin administrations both alone and in combination with laser illumination were tolerable, and all toxicities were transient. The no observed adverse effect

  11. Evaluation of the effect of a gamma irradiated DBM-pluronic F127 composite on bone regeneration in Wistar rat.

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    Tamer Al Kayal

    Full Text Available Demineralized bone matrix (DBM is widely used for bone regeneration. Since DBM is prepared in powder form its handling properties are not optimal and limit the clinical use of this material. Various synthetic and biological carriers have been used to enhance the DBM handling. In this study we evaluated the effect of gamma irradiation on the physical-chemical properties of Pluronic and on bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs amount in DBM samples. In vivo studies were carried out to investigate the effect on bone regeneration of a gamma irradiated DBM-Pluronic F127 (DBM-PF127 composite implanted in the femur of rats. Gamma irradiation effects (25 kGy on physical-chemical properties of Pluronic F127 were investigated by rheological and infrared analysis. The BMP-2/BMP-7 amount after DBM irradiation was evaluated by ELISA. Bone regeneration capacity of DBM-PF127 containing 40% (w/w of DBM was investigated in transcortical holes created in the femoral diaphysis of Wistar rat. Bone porosity, repaired bone volume and tissue organization were evaluated at 15, 30 and 90 days by Micro-CT and histological analysis. The results showed that gamma irradiation did not induce significant modification on physical-chemical properties of Pluronic, while a decrease in BMP-2/BMP-7 amount was evidenced in sterilized DBM. Micro-CT and histological evaluation at day 15 post-implantation revealed an interconnected trabeculae network in medullar cavity and cellular infiltration and vascularization of DBM-PF127 residue. In contrast a large rate of not connected trabeculae was observed in Pluronic filled and unfilled defects. At 30 and 90 days the DBM-PF127 samples shown comparable results in term of density and thickness of the new formed tissue respect to unfilled defect. In conclusion a gamma irradiated DBM-PF127 composite, although it may have undergone a significant decrease in the concentration of BMPs, was able to maintains bone regeneration capability.

  12. In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of a Novel Ferrocyanide Functionalized Nanopourous Silica Decorporation Agent for Cesium in Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timchalk, Charles; Creim, Jeffrey A.; Sukwarotwat, Vichaya; Wiacek, Robert J.; Addleman, Raymond S.; Fryxell, Glen E.; Yantasee, Wassana

    2010-09-01

    Novel decorporation agents are being developed to protect against radiological terrorist attacks. These sorbents, known as the self-assembled monolayer on mesoporous supports (SAMMS™), are hybrid materials where differing organic moieties are grafted onto mesoporous silica (SiO2). In vitro experiments focused on the evaluation, and optimization of SAMMS for capturing radiocesium (137Cs); based on these studies, a ferrocyanide copper (FC-Cu-EDA)-SAMMS was advanced for in vivo evaluation. In vivo experiments were conducted comparing the performance of the SAMMS vs. insoluble Prussian blue. Groups of jugular cannulated rats (4/treatment) were evaluated. Group I was administered 137Cs (~40 μgeq/kg) by intravenous (iv) injection and oral gavage; Group II was administered pre-bound 137Cs-SAMMS and sequential 137Cs + SAMMS (~61 ngeq/kg) by oral gavage; and Group III evaluated orally administered 137Cs (~0.06 μgeq/kg) followed by 0.1 g of either SAMMS or Prussian blue. Following dosing the rats were maintained in metabolism cages for 72 hour and blood, urine and fecal samples were collected for 137Cs analysis (gamma counting). Rats were then humanely euthanized, and selected tissues analyzed. Orally administered 137Cs was rapidly and well absorbed (~100% relative to iv dose), and the pharmacokinetics (blood, urine, feces & tissues) were very comparable to the iv dose group. For both exposures the urine and feces accounted for 20 and 3% of the dose, respectively. The prebound 137Cs-SAMMS was retained primarily within the feces (72% of the dose), with ~1.4% detected in the urine, suggesting that the 137Cs remained tightly bound to SAMMS. SAMMS & Prussian blue both effectively captured available 137Cs in the gut with feces accounting for 80-88% of the administered dose, while less than 2% was detected in the urine. This study suggests that the functionalized SAMMS out performs Prussian blue in vitro at low pH, but demonstrates comparable in vivo sequestration efficacy at

  13. Histological evaluation of the biocompatibility of polyurea crosslinked silica aerogel implants in a rat model: a pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firouzeh Sabri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aerogels are a versatile group of nanostructured/nanoporous materials with physical and chemical properties that can be adjusted to suit the application of interest. In terms of biomedical applications, aerogels are particularly suitable for implants such as membranes, tissue growth scaffolds, and nerve regeneration and guidance inserts. The mesoporous nature of aerogels can also be used for diffusion based release of drugs that are loaded during the drying stage of the material. From the variety of aerogels polyurea crosslinked silica aerogels have the most potential for future biomedical applications and are explored here. METHODOLOGY: This study assessed the short and long term biocompatibility of polyurea crosslinked silica aerogel implants in a Sprague-Dawley rat model. Implants were inserted at two different locations a subcutaneously (SC, at the dorsum and b intramuscularly (IM, between the gluteus maximus and biceps femoris of the left hind extremity. Nearby muscle and other internal organs were evaluated histologically for inflammation, tissue damage, fibrosis and movement (travel of implant. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: In general polyurea crosslinked silica aerogel (PCSA was well tolerated as a subcutaneous and an intramuscular implant in the Sprague-Dawley rat with a maximum incubation time of twenty months. In some cases a thin fibrous capsule surrounded the aerogel implant and was interpreted as a normal response to foreign material. No noticeable toxicity was found in the tissues surrounding the implants nor in distant organs. Comparison was made with control rats without any implants inserted, and animals with suture material present. No obvious or noticeable changes were sustained by the implants at either location. Careful necropsy and tissue histology showed age-related changes only. An effective sterilization technique for PCSA implants as well as staining and sectioning protocol has been established. These studies

  14. Evaluation of nanoselenium (Nano-Se) effect on hematological and serum biochemical parameters of rat in experimentally lead poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehkordi, A Jafari; Mohebbi, A N; Aslani, M R; Ghoreyshi, S M

    2017-04-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of nanoselenium (Nano-Se) on hematological and biochemical parameters of rats experimentally intoxicated with lead (Pb). Thirty male rats were randomly divided into six groups as follows: the control, selenite, Nano-Se, Pb group, Pb + selenite, and Pb + Nano-Se groups. After 35 days, blood was collected from rats and hematology and serum biochemical parameters of oxidative stress were measured. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level of Pb group was significantly higher than other groups. Also, TBARS level was significantly lower in the Pb + Nano-Se group than Pb + selenite group. The serum superoxide dismutase activities were significantly lower in Pb group than the control, Pb + selenite, and Pb + Nano-Se groups. The catalase activities in the Pb group showed no significant change when compared to other groups. In the Pb group, packed cell volume was lower than the control group. A significant difference was observed between the control group and the Pb, Pb + selenite, and Pb + Nano-Se groups. In the Pb group, the numbers of white blood cell (WBC) decreased in comparison with the control group. Also, there was significant increase in WBC counts in the Pb + Nano-Se and Pb + selenite groups in comparison with Pb group. The number of lymphocytes in the Pb group decreased in comparison with the control group. By comparing the means of the Pb + Nano-Se and Pb + selenite groups together, it was determined that there were significant differences in the lymphocytes and neutrophil counts. In conclusion, usage of selenium compounds particularly Nano-Se particles inhibits the adverse effects of Pb on antioxidant activity and immune system function in the Pb poisoning.

  15. Histological Evaluation of the Biocompatibility of Polyurea Crosslinked Silica Aerogel Implants in a Rat Model: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabri, Firouzeh; Boughter Jr, John D.; Gerth, David; Skalli, Omar; Phung, Thien-Chuong N.; Tamula, George-Rudolph M.; Leventis, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Background Aerogels are a versatile group of nanostructured/nanoporous materials with physical and chemical properties that can be adjusted to suit the application of interest. In terms of biomedical applications, aerogels are particularly suitable for implants such as membranes, tissue growth scaffolds, and nerve regeneration and guidance inserts. The mesoporous nature of aerogels can also be used for diffusion based release of drugs that are loaded during the drying stage of the material. From the variety of aerogels polyurea crosslinked silica aerogels have the most potential for future biomedical applications and are explored here. Methodology This study assessed the short and long term biocompatibility of polyurea crosslinked silica aerogel implants in a Sprague-Dawley rat model. Implants were inserted at two different locations a) subcutaneously (SC), at the dorsum and b) intramuscularly (IM), between the gluteus maximus and biceps femoris of the left hind extremity. Nearby muscle and other internal organs were evaluated histologically for inflammation, tissue damage, fibrosis and movement (travel) of implant. Conclusion/Significance In general polyurea crosslinked silica aerogel (PCSA) was well tolerated as a subcutaneous and an intramuscular implant in the Sprague-Dawley rat with a maximum incubation time of twenty months. In some cases a thin fibrous capsule surrounded the aerogel implant and was interpreted as a normal response to foreign material. No noticeable toxicity was found in the tissues surrounding the implants nor in distant organs. Comparison was made with control rats without any implants inserted, and animals with suture material present. No obvious or noticeable changes were sustained by the implants at either location. Careful necropsy and tissue histology showed age-related changes only. An effective sterilization technique for PCSA implants as well as staining and sectioning protocol has been established. These studies further support the

  16. Evaluation of the Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Citrullus colocynthis in Normoglycemic and Streptozocine (STZ Induced Diabetic Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Nikbakht

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Adverse side effects of chemical drugs for treatment of diabetes persuaded the using of medical plants. Citrullus colocynthis is a plant which has been used traditionally for treatment of diabetes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydroalcholic extract of Citrullus colocynthis fruit on normoglycemic and streptozocine induced diabetic rats. Materials & Methods: 45 male Wistar rats weighing, 250-350 gr, have been selected and randomly divided in seven groups. Group1 without any drugs usage, group 2 that received normal saline (IV and distilled water (oral, group 3 received only streptozocine (IV, group 4 received only the extract of Citrullus colocynthis (1000 mg/kg, groups 5, 6 and 7 received 500, 1000 and 1500 mg/kg of Citrullus colocynthis extract after injection of STZ and induction of diabetes. Diabetes was induced by intravenous injection (45 mg/kg of STZ. Blood sampling was provided directly from animal heart and blood sugar was measured. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software using students t-test and ANOVA. Results: Mean of normal blood sugar in control group was 156.5±15.7 mg/dl which defined as normal blood sugar. Streptozocine significantly increased blood sugar (p<0.05. The Citrullus colocynthis extract with 500 mg/kg dosage has not significantly reduced the blood sugar but is dosage of 1000 and 1500 mg/kg significantly decreased the blood sugar in a dose-dependent mode (p<0.05. Results also showed that the extract in dosage of 1000 mg/kg did not have a significant effect on normoglycemic animals. Conclusion: Results of this study indicate that the extract of Citrullus colocynthis fruit dose-dependently reduced the blood glucose level in streptozocine-induced diabetic rats but did not have significant effect on normal blood sugar.

  17. EVALUATION OF THE ANTITUMOR AND ANTICACHEXIA ACTIVITY OF GRATIOLA OFFICINALIS L. EXTRACT IN RATS WITH TRANSPLANTED SARCOMA 45

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    N. A. Navolokin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cachexia is a severe complication of cancer and currently there are no drugs that would effectively deal with exhaustion and intoxication in various diseases.Materials and methods. In this paper a study and evaluation of the antitumor and anticachexia activities of the extract of Gratiola officinalis l. in rats with transplanted sarcoma 45 in experiment in vivo was conducted. Gratiola officinalis l. extract is received by patented method and is not toxic to animals. The study was conducted on 40 white male rats line Wistar weighing 150 ± 50 g. Animals were divided into 4 groups (10 rats per group: control group, comparison group with sarcoma without affecting, group with sarcoma with intramuscular and group with sarcoma with oral administration of the extract in a dosage of 110 mg/kg. The extract was administered intramuscularly or orally 72 hours after transplantation of sarcoma 45. The tumor volume and the weight of the animals were assessed daily.Results. The extract of leaves and flowers of Gratiola officinalis l. obtained by patented method has a strong antitumor activity, reducing the growth rate of the tumor and causing marked changes in the tumor, as well as providing stable anticachexia effect. Index of tumor weight inhibition was 70.6 % on average. Intramuscular administration was more effective in reducing of tumor growth, but less effectively increases the weight of animals than oral administration. In both administration methods Gratiola officinalis extract has no toxic effect on peripheral blood. We have previously found that the extract has antioxidant activity so that anticachexia effect is pathogenic, meaning it occurs by reducing toxicity.Conclusions. Gratiola officinalis extract has a broad spectrum of biological activity, in particular antitumor, anticachexia, it is not toxic, so it is advisable to investigate as a promising tool for the treatment of tumor diseases and cancer cachexia, and cachexia caused by other chronic

  18. Evaluation of oxidative stress induction in rats following exposure to silver nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingabathula, Harikiran; Yellu, Narsimhareddy

    2017-05-01

    The study investigated the oxidative stress induction by the 10 and 25 nm silver nanorods (SNRs) following intra-tracheal instillation in rats after 1 day, 1 week, 1 month and 3 months post instillation periods at 1 and 5 mg/kg b.w. doses. The blood was withdrawn by retro orbital plexus method after exposure periods and different oxidative stress markers were estimated. The results showed that the both sizes of SNRs induced increased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and depleted glutathione (GSH) levels after 1 day and 1 week post exposure periods. The 10 and 25 nm SNRs at both doses displayed that significantly reduced levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase following 1 day and 1 week post exposure periods. Also, the results have shown that decrease in total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of both sizes of SNRs significantly following 1 day and 1 week post exposure periods, indicating the oxidative stress induction by SNRs. In spite, there were no significant changes in oxidative stress markers following 1 month and 3 months post exposure periods may be due to recovery. The increased levels of MDA and decreased levels of GSH, SOD, catalase and TAC activity are strongly associated to ROS production and lipid peroxidation, suggesting the induction of oxidative stress in rats. The 10 nm SNRs at 5 mg/kg b.w. dose exposures in rats have shown greater changes in all oxidative stress parameters, indicating the greater induction of oxidative stress when compared with the 25 nm SNRs, representing the size-dose-dependent induction of oxidative stress of SNRs.

  19. Evaluation of LED photobiomodulation on wound healing in hypothyroid and euthyroid rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraguassú, Gardênia Matos; Xavier, Flávia Calo Aquino; Rodriguez, Tânia Tavares; Ramalho, Maria José Pedreira; Pinheiro, Antônio Luiz Barbosa; Ramalho, Luciana Maria Pedreira

    2012-09-01

    Thyroid hormone deficiency has been associated to disruption of the body's metabolism, including healing process. LED phototherapy has been shown to be effective in improving healing in many situations, but their usefulness in the improvement of hypothyroidism wound healing remains unknown. The aim of this study was to assess histologically the effect of LED (λ630 ± 20nm, 150mW, CW, φ=0.5 cm2, 24J/cm2 per session) on wounds healing in hypothyroid and euthyroid Wistar rats. Standard cutaneous wound (1cm2) was created on the dorsum of 24 animals divided into four groups of 6 animals each: G1: Euthyroid; G2: Euthyroid + LED; G3: Hypothyroid; G4: Hypothyroid + LED. Hypothyroidism was induced in rats with propylthiouracil (0.05g/100mL) administered orally for 4 weeks and maintained until the end of the experiment. The irradiation started immediately after surgery and was repeated every other day for 7 days. Animals were killed 8 days after surgery. The specimens were removed, routinely processed and stained with H&E and Sirius red. Statistical analysis was performed using the Fisher's Test and significance level was 5%. The results of the present investigation showed delayed wounds healing process in hypothyroid rats characterized by incomplete reepithelialization and formation of disorganized collagen fibers (phypothyroid) when compared to non-irradiated ones, but no statistically significant difference (p>0.05). It is concluded that LED light has a positive biomodulative effect on the wound healing process, even when hipothyroidism was present.

  20. Effects of aspartame on the evaluation of electrophysiological responses in Wistar albino rats

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    Arbind Kumar Choudhary

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aspartame is a non-nutritive sweetener that is used predominantly in various ‘diet’ and ‘low-calorie’ products, such as beverages, instant breakfasts, desserts, breath mints, sugar-free chewing gum, vitamins, and pharmaceuticals, consumed by millions of people who are attempting weight loss, young adults and diabetic persons. On a weight basis, the metabolism of aspartame generates approximately 50% phenylalanine, 40% aspartic acid and 10% methanol. The detailed mechanisms of the effects of aspartame on the electrophysiological response are still unclear; therefore, this study was designed to clarify whether longer-term aspartame consumption has any effect on the electrophysiological response in Wistar albino rats. The oral administration of aspartame in a safe dose of 40 mg/kg bodyweight/day (as recommended by EFSA, 2012 was tested in Wistar albino rats for a longer period (90 days. Electrophysiological responses, including heart rate variability (HRV and electroencephalogram (EEG pattern, were assessed in a folate-deficient animal model along with control animals using BIOPAC and EEG equipment (model RMS EEG–24 brain new-plus: RMS – Recorder and Medicare systems. In this study, the folate-deficient animal model was used to mimic human methanol metabolism in rats. After 90 days of aspartame treatment, a significant alteration was observable in the time domain [Mean RR (ms SDNN (ms RMSSD (ms PNN50 (%] and the frequency domain [LF, HF, and LF/HF ratio] with significantly impaired frequency and amplitude of the fronto-parietal and occipital EEG waves at p ≤ 0.05. The results of this study clearly indicate that the oral consumption of aspartame reduced HRV, with sympathetic dominance and loss of vagal tone, and altered sympathovagal activity along with impairment of learning and memory, showing an additional effect on health within this study duration. The aspartame metabolites methanol and formaldehyde may be the causative factors

  1. Evaluation of Protective Effect of Vitamin E on Acrylamide Induced Testicular Toxicity in Wister Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Rahangadale, Santosh; Jangir, Babu Lal; Patil, Manoj; Verma, Trupti; Bhandarkar, Arun; Sonkusale, Prashant; Kurkure, Nitin

    2012-01-01

    Male wistar rats (weighting 160–180 g) were divided in six groups of 6 animals per group. Group A and F served as control. Groups B, C, D and E received acrylamide at 20 mg/kg body weight for 28 days and groups C and E received additionally vitamin E (50 IU/kg body weight) for 1 to 28 days and 29 – 42nd days of experiment, respectively. The animals from groups A, B, and C were sacrificed on day 28th of experiment and from groups D, E, and F on 42nd day of experiment, respectively. There was s...

  2. Hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity evaluation in Wistar albino rats exposed to Morinda lucida leaf extract

    OpenAIRE

    Taofeeq Oduola; Ibrahim Bello; Ganiyu Adeosun; Abdul-Waheed Ademosun; Gassal Raheem; Godwin Avwioro

    2010-01-01

    Background: Aqueous extract of Morinda lucida benth leaf is consumed in Southern Nigeria in the treatment of malaria without any regard for its safety. Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of ingestion of the ethanolic leaf extract of the plant on liver and kidney functions in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: Acute oral toxicity test was performed to determine the LD 50 ; sub-chronic toxicity study was then carried out by oral administration of different doses of...

  3. Neumotórax y bulla enfisematosa gigante rota como manifestación inicial de un carcinoma Pneumothorax and ruptured giant emphysematous bulla as a manifestation of carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orestes Noel Mederos Curbelo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de un paciente de 64 años de edad que acudió al cuerpo de guardia con dolor torácico agudo localizado en hemitórax derecho y disnea intensa. La persistencia del neumotórax sin que se lograra la reexpansión pulmonar con la pleurotomía y el drenaje torácico obligó a una toracotomía. Se encontró una bulla enfisematosa gigante rota, y se realizó una bilobectomía superior y media. El diagnóstico histológico fue carcinoma bronquioalveolar. La coincidencia de un cáncer de pulmón en una bulla enfisematosa no es excepcional, pero la aparición y persistencia de un neumotórax como manifestación inicial de un cáncer de pulmón es poco frecuente.This is the case of a patient aged 64 seen in the emergency room due to a acute thorax pain located in right hemithorax and intense dyspnea. The persistence of pneumothorax without to achieve a pulmonary re-expansion with a pleurotomy and thoracic drainage be necessary a thoracotomy. A ruptured giant emphysematous bulla was found thus the superior and middle bilobectomy. The histological diagnosis was a bronchoalveolar carcinoma. Coincidence of a lung cancer in a emphysematous bulla isn't exceptional and the persistence of pneumothorax as initial manifestation of lung cancer is not frequent.

  4. gastric pneumatosis or emphysematous gastritis?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    plain abdominal X-rays, fluoroscopy (water-soluble contrast meal), and on an abdominal CT scan. Introduction. Gastric pneumatosis (also known as gastric emphysema) and emphy- sematous gastritis are terms describing air in the wall of the stomach. Intramural gastric air is a rare clinical condition. It was first described.

  5. Influence of estrogen deficiency and tibolone therapy on trabecular and cortical bone evaluated by computed radiography system in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Ana Carolina Bergmann de; Henriques, Helene Nara [Postgraduate Program in Pathology, Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Fernandes, Gustavo Vieira Oliveira [Postgraduate Program in Medical Sciences, Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Lima, Inaya; Oliveira, Davi Ferreira de; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu [Nuclear Engineering Program, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Pantaleao, Jose Augusto Soares [Maternal and Child Department, Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Granjeiro, Jose Mauro [Department of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Maria Angelica Guzman [Department of Pathology, Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To verify the effects of tibolone administration on trabecular and cortical bone of ovariectomized female rats by computed radiography system (CRS). Methods: The experiment was performed on two groups of rats previously ovariectomized, one received tibolone (OVX+T) while the other did not (OVX), those groups were compared to a control group (C) not ovariectomized. Tibolone administration (1 mg/day) began thirty days after the ovariectomy and the treatment remained for five months. At last, the animals were euthanized and femurs and tibias collected. Computed radiographs of the bones were obtained and the digital images were used to determine the bone optical density and cortical thickness on every group. All results were statistically evaluated with significance set at P<0.05%. Results: Tibolone administration was shown to be beneficial only in the densitometric analysis of the femoral head, performing higher optical density compared to OVX. No difference was found in cortical bone thickness. Conclusion: Ovariectomy caused bone loss in the analyzed regions and tibolone administered in high doses over a long period showed not to be fully beneficial, but preserved bone mass in the femoral head. (author)

  6. Evaluation of optical density of bone defects filled with calcium phosphate cement and bioactive glass in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biancon Filho, Luiz Alberto; Primo, Bruno Tochetto; Gassen, Humberto Thomazi; Fontanella, Vânia Regina Camargo; Silva, Aurelício Novaes

    2011-02-01

    To evaluate new bone formation, by the analysis of optical density, in rat femoral defects filled with calcium phosphate cement (CPC) and bioactive glass (BG). Twenty-one rats were divided into three groups, Group I (CPC), Group II (BG), and Group III (control), and assessed after 7, 15, and 30 days. Three bone cavities were made in the left femur and filled with CPC, BG, and no material (control). Digital images were obtained and the results were subjected to statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA), complemented by the Friedman and Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric tests, with a significance level of 5%. Regarding optical density, Group I showed statistical values significantly higher than Group III and also higher, although not statistically significant, than Group II, in all observation periods. When Groups II and III were compared, Group II showed higher optical density values, without statistically significant differences, in all periods. The biomaterials analyzed showed higher optical density in relation to the control group in all observation periods, calcium phosphate cement being the best option in the repair of bone defects, but without statistically significant differences in relation to bioactive glass.

  7. Scientific evaluation of the acute toxicity and 13-week subchronic toxicity of Rheum emodi rhizome extracts in Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ben-Gui; Feng, Yong; Wang, Shu

    2014-04-01

    Rheum emodi has been used as an edible and medicinal plant in Tibet and Kashmir for a long period of time, while safety evaluation of this plant has not yet been investigated. In this study, acute and subchronic oral toxicity studies of aqueous extract of R. emodi (AERE) rhizome were conducted in SD rats. Animals were treated with a single dose of 1000, 2000, 4000 or 10,000 mg/kg of AERE in the acute toxicity. In subchronic oral toxicity, animals were randomly divided into four groups (10 rats/sex/group) and received doses of 0, 1000, 2000, and 4000 mg/kg/d of AERE for 90 days. Daily clinical observations, weekly measurement of body weight and food consumption were conducted. Blood and urine were collected on days 91 to measure changes. At necropsy, selected organs were weighed and recorded, and histological examination was performed. During the subchronic oral toxicity study, no mortality, obvious treatment-related clinical signs and urinalysis parameters were observed. Differences in weight gain, food consumption, hematology, biochemistry, relative organ weight and histopathology examinations between the treated group and the control group were not considered treatment-related. Our results indicated that the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for AERE was 4000 mg/kg/d in both genders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of essential oil of Nepeta pogonosperma Jamzad et Assadi in rats

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    Ali Taskina

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and the purpose of study Concerning the different effects of essential oils from Nepeta genus on the central nervous system including pain killing effect, this study was designed to evaluate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of essential oil of Nepeta pogonosperma Jamzad et Assadi (NP, a recently identified species. Methods Air-dried aerial parts of NP were hydrodistillated and GC-MS analysis of obtained essential oil was conducted. Total 24 male Wister rats weighing 225 ± 25 gm were studied. Essential oil of NP was administered intraperitoneally at the doses of 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg for the experimental groups. Control rats received equal volume (2 ml/kg of normal saline. Antinociception was assessed by tail flick test (after 30 minutes and formalin test (for further 60 minutes. Then the animal was sacrificed and the paw edema was measured using a water plethysmometer. Results 4aα,7α,7aβ-nepetalactone and 1,8-cineole were found as the main concentrated components of NP essential oil. All the doses of NP showed antinociception. NP 200 mg/kg reduced the pain sensation in tail flick (p Conclusion This study reveals that the essential oil of NP may minimize both the acute and chronic forms of nociception and may have potent role against inflammation, but the dose should be maintained precisely to obtain the intended effect.

  9. Evaluation of antidepressant activity of ropinirole coadministered with fluoxetine in acute and chronic behavioral models of depression in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorpade, Sanman; Tripathi, Raakhi; Sonawane, Dipesh; Manjrekar, Neelam

    2011-11-22

    Certain unknown aspects of ropinirole action, such as its antidepressant effect after chronic administration and on cotreatment with fluoxetine, remain to be evaluated, which formed the rationale for this study. Wistar rats of either sex (weighing 150-200 g) were used. In the dose-finding study, oral dose of ropinirole (20 mg/kg) was selected. This was combined with two different doses of fluoxetine (10 and 20 mg/kg). Their antidepressant-like effects were compared in acute and chronic forced-swim test (FST). Acute FST was conducted in two sessions after administration of three doses within 24 h. Chronic FST was conducted over 14 days. Drugs were administered each day for 14 days. Effect on locomotor activity was tested in OFT. ANOVA with post hoc Tukey test was used. Dose-finding study of ropinirole showed that out of three doses, 20 mg/kg produced maximum reduction in immobility in acute FST (137±8 s). Coadministration of ropinirole with fluoxetine in acute FST further reduced immobility (107±8 s). This effect was more prominent in chronic forced-swim-stressed rats (74±2 s). Neither ropinirole nor its coadministration with fluoxetine increased locomotor activity in open-field test. The potential of ropinirole to act as an antidepressant agent is proven by the reduction in immobility time in FST. Further, there is an augmentation of the effect of fluoxetine by ropinirole, suggesting synergistic interaction of dopamine and serotonin pathway in brain.

  10. Evaluation of Analgesic Activity of the Methanol Extract from the Galls of Quercus infectoria (Olivier in Rats

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    Sook-Ha Fan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the analgesic activity of the methanol extract of the galls of Quercus infectoria in rats using hot plate and tail-flick methods. The extract was administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 20 mg/kg while morphine sulfate and sodium salicylate (10 mg/kg served as standards. The methanol extract exhibited significant analgesic activity in the tail-flick model (P<0.05 by increasing the reaction time of the rats to 8.0 sec at 30 min after treatment in comparison to control (4.4 sec. Morphine sulfate produced a reaction time of 11.9 sec in the same test. At the peak of activity (30 min, the extract produced maximum possible analgesia (MPA of 34.2%, whilst morphine sulfate achieved a peak MPA of 70.9%. No analgesic effects have been observed using sodium salicylate in the tail-flick model. In the same model, the extract and sodium salicylate demonstrated comparable reaction times. Tail-flick is a better method to evaluate analgesic activity as no significant results were observed for all treatments using hot plate with the exception of morphine sulfate, which showed significant results only at 45 and 60 min after treatment. In conclusion, the methanol extract of the galls of Quercus infectoria displayed analgesic activity.

  11. Pawedness Trait Test (PaTRaT—A New Paradigm to Evaluate Paw Preference and Dexterity in Rats

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    Ana M. Cunha

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In rodents, dexterity is commonly analyzed in preference paradigms in which animals are given the chance to use either the left or the right front paws to manipulate food. However, paw preference and dexterity at population and individual levels are controversial as results are incongruent across paradigms. We have therefore developed a semi-quantitative method—the pawdeness trait test (PaTRaT—to evaluate paw preference degree in rats. The PaTRaT consists in a classification system, ranging from +4 to −4 where increasingly positive and negative values reflect the bias for left or right paw use, respectively. Sprague-Dawley male rats were confined into a metal rectangular mesh cylinder, from which they can see, smell and reach sugared rewards with their paws. Due to its size, the reward could only cross the mesh if aligned with its diagonal, imposing additional coordination. Animals were allowed to retrieve 10 rewards per session in a total of four sessions while their behavior was recorded. PaTRaT was repeated 4 and 8 weeks after the first evaluation. To exclude potential bias, rats were also tested for paw fine movement and general locomotion in other behavioral paradigms as well as impulsivity (variable delay-to-signal, VDS, memory and cognitive flexibility (water maze. At the population level 54% of the animals presented a rightward bias. Individually, all animals presented marked side-preferences, >2 and <−2 for left- and right-sided bias, respectively, and this preference was stable across the three evaluations. Inter-rater consistency was very high between two experienced raters and substantial when two additional inexperienced raters were included. Left- and right-biased animals presented no differences in the ability to perform fine movements with any of the forelimbs (staircase and general locomotor performance. Additionally, these groups performed similarly in executive function and memory tasks. In conclusion, PaTRaT is able

  12. Evaluation of antiallergic activity (type I hypersensitivity) of Inula racemosa in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, S; Gupta, P P; Prasad, R; Dixit, K S; Palit, G; Ali, B; Misra, G; Saxena, R C

    1999-04-01

    Alcoholic extract of root of Inula racemosa, was studied for its antiallergic effect in experimental models of type I hypersensitivity, viz. egg albumin induced passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) and mast cell degranulation in albino rats. The alcoholic extract was prepared by the process of continuous heat extraction. LD50 of this extract was found to be 2100 +/- 60 mg/kg, i.p. Assessment of protection against egg albumin induced passive cutaneous anaphylaxix by different doses of Inula racemosa was done by giving drug intraperitoneally or orally for seven days or once only. Mast cell degranulation studies were done by using compound 48/80 as degranulation agent with same dosage schedule. Inula racemosa (i.p. as well as p.o.) showed significant protection against egg albumin induced PCA. Protection against compound 48/80 induced mast cell degranulation by alcoholic extract of Inula racemosa (single dose) was similar to that of disodium cromoglycate. The seven days drug treatment schedule showed greater protection than disodium cromoglycate intraperitoneally. The results suggest that Inula racemosa possesses potent antiallergic properties in rats.

  13. Evaluation of apple pomace based reconstituted feed in rats after solid state fermentation and ethanol recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Devrajan

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available To utilize apple pomace in an economical and effective way, a feed was developed by solid state fermentation (SSF using sequential interactive co-culture of Candida utilis and Kloeckera. Removal of ethanol and drying of the left - over residue. Feeding trial was conducted in white albino rats before and after reconstitution of apple pomace feed in the choice and no choice study. Feeding of apple pomace feed in the rats before reconstitution indicated that neither in fermented nor in unfermented form it was acceptable. In the no choice study both in 100% fermented and unfermented apple pomace group feed intake decreased continuously resulting in death of rats apparently due to decreased digestibility owing to high fibre content. Further, fermented or unfermented apple pomace based feed had lower digestibility and efficiency of conversion than the standard rat feed. Compared to the standard feed group, growth rates in all the feed groups were negative. The results of choice study of different feeds corroborated with the no-choice study mentioned earlier. Incorporation of fermented apple pomace into standard rat feed in the ratio of 1:1 gave better acceptability and digestibility. Reconstituted feed with 10% jaggery, 2% groundnut oil, 0.01% mixed flavour and 1% salt was the most acceptable. The post-mortem examination of the rats that died during the feeding trial revealed generalized oedema, probably due to some hepatotoxin in the feed. The blood glucose level in the apple pomace feed group except that was reconstituted with jaggery, showed a general hypoglycemia, though falling in the range. The increased ALT and AST levels in the serum also suggest damage to the liver. The mortality rate, post-mortem examination of the rats that died during the feeding trial and blood biochemical analysis of rat serum suggest a more elaborative study for extended period of time.Para utilizar bagaço de maçã de uma maneira econômica e eficaz, foi desenvolvido

  14. [Evaluation of dermatomes in the hind paw of the rat using retrograde axonal transport].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passagia, J G; Benabid, A L; Chirossel, J P; Bouchet, Y

    1993-12-01

    UV light fluorescent tracers (True Blue and Fast Blue) are placed in contact with sensitive receptors after dermabrasion. The abraded surfaces are limited to two hemidorsal areas and two hemi plantar areas on the animals' foot. A five days survival is allowed to enable the axonal retrograde transport of the tracers, then the animals are sacrificed and perfused with an intracardiac injection of 10% formaldehyde in phosphate buffer at 7.4 pH. The lumbar spinal ganglions are immediately dissected out, examined as a whole with a Leitz Dialux fluorescence microscope, then frozen and cut with a cryotome. The results of this analysis show that: i-only ipsilateral dorsal root ganglions are labeled by blue dye. ii-the number of fluorescent cells varies between 20 to 60 per ganglion. iii-a map of the distribution of the dermatomes on the rat hind foot can be deducted from the study of the labelled ganglions. They spread from L2 to L5 from the cranial to the caudal part, and from the medial to the lateral side of the rat foot, on both dorsal and plantar areas.

  15. Evaluation of genotoxic effects of semicarbazide on cultured human lymphocytes and rat bone marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlastos, Dimitris; Moshou, Hariklia; Epeoglou, Klimentini

    2010-01-01

    Semicarbazide (SEM) belongs to the hydrazine family of chemicals, some members of which are known to possess carcinogenic potential. Information on the potential hazard of SEM itself is incomplete and the possibility that it is genotoxic cannot be ruled out. SEM is widely used as a residue marker for the banned veterinary drug nitrofurazone. Also, it occurs as a break-down product of azodicarbonamide (ADC), a chemical used as a flour treatment. Furthermore, it may form as a reaction product of hypochlorite action on food additives. In the present study, we investigated the possible genotoxic effects of SEM with respect to the following cytogenetic end-points: (1) in vitro micronucleus (MN) formation and sister-chromatid exchange (SCE) induction in human lymphocytes and (2) in vivo micronucleus induction on rat bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs). Comparing MN and SCE frequencies on control and examined concentrations (0.5, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 microg ml(-1)) did not reveal statistically significant differences except, marginally, the highest concentration (20 microg ml(-1)) in SCE analysis. On the other hand, oral administration of 50, 100 and 150 mg kg(-1) b.w. of SEM showed a statistically significant effect in MN frequencies on Wistar rats' bone marrow PCEs, with no dose-response pattern. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Carcinogenicity evaluation: comparison of tumor data from dual control groups in the Sprague-Dawley rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldrick, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Following recent clarification in Europe that a single control group is now acceptable for rodent carcinogenicity studies, the use of dual controls may be reduced or disappear. To date, virtually nothing has been published on whether this latter situation has improved the identification of tumorigenic risk potential in these studies. In this paper, the results of 13 rat carcinogenicity studies, performed between 1991 and 2002, with 2 control groups, are presented. Although no major differences in tumor incidences between these dual control groups were found, some interstudy variation occurred. In cases where a notable difference was seen, the use of 2 control groups, as well as robust, contemporary background data, allowed an easier interpretation of findings in drug-treated groups. Thus, the continued use of dual control groups has a vital role in the assessment of tumoriogenic risk. The paper also presents an update on survival, on the range and extent of background spontaneous neoplasms, and comments on genetic drift in this commonly used rat strain.

  17. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of Manihot esculenta Crantz in wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahekar, Satish Eknath; Kale, Ranjana Sushil

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to explore the antioxidant activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Manihot esculenta Crantz leaves (MEC) in wistar rats. Ethanolic extract of MEC leaves in the doses of 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, and 200 mg/kg were used in wistar rats of either sex. The oxidative stress was produced by overdose of acetaminophen and estimation of serum concentration of various enzymes such as malonaldehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH), and catalase (CAT) were measured by standard biochemical methods. Silymarin (100 mg/kg) was used as a standard drug for assessment of antioxidant status. Results were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance followed by Student's unpaired t-test. When compared with the standard antioxidant silymarin, MEC extract did not exhibit antioxidant activity in terms of MDA level reduction. However, it significantly increased serum levels of the antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GSH, and CAT) exerting a potent antioxidant effect in a graded manner. The observed results suggest that MEC could be a potential source of antioxidants. However, further studies are required to explore this therapeutic property of plant.

  18. Evaluation of In Vivo Wound Healing Activity of Bacopa monniera on Different Wound Model in Rats

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    S. Murthy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wound healing effects of 50% ethanol extract of dried whole plant of Bacopa monniera (BME was studied on wound models in rats. BME (25 mg/kg was administered orally, once daily for 10 days (incision and dead space wound models or for 21 days or more (excision wound model in rats. BME was studied for its in vitro antimicrobial and in vivo wound breaking strength, WBS (incision model, rate of contraction, period of epithelization, histology of skin (excision model, granulation tissue free radicals (nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation, antioxidants (catalase, superoxide dismutase, and reduced glutathione, acute inflammatory marker (myeloperoxidase, connective tissue markers (hydroxyproline, hexosamine, and hexuronic acid, and deep connective tissue histology (dead space wound. BME showed antimicrobial activity against skin pathogens, enhanced WBS, rate of contraction, skin collagen tissue formation, and early epithelization period with low scar area indicating enhanced healing. Healing effect was further substantiated by decreased free radicals and myeloperoxidase and enhanced antioxidants and connective tissue markers with histological evidence of more collagen formation in skin and deeper connective tissues. BME decreased myeloperoxidase and free radical generated tissue damage, promoting antioxidant status, faster collagen deposition, other connective tissue constituent formation, and antibacterial activity.

  19. Evaluation of aqueous extract of Murraya koenigii in unilateral renal ischemia reperfusion injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punuru, Priyanka; Sujatha, D; Kumari, B Pushpa; Charisma, V V L

    2014-01-01

    The aqueous extract of leaves of Murraya koenigii was studied for its renoprotective potential against unilateral renal ischemia reperfusion (RIR) injury in male Wistar rats. Healthy adult male Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n = 8) and were treated with 200 mg/kg., p.o. of aqueous extract of M. koenigii (AEMK) for 30 days to assess both preventive and curative effects of AEMK. Except Group I, RIR was induced to all the groups by clamping the left renal artery using artery clamp for 1 h followed by reperfusion by removing the clamp. Groups II and III underwent RIR at 30(th) day whereas RIR was induced in Groups IV and V at 1(st) day of treatment schedule. Biochemical parameters (serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, serum total protein and serum Na(+)), urinary parameters (urine output, urinary creatinine, urinary urea, urinary total protein, urinary Na(+)), in vivo anti-oxidants, renal myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and histopathology of kidneys were monitored. Statistical significance was set at P koenigii possesses both preventive and curative effects against RIR injury.

  20. Biomarker evaluation of skeletal muscle toxicity following clofibrate administration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodié, Karen; Buck, Wayne R; Pieh, Julia; Liguori, Michael J; Popp, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    The use of sensitive biomarkers to monitor skeletal muscle toxicity in preclinical toxicity studies is important for the risk assessment in humans during the development of a novel compound. Skeletal muscle toxicity in Sprague Dawley Rats was induced with clofibrate at different dose levels for 7 days to compare standard clinical pathology assays with novel skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle biomarkers, gene expression and histopathological changes. The standard clinical pathology assays aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and creatine kinase (CK) enzyme activity were compared to novel biomarkers fatty acid binding protein 3 (Fabp3), myosin light chain 3 (Myl3), muscular isoform of CK immunoreactivity (three isoforms CKBB, CKMM, CKMB), parvalbumin (Prv), skeletal troponin I (sTnI), cardiac troponin T (cTnT), cardiac troponin I (cTnI), CKMM, and myoglobin (Myo). The biomarker elevations were correlated to histopathological findings detected in several muscles and gene expression changes. Clofibrate predominantly induced skeletal muscle toxicity of type I fibers of low magnitude. Useful biomarkers for skeletal muscle toxicity were AST, Fabp3, Myl3, (CKMB) and sTnI. Measurements of CK enzyme activity by a standard clinical assay were not useful for monitoring clofibrate-induced skeletal muscle toxicity in the rat at the doses used in this study. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  1. A metabonomic evaluation of the monocrotaline-induced sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conotte, R.; Colet, J.-M., E-mail: jean-marie.colet@umons.ac.be

    2014-04-15

    The main curative treatment of colorectal cancer remains the surgery. However, when metastases are suspected, surgery is followed by a preventive chemotherapy using oxaliplatin which, unfortunately, may cause liver sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS). Such hepatic damage is barely detected during or after chemotherapy due to a lack of effective diagnostic procedures, but liver biopsy. The primary objective of the present study was to identify potential early diagnosis biomarkers of SOS using a metabonomic approach. SOS was induced in rats by monocrotaline, a prototypical toxic substance. {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy analysis of urine samples collected from rats treated with monocrotaline showed significant metabolic changes as compared to controls. During a first phase, cellular protective mechanisms such as an increased synthesis of GSH (reduced taurine) and the recruitment of cell osmolytes in the liver (betaine) were seen. In the second phase, the disturbance of the urea cycle (increased ornithine and urea reduction) leading to the depletion of NO, the alteration in the GSH synthesis (increased creatine and GSH precursors (glutamate, dimethylglycine and sarcosine)), and the liver necrosis (decrease taurine and increase creatine) all indicate the development of SOS. - Highlights: • Urine metabonomic profiles of SOS have been identified. • Urine osmoprotectants and anti-oxidants indicated an initial liver protection. • Liver necrosis was demonstrated by increased urine levels of taurine and creatine. • NO depletion was suggested by changes in ornithine and urea.

  2. Evaluation of the subacute and subchronic toxicity of inhaled EDS hydrotreated naphtha in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, R H; Hinz, J P

    1987-07-01

    Inhalation studies were conducted to assess the subacute and subchronic toxicity of EDS hydrotreated naphtha (HN). In the subacute toxicity study, male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to various concentrations of HN vapor (0.2, 1.0, and 5.0 g/m3) 6 hr/day for 5 consecutive days. Following 2 recovery days, the animals were exposed for 4 additional days and then sacrificed on the 12th study day. In the subchronic toxicity study, a similar protocol was utilized; however, the animals were exposed 5 days/week for 13 weeks. Following a 2-week recovery period, the animals were sacrificed. Parameters examined in both studies included survival, growth, clinical observations, urinalysis, blood chemistry at necropsy, and microscopic examination of selected tissues. There was some evidence of systemic effects associated with repeated inhalation exposure to HN, although these effects were mild and were primarily confined to the high-exposure groups. The major systemic effect appeared to be renal toxicity in male rats as evidenced by increased urinary excretion of renal epithelial cells, creatinine, glucose, and protein and decreased urine osmolality. However, the absence of consistent pathologic changes in the kidneys of these animals suggested that the lesions were either slight or reversible during the 2-week recovery period.

  3. Hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity evaluation in Wistar albino rats exposed to Morinda lucida leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oduola, Taofeeq; Bello, Ibrahim; Adeosun, Ganiyu; Ademosun, Abdul-Waheed; Raheem, Gassal; Avwioro, Godwin

    2010-05-01

    Aqueous extract of Morinda lucida benth leaf is consumed in Southern Nigeria in the treatment of malaria without any regard for its safety. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of ingestion of the ethanolic leaf extract of the plant on liver and kidney functions in Wistar albino rats. Acute oral toxicity test was performed to determine the LD(50); sub-chronic toxicity study was then carried out by oral administration of different doses of the extract on daily basis to different groups of rats for 42 days. The animals were subsequently sacrificed, and liver and kidney functions assessed biochemically using standard techniques. The acute oral toxicity result, LD(50,) revealed Morinda lucida leaf extract to be non-lethal at 6400mg/kg body weight. The results obtained for liver and kidney function parameters indicated that ingestion of Morinda lucida leaf extract has no toxic effect on liver and kidney functions. The results can form the basis for clinical trials in humans.

  4. The Effects of Lithium Administration on Oxidant/Antioxidant Status in Rats: Biochemical and Histomorphological Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toplan, Selmin; Ozdemir, Semra; Tanriverdi, Gamze; Akyolcu, M Can; Ozcelik, Dervis; Darıyerli, Nuran

    2016-02-01

    Present study was planned to determine possible dose-dependent effects of lithium (Li) on oxidant-antioxidant status and histomorphological changes in liver and kidney tissues. For this purpose, twenty-four Wistar male rats were equally divided into three groups: the rats in group I served as controls, drinking tap water without lithium. Groups II and III received 0.1 and 0.2 % lithium carbonate (Li2CO3) through their drinking water, respectively, for 30 days. At the end of the experimental period, lithium concentrations, levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were measured in considered tissues. Histomorphological study was also performed on liver and kidney tissues. Compared to controls, MDA was significantly higher but GSH level lower in groups II and III. SOD activity was higher in group III, but no difference was determined in group II in liver tissue. In kidney tissue, there was no difference determined in MDA and GSH levels between control and experimental groups but SOD activity in groups II and III was significantly higher. In histologic sections of both experimental liver and kidney tissues, specific degenerations were observed. The results of the present study show that treatment with lithium carbonate may result in liver and kidney tissue abnormalities and oxidative damage.

  5. Non-clinical safety and pharmacokinetic evaluations of propylene glycol aerosol in Sprague-Dawley rats and Beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werley, Michael S; McDonald, Paddy; Lilly, Patrick; Kirkpatrick, Daniel; Wallery, Jeffrey; Byron, Peter; Venitz, Jürgen

    2011-09-05

    Aerosolized propylene glycol (PG) was generated as log-normally distributed particulate clouds in different concentrations using a novel capillary aerosol generator (CAG) and evaluated in a battery of non-clinical studies intended to assess its potential inhalation and systemic toxicity in 2 species before ICH-compliant "first-time-in-man" studies. Exposures were nose-only in rats, and via face mask with oropharyngeal tube in dogs. The CAG-generated PG aerosol had a mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of 2.29μm, with a 1.56 geometric standard deviation (GSD) in the rat studies, and a MMAD of 1.34μm (1.45 GSD) in the dog studies, consistent with expected particle size exposures in man. International Congress on Harmonization (ICH) Guidelines were followed, which recommend preliminary non-clinical safety studies using the vehicle and device (CAG-PG) prior to the first human exposure including safety pharmacology, pharmacokinetic (PK) studies, single dose toxicity studies, and repeated dose toxicity studies in two species. In the rat, the only biologically relevant findings included clinical signs of ocular and nasal irritation indicated by minor bleeding around the eyes and nose, and minimal laryngeal squamous metaplasia. This finding is commonly observed in inhalation studies in the rat, and likely related to the unique sensitivity of the tissue, as well as the circuitous airflow pathway through the larynx which increases particle deposition. In the female Beagle dog, treatment-related decreases in hemoglobin, red blood cells and hematocrit were observed in the two highest exposure groups, equivalent to approximately 18 and 60mg/kg/day. In male dogs from the high dose group, similar small decreases, albeit, non-statistically significant decreases were observed in these hematological markers as well. PK studies in rats and dogs showed that the absorption of PG following pulmonary inhalation exposure occurs rapidly, and equilibrium between lung tissue and plasma

  6. Erythromycin ameliorates cigarette-smoke-induced emphysema and inflammation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Tan, Xianshu; Kuang, Wenjuan; Liu, Litao; Wan, Lihong

    2012-06-01

    The exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) is associated with emphysema. In addition to chronic lung inflammation, emphysema is known mainly for the complex pathogenesis associated with imbalance of proteolytic and antiproteolytic activities, oxidative stress, and apoptosis of lung structural cells. Increasing evidence shows that erythromycin, which is a macrolide antibiotic, ameliorates chronic inflammation via mechanisms independent of its antibacterial activity. We hypothesize that erythromycin protects against CS-induced emphysema and inflammation in rats via its anti-inflammation and antiapoptosis action. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were administered lipopolysaccharide (LPS) intratracheally solution twice and exposed to the CS, the control rats were administered saline intratracheally and exposed to ambient air for 3 weeks. Then, all the CS rats were distributed randomly into 3 groups and, respectively, treated orally with saline (LPS + CS + saline), Guilongkechuanning capsule (450 mg/kg) (LPS + CS + GLKCN), or erythromycin (100 mg/kg) (LPS + CS + ERY) 0.5 h before CS exposure for 2 weeks. On day 36, the rats were killed. The cytokines in serum were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The middle lobe of the right lung was removed for histology and apoptosis analyses, respectively. Emphysematous lesions and inflammatory cell infiltrations in the CS group were evident by a histologic analysis. Erythromycin protected significantly against the alveolar enlargement levels (P = 0.0017), reduced the pathologic apoptosis (P = 0.0023) related with Bcl-2 (P = 0.0002) and Bax (P = 0.0002), and inhibited the expressions of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 (P = 0.0019) and TIMP-1 protein (P = 0.04) and the MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio (P = 0.0002) in the lungs of CS-induced emphysema in rats. The protective effect of erythromycin on CS-induced emphysema and inflammation in rats is associated with a reduction in inflammation, imbalance of MMP-9/TIMP-1, and apoptosis of

  7. [Evaluation of calcium dobesilate for its anti-cataract potential in experimental rat models].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guang-ying; Jiang, Yu; Wang, Rui-na; Hao, Li-li; Xu, Dong

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the preventive and therapeutic effects of agent calcium dobesilate(CDO) with different doses on the galactose cataract of rats. We chose fifty Wistar rats at 20- day old. Then, they were divided into 3 groups at random. Choose 10 rats as the control group and gave normal diet; 10 rats as the model group and fed with Gal solution ( drink 12.5% Gal solution from 1 to 7 days and 10%Gal solution from 8 to 21 days except for normal diet ) ; 30 rats as the treatment group and fed with the same Gal solution as the model group, besides they were divided into high dosage group, medium dosage group and low dosage group equally and gave 300 mg×kg(-1)×d(-1), 150 mg×kg(-1)×d(-1), 75 mg×kg(-1)×d(-1) dose of calcium dobesilate respectively from the first day to the end of experiment. The experiment lasts 21 days. Lens opacity were observed and recorded by slit-lamp examination regularly. Activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) and content of malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined to estimate the effect of CDO . Lens fibers changes and Histological changes were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and light microscope (LM) separately. The apoptosis rate of lens epithelium were determined by TUNEL assay. The appearance of Lens opacity in model group was more quickly than that in treatment group in model group, 3 eyes in degree IV, 7 eyes in degree V, while in treatment group, 5 eyes in degree III, 3 eyes in degree IV, 2 eyes in degree V (H = 7.12, P < 0.05). The activity of SOD and GSH-px in treatment group is higher than mode group, but lower than control group on 8th day, there was difference noticed in the activity of SOD (50.01 ± 1.19), (39.39 ± 1.70) , treatment group (46.57 ± 1.09, 46.42 ± 0.87, 45.70 ± 1.46) U/mgProt (F = 88.70, P < 0.05) and the activity of GSH-px (42.92 ± 0.97) , (12.70 ± 1.17) , treatment group (29.16 ± 1.05, 29.08 ± 0.98, 28.25 ± 0.98) nmol/mgprot (F = 1071.89, P < 0.05) ]in 3

  8. Histological and morphological evaluation of condylar cartilage of young rats in response to stimulation of mandibular protrusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Peixoto Nogueira de Sá

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the histogical and morphological aspects of the condyle in response to mandibular protrusion induced by composite resin occlusal planes. Thirty five-week-old male Wistar rats were selected and randomly divided in two groups. One group received a composite resin type of oclusal plane that induced mandibular protrusion, and the other was the control group, without treatment. Animals were euthanized after experimental time intervals of 7, 21 and 30 days. For histological analysis, thickness of the proliferative, serial and hypertrophic layers was measured, as well as each layer separately. The highest difference in cartilage thickness was observed at day 21, showing a significant increase of the proliferative layer. There were also other histomorphological changes related to occlusal plane interference. Condylar forward repositioning induced by composite occlusal planes influenced the endochondral ossification, increasing the proliferative layer.

  9. Evaluation of lipid peroxidation activity at intravenous administration of gold nanorods in rats with simulated diabetes and transplanted liver cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucharskaya, Alla B.; Dikht, Natalia I.; Afanasyeva, Galina A.; Terentyuk, Georgy S.; Maslyakova, Galina N.; Zaraeva, Nadezhda V.; Khlebtsov, Nikolai G.; Khlebtsov, Boris N.

    2014-01-01

    In the experiment the white outbred rats with transplanted liver cancer (cholangiocarcinoma line PC-1) and simulated alloxan diabetes were treated by single intravenous injection of gold nanorods. State of lipid peroxidation was evaluated by the following parameters: the malondialdehyde, lipid hydroperoxide, the average weght molecules in the serum of animals by conventional spectrophotometric methods study using a spectrofluorometer RF-5301 PC (Shimadzu, Japan). In both experimental groups of animals the significant increasing of levels of lipid peroxidation products was noted compared with control group. After intravenous administration of nanoparticles in the group of animals with alloxan diabetes the activation of a free radical oxidation was not observed, in group with transplanted liver cancer the increasing of levels of lipid hydroperoxide, malondialdehyde was established.

  10. [Histological and histochemical evaluation of the cellular infiltration of s.c. implanted sparks prothesis. Experiments on rats (authors transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brieler, H S; Thiede, A; Müller-Wiefel, H; Leder, L D

    1975-06-01

    Sparks-prothesis of 3 mm diameter were implanted into inbred rats and withdrawn after one to ten weeks. They were then fixed in Formalin and embedded in Paraffin and Metachrylat. After cutting (2.5 mu), the histological and histochemical parameters were examined. Cellular infiltration was studied after a certain period of time. The basic results of the genesis of that infiltration are given as follows: during the first two weeks following the s.c. implantation, derivates of monocytes (cells which play an imminent and important role during arterial replacement) were found. After the third and fourth week collagenous and elastic fibers could be seen, the connective tissue became stronger. The most favorable time for grafting can be evaluated by these experiments.

  11. A pharmacological evaluation of antidiarrhoeal activity of leaves extract of Murraya koenigii in experimentally induced diarrhoea in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Sharma

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate anti-diarrhoeal activity of aqueous and alcoholic extract of the leaves of Murraya koenigii (M. koenigiiby using models of castor oil induced diarrhoea, charcoal meal test and PGE 2 induced diarrhoea. Methods: Alcoholic extract (400 mg/kg and aqueous extract (200 mg/kg of leaves of Murraya koenigii were used with loperamide as standard. Albino Wistar rats of both sexes weighing between 150-250 g were used for the anti-diarrhoeal activity. Results: The result suggested that it could act centrally and inhibit the PGE2 to give anti-diarrhoeal effects. Result of charcoal meal test also suggested its anti-muscarnic activity. Conclusions: These findings indicate that aqueous extract of the leaves of M. koenigii displays good antidiarrhoeal activity, corroborating the folk use of M. koenigii preparations and contributing for its pharmacological validation.

  12. Evaluation of Sphingolipids in Wistar Rats Treated to Prolonged and Single Oral Doses of Fumonisin B1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direito, Glória M.; Almeida, Adriana P.; Aquino, Simone; dos Reis, Tatiana Alves; Pozzi, Claudia Rodrigues; Corrêa, Benedito

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate sphingolipid levels (sphingosine-So and sphinganine-Sa) and to compare the Sa/So ratio in liver, serum and urine of Wistar rats after prolonged administration (21 days) of fumonisin B1 (FB1). In parallel, the kinetics of sphingolipid elimination in urine was studied in animals receiving a single dose of FB1. Prolonged exposure to FB1 caused an increase in Sa levels in urine, serum and liver. The most marked effect on sphingolipid biosynthesis was observed in animals treated with the highest dose of FB1. Animals receiving a single dose of FB1 presented variations in Sa and So levels and in the Sa/So ratio. PMID:19333435

  13. Evaluation of Fertility Disrupting Potentials of Abrus precatorius Seed Extracts in Male Rats for Arresting Spermatogenesis and Suppressed Fertility In Vivo

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    Saranika Talukder

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to evaluate the contraceptive potentials of different chemical extracts of Abrus precatorius seeds in male albino rats. The active ingredients of crushed seeds were extracted with 60% aqueous acetone and then partitioned consecutively with n-hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. Water suspended chemical fractions at different doses were administered orally to the male rats for 40 days. Effects of different treatments on various male reproductive endpoints and contraceptive efficacy were evaluated. Oral administration of both organic (methanol soluble at 50 and 75 mg/kg BW and aqueous soluble of A. precatorius seed extracts caused infertility in study subjects at varying degrees. At necropsy, average weights of testes, epididymis, ventral prostate gland and seminal vesicles were decreased significantly. Histology of testes revealed marked atrophy of the seminiferous tubules characterized by disruption of the germinal epithelium and atrophy of the Leydig cells. Epididymis also showed histological alterations. Hormonal assay revealed a significant decrease in serum level of testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH that possibly resulted in suppressed spermatogenesis of male rats. These effects lead to the reduction of pregnancy rate of untreated fertile female rats while mated with the methanol extract (50 and 75 mg/kg BW and aqueous extract-treated male rats. The results show that A. precatorius seed extract causes suppression of spermatogenesis and fertility, thereby suggesting the potential of this plant in the regulation of male fertility.

  14. Evaluation of the safety of a genetically modified DAS-444Ø6-6 soybean meal and hulls in a 90-day dietary toxicity study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papineni, Sabitha; Murray, Jennifer A; Ricardo, Ekmay; Dunville, Christina M; Sura, Radha Krishna; Thomas, Johnson

    2017-11-01

    A 90-day sub chronic toxicity study was conducted in rats to evaluate the safety of genetically modified DAS-444Ø6-6 soybeans expressing herbicide tolerant proteins when compared with its conventional comparators (non-transgenic near isoline control soybean and three commercially available non-transgenic line control soybeans). Rats were given diets formulated with either 10% or 20% w/w of soybean meal and 1% or 2% hulls of DAS-444Ø6-6 soybean with an equivalent amount of hulls from an isoline non-transgenic control soybean for at least 90 days. In addition, three separate 20% w/w non-transgenic commercially available soybean varieties were also given to groups of rats to serve as reference controls. Animals were evaluated by cage-side and hand-held detailed clinical observations, ophthalmic examinations, body weights/body weight gains, feed consumption, hematology, prothrombin time, urinalysis, clinical chemistry, selected organ weights, and gross and histopathologic examinations. Under the conditions of this study, the genetically modified DAS-444Ø6-6 diets did not cause any treatment-related effects in rats following 90 days of dietary administration as compared with rats fed diets with soybean of isoline control or commercial reference controls and are considered equivalent to the diets prepared from conventional comparators. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of the diuretic effects of crude stem bark extraction of Zanthoxylum heitzii (Rutaceae) in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntchapda, Fidèle; Kakesse, Maguirgue; Fokam, Michel Archange Tagne; Pancha, Olivier Mbouemboue; Abakar, Djedouboum; Dimo, Théophile

    2015-09-01

    Zanthoxylum heitzii is a medicinal plant widely used in central Africa for the treatment of many diseases, especially cardiovascular diseases and hypertension. The diuretic effects of crude stem bark extraction were determined and its safety in rats was evaluated. The diuretic effects of crude stem bark extraction of Z. heitzii 250 g ± 10 g) of both sexes. The crude stem bark extraction of Z. heitzii at the doses of 225, 300 and 375 mg/kg was administered to rats at 5 mL/kg body weight. Urine volume was determined 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 24 h after administration of the extract. Kinetics of electrolyte elimination in response to a single oral administration dose of acute treatment was measured. The experiments were performed under the same conditions with two synthetic pharmacological diuretics considered as reference (furosemide and hydrochlorothiazide). Urinary and plasma concentrations of sodium and potassium ions were determined using flame photometry. Concentrations of creatinine, urea, glucose, albumin and electrolytes in the plasma and urine samples were evaluated using a two-way digital bidirectional spectrophotometer. The osmolarity of plasma and urine samples was measured by cytometry using an osmometer. Aldosterone was measured by radioimmunoassay. The plant extract accelerated the elimination of overloaded fluid and increased urine volume and the excretion of Na+, K+ and Cl- 24 h after administration (P0.05) changes were observed in the body temperature of the animals. The significant increase in urine volume 24 h after treatment followed a dose-response pattern. The excretion of Na+, K+ and Cl- caused a decrease in urine osmolarity. The stability of aldosterone, the absence of correlation with the plasma levels of sodium, and increased clearance of free water in animals treated with aqueous extract suggest that increased diuresis and moderate natriuresis elevation were of tubular origin.

  16. Evaluating the Impact of Naltrexone on the Rat Gambling Task to Test Its Predictive Validity for Gambling Disorder.

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    Patricia Di Ciano

    Full Text Available Gambling Disorder has serious consequences and no medications are currently approved for the treatment of this disorder. One factor that may make medication development difficult is the lack of animal models of gambling that would allow for the pre-clinical screening of efficacy. Despite this, there is evidence from clinical trials that opiate antagonists, in particular naltrexone, may be useful in treating gambling disorder. To-date, the effects of naltrexone on pre-clinical models of gambling have not been evaluated. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of naltrexone in an animal model of gambling, the rat gambling task (rGT, to determine whether this model has some predictive validity. The rGT is a model in which rats are given a choice of making either a response that produces a large reward or a small reward. The larger the reward, the greater the punishment, and thus this task requires that the animal inhibit the 'tempting' choice, as the smaller reward option produces overall the most number of rewards per session. People with gambling disorder chose the tempting option more, thus the rGT may provide a model of problem gambling. It was found that naltrexone improved performance on this task in a subset of animals that chose the 'tempting', disadvantageous choice, more at baseline. Thus, the results of this study suggest that the rGT should be further investigated as a pre-clinical model of gambling disorder and that further investigation into whether opioid antagonists are effective in treating Gambling Disorder may be warranted.

  17. Effects of ganglioside G(M1 and erythropoietin on spinal cord lesions in rats: functional and histological evaluations

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    Raphael Martus Marcon

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the functional and histological effects of ganglioside G(M1 and erythropoietin after experimental spinal cord contusion injury. METHODS: Fifty male Wistar rats underwent experimental spinal cord lesioning using an NYU-Impactor device and were randomly divided into the following groups, which received treatment intraperitoneally. The G(M1 group received ganglioside G(M1 (30 mg/kg; the erythropoietin group received erythropoietin (1000 IU/kg; the combined group received both drugs; and the saline group received saline (0.9% as a control. A fifth group was the laminectomy group, in which the animals were subjected to laminectomy alone, without spinal lesioning or treatment. The animals were evaluated according to the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB scale, motor evoked potential recordings and, after euthanasia, histological analysis of spinal cord tissue. RESULTS: The erythropoietin group had higher BBB scores than the G(M1 group. The combined group had the highest BBB scores, and the saline group had the lowest BBB scores. No significant difference in latency was observed between the three groups that underwent spinal cord lesioning and intervention. However, the combined group showed a significantly higher signal amplitude than the other treatment groups or the saline group (p<0.01. Histological tissue analysis showed no significant difference between the groups. Axonal index was significantly enhanced in the combined group than any other intervention (p<0.01. CONCLUSION: G(M1 and erythropoietin exert therapeutic effects on axonal regeneration and electrophysiological and motor functions in rats subjected to experimental spinal cord lesioning and administering these two substances in combination potentiates their effects.

  18. Evaluation of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol metabolites and oxidative stress in type 2 diabetic rats

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    Zeynep Coskun

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: The object of the study is to examine the effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC against oxidative stress in the blood and excretion of THC metabolites in urine of type 2 diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: The control (n=8, THC control (n=6, diabetes (n=8 and diabetes + THC (n=7 groups were created. Type 2 diabetes was induced by nicotinamide (NA, 85 mg/kg + streptozotocin (STZ, 65 mg/kg. THC was administered intraperitoneally for seven days. The glutathione (GSH level in erythrocytes and malondialdehyde (MDA level, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT enzyme activities in plasma were measured. THC metabolites were analyzed in urine. Results: The results showed that the erythrocyte GSH levels were significantly increased (P

  19. Behavior and memory evaluation of Wistar rats exposed to 1·8 GHz radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Júnior, Luiz Carlos de Caires; Guimarães, Ernesto da Silveira Goulart; Musso, Camila Manso; Stabler, Collin Turner; Garcia, Raúl Marcel González; Mourão-Júnior, Carlos Alberto; Andreazzi, Ana Eliza

    2014-09-01

    The development of communication systems has brought great social and economic benefits to society. As mobile phone use has become widespread, concerns have emerged regarding the potential adverse effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) used by these devices. To verify potential effects of mobile phone radiation on the central nervous system (CNS) in an animal model. Male Wistar rats (60 days old) were exposed to RF-EMR from a Global System for Mobile (GSM) cell phone (1·8 GHz) for 3 days. At the end of the exposure, the following behavioral tests were performed: open field and object recognition. Our results showed that exposed animals did not present anxiety patterns or working memory impairment, but stress behavior actions were observed. Given the results of the present study, we speculate that RF-EMR does not promote CNS impairment, but suggest that it may lead to stressful behavioral patterns.

  20. [Evaluating adaptogenic properties of Rhodiola rosea extract in human mononuclear cell culture and rat tissues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, L I; Boĭkova, A A; Nikiforova, D V

    2013-01-01

    The administration of various doses of Rhodiola rosea roots and rhizome spissum with known concentrations of salidroside, n-tyrosol, and rosavine leads to an increase in stress proteins 70 content in human mononuclear cell culture and in tissues of Wistar rats. A one-week peroral administration of Rh. Rosea preparation increases the content of constitutive Hsc70 in liver and the amount of hepatocytes with low succinate dehydrogenase activity. A two-week administration of Rh. Rosea extract leads to an increase in the levels of inducible Hsp70 and constitutive Hsc70 proteins in liver, hippocampus and left heart ventricle. These results are indicative of an increase in nonspecific resistance and the activation of adaptogenic processes.

  1. Partial volume rat lung irradiation: an evaluation of early DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M A; Hill, R P; Van Dyk, J

    1998-01-15

    1. To investigate early DNA damage induced in rat lung cells following single-dose, partial-volume irradiation (lung base and lung apex). 2. To determine the variation in DNA damage in different lung regions. 3. To investigate the possible mechanisms associated with early DNA damage after lung irradiation. The whole lung or the upper or lower half of the entire lung of Sprague-Dawley rats was exposed to 10 Gy 60Co gamma rays. The animals were sacrificed at various times up to 42 h after irradiation. A trypsin-digested lung cell suspension was prepared and cells that attached to slides in the initial 24-h period were then grown in the presence of culture medium with cytochalasin-B for a further 72 h. Radiation-induced DNA damage was quantified in the cells (primarily fibroblasts) from both irradiated and unirradiated lung regions by using a well-characterized micronucleus assay. When the lungs were removed at 16-18 h after whole-lung irradiation, about 0.85 micronuclei (MN) per binucleate cell (BNC) were observed in the lung cells of the irradiated animals, compared to 0.02 MN/BNC in the lung cells of the controls. When only the lung base was irradiated, the frequency of micronuclei was 0.85 MN/BNC compared to 0.43 MN/BNC observed in cells from the irradiated lung apex. Of particular interest was the finding that the unirradiated lung apex also showed a large frequency of micronuclei (0.43 MN/BNC) after the irradiation of the lung base, whereas the unirradiated lung base showed only a marginal (approximately 2-fold) increase relative to the spontaneous frequency following irradiation of the lung apex. The changes in the frequency of micronuclei varied with the time at which the lungs were removed from the rats for early times, but had stabilized by 18 h after irradiation. Normal (unirradiated) cells grown in filtered or unfiltered conditioned media obtained from irradiated cell cultures showed an insignificant marginal increase in the number of micronuclei relative

  2. Applicability of rat precision-cut lung slices in evaluating nanomaterial cytotoxicity, apoptosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauer, Ursula G. [Scientific Consultancy — Animal Welfare, Neubiberg (Germany); Vogel, Sandra [Experimental Toxicology and Ecology, BASF SE, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Product Stewardship Water Solutions, BASF SE, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Aumann, Alexandra; Hess, Annemarie; Kolle, Susanne N.; Ma-Hock, Lan [Experimental Toxicology and Ecology, BASF SE, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Wohlleben, Wendel [Experimental Toxicology and Ecology, BASF SE, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Material Physics, BASF SE, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Dammann, Martina; Strauss, Volker; Treumann, Silke; Gröters, Sibylle [Experimental Toxicology and Ecology, BASF SE, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Wiench, Karin [Product Safety, BASF SE, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Ravenzwaay, Bennard van [Experimental Toxicology and Ecology, BASF SE, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Landsiedel, Robert, E-mail: robert.landsiedel@basf.com [Experimental Toxicology and Ecology, BASF SE, Ludwigshafen (Germany)

    2014-04-01

    The applicability of rat precision-cut lung slices (PCLuS) in detecting nanomaterial (NM) toxicity to the respiratory tract was investigated evaluating sixteen OECD reference NMs (TiO{sub 2}, ZnO, CeO{sub 2}, SiO{sub 2}, Ag, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)). Upon 24-hour test substance exposure, the PCLuS system was able to detect early events of NM toxicity: total protein, reduction in mitochondrial activity, caspase-3/-7 activation, glutathione depletion/increase, cytokine induction, and histopathological evaluation. Ion shedding NMS (ZnO and Ag) induced severe tissue destruction detected by the loss of total protein. Two anatase TiO{sub 2} NMs, CeO{sub 2} NMs, and two MWCNT caused significant (determined by trend analysis) cytotoxicity in the WST-1 assay. At non-cytotoxic concentrations, different TiO{sub 2} NMs and one MWCNT increased GSH levels, presumably a defense response to reactive oxygen species, and these substances further induced a variety of cytokines. One of the SiO{sub 2} NMs increased caspase-3/-7 activities at non-cytotoxic levels, and one rutile TiO{sub 2} only induced cytokines. Investigating these effects is, however, not sufficient to predict apical effects found in vivo. Reproducibility of test substance measurements was not fully satisfactory, especially in the GSH and cytokine assays. Effects were frequently observed in negative controls pointing to tissue slice vulnerability even though prepared and handled with utmost care. Comparisons of the effects observed in the PCLuS to in vivo effects reveal some concordances for the metal oxide NMs, but less so for the MWCNT. The highest effective dosages, however, exceeded those reported for rat short-term inhalation studies. To become applicable for NM testing, the PCLuS system requires test protocol optimization. - Highlights: • 16 OECD reference nanomaterials were tested in rat precision-cut lung slices. • Nanomaterial cytotoxicity, apoptose, oxidative stress, and inflammation were

  3. Sertraline-induced reproductive toxicity in male rats: evaluation of possible underlying mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atli, Ozlem; Baysal, Merve; Aydogan-Kilic, Gozde; Kilic, Volkan; Ucarcan, Seyda; Karaduman, Burak; Ilgin, Sinem

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to clarify the toxic effects of sertraline (SRT) on the reproductive system of male rats and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Rats were treated orally with SRT at doses of 5, 10, and 20 mg kg−1 for 28 consecutive days. At the end of the treatment period, sperm concentration, sperm motility, and sperm morphology were investigated by computer-assisted sperm analysis system whereas sperm DNA damage was detected by comet assay. The oxidative status of the testes was investigated, and a histopathological examination was conducted. Serum testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels were measured to determine the effects of SRT on the spermatogenesis process. One-way ANOVA, post-hoc Dunnett's T3 test for the sperm comet assay, and post-hoc Tukey's test for the others were performed for statistical analysis. The results showed that SRT caused an increase in sperm DNA damage and induced histopathological lesions in all groups treated with SRT. There was abnormal sperm morphology and increased malondialdehyde (MDA) in the 10 mg kg−1 treatment group. More dramatic changes were observed in the 20 mg kg−1 treatment group. Decreased sperm count was accompanied by a significant increase in abnormal sperm morphology, DNA damage, and degeneration in cellular-tubular structures. Serum LH and testosterone levels were elevated in the 20 mg kg−1 treatment group. Decreased glutathione (GSH) and increased MDA were signs of enhanced oxidative stress (OS). In conclusion, SRT induced testicular toxicity in a dose-dependent manner and OS is suggested as a crucial mechanism. PMID:27976631

  4. Sertraline-induced reproductive toxicity in male rats: evaluation of possible underlying mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Atli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to clarify the toxic effects of sertraline (SRT on the reproductive system of male rats and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Rats were treated orally with SRT at doses of 5, 10, and 20 mg kg−1 for 28 consecutive days. At the end of the treatment period, sperm concentration, sperm motility, and sperm morphology were investigated by computer-assisted sperm analysis system whereas sperm DNA damage was detected by comet assay. The oxidative status of the testes was investigated, and a histopathological examination was conducted. Serum testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, and luteinizing hormone (LH levels were measured to determine the effects of SRT on the spermatogenesis process. One-way ANOVA, post-hoc Dunnett′s T3 test for the sperm comet assay, and post-hoc Tukey′s test for the others were performed for statistical analysis. The results showed that SRT caused an increase in sperm DNA damage and induced histopathological lesions in all groups treated with SRT. There was abnormal sperm morphology and increased malondialdehyde (MDA in the 10 mg kg−1 treatment group. More dramatic changes were observed in the 20 mg kg−1 treatment group. Decreased sperm count was accompanied by a significant increase in abnormal sperm morphology, DNA damage, and degeneration in cellular-tubular structures. Serum LH and testosterone levels were elevated in the 20 mg kg−1 treatment group. Decreased glutathione (GSH and increased MDA were signs of enhanced oxidative stress (OS. In conclusion, SRT induced testicular toxicity in a dose-dependent manner and OS is suggested as a crucial mechanism.

  5. Evaluation of optimal electrode configurations for epidural spinal cord stimulation in cervical spinal cord injured rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Monzurul; Garcia-Alias, Guillermo; Shah, Prithvi K; Gerasimenko, Yury; Zhong, Hui; Roy, Roland R; Edgerton, V Reggie

    2015-05-30

    Epidural spinal cord stimulation is a promising technique for modulating the level of excitability and reactivation of dormant spinal neuronal circuits after spinal cord injury (SCI). We examined the ability of chronically implanted epidural stimulation electrodes within the cervical spinal cord to (1) directly elicit spinal motor evoked potentials (sMEPs) in forelimb muscles and (2) determine whether these sMEPs can serve as a biomarker of forelimb motor function after SCI. We implanted EMG electrodes in forelimb muscles and epidural stimulation electrodes at C6 and C8 in adult rats. After recovering from a dorsal funiculi crush (C4), rats were tested with different stimulation configurations and current intensities to elicit sMEPs and determined forelimb grip strength. sMEPs were evoked in all muscles tested and their characteristics were dependent on electrode configurations and current intensities. C6(-) stimulation elicited more robust sMEPs than stimulation at C8(-). Stimulating C6 and C8 simultaneously produced better muscle recruitment and higher grip strengths than stimulation at one site. Classical method to select the most optimal stimulation configuration is to empirically test each combination individually for every subject and relate to functional improvements. This approach is impractical, requiring extensively long experimental time to determine the more effective stimulation parameters. Our proposed method is fast and physiologically sound. Results suggest that sMEPs from forelimb muscles can be useful biomarkers for identifying optimal parameters for epidural stimulation of the cervical spinal cord after SCI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of antihyperglycaemic activity of Calotropis procera leaves extract on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário C. L. Neto

    Full Text Available Calotropis procera (Aiton W.T.Aiton,Apocynaceae, popularly known as "algodão-de-seda", is a wild African bush, rich in bioactive substances that determine the medicinal potential of this species. Diabetes mellitus is a disease that affects about 10% of the population. This study aimed to evaluate the antihyperglycaemic activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of the leaves of C. procera of occurrence in coast of Pernambuco, Brazil. The hydroalcholic extract of the leaves of C. procera (300 and 600 mg/kg/day, vehicle, insulin (6U, s.c. or metformin (500 mg/ kg/day were administered orally to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (n = 7/group for four weeks. Changes in body weight, food and water intake, biochemical markers, fasting glucose levels and oral glucose tolerance test were evaluated. The results showed that the C. procera dried extract (300 and 600 mg/kg reduced significantly the level of blood glucose throughout the evaluation period and improved metabolic status of the animals and ameliorate the oral tolerance glucose test. The phytochemical screening revealed and quantified the presence of phenolic compounds and flavonoids in a percentage of 29.1 and 2.9%, respectively. Thus, we conclude that the extract of the leaves of C. procera has antihyperglycemic activity.

  7. Evaluation and comparison of the effect of hypothermia and ozone on ischemia-reperfusion injury of skeletal muscle in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Huseyin; Ekinci, Safak; Uysal, Bulent; Akyildiz, Faruk; Turkkan, Selim; Ersen, Omer; Koca, Kenan; Seven, Mehmet Murat

    2015-06-15

    Tourniquet-induced ischemia-reperfusion, which affects local and distant organs, is very common in orthopedic surgery. Hypothermia is used in traumatic tissue during ischemic period commonly. Ozone (O3) has been recommended as a novel therapeutic agent in various medical conditions. The objective of the study was to evaluate and compare the effect of hypothermia (H) and O3 on ischemia-reperfusion injury of skeletal muscle in rats by measuring oxidative parameters and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) levels. Eighteen rats (Wistar albino) were separated into five groups randomly (sham, IR, IR + H, IR + O3, IR + H + O3; n = 6). The lower right extremity of all rats was subjected to 2 h of ischemia and 22 h of reperfusion clamping the common iliac artery and using the rubber-band technique at the level of the lesser trochanter under general anesthesia. Two hours of hypothermia were applied during the first 2 h of reperfusion in two groups. O3 was applied in two groups. All rats were sacrificed after the IR period with high dose of anesthesia. The tibialis anterior muscle and blood were saved. Levels of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, MDA, NOx, and interleukin-1β were measured in the muscle. Creatinine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, urea, creatinine, and electrolytes were measured in serum. Immunohistochemical iNOS staining was performed on muscle samples. The levels of MDA, NOx, and interleukin-1β in muscle were raised in the IR group compared with those in the sham group. The same parameters were lower in the groups of IR + H, IR + O3, and IR + H + O3 compared with those in the IR group. Superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities in muscle were lower in the IR group compared with those in the sham group; however, same parameters were higher in the groups of IR + H, IR + O3, and IR + H + O3 compared with those in the IR group. Score and intensity of iNOS staining in skeletal muscle in the IR group was

  8. Activation of mu-opioid receptors in the ventral pallidum decreases the negative hedonic evaluation of a conditioned aversive taste in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Tadashi; Shimura, Tsuyoshi

    2017-03-01

    Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) causes a shift in the hedonic evaluation of a conditioned stimulus (CS) from positive to negative, and reduces the CS intake. Mu-opioid receptors (MORs) in the ventral pallidum (VP) are known to be involved in the hedonic evaluation of positive rewarding stimuli; however, their involvement in evaluation of a negative aversive stimulus is still unclear. To explore the neural mechanisms of the negative hedonic evaluation of the CS in CTA, we examined the effects of the activation of VP MORs on the behavioral responses of rats to a CS. Rats implanted with guide cannulae into the bilateral VP received a pairing of 5mM saccharin solution as a CS with an intraperitoneal injection of 0.15M lithium chloride as an unconditioned stimulus. On the test day, after microinjections of MOR agonist [D-Ala 2 , N-MePhe 4 , Gly-ol]-enkephalin (DAMGO) into the VP, we observed the behavioral responses to the intraorally infused CS solution. The DAMGO injections caused a larger number of ingestive taste reactivity responses to the CS solution. We also measured the consumption of the CS solution in a separate group of rats, using a single-bottle test. The DAMGO injected rats drank a higher volume of the CS solution than the saline injected rats. These results indicate that the activation of MORs in the VP results in the attenuation of aversion to the CS solution, thereby inducing the larger CS intake. Therefore, it is likely that VP MORs are involved in not only positive but also negative hedonic evaluation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of an Aqueous-Ethanolic Extract from Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary) for its Activity on the Hormonal and Cellular Function of Testes in Adult Male Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Heidari-Vala, Hamed; Ebrahimi Hariry, Reza; Sadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Ghaffari Novin, Marefat; Heidari, Mahnaz

    2013-01-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis has been used in traditional medicine extensively. This study evaluated the hormonal and cellular effects of Rosmarinus officinalis extract on testes of adult rats. Thirty male Wistar rats (in three groups) received 50 or 100 mg/Kg b.w of Rosmarinus officinalis extract (made from the plant?s leaves, flower and stem) (treatment groups) and 10 mL/Kg b.w normal saline (control group) respectively, on a daily bases by gavage route for 60 days. Then, spermatological properti...

  10. Chronic Lunar Dust Exposure on Rat Cornea: Evaluation by Gene Expression Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theriot, C. A.; Glass, A.; Lam, C-W.; James, J.; Zanello, S. B.

    2014-01-01

    Lunar dust is capable of entering habitats and vehicle compartments by sticking to spacesuits or other objects that are transferred into the spacecraft from the lunar surface and has been reported to cause irritation upon exposure. During the Apollo missions, crewmembers reported irritation specifically to the skin and eyes after contamination of the lunar and service modules. It has since been hypothesized that ocular irritation and abrasion might occur as a result of such exposure, impairing crew vision. Recent work has shown that both ultrafine and unground lunar dust exhibited minimal irritancy of the ocular surface (i.e., cornea); however, the assessment of the severity of ocular damage resulting from contact of lunar dust particles to the cornea has focused only on macroscopic signs of mechanical irritancy and cytotoxicity. Given the chemical reactive properties of lunar dust, exposure of the cornea may contribute to detrimental effects at the molecular level including but not limited to oxidative damage. Additionally, low level chronic exposures may confound any results obtained in previous acute studies. We report here preliminary results from a tissue sharing effort using 10-week-old Fischer 344 male rats chronically exposed to filtered air or jet milled lunar dust collected during Apollo 14 using a Jaeger-NYU nose-only chamber for a total of 120 hours (6 hours daily, 5 days a week) over a 4-week period. RNA was isolated from corneas collected from rats at 1 day and 7 days after being exposed to concentrations of 0, 20, and 60 mg/m3 of lunar dust. Microarray analysis was performed using the Affymetrix GeneChip Rat Genome 230 2.0 Array with Affymetrix Expression Console and Transcriptome Analysis Console used for normalization and secondary analysis. An Ingenuity iReport"TM" was then generated for canonical pathway identification. The number of differentially expressed genes identified increases with dose compared to controls suggesting a more severe

  11. [Evaluation of treatment for the prevention of acute gastric lesions in stress, in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudanno, O M; Bedini, O A; Cesolari, J A; San Miguel, P

    1995-01-01

    To verify wether a cytoprotective or a antisecretant drug is effective on stress acute gastric. Female Wistar rats (n=7), 200 g, 24 h fasted, water ad lib. were used. Experiment I. Stress (s) by immobilization and immersion in 181/3 C water, 6 h (control). 30 min pretreatment with 2 ml 800 mg/Kg in OG bolus Sucralfate. 800 mg/Kg OG Magaldrate. 800 mg/Kg OG AIMgOH. 800 mg/Kg OH Hydrotalcite. 100 aeg/Kg OG Misoprostol (antisecretant). 125 mg/Kg s.c. Somatostatine (Octeotride). 30 mg/Kg i.p. Ranitidine. 30 mg/Kg i.p. Omeprazole and 30 mg/Kg i.p. Lanzoprazole. The rats were sacrificed by ether overdose, and laparotomy was performed to remove stomach and to assess the percentage gastric lesional area by computerized planimetry and histological examination. Experiment II. With the same scheme above described and previous anesthesia, laparatomy and pylorus ligature, the acid gastric secretion was studied. Results Exp. I. Percentage of gastric lesional area: C: 80.5 +/- 5.1; Sucralfate: 25.6 +/- 4.1 (p Magaldrate: 51.6 +/- 7.1 (NS). AIMgOH 78.6 +/- 7.1. Hydrotalcite; 85.6 +/- 5.1. Misoprostol (cytoprotector) 59.5 +/- 6.1 (NS). Misoprostol (antisecretant) 1 +/- 0.1 (p Magaldrate: 0.19 +/- 0.08. AIMgOH: 0.18 +/- 0.07. Hydrotalcite: 0.19 +/- +/- 0.10. Misoprostol (cytoprotector): 0.23 +/- 0.07. Misoprostol (anti-secretor): 0.11 +2- 0.05 (p < 0.05). Somatostatin: 0.09 +/- 0.04. Ranitidine: 0.08 +/- 0.05. Omeprazole: 0.02 +/- 0.01 (p < 0.001) and Lanzoprazole: 0.02 +/- 0.01. In the prevention of stress acute gastric lesions Sucralfate might be indicated as a partial cytoprotector and Omeprazole or Lanzoprazole as antisecretant and lesion preventive drugs.

  12. Phytochemical screening and acute toxicity evaluation of Telfairia occidentalis aqueous extracts on rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Ogbonnaya Enyinnaya; Ojeifo, Uadia Patrick

    2016-05-01

    The phytochemical composition and acute toxicity of Telfairia occidentalis aqueous extracts were investigated in this study. Phytochemical screening was carried out on the pulverized leaf, root, pod and stem samples. Proximate analysis was also conducted for the root to ascertain the effect of drying procedures on its composition. Fifty-six (56) Wister albino rats, male and female were divided into two broad groups of 28 animals per group. The first group was randomly separated into seven (7) groups of four (4) animals per group. The control group received distilled water alone while the other groups received varied doses (1500mg/kg, 2250mg/kg and 3000mg/kg) of the Soluble and Insoluble Tefairia occidentalis root fraction. The second group of 28 animals was also distributed into 7 groups of 4 animals per group. Six test groups received varied doses (1500mg/kg, 2250mg/kg and 3000mg/kg) of Telfairia occidentalis fruit and stem extracts. The animals were observed for the first 12hr for any toxic symptoms and for 48 hr for mortality rate. Surviving animals were sacrificed after 48 hours. Phytochemical screening results reveal the presence of tannins, flavonoid, steroid, terpenoids, saponin, alkaloid, glycosides, proteins and carbohydrates. Flavonoid and saponin was not detected in stem sample; alkaloid is present in all samples except pod; and cyanogenic glycoside was found in both root and pod samples. Except for the fibre content, the method of preparation of the root had no significant effect on the proximate composition of the sample. The root extracts cause insignificant reduction in Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities, except for the significant reduction in ALT activity at highest dose. The pod extract significantly increased the ALT and AST activities, which is dose dependent, while the stem extract only caused increased activity of ALT, but not AST. None of the extracts administered had any significant effect on the

  13. A Quantitative and Standardized Method for the Evaluation of Choroidal Neovascularization Using MICRON III Fluorescein Angiograms in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan P Wigg

    Full Text Available In-vivo imaging of choroidal neovascularization (CNV has been increasingly recognized as a valuable tool in the investigation of age-related macular degeneration (AMD in both clinical and basic research applications. Arguably the most widely utilised model replicating AMD is laser generated CNV by rupture of Bruch's membrane in rodents. Heretofore CNV evaluation via in-vivo imaging techniques has been hamstrung by a lack of appropriate rodent fundus camera and a non-standardised analysis method. The aim of this study was to establish a simple, quantifiable method of fluorescein fundus angiogram (FFA image analysis for CNV lesions.Laser was applied to 32 Brown Norway Rats; FFA images were taken using a rodent specific fundus camera (Micron III, Phoenix Laboratories over 3 weeks and compared to conventional ex-vivo CNV assessment. FFA images acquired with fluorescein administered by intraperitoneal injection and intravenous injection were compared and shown to greatly influence lesion properties. Utilising commonly used software packages, FFA images were assessed for CNV and chorioretinal burns lesion area by manually outlining the maximum border of each lesion and normalising against the optic nerve head. Net fluorescence above background and derived value of area corrected lesion intensity were calculated.CNV lesions of rats treated with anti-VEGF antibody were significantly smaller in normalised lesion area (p < 0.001 and fluorescent intensity (p < 0.001 than the PBS treated control two weeks post laser. The calculated area corrected lesion intensity was significantly smaller (p < 0.001 in anti-VEGF treated animals at 2 and 3 weeks post laser. The results obtained using FFA correlated with, and were confirmed by conventional lesion area measurements from isolectin stained choroidal flatmounts, where lesions of anti-VEGF treated rats were significantly smaller at 2 weeks (p = 0.049 and 3 weeks (p < 0.001 post laser.The presented method of in

  14. {sup 99m}Tc-Hynic-annexin V imaging to evaluate inflammation and apoptosis in rats with autoimmune myocarditis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokita, Naoki; Izumi, Tohru [Department of Internal Medicine, Kitasato University School of Medicine, 1-15-1 Kitasato, Sagamihara-city, Kanagawa 228-8555 (Japan); Hasegawa, Shinji; Maruyama, Kaoru [Division of Tracer Kinetics, Biomedical Research Center, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Blankenberg, Francis G. [Division of Pediatric Radiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Lucile Salter Packard Children' s Hospital, Stanford, Calif. (United States); Tait, Jonathan F. [Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Wash. (United States); Strauss, William H. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Nishimura, Tsunehiko [Department of Radiology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Kyoto (Japan)

    2003-02-01

    Inflammation and cell death are two important components of myocarditis. We evaluated the distribution of inflammation and apoptotic cell death in rats with autoimmune myocarditis using two radiotracers - technetium-99m Hynic-annexin V ({sup 99m}Tc-annexin) as a marker of apoptotic cell death and carbon-14 deoxyglucose ({sup 14}C-DG) as a marker of inflammation - in comparison with histologic findings. Three, 7 and 14 weeks after immunization with porcine cardiac myosin (acute, subacute, and chronic phases, respectively) {sup 99m}Tc-annexin and {sup 14}C-DG were injected. The uptake in the total heart was determined as the percentage of injected dose per gram (% ID/g) by tissue counting. Dual-tracer autoradiography with {sup 99m}Tc-annexin and {sup 14}C-DG was performed. The distribution of each of these agents was compared with the results of hematoxylin and eosin staining to identify areas of inflammation, and TUNEL staining to identify areas of apoptosis. Total cardiac uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-annexin in the acute phase of myocarditis was significantly higher than that in normal rats (1.28%{+-}0.30% vs 0.46%{+-}0.01%; P<0.0001); it then decreased in the subacute phase and reached normal levels (0.56%{+-}0.08% vs 0.60%{+-}0.08%; P=NS). Total cardiac uptake of {sup 14}C-DG in the acute phase of myocarditis was significantly higher than that in normal rats (2.78%{+-}0.95% vs 1.02%{+-}0.25%; P<0.0001); it then decreased in the subacute phase, but still remained higher than in controls (2.06%{+-}0.52% vs 1.37%{+-}0.46%; P<0.05). Using autoradiography and staining of tissue specimens, it was found that most histologic inflammatory foci corresponded to areas of high {sup 14}C-DG uptake; some also corresponded to areas of high {sup 99m}Tc-annexin uptake in the acute phase of myocarditis. {sup 99m}Tc-annexin localization was strongly correlated with the number of TUNEL-positive cells (P<0.0001, r=0.83), but the uptake of {sup 14}C-DG showed no relationship with it. There is

  15. Evaluation of the perinatal, postnatal and teratogenic effects of cocoa powder and theobromine in Sprague-Dawley/CD rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarka, S M; Applebaum, R S; Borzelleca, J F

    1986-05-01

    Studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of cocoa powder (CP) and theobromine (TBR) on perinatal and postnatal parameters and to assess their potential teratogenicity in the rat. In the peri/postnatal study, CP was given at 0, 2.5, 5.0 or 7.5% in the diet throughout gestation and lactation (postnatal day 21). In the teratology study, rats were given diets containing 0, 2.5 or 5.0% CP or 0.0675 or 0.135% TBR on days 6-19 of gestation. The CP-treated dams in the peri/postnatal study consumed significantly more food than did the controls during gestation. Weight gain was increased only in the 5.0 and 7.5% CP groups during lactation. Litter size was reduced slightly at 7.5% CP and pup survival was slightly decreased at 5.0 and 7.5% CP but none of these reductions was statistically significant. However, small but statistically significant decreases in pup body weights were noted in all treatment groups throughout lactation. In the teratology studies, rats given 2.5 or 5.0% CP or 0.0675 or 0.135% TBR consumed significantly more food than did the controls and the CP-treated dams gained significantly more weight. The percentage of pregnant dams and the mean number of corpora lutea were not affected by either CP or TBR. Foetuses exposed to 0.135 TBR had a significantly higher incidence of incompletely ossified or absent sternebrae and pubic bones, indicating a delay in osteogenesis. On the basis of the survival of treated offspring in the peri/postnatal study, these effects were not considered to be deleterious to either growth or survival. The effects are similar to those that have been reported elsewhere and been considered to indicate potential maternal or foetal toxicity that is unrelated to a specific compound/treatment. We conclude that any variations observed in these studies may be attributed to this non-specific maternal toxicity and are not related to the ingestion of either CP or TBR. The major methylxanthine found in the serum after CP or TBR ingestion was

  16. Design of (99m) Tc-DTPA-CLP and preliminary evaluation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altıparmak, Burcu; Lambrecht, Fatma Y; Er, Ozge

    2014-03-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals are localized in (malignant) tumor tissues by different mechanisms. One of these mechanisms, gelatinase enzyme activity, is associated with poor prognosis in cancer patients and potential targets for tumor imaging. There are some gelatinases to be associated with metastatic potential for tumor imaging to possibly predict metastases. In this study, a cyclic decapeptide conjugate, DTPA-CLP (DTPA-Cys-Leu-Pro-Gly-His-Trp-Gly-Phe-Pro-Ser-Cys), was selected as a peptide conjugate because of its selective inhibitory activity toward gelatinases. Peptide-conjugated DTPA-CLP was labeled with (99m) Tc with a radiolabeling efficiency of 97.0 ± 2.8%. After determining optimization conditions for radiolabeling, a biodistribution study of radiolabeled peptide in albino Wistar rats was performed. According to biodistribution data, (99m) Tc-DTPA-CLP showed high uptake in the lung, liver, uterus, and spleen. These results show that (99m) Tc-DTPA-CLP may be used for the imaging of gelatinase activity in metastatic tumors. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Evaluation of injectable silica-embedded nanohydroxyapatite bone substitute in a rat tibia defect model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weiguo; Ganz, Cornelia; Weber, Ulf; Adam, Martin; Holzhüter, Gerd; Wolter, Daniel; Frerich, Bernhard; Vollmar, Brigitte; Gerber, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    In clinical practice, vertebral compression fractures occur after trauma and osteoporosis. Kyphoplasty is a minimally invasive procedure using bone filler material for the treatment of such fractures. A full synthetic injectable bone substitute (SIBS) was manufactured by means of spray drying. The aim of this study was to characterize the SIBS and to analyze the remodelling process during degradation of the biomaterial and new bone formation after implantation. SIBS is an aqueous suspension of donut-like microparticles. These microparticles consist of nanocrystallites of synthetic hydroxyapatite embedded in amorphous silica gel. After implantation of SIBS in a proximal tibial diaphyseal defect in 52 rats, grafts were harvested for subsequent analysis on different days. Newly formed bone originating from endosteum was observed on day 6. Hematomas in the medullary space and cortical wounds disappeared on day 12. The wound region was completely replaced by a composite of newly formed cancellous bone, extracellular matrix, and SIBS. At day 63 the cortical defect was fully healed by bone, while newly formed bone in the medullary space almost disappeared and was replaced with bone marrow. In conclusion, SIBS demonstrated a unique structure with osteoinductive and bioresorbable properties, which induced fast bone regeneration. Therefore, a clinical application of SIBS for kyphoplasty is promising. PMID:21845044

  18. Evaluation of the effects of electrical stimulation on cartilage repair in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuzzi, Denise Cristina; Ciccone, Carla de Campos; Neves, Lia Mara Grosso; Mendonça, Josué Sampaio; Joazeiro, Paulo Pinto; Esquisatto, Marcelo Augusto Marretto

    2013-08-01

    This study describes the organization of mature hyaline xiphoid cartilage during repair in animals submitted to electrical current stimulation. Twenty male Wistar rats, 90 days old, were divided into a control group (CG) and a treated group (TG). A cylindrical full-thickness cartilage defects were created with a 3-mm punch in anesthetized animals. After 24h, TG received daily applications of a continuous electrical current (1Hz/20μA) for 5min. The animals were sacrificed after 7, 21 and 35 days for structural analysis. In CG, the repair tissue presented fibrous characteristics, with fibroblastic cells being infiltrated and permeated by blood vessels. Basophilic foci of cartilage tissue were observed on day 35. In TG, the repair tissue also presented fibrous characteristics, but a larger number of thick collagen fibers were seen on day 21. A large number of cartilaginous nests were observed on day 35. Cell numbers were significantly higher in TG. Calcification points were detected in TG on day 35. There was no difference in elastic fibers between groups. Ultrastructural analysis revealed the presence of chondrocyte-like cells in CG at all time points, but only on days 21 and 35 in TG. The amount of cuprolinic blue-stained proteoglycans was higher in TG on day 35. Microcurrent stimulation accelerates the repair process in non-articular hyaline cartilage. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Nutritional evaluation of structured lipid containing omega 6 fatty acid synthesized from coconut oil in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Reena; Lokesh, Belur R

    2003-06-01

    Coconut oil is rich in medium chain fatty acids, but deficient in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Structured lipids (SL) enriched with omega 6 PUFA were synthesized from coconut oil triglycerides by employing enzymatic acidolysis with free fatty acids obtained from safflower oil. Rats were fed a diet containing coconut oil, coconut oil-safflower oil blend (1:0.7 w/ w) or structured lipid at 10% levels for a period of 60 days. The SL lowered serum cholesterol levels by 10.3 and 10.5% respectively in comparison with those fed coconut oil and blended oil. Similarly the liver cholesterol levels were also decreased by 35.9 and 26.6% respectively in animals fed structured lipids when compared to those fed on coconut oil or the blended oil. Most of the decrease observed in serum cholesterol levels of animals fed structured lipids was found in LDL fraction. The triglyceride levels in serum showed a decrease by 17.5 and 17.4% while in the liver it was reduced by 45.8 and 23.5% in the structured lipids fed animals as compared to those fed coconut oil or blended oil respectively. Differential scanning calorimetric studies indicated that structured lipids had lower melting points and solid fat content when compared to coconut oil or blended oils. These studies indicated that enrichment of coconut oil triglycerides with omega 6 fatty acids lowers its solid fat content. The omega 6 PUFA enriched structured lipids also exhibited hypolipidemic activity.

  20. Evaluation of selected agricultural solid wastes on biochemical profile and liver histology of Albino rats

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    Isaac Oluseun Adejumo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat bran, groundnut shell, watermelon peel and corn bran were analyzed for chemical composition and amino acid profile. A feeding trial was conducted to assess their effect on biochemical profile and liver histology of rats. Watermelon peel obtained the highest dry matter content (91.93±0.03 g/100g, followed by groundnut shell meal (89.57±0.31 g/100g. Carbohydrate content ranged between 35.28±0.08 g/100g and 65.19±0.13 g/100g. Crude protein content ranged between 6.53±0.06 g/100g (groundnut shell meal and 10.88±0.02 g/100g (wheat bran. Liver histopathology revealed normal architecture. The nutritional analyses of the wastes revealed rich nutritional content which may be explored for feed ingredient in livestock production. Further processing of these wastes may further enhance their nutritional composition; thereby providing alternative cheap animal feed for improved animal production and consequently improved animal protein consumption in developing countries.

  1. Evaluation of gastroprotective activity of Plinia edulis (Vell.) Sobral (Myrtaceae) leaves in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Tati; Donatini, Raquel dos Santos; Diaz, Ingrit Elida Collantes; Yoshida, Massayoshi; Bacchi, Elfriede Marianne; Kato, Edna Tomiko Myiake

    2008-08-13

    Plinia edulis, an arboreous species popularly known as "cambucá", is native to the Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest. Despite its traditional uses, no reports are available on the safety of this utilization or on the relationship between the antiulcer activity of its extract and its phytochemical compounds. This paper reports on the investigation of the acute toxicity and gastroprotective effect of the aqueous ethanol extract of leaves of Plinia edulis on HCl/ethanol-induced ulcers. In order to correlate the secondary metabolites and the efficacy of the crude drug in traditional medicine, the extract was submitted to chromatographic fractionation after solvent partition. The extract did not show acute toxicity in mice treated with 5 g/kg p.o., but exhibited significant antiulcer activity in rats at doses of 100, 200, and 400mg/kg p.o., more active than the reference drug lansoprazole.The ethyl acetate fraction yielded beta-amyrin, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, and maslinic acid, which were identified based on spectrometric analyses. Since antiulcerogenic activity is not restricted to one class of compounds in plants, the triterpenoids isolated in the extract can be associated with the observed effect.

  2. Safety Evaluation of Artocarpus altilis as Pharmaceutical Agent in Wistar Rats

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    Sudha Sairam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to elucidate the acute toxicity of Artocarpus altilis leaf and bark extracts. In acute toxicity study, no mortality or any toxic reaction was recorded in any group after 14 days of administering the extracts (2000 mg Kg−1 BW. The extracts (ALA, ABA, ALM, and ABM did not cause any behavioural or physical changes in experimental rats. There was no significant (P≤0.05 difference in the biochemical parameters analysed between the groups. Slight elevation in activities of AST and ALT in extract treated groups was observed, but this did not exert any deleterious effect on the normal metabolism which was supported by the histopathology of liver. Histopathological studies showed no remarkable changes after 14 days of oral administration of ALA, ABA, ALM, and ABM extracts. The study contributes to establishing the nontoxic quality parameters of Artocarpus altilis leaf and bark parts and the results suggest the safety of the extracts in therapeutic uses.

  3. Evaluation of wound healing activity of extracts of plantain banana (Musa sapientum var. paradisiaca) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, P K; Singh, A; Gaurav, K; Goel, Shalini; Khanna, H D; Goel, R K

    2009-01-01

    Plantain banana (M. sapientum var. paradisiaca, MS) has been shown to possess ulcer healing activity. The present work with plantain banana was undertaken with the premise that the drug promoting ulcer healing could have effect on wound healing also. Wound healing activity of MS was studied in terms of (i) percent wound contraction, epithelization period and scar area; (ii) wound breaking strength and (iii) on granulation tissue antioxidant status [estimation of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reduced glutathione (GSH), free radical (lipid peroxidation, an indicator of tissue damage) and connective tissue formation and maturation (hexuronic acid, hydroxyproline and hexosamine levels)] in excision, incision and dead space wound models respectively. The rats were given graded doses (50-200 mg/kg/day) of aqueous (MSW) and methanolic (MSE) extracts of MS orally for a period of 10-21 days depending upon the type of study. Both extracts (100 mg/kg) when studied for incision and dead space wounds parameters, increased wound breaking strength and levels of hydroxyproline, hexuronic acid, hexosamine, superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione in the granulation tissue and decreased percentage of wound area, scar area and lipid peroxidation when compared with the control group. Both the extracts showed good safety profile. Plantain banana thus, favoured wound healing which could be due to its antioxidant effect and on various wound healing biochemical parameters.

  4. Histological evaluation of the influence of magnetic field application in autogenous bone grafts in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponzoni Deise

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone grafts are widely used in oral and maxillofacial reconstruction. The influence of electromagnetic fields and magnets on the endogenous stimulation of target tissues has been investigated. This work aimed to assess the quality of bone healing in surgical cavities filled with autogenous bone grafts, under the influence of a permanent magnetic field produced by in vivo buried devices. Methods Metal devices consisting of commercially pure martensitic stainless steel washers and titanium screws were employed. Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into 3 experimental and 3 control groups. A surgical bone cavity was produced on the right femur, and a bone graft was collected and placed in each hole. Two metallic washers, magnetized in the experimental group but not in the control group, were attached on the borders of the cavity. Results The animals were sacrificed on postoperative days 15, 45 and 60. The histological analysis of control and experimental samples showed adequate integration of the bone grafts, with intense bone neoformation. On days 45 and 60, a continued influence of the magnetic field on the surgical cavity and on the bone graft was observed in samples from the experimental group. Conclusion The results showed intense bone neoformation in the experimental group as compared to control animals. The intense extra-cortical bone neoformation observed suggests that the osteoconductor condition of the graft may be more susceptible to stimulation, when submitted to a magnetic field.

  5. Fabrication of porous calcite using chopped nylon fiber and its evaluation using rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Kunio; Tram, Nguyen Xuan Thanh; Tsuru, Kanji; Toita, Riki

    2015-02-01

    Although porous calcite has attracted attention as bone substitutes, limited studies have been made so far. In the present study, porous calcite block was fabricated by introducing chopped nylon fiber as porogen. Ca(OH)2 powder containing 10 wt% chopped nylon fiber was compacted at 150 MPa, and sintered to burn out the fiber and to carbonate the Ca(OH)2 under stream of 1:2 O2-CO2. Sintering of Ca(OH)2 at 750 °C or lower temperature resulted in incomplete burning out of the fiber whereas sintering at 800 °C or higher temperature resulted in the formation of CaO due to the thermal decomposition of Ca(OH)2. However, sintering at 770 °C resulted in complete burning out of the fiber and complete carbonation of Ca(OH)2 to calcite without forming CaO. Macro- and micro-porosities of the porous calcite were approximately 23 and 16%, respectively. Diameter of the macropores was approximately 100 μm which is suitable for bone tissue penetration. Porous calcite block fabricated by this method exhibited good tissue response when implanted in the bone defect in femur of 12-weeks-old rat. Four weeks after implantation, bone bonded on the surface of calcite. Furthermore, bone tissue penetrated interior to the macropore at 8 weeks. These results demonstrated the good potential value of porous calcite as artificial bone substitutes.

  6. Evaluating the inhibitory potential of sulindac against the bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Ramesh; Brahmankar, Mahesh; Kushwah, Lokendra; Suresh, Balakrishnan

    2013-11-01

    The present study examined the protective effect of sulindac on bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis in rats. Animals were divided into saline group, bleomycin group (single intra-tracheal instillation of bleomycin) and bleomycin+sulindac (orally from day 1 to day 20). Bleomycin administration reduced the body weight, altered antioxidant status (such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione) while it increased the lung weight, hydroxyproline content, collagen deposition and lipid peroxidation. However, simultaneous administration of sulindac improved the body weight, antioxidant status and decreased the collagen deposition in lungs. Moreover, the levels of inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor-α increased in bleomycin-induced group, whereas, on treatment with sulindac the levels of tumour necrosis factor-α were found reduced. Finally, histological evidence also supported the ability of sulindac to inhibit bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis. The results of the present study indicate that sulindac can be used as an agent against bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of Pseudananas macrodontes (Morr.) Harms (Bromeliaceae) fruit extract in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errasti, María E; Caffini, Néstor O; Pelzer, Lilian E; Rotelli, Alejandra E

    2013-01-01

    Several species of the family Bromeliaceae are characterized by the production of proteases in unusual amounts, especially in fruits. Bromelain, an extract rich in cysteine endopeptidases obtained from Ananas comosus L., and a few other proteases have been used as anti-inflammatory agents for some years, but bromelain is still mainly being used as alternative and/or complementary therapy to the treatment with glucocorticoids, nonsteroidal antirheumatics, and immunomodulators. In this study, the anti-inflammatory action of a partially purified extract from Pseudananas macrodontes (Morr.) Harms fruits (PPE(Pm)) is presented, whose main components are cysteine endopeptidases. The effect of PPE(Pm) was assessed in carrageenan-induced and serotonin-induced rat paw edema, as well as in the cotton pellet granuloma model. Doses with equal proteolytic activity of PPE(Pm) and bromelain produced significantly similar anti-inflammatory responses in the acute inflammatory models assayed, supporting the hypothesis that proteolytic activity could be responsible for the anti-inflammatory action. On the contrary, comparable anti-inflammatory effects of PPE(Pm) and bromelain in the chronic inflammatory assay required a much lower proteolytic activity content of PPE(Pm), which could be due to a differential affinity for the protein target involved in this process.

  8. In vitro evaluation of the effect of tobacco smoke on rat cornea function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzec, Ewa; Olszewski, Jan; Piątek, Jacek; Samborski, Włodzimierz; Sosnowski, Przemysław; Oleśków, Beata; Zawadziński, Jarosław; Florek, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    The influence of tobacco smoke on the dielectric properties of rat cornea were measured in vitro over the frequency range of the electric field of 500Hz-100kHz and in temperatures of the air from 25 to 150°C. The temperature dependencies of the loss tangent for both healthy and smoky cornea represent the relation between the energy lost and the energy stored in the epithelium-stromal-endothelium systems of the cornea. The differences between the healthy and the smoky cornea concerned the temperature ranges in which there appeared the decomposition of loosely-bound water and β-relaxation associated with polar side-chains relaxations on protein molecules of this tissue. The effect of smoke is manifested as a shift of the loss tangent peaks of these two processes towards higher temperatures, when compared with the control. The results are interpreted as caused by the toxic compounds of the tobacco smoke leading to higher ion transport in the nonhomogeneous structure of the cornea when compared to that of the control tissue. The activation energy of conductivity were similar for the healthy and smoky cornea as a consequence of the braking of hydrogen and Van der Waals bonds between loosely bound water, and the proteins of channels in the epithelium and endothelium. Recognition of the effect of frequency and temperature on the dielectric behaviour of the smoky cornea may be of interest for disease characterization of this tissue.

  9. Clinicopathological Studies on Vitamin D(3) Toxicity and Therapeutic Evaluation of Aloe vera in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavhan, Sambhaji G; Brar, R S; Banga, H S; Sandhu, H S; Sodhi, S; Gadhave, P D; Kothule, V R; Kammon, A M

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine the clinical signs, hematological, biochemical and histopathological changes in vitamin D(3) toxicity at a dose rate 2 mg/kg b.wt. of vitamin D(3) and to assess the protective effect of Aloe vera in vitamin D(3) toxicity. The clinical signs observed were anorexia, progressive weight loss, difficulty in movement and respiration, diarrhea, epistaxis, subnormal body temperature and nervous signs before death. Mortality was observed in treated rats between day 10 and day 19 of treatment. The gross postmortem changes observed were severe emaciation, white chalky deposits on epicardial surface of heart, pin point white deposits on cortical surface of kidneys with pale yellow discoloration and diffused white deposits on serosal surface of stomach and intestine with bloody ingesta in lumen. The hematological changes included non-significant increase in hemoglobin and total leukocyte count and significant increase in relative neutrophil count. The biochemical changes observed were significant increase in plasma concentration of calcium, phosphorus and blood urea nitrogen, whereas a significant decrease in the concentration of albumin and total plasma protein was observed. The histopathological lesions included calcification of various organs, viz., tongue, stomach, intestines, kidney, heart, aorta, larynx, trachea, lungs, spleen, choroid plexus arteries of brain and vas deferens. The Aloe vera juice (2.5% in drinking water) has no protective effect on vitamin D(3) toxicity (2 mg/kg b.wt.).

  10. Comparative evaluation of the effects of short-term inhalation exposure to diesel engine exhaust on rat lung and brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berlo, Damien van; Albrecht, Catrin; Krutmann, Jean; Schins, Roel P.F. [Institut fuer Umweltmedizinische Forschung (IUF) an der Heinrich-Heine-Universitaet Duesseldorf GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany); Knaapen, Ad M.; Schooten, Frederik-Jan van [Maastricht University, Department of Health Risk Analysis and Toxicology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Cassee, Flemming R.; Gerlofs-Nijland, Miriam E.; Kooter, Ingeborg M. [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Centre for Environmental Health, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Palomero-Gallagher, Nicola [Research Center Juelich, Institute of Neurosciences and Medicine (INM-2), Juelich (Germany); Bidmon, Hans-Juergen [Heinrich-Heine-University, C and O Vogt Institute for Brain Research, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2010-07-15

    Combustion-derived nanoparticles, such as diesel engine exhaust particles, have been implicated in the adverse health effects of particulate air pollution. Recent studies suggest that inhaled nanoparticles may also reach and/or affect the brain. The aim of our study was to comparatively evaluate the effects of short-term diesel engine exhaust (DEE) inhalation exposure on rat brain and lung. After 4 or 18 h recovery from a 2 h nose-only exposure to DEE (1.9 mg/m{sup 3}), the mRNA expressions of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) were investigated in lung as well as in pituitary gland, hypothalamus, olfactory bulb, olfactory tubercles, cerebral cortex, and cerebellum. HO-1 protein expression in brain was investigated by immunohistochemistry and ELISA. In the lung, 4 h post-exposure, CYP1A1 and iNOS mRNA levels were increased, while 18 h post-exposure HO-1 was increased. In the pituitary at 4 h post-exposure, both CYP1A1 and HO-1 were increased; HO-1 was also elevated in the olfactory tuberculum at this time point. At 18 h post-exposure, increased expression of HO-1 and COX-2 was observed in cerebral cortex and cerebellum, respectively. Induction of HO-1 protein was not observed after DEE exposure. Bronchoalveolar lavage analysis of inflammatory cell influx, TNF-{alpha}, and IL-6 indicated that the mRNA expression changes occurred in the absence of lung inflammation. Our study shows that a single, short-term inhalation exposure to DEE triggers region-specific gene expression changes in rat brain to an extent comparable to those observed in the lung. (orig.)

  11. Development of novel budesonide pellets based on CODESTM technology: In vitro/in vivo evaluation in induced colitis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Dorkoosh

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and the purpose of the study: Budesonide is the drug of choice for treatment of active inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. The aim of this study was to develop budesonide pellets based on a novel colon drug delivery system (CODES. Methods: Pellet cores containing lactulose or mannitol were prepared by extrusion/spheronization and coated with an acid soluble polymer (Eudragit E 100, hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC and an enteric coat (Eudragit FS30D sequentially. In vitro drug release of coated pellets was studied using USP dissolution apparatus type II in buffers of pH 1.2 (2 hrs, pH of 7.4 (4 hrs and pH of 6.8 containing 8% rat cecal contents (RCC (18 hrs. The efficacy of the optimized formulation (containing 50% lactulose coated with Eudragit E (30% w/w and Eudragit FS30D (12% w/w was evaluated against 2, 4, 6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS - induced colitis in rats. Results: The results of the kind of bacteria in vitro dissolution tests indicated absence of drug release in pHs of 1.2 and 7.4 and controlled release in buffer of pH 6.8 containing RCC. It was found that release rate was controlled by the type and amount of polysaccharide and the thickness of the acid soluble layer. The prepared formulation showed promising results in alleviating the conditions of experimental model of colitis. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that pellets based on CODES technology could be useful for colonic delivery of budesonide.

  12. Evaluation of photon irradiation treatment upon calcium content of ribs of Wistar rats using micro-XRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parreiras Nogueira, Liebert; Barroso, Regina Cely; Pereira de Almeida, Andre; Braz, Delson; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo de; Salata, Camila; Andrade, Cherley Borba; Silva, Claudia Marcello da [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory / COPPE / UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Physics Institute / State University of Rio de Janeiro, 20550-900, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory / COPPE / UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Laboratory of Radiological Sciences / State University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2012-05-17

    Therapeutic doses of radiation have been shown to have deleterious consequences on bone health. Among the treatment strategies used for breast cancer treatment, the most used are radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Radiotherapy may be given to destroy the cancer cells using high-dose x-rays. Protocols vary considerably, but generally whole body irradiation totals from 10 to 15 Gy, whereas local therapy totals from 40 to 70 Gy. In clinical practice, the quantitative evaluation of bone tissue relies on measurements of bone mineral density values, which are closely associated with the risk of osteoporotic fracture. Improved survivorship rates of cancer patients receiving radiotherapy increase the importance of understanding the mechanisms and long-term effects of radiation-induced bone loss. In this work, we investigated the variation on calcium distribution in ribs of female Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) submitted to photon irradiation with a single dose of 20 Gy. The determination of the calcium distribution was performed using synchrotron radiation microfluorescence (SR-{mu}XRF) at the X-ray Fluorescence beamline at Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS). Animals were irradiated using the linear accelerator Varian registered (CLINAC 2100) at the University Centre for Cancer Control of the State University of Rio de Janeiro (CUCC/UERJ). The total dose delivered was 20 Gy. The animals were about three months old and weighting about 200g. They were distributed into two groups (seven per group): control (did not receive any treatment) and irradiated (submitted to irradiation procedure) groups. Results showed that calcium content decreased within the dorsal ribs of rats submitted to radiotherapy in comparison to the control group.

  13. Evaluation of photon irradiation treatment upon calcium content of ribs of Wistar rats using micro-XRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Liebert Parreiras; Barroso, Regina Cély; de Almeida, André Pereira; Braz, Delson; de Almeida, Carlos Eduardo; Salata, Camila; Andrade, Cherley Borba; da Silva, Claudia Marcello

    2012-05-01

    Therapeutic doses of radiation have been shown to have deleterious consequences on bone health. Among the treatment strategies used for breast cancer treatment, the most used are radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Radiotherapy may be given to destroy the cancer cells using high-dose x-rays. Protocols vary considerably, but generally whole body irradiation totals from 10 to 15 Gy, whereas local therapy totals from 40 to 70 Gy. In clinical practice, the quantitative evaluation of bone tissue relies on measurements of bone mineral density values, which are closely associated with the risk of osteoporotic fracture. Improved survivorship rates of cancer patients receiving radiotherapy increase the importance of understanding the mechanisms and long-term effects of radiation-induced bone loss. In this work, we investigated the variation on calcium distribution in ribs of female Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) submitted to photon irradiation with a single dose of 20 Gy. The determination of the calcium distribution was performed using synchrotron radiation microfluorescence (SR-μXRF) at the X-ray Fluorescence beamline at Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS). Animals were irradiated using the linear accelerator Varian® (CLINAC 2100) at the University Centre for Cancer Control of the State University of Rio de Janeiro (CUCC/UERJ). The total dose delivered was 20 Gy. The animals were about three months old and weighting about 200g. They were distributed into two groups (seven per group): control (did not receive any treatment) and irradiated (submitted to irradiation procedure) groups. Results showed that calcium content decreased within the dorsal ribs of rats submitted to radiotherapy in comparison to the control group.

  14. Evaluation of protein quality from genetically modified and organic soybean in two consecutives generations of wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Beltrame Daleprane

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the cumulative effects of using genetically modified and organic soybean in two generations of rats. Two consecutive generations of 64 Wistar rats denominated F0 and F1 were used. The animals from each generation were divided into three groups (n=8 and fed chow made of organic soybean, genetically modified soybean and casein. The PER, NPR and CAE were determined. ANOVA was applied to the results. In both the generations, a statistically significant (pEste estudo objetivou avaliar os efeitos cumulativos da utilização das sojas geneticamente modificada e orgânica em duas gerações de ratos. Utilizaram-se 64 ratos Wistar, de duas gerações consecutivas denominadas F0 e F1. Os animais de cada geração foram divididos em três grupos (n=8 alimentados com ração à base de soja orgânica, soja geneticamente modificada e caseína. Determinou-se o Quociente de Eficácia Protéica, Razão Protéica Líquida e Quociente de Eficácia Alimentar. Aos resultados aplicou-se ANOVA. Foi encontrada, em ambas as gerações uma diferença significativa (p<0,05 entre os grupos experimentais e o grupo controle. A suplementação dos grupos GOF0 e GOF1 com Lcistina proporcionou um melhor aproveitamento protéico em relação ao GGF0 e GGF1. Mostrando que a soja manteve seu aproveitamento, no entanto sempre inferior à caseína. Deve-se utilizar as sojas geneticamente modificada e orgânica com cautela na fase de crescimento, pois mesmo suplementada com L-cistina estas se mantiveram inferior ao grupo à base de caseína.

  15. Evaluation of the Antinociceptive Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Potentilla Reptans L. in the Adult Male Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mahmoodi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Medicinal plants have been a focus of attention to researchers due to their fewer side effects in treating diseases comared to chemical drugs. Some health properties of medicinal plants such as anti-hypercholesterolemia and antioxidant effects of Potentilla reptans have been proven. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the antinociceptive and analgesic effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Potentilla reptans L. (HEP in the male rat. Methods: In this experimental study, 36 male rats were divided into 6 groups, including: control group (normal saline, morphine group (1mg/kg, HEP groups (treated with 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, and naloxone group (200 mg/kg. Writhing, formalin and tail-flick tests were used to evaluate the analgesic effects of the extract. In order to analyze the study data, variance and Tukey test were applied. Results: The results of the present study demonstrated that in writhing test (P<0.05 and P<0.001 respectively, formalin test (P<0.05, P<0.001 and tail-flick test (P<0.05, P<0.01; the injection of 50, and 100mg/kg dose of the extract produced significant analgesic effects compared with the control group.  50mg/kg dose of Naloxone injection extract has shown a significant analgesic effect in the formalin test (P<0.05. In addition, the effect of the analgesic dose of 100mg/kg of the extract in formalin test was similar to that of morphine. Conclusions: The findings of the current study revealed that Potentilla reptans L. (HEP has a significant analgesic effect. Opioid pathway seems to be one of the possible mechanisms of extract effects, which further clinical trials are recommended  in this case.

  16. Evaluation of the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of essential oil of Nepeta pogonosperma Jamzad et Assadi in rats

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    Saeed Semnanian

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and the purpose of study Concerning the different effects of essential oils from Nepeta genus on the central nervous system including pain killing effect, this study was designed to evaluate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of essential oil of Nepeta pogonosperma Jamzad et Assadi (NP, a recently identified species.MethodsAir-dried aerial parts of NP were hydrodistillated and GC-MS analysis of obtained essential oil was conducted. Total 24 male Wister rats weighing 225 +/- 25 gm were studied. Essential oil of NP was administered intraperitoneally at the doses of 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg for the experimental groups. Control rats received equal volume (2 ml/kg of normal saline. Antinociception was assessed by tail flick test (after 30 minutes and formalin test (for further 60 minutes. Then the animal was sacrificed and the paw edema was measured using a water plethysmometer.Results4aalpha,7alpha,7abeta-nepetalactone and 1,8-cineole were found as the main concentrated components of NP essential oil. All the doses of NP showed antinociception. NP 200 mg/kg reduced the pain sensation in tail flick (p <0.01 and formalin test (p <0.001 in both phases. In paw edema test, NP 100 and 200 mg/kg significantly reduced the inflammation (p <0.01 and p <0.05.ConclusionThis study reveals that the essential oil of NP may minimize both the acute and chronic forms of nociception and may have potent role against inflammation, but the dose should be maintained precisely to obtain the intended effect.

  17. Evaluation of the antidiabetic and antioxidant properties of Morinda lucida stem bark extract in streptozotocin intoxicated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domekouo, Ulrich L F; Longo, Frida; Tarkang, Protus A; Tchinda, Alembert T; Tsabang, Nole; Donfagsiteli, Nehemie T; Tamze, Victorine; Kamtchouing, Pierre; Agbor, Gabriel A

    2016-05-01

    The present research evaluated the antidiabetic and antioxidant properties of M. lucida stem bark (50 and 500mg/kg) and glibenclamide (25mg/kg, standard drug) in acute (Oral glucose tolerance test) and sub-acute (Streptozotocin 60mg/kg, i.p. diabetic model) administration. A group of healthy rats constituted the normal control. The sub-acute experiment lasted 28 days during which water, food intake and weight gain were measured and biochemical parameters analyzed in both plasma and erythrocytes at the end of the experiment. The chemical substances present in M. lucida bark extract were determined. In the Oral glucose tolerance test, the reduction of blood glucose level was statistically significant for both M. lucida extracts and glibenclamide. However, in the diabetic rats acute administration of 500mg/kg extract had better blood sugar lowering effect than glibenclamide, which was better than 50mg/kg extract. Streptozotocin diabetic animal model was characterized by a decrease in weight gain, erythrocyte SOD and CAT activities and an increase in water and food consumption, lipid peroxidation, cholesterol, triglycerides, plasma glucose, creatinine and urea concentrations, and transaminases activities. M. lucida extract and glibenclamide significantly prevented the alteration of these parameters, thus indicating a corrective effect on diabetes and its complications. This study justifies the traditional claim and provides a rationale for the use of M. lucida to treat diabetes. Its antioxidant properties may serve to curb oxidative stress and hence prevent the diabetic complications related to oxidative stress. Chemical substances, which may be accountable for the antidiabetic and antioxidant properties of M. lucida were detected in the aqueous extract of M. lucida bark.

  18. Evaluation of 4,4'-diaminodiphenyl ether in the rat comet assay: Part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative international validation study of in vivo rat alkaline comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priestley, Catherine C; Walker, Joanne S; O'Donovan, Michael R; Doherty, Ann T

    2015-07-01

    As a part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay, 4,4'-diaminodiphenyl ether (DPE), a known rodent genotoxic carcinogen, was tested in this laboratory. Sprague Dawley rats (7-9 weeks of age) were given three oral doses of DPE, 24 and 21 h apart and liver or stomach sampled 3h after the final dose. Under the conditions of the test, no increases in DNA damage in liver and stomach were observed with DPE (up to 200 mg/kg/day). A dose-dependent decrease in DNA migration, compared to vehicle controls, was noted for DPE in rat stomach. Further analysis is required to elucidate fully whether this decrease is a consequence of the mode of action or due to the toxicity of DPE. What is perhaps surprising is the inability of the comet assay to detect a known rat genotoxic carcinogen in liver. Further investigation is needed to clarify whether this apparent lack of response results from limited tissue exposure or metabolic differences between species. This finding highlights a need for careful consideration of study design when evaluating assay performance as a measure of in vivo genotoxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of the Effect of Different Doses of Low Energy Shock Wave Therapy on the Erectile Function of Streptozotocin (STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Zhong-Cheng Xin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the therapeutic effect of different doses of low energy shock wave therapy (LESWT on the erectile dysfunction (ED in streptozotocin (STZ induced diabetic rats. SD rats (n = 75 were randomly divided into 5 groups (normal control, diabetic control, 3 different dose LESWT treated diabetic groups. Diabetic rats were induced by intra-peritoneal injection of STZ (60 mg/kg and rats with fasting blood glucose ≥ 300 mg/dL were selected as diabetic models. Twelve weeks later, different doses of LESWT (100, 200 and 300 shocks each time treatment on penises were used to treat ED (7.33 MPa, 2 shocks/s three times a week for two weeks. The erectile function was evaluated by intracavernous pressure (ICP after 1 week washout period. Then the penises were harvested for histological study. The results showed LESWT could significantly improve the erectile function of diabetic rats, increase smooth muscle and endothelial contents, up-regulate the expression of α-SMA, vWF, nNOS and VEGF, and down- regulate the expression of RAGE in corpus cavernosum. The therapeutic effect might relate to treatment dose positively, and the maximal therapeutic effect was noted in the LESWT300 group. Consequently, 300 shocks each time might be the ideal LESWT dose for diabetic ED treatment.

  20. Evaluation of the marine alga Ulva rigida as a food supplement: effect of intake on intestinal, hepatic, and renal enzyme activities in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taboada, Cristina; Millán, Rosendo; Míguez, Isabel

    2011-01-01

    The use of seaweeds as a food is more widespread in Eastern than in Western countries, although demand for these plants has increased in the West because their possible usefulness as dietary supplements. However, very little is known about the effects of regular consumption of algae. The aim of the present study was to determine the composition of Ulva rigida and to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of the diet with 10% alga for 4 weeks on dietary intake, growth, protein efficiency ratio, diet conversion ratio, and some organ weights in growing male rats. We also studied the effect of inclusion of the alga in the diet on intestinal, hepatic, and renal enzymatic activities. U. rigida was found to be a good source of protein and carbohydrates. Food intake was higher in the U. rigida group than in the control group, but ingestion of alga did not have any effect on the other trophic parameters. The intestinal disaccharidase and leucine aminopeptidase activities were lower in rats fed with alga than in control rats, but γ-glutamyl transpeptidase activity was higher in the kidneys of alga-fed rats than in control rats. U. rigida contains high amounts of protein, carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals and low amounts of lipids. Analysis of the amino acid composition revealed good-quality protein. The addition of alga to the diet inhibited disaccharidase activities, which suggested that alga consumption could be useful in some chronic disorders associated with pertubations of glucose homeostasis caused by carbohydrate absorption.

  1. Evaluation of wound healing treated with latex derived from rubber trees and Aloe Vera extract in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Marcelo Luiz; Reis, Paulo Roberto Melo; Araújo, Lilhian Alves de; Araújo, Ana Carolina Vicente; Santos, Maisa Helena de Abreu Silva; Miguel, Marina Pacheco

    2016-09-01

    To compare the use of latex derivative and Aloe vera extract to wound healing. Twenty one rats were randomly divided into three groups and each one had a wound made by incision. The treatment consisted in: derivative of latex (GL), Aloe vera extract (GA) and saline solution (GC). The wound area was measured on the 7th, 14th and 21st days and macroscopic and microscopic evaluation were done. The comparison between the measurements of the wounds presented statistical difference in GC and GA from the 7th day of evaluation and GL from the 14th day. The extent of the wound was significantly smaller by the 7th day in GL. Histologically, in GL, the neovascularization was significant on the 7th, 14th and 21st days. On the 21st day the scar was large and little mature. In GA and GC, the findings were similar on the 7th, 14th and 21st days with a slight better organization of skin and collagen on the 21st in GA. Statistical analysis did not allow for the definition of the best topical agent. The latex had the highest angiogenesis, but a possible foreign body granuloma. Aloe vera has revealed a healing process adequated temporally in histology.

  2. Comprehensive Evaluation of Anti-hyperglycemic Activity of Fractionated Momordica charantia Seed Extract in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Shailesh Kumar Choudhary

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates anti-hyperglycemic activity of fractionated Momordica charantia (bitter gourd seed extracts. Fasting blood glucose levels were evaluated before and after administration of different fractions of the seed extract. Among the three fractions tested, fraction Mc-3 (15 mg/kg b.wt. showed the maximum anti-hyperglycemic activity and reduced blood glucose levels in experimental diabetic rats significantly. The activities of the key regulatory enzymes of glucose metabolism (hexokinase, pyruvate kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were determined in Mc-3-treated diabetic animals. Once-daily administration of the fraction Mc-3 for prolonged period of 18 days to the experimental diabetic animals did not result in any nephrotoxicity or hepatotoxicity as evident from insignificant changes in biochemical parameters indicative of liver and kidney functions. Further fractionation of the fraction Mc-3 by size exclusion chromatography resulted in a fraction, designated Mc-3.2, possessing anti-hyperglycemic activity. The fraction Mc-3.2 showed the presence of a predominant protein band of ~11 kDa on SDS-PAGE. Loss in anti-hyperglycemic activity of the Mc-3.2 upon protease treatment indicates the proteinaceous nature of the anti-hyperglycemic principles. Overall, the results suggest that Momordica charantia seeds contain an effective anti-hyperglycemic protein(s which may find application in treatment of diabetes without evident toxic effects.

  3. Bypassing hazard of housekeeping genes: Their evaluation in rat granule neurons treated with cerebrospinal fluid of Multiple Sclerosis subjects

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    Deepali eMathur

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Gene expression studies employing real-time PCR has become an intrinsic part of biomedical research. Appropriate normalization of target gene transcript(s based on stably expressed housekeeping genes is crucial in individual experimental conditions to obtain accurate results. In multiple sclerosis (MS, several gene expression studies have been undertaken, however, the suitability of housekeeping genes to express stably in this disease is not yet explored. Recent research suggests that their expression level may vary under different experimental conditions. Hence it is indispensible to evaluate their expression stability to accurately normalize target gene transcripts. The present study aims to evaluate the expression stability of seven housekeeping genes in rat granule neurons treated with cerebrospinal fluid of MS patients. The selected reference genes were quantified by real time PCR and their expression stability was assessed using GeNorm and NormFinder algorithms. Both methods reported transferrin receptor (Tfrc and microglobulin beta-2 (B2m the most stable genes whereas beta-actin (ActB and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase (Gapdh the most fluctuated ones. Altogether our data demonstrate the significance of pre-validation of housekeeping genes for accurate normalization and indicates Tfrc and B2m as best endogenous controls in MS. ActB and Gapdh are not recommended in gene expression studies related to the current one.

  4. Evaluation of antinociceptive activity of aqueous extract of bark of psidium guajava in albino rats and albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhar, N Chandra; Jayasree, T; Ubedulla, Shaikh; Dixit, Rohit; V S, Manohar; J, Shankar

    2014-09-01

    Psidium guajava is commonly known as guava. Psidium guajava is a medium sized tree belonging to the family Myrtaceae found throughout the tropics. All the parts of the plant, the leaves, followed by the fruits, bark and the roots are used in traditional medicine. The traditional uses of the plant are Antidiarrheal, Antimicrobial Activity, Antimalarial/Antiparasitic Activity, Antitussive and antihyperglycaemic. Leaves are used as Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic and Antinociceptive effects. To evaluate the antinociceptive activity of aqueous extract of bark of Psidium guajava in albino rats with that of control and standard analgesic drugs aspirin and tramadol. Mechanical (Tail clip method) and thermal (Tail flick method using Analgesiometer), 0.6% solution of acetic acid writhing models of nociception were used to evaluate the extract antinociceptive activity. Six groups of animals, each consists of 10 animals, first one as control, second and third as standard drugs, Aspirin and Tramadol, fourth, fifth and sixth groups as text received the extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/ kg) orally 60 min prior to subjection to the respective test. The results obtained demonstrated that aqueous extract of bark of Psidium guajava produced significant antinociceptive response in all the mechanical and thermal-induced nociception models. AEPG antinociceptive activity involves activation of the peripheral and central mechanisms.

  5. Histological and ultrastructural evaluation of the early healing of the lateral collateral ligament epiligament tissue in a rat knee model

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    Kinov Plamen S

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study, we evaluated the changes which occurred in the epiligament, an enveloping tissue of the ligament, during the ligament healing. We assessed the association of epiligament elements that could be involved in ligament healing. Methods Thirty-two 8-month old male Wistar rats were used in this study. In twenty-four of them the lateral collateral ligament of the knee joint was surgically transected and was allowed to heal spontaneously. The evaluation of the epiligament healing included light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Results At the eight, sixteenth and thirtieth day after injury, the animals were sacrificed and the ligaments were examined. Our results revealed that on the eight and sixteenth day post-injury the epiligament tissue is not completely regenerated. Till the thirtieth day after injury the epiligament is similar to normal, but not fully restored. Conclusion Our study offered a more complete description of the epiligament healing process and defined its important role in ligament healing. Thus, we provided a base for new strategies in ligament treatment.

  6. Histological and ultrastructural evaluation of the early healing of the lateral collateral ligament epiligament tissue in a rat knee model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Georgi P; Vidinov, Nikolai K; Kinov, Plamen S

    2010-06-13

    In this study, we evaluated the changes which occurred in the epiligament, an enveloping tissue of the ligament, during the ligament healing. We assessed the association of epiligament elements that could be involved in ligament healing. Thirty-two 8-month old male Wistar rats were used in this study. In twenty-four of them the lateral collateral ligament of the knee joint was surgically transected and was allowed to heal spontaneously. The evaluation of the epiligament healing included light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. At the eight, sixteenth and thirtieth day after injury, the animals were sacrificed and the ligaments were examined. Our results revealed that on the eight and sixteenth day post-injury the epiligament tissue is not completely regenerated. Till the thirtieth day after injury the epiligament is similar to normal, but not fully restored. Our study offered a more complete description of the epiligament healing process and defined its important role in ligament healing. Thus, we provided a base for new strategies in ligament treatment.

  7. Evaluation of male germ cell toxicity in rats: correlation between sperm head morphology and sperm comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, P P; Kushwaha, S; Tripathi, D N; Jena, G B

    2010-12-21

    The present study was aimed to investigate the germ cell toxicity of doxorubicin and find out the possible correlation between sperm head morphological evaluation and sperm comet assay, which are used to assess male germ cell toxicity. The correlation between these two assays was validated using a potent germ cell toxicant, doxorubicin, in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Doxorubicin was administered intra-peritionally at the doses of 1.25, 2.5 and 5mg/kg weekly once for a period of 5 weeks and all the animals were sacrificed after 1 week of receiving the last dose. The germ cell toxicity of doxorubicin was assessed using oxidative stress parameters, sperm head morphology, sperm comet assay, halo assay and histology in testes as the end point of evaluation. A significant increase in the % abnormality in sperm head was found in the animals treated with 2.5 and 5mg/kg/week doxorubicin. Doxorubicin treatment significantly increased the DNA damage of sperm in a dose-dependent manner as observed by sperm comet assay parameters. A strong positive correlation was observed between the sperm head morphological evaluation and the sperm comet assay. Therefore, it can be concluded that the damage in genetic material of sperm may result into abnormalities in the sperm head morphology. The sperm head morphological evaluation is considered to be essential for the assessment of male germ cell toxicity by several regulatory bodies like the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH). However, acceptance of the sperm comet assay by regulatory authorities as a standard genotoxicity test for assessing male germ cell toxicity still requires further validation of the assay. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of reproductive function of female rats exposed to radiofrequency fields (27. 12 MHz) near a shortwave diathermy device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown-Woodman, P.D.; Hadley, J.A.; Richardson, L.; Bright, D.; Porter, D.

    1989-04-01

    In recent years, there has been increased concern regarding effects of operator exposure to the electromagnetic (EM) field associated with shortwave diathermy devices. The present study was designed to investigate the effects, on rats, of repeated exposure to such an EM field. Following repeated exposure for 5 wk, a reduction in fertility occurred as indicated by a reduced number of matings in exposed rats compared to sham-irradiated rats and a reduction in the number of rats that conceived after mating. The data suggest that female operators could experience reduced fertility, if they remained close to the console for prolonged periods. This has particular significant for the physiotherapy profession.

  9. Evaluation of reproductive function of female rats exposed to radiofrequency fields (27.12 MHz) near a shortwave diathermy device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Woodman, P D; Hadley, J A; Richardson, L; Bright, D; Porter, D

    1989-04-01

    In recent years, there has been increased concern regarding effects of operator exposure to the electromagnetic (EM) field associated with shortwave diathermy devices. The present study was designed to investigate the effects, on rats, of repeated exposure to such an EM field. Following repeated exposure for 5 wk, a reduction in fertility occurred as indicated by a reduced number of matings in exposed rats compared to sham-irradiated rats and a reduction in the number of rats that conceived after mating. The data suggest that female operators could experience reduced fertility, if they remained close to the console for prolonged periods. This has particular significant for the physiotherapy profession.

  10. Comparative Evaluation of the Impact of Subacute Exposure of Smokeless Tobacco and Tobacco Smoke on Rat Testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonah Sydney Aprioku

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of 30-day exposure to tobacco smoke (TS, smokeless tobacco (ST, and nicotine on reproductive parameters and oxidative biomarkers in prepubertal and adult male rats. Sperm motility was reduced by 77.5 and 89.0% in TS and ST exposed prepubertal rats and 71.1 and 86.4% in adult rats, respectively. Sperm count was also reduced by 64.7 and 89.9% in prepubertal rats and 64.9 and 47.0% in adult rats, respectively. Nicotine decreased sperm motility (82.2% and count (62.6% in prepubertal rats but caused no effect in adult rats. There were no changes in sperm morphology; testosterone was decreased, while LH and FSH were increased in exposed rats, when compared with control. Malondialdehyde levels in testes of exposed rats were increased, and GSH, SOD, and catalase were altered. Results indicate that subacute exposure of tobacco products alters sperm characteristics in a rank order of ST > TS > nicotine, which may be linked to increase in oxidative stress in the testis.

  11. Toxicity Evaluation following Intratracheal Instillation of Iron Oxide in a Silica Matrix in Rats

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    Alina Mihaela Prodan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron oxide-silica nanoparticles (IOSi-NPs were prepared from a mixture of ferrous chloride tetrahydrate and ferric chloride hexahydrate dropped into a silica xerogel composite. The structure and morphology of the synthesized maghemite nanoparticles into the silica xerogel were analysed by X-ray diffraction measurements, scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer, and transmission electron microscopy. The results of the EDAX analysis indicated that the embedded particles were iron oxide nanoparticles. The particle size of IOSi-NPs calculated from the XRD analysis was estimated at around 12.5 nm. The average size deduced from the particle size distribution is 13.7 ± 0.6 nm, which is in good agreement with XRD analysis. The biocompatibility of IOSi-NPs was assessed by cell viability and cytoskeleton analysis. Histopathology analysis was performed after 24 hours and 7 days, respectively, from the intratracheal instillation of a solution containing 0.5, 2.5, or 5 mg/kg IOSi-NPs. The pathological micrographs of lungs derived from rats collected after the intratracheal instillation with a solution containing 0.5 mg/kg and 2.5 mg/kg IOSi-NPs show that the lung has preserved the architecture of the control specimen with no significant differences. However, even at concentrations of 5 mg/kg, the effect of IOSi-NPS on the lungs was markedly reduced at 7 days posttreatment.

  12. Evaluation of the chemical model of vestibular lesions induced by arsanilate in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vignaux, G. [INSERM, ERI27, Caen, F-14000 (France); Univ Caen, Caen, F-14000 (France); Chabbert, C.; Gaboyard-Niay, S.; Travo, C. [INSERM U1051, Institut des Neurosciences de Montpellier, Montpellier, F-34090,France (France); Machado, M.L. [INSERM, ERI27, Caen, F-14000 (France); Univ Caen, Caen, F-14000 (France); Denise, P. [INSERM, ERI27, Caen, F-14000 (France); Univ Caen, Caen, F-14000 (France); CHRU Caen, Explorations Fonctionnelles, Caen, F-14000 (France); Comoz, F. [CHRU Caen, Laboratoire d' anatomopathologie, Caen, F-14000 (France); Hitier, M. [CHRU Caen, Service d' Otorhinolaryngologie, Caen, F-14000,France (France); Landemore, G. [CHRU Caen, Laboratoire d' anatomopathologie, Caen, F-14000 (France); Philoxène, B. [INSERM, ERI27, Caen, F-14000 (France); Univ Caen, Caen, F-14000 (France); CHRU Caen, Explorations Fonctionnelles, Caen, F-14000 (France); Besnard, S., E-mail: besnard-s@phycog.org [INSERM, ERI27, Caen, F-14000 (France); Univ Caen, Caen, F-14000 (France); CHRU Caen, Explorations Fonctionnelles, Caen, F-14000 (France)

    2012-01-01

    Several animal models of vestibular deficits that mimic the human pathology phenotype have previously been developed to correlate the degree of vestibular injury to cognate vestibular deficits in a time-dependent manner. Sodium arsanilate is one of the most commonly used substances for chemical vestibular lesioning, but it is not well described in the literature. In the present study, we used histological and functional approaches to conduct a detailed exploration of the model of vestibular lesions induced by transtympanic injection of sodium arsanilate in rats. The arsanilate-induced damage was restricted to the vestibular sensory organs without affecting the external ear, the oropharynx, or Scarpa's ganglion. This finding strongly supports the absence of diffusion of arsanilate into the external ear or Eustachian tubes, or through the eighth cranial nerve sheath leading to the brainstem. One of the striking observations of the present study is the complete restructuring of the sensory epithelia into a non sensory epithelial monolayer observed at 3 months after arsanilate application. This atrophy resembles the monolayer epithelia observed postmortem in the vestibular epithelia of patients with a history of lesioned vestibular deficits such as labyrinthectomy, antibiotic treatment, vestibular neuritis, or Ménière's disease. In cases of Ménière's disease, aminoglycosides, and platinum-based chemotherapy, vestibular hair cells are destroyed, regardless of the physiopathological process, as reproduced with the arsanilate model of vestibular lesion. These observations, together with those presented in this study of arsanilate vestibular toxicity, suggest that this atrophy process relies on a common mechanism of degeneration of the sensory epithelia.

  13. Evaluation of 90-day oral rat toxicity studies on the food additive, gum ghatti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maronpot, Robert R; Davis, Jeffrey; Moser, Glenda; Giri, Dipak K; Hayashi, Shim-Mo

    2013-01-01

    Gum ghatti, a polysaccharide of natural origin, is used in foods as a thickening, gelling, emulsifying and stabilizing agent. In a 90-day toxicity study following Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Guideline #408, male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 0 (control), 0.5, 1.5 and 5% gum ghatti in AIN-93M basal diet. Expected changes included increased full and empty cecal weights in 5% groups. Incidentally 2/10 females from the 5% gum ghatti group had a single colon ulcer with associated acute inflammation. In a second 90-day study increased cecal weights were present in Sprague-Dawley females exposed to 5% gum ghatti in AIN-93M and NIH-07 basal diets. A single colon ulcer with associated acute inflammation occurred in 1/20 control females given AIN-93M basal diet. The colon ulcers were considered a sporadic change possibly attributable to AIN-93M basal diet. In the second study a few statistically significant alterations in clinical chemistry were considered sporadic and unrelated to treatment. Feed consumption among treated and control groups was similar for each sex. Gum ghatti intake at the 5% dietary level ranged from 3044 to 3825mg/kg body weight/day. The 5% dietary administration was a NOAEL in both studies. NOAELs for males and females in the first study were 3044 and 3309mg/kg/day, respectively. NOAELs for females in the second study were 3670 and 3825mg/kg/day for AIN-93M and NIH-07 diets, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Structural imaging of the pancreas in rat using micro-CT: application to a non-invasivelongitudinal evaluation of pancreatic ductal carcinoma monitoring

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    Akladios CY

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of a longitudinal non-invasive monitoring of rat pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC using microCTscans (μCT. The identification of the pancreatic gland on (μCT was performed at first using contrast products (Fenestra LC and VC, v/v at a dosage of 0.5 ml/Kg of body weight. Then orthotopic PDAC developed in adult Lewis rat was detected and monitored. In vivo μCT measurement of tumor was compared to actual size ex vivo in 12 rats. Gemcitabine treatment of PDAC was monitored at two week intervals until defined endpoints (liver metastasis or ascitis in 10 rats versus 10 controls. μCT had a 100% positive predictive value in the detection of orthotropic PDAC. Regression analysis showed a linear correlation between ex vivo and in vivo μCT tumor measurements. Longitudinal evaluation of tumor progression showed a reduction in tumor growth (P<0.05 at 8 weeks and a slightly prolonged survival (P=0.15 under gemcitabine treatment. In conclusion μCT appears to be a cost-effective mean for preclinical study of PDAC saving time, animals, while respecting animal welfare. It could be considered as an efficient tool in anticancer drug research and development.

  15. Evaluation of the effects of ozone therapy in the treatment of intra-abdominal infection in rats

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    Yglesio Moyses de Souza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The antibacterial effect of ozone (O3 has been described in the extant literature, but the role of O3 therapy in the treatment of certain types of infection remains controversial. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of intraperitoneal (i.p. O3 application in a cecal ligation/puncture rat model on interleukins (IL-6, IL-10 and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC-1 serum levels, acute lung injury and survival rates. METHODS: Four animal groups were used for the study: a the SHAM group underwent laparotomy; b the cecal ligation/puncture group underwent cecal ligation/puncture procedures; and c the CLP+O2 and CLP+O3 groups underwent CLP+ corresponding gas mixture infusions (i.p. throughout the observation period. IL-6, CINC-1 and IL-10 concentrations were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Acute lung injury was evaluated with the Evans blue dye lung leakage method and by lung histology. P<0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: CINC-1 was at the lowest level in the SHAM group and was lower for the CLP+O3 group vs. the CLP+O2 group and the cecal ligation/puncture group. IL-10 was lower for the SHAM group vs. the other three groups, which were similar compared to each ot