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Sample records for evaluate effective border

  1. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Border Policies in Dehong Prefecture of Yunnan, China

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    Qianlong Bie

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available With the process of globalization, many political geographers and research institutions have begun to focus on borders and border areas. Faced with the current debate on the border policies, this paper reviews the former research relating to border studies and provides an evaluation of China’s border policies. The literatures on border effects reveal that national boundaries have a significant impact on the economic, social and cultural relations of both border regions. Because of these effects, each country has to adjust its border policies in different periods. In this paper, a perspective is provided for evaluating the effectiveness of China’s border policy based on the Kaldor-Hicks analysis method. We investigated the border policies in Dehong Autonomous Prefecture in Yunnan province of China from 1949 to 2012, and evaluated the effectiveness of the border policy using the Kaldor-Hicks method. The conclusions include: first, the Kaldor-Hicks method can be seen as effective method to evaluate the effectiveness of China’s border policies. Second, based on the Kaldor-Hicks method, we observe the overall effects of the adjustments made to the border policies in Dehong Prefecture were positive. However, sometimes the border trade policy is good for the country as a whole, but not necessarily for Dehong Prefecture. For the sake of the whole country, adjustments in border trade policy need to be compensated by financial transfer payments. In addition, the combined effects of the cross-border marriages policy are not immediately obvious.

  2. The impact of Border policy effect on cross-border ethnic areas

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    Bie, Q. L.; Zhou, S. Y.; Li, C. S.

    2013-11-01

    Boundary effect analysis is related to border policy making in the cross-border ethnic area. The border effect literatures show that geographic boundaries have obvious impacts on economic, social and cultural relations in both sides of a nation border. Particularly in cross-border ethnic areas, each ethnic group has strong internal spatial structure relevance, and the boundary effect is more obvious. However, most of China's border areas are cross-border ethnic areas, each of border issues is unique. Under this perspective, we analyze the border effects of various boundaries can provide basis for formulating border management policies. For small scale of cross-border ethnic minority areas, how to formulate the boundary management policy is a good question to explore. This paper is demonstrated by a study of the impact of border management policies in Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture in Yunnan Province at the border area to Burma. The comparative method is used to analysis the border management policies in past 50 decades for the border area of Yunnan Province .This research aims to define trends within border policy and its influences to national security. This paper also examines Wendy Brown's liberal theory of border management policy. We found that it is not suitable for Sino-Burma border area. The conclusion is that the changes or instability of international economic and political situation has more influence to this cross-border ethnic area, and only innovative policy will be effective in cross-border ethnic area. So the border management policies should reflect the change of international context.

  3. Cross-border policy effects on alcohol outcomes: drinking without thinking on the u.s.-Mexico border?

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    Mills, Britain A; Caetano, Raul; Vaeth, Patrice

    2014-11-01

    Rates of alcohol-related outcomes are sensitive to policy differences in politically distinct, adjacent territories. Factors that shape these cross-border effects, particularly when the policy differences are longstanding, remain poorly understood. We compared the ability of 2 classes of variables with theoretical relevance to the U.S.-Mexico border context-bar attendance and alcohol-related social-cognitive variables-to explain elevated drinking on the U.S. side of the border relative to other areas of the United States. Data were collected from multistage cluster samples of adult Mexican Americans on and off the U.S.-Mexico border (current drinker N = 1,351). Structural equation models were used to test drinking context (frequency of bar attendance) and 6 different social-cognitive variables (including alcohol-related attitudes, norms, motives, and beliefs) as mediators of border effects on a composite drinking index. The border effect on drinking varied by age (with younger adults showing a stronger effect), consistent with previous findings and known risk factors in the region. Contrary to theoretical expectations, 6 different social-cognitive variables-despite relating strongly with drinking-were comparable in border and nonborder areas (within and across age) and played no role in elevated drinking on the border. Conversely, elevated drinking among border youth was mediated by bar attendance. This mediated moderation effect held after adjusting for potential sociodemographic and neighborhood-level confounders. Increased drinking among U.S.-Mexico border youth is explained by patterns of bar attendance, but not by more permissive alcohol-related social-cognitive variables in border areas: Border youth attend bars and drink more than their nonborder counterparts, despite having comparable alcohol-related beliefs, attitudes, norms, and motives for use. Alcohol's heightened availability and visibility on both sides of the border may create opportunities for

  4. Border effects on DSM-5 alcohol use disorders on both sides of the U.S.-Mexico border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherpitel, Cheryl J; Ye, Yu; Bond, Jason; Zemore, Sarah E; Borges, Guilherme; Greenfield, Thomas K

    2015-03-01

    Little epidemiological evidence exists on alcohol use and related problems along the U.S.-Mexico border, although the borderlands have been the focus of recent media attention related to the escalating drug/violence "epidemic". In the present study, the relationship of proximity of living at the border and alcohol use disorders (AUDs) is analyzed from the U.S.-Mexico Study on Alcohol and Related Conditions (UMSARC). Household surveys were conducted on 2336 Mexican Americans in Texas (771 in a non-border city and 1565 from three border cities located in the three poorest counties in the U.S.) and 2460 Mexicans from the states of Nuevo Leon and Tamaulipas in Mexico (811 in a non-border city and 1649 from three cities which are sister cities to the Texas border sites). Among current drinkers, prevalence of AUD was marginally greater (psister city counterparts on the same side. Border effects appeared greater for males than females in the U.S. and the opposite in Mexico. The data suggest that border proximity may affect AUD in both the U.S. and Mexico, but in the opposite direction, and may be related to the relative perceived or actual stress of living in the respective communities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. EVALUATION OF PROGRAM BORDER MANAGEMENT TO KEEP SOVEREIGN NATION THE NORTH KALIMANTAN (Regional leadership Based on Transformational Leadership and lokal wisdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dicky Wainal Usman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to evaluate on five (5 steps;: (1 design of Border Management, (2 installation for Border Management,(3 process of Border Management, (4 product of Border Management, and cost / benefit for Border Management, for keep sovereign nation on North Kalimantan, This research is the programme evaluation research use Discrepancy Evaluation Model (DEM, data collection techniques are using; interview, observation, documentation and questionnaire for analyzer discussion support. Analysis of the data uses Raph Tylor model as follows data reduction, data display and verification as conclusion. Results of this research include: (1 draft design, (2 border management plan, (3 compile of policy strategy with the help of stakeholders and HR agencies (4 the process of planning, organizing, staffing, directing, coordinating, reporting and budgeting for border management, and (5lack of budget management.Besides is non-functioning of transformational leadership and effective local wisdom on North Kalimantan Keywords: Program Evaluation, Border Management, Regional Leadership, Transformational Leadership, Local Wisdom, Discrepancy Evaluation Model (DEM

  6. Border screening vs. community level disease control for infectious diseases: Timing and effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sehjeong; Chang, Dong Eui

    2017-06-01

    There have been many studies of the border screening using a simple math model or a statistical analysis to investigate the ineffectiveness of border screening during 2003 and 2009 pandemics. However, the use of border screening is still a controversial issue. It is due to focusing only on the functionality of border screening without considering the timing to use. In this paper, we attempt to qualitatively answer whether the use of border screening is a desirable action during a disease pandemic. Thus, a novel mathematical model with a transition probability of status change during flight and border screening is developed. A condition to check a timing of the border screening is established in terms of a lower bound of the basic reproduction number. If the lower bound is greater than one, which indicates a pandemic, then the border screening may not be effective and the disease persists. In this case, a community level control strategy should be conducted.

  7. Learning effects of different training models for border molding from the perspective of dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Mai; Sato, Yusuke; Hirajima, Yuki; Minakuchi, Shunsuke

    2017-12-16

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different practical training models on the comprehension and evaluation of practical training among dental students. The study subjects were all sixth-year dental students at our institute, and the study took place over three consecutive years (n = 58, 63, and 65, respectively). In practical training, all students learned border molding, and practical models were modified each year from plaster models to silicone models and then to silicone models mounted in mannequins. Immediately after completing clinical training, all students were asked to complete questionnaires consisting of 21 items regarding their overall practical training and their clinical comprehension of border molding. All items were rated on a five-point Likert scale, and in order to reduce the large number of interrelated questions, exploratory factor analysis was carried out using maximum likelihood estimation with promax rotation (κ = 4) and Kaiser normalization. The number of factors was chosen using the Kaiser-Guttman rule, which states that the eigenvalue should be larger than 1, and the scree plot criteria. Items that scored less than 0.25 in communality and exhibited factor loading greater than 0.35 for more than one item were excluded. The defined factors were analyzed for the plaster models, the silicone models alone, and the silicone models with mannequins using the Kruskal-Wallis test and follow-up tests using Bonferroni-corrected Mann-Whitney U tests. The significance level was set at p students who used silicone models and mannequins gave significantly better evaluations on the "knowledge of border molding" (p students for any model. The change in practical training models from plaster to silicone improved student evaluations of border molding training.

  8. Cost and effectiveness analysis on unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) use at border security

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    Yilmaz, Bahadır.

    2013-06-01

    Drones and Remotely Piloted Vehicles are types of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. UAVs began to be used with the war of Vietnam, they had a great interest when Israel used them in Bekaa Valley Operations of 1982. UAVs have been used by different countries with different aims with the help of emerging technology and investments. In this article, in the context of areas of UAV usage in national security, benefits and disadvantages of UAVs are put forward. Particularly, it has been evaluated on the basis of cost-effectiveness by focusing the use of UAV in the border security. UAVs have been studied by taking cost analysis, procurement and operational costs into consideration. Analysis of effectiveness has been done with illegal passages of people and drugs from flight times of UAVs. Although the procurement cost of the medium-level UAVs is low, its operational costs are high. For this reason, the idea of less costly alternative systems have been revealed for the border security. As the costs are reduced to acceptable level involving national security and border security in future with high-technology products in their structure, it will continue to be used in an increasing proportion.

  9. Improving the Validity of Squeeze Film Air-Damping Model of MEMS Devices with Border Effect

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    Cheng Bai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of squeezed film air damping is critical in the design and control of dynamic MEMS devices. The published squeezed film air damping models are generally derived from the analytical solutions of Reynolds equation or its other modified forms under the supposition of trivial pressure boundary conditions on the peripheral borders. These treatments ignoring the border effect can not give faithful result for structure with smaller air venting gap or the double-gimbaled structure in which the inner frame and outer one affect the air venting. In this paper, we use Green’s function to solve the nonlinear Reynolds equation with inhomogeneous boundary conditions. For two typical normal motion cases of parallel plate, the analytical models of squeeze film damping force with border effect are established. The viscous and inertial losses with real values and image values acoustic impedance are all included in the model. These models reduced the time consumption while giving satisfactory result. Without multifield coupling analysis, the estimation of the dynamic behavior of MEMS device is also allowed, and the simulation of the system performance is more convenient.

  10. Relationship between Teachers' Effective Communication and Students' Academic Achievement at the Northern Border University

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    Al-Madani, Feras Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Effective communication between faculty members and students is one of the concerns of the educational stakeholders at the Northern Border University, Saudi Arabia. This study investigates the relationship between teachers' effective communication and students' academic achievement at the Northern Border University. The survey questionnaire…

  11. EVALUATION OF PROGRAM BORDER MANAGEMENT TO KEEP SOVEREIGN NATION THE NORTH KALIMANTAN (Regional leadership Based on Transformational Leadership and lokal wisdom)

    OpenAIRE

    Usman, Dicky Wainal; Djaali, Djaali; R. Madhakomala, R. Madhakomala

    2017-01-01

    This research aimed to evaluate on five (5) steps;: (1) design of Border Management, (2) installation for Border Management,(3) process of Border Management, (4) product of Border Management, and cost / benefit for Border Management, for keep sovereign nation on North Kalimantan, This research is the programme evaluation research use Discrepancy Evaluation Model (DEM), data collection techniques are using; interview, observation, documentation and questionnaire for analyzer discussion support...

  12. Alleviating Border Effects in Wavelet Transforms for Nonlinear Time-varying Signal Analysis

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    SU, H.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Border effects are very common in many finite signals analysis and processing approaches using convolution operation. Alleviating the border effects that can occur in the processing of finite-length signals using wavelet transform is considered in this paper. Traditional methods for alleviating the border effects are suitable to compression or coding applications. We propose an algorithm based on Fourier series which is proved to be appropriate to the application of time-frequency analysis of nonlinear signals. Fourier series extension method preserves the time-varying characteristics of the signals. A modified signal duration expression for measuring the extent of border effects region is presented. The proposed algorithm is confirmed to be efficient to alleviate the border effects in comparison to the current methods through the numerical examples.

  13. Developing Effective School Relationships with Parents on the Border.

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    Cooper, Kelt L.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses eight key elements that should be included in programs (in school districts along the United States-Mexico border) designed to boost immigrant parents' participation and involvement in their children's education. (SR)

  14. SURDEV: surface irrigation software; design, operation, and evaluation of basin, border, and furrow irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jurriëns, M.; Zerihun, D.; Boonstra, J.; Feyen, J.

    2001-01-01

    SURDEV is a computer package for the design, operation, and evaluation of surface irrigation. SURDEV combines three sub-programs: BASDEV (for basin irrigation), FURDEV (for furrow irrigation), and BORDEV for (border irrigation). This combination enables the user to simulate many of the problems

  15. Effort to test, evaluate and deploy technologies to automate the measurement of real-time border wait times at United States-Canada land border crossings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    The United States and Canada share the largest bi-national trading relationship in the world. An efficient and cost-effective border crossing system for both freight and passenger vehicle traffic is thus vital to the economic well-being and security ...

  16. Measuring the Effectiveness of Border Security Between Ports of Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ts of migration. Massey, Durand, and Malone (2003) argue that neoclassical theory has limited explanatory power and, in fact, that immigration is...interpreted in the context of dif- ferent theories of how and why immigration occurs. Various theories explain immigration— for example, as a migrant’s...Durand, and Malone, 2003). One theory of how border security aff ects migration is that migrants employ a cost-benefi t calculation when deciding

  17. Decision support model for evaluating biofuel development along the U.S.-Mexico border.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Correa, Alberto (Bi-National Sustainability Laboratory Santa Teresa, NM); Maxwell, Paul (Bi-National Sustainability Laboratory Santa Teresa, NM); Malczynski, Leonard A.

    2010-04-01

    Recently, Sandia National Laboratories and General Motors cooperated on the development of the Biofuels Deployment Model (BDM) to assess the feasibility, implications, limitations, and enablers of producing 90 billion gallons of ethanol per year by 2030. Leveraging the past investment, a decision support model based on the BDM is being developed to assist investors, entrepreneurs, and decision makers in evaluating the costs and benefits associated with biofuels development in the U.S.-Mexico border region. Specifically, the model is designed to assist investors and entrepreneurs in assessing the risks and opportunities associated with alternative biofuels development strategies along the U.S.-Mexico border, as well as, assist local and regional decision makers in understanding the tradeoffs such development poses to their communities. The decision support model is developed in a system dynamics framework utilizing a modular architecture that integrates the key systems of feedstock production, transportation, and conversion. The model adopts a 30-year planning horizon, operating on an annual time step. Spatially the model is disaggregated at the county level on the U.S. side of the border and at the municipos level on the Mexican side. The model extent includes Luna, Hildalgo, Dona Anna, and Otero counties in New Mexico, El Paso and Hudspeth counties in Texas, and the four munipos along the U.S. border in Chihuahua. The model considers a variety of feedstocks; specifically, algae, gitropha, castor oil, and agricultural waste products from chili and pecans - identifying suitable lands for these feedstocks, possible yields, and required water use. The model also evaluates the carbon balance for each crop and provides insight into production costs including labor demands. Finally, the model is fitted with an interactive user interface comprised of a variety of controls (e.g., slider bars, radio buttons), descriptive text, and output graphics allowing stakeholders to

  18. Effectiveness of cross-border knowledge transfer in Malaysian MSC status corporations

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    Aaron Sow Yee Pook

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge has become the key asset for the economy to gain competitiveness as more and more countries have shifted or are shifting towards knowledge-based economy, no exception for Malaysia. In order to acquire and transfer technology and/or knowledge from overseas to Malaysia, Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC has been proposed. However, research focuses on cross-border knowledge transfer especially in the context of MSC status corporations in Malaysia is still limited. The factors that affect the effectiveness of cross-border knowledge transfer will be determined and presented in this paper. Quantitative approach has been adopted in this study. The findings of this study show that knowledge characteristics (KC and network characteristics (NC have positive significant relationship with cross-border knowledge transfer. The effects context towards KC and NC will also be examined in this study.

  19. Impacting Binational Health through Leadership Development: A Program Evaluation of the Leaders across Borders Program, 2010–2014

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    Omar A. Contreras

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWorkforce and leadership development is imperative for the advancement of public health along the U.S./Mexico border. The Leaders across borders (LaB program aims to train the public health and health-care workforce of the border region. The LaB is a 6-month intensive leadership development program, which offers training in various areas of public health. Program curriculum topics include: leadership, border health epidemiology, health diplomacy, border public policies, and conflict resolution.MethodsThis article describes the LaB program evaluation outcomes across four LaB cohort graduates between 2010 and 2014. LaB graduates received an invitation to participate via email in an online questionnaire. Eighty-five percent (n = 34 of evaluation participants indicated an improvement in the level of binationality since participating in the LaB program. Identified themes in the evaluation results included increased binational collaborations and partnerships across multidisciplinary organizations that work towards improving the health status of border communities. Approximately 93% (n = 37 of the LaB samples were interested in participating in future binational projects while 80% (n = 32 indicated interest in the proposal of other binational initiatives. Participants expressed feelings of gratitude from employers who supported their participation and successful completion of LaB.DiscussionPrograms such as LaB are important in providing professional development and education to a health-care workforce along the U.S./Mexico border that is dedicated to positively impacting the health outcomes of vulnerable populations residing in this region.

  20. Cross-Border Electronic Commerce : Distance Effects and Express Delivery in European Union Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.Y. Kim (Thai Young); R. Dekker (Rommert); C. Heij (Christiaan)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThis empirical study examines distance effects on cross-border electronic commerce and in particular the importance of express delivery in reducing the time dimension of distance. E-commerce provides suppliers with a range of opportunities to reduce distance as perceived by online

  1. Effects of Cross-Border Engineer Exchange on Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machikita, Tomohiro

    2012-01-01

    Using data from a survey to manufacturing firms, this paper attempts to detect sources of new technologies transferred to a well-established industrial district in Calabarzon, the Philippines, and a rapidly growing agglomeration in Hanoi, Vietnam. We find significant effects of exchange of engine...

  2. THE EFFECT OF INNOVATION CAPABILITIES AND EXPERIENCE ON CROSS-BORDER ACQUISITION PERFORMANCE

    OpenAIRE

    YonJin Suh; JaeJoon You; PhilSoo Kim

    2013-01-01

    Due to the integration of the European market, the globalization process, and the rising importance of technological innovation, there has been a surge in cross-border acquisition strategy for European firms. Innovative technology and experience are the main drivers behind firms’ acquisition imperatives to realize sound performance. Based on the resource-based view and organizational learning perspective, our empirical research focuses on the effects of European firms’ innovative capabili...

  3. Evaluation of the Effect of a Promotora-led Educational Intervention on Cervical Cancer and Human Papillomavirus Knowledge Among Predominantly Hispanic Primary Care Patients on the US-Mexico Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molokwu, Jennifer; Penaranda, Eribeth; Flores, Silvia; Shokar, Navkiran K

    2016-12-01

    Despite declining cervical cancer rates, ethnic minorities continue to bear an unequal burden in morbidity and mortality. While access to screening is a major barrier, low levels of knowledge and cultural influences have been found to play a part in underutilization of preventive services. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of a promontora-led educational intervention on cervical cancer and human papillomavirus knowledge in mainly Hispanic females attending a primary care clinic. One hundred ten females were recruited from the waiting room of a busy primary care clinic and invited to attend individual or small group educational sessions. Participants completed knowledge surveys pre- and post-intervention. An overall evaluation of the educational session was also completed. Following the educational intervention, participants showed an improvement in knowledge scores from a mean score of 10.8 (SD 3.43) out of a possible score of 18 to a mean score of 16.0 (SD1.51) (p educational intervention delivered by well-trained Promotora/Lay health care worker significantly improves patient's cervical cancer and HPV knowledge and can be a useful tool in patient education in the clinical setting especially with high risk populations.

  4. Cross-Border Health Care in the European Union: Evaluation of Different Financing Arrangements

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    Ried Walter

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the impact of the financing arrangements for planned cross-border health care within the European Union. A financial arrangement is taken to provide a financial incentive but may also involve payment risks and administrative burden. For the pathways given by the Social Security Regulations (883/2004 and 987/2009 and the EU Directive 2011/24/EU, we investigate how the associated financial arrangements act on providers, patients and on publicly funded health insurance. First, the Regulations can induce cross-border health care that will increase domestic health care expenditure and may threaten national health policy by setting an incentive for patients to go abroad for health care not covered by domestic health insurance. Second, the financial arrangement of the Directive may induce cross-border health care which will lower domestic health care expenditure. However, due to considerable payment risks and administrative burden on both patients and providers, these benefits will not be reaped in full. Moreover, in the presence of national cost containment policies, the Directive may provide an incentive for cross-border health care that is too strong. Finally, due to the requirement to pay upfront, the financial arrangement also suffers from a lack of equity of access to health care provision abroad.

  5. The Effect of Tuition Fees on Student Enrollment and Location Choice – Interregional Migration, Border Effects and Gender Differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alecke, Björn; Burgard, Claudia; Mitze, Timo

    analysis, we use the variation over time and across regions in this institutional change in order to isolate the causal effect of tuition fees on student enrollment and migration. Controlling for a range of regional- and university-specific effects, our results from Difference-in-Differences estimations...... state. Controlling for these border effects, the relocating trend in long-distance migration of university freshmen does not show any particular gender differences....

  6. The Effect of Tuition Fees on Student Enrollment and Location Choice: Interregional Migration, Border Effects and Gender Differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alecke, Bjoern; Burgard, Claudia; Mitze, Timo

    analysis, we use the variation over time and across regions in this institutional change in order to isolate the causal effect of tuition fees on student enrollment and migration. Controlling for a range of regional- and university-specific effects, our results from Difference-in-Differences estimations...... state. Controlling for these border effects, the relocating trend in long-distance migration of university freshmen does not show any particular gender differences....

  7. Green infrastructure development at European Union's eastern border: Effects of road infrastructure and forest habitat loss.

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    Angelstam, Per; Khaulyak, Olha; Yamelynets, Taras; Mozgeris, Gintautas; Naumov, Vladimir; Chmielewski, Tadeusz J; Elbakidze, Marine; Manton, Michael; Prots, Bohdan; Valasiuk, Sviataslau

    2017-05-15

    The functionality of forest patches and networks as green infrastructure may be affected negatively both by expanding road networks and forestry intensification. We assessed the effects of (1) the current and planned road infrastructure, and (2) forest loss and gain, on the remaining large forest landscape massifs as green infrastructure at the EU's eastern border region in post-socialistic transition. First, habitat patch and network functionality in 1996-98 was assessed using habitat suitability index modelling. Second, we made expert interviews about road development with planners in 10 administrative regions in Poland, Belarus and Ukraine. Third, forest loss and gain inside the forest massifs, and gain outside them during the period 2001-14 were measured. This EU cross-border region hosts four remaining forest massifs as regional green infrastructure hotspots. While Poland's road network is developing fast in terms of new freeways, city bypasses and upgrades of road quality, in Belarus and Ukraine the focus is on maintenance of existing roads, and no new corridors. We conclude that economic support from the EU, and thus rapid development of roads in Poland, is likely to reduce the permeability for wildlife of the urban and agricultural matrix around existing forest massifs. However, the four identified forest massifs themselves, forming the forest landscape green infrastructure at the EU's east border, were little affected by road development plans. In contrast, forest loss inside massifs was high, especially in Ukraine. Only in Poland forest loss was balanced by gain. Forest gain outside forest massifs was low. To conclude, pro-active and collaborative spatial planning across different sectors and countries is needed to secure functional forest green infrastructure as base for biodiversity conservation and human well-being. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Border markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    regional trade. The last part of the paper argues that more policy attention should be paid to border markets which, despite being at the margin of states, are a vital component of their economy. Fifty years after most West African states became independent and just as NAFTA turns 20, it is high time...... to challenge the conventional wisdom and put border markets at the center of trade policies....... their unequal economic development: the presence of a trade community, the combination of trading and productive activities, and the relative porosity of borders. In a second part, I examine how border markets on the U.S.-Mexico border must simultaneously guarantee the security of the state while favoring...

  9. Effects of tongue movements on lingual sulcus depth while border molding in mandibular complete dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denizoglu, Saip; Yanikoglu, Nuran; Yilmaz, Burak; Kürklü, Duygu

    2014-01-01

    In general, people speak and swallow frequently in their daily lives rather than making exaggerated tongue movements. The aim was to compare the effect of tongue movements on lingual sulcus depth, during the border molding process of impression making of mandibular complete dentures. In total, 32 double master impressions were made. One of these pairs was obtained by allowing the patient to swallow and the other by enabling the tongue to make excessive movements. Measurements were taken from different regions of the lingual sulcus by determining the length of the parallel lines drawn from fixed points marked on the residual ridge crest to the deepest point of the alveolingual sulcus. These measurements were performed using a RMI three-dimensional measurement system. Data were compared using the paired t-test (alpha = 0.05). The high value found in casts with border molding, while swallowing was statistically significant in vertical and horizontal directions of the anterior lingual sulcus region (movement of the tongue.

  10. Effects of Health Insurance Among Patients on Hepatitis C Treatment Along the Texas-Mexico Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Roberta; Campbell, Lisa; Song, Huaxin; Zuckerman, Marc J; Alozie, Ogechika

    2016-01-01

    The incidence and prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is steadily increasing across the world. Increasing morbidity and mortality rates associated with HCV are influencing research on treatment outcomes. The purpose of this project was to examine the effect of health insurance status and office visit compliance on sustained virologic response (SVR) in adult patients living along the Texas-Mexico border treated for HCV and who received dual or triple medication therapy between January 2010 and August 2013. The objective of this project was to determine whether there is an association between health insurance status, and/or office visit compliance, and SVR. We conducted a longitudinal retrospective chart review pilot study of patients who underwent treatment with dual and triple therapy in a border community in Texas. Results revealed that lack of insurance did not affect SVR in the Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center El Paso-based clinic setting due to enrollment into a managed healthcare program. Providing a financial benefit may improve treatment compliance of HCV-infected individuals, reduce overall cost, and improve the patient's quality of life.

  11. Sponge Borders

    OpenAIRE

    Cimadomo, Guido; Martínez Ponce, Pilar

    2005-01-01

    The latest expansion of the EU towards the East has again modified its borders, showing once again the intangibility and flexibility of the latter. The very definition of border acquires different meanings depending on which theme is being discussed: an impenetrable barrier against migratory flows and the introduction of goods, transforming itself into a strainer for the exporting of national products. The new Internal Affairs Commissioner for the EU, Rocco Buttiglione, affirms on the on...

  12. The influence of craniofacial morphology on mandibular border movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Tomoki; Kawanabe, Noriaki; Shiraga, Noriko; Hashimoto, Takashi; Deguchi, Toru; Miyawaki, Shouichi; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko; Yamashiro, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Although they are widely used as diagnostic signs of temporomandibular disorders, mandibular border movements reflect not only condylar movement, but also other factors. In the present study, the authors investigated the effect of craniofacial morphology on three different mandibular border movements: maximum jaw opening, maximum jaw protrusion, and maximum jaw laterotrusion. One hundred female subjects were selected from outpatients visiting the orthodontic clinic of Okayama University Hospital. The mandibular border movements were measured using an optical recording system in three dimensions as six degrees of freedom. The craniofacial morphology was evaluated using lateral cephalograms. The results suggest that craniofacial morphology had different influences on each mandibular border movement. In particular, during maximum jaw laterotrusion, lower incisor movement strongly reflected condylar movement, and the influence of craniofacial morphology on mandibular border movement was minimal. Therefore, lower incisor movement during maximum jaw laterotrusion appears suitable to evaluate condylar movement.

  13. The effect of cross-border mobility on alcohol and drug use among Mexican-American residents living at the U.S.-Mexico border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherpitel, Cheryl J; Ye, Yu; Zemore, Sarah E; Bond, Jason; Borges, Guilherme

    2015-11-01

    Little epidemiological evidence exists on alcohol or other substance use and related problems along the U.S.-Mexico border, although the border has been the focus of recent media attention related to the escalating drug/violence "epidemic". The purpose of this study was to analyze the association of variables related to crossing the border (cross-border mobility) with three substance use outcomes reported for the last year: 1) heavy drinking (5+ drinks per day for men or 4+ for women), 2) alcohol use disorder (AUD), and 3) co-occurring heavy drinking and drug use (any use of illicit and/or non-medically prescribed drugs). Household surveys were conducted, using area probability sampling of 1565 Mexican-American residents, aged 18-65, living at the Texas-Mexico border in the metropolitan areas of Laredo and McAllen/Brownsville. Among those 18-29, more frequent crossing of the border was significantly predictive of AUD (OR = 1.61, p tourism") or for nightlife/drinking were predictive of heavy drinking (ORs = 4.14, p tourism" in substance use across the age spectrum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. THE EFFECT OF CROSS-BORDER MOBILITY ON ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE AMONG MEXICAN-AMERICAN RESIDENTS LIVING AT THE U.S–MEXICO BORDER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherpitel, Cheryl J.; Ye, Yu; Zemore, Sarah E.; Bond, Jason; Borges, Guilherme

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Little epidemiological evidence exists on alcohol or other substance use and related problems along the U.S.-Mexico border, although the border has been the focus of recent media attention related to the escalating drug/violence “epidemic”. The purpose of this study was to analyze the association of variables related to crossing the border (cross-border mobility) with three substance use outcomes reported for the last year: 1) heavy drinking (5+ drinks per day for men or 4+ for women), 2) alcohol use disorder (AUD), and 3) co-occurring heavy drinking and drug use (any use of illicit and/or non-medically prescribed drugs). Methods Household surveys were conducted, using area probability sampling of 1,565 Mexican-Americans residents, aged 18–65, living at the Texas-Mexico border in the metropolitan areas of Laredo and McAllen/Brownsville. Results Among those 18–29, more frequent crossing of the border was significantly predictive of AUD (OR=1.61, ptourism”) or for nightlife/drinking were predictive of heavy drinking (ORs = 4.14, ptourism” in substance use across the age spectrum. PMID:26103423

  15. Creating an Effective Multi-Domain Wide-Area Surveillance Platform to Enhance Border Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Parsley, Randall S

    2008-01-01

    .... With WAS, the Department of Defense (DoD) would be able to see the big picture. Without WAS, gaps in radar coverage could allow potential terrorists - or people transporting drugs into the United States - to cross the border undetected...

  16. Effectiveness and impact of the cross-border healthcare model as implemented by non-governmental organizations: case study of the malaria control programs by health poverty action on the China-Myanmar border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Dong, Jia-Qiang; Li, Jia-Ying; Zhang, Yue; Tian, Yang-Hui; Sun, Xiao-Ying; Zhang, Guang-Yun; Li, Qing-Pu; Xu, Xiao-Yu; Cai, Tao

    2016-09-01

    In the Yunnan province of China, 18 counties in six prefectures border Myanmar. Due to its particular combination of geographic features, climate conditions, and cultural landscape, the area provides a suitable environment for the spread of insect-borne diseases such as malaria. In five identified Myanmar Special Regions along the China-Myanmar border, economic development is lagging, people live in extreme poverty, and the healthcare system is fragile. Coupled with political and other reasons, this precludes malaria control work to be effectively carried out in Myanmar, resulting in a heavy burden of the disease. Frequent population movements and favorable conditions for malaria transmission on the border fuel difficulties in controlling and eliminating the spread of the disease in the area. To reduce the prevalence of malaria in the China-Myanmar border area and improve healthcare services for local residents in this particular environment, Health Poverty Action (HPA) has provided malaria aid in the area since the beginning of 2006, as a sub-recipient of the China Global Fund Malaria Programs. In this case study, we examined HPA's activities as part of its malaria control programs in the area, analyzed and summarized the effectiveness and impact of the cross-border healthcare model as implemented by non-governmental organizations, and put forward suggestions for cross-border health aid models and for the prevention of malaria transmission in the Greater Mekong Subregion. HPA had carried out a great quantity of successful malaria control activities in border areas between China and Myanmar, strengthened the partnership and established the collaboration, coordination and cooperation channels among stakeholders. HPA has laid good groundwork and developed its valuable model that could be highlighted and referenced.

  17. Helping professionals and Border Force secrecy: effective asylum-seeker healthcare requires independence from callous policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Michael

    2016-02-01

    To examine the Australian Border Force Act (BFA) and its context, its implications for asylum-seeker healthcare and professionals, and contemporary and historical parallels. Prolonged immigration detention and policies aiming to deter irregular migration cause maritime asylum-seekers undeniable, well-publicised harms and (notwithstanding claims about preventing drownings) show reckless indifference and calculated cruelty. Service personnel may be harmed. Such policies misuse helping professionals to underwrite state abuses and promote public numbing and indifference, resembling other state abuses in the 'war on terror' and (with qualification) historical counterparts, e.g. Nazi Germany. Human service practitioners and organisations recently denounced the BFA that forbids disclosure about these matters.Continuing asylum-seeker healthcare balances the likelihood of effective care and monitoring with lending credibility to abuses. Boycotting it might sacrifice scrutiny and care, fail to compel professionals and affect temporary overseas workers. Entirely transferring healthcare from immigration to Federal and/or State health departments, with resources augmented to adequate standard, would strengthen clinical independence and quality, minimise healthcare's being securitised and politicised, and uphold ethical codes. Such measures will not resolve detention's problems, but coupled with independent auditing, would expose and moderate detention's worst effects, promoting changes in national conversation and policy-making. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  18. Palliating inside the lines: The effects of borders and boundaries on palliative care in rural Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesbrecht, Melissa; Crooks, Valorie A; Castleden, Heather; Schuurman, Nadine; Skinner, Mark; Williams, Allison

    2016-11-01

    We draw lines to divide our world into specific places, territories, and categories. Although borders and boundaries are dynamic and socially constructed, their existence creates many broad impacts on our lives by geographically distinguishing between groups (e.g., us/them; here/there; inside/outside) at various scales from the national down to the personal spaces of the individual. Particularly, borders and boundaries can be used to define a variety of differing spaces such as the familial, social, economic, political, as well as issues of access - including access to health services. Despite the implicit connection between borders, boundaries, and health, little research has investigated this connection from a health geography perspective. As such, this secondary thematic analysis contributes to addressing this notable gap by examining how borders and boundaries are experienced and perceived to impact access to palliative care in rural Canada from the perspectives of the formal and informal providers of such care. Drawing upon data from qualitative interviews (n = 40) with formal and informal palliative caregivers residing in four different rural Canadian communities, five forms of borders and boundaries were found to directly impact care delivery/receipt: political; jurisdictional; geographical; professional; and cultural. Implicitly and explicitly, participants discussed these borders and boundaries while sharing their experiences of providing palliative care in rural Canada. We conclude by discussing the implications of our findings for palliative care in rural Canada, while also emphasizing the need for more health geography, and related social science, researchers to recognize the significance of borders and boundaries in relation to health and healthcare delivery. Lastly, we emphasize the transferability of these findings to other health sectors, geographical settings, and disciplines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of Jump into Action: A Program to Reduce the Risk of Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus in School Children on the Texas-Mexico Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, J. David; Lira, Juanita; Kingery, Paul M.; Smith, D. W.; Lane, Dorothy; Goodway, Jackie

    1998-01-01

    Evaluated Jump into Action, a non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM)-prevention program that encouraged students to eat well and exercise regularly to reduce NIDDM risks. Surveys of predominantly Hispanic fifth graders and their teachers at Texas-Mexico border schools indicated that the program increased NIDDM-prevention knowledge and…

  20. THE EFFECTS OF CROSS-BORDER BANK MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS ON THE PRODUCTIVITY OF CREDIT INSTITUTIONS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andreea N. POPOVICI; Dragos G. TURLIUC

    2014-01-01

    ..., Slovenskásporiteľňa from Slovakia and Erste Bank Group from Austria improved their productivity due to the fact that all of them were involved in a process of cross-border merger or acquisitions, even if the...

  1. The U.S. Military and Security Along the U.S. Mexico Border: Evaluation of Its Role in the Post September 11th Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-12-01

    which militarizes our border with a system which encourages migrants to enter legally and safely through points of entry.”127 Derechos Humanos (Human...enforcement agencies have bee n able to effectively capitalize on the resources that the military has offered to counternarcotic operations, civil

  2. Evaluation of CDC light traps for mosquito surveillance in a malaria endemic area on the Thai-Myanmar border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriwichai, Patchara; Karl, Stephan; Samung, Yudthana; Sumruayphol, Suchada; Kiattibutr, Kirakorn; Payakkapol, Anon; Mueller, Ivo; Yan, Guiyun; Cui, Liwang; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon

    2015-12-15

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention miniature light traps (CDC-LT) baited with CO2 are a routine tool for adult mosquito sampling used in entomological surveys, and for monitoring and surveillance of disease vectors. The present study was aimed at evaluating the performance of baited and unbaited CDC-LT for indoor and outdoor trapping of endemic mosquito species in northwestern Thailand. CDC-LT (n = 112) with and without dry ice baits were set both indoors and outdoors in 88 selected houses for stretches of 5 consecutive nights per month in 7 villages in Tha Song Yang district, Tak province between January 2011 and March 2013. Individual traps were repeatedly placed in the same location for a median of 6 (range 1-10) times. Mosquitoes were identified by morphological characteristics and classified into blood-fed, empty, male/female and gravid. Absolute mosquito numbers were converted to capture rates (i.e., mosquitoes per trap and year). Capture rates were compared using multilevel negative binomial regression to account for multiple trap placements and adjust for regional and seasonal differences. A total of 6,668 mosquitoes from 9 genera were collected from 576 individual CDC-LT placements. Culex was the predominant captured genus (46%), followed by anopheline mosquitoes (45%). Overall, CO2 baited traps captured significantly more Culex (especially Culex vishnui Theobald) and Anopheles mosquitoes per unit time (adjusted capture rate ratio (aCRR) 1.64 and 1.38, respectively). Armigeres spp. mosquitoes were trapped in outdoor traps with significantly higher frequency (aCRR: 1.50), whereas Aedes albopictus (Skuse) had a tendency to be trapped more frequently indoors (aCRR: 1.89, p = 0.07). Furthermore, capture rate ratios between CO2 baited and non-baited CDC-LT were significantly influenced by seasonality and indoor vs. outdoor trap placement. The present study shows that CDC-LT with CO2 baiting capture significantly more Culex and Anopheles

  3. Effects of Salicylic Acid on Some Morphophysiological Characteristics of Border Flowers from Asteraceae Family under Water Deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    majid zargarian

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In order to improve physical and mental human healthy, development of the urban area landscape is necessary. Water deficit is one of the most important problems in arid and semi- arid regions. Water deficit causes to reduce growth of different plants parts, including roots, aerial parts, leaf area, height, dry weight, proteins, amino acids and chlorophyll. Using drought tolerance plantsisone solution. Moreover, one physiological method to decrease the hazardous effects of environmental stresses on plants is to applyplant growth regulators such as salicylic acid (SA. SA is one of the plant phenolic compounds in low amounts (mg/g wet weight or lower. This hormone can perform an important role in resistance to stresses. Asteraceae is one of the biggest plant families with over 20,000 species which is distributed worldwide in moderate and tropical regions. A lot of border flowers of this family are widely used in landscaping. Toselect drought tolerance flowers and application of materials that reducing stress effects, this experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of salicylic acid on some morphological and physiological characteristics of five border flowers of this family. Materials and Methods: The field experiment was conducted as split plot on randomized complete blocks design with four replications in which factors included two levels of water deficit (50, 100% FC as main plot and two levels of SA (0, 1mmol/L-1 as sub plot in the horticulturedepartment of faculty of Agriculture atFerdowsi University of Mashhad. In this investigation five border flowers (Ageratum houstonianum‘Blue Danube’, Tagetserecta ‘Discovery Yellow’, Tagetspatula‘Hero Harmony’, Zinnia elegans ‘Lilliput rose’andCallistephuschinensis ‘Milady Mix’ of Asteraceae family were chosen for study. The soil mixture was analyzed before starting the test. According to the result of physicochemical analysis of the soil, it had loamy texture

  4. Border blocking effects in collaborative firm innovation: exploring the factors related with scientist' willingness to incorporating external knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, Jos; Benneworth, Paul Stephen; Rutten, Roel

    2016-01-01

    Border regions are not often associated with innovation and economic prosperity. Nevertheless, the opening up of borders in Europe has presented new opportunities for firms located in these border regions to co-operate and find necessary resources for their innovation process. Despite the reduction

  5. Explaining the Border Effect: The Role of Exchange Rate Variability, Shipping Costs, and Geography

    OpenAIRE

    David C. Parsley; Shang-Jin Wei

    2000-01-01

    This paper exploits a three-dimensional panel data set of prices on 27 traded goods, over 88 quarters, across 96 cities in the U.S. and Japan. We show that a simple average of good-level real exchange rates tracks the nominal exchange rate well, suggesting strong evidence of sticky prices. Focusing on dispersion in prices between city-pairs, we find that crossing the U.S.-Japan Border' is equivalent to adding as much as 43,000 trillion miles to the cross-country volatility of relative prices....

  6. Process evaluation of a promotora de salud intervention for improving hypertension outcomes for Latinos living in a rural U.S.-Mexico border region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Victoria; Cacari Stone, Lisa; Moffett, Maurice L; Nguyen, PhoungGiang; Muhammad, Michael; Bruna-Lewis, Sean; Urias-Chauvin, Rita

    2014-05-01

    Hypertension is a growing public health problem for U.S.-Mexico border Latinos, who commonly experience low levels of awareness, treatment, and control. We report on a process evaluation that assessed the delivery of Corazón por la Vida, a 9-week promotora de salud-led curriculum to help Latinos manage and reduce hypertension risks in two rural/frontier counties in the New Mexico border region. Ninety-six adults participated in the program, delivered in three waves and in three communities. We assessed program delivery and quality, adherence, exposure, and participant responsiveness. Participant outcome measures included self-reported eating and physical activities and assessment of community resources. Findings suggest that the program was fully delivered (99%) and that most participants (81.7%) were very satisfied with the educational sessions. The average participant attendance for educational sessions was 77.47%. We found significant differences in self-reported behavioral changes depending on the number of sessions completed: The higher the dose of sessions, the better the self-reported outcomes. These findings suggest that a promotora-led curriculum may be useful for promoting self-management of chronic disease in rural/frontier border Latino populations. Future evaluation should focus on training and implementation adaptations within evidence-based chronic disease programs for diverse Latino communities.

  7. Accelerated Training of Skilled Birth Attendants in a Marginalized Population on the Thai-Myanmar Border: A Multiple Methods Program Evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne Lynne White

    Full Text Available To evaluate a skilled birth attendant (SBA training program in a neglected population on the Thai-Myanmar border, we used multiple methods to show that refugee and migrant health workers can be given effective training in their own environment to become SBAs and teachers of SBAs. The loss of SBAs through resettlement to third countries necessitated urgent training of available workers to meet local needs.All results were obtained from student records of theory grades and clinical log books. Qualitative evaluation of both the SBA and teacher programs was obtained using semi-structured interviews with supervisors and teachers. We also reviewed perinatal indicators over an eight-year period, starting prior to the first training program until after the graduation of the fourth cohort of SBAs.Four SBA training programs scheduled between 2009 and 2015 resulted in 79/88 (90% of students successfully completing a training program of 250 theory hours and 625 supervised clinical hours. All 79 students were able to: achieve pass grades on theory examination (median 80%, range [70-89]; obtain the required clinical experience within twelve months; achieve clinical competence to provide safe care during childbirth. In 2010-2011, five experienced SBAs completed a train-the-trainer (TOT program and went on to facilitate further training programs. Perinatal indicators within Shoklo Malaria Research Unit (SMRU, such as place of birth, maternal and newborn outcomes, showed no significant differences before and after introduction of training or following graduate deployment in the local maternity units. Confidence, competence and teamwork emerged from qualitative evaluation by senior SBAs working with and supervising students in the clinics.We demonstrate that in resource-limited settings or in marginalized populations, it is possible to accelerate training of skilled birth attendants to provide safe maternity care. Education needs to be tailored to local needs to

  8. C-BORD project: “Effective container inspection at BORDer control points”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etilé Asénath

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the C-BORD project of the H2020 programme to provide a safety chain for container inspection at border control points, CEA-DAM is involved to develop an identification method of Special Nuclear Material. Using active interrogation the main purpose is to specifically discriminate fissile actinides from fertile ones through the detection of γ-rays emitted by very short-lived isomers. We present here the interdependance of such a project with nuclear data. We first introduce the SNM identification method. Then, will be detailed the needs in nuclear data and first yields of specific short-lived isomers of 252Cf spontaneous fission. Perspectives and conclusions will end the article.

  9. C-BORD project: "Effective container inspection at BORDer control points"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etilé, Asénath; Roig, Olivier; Bauge, Eric; Gaudefroy, Laurent; Méot, Vincent

    2017-09-01

    In the framework of the C-BORD project of the H2020 programme to provide a safety chain for container inspection at border control points, CEA-DAM is involved to develop an identification method of Special Nuclear Material. Using active interrogation the main purpose is to specifically discriminate fissile actinides from fertile ones through the detection of γ-rays emitted by very short-lived isomers. We present here the interdependance of such a project with nuclear data. We first introduce the SNM identification method. Then, will be detailed the needs in nuclear data and first yields of specific short-lived isomers of 252Cf spontaneous fission. Perspectives and conclusions will end the article.

  10. Pulmonary crackle characterization: approaches in the use of discrete wavelet transform regarding border effect, mother-wavelet selection, and subband reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica Isabela Quandt

    Full Text Available Introduction Crackles are discontinuous, non-stationary respiratory sounds and can be characterized by their duration and frequency. In the literature, many techniques of filtering, feature extraction, and classification were presented. Although the discrete wavelet transform (DWT is a well-known tool in this area, issues like signal border extension, mother-wavelet selection, and its subbands were not properly discussed. Methods In this work, 30 different mother-wavelets 8 subbands were assessed, and 9 border extension modes were evaluated. The evaluations were done based on the energy representation of the crackle considering the mother-wavelet and the border extension, allowing a reduction of not representative subbands. Results Tests revealed that the border extension mode considered during the DWT affects crackle characterization, whereas SP1 (Smooth-Padding of order 1 and ASYMW (Antisymmetric-Padding (whole-point modes shall not be used. After DWT, only 3 subbands (D3, D4, and D5 were needed to characterize crackles. Finally, from the group of mother-wavelets tested, Daubechies 7 and Symlet 7 were found to be the most adequate for crackle characterization. Discussion DWT can be used to characterize crackles when proper border extension mode, mother-wavelet, and subbands are taken into account.

  11. Cross-border regional innovation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Rohde, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    The concept of cross-border regional innovation systems (CBRIS) surfaced in the literature on economic geography through discourses that highlighted the need of broadening innovation systems to cross-border contexts. Since these early discussions, the theoretical backgrounds of CBRIS have been...... elaborated through notions of geographical scale, proximity and related variety in a range of conceptual papers proposing CBRIS as a comprehensive framework for analysing regional cross-border integration. However, the empirical literature on CBRIS has failed to keep up with the advances in conceptualisation...... of understanding how suggested policy measures based on CBRIS reasoning have been implemented in border regions, and their effectiveness in promoting cross-border integration....

  12. The Leaders across Borders Certification Program—A Systemic Multiple Level Observation of Groups Analysis Approach to Measure Effective Leadership: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Hirata-Okamoto

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Leadership measurement, feedback, and development have grown in importance for the field of management. The Mexico–US Border defined as the area of land within 100 km (62.5 miles north and south of the international boundary, shares common challenges, and requires the development of multicultural change agents who conduct binational actions toward the improvement of public health and quality of life of the population in the region. Leaders across Borders (LaB was established in 2010 as an advanced certified binational leadership development program aimed at building the capacity of public health, health care, and other community sector leaders working to improve the health of the communities in the Mexico–US Border region. Leadership as a social interaction process requires leader skills development to achieve goals promoting unity and reducing polarization to optimize interactions between all resources, thus improving teamwork. Therefore, measurement and feedback model of general values and beliefs that guide effective behavior, not only individual personality assessments need to drive a proactive learning and action plan development to improve interactions in a team, thus optimizing leadership. Starting 2014, we administered a new model named Systemic Multiple Level Observation of Groups (SYMLOG to measure the values and beliefs that guide the behavior of learners and team facilitators. We also evaluated the effectiveness of each team of the program and established benchmarks and action plans to optimize interactions and communication between all the learners during the 8-month program. This leads to a stronger systemic network upon graduation from the program. The SYMLOG approach measured initial and improved situations of individual leadership and team performance effectiveness because of the LaB Program training and skills development sessions. The SYMLOG also provided positive feedback to each participant, which had a direct impact

  13. Conjoining international marketing and relationship marketing: Exploring consumers' cross-border service relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijssen, E.J.; van Herk, H.

    2009-01-01

    Research on international marketing constructs, such as consumer ethnocentrism and country-of-origin effects, typically focuses on consumers' initial evaluations of foreign products but ignores consumers' emerging cross-border exchange relationships with foreign service providers. The influence of

  14. Borders in Europe: From history to everyday life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narcís Bassols

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available

    This article reflects on European borders and their everyday dynamics from a cross-border perspective. The article begins with a discussion of recent events that question current border policies in the European Union, reviews the literature on borders and border territories, and finally moves on to a discussion of the everyday effects of cross-border practices on the inhabitants of border spaces. Occasional reference is made to borders in the Americas to complete the picture of this topic. Although the issue of security is indeed relevant, we focus on the economic and social dimensions of cooperation. Three aspects are essential for border residents who attempt to use the advantages of the territories for their global nature: work, shopping, and place of residence. In conclusion, there has been a tendency toward the softening of borders and greater integration of border zones in the European Union.

  15. The Effect of Cross-Border E-Commerce on China’s International Trade: An Empirical Study Based on Transaction Cost Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wang (Avery. W

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Reducing transaction costs by means of policy intervention could generate comparative advantages and contribute to the growth of international trade. Chinese government agencies have introduced a number of policies in support of rapidly growing cross-border e-commerce to promote China’s international trade. However, the previous literature has not empirically verified the precise effect of these policies on the growth of international trade while focusing on the impact of cross-border e-commerce on trade distance and consumer welfare. To address this gap, this paper investigates the impact of cross-border e-commerce on international trade in the context of China, mainly from the perspective of transaction cost economics in conjunction with the traditional comparative advantage model by analyzing information cost, negotiation cost, transportation cost, tariffs and middlemen cost separately. Firstly, the new theoretical model suggests that cross-border e-commerce may have a positive role in promoting international trade only when the negative impact caused by tariff cost and transportation cost is offset. Secondly, our result shows that cross-border e-commerce has a positive effect on the growth of China’s international trade in each year. However, the positive effect does not show incremental growth over time, possibly as a result of the weak implementation of favorable policies in trade, in addition to global trade shrinking.

  16. Cost-Effectiveness of an Intervention to Reduce HIV/STI Incidence and Promote Condom Use among Female Sex Workers in the Mexico–US Border Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, José L.; Gaebler, Julia A.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Lozada, Remedios; Staines, Hugo; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous research demonstrated efficacy of a brief behavioral intervention to reduce incidence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among female sex workers (FSWs) in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, cities on Mexico's border with the US. We assessed this intervention's cost-effectiveness. Methodology and Principal Findings A life-time Markov model was developed to estimate HIV cases prevented, changes in quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE), and costs per additional quality-adjusted life year gained (QALY), comparing (in US$2,009) no intervention to a once-only and annual intervention. Future costs and health benefits were discounted annually at 3%. Sensitivity analyses evaluated model robustness. We found that for a hypothetical 1,000 FSWs receiving the once-only intervention, there were 33 HIV cases prevented and 5.7 months of QALE gained compared to no intervention. The additional cost per QALY gained was US$183. For FSWs receiving the intervention annually, there were 29 additional HIV cases prevented and 4.5 additional months of QALE compared to the once-only intervention. The additional cost per QALY was US$1,075. When highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was included in the model, the annual intervention strategy resulted in net savings and dominated both once-only and no intervention strategies, and remained robust across extensive sensitivity analyses. Even when considering clinical benefits from HAART, ignoring added costs, the cost per QALY gained remained below three times the Mexican GDP per capita, and below established cost-effectiveness thresholds. Conclusions/Significance This brief intervention was shown to be cost-effective among FSWs in two Mexico-US border cities and may have application for FSWs in other resource-limited settings. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00338845 PMID:20617193

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of standard radiotherapy field borders in patients with uterine cervix cancer;Ressonancia magnetica para avaliacao dos limites dos campos classicos de radioterapia em pacientes portadoras de neoplasia maligna de colo uterino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freire, Geison Moreira; Dias, Rodrigo Souza; Giordani, Adelmo Jose; Segreto, Helena Regina Comodo; Segreto, Roberto Araujo, E-mail: segreto.dmed@epm.b [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), SP (Brazil). Unit of Radioterapy; Ribalta, Julisa Chamorro Lascasas [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Gynecology

    2010-05-15

    Objective: to evaluate, by means of magnetic resonance imaging, the standardized field borders in radiotherapy for malignant neoplasm of uterine cervix, and to determine the role of this method in the reduction of possible planning errors related to the conventional technique. Materials and methods: magnetic resonance imaging studies for planning of treatment of 51 patients with uterine cervix cancer were retrospectively analyzed. The parameters assessed were the anterior and posterior field borders on sagittal section. Results: The anterior field border was inappropriate in 20 (39.2%) patients and geographic miss was observed in 37.3% of cases in the posterior border. The inappropriateness of both field borders did not correlate with clinical parameters such as patients' age, tumor staging, histological type and degree. Conclusion: the evaluation of standardized field borders with the use of magnetic resonance imaging has demonstrated high indices of inappropriateness of the lateral field borders, as well as the relevant role of magnetic resonance imaging in the radiotherapy planning for patients with uterine cervix cancer with a view to reduce the occurrence of geographic miss of the target volume. (author)

  18. Interoperability at the Border: Coordinated Border Management Best Practices & Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Inter-American Development Bank

    2010-01-01

    Interoperability among government agencies at national borders, also known as coordinated border management (CBM), is a fundamental component of a nation's modernized customs and border control strategy. It comprises the streamlining of parallel processes and technologies enabling different government agencies to effectively work together on border issues. By 4 implementing CBM strategies at both the domestic and international levels, countries can reduce internal costs and inefficiencies, im...

  19. Transport of citrate across renal brush border membrane: effects of dietary acid and alkali loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, A.D.; Dousa, T.P.; Smith, L.H.

    1985-10-01

    Dietary acid or alkali loading was given to rats by providing 150 mM NH4Cl or 150 mM NaHCO3 in place of drinking water for 6 days; control animals received 150 mM NaCl. After 6 days, the citrate clearance was 0.04 +/- 0.01 ml/min (mean +/- SE) in the acid-loaded group, 0.9 +/- 0.1 ml/min in the control group, and 2.5 +/- 0.2 ml/min in the alkali-loaded group. At the end of the experiment, the rats were killed, and the Na gradient-dependent citrate uptake was measured in brush border membrane (BBM) vesicles prepared from each group. At 0.3 min, the ( UC)citrate uptake was 198 +/- 8 pmol/mg protein (mean +/- SE) in the acid-loaded group, 94 +/- 16 pmol/mg protein in the control group, and 94 +/- 13 pmol/mg protein in the alkali-loaded group. The rate of Na -independent (NaCl in medium replaced by KCl) ( UC)-citrate uptake by BBM vesicles was the same for acid-loaded, control, and alkali-loaded animals. Thus, the increased capacity of the proximal tubular BBM to transport citrate from the tubular lumen into the cell interior may be an important factor that contributes to decreased urinary citrate in the presence of metabolic acidosis induced by chronic dietary acid loading.

  20. THE EFFECTS OF CROSS-BORDER BANK MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS ON THE PRODUCTIVITY OF CREDIT INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea N. POPOVICI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current research is to study bank mergers and acquisitions (M-A and to see whether they have implications on the productivity of the target banks, and also for the bidder bank. The aim of this paper is to see if, during 2002-2008 period, three banks from the European banking system, Banca Comerciala Romana from Romania, Slovenskásporiteľňa from Slovakia and Erste Bank Group from Austria improved their productivity due to the fact that all of them were involved in a process of cross-border merger or acquisitions, even if the bank is the purchaser or the target. To reach our goal, we used DEA method, by estimating the productivity achieved by these three banks during the period pre-M-A, post M-A, but we also estimated the productivity for entire period of seven years. Using Malquist DEA method, we show that, on average, the merger or acquisition in which a bank was involved improved the Total Factor Productivity of all analyzed banks.

  1. EVALUATION OF CIRCUMSPOROZOITE PROTEIN OF Plasmodium vivax TO ESTIMATE ITS PREVALENCE IN OIAPOQUE , AMAPÁ STATE, BRAZIL, BORDERING FRENCH GUIANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarete do Socorro Mendonça GOMES

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Malaria is a major health problem for people who live on the border between Brazil and French Guiana. Here we discuss Plasmodium vivax distribution pattern in the town of Oiapoque, Amapá State using the circumsporozoite (CS gene as a marker. Ninety-one peripheral blood samples from P. vivax patients have been studied. Of these, 64 individuals were from the municipality of Oiapoque (Amapá State, Brazil and 27 patients from French Guiana (August to December 2011. DNA extraction was performed, and a fragment of the P. vivax CS gene was subsequently analyzed using PCR/RFLP. The VK210 genotype was the most common in both countries (48.36% in Brazil and 14.28% in French Guiana, followed by the P. vivax-like (1.10% in both Brazil and French Guiana and VK247 (1.10% only in Brazil in single infections. We were able to detect all three CS genotypes simultaneously in mixed infections. There were no statistically significant differences either regarding infection site or parasitaemia among individuals with different genotypes. These results suggest that the same genotypes circulating in French Guiana are found in the municipality of Oiapoque in Brazil. These findings suggest that there may be a dispersion of parasitic populations occurring between the two countries. Most likely, this distribution is associated with prolonged and/or more complex transmission patterns of these genotypes in Brazil, bordering French Guiana.

  2. Histopathological evaluation including cytokeratin 13 and Ki-67 in the border between Lugol-stained and -unstained areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Kouji; Ogawa, Ikuko; Ono, Shigehiro; Taki, Masaaki; Mizuta, Kuniko; Miyauchi, Miwa; Takechi, Masaaki; Shigeishi, Hideo; Takata, Takashi; Kamata, Nobuyuki

    2010-07-01

    Lugol's iodine staining (Lugol-staining) has been widely used to detect malignant changes in the cervix uteri and esophagus. However, pathological and histochemical changes in the border between Lugol-stained and -unstained areas in oral epithelial dysplastia and malignant lesions are not well understood. We examined the histological appearance of 20 cases of epithelial dysplasia surrounding squamous cell carcinoma using HE and PAS staining in the borders between Lugol-stained and -unstained areas. Subsequently, differences in the expression of cytokeratin 13 (CK13), an epithelium differentiation marker, and Ki-67, a cell proliferative marker, in those areas were investigated by immunohistochemistry. Lugol-stained areas of all cases showed mild dysplasia or normal epithelium appearance, while Lugol-unstained areas in most cases were diagnosed as moderate/severe dysplasia and carcinoma in situ. PAS reactions were limited or not found in the Lugol-unstained areas as compared to intense positivity in Lugol-stained areas. CK13 and Ki-67 protein expression was significantly different between Lugol-stained and -unstained areas. It was confirmed that epithelia showing precancerous or cancerous features were detected as Lugol-unstained boundary areas. A reduction in glycogen production caused by alterations of cell differentiation and proliferation associated with malignant changes may result in a lack of Lugol-staining.

  3. Border information flow architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    This brochure describes the Border Information Flow Architecture (BIFA). The Transportation Border Working Group, a bi-national group that works to enhance coordination and planning between the United States and Canada, identified collaboration on th...

  4. The Border Multiple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addressing and conceptualizing the changing character of borders in contemporary Europe, this book examines developments occurring in the light of European integration processes and an on-going tightening of Europe's external borders. Moreover, the book suggests new ways of investigating the nature...... of European borders by looking at border practices in the light of the mobility turn, and thus as dynamic, multiple, diverse and best expressed in everyday experiences of people living at and with borders, rather than focusing on static territorial divisions between states and regions at geopolitical level....... It provides border scholars and researchers as well as policymakers with new empirical and theoretical evidence on the de- and re-bordering processes going on in diverse border regions in Europe, both within and outside of the EU....

  5. The Border Multiple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of European borders by looking at border practices in the light of the mobility turn, and thus as dynamic, multiple, diverse and best expressed in everyday experiences of people living at and with borders, rather than focusing on static territorial divisions between states and regions at geopolitical level...

  6. Radiation dose evaluation during X-ray examinations in human medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine and border controls using ionizing radiation; Dosisermittlung bei der Anwendung von Roentgenstrahlung in der medizinischen Heilkunde, zahnmedizinischen Heilkunde, Tierheilkunde und bei Grenzkontrollen mit ionisierender Strahlung. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ankerhold, U; Hupe, O. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    The report on radiation dose evaluation during X-ray examinations includes the following chapters: (1) Scope of the project. (2) Measuring instruments. (3) Part I: Radiation dose evaluation during X-ray examinations in human medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine. (4) Radiation dose evaluation during X-ray examinations during border controls using ionizing radiation. (5) Summary of results.

  7. A model for international border management systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggan, Ruth Ann

    2008-09-01

    To effectively manage the security or control of its borders, a country must understand its border management activities as a system. Using its systems engineering and security foundations as a Department of Energy National Security Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories has developed such an approach to modeling and analyzing border management systems. This paper describes the basic model and its elements developed under Laboratory Directed Research and Development project 08-684.

  8. Sprouting of dormant buds on border trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.R., Jr. Trimble; H. Clay Smith; H. Clay Smith

    1970-01-01

    As part of an evaluation of silvicultura1 systems used in managing Appalachian hardwoods, we are studying degrade of border trees surrounding harvest-cut openings made in the patch cutting and group selection systems. One facet of this research dealt with determining what portion of visually evident dormant buds on border tree boles sprouted when the openings were cut...

  9. The Border Multiple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addressing and conceptualizing the changing character of borders in contemporary Europe, this book examines developments occurring in the light of European integration processes and an on-going tightening of Europe's external borders. Moreover, the book suggests new ways of investigating the nature...... of European borders by looking at border practices in the light of the mobility turn, and thus as dynamic, multiple, diverse and best expressed in everyday experiences of people living at and with borders, rather than focusing on static territorial divisions between states and regions at geopolitical level...

  10. The Border Multiple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addressing and conceptualizing the changing character of borders in contemporary Europe, this book examines developments occuring in the light of European integration processes and an on-going tightening of Europe's external borders. Moreover, the book suggests new ways of investigating the nature...... of European borders by looking at border practices in the light of the mobility turn, and thus as dynamic, multiple, diverse and best expressed in everyday experiences of people living at and with borders, rather than focusing on static territorial divisions between states and regions at geopolitical level...

  11. Rotavirus NSP4114-135 peptide has no direct, specific effect on chloride transport in rabbit brush-border membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasseur Monique

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The direct effect of the rotavirus NSP4114-135 and Norovirus NV464-483 peptides on 36Cl uptake was studied by using villus cell brush border membrane (BBM isolated from young rabbits. Both peptides inhibited the Cl-/H+ symport activity about equally and partially. The interaction involved one peptide-binding site per carrier unit. Whereas in vitro NSP4114-135 caused nonspecific inhibition of the Cl-/H+ symporter, the situation in vivo is different. Because rotavirus infection in young rabbits accelerated both Cl- influx and Cl- efflux rates across villi BBM without stimulating Cl- transport in crypt BBM, we conclude that the NSP4114-135 peptide, which causes diarrhea in young rodents, did not have any direct, specific effect on either intestinal absorption or secretion of chloride. The lack of direct effect of NSP4 on chloride transport strengthens the hypothesis that NSP4 would trigger signal transduction pathways to enhance net chloride secretion at the onset of rotavirus diarrhea.

  12. The Border Multiple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addressing and conceptualizing the changing character of borders in contemporary Europe, this book examines developments occuring in the light of European integration processes and an on-going tightening of Europe's external borders. Moreover, the book suggests new ways of investigating the nature...... of European borders by looking at border practices in the light of the mobility turn, and thus as dynamic, multiple, diverse and best expressed in everyday experiences of people living at and with borders, rather than focusing on static territorial divisions between states and regions at geopolitical level....... It provides scholars and researchers as well as policymakers with new empirical and theoretical evidence on the de- and re-bordering processes going on in diverse border regions in Europe, both within and outside of the EU....

  13. Effectiveness of Culturally Appropriate Initiative on Drug-Related Harm Reduction for Sex Workers on the Thai/Malaysian Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunun, Worapol; Kanato, Manop

    2015-07-01

    Drug use can harm to sex workers. Abstinence intervention, however, may not be appropriate since drug use fosters their career performance. The objective was to develop the culturally appropriate model for sex workers participation on drug demand reduction at the Thailand/Malaysian border This study was a pre-post quasi-experimental design. Tripartite participation was used to develop the model aiming to reduce harm regarding drug use. The study carried out during June 2010-May 2011. Data were collected from 150 key informant interviews, 56 focus group discussions, 22 participant observations in various situations, and numerous related materials. Descriptive statistics, survival analysis and 95% confidence interval were utilizedfor quantitative data. Qualitative data were analyzed by content analysis. Drug related harm reduction was evaluated at two-week time along implementation period of 12 months. 89.5% of all sessions introduced could decrease drug related harm. Of all sex workers participated in the study, intended to treat analysis showed 86.9% success rate (95% CI; 77.1, 96.7). Of these, 32.6% became abstinence, 39.1% reduced most of drug related harm. 13.0% reduced partial drug related harm either lessfrequency, less quantity, less concentration, decrease types of drugs/switch to safe drugs or safer method of administration. 2.2% was infancy stage, which needed further support. Key success ofthe model was tripartite participation. With active leaders and strong support, sex workers were continually motivated to reduce harm regarding drug use.

  14. Cross-border innovation cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjaltadóttir, Rannveig Edda; Makkonen, Teemu; Sørensen, Nils Karl

    2014-01-01

    of Danish firms focusing on their choices of foreign innovation partners. The results indicate that firm size and R&D intensity have a positive effect on firm’s propensity to cooperate on innovation and that having R&D activities abroad as well as high level of innovativeness increase the likelihood...... of cross-border innovation cooperation. Accordingly, geographical proximity to international borders is found to have a significant, positive effect on choosing partners within EU. The multivariate probit model shows that the decision of choosing a domestic innovation partner is independent of the choice...

  15. Cross-border innovation cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjaltadóttir, Rannveig Edda; Makkonen, Teemu; Sørensen, Nils Karl

    2017-01-01

    Finding a suitable partner is paramount for the success of innovation cooperation. Thus, this paper sets out to analyse the determinants of cross-border innovation cooperation in Denmark by focusing on partner selection. The aim of the article is to investigate determinants of partner selection...... cooperation patterns of Danish firms focusing on their choices of foreign innovation partners. The results indicate that firm size and research and development (R&D) intensity have a positive effect on firm’s propensity to cooperate on innovation and that having R&D activities abroad as well as high level...... of innovativeness increase the likelihood of cross-border innovation cooperation. Accordingly, geographical proximity to international borders is found to have a significant, positive effect on selecting partners within the European Union. The multivariate probit model shows that the decision of choosing a domestic...

  16. Effects of fatty acid sucrose esters on ceftibuten transport by rat intestinal brush-border membrane vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, K; Murakami, M; Kawashima, S

    1998-07-01

    The effects of fatty acid sucrose esters on membrane lipid dynamics and ceftibuten transport by rat intestinal brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV) were examined to clarify the differences in the action of mono- and poly-acyl sucrose esters on the drug transport. Fatty acid sucrose mono-acyl ester (SS) inhibited ceftibuten transport by BBMV similar to the action of polyoxyethylene sorbitans (Tweens), while fatty acid sucrose polyacyl ester mixtures (F-160 and F-140) did not affect the drug transport by BBMV. SS but not F-160 and F-140 caused an increase in the anisotropy of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH)- and 1-(4-trimethylammoniumphenyl)-6-phenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene iodide (TMA-DPH)-labeled BBMV in a concentration-dependent manner. Thus, the uptake of ceftibuten by BBMV was strongly correlated with the lipid fluidity of BBMV, in the outer layer and in the inner hydrophobic regions; however, there was no strong correlation between the membrane lipid fluidity and the drug uptake by BBMV. The micelle size and the size distribution of F-160 and F-140 were larger and more widely dispersed, respectively, compared to those of SS and Tweens. These results suggest that the effects of fatty acid sucrose esters on ceftibuten transport by BBMV are related to the dispersion parameter of these pharmaceutical adjuvants.

  17. Shareholder Wealth Effects of European Domestic and Cross-Border Takeover Bids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goergen, M.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse the short-term wealth effects of large (intra)European takeover bids.We find large announcement effects of 9% for target firms and a cumulative abnormal return that includes the price run-up over the two-month period prior to the announcement date of 23%.However, the share

  18. The Effect and Feasibility Study of Transforaminal Percutaneous Endoscopic Lumbar Discectomy Via Superior Border of Inferior Pedicle Approach for Down-Migrated Intracanal Disc Herniations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Jinwei; Huang, Kelun; Zhu, Minyu; Zhou, Beibei; Wang, Yu; Chen, Bi; Teng, Honglin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Transforaminal percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy (PELD) is gradually regarded as an effective alternative to posterior open surgery. However, migrated herniations bring a great technical challenge even for experienced surgeons due to the absence of the appropriate approaching guideline. We aimed to describe a safe and effective approaching technique for the removal of down-migrations on the basis of the clinical outcomes and complications compared with the conventional approaching method. A total of 45 patients recommended to single-level PELD with foraminoplasty were randomly divided into 2 groups, group A received foraminoplasty via upper border of inferior pedicle, group B was approached through the common transforaminal route. The clinical outcomes were evaluated by Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for leg pain and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores. Then participants were classified into 2 types of migrations (high-grade and low-grade) based on the extent of migration presented on preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The various comparisons between the 2 surgical techniques were analyzed. The postoperative VAS and ODI scores significantly decreased in both of the 2 groups after surgery (P < 0.001). The follow-up continued 1 year. With increasing length of follow-up, the disparities in clinical outcomes between the 2 groups were gradually narrowing and there was no significant difference at the end of follow-up (P = 0.32; P = 0.46). There were no differences in the operation time and duration of hospital stay (P = 0.36; P = 0.08). The highly migration group in group B showed a significant longer operation time (P = 0.02), but the extent of migration did not have a significant influence on the operation time in group A with the modified approach (P = 0.19). There were no apparent approach-related complications in group A during the procedure and follow-up period. Foraminoplastic-PELD via upper border of

  19. The inhibitory effects of cephalosporin and dipeptide on ceftibuten uptake by human and rat intestinal brush-border membrane vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, M; Toda, T; Kobayashi, M; Iseki, K; Miyazaki, K; Shiroto, H; Uchino, J; Kondo, Y

    1994-08-01

    The types of inhibitory effects caused by compound V (an analogue of ceftibuten) and alanylproline (dipeptide) on the uptake of ceftibuten by brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV) prepared from human and rat small intestine were analysed. In the presence of an inward H(+)-gradient, the initial uptake rate of ceftibuten by both human and rat intestinal BBMV was concentration-dependent with apparent Km and Vmax values of 0.35 mM and 2.052 nmol (mg protein)-1 min-1 for human BBMV, and 0.50 mM and 3.056 nmol (mg protein)-1 min-1 for rat BBMV, respectively. For both human and rat BBMV, kinetic analysis by Dixon and Lineweaver-Burk plots demonstrated that the uptake of ceftibuten was competitively inhibited by compound V, whereas inhibition by alanylproline was noncompetitive or partially competitive. These results suggest that there is a stereospecific transport system which is common to ceftibuten and compound V, and that this system is not identical to the carrier system for the dipeptide, alanylproline.

  20. Borders, Violence, Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAVIER DE LUCAS

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the relationship between violence, law and borders by analyzing both the violence at the borders and the violence of the borders. In both cases, the author states that violence exerted by means of law, as well as migratory and asylum policies, threaten the universal human rights of the most vulnerable people and cannot be seen as exercising the legitimate monopoly of force, resulting in the destruction of the Rule of Law.

  1. The effects of substitution and the evolution of the cost of living expenses within the Uruguay-Brazil border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Correa Alsina

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The consumers that live near the border Uruguay-Brazil have the possibility of buying goods on both sides of such border. They may replace purchases of one country to the other according to the evolution of prices. In this way, consumers have a lower cost of living compared to the consumers living in the rest of the country. Besides, if the real bilateral exchange rate undergoes important fluctuations, they may take significant advantage of their location. This paper deals with the issue from a theoretical and empirical point of view. On one hand, it presents an adaptation of the cost-of-living index theory to the situation, and on the other hand, the estimates show that the advantages of living on the border were really significant in the last decade.

  2. Evaluation of Integration Degree of the ASG-EUPOS Polish Reference Networks With Ukrainian GeoTerrace Network Stations in the Border Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siejka, Zbigniew

    2017-09-01

    GNSS systems are currently the basic tools for determination of the highest precision station coordinates (e.g. basic control network stations or stations used in the networks for geodynamic studies) as well as for land, maritime and air navigation. All of these tasks are carried out using active, large scale, satellite geodetic networks which are complex, intelligent teleinformatic systems offering post processing services along with corrections delivered in real-time for kinematic measurements. Many countries in the world, also in Europe, have built their own multifunctional networks and enhance them with their own GNSS augmentation systems. Nowadays however, in the era of international integration, there is a necessity to consider collective actions in order to build a unified system, covering e.g. the whole Europe or at least some of its regions. Such actions have already been undertaken in many regions of the world. In Europe such an example is the development for EUPOS which consists of active national networks built in central eastern European countries. So far experience and research show, that the critical areas for connecting these networks are border areas, in which the positioning accuracy decreases (Krzeszowski and Bosy, 2011). This study attempts to evaluate the border area compatibility of Polish ASG-EUPOS (European Position Determination System) reference stations and Ukrainian GeoTerrace system reference stations in the context of their future incorporation into the EUPOS. The two networks analyzed in work feature similar hardware parameters. In the ASG-EUPOS reference stations network, during the analyzed period, 2 stations (WLDW and CHEL) used only one system (GPS), while, in the GeoTerrace network, all the stations were equipped with both GPS and GLONASS receivers. The ASG EUPOS reference station network (95.6%) has its average completeness greater by about 6% when compared to the GeoTerrace network (89.8%).

  3. Border Crossing Points, US-Mexico Border, 2015, NAVTEQ

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NAVTEQ Border Crossings for the United States. The Border Crossing layer contains all international border crossings for all motorway crossings, as well as other...

  4. Border Crossings, US-Mexico Border, 2010, NAVTEQ

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NAVTEQ Border Crossings for Region 9. The Border Crossing layer contains all international border crossings for all motorway crossings, as well as other important...

  5. An Analysis of the Development and Effectiveness of the United States Border Patrol Strategic Plans, 1994-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    incentive for those contemplating illegal entry into the country. If undocumented immigrants made it past the USBP near the international border and...from their previous primary focus, which was to prevent and detect undocumented immigrants unlawfully crossing into the U.S., to specifically...

  6. Straddling the border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eilenberg, Michael

    2011-01-01

    border between the Indonesian province of West Kalimantan and the Malaysian state of Sarawak on the island of Borneo. Based on local narratives, the aim of this paper is to unravel the little known history of how the Iban segment of the border population in West Kalimantan became entangled in the highly...

  7. Picking and Choosing the ‘Sovereign’Border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, Noel; Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    We argue that the continued persistence of borders is an effect of their constitutive role for the many dimensions of a social particular. States cannot choose to have a border; but they can and do make choices amongst the materials available on the various planes of inscription for bordering. Fo...

  8. Attitudes of inhabitants of border areas of Slovenia towards the Slovene-Croatian state border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metka Špes

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Article represents basic geographical characteristics of four sample border areas (Slovenska Istra, Bela Krajina, Spodnje Posavje and Spodnje Podravje, which were included in the research about the effects of a new state border on the living of inhabitants. We analysed their comprehension of changes in economic and social conditions, traffic currencies, interethnic relations, etc. Questioned persons (1200 questionnaires were estimating also development possibilities of domestic region in the light of its border position as well as obstacles for cooperation with the neighbouring Croatia and first of all with its border regions. Also current projects of transborder cooperation are represented.

  9. Red Crescent and its effect on the geography security on eastern borders (comparative study of social abnormalities during 1383-89

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farokh allah Shahbahrami

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: drugs have some multidimensional effects on people and their lives. People who live in eastern provinces are at the risk of getting addicted and abnormal. Afghanistan is and has been the main problem for Iran. Method: this research has been done by library method and for this many books and articles have been read. The determined time was about 6 years. Findings: drugs have direct effects on life of people. Border cities are under the unkind effects of drugs and its relevant things. Conclusion: authorities must pay too much attention to drugs and eastern provinces

  10. Opportunities for Cross-Border Entrepreneurship Development in a Cluster Model Exemplified by the Polish–Czech Border Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kurowska-Pysz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the paper is the analysis and evaluation of cross-border entrepreneurship development opportunities on the basis of cross-border cooperation, which has gradually evolved from consisting of bilateral partnerships to a networking model or even a cluster. The study conducted at the Polish–Czech border area indicates that, in terms of the development of cross-border cooperation, the economic sphere is lagging far behind social activities such as culture, education and tourism. At the same time, Polish and Czech enterprises are not sufficiently mobilized to develop cross-border entrepreneurship, although a number of support instruments in this regard have been proposed. Sustainable development of the border should take into account both social and economic aspects. An important research problem therefore becomes determining the possibility of boosting the development of cross-border entrepreneurship on the basis of the existing forms of cross-border cooperation, including cooperation in the social sphere. The aim of this paper is to define the conditions and opportunities for the development of cluster cooperation in the area of cross-border entrepreneurship. The author has attempted to resolve whether the intensity of cross-border cooperation can be a factor which mobilizes companies to develop their cross-border entrepreneurship and whether cross-border entrepreneurship can be further developed within the cluster model.

  11. Border Crossing Entry Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) Border Crossing/Entry Data provides summary statistics for inbound crossings at the U.S.-Canadian and the U.S.-Mexican...

  12. Is areca innocent? The effect of areca (betel) nut chewing in a population of pregnant women on the Thai–Myanmar border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chue, Amy L.; Carrara, Verena I.; Paw, Moo Kho; Pimanpanarak, Mupawjay; Wiladphaingern, Jacher; van Vugt, Michele; Lee, Sue J.; Nosten, François; McGready, Rose

    2012-01-01

    Eight manuscripts have specifically examined the effects of areca (betel) nut use in pregnant women, seven of which have documented adverse effects on birth weight, newborn neurological status, gender ratio and pregnancy outcomes such as anaemia and miscarriage following areca nut use during pregnancy. A retrospective cohort analysis of migrant and refugee pregnant women attending antenatal clinics along the Thai–Myanmar border (July 1997 to November 2006) was conducted to examine the adverse effects of areca nut use routinely recorded on enrolment. Of 7685 women, 2284 (29.7%) never used areca or smoked (cheroots), 2484 (32.3%) only used areca, 438 (5.7%) only smoked cheroots and 2479 (32.3%) used both areca and cheroots. Pieces of ripe areca nut in a leaf with lime, without tobacco, were used particularly among older multigravid women. Adverse pregnancy effects were not observed in areca nut users compared with non-users. Smoking, but not areca nut use, had a dose-related effect on miscarriage. Areca nut use in conjunction with smoking reduced the adverse effects of smoking on birth weight, further supporting a lack of effect of areca nut. Areca (betel) nut-related adverse pregnancy outcomes were not observed in this population, whereas smoking was clearly harmful. Differences from previous reports may result from the amount or types of areca nut, or quid content, consumed between countries. Smoking, but not areca nut, reduction is likely to improve pregnancy outcomes on the Thai–Myanmar border. PMID:24029401

  13. Is areca innocent? The effect of areca (betel) nut chewing in a population of pregnant women on the Thai-Myanmar border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chue, Amy L; Carrara, Verena I; Paw, Moo Kho; Pimanpanarak, Mupawjay; Wiladphaingern, Jacher; van Vugt, Michele; Lee, Sue J; Nosten, François; McGready, Rose

    2012-09-01

    Eight manuscripts have specifically examined the effects of areca (betel) nut use in pregnant women, seven of which have documented adverse effects on birth weight, newborn neurological status, gender ratio and pregnancy outcomes such as anaemia and miscarriage following areca nut use during pregnancy. A retrospective cohort analysis of migrant and refugee pregnant women attending antenatal clinics along the Thai-Myanmar border (July 1997 to November 2006) was conducted to examine the adverse effects of areca nut use routinely recorded on enrolment. Of 7685 women, 2284 (29.7%) never used areca or smoked (cheroots), 2484 (32.3%) only used areca, 438 (5.7%) only smoked cheroots and 2479 (32.3%) used both areca and cheroots. Pieces of ripe areca nut in a leaf with lime, without tobacco, were used particularly among older multigravid women. Adverse pregnancy effects were not observed in areca nut users compared with non-users. Smoking, but not areca nut use, had a dose-related effect on miscarriage. Areca nut use in conjunction with smoking reduced the adverse effects of smoking on birth weight, further supporting a lack of effect of areca nut. Areca (betel) nut-related adverse pregnancy outcomes were not observed in this population, whereas smoking was clearly harmful. Differences from previous reports may result from the amount or types of areca nut, or quid content, consumed between countries. Smoking, but not areca nut, reduction is likely to improve pregnancy outcomes on the Thai-Myanmar border.

  14. Old Borders and New Bordering Capabilities: Cities as Frontier Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia Sassen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The global city is a new frontier zone. Deregulation, privatization, and new fiscal and monetary policies create the formal instruments to construct their equivalent of the old military “fort”. The city is also a strategic frontier zone for those who lack power, and allows the making of informal politics. At the same time the border is a mix of regimes, marked by protections and opportunities for corporations and high-level professionals, and implies confinement, capture and detention for migrants. The essay discusses the transformation of the city in a frontier zone and analyses the separation between the capabilities entailed by territoriality and the geographic territory tout court. The analysis focuses on the effects of neoliberal policies that, far from making this a borderless world, have actually multiplied the bordered spaces that allow firms and markets to move across conventional borders. Cities are therefore one of the key sites where new neoliberal norms are made and where new identities emerge.

  15. The Nature and Functions of European Political Borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Zupančič

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The political border limits a state’s territory and symbolizes the extent of a state’s power and ownership. Borders give integrity to the inner state territory which they enclose (the role of establishing national integrity and at the same time form an outer boundary segregating the state territory from the surrounding politicial entities (the segregation role. European borders are old and reflect the political history of an old continent. The last major border changes happened after World War II. Over the centuries borders were merely lines separating one territory from another. Such borders were understood as »frontiers«. Forming an effective barrier against enemies was the overriding function of borders. Many borders were fortified and further enhanced by means of various defensive systems. In the second half of the 20th century the character of political borders changed. They became a contact area between countries, nations and cultures. Contemporary European borders reflect the colourful history of an old continent. They are predominantely functional markers: they represent the political and juridical delimitation of territories, they mark economic barriers and show their defensive nature and reveal the extent of cultural contact. As a result of European integration processes, the nature of political borders has changed: instead of division, their integration role is brought to the fore. A united Europe is nevertheless still not a borderless Europe! The borders within the »Schengen-area« have retained their political and administrative functions, it is just that the customs and security checks at the borders have been removed. During the period of European integration, borderlines were stabilized in accordance with the 1974 Helsinki Agreement. But despite this we can still observe ongoing changes to state borders, particularly in areas of conflict such as the Balkan peninsula. It seems after all that the process of demarcation

  16. Effect of greater trochanteric epiphysiodesis after femoral varus osteotomy for lateral pillar classification B and B/C border Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease: A retrospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Keun-Sang; Wang, Sung Il; Lee, Ju-Hyung; Moon, Young Jae; Kim, Jung Ryul

    2017-08-01

    This is a retrospective observational study. Greater trochanteric epiphysiodesis (GTE) has been recommended to prevent Trendelenburg gait and limitation of the hip joint motion due to trochanteric overgrowth after femoral varus osteotomy (FVO) in Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease (LCPD). However, capital femoral physeal arrest frequently occurs in patients with severe disease (lateral pillar C), so GTE might not be as effective in these patients. The aim of this study was to compare trochanteric growth inhibition due to GTE after FVO between 2 age groups (8 years) in patients with lateral pillar B and B/C border LCPD and evaluate the effectiveness of GTE compared with the normal, unaffected hip.This study included 19 children with lateral pillar B and B/C border LCPD in 1 leg who underwent FVO followed by GTE. Of the 19 children, 9 underwent GTE before the age of 8 years and 10 underwent GTE after 8 years of age. On radiographs taken at the immediate postoperative period and at skeletal maturity, the articulo-trochanteric distance (ATD), center-trochanteric distance (CTD), and neck-shaft angle (NSA) were compared between the 2 age groups. The amount of correction was compared between groups. The contralateral, unaffected hip was used as a control for trochanteric growth. The patients were clinically evaluated with Iowa hip score at the final follow-up.There was no significant difference between the 2 age groups in terms of time to GTE, length of follow-up, or lateral pillar classification. In the affected hip, the amount of correction of the ATD, CTD, and NSA was significantly greater in patients  8 years. However, in the unaffected hip, the change in the ATD, CTD, and NSA did not differ significantly between the 2 groups.We suggest that FVO followed by GTE for lateral pillar B and B/C border LCPD in patients under the age of 8 years can affect growth of the greater trochanter. However, effective growth inhibition due to GTE was not achieved after 8 years of age.

  17. Business, brokers and borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    that decentralized networks are well adapted to the various uncertainties induced by long-distance trade. We also study the trade-offs faced by traders between embeddedness and brokerage and find that long-distance trade relies both on the trust and cooperation shared among local traders, and on the distant ties...... origin of the traders engaged in cross-border activities. In those markets where trade is recent and where most of the traders are not native of the region, national borders are likely to exert a greater influence than in those regions where trade has pre-colonial roots....

  18. From Borders to Margins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, Noel

    2009-01-01

    upon Deleuze's philosophy to set out an ontology in which the continual reformulation of entities in play in ‘post-international' society can be grasped.  This entails a strategic shift from speaking about the ‘borders' between sovereign states to referring instead to the ‘margins' between a plethora...... of entities that are ever open to identity shifts.  The concept of the margin possesses a much wider reach than borders, and focuses continual attention on the meetings and interactions between a range of indeterminate entities whose interactions may determine both themselves and the types of entity...

  19. Border region studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Williams, Allan

    2016-01-01

    The contemporary conditions of academic capitalism exert pressures on researchers to avoid ‘peripheral’ journals and ‘unfashionable’ topics. Here an attempt is made to shed light onto the structure of one such ‘offbeat’ field, namely ‘border region studies’, by discussing its geographical...... distribution, key themes, significance and impact. The review suggests that border region studies can be considered a significant and important ‘branch’ of regional studies, which accounts for a small but increasing proportion of regional studies research particularly in Europe and North America. Four main...

  20. Using G6PD tests to enable the safe treatment of Plasmodium vivax infections with primaquine on the Thailand-Myanmar border: A cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Angela; Parmiter, Minnie; Chu, Cindy S; Bancone, Germana; Nosten, François; Price, Ric N; Lubell, Yoel; Yeung, Shunmay

    2017-05-01

    Primaquine is the only licensed antimalarial for the radical cure of Plasmodium vivax infections. Many countries, however, do not administer primaquine due to fear of hemolysis in those with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. In other settings, primaquine is given without G6PD testing, putting patients at risk of hemolysis. New rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) offer the opportunity to screen for G6PD deficiency prior to treatment with primaquine. Here we assessed the cost-effectiveness of using G6PD RDTs on the Thailand-Myanmar border and provide the model as an online tool for use in other settings. Decision tree models for the management of P. vivax malaria evaluated the costs and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) associated with recurrences and primaquine-induced hemolysis from a health care provider perspective. Screening with G6PD RDTs before primaquine use was compared to (1) giving chloroquine alone and (2) giving primaquine without screening. Data were taken from a recent study on the impact of primaquine on P. vivax recurrences and a literature review. Compared to the use of chloroquine alone, the screening strategy had similar costs while averting 0.026 and 0.024 DALYs per primary infection in males and females respectively. Compared to primaquine administered without screening, the screening strategy provided modest cost savings while averting 0.011 and 0.004 DALYs in males and females respectively. The probabilistic sensitivity analyses resulted in a greater than 75% certainty that the screening strategy was cost-effective at a willingness to pay threshold of US$500, which is well below the common benchmark of per capita gross domestic product for Myanmar. In this setting G6PD RDTs could avert DALYs by reducing recurrences and reducing hemolytic risk in G6PD deficient patients at low costs or cost savings. The model results are limited by the paucity of data available in the literature for some parameter values, including the

  1. Using G6PD tests to enable the safe treatment of Plasmodium vivax infections with primaquine on the Thailand-Myanmar border: A cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Devine

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Primaquine is the only licensed antimalarial for the radical cure of Plasmodium vivax infections. Many countries, however, do not administer primaquine due to fear of hemolysis in those with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency. In other settings, primaquine is given without G6PD testing, putting patients at risk of hemolysis. New rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs offer the opportunity to screen for G6PD deficiency prior to treatment with primaquine. Here we assessed the cost-effectiveness of using G6PD RDTs on the Thailand-Myanmar border and provide the model as an online tool for use in other settings.Decision tree models for the management of P. vivax malaria evaluated the costs and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs associated with recurrences and primaquine-induced hemolysis from a health care provider perspective. Screening with G6PD RDTs before primaquine use was compared to (1 giving chloroquine alone and (2 giving primaquine without screening. Data were taken from a recent study on the impact of primaquine on P. vivax recurrences and a literature review. Compared to the use of chloroquine alone, the screening strategy had similar costs while averting 0.026 and 0.024 DALYs per primary infection in males and females respectively. Compared to primaquine administered without screening, the screening strategy provided modest cost savings while averting 0.011 and 0.004 DALYs in males and females respectively. The probabilistic sensitivity analyses resulted in a greater than 75% certainty that the screening strategy was cost-effective at a willingness to pay threshold of US$500, which is well below the common benchmark of per capita gross domestic product for Myanmar.In this setting G6PD RDTs could avert DALYs by reducing recurrences and reducing hemolytic risk in G6PD deficient patients at low costs or cost savings. The model results are limited by the paucity of data available in the literature for some parameter values

  2. HIV Transmission Networks in the San Diego-Tijuana Border Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Sanjay R; Wertheim, Joel O; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Wagner, Karla D; Chaillon, Antoine; Strathdee, Steffanie; Patterson, Thomas L; Rangel, Maria G; Vargas, Mlenka; Murrell, Ben; Garfein, Richard; Little, Susan J; Smith, Davey M

    2015-10-01

    HIV sequence data can be used to reconstruct local transmission networks. Along international borders, like the San Diego-Tijuana region, understanding the dynamics of HIV transmission across reported risks, racial/ethnic groups, and geography can help direct effective prevention efforts on both sides of the border. We gathered sociodemographic, geographic, clinical, and viral sequence data from HIV infected individuals participating in ten studies in the San Diego-Tijuana border region. Phylogenetic and network analysis was performed to infer putative relationships between HIV sequences. Correlates of identified clusters were evaluated and spatiotemporal relationships were explored using Bayesian phylogeographic analysis. After quality filtering, 843 HIV sequences with associated demographic data and 263 background sequences from the region were analyzed, and 138 clusters were inferred (2-23 individuals). Overall, the rate of clustering did not differ by ethnicity, residence, or sex, but bisexuals were less likely to cluster than heterosexuals or men who have sex with men (p = 0.043), and individuals identifying as white (p ≤ 0.01) were more likely to cluster than other races. Clustering individuals were also 3.5 years younger than non-clustering individuals (p < 0.001). Although the sampled San Diego and Tijuana epidemics were phylogenetically compartmentalized, five clusters contained individuals residing on both sides of the border. This study sampled ~ 7% of HIV infected individuals in the border region, and although the sampled networks on each side of the border were largely separate, there was evidence of persistent bidirectional cross-border transmissions that linked risk groups, thus highlighting the importance of the border region as a "melting pot" of risk groups. NIH, VA, and Pendleton Foundation.

  3. Avocados Crossing Borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Bjørn-Andersen, Niels; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    This paper address indirect global interactions that involve collaboration across continents involving different cultures, languages, technologies and nations. Specifically, we are concerned with analyzing international trade of avocados from trees in Africa to grocery store shelves in the Europe......, the description format developed for this case can be useful for visualizing and analyzing other supply chains involving collaborations across borders....

  4. Borders of Discourse?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Janni Berthou

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to discuss a fundamentally different approach to discourse analysis by using a pragmatic point of departure for understanding use of language. Using an empirical example from a construction project it is discussed how material as well as societal dimensions of collaboration func...... functions as borders for transformations of discourse – and these dimensions are most often intertwined...

  5. Illela border market: origin and contributions to trans-border ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines the origin and development of Illela Border Market in Sokoto State, Nigeria. The paper shows that attempts by Nigeria to promote social and economic activities with her neighbours encourage the establishment of Border Markets and Illela Border Market is not an exception. The article sheds light on the ...

  6. "Border Sexualities, Border Families in Schools": Queering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, John

    2012-01-01

    This essay reviews Maria Pallotta-Chiarolli's (2010) Lambda Award-winning monograph "Border Sexualities, Border Families in Schools", in which queer and mestizage pedagogies frame a groundbreaking and highly accessible exploration of the issues that sexual border dwellers experience. Her particular focus areas are bisexual "sexually fluid"…

  7. Canada and Mexico Border Crossings

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Border Crossing Ports are points of entry for land modes along the U.S. - Canadian and U.S.- Mexcian borders. The ports of entry are located in 15 states along the...

  8. POSTMODERN EDUCATION: CRITICAL AND BORDER PEDAGOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Kurt

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the influence of postmodernism on education and investigates the main effects ofpostmodern philosophy on social sciences. It is clearly stated in the article that the effects of postmodernism cannotonly be limited to art and logically it should have an effect on education as well. This effect, described as thepostmodern educational approach, emphasizes that the rudiments of popular culture should also be incorporated toeducation and therefore to curricula. Postmodern educational approach also accentuates the significance of allowing‘others’ who have never possessed the opportunity to articulate their standpoints and desires to have a say in their owneducation. The concrete reflections of postmodern educational approach can be perceived in Critical and BorderPedagogies theorized by Henry A. Giroux. Critical pedagogy aspires to educate individuals who do not acceptoccurrences as they are and are critical of the knowledge they construct all through their education. Only by this waythese individuals will be able to discover their own voices, improve their civilian consciousness by taking risks, andacquire the ability of staying alive and functioning within social relations, traditions and experiences. Border pedagogyis as well a product of postmodern philosophy. It defends counter-text as opposed to the official ones offered, presentedand imposed to learners. Counter-consciousness represents the critical analysis of how the present reads the past andhow the past informs the present. This practice of course results in the re-evaluation of memories and traditions.Memories are the stories which were forgotten or ignored with the support of preserved traditions. It is thereforeconcluded in the article that postmodern educational approach is the critical examination towards dismissing the mainnarratives and discourses which manipulate and configure the curriculum of schools. It is the struggle exercisedtowards the recognition

  9. Healthy Border 2020 Embassy Launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S.-Mexico Border Health Commission launched the Healthy Border 2020 at the Mexican Embassy in the United States on June 24, 2015. This new initiative aims to strengthening what was accomplished on the previous plan of action entitled Healthy Border 2010.

  10. The California Border Health Collaborative: A Strategy for Leading the Border to Better Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Charles Edwards; Wooten, Wilma; Gomez, María Gudelia Rangel; Kozo, Justine; Fernandez, April; Ojeda, Victoria D

    2015-01-01

    There are hundreds of people and organizations working on border health issues in the California-Baja California border region trying to protect and improve health. These efforts are being conducted without a collaborative structure that integrates jurisdictions and organizations. Thus, there is a need to coordinate these organizations to work together and benefit from their collective effort and each other's best practices. The outcome of such an effort could effectively improve the health in the border region. The newly developed "California Border Health Collaborative" unites organizations and provides the leadership and collaborative culture to positively improve the health of the border region; it is referred to as the "Collaborative." This article describes the developmental process of this Collaborative, including partner engagement, governance, strategic planning, key elements for success, the roles of multi-level jurisdictions, and policy implications. This paper focuses on describing the preparation and processes that created the U.S./California side of this binational collaborative effort and is a strong reflection of the theory of border collaboration as described by Denman and De Sonora (1) in "Working beyond Borders: A Handbook for Transborder Projects in Health."

  11. Cross-Border Political Donations and Pareto-Efficient Tariffs

    OpenAIRE

    Endoh, Masahiro

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of lobbying activities across international borders, on determining each country’s import tariff in a multi-principal, multi-agent, menu-auction model. Cross-border political donations could promote international policy cooperation because of two of their distinctive characteristics. First, special interest groups use cross-border donations as tools to wield their influence on ruling parties of other countries directly, which promotes efficiency of policy forma...

  12. Cross border relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi; Sriram, Sujata

    2010-01-01

    in which they were born. These movements also imply human relationships across the borders in different contexts with various cultural, psychological consequences. Relationships of members of migrant groups with each other, and also with the host community have important implications on the health and well......-being of not just the migrant population, but also the host communities. These relationships represent the microcosm of societal and cultural integration and cohesion at the broader levels. Studies of how and how well migrants, especially youth handle migration indicate transformations in paradigms as both...... the borders in the context of modernity such as will also be discussed. In the backdrop of polarisation of populations into us and them, still there are increasing trends towards intermarriage, which challenge the idea of who belongs together and earlier taboos against such mixing. The symposia will explore...

  13. Border cell release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mravec, Jozef

    2017-01-01

    Plant border cells are specialised cells derived from the root cap with roles in the biomechanics of root growth and in forming a barrier against pathogens. The mechanism of highly localised cell separation which is essential for their release to the environment is little understood. Here I present...... in situ analysis of Brachypodium distachyon, a model organism for grasses which possess type II primary cell walls poor in pectin content. Results suggest similarity in spatial dynamics of pectic homogalacturonan during dicot and monocot border cell release. Integration of observations from different...... species leads to the hypothesis that this process most likely does not involve degradation of cell wall material but rather employs unique cell wall structural and compositional means enabling both the rigidity of the root cap as well as detachability of given cells on its surface....

  14. Evaluating the Relationship between Distance from the Border and Amount of Income and Employment from Smuggling (Case study: Villages of Khav and Myrabad district, Marivan County)

    OpenAIRE

    H. Kohnepooshi; A. A. Aanabestani

    2013-01-01

    Extended abstract1-IntroductionThe subject of free trade and paying attention to marketing strategies and attracting customers can be considered as one of the significant factors in economic growth and development nowadays, so that many governments consider the international trade as one of the important priorities in their macroeconomic policy agenda. Currently the definition of smuggling and trafficking is not limited solely to the entry and exit within geographic borders of a country, rath...

  15. Metrics for border management systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggan, Ruth Ann

    2009-07-01

    There are as many unique and disparate manifestations of border systems as there are borders to protect. Border Security is a highly complex system analysis problem with global, regional, national, sector, and border element dimensions for land, water, and air domains. The complexity increases with the multiple, and sometimes conflicting, missions for regulating the flow of people and goods across borders, while securing them for national security. These systems include frontier border surveillance, immigration management and customs functions that must operate in a variety of weather, terrain, operational conditions, cultural constraints, and geopolitical contexts. As part of a Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project 08-684 (Year 1), the team developed a reference framework to decompose this complex system into international/regional, national, and border elements levels covering customs, immigration, and border policing functions. This generalized architecture is relevant to both domestic and international borders. As part of year two of this project (09-1204), the team determined relevant relative measures to better understand border management performance. This paper describes those relative metrics and how they can be used to improve border management systems.

  16. Evaluating Effective Management Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramley, Peter

    1999-01-01

    A better way to assess the effectiveness of management development is to measure organizational effectiveness rather than individual improvement. Case studies support the Business Excellence Framework model, which assesses enablers (leadership, personnel management, policy, resources, processes) and results (personnel and customer satisfaction,…

  17. BTFS: The Border Trade Facilitation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, L.R.

    1999-03-18

    The author demonstrates the Border Trade Facilitation System (BTFS), an agent-based bilingual e-commerce system built to expedite the regulation, control, and execution of commercial trans-border shipments during the delivery phase. The system was built to serve maquila industries at the US/Mexican border. The BTFS uses foundation technology developed here at Sandia Laboratories' Advanced Information Systems Lab (AISL), including a distributed object substrate, a general-purpose agent development framework, dynamically generated agent-human interaction via the World-Wide Web, and a collaborative agent architecture. This technology is also the substrate for the Multi-Agent Simulation Management System (MASMAS) proposed for demonstration at this conference. The BTFS executes authenticated transactions among agents performing open trading over the Internet. With the BTFS in place, one could conduct secure international transactions from any site with an Internet connection and a web browser. The BTFS is currently being evaluated for commercialization.

  18. Effects of temperature and resource variation on insect population dynamics: the bordered plant bug as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher A.; Coutinho, Renato M.; Berlin, Erin; Dolphin, Kimberly E.; Heyer, Johanna; Kim, Britney; Leung, Alice; Sabellon, Jamie Lou; Amarasekare, Priyanga

    2017-01-01

    Summary In species with complex life cycles, population dynamics result from a combination of intrinsic cycles arising from delays in the operation of negative density-dependent processes (e.g., intraspecific competition) and extrinsic fluctuations arising from seasonal variation in the abiotic environment. Abiotic variation can affect species directly through their life history traits and indirectly by modulating the species’ interactions with resources or natural enemies.We investigate how the interplay between density-dependent dynamics and abiotic variability affects population dynamics of the bordered plant bug (Largus californicus), a Hemipteran herbivore inhabiting the California coastal sage scrub community. Field data show a striking pattern in abundance: adults are extremely abundant or nearly absent during certain periods of the year, leading us to predict that seasonal forcing plays a role in driving observed dynamics.We develop a stage-structured population model with variable developmental delays, in which fecundity is affected by both intra-specific competition and temporal variation in resource availability and all life history traits (reproduction, development, mortality) are temperature-dependent. We parameterize the model with experimental data on temperature-responses of life history and competitive traits and validate the model with independent field census data.We find that intra-specific competition is strongest at temperatures optimal for reproduction, which theory predicts leads to more complex population dynamics. Our model predicts that while temperature or resource variability interact with development-induced delays in self-limitation to generate population fluctuations, it is the interplay between all three factors that drive the observed dynamics. Considering how multiple abiotic factors interact with density-dependent processes is important both for understanding how species persist in variable environments and predicting species

  19. Teacher Evaluation: Archiving Teaching Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Lance D.

    2014-01-01

    Teacher evaluation is a current hot topic within music education. This article offers strategies for K-12 music educators on how to promote their effectiveness as teachers through archival documentation in a teacher portfolio. Using the Danielson evaluation model (based on four domains of effective teaching practices), examples of music teaching…

  20. Filter Effectiveness Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    synthetic paraffinic kerosene (SPK), as well as Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD) treated with mono-olein to simulate the effects of biodiesel . Results...Microns BOT Beginning of test BUGL Base upstream gravimetric level CAT Caterpillar Inc. CI/LI Corrosion inhibitor / lubricity improver DDC...well as a simulated biodiesel composed of ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and mono-olein. As written in the scope of work, the alternative aviation

  1. Novel EUV mask black border and its impact on wafer imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodera, Yutaka; Fukugami, Norihito; Komizo, Toru; Watanabe, Genta; Ito, Shin; Yoshida, Itaru; Maruyama, Shingo; Kotani, Jun; Konishi, Toshio; Haraguchi, Takashi

    2016-03-01

    EUV lithography is the most promising technology for semiconductor device manufacturing of the 10nm node and beyond. The EUV mask is a key element in the lithographic scanner optical path. The image border is a pattern free dark area around the die on the photomask serving as transition area between the parts of the mask that is shielded from the exposure light by the Reticle Masking (REMA) blades and the die. When printing a die at dense spacing on an EUV scanner, the EUV light reflection from the image border overlaps edges of neighboring dies, affecting CD and contrast in this area. To reduce this effect an etched multilayer type black border was developed, and it was demonstrated that CD impact at the edge of a die is strongly reduced with this type of the black border (BB). However, wafer printing result still showed some CD change influenced by the black border reflection. It was proven that the CD shift was caused by DUV Out of Band (OOB) light which is emitted from EUV light source. New types of a multilayer etched BB were evaluated and showed a good potential for DUV light suppression. In this study, a novel black border called Hybrid Black Border has been developed which allows to eliminate EUV and DUV OOB light reflection. Direct measurements of OOB light from HBB and Normal BB are performed on NXE:3300B ASML EUV scanner; it is shown that HBB OOB reflection is 3x lower than that of Normal BB. Finally, we state that HBB is a promising technology allowing for CD control at die edges.

  2. Beneficial insect borders provide northern bobwhite brood habitat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher E Moorman

    Full Text Available Strips of fallow vegetation along cropland borders are an effective strategy for providing brood habitat for declining populations of upland game birds (Order: Galliformes, including northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus, but fallow borders lack nectar-producing vegetation needed to sustain many beneficial insect populations (e.g., crop pest predators, parasitoids, and pollinator species. Planted borders that contain mixes of prairie flowers and grasses are designed to harbor more diverse arthropod communities, but the relative value of these borders as brood habitat is unknown. We used groups of six human-imprinted northern bobwhite chicks as a bioassay for comparing four different border treatments (planted native grass and prairie flowers, planted prairie flowers only, fallow vegetation, or mowed vegetation as northern bobwhite brood habitat from June-August 2009 and 2010. All field border treatments were established around nine organic crop fields. Groups of chicks were led through borders for 30-min foraging trials and immediately euthanized, and eaten arthropods in crops and gizzards were measured to calculate a foraging rate for each border treatment. We estimated arthropod prey availability within each border treatment using a modified blower-vac to sample arthropods at the vegetation strata where chicks foraged. Foraging rate did not differ among border treatments in 2009 or 2010. Total arthropod prey densities calculated from blower-vac samples did not differ among border treatments in 2009 or 2010. Our results showed plant communities established to attract beneficial insects should maximize the biodiversity potential of field border establishment by providing habitat for beneficial insects and young upland game birds.

  3. Business, brokers and borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to show how a formal approach to networks can make a significant contribution to the study of cross-border trade in West Africa. Building on the formal tools and theories developed by Social Network Analysis, we examine the network organization of 136 large traders...... and cooperation shared among local traders, and on the distant ties developed with foreign partners from a different origin, religion or culture. Studying the spatial structure of trade networks, we find that in those markets where trade is recent and where most of the traders are not native of the region...

  4. Collaborating Across Borders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatten, Amy

    Physicists transcend national boundaries, ethnic differences, and scientific disciplines to address globally shared problems and questions. This talk will highlight how scientists have collaborated across borders - both geographic and scientific - to achieve ground-breaking discoveries through international scientific cooperation. The speaker also will address how international collaborations will be even more crucial for addressing future challenges faced by the physics community, such as building large-scale research facilities, strengthening scientific capacity in developing countries, fostering ''science for diplomacy'' in times of political tensions and other critical issues.

  5. Estimating Border Tax Evasion in Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Van Dunem, Joao Ernesto

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between border tax rates and evasion is examined for Mozambique using the methodology developed by Fisman and Wei (2004). We find that high tax rates are associated with high levels of under-reporting of import values and that tax rates have a strong and positive effect on tax ev...

  6. Skilled labor, specialization, and urban labor productivity on Mexico's northern border: A panel analysis of mixed effects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jorge Eduardo Mendoza Cota; José Antonto Cabrera Pereyra

    2014-01-01

      This article evaluates the impact of skilled labor on productivity and returns of labor at the level of industrial subsectors in the most populated urban settings of Mexico's northern region during 2001-2009...

  7. The Border as a Resource for the Development of Borderland: A Comparative Analysis of Two Polish Urban Centres at the External Border of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Studzińska Dominika

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The entry into force of the Agreement between the Republic of Poland and the Russian Federation on visa- free movement in 2012 caused an increase in border permeability, and hence a sudden increase in border crossings. The border which used to divide the neighbouring states started linking them instead. Crossing the border became part of the everyday life of local communities. Actors on both sides benefited from the commercial services of the other country. For Kaliningrad citizens, border-crossing points became gates to Europe, and for Poles, a resource improving the quality of life via petty trade. The aim of this article is to compare two border cities: Braniewo, a town located in the immediate vicinity of the border-crossing point, and Tri-City, which has become a new border centre after the introduction of small border traffic. Two viewpoints on the effect of local border traffic are presented. The first is the perspective of a typical border city. The other is that of the effect of an increase in border permeability on a major urban centre - Tri-City.

  8. Three intelligence methodologies for border defence and border ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Border defence is predominately against the armed forces of other states requiring tanks, aircraft and ships. Traditionally, border security includes the mission roles of immigration, crime, agriculture, finance, disease control and terrorism. Intelligence gathering and analysis using three methodologies - trends and patterns, ...

  9. three intelligence methodologies for border defence and border ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Johnston (2005:12) in identifying various methods and a taxonomy for intelligence analysis. Of these there are ..... It follows that accurate intelligence prediction and forecasting in trends and patterns will determine ... for power projection and not based on territorial border threats for her land borders with Canada and Mexico ...

  10. Child hunger and the protective effects of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) and alternative food sources among Mexican-origin families in Texas border colonias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Joseph R; Dean, Wesley R; Nalty, Courtney C

    2013-09-13

    Nutritional health is essential for children's growth and development. Many Mexican-origin children who reside in limited-resource colonias along the Texas-Mexico border are at increased risk for poor nutrition as a result of household food insecurity. However, little is known about the prevalence of child hunger or its associated factors among children of Mexican immigrants. This study determines the prevalence of child hunger and identifies protective and risk factors associated with it in two Texas border areas. This study uses 2009 Colonia Household and Community Food Resource Assessment (C-HCFRA) data from 470 mothers who were randomly recruited by promotora-researchers. Participants from colonias near two small towns in two South Texas counties participated in an in-home community and household assessment. Interviewer-administered surveys collected data in Spanish on sociodemographics, federal food assistance program participation, and food security status. Frequencies and bivariate correlations were examined while a random-effects logistic regression model with backward elimination was used to determine correlates of childhood hunger. Hunger among children was reported in 51% (n = 239) of households in this C-HCFRA sample. Bivariate analyses revealed that hunger status was associated with select maternal characteristics, such as lower educational attainment and Mexican nativity, and household characteristics, including household composition, reliance on friend or neighbor for transportation, food purchase at dollar stores and from neighbors, and participation in school-based nutrition programs. A smaller percentage of households with child hunger participated in school-based nutrition programs (51%) or used alternative food sources, while 131 households were unable to give their child or children a balanced meal during the school year and 145 households during summer months. In the random effects model (RE = small town), increased household

  11. Stretching the Border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horstmann, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I hope to add a complementary perspective to James Scott’s recent work on avoidance strategies of subaltern mountain people by focusing on what I call the refugee public. The educated Karen elite uses the space of exile in the Thai borderland to reconstitute resources and to re......-enter Karen state in Eastern Burma as humanitarians, providing medical, educational resources and help to document human rights violations and do advocacy work. In addition, local missionaries and faith-based groups also use the corridor to spread the word of God. I argue that Karen humanitarian community......-based organizations succeed to stretch the border by establishing a firm presence that is supported by the international humanitarian economy in the refugee camps in Northwestern Thailand....

  12. Border mythology: Turner and modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E. Brenna B.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Modernity has been creating spaces, new boundaries and borders, as metaphysical, mythological and symbolic marks of physical and imaginary territories. Modern space and its borders are metaphors, boundaries that are created, walls that rise to identify with some and categorize others. In this short paper we want to approach the problem of the transformation of the idea of border (geographical, cultural, symbolic, etc., for a reflection on the transformations of that civilized obsession called border. The border has always been a reference in facing the identities, names, symbols, different imaginary: it is more confrontational line between two otherness. From the previous framework, we reflect on Turnerian mythology, as we believe that behind the creation of the imagination of the northern border is the mythical vision of the American frontier as ideological canon that explains and confirms the presence of the white race in a border re–made in the image and likeness of the “American Dream”. Frederick Turner’s reflection on the role of the frontier in American history is not only the study of the importance of progress towards the West but –even more so, is the analysis of meaning that had the American frontier as a historical process that ended in 1893, as Turner said, but rather extended into the twentieth century and continues to constantly shaping the process of territorialization of the border.

  13. Geographical, Sociological and Metaphysical Borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacinto Choza Armenta

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available During the different ages of history and prehistory, borders have possessed different kinds of natures. Sometimes they did not exist, at other times they have been very diffuse, while at others they have been impassable. There were no borders in the Paleolithic age, or during Greece’s Heroic Age. It was not until the creation of the city-states and the empires that borders began to be consolidated. Territorial demarcations were not very strict during the Middle Ages, either. It was in the modern age that borders acquired an impassable nature, following the birth of the modern State, and they began to weaken with the crisis of the modern State that began in the 20th century. Thus, the author claims, the construction of borders is not a fundamentally political-administrative event. Instead, it seems to be primarily a phenomenon of a cultural nature and, more specifically, of a metaphysical nature.

  14. Cross-Border Tourism and its Significance for Tourism Destinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman LIVANDOVSCHI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is concerned with cross-border tourism. It enhances the importance of cross-border cooperation in tourism. Cross-border cooperation is a form of international cooperation, along with interregional, transitional and trans-frontier cooperation. Cross-border regions often share the same historical and cultural traditions and attractive natural landscapes, such is the case of the Republic of Moldova and Romania. In both cases, cross-border regions can benefit from cooperation – cooperation can help create greater diversity and differentiation of the range of tourism and environmental products; create economies of scale and make promotion more effective, and can help better address specific problems or issues for tourism development.

  15. Microsensors for border patrol applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkofske, Dwight; Krantz, Brian; Shimazu, Ron; Berglund, Victor

    2005-05-01

    A top concern in homeland security efforts is the lack of ability to monitor the thousands of miles of open border with our neighbors. It is not currently feasible to continually monitor the borders for illegal intrusions. The MicroSensor System (MSS) seeks to achieve a low-cost monitoring solution that can be efficiently deployed for border patrol applications. The modifications and issues regarding the unique requirements of this application will be discussed and presented. The MicroSensor System was developed by the Defense Microelectronics Activity (DMEA) for military applications, but border patrol applications, with their unique sensor requirements, demand careful adaptation and modification from the military application. Adaptation of the existing sensor design for border applications has been initiated. Coverage issues, communications needs, and other requirements need to be explored for the border patrol application. Currently, border patrol has a number of deficiencies that can be addressed with a microsensor network. First, a distributed networked sensor field could mitigate the porous border intruder detection problem. Second, a unified database needs to be available to identify aliens attempting to cross into the United States. This database needs to take unique characteristics (e.g. biometrics, fingerprints) recovered from a specialized field unit to reliably identify intruders. Finally, this sensor network needs to provide a communication ability to allow border patrol officers to have quick access to intrusion information as well as equipment tracking and voice communication. MSS already addresses the sensing portion of the solution, including detection of acoustic, infrared, magnetic, and seismic events. MSS also includes a low-power networking protocol to lengthen the battery life. In addition to current military requirements, MSS needs a solar panel solution to extend its battery life to 5 years, and an additional backbone communication link

  16. The smoking ban next door: do hospitality businesses in border areas have reduced sales after a statewide smoke-free policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Elizabeth G; Hood, Nancy E

    2015-01-01

    Despite numerous studies demonstrating no significant economic effects on hospitality businesses following a statewide smoke-free (SF) policy, regional concerns suggest that areas near states without SF policies may experience a loss of hospitality sales across the border. The present study evaluated the impact of Ohio's statewide SF policy on taxable restaurant and bar sales in border and non-border areas. Spline regression analysis was used to assess changes in monthly taxable sales at the county level in full-service restaurants and bars in Ohio. Data were analyzed from four years prior to policy implementation to three years post-policy. Change in the differences in the slope of taxable sales for border (n = 21) and non-border (n = 67) counties were evaluated for changes following the statewide SF policy enforcement, adjusted for unemployment rates, general trends in the hospitality sector, and seasonality. After adjusting for covariates, there was no statistically significant change in the difference in slope for taxable sales for either restaurants (β = 0.9, p = 0.09) or bars (β = 0.2, p = 0.07) following the SF policy for border areas compared to non-border areas of Ohio. Border regions in Ohio did not experience a significant change in bar and restaurant sales compared to non-border areas following a statewide SF policy. Results support that Ohio's statewide SF policy did not impact these two areas differently, and provide additional evidence for the continued use of SF policies to provide protection from exposure to secondhand smoke for both workers and the general public. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cross-border electricity market effects due to price caps in an emission trading system : An agent-based approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richstein, J.C.; Chappin, E.J.L.; De Vries, L.J.

    2014-01-01

    The recent low CO2 prices in the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) have triggered a discussion whether the EU ETS needs to be adjusted. We study the effects of CO2 price floors and a price ceiling on the dynamic investment pathway of two interlinked electricity markets (loosely based

  18. The effect of fever, febrile illnesses, and heat exposures on the risk of neural tube defects in a Texas-Mexico border population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Lucina; Felkner, Marilyn; Hendricks, Kate

    2004-10-01

    Hyperthermia produces neural tube defects (NTDs) in a variety of animal species. Elevated maternal body temperatures may also place the developing human embryo at risk. We examined the relation between maternal hyperthermia and the development of NTDs in a high-risk Mexican-American population. Case-women were Mexican-American women with NTD-affected pregnancies who resided and delivered in any of the 14 Texas counties bordering Mexico, during 1995-2000. Control-women were randomly selected from study area residents delivering normal live births, frequency-matched to cases by hospital and year. Information on maternal fevers, febrile illnesses, exposures to heat generated from external sources, and hyperthermia-inducing activities was gathered through in-person interviews, conducted about six weeks postpartum. The risk effect (OR) associated with maternal fever in the first trimester, compared to no fever, was 2.9 (95% CI, 1.5-5.7). Women taking fever-reducing medications showed a lower risk effect (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.0-5.6) than those who did not (OR, 3.8; 95% CI, 1.4-10.9). First-trimester maternal exposures to heat devices such as hot tubs, saunas, or electric blankets were associated with an OR of 3.6 (95% CI, 1.1-15.9). Small insignificant effects were observed for activities such as cooking in a hot kitchen (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.0-2.6) and working or exercising in the sun (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 0.9-2.2). Maternal hyperthermia increases the risk for NTD-affected offspring. Women intending to become pregnant should avoid intense heat exposures, carefully monitor and manage their febrile illnesses, and routinely consume folic acid supplements. (c) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Evaluating IAQ effects on people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wyon, David; Tham, K. W.; Sekhar, C.

    2003-01-01

    "conclusive". From them, a small number of conclusions were drawn, and some very large gaps in our knowledge of this important area of research were identified. Taking these as the starting point, this paper formulates a strategy for evaluating IAQ effects on people. It formulates some critical hypotheses...

  20. Dietary flaxseed oil supplementation mitigates the effect of lead on the enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism, brush border membrane, and oxidative stress in rat kidney tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizwan, Sana; Naqshbandi, Ashreeb; Khan, Farah

    2013-06-01

    Lead is a heavy metal widely distributed in the environment. Lead is a ubiquitous environmental toxin that is capable of causing numerous acute and chronic illnesses. Human and animal exposure demonstrates that lead is nephrotoxic. However, attempts to reduce lead-induced nephrotoxicity were not found suitable for clinical use. Recently, flaxseed oil (FXO), a rich source of ω-3 fatty acids and lignans, has been shown to prevent/reduce the progression of certain types of cardiovascular and renal disorders. In view of this, the present study investigates the protective effect of FXO on lead acetate (PbAc)-induced renal damage. Rats were pre-fed normal diet and the diet rich in FXO for 14 days, and then, four doses of lead acetate (25 mg/kg body weight) were administered intraperitoneally while still on diet. Various serum parameters, enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism, brush border membrane (BBM), and oxidative stress were analyzed in rat kidney. PbAc nephrotoxicity was characterized by increased serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. PbAc increased the activities of lactate dehydrogenase and NADP-malic enzyme, whereas it decreased malate and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase, and BBM enzyme activities. PbAc caused oxidant/antioxidant imbalances as reflected by increased lipid peroxidation and decreased activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase. In contrast, FXO alone enhanced the enzyme activities of carbohydrate metabolism, BBM, and antioxidant defense system. FXO feeding to PbAc-treated rats markedly enhanced resistance to PbAc-elicited deleterious effects. In conclusion, dietary FXO supplementation ameliorated PbAc-induced specific metabolic alterations and oxidative damage by empowering antioxidant defense mechanism and improving BBM integrity and energy metabolism.

  1. Assessment of the repeatability and border-plate effects of the B158/B60 enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay for the detection of circulating antigens (Ag-ELISA) of Taenia saginata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Famke; Dorny, Pierre; Berkvens, Dirk; Van Hul, Anke; Van den Broeck, Nick; Makay, Caroline; Praet, Nicolas; Gabriël, Sarah

    2016-08-30

    The monoclonal antibody-based circulating antigen detecting ELISA (B158/B60 Ag-ELISA) has been used elaborately in several studies for the diagnosis of human, bovine and porcine cysticercosis. Interpretation of test results requires a good knowledge of the test characteristics, including the repeatability and the effect of the borders of the ELISA plates. Repeatability was tested for 4 antigen-negative and 5 antigen-positive reference bovine serum samples by calculating the Percentage Coefficient of Variation (%CV) within and between plates, within and between runs, overall, for two batches of monoclonal antibodies and by 2 laboratory technicians. All CV values obtained were below 20% (except one: 24.45%), which indicates a good repeatability and a negligible technician error. The value of 24.45% for indicating the variability between batches of monoclonal antibodies for one positive sample is still acceptable for repeatability measures. Border effects were determined by calculating the %CV values between the inner and outer wells of one plate for 2 positive serum samples. Variability is a little more present in the outer wells but this effect is very small and no significant border effect was found. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Firemen without borders

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Fire knows no borders and neither should the tools for fighting it. It was with this aim in mind that delegates from 14 different countries came to CERN at the beginning of April to take part in the twentieth of a series of twice-yearly international conferences organised by the Federation of European Union Fire Officer Associations (FEU). This latest conference allowed participants to keep abreast of new developments with a view to improving the safety techniques used in their own countries. The first in the series was held in Tampere, Finland, in 1994. The FEU network's objective is to harmonise safety policies and modernise the fire-fighting programme. In particular, it aims to develop an international system for testing hotels' fire alarm systems and to improve language learning in all countries' fire-fighting services. "We want authorities throughout Europe to be aware of the importance of a good joint fire-prevention policy in order to avoid catastrophes such as the fire that destroyed Madrid's Winds...

  3. The effects of colour and valence on news evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspar, Kai; Grümmer, Melanie; Kießler, Antje; Neuß, Celina; Schröter, Franziska

    2017-12-01

    Research across different fields of psychology has reported effects of colour cues on a variety of cognitive processes. Especially, the colour red has been shown to have striking influences. In the context of media reception, however, colour effects have been widely neglected so far. This study made a first step in this direction by investigating the effects of the colour red (compared with blue and grey) on the way news articles are evaluated. Two types of news were framed by a coloured border while the valence of the news content additionally varied. Based on 369 participants who read and evaluated the news articles online, we observed effects for colour cues and news valence in the absence of an interaction effect, indicating that the colour red induced approach motivation. However, only the contrast between red and grey reached statistical significance, indicating that chromatic and achromatic colours may differ in their perceived visual saliency. Overall, these results provide an important complement to previous studies and have practical implications for media researchers and producers. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  4. Greening transportation at the border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    On February 2324, 2011, Federal agencies from the United : States, Canada, and Mexico sponsored a workshop in San : Diego, California, to discuss opportunities for improvement : regarding the greening of transportation at the borders.1 : The works...

  5. Will conflict tear us apart? The effects of conflict and valenced media messages on polarizing attitudes toward EU immigration and border control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klingeren, M. van; Boomgaarden, H.G.; Vreese, C.H. de

    2017-01-01

    European migration and border control has occupied a prominent spot on the European political agenda. The news media present the topic in a polarized fashion and reports conflicting viewpoints on how the European Union (EU) and national governments should address the issue. We argue that this

  6. PNMBG: Point Neighborhood Merging with Border Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renxia Wan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The special clustering algorithm is attractive for the task of grouping arbitrary shaped database into several proper classes. Up to now, a wide variety of clustering algorithms designed for this task have been proposed, the majority of these algorithms is density-based. But the effectivity and efficiency still is the great challenges for these algorithms as far as the clustering quality of such task is concerned. In this paper, we propose an arbitrary shaped clustering method with border grids (PNMBG, PNMBG is a crisp partition method. It groups objects to point neighborhoods firstly, and then iteratively merges these point neighborhoods into clusters via grids, only bordering grids are considered during the merging stage. Experiments show that PNMBG has a good efficiency especially on the database with high dimension. In general, PNMBG outperforms DBSCAN in the term of efficiency and has an almost same effectivity with the later.

  7. Rabbit antibodies reacting with brush border of rodent renal tubules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireton, H. J. C.; McGiven, A. R.

    1971-01-01

    The immunofluorescent staining characteristics of antibodies against rat and mouse kidney tubule brush border, produced in rabbits immunized with microsomal or mitochondrial fractions of rat kidney, were compared with those of human antibodies against mitochondria obtained from patients with biliary cirrhosis. With the rabbit antisera, brush border staining was confined to the epithelium of the proximal renal tubules while the human antimitochondrial sera stained proximal and distal tubules. Absorptions with a mitochondrial fraction prepared from rat liver inhibited the human serum activity but had no effect on brush border activity in the rabbit serum which was inhibited only by the rat kidney subcellular fractions. PMID:4931856

  8. Border effects among Catalan dialects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieling, Martijn; Valls, Esteve; Baayen, R. Harald; Nerbonne, John; Speelman, Dirk; Heylen, Kris; Geeraerts, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigate which factors influence the linguistic distance of Catalan dialectal pronunciations from standard Catalan. We use pronunciations from three regions where the northwestern variety of the Catalan language is spoken (Catalonia, Aragon and Andorra). In contrast to Aragon,

  9. Implementation Issues of Cross-border Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Daojuan; Moini, Hamid; Kuada, John

    This study investigates the impacts of main implementation activities on the success of cross-border acquisitions (CBAs) using the survey data from a sample of 103 CBAs conducted by the companies in Scandinavia. The results of regression analysis indicate that due diligence, integration extent......, while acquisition experience exerts negative effect. However, the evidence does not support that planning and coordination will contribute to CBA performance....

  10. Antecedents of Cross-Border Acquisition Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Daojuan; Moini, Hamid; Kuada, John Ernest

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the impacts of main implementation activities on the success of cross-border acquisitions (CBAs), using survey data from a sample of 103 CBAs conducted by the companies in Nordic countries. The results of OLS regression analysis indicate that due diligence, integration ext......, with the aim to empirically investigate their relative importance and joint effect on the performance of cross-border acquisitions. Such integrative understanding of how and why these actions explain acquisition success also yields important implications for managers.......This study investigates the impacts of main implementation activities on the success of cross-border acquisitions (CBAs), using survey data from a sample of 103 CBAs conducted by the companies in Nordic countries. The results of OLS regression analysis indicate that due diligence, integration...... impact on the success, while acquisition experience exerts negative effect. However, the evidence does not support that planning and coordination will contribute to CBA performance. Taking a process perspective, this study specially focuses on the main implementation activities during acquisition process...

  11. Developing survey metrics for analysing cross-border proximity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Williams, Allan

    2017-01-01

    Cross-border innovation cooperation (CBIC) has been heralded as one of the corner stones of innovation-driven growth opportunities for firms located in cross-border regions (CBRs). The success of this cooperation is affected by varying types of proximities identified in the literature....... The findings indicate that the developed survey metrics are effective in depicting the phenomenon of proximity. The foundational work undertaken in this research note provides a platform, and catalyst, for more extensive investigations of the topic....

  12. The social process of undocumented border crossing among Mexican migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, A; Massey, D S

    1998-01-01

    "In this article a theoretical model is developed that views undocumented border crossing as a well-defined social process influenced by the quantity and quality of human and social capital that migrants bring with them to the border, and constrained by the intensity and nature of U.S. enforcement efforts. Detailed histories of border crossing from undocumented migrants originating in 34 Mexican communities are employed to estimate equations corresponding to this model.... As people gain experience in border crossing, they rely less on the assistance of others and more on abilities honed on earlier trips, thus substituting migration-specific human capital for general social capital.... On all trips, the intensity of the U.S. enforcement effort has little effect on the likelihood of arrest, but INS involvement in drug enforcement sharply lowers the odds of apprehension." excerpt

  13. Spectrum of critical illness in undocumented border crossers. The Arizona-Mexico border experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Candy; Hsu, Wendy; Carr, Gordon E

    2015-03-01

    Approximately 150-250 migrants die each year while attempting to cross the border from Mexico to the Southwest United States. Many border crossers survive the journey, but some develop life-threatening medical complications. Such complications have been subject to little formal analysis. We sought to determine the causes of critical illness in this population and to analyze the hospital course and outcomes of these patients. We retrospectively identified border crossers admitted to the intensive care units (ICUs) of two major teaching hospitals in southern Arizona. We recorded admitting diagnoses, severity of illness, length of stay, resource use, discharge diagnoses, and mortality. Our investigation identified 55 admissions to adult ICUs between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2012. The median age of patients was 27 years. The median hospital length of stay was 7 days, with a median ICU length of stay of 3 days. The median temperature on arrival to the emergency department was 36.8°C. The most common admission diagnoses included trauma (40), rhabdomyolysis (27), acute liver injury (25), dehydration (24), acute kidney injury (19), and encephalopathy (17). Thirteen patients presented with respiratory failure, six patients with severe sepsis, and two with septic shock. A total of 19 patients required ventilator support during their hospital stay, and 30 required at least one surgical intervention. One patient required renal replacement therapy. The median Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score was 6. All but one patient survived to discharge from the hospital. Border crossers are a unique population of young individuals exposed to high temperatures and extreme conditions. Our review of border crosser admissions showed that most patients demonstrated signs of dehydration and leukocytosis, despite a normal median temperature. The median ICU stay was short, despite a high number of patients requiring ventilator support and surgical intervention. Only

  14. Avaliação da microcirculação das bordas do tendão do supra-espinal nas lesões do manguito rotador Microvascular evaluation of the supraspinatus tendon borders in rotator cuff lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Yukio Ikemoto

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a microcirculação das bordas do tendão supra-espinal nas lesões do manguito rotador com a finalidade de determinar a necessidade ou não do desbridamento de suas bordas no momento do seu reparo cirúrgico. MÉTODOS: No período de junho a dezembro de 2004, foram avaliadas amostras recolhidas de 31 pacientes portadores de lesão completa do tendão supra-espinal, submetidos ao tratamento da lesão do manguito rotador por via artroscópica. Apresentavam idade entre 42 e 82 anos (média de 56,6 anos, sendo nove do sexo masculino e 22 do feminino. Durante a realização do procedimento, foram retiradas amostras de tecido da lesão do manguito rotador e enviadas para estudo anatomopatológico com coloração com hematoxilina-eosina. Após esse processo, foi realizada a contagem das fendas vasculares/mm². Utilizaram-se como grupo controle 10 amostras de tendões normais do supra-espinal de cadáveres frescos, submetidos aos mesmos processos anteriores. Os resultados obtidos foram avaliados estatisticamente através da aplicação do teste de Mann-Whitney. RESULTADOS: Entre as amostras, 28 apresentaram tecidos vascularizados e três, ausência de vascularização. O número médio de fendas vasculares/mm² nas amostras de lesões do manguito rotador foi estatisticamente maior que o do grupo controle. CONCLUSÃO: A maioria das bordas das lesões dos tendões do supra-espinal é hipervascularizada.OBJECTIVES: To evaluate microvasculature in the borders of the supraspinatus tendon in rotator cuff lesions in order to determine the need to debrid the borders when surgical repair is performed. METHODS: From June to December 224, samples were evaluated from 31 patients with full lesion of the supraspinatus tendon that had been submitted to arthroscopic rotator cuff lesion treatment. They were between 42 and 82 years of age (mean 56.6 years, nine of them male, and twenty-two female. During the procedure, samples of the rotator cuff

  15. Cross-border ties and Arab American mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samari, Goleen

    2016-04-01

    Due to increasing discrimination and marginalization, Arab Americans are at a greater risk for mental health disorders. Social networks that include ties to the country of origin could help promote mental well-being in the face of discrimination. The role of countries of origin in immigrant mental health receives little attention compared to adjustment in destination contexts. This study addresses this gap by analyzing the relationship between nativity, cross-border ties, and psychological distress and happiness for Arab Americans living in the greater Detroit Metropolitan Area (N = 896). I expect that first generation Arab Americans will have more psychological distress compared to one and half, second, and third generations, and Arab Americans with more cross-border ties will have less psychological distress and more happiness. Data come from the 2003 Detroit Arab American Study, which includes measures of nativity, cross-border ties--attitudes, social ties, media consumption, and community organizations, and the Kessler-10 scale of psychological distress and self-reported happiness. Ordered logistic regression analyses suggest that psychological distress and happiness do not vary much by nativity alone. However, cross-border ties have both adverse and protective effects on psychological distress and happiness. For all generations of Arab Americans, cross-border attitudes and social ties are associated with greater odds of psychological distress and for first generation Arab Americans, media consumption is associated with greater odds of unhappiness. In contrast, for all generations, involvement in cross-border community organizations is associated with less psychological distress and for the third generation, positive cross-border attitudes are associated with higher odds of happiness. These findings show the complex relationship between cross-border ties and psychological distress and happiness for different generations of Arab Americans. Copyright © 2016

  16. The Evaluator Effect in Usability Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Niels Ebbe; Hertzum, Morten; John, Bonnie E.

    1998-01-01

    Usability tests are applied in industry to evaluate systems and in research as a yardstick for other usability evaluation methods. However, one potential threat to the reliability of usability tests has been left unaddressed: the evaluator effect. In this study, four evaluators analyzed four...... videotaped usability test sessions. Only 20% of the 93 unique problems were detected by all four evaluators and 46% were detected by only a single evaluator. Severe problems were detected more often by all four evaluators (41%) and less often by only one evaluator (22%) but a substantial evaluator effect...

  17. DESIGNING A PIPELINE WITH BIG DATA TECHNOLOGIES FOR BORDER SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Aydemir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Developing technology, communication and transportation facilities have led borders to the gradual disappearance. The incidents taking place in different countries go beyond the limits and being felt by large audiences. Solutions to rapidly increasing terrorist attacks and internal turmoil caused security problems in recent years which have become very complicated. Protecting and controlling the borders, finding rapid and comprehensive solutions to illegal border passing problems have become a major problem in many countries. When considering the scope of the border security, it would be understood to examine the data which comes at different times from different sources and types in real time. This can be achieved by a collaboration of different principles. In addition, when large-scale unstructured data analysis also considered for a comprehensive solution, it would be a rational method to develop a pipeline using the Big Data technologies. In this study, we aim to achieve cost-effective, robust, scalable and flexible system to solve the border security problems. The use of Lambda Architecture which provides real time data processing and batch processing capabilities was investigated in border security applications. System development was explained and all information on its principles was provided.

  18. Crossing borders via mental bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keil, Dirk

    administration, and in specific on the attempt to initiate and promote cross-border regional integration via the building of mental bridges between Danish and German parts of the Femern Belt Region. Here one of the first projects aiming primarily at building mental bridges in the Femern Belt Region...

  19. L'IIASA and the integrated simulation of the trans-border atmospheric pollution assessment and evaluation; L'IIASA et la modelisation integree de la pollution atmospherique transfrontiere. Bilan et evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soleille, S.; Brignon, J.M.; Farret, R.; Landrieu, G.; Le Gall, A.C.; Rouil, L

    2003-09-15

    The RAINS model is an integrated evaluation model for many pollutants and many effects, developed by he IIASA. This model studies the emissions of 4 atmospheric pollutants (nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, ammonium and volatile organic compounds) and the necessary costs to reduce them and the dispersion of these pollutants and their effects (tropospheric ozone formation, acidification and eutrophication). The model can be used in activities scenario mode (energy, agriculture, transports...) to calculate the emissions and their effects or in optimization mode to calculate strategies of emissions control from environmental constraints. (A.L.B.)

  20. Border governance in Mozambique : The intersection of international border controls, regional integration and cross-border regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.L.M. Seda (Fulgêncio)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractA tension exists between the interests of states in protecting national security through border controls and those of communities in cross-border regions, to whom frequent border crossing is part of daily life – a necessary part of achieving their own wellbeing. The interplay between

  1. Border Crossing/Entry Data - Boarder Crossing

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Border Crossing/Entry Data provides summary statistics for incoming crossings at the U.S.-Canadian and the U.S.-Mexican border at the port level. Data are available...

  2. Structure of the animal vitreoretinal border region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Steffen

    1994-01-01

    Øjenpatologi, vitreoretinal border region, inner limiting membrane of the retina, animals, ultrastructure, comparative anatomy......Øjenpatologi, vitreoretinal border region, inner limiting membrane of the retina, animals, ultrastructure, comparative anatomy...

  3. Evaluation of the Effects of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Çetinkünar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of a formula composed of millet extract, wheat germ oil, calcium pantothenate and L-cystine in women with diffuse alopecia by using Digital Phototrichogram (Trichoscan. Materials and methods: We evaluated female patients who presented to Gazi University Faculty of Medicine Department of Dermatology between January 2008 and November 2008 with the complaint of diffuse hair loss. Digital phototrichogram was performed in the frontal and occipital regions of the patients. Using this method, anagen: telogen ratios were determined. 53 female patients whose ages were between 18 and 50 and who were diagnosed as having telogen effluvium type diffuse alopecia were included in the study. The patients were given a capsule containing 140 mg millet extract, 271 mg wheat germ oil, 2 mg L-cystine and 10 mg calcium pantothenate three times a day for three months. The criteria for assessing the efficacy of the therapy included number of hair loss per day, hair pull test and digital phototrichogram.Results: The reduction of daily average hair loss after the treatment was statistically significant. Statistically significant difference was found between the pre- and post-treatment results of the hair pull test. Before the treatment, the average anagen ratio was determined to be 69.0±11.2 in the frontal region, and 72.3±9.4 in the occipital region. After the treatment, the anagen ratio increased to 76.4±11.2 in the frontal region and to 79.9±8.6 in the occipital region. The increase in the anagen hair rate in the frontal and occipital regions after the treatment was found to be statistically significant. Conclusion: As a result, it was found that the formula composed of millet extract, wheat germ oil, L-cystine and calcium pantothenate may be effective in the treatment of telogen effluvium. However, controlled studies including larger groups of diffuse alopecia patients and placebo groups are

  4. LED system performance in a trial installation - one year later: Yuma border patrol, Yuma, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkerson, Andrea M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Davis, Robert G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-04-01

    The Yuma Sector Border Patrol Area is a high temperature and high solar radiation environment, providing an opportunity for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to study thermal effects on outdoor light-emitting diode (LED) luminaires outside of the testing laboratory. Six LED luminaires were installed on three poles on the U.S.- Mexico border in February 2014 as part of a trial installation, which was detailed in a prior GATEWAY report.1 The initial trial installation was intended as a short - term test of six luminaires installed on three poles before proceeding with the complete installation of over 400 luminaires. Unexpected delays in the full installation have prevented the detailed evaluations initially planned, but the six installed LED luminaires continue to be monitored, and over the past year illuminance measurements were recorded initially in February 2014 and again in September 2014 at about 2500 hours of operation and in March 2015 at about 5000 hours of operation.

  5. Challenges and Opportunities in Border Health

    OpenAIRE

    Joel Rodríguez-Saldaña, MD

    2005-01-01

    Approximately 11.5 million people reside in the 42 counties and 39 Mexican municipalities located along the U.S.-Mexico border, and 86% of those people reside in 14 pairs of sister cities, metropolitan areas divided by the international border (1). Border residents share similar resources and environmental problems: issues of great concern include air quality, water quantity and quality, and animal control. The communities along the border are economically and socially interdependent, with mo...

  6. Security Governance on Ecuador's Northern Border | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Security Governance on Ecuador's Northern Border. The northern border of Ecuador has been prone to conflict over the past several years. Security policy as applied in the area is based on the presumption that the northern border is homogeneous. In fact, however, the three provinces that make up the area - Esmeraldas, ...

  7. Recent trends in cross-border banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haas, Ralph; van Horen, Neeltje; Beck, Thorsten; Casu, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    This chapter identifies a number of recent trends in European cross-border banking. The authors first distinguish between two main modes of international banking: cross-border versus multinational banking. Cross-border banking occurs when a bank in country A lends directly to a borrower in country

  8. Briefing : the Eritrean-Ethiopian border dispute

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, G.J.

    1998-01-01

    On 6 May 1998, a violent conflict erupted in the Ethiopian-Eritrean border area. This article contends that this border crisis is neither unexpected nor the result of a real border dispute. Rather, it is due to three factors: the particular history and relationship of the two insurgent movements

  9. [Evaluation of the maternal perception of childhood overweight-obesity and maternal recognition of health risk in a Mexican border city].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-García, Baldomero; Flores-Peña, Yolanda; Alatorre-Esquivel, María A; Sosa-Briones, Rebeca; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate 1) maternal perception (MP) of their child's weight, 2) MP of overweight-obesity (OW-OB) of unrelated children (URC),3) MP of image with health risk, and 4) recognition of OW-OB health risks. A total of 325 mother-child dyads participated. A panel with 7 images was used.The child's body mass index was the gold standard. A total of 84 of 100 mothers of OW-OB children did not accurately perceive their children's weight. Of the total sample, 97.5% perceived the OW-OB of URC and 83.1% the OW-OB image with health risk. Most of the mothers recognized the health risks. It is necessary to design multidisciplinary intervention programs to help mothers of OW-OB children accurately recognize their children's weight and, thus, reduce the high prevalence of OW-OB in our population.

  10. Border Cracks: Approaching Border Security From a Complexity Theory and Systems Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    mid-1950s. Additionally, the INS launches targeted investigation and deportation programs, most notably Operation Wetback targeting Mexicans in 1954...The operation deported over one million illegal immigrants during its duration.153 Following the end of World War II, border security’s focus...initiation of the balloon effect. Beau Kilmar et al. explain, “Until the 1990s, most cocaine shipped from Colombia entered the United States through the

  11. Avocados Crossing Borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Vatrapu, Ravi; Bjørn-Andersen, Niels

    2018-01-01

    , and security risks. We use activity theory to describe, understand, and analyze the shipping activity in the international trade ecosystem with focus on physical objects and their related information. We find that the shipment becomes problematic and can be characterized as a runaway object......This paper investigates the case of shipments of containers with avocados from farmers in Africa to grocery store shelves in the European Union. We find 3 predominant challenges to containerized shipping that effectively become trade barriers: international trade cost, lead time uncertainty...... in the heterogeneous and multiple organizational setting of international trade. Our analysis of shipping reveals (1) inefficient collaboration across loosely coupled activity systems and (2) fragmented information infrastructures. We propose the solution of Shipping Information Pipeline, a shared information...

  12. Internal Border Controls in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Carsten Willemoes; Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2012-01-01

    Recent events, involving inter alia France and Denmark, have stimulated renewed interest in the introduction of different forms of border controls at the internal borders within the European Union. These border control measures are aimed at checking either persons or goods or both. Against...... the background of these events, this article analyses the existing rules regulating controls of persons and goods, and explores how these rules may or may not stand in the way of introducing border controls at the European Union’s internal borders. These events have resulted in a call for reforms of the current...

  13. Behavior change communication and mobile populations: the evaluation of a cross-border HIV/AIDS communication strategy amongst migrants from Swaziland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Eva; Weiner, Renay; Hutchinson, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of being exposed to the Soul City Southern Africa Regional OneLove campaign, a behavior change communication program, on sexual behavior and condom use among a mobile population in Swaziland. Data for this study come from a nationally representative sample of 845 individuals who reported traveling to neighboring countries for at least two weeks at any time in the previous two years. Respondents were asked about exposure to the campaign through television, radio, booklets, posters, and advertisements both in Swaziland and in the other countries where they had traveled in the previous two years. Odds ratios were used to estimate the relationships between the HIV/AIDS outcomes of interest and program exposure for the full sample as well as separately for males and females. The program had no effect on reducing known risky behaviors such as having multiple sexual partners. However, men exposed in Swaziland only (AOR = 3.4, CI 1.2-9.4) and in Swaziland and another country (AOR = 2.8, CI 1.0-7.7) were more likely to report using a condom at last sex. In the full sample, those exposed in Swaziland were more likely to report using a condom at last sex (AOR = 2.6, CI 1.3-5.3) and a condom at last sex with a regular partner (AOR = 2.3, CI 1.1-4.8). Men who reported multiple sexual partnerships and who were exposed in Swaziland and another country were nine times as likely to report condom at last sex than men with no exposure. Respondents exposed in Swaziland and another country were more likely to have been tested for HIV; this was true for the total population (AOR = 2.9, CI 1.1-7.9) and for men separately (AOR = 3.3, CI 1.1-10.1). These findings provide support for more regional HIV prevention programs in Southern Africa as a way to increase positive behaviors among mobile populations.

  14. Border malaria in Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J; Liu, H

    1997-09-01

    Yunnan Province, due its international borders with Myanmar, Vietnam and Lao PDR has a large number of imported cases of malaria, including a high proportion of Plasmodium falciparum, as a result of the mobility of the population. This movement is due to workers coming from other provinces where there is no malaria to work in the productive tropical lowlands. Chinese nationals who have gone to work in neighboring countries, border trade and refugees from Myanmar. Much of Yunnan is peopled by ethnic minorities living in remote mountainous and forested areas which are difficult to reach. However, surveillance has been strengthened by training 3,900 primary health care workers and combining the search for visiting foreigners, returning Chinese and people from other provinces with public security, customs formalities and employers. Any visitor detected by these services is obliged to have a blood slide taken. This has resulted in an earlier and more complete detection of malaria cases, reducing incidence from 19.19 to 12.12/10,000 in the border area over the last 10 years. This is despite a considerable increase in population movement and the threat of drug resistant malaria.

  15. Effect of early detection and treatment on malaria related maternal mortality on the north-western border of Thailand 1986-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose McGready

    Full Text Available Maternal mortality is high in developing countries, but there are few data in high-risk groups such as migrants and refugees in malaria-endemic areas. Trends in maternal mortality were followed over 25 years in antenatal clinics prospectively established in an area with low seasonal transmission on the north-western border of Thailand.All medical records from women who attended the Shoklo Malaria Research Unit antenatal clinics from 12(th May 1986 to 31(st December 2010 were reviewed, and maternal death records were analyzed for causality. There were 71 pregnancy-related deaths recorded amongst 50,981 women who attended antenatal care at least once. Three were suicide and excluded from the analysis as incidental deaths. The estimated maternal mortality ratio (MMR overall was 184 (95%CI 150-230 per 100,000 live births. In camps for displaced persons there has been a six-fold decline in the MMR from 499 (95%CI 200-780 in 1986-90 to 79 (40-170 in 2006-10, p<0.05. In migrants from adjacent Myanmar the decline in MMR was less significant: 588 (100-3260 to 252 (150-430 from 1996-2000 to 2006-2010. Mortality from P. falciparum malaria in pregnancy dropped sharply with the introduction of systematic screening and treatment and continued to decline with the reduction in the incidence of malaria in the communities. P. vivax was not a cause of maternal death in this population. Infection (non-puerperal sepsis and P. falciparum malaria accounted for 39.7 (27/68 % of all deaths.Frequent antenatal clinic screening allows early detection and treatment of falciparum malaria and substantially reduces maternal mortality from P. falciparum malaria. No significant decline has been observed in deaths from sepsis or other causes in refugee and migrant women on the Thai-Myanmar border.

  16. Evaluation of a surgical service in the chronic phase of a refugee camp: an example from the Thai-Myanmar border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weerasuriya Chathika K

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Published literature on surgical care in refugees tends to focus on the acute (‘emergent’ phase of crisis situations. Here we posit that there is a substantial burden of non-acute morbidity amenable to surgical intervention among refugees in the ‘chronic’ phase of crisis situations. We describe surgery for non-acute conditions undertaken at Mae La Refugee Camp, Thailand over a two year period. Methods Surgery was performed by a general surgeon in a dedicated room of Mae La Refugee Camp over May 2005 to April 2007 with minimal instruments and staff. We obtained the equivalent costs for these procedures if they were done at the local Thai District General Hospital. We also acquired the list (and costs of acute surgical referrals to the District General Hospital over September 2006 to December 2007. Results 855 operations were performed on 847 patients in Mae La Refugee Camp (60.1% sterilizations, 13.3% ‘general surgery’, 5.6% ‘gynaecological surgery’, 17.4% ‘mass excisions’, 3.5% ‘other’. These procedures were worth 2,207,500 THB (75,683.33 USD at costs quoted by the District General Hospital. Total cost encountered for these operations (including staff costs, consumables, anaesthesia and capital costs such as construction equaled 1,280,000 THB (42,666 USD. Pertaining to acute surgical referrals to District General hospital: we estimate that 356,411.96 THB (11,880.40 USD worth of operations over 14 months were potentially preventable if these cases had been operated at an earlier, non-acute state in Mae La Refugee Camp. Conclusions A considerable burden of non-acute surgical morbidity exists in ‘chronic’ refugee situations. An in-house general surgical service is found to be cost-effective in relieving some of this burden and should be considered by policy makers as a viable intervention.

  17. Building an evaluative culture for effective evaluation and results management

    OpenAIRE

    Mayne, John

    2008-01-01

    A weak evaluative culture undermines many attempts at building an effective evaluation and results management regime. This brief outlines practical actions that an organization can take to build and support an evaluative culture, where information on performance is deliberately sought in order to learn how to better manage and deliver programmes and services. Such an organization values empirical evidence on the results it is seeking to achieve.

  18. The role of immigration age on alcohol and drug use among border and non-border Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reingle, Jennifer M; Caetano, Raul; Mills, Britain A; Vaeth, Patrice A C

    2014-07-01

    To determine the age of immigration at which the marked increase in risk for alcohol- and drug-use problems in adulthood is observed among Mexican American adults residing in 2 distinct contexts: the U.S.-Mexico border, and cities not proximal to the border. We used 2 samples of Mexican American adults: specifically, 1,307 who resided along the U.S.-Mexico border, and 1,288 non-border adults who were interviewed as a part of the 2006 Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey study. Survey logistic and Poisson regression methods were used to examine how immigration age during adolescence is related to alcohol- and drug-use behavior in adulthood. We found that participants who immigrate to the United States prior to age 14 have qualitatively different alcohol- and drug-related outcomes compared to those who immigrate later in life. Adults who immigrated at younger ages have alcohol- and drug-use patterns similar to those who were U.S.-born. Adults who immigrated at young ages and reside distal from the U.S.-Mexico border are at greater risk for alcohol and drug use than those who live in border contexts. Immigration from Mexico to the U.S. before age 14 results in alcohol- and drug-related behavior that mirrors the behavior of U.S.-born residents, and the alcohol- and drug-use effects were more pronounced among adults who did not reside proximal to the U.S.-Mexico border. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  19. Myofilament dysfunction contributes to impaired myocardial contraction in the infarct border zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimkunas, Rafael; Makwana, Om; Spaulding, Kimberly; Bazargan, Mona; Khazalpour, Michael; Takaba, Kiyoaki; Soleimani, Mehrdad; Myagmar, Bat-Erdene; Lovett, David H; Simpson, Paul C; Ratcliffe, Mark B; Baker, Anthony J

    2014-10-15

    After myocardial infarction, a poorly contracting nonischemic border zone forms adjacent to the infarct. The cause of border zone dysfunction is unclear. The goal of this study was to determine the myofilament mechanisms involved in postinfarction border zone dysfunction. Two weeks after anteroapical infarction of sheep hearts, we studied in vitro isometric and isotonic contractions of demembranated myocardium from the infarct border zone and a zone remote from the infarct. Maximal force development (Fmax) of the border zone myocardium was reduced by 31 ± 2% versus the remote zone myocardium (n = 6/group, P < 0.0001). Decreased border zone Fmax was not due to a reduced content of contractile material, as assessed histologically, and from myosin content. Furthermore, decreased border zone Fmax did not involve altered cross-bridge kinetics, as assessed by muscle shortening velocity and force development kinetics. Decreased border zone Fmax was associated with decreased cross-bridge formation, as assessed from muscle stiffness in the absence of ATP where cross-bridge formation should be maximized (rigor stiffness was reduced 34 ± 6%, n = 5, P = 0.011 vs. the remote zone). Furthermore, the border zone myocardium had significantly reduced phosphorylation of myosin essential light chain (ELC; 41 ± 10%, n = 4, P < 0.05). However, for animals treated with doxycycline, an inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases, rigor stiffness and ELC phosphorylation were not reduced in the border zone myocardium, suggesting that doxycycline had a protective effect. In conclusion, myofilament dysfunction contributes to postinfarction border zone dysfunction, myofilament dysfunction involves impaired cross-bridge formation and decreased ELC phosphorylation, and matrix metalloproteinase inhibition may be beneficial for limiting postinfarct border zone dysfunction.

  20. Size Matters: How Scaling Affects the Interaction between Grid and Border Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Santos-Pata

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Many hippocampal cell types are characterized by a progressive increase in scale along the dorsal-to-ventral axis, such as in the cases of head-direction, grid and place cells. Also located in the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC, border cells would be expected to benefit from such scale modulations. However, this phenomenon has not been experimentally observed. Grid cells in the MEC of mammals integrate velocity related signals to map the environment with characteristic hexagonal tessellation patterns. Due to the noisy nature of these input signals, path integration processes tend to accumulate errors as animals explore the environment, leading to a loss of grid-like activity. It has been suggested that border-to-grid cells' associations minimize the accumulated grid cells' error when rodents explore enclosures. Thus, the border-grid interaction for error minimization is a suitable scenario to study the effects of border cell scaling within the context of spatial representation. In this study, we computationally address the question of (i border cells' scale from the perspective of their role in maintaining the regularity of grid cells' firing fields, as well as (ii what are the underlying mechanisms of grid-border associations relative to the scales of both grid and border cells. Our results suggest that for optimal contribution to grid cells' error minimization, border cells should express smaller firing fields relative to those of the associated grid cells, which is consistent with the hypothesis of border cells functioning as spatial anchoring signals.

  1. Comparison of the transport characteristics of ceftibuten in rat renal and intestinal brush-border membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naasani, I; Sato, K; Iseki, K; Sugawara, M; Kobayashi, M; Miyazaki, K

    1995-09-12

    The transport characteristics of ceftibuten, a dianionic cephem antibiotic, in rat renal and intestinal brush-border membranes were compared. Ceftibuten transport was mediated by two transport systems in the renal brush-border membrane and by one transport system in the intestinal brush-border membrane. The apparent kinetic parameters for the uptake of ceftibuten by the renal brush-border membrane vesicles, respectively, were: Km1, Km2 values of 26 and 1946 microM and Vmax1, Vmax2 values of 105 and 1400 pmol/mg protein per 30 s. The apparent kinetic parameters for the uptake by the intestinal brush-border membrane vesicles were: Km of 425 microM and Vmax of 1701 pmol/mg protein per 30 s. In the renal brush-border membrane, L-Ala-L-Pro was partially competitive and competitive inhibitor for the uptake by the high and low affinity systems, respectively. However, L-Ala-L-Pro was a non-competitive inhibitor for the uptake by the intestinal brush-border membrane vesicles. L-Carnosine was a specific and competitive inhibitor for the high affinity system in the renal brush-border membrane, while it had no effect on the low affinity system of the kidney or on the transport system of the intestine. It was concluded that the transport characteristics of ceftibuten in the renal and intestinal brush-border membranes are similar in some aspects but they are not identical.

  2. Forecasting the electricity consumption of the Mexican border states maquiladoras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, C.E.; Phelan, P.E. [Arizona State Univ., Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Tempe, AZ (United States); Mou, J.-I. [Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Co., Operation Planning Div., Hsin-Chu (Taiwan); Bryan, H. [Arizona State Univ., School of Architecture, Tempe, AZ (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The consumption of electricity by maquiladora industries in the Mexican border states is an important driver for determining future powerplant needs in that area. An industrial electricity forecasting model is developed for the border states' maquiladoras, and the outputs are compared with a reference forecasting model developed for the US industrial sector, for which considerably more data are available. This model enables the prediction of the effect of implementing various energy efficiency measures in the industrial sector. As an illustration, here the impact of implementing energy-efficient lighting and motors in the Mexican border states' maquiladoras was determined to be substantial. Without such energy efficiency measures, electricity consumption for these industries is predicted to rise by 64% from 2001 to 2010, but if these measures are implemented on a gradual basis over the same time period, electricity consumption is forecast to rise by only 36%. (Author)

  3. Multinationals, Cross-border Acquisitions and Wage Dispersion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heyman, Fredrik; Sjöholm, Fredrik; Tingvall, Patrick Gustavsson

    2011-01-01

    We examine the impact of cross-border acquisitions on intra-firm wage dispersion using a detailed Swedish linked employer-employee data set including data on all firms and about 50% of the Swedish labour force with information on job-tasks and education. Foreign acquisitions of domestic...... multinationals and local firms increase wage dispersion but so do also other types of cross-border acquisitions. Hence, it is the acquisition itself rather than foreign ownership that increases wage dispersion. The positive wage effect is concentrated to CEOs and other managers, whereas other groups are either...

  4. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of the Effect of Periplocoside P from Periploca sepium on Brush Border Membrane Vesicles in Midgut Epithelium of Mythimna separata Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxing Feng

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Periplocoside P (PSP, a novel compound isolated from Periploca sepium Bunge, possesses insecticidal activity against some lepidopterans, such as Mythimna separata. In M. separata, the brush border membrane vesicles of the midgut epithelium are the initial site of action of periplocosides. We conducted two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight/time of flight mass spectrometry analysis to analyze differentially expressed proteins (DEPs from periplocoside P (PSP-treated M. separata. We successfully isolated seven up-regulated and three down-regulated DEPs that have been previously identified, as well as a novel DEP. The DEPs are implicated in protein degradation, transporter, folding, and synthesis, and in juvenile hormone biosynthesis. DEPs involved in the oxidative phosphorylation energy metabolism pathway are enriched. Through real-time polymerase chain reaction assay, we confirmed that vma1 expression is significantly up-regulated expression levels in PSP-treated M. separata larvae. Enzymology validation further indicated that PSP can significantly inhibit V-type ATPase activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Given these results, we speculate that in M. separata, the V-type ATPase A subunit in the midgut epithelium is the putative target binding site of periplocosides. This finding provides preliminary evidence for the mode of action of periplocosides.

  5. Sheep wool δ13C reveals no effect of grazing on the C3/C4 ratio of vegetation in the inner Mongolia-Mongolia border region grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerswald, Karl; Wittmer, Max H O M; Tungalag, Radnaakhand; Bai, Yongfei; Schnyder, Hans

    2012-01-01

    We tested whether the abundance of C(4) vegetation in grasslands of the Mongolian plateau is influenced by grazing conditions. The analysis exploited the politically originated contrast that exists between Mongolia (low stocking rate, transhumant system) and the district of Inner Mongolia, China (high stocking rate, sedentary system). We estimated the proportion of C(4) carbon (P(C4)) in grazed vegetation from the relative carbon isotope ratio (δ(13)C) of sheep wool sampled from 298 annual shearings originating from 1996 to 2007. Annual stocking rates varying over time and between the districts of both countries were taken from regional statistics. The P(C4) pattern within the 0.7 million km(2) sampling area was geostatistically analyzed and related to stocking rates and temperature gradients. For similar climatic conditions, P(C4) was the same in both countries. Further, a unique relationship was found between P(C4) and July temperature on both sides of the border, which explained 71% of the pattern. Stocking rate and grazing system had no significant influences on present-day C(3)/C(4) abundance ratio. This finding suggests that recent changes in the C(3)/C(4) ratio of these grasslands are mainly a consequence of regional warming, not overgrazing.

  6. Sheep Wool δ13C Reveals No Effect of Grazing on the C3/C4 Ratio of Vegetation in the Inner Mongolia–Mongolia Border Region Grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerswald, Karl; Wittmer, Max H.O.M.; Tungalag, Radnaakhand; Bai, Yongfei; Schnyder, Hans

    2012-01-01

    We tested whether the abundance of C4 vegetation in grasslands of the Mongolian plateau is influenced by grazing conditions. The analysis exploited the politically originated contrast that exists between Mongolia (low stocking rate, transhumant system) and the district of Inner Mongolia, China (high stocking rate, sedentary system). We estimated the proportion of C4 carbon (PC4) in grazed vegetation from the relative carbon isotope ratio (δ13C) of sheep wool sampled from 298 annual shearings originating from 1996 to 2007. Annual stocking rates varying over time and between the districts of both countries were taken from regional statistics. The PC4 pattern within the 0.7 million km2 sampling area was geostatistically analyzed and related to stocking rates and temperature gradients. For similar climatic conditions, PC4 was the same in both countries. Further, a unique relationship was found between PC4 and July temperature on both sides of the border, which explained 71% of the pattern. Stocking rate and grazing system had no significant influences on present-day C3/C4 abundance ratio. This finding suggests that recent changes in the C3/C4 ratio of these grasslands are mainly a consequence of regional warming, not overgrazing. PMID:23029090

  7. Sheep wool δ13C reveals no effect of grazing on the C3/C4 ratio of vegetation in the inner Mongolia-Mongolia border region grasslands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Auerswald

    Full Text Available We tested whether the abundance of C(4 vegetation in grasslands of the Mongolian plateau is influenced by grazing conditions. The analysis exploited the politically originated contrast that exists between Mongolia (low stocking rate, transhumant system and the district of Inner Mongolia, China (high stocking rate, sedentary system. We estimated the proportion of C(4 carbon (P(C4 in grazed vegetation from the relative carbon isotope ratio (δ(13C of sheep wool sampled from 298 annual shearings originating from 1996 to 2007. Annual stocking rates varying over time and between the districts of both countries were taken from regional statistics. The P(C4 pattern within the 0.7 million km(2 sampling area was geostatistically analyzed and related to stocking rates and temperature gradients. For similar climatic conditions, P(C4 was the same in both countries. Further, a unique relationship was found between P(C4 and July temperature on both sides of the border, which explained 71% of the pattern. Stocking rate and grazing system had no significant influences on present-day C(3/C(4 abundance ratio. This finding suggests that recent changes in the C(3/C(4 ratio of these grasslands are mainly a consequence of regional warming, not overgrazing.

  8. Effect of evaluation threat on procrastination behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Ngoc H

    2007-06-01

    The author evaluated the effects of evaluation apprehension and trait procrastination on behaviors. The author examined private university students from southern California (N = 72) on two independent variables: evaluation threat (manipulated) and trait procrastination (nonmanipulated). The author found a significant interaction effect between type of evaluation threat and level of trait procrastination on the number of days to complete an assigned essay. Post hoc analyses showed high trait procrastinators in the high evaluation threat group significantly delayed returning essays compared with those in the low evaluation threat group. Also, in the low evaluation threat group, low trait procrastinators delayed more than did high trait procrastinators. These results suggest that educators can reduce behavioral delays by increasing evaluation threat, depending on a student's level of trait procrastination.

  9. Aymara paradiplomacy: Empowerment in the border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Aranda Bustamante

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the border paradiplomacy used by more than 50 municipalities from Bolivia, Chile and Peru, named “Aymaras without Borders Strategic Alliance”. In spite of the differentiated historical construction of national identities, according to a literature review, it could be argued that there is an unprecedented border relation between these three countries. Furthermore, it is possible to conclude that this non-violent strategy has been successful in the last 15 years.

  10. Amphibians and land use in the Chihuahuan Desert border region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulette L. Ford; Deborah M. Finch

    1999-01-01

    The pressures of growing borderland populations, increased land use, and Increased water use are threatening amphibians in the Chihuahuan Desert border area. In this paper, we describe potential direct threats such as loss or contamination of aquatic habitats, and indirect threats such as the sublethal effects of pesticides on developing larvae and tadpoles. More...

  11. Gender, Cross-border Migrant Workers and Citizenship : Case Study ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Researchers will examine how state policies in Thailand (immigration, labour, border area) interact to create a new supply of cheap labour. The study will elucidate the labour market effects of such policies and their implications for gendered wellbeing and entitlements. The research findings will feed into ongoing discussion ...

  12. Teaching History on the Border: Teachers Voice their Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noboa, Julio

    2013-01-01

    The overall objective of this investigation was to explore the views of border history teachers on a wide variety of issues that influence their instructional approaches, curricular content choices, and capacity to teach history more effectively. More specifically, the focus was on identifying factors that affect their ability to utilize…

  13. Border Crossing/Entry Data - Border Crossing/Entry Data Time Series tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The dataset is known as “Border Crossing/Entry Data.” The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) Border Crossing/Entry Data provides summary statistics to the...

  14. Conception of integrator in cross-border E-commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Kawa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background:  E-commerce is one of the most dynamic and important sectors of the economy. The latest trend in this market is cross-border trade. It is based on selling products to customers who are located in other countries. However, it is connected to several problems, such as a high cost and long time of delivery, language barriers, different legal and tax conditionings, etc. Methods: The studies were conducted on the basis of the authors' experience in the field of e-commerce. The issue of cross-border commerce was mainly analysed with the use of reports of the European Commission. The aim of the article is to propose a conception of an integrator of cross-border e-commerce, which will make it possible, among other things, to solve logistic problems. Results: The article presents an authorial conception of an integrator in cross-border e-commerce. Its main task is to integrate the whole supply chain. Thanks to the economies of scale, obtained as a result of consolidation of parcels from many e-shops, the integrator is able to achieve lower delivery costs in international transport, make returns of goods more effective and serve customers from different countries better. Conclusions: The conception of an integrator in cross-border commerce proposed in the article may increase competitiveness of micro and small e-enterprises, especially in the international arena. Moreover, applying this conception may contribute to a rise in the attractiveness of cross-border commerce, which, as result of a greater sale level, would contribute to an increase in the total e-commerce.

  15. The Borders of "Shopluk" and/or Shops without Borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Hristov

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A historic and cultural region exists at the heart of the Balkans, known in geographic and ethnographic research as Shopluk. This is a region in which, over the last 150 years, state boundaries were moved several times as a result of 5 different wars. Today, the historic Shopluk is where the borders of three nations converge – Republic of Bulgaria, Republic of Serbia and the Republic of Macedonia – and, during the last decade, the region was declared one of the “Euroregions” on the Balkans. Despite the historical similarities in traditional culture and language of this population, in the 19th century it became a subject of nationalist ambitions and a propaganda “wars” between the new national states of Serbia and Bulgaria. The joining of Bulgarian-inhabited parts of Shopluk (the regions of today’s Dimitrovgrad and Bosilegrad in Serbia to the Kingdom of Serbs, Slovenes and Croats in 1919 created a long-lasting tension between the two countries, some residues of which can be felt in everyday relations even today. On the other hand, it has been a century-long tradition for men in this region to take part in seasonal labour migrations all over the Balkan Peninsula, despite political borders. In this way, preserving their cultural and lingual specifics, the groups of seasonal workers – migrants from Shopluk, became a bridge for cultural interaction and exchange with other regions in the neighbour countries. Even though today the population of Shopluk exhibits different national identities, historical similarities in culture and language can turn the Euroregion between Nish, Sofia and Skopje from one of the poorest on the Balkans to one of the most integrated and prosperous.

  16. The Analysis of the Determinants of Sustainable Cross-Border Cooperation and Recommendations on Its Harmonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kurowska-Pysz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cross-border partnerships are a distinctive example of inter-organizational cooperation, embedded, in terms of territory, in the neighboring borderland regions of two or more countries. The aim of this paper is to identify factors that contribute to the sustainable cross-border cooperation and affect motivation to increase cooperation between cross-border partners. The objective implementation is connected with the verification of a hypothesis referring to the possible impact of the European Union funds on the trans-boundary cooperation transformations. Results of desk research and quantitative research involving IDI, CATI, CAWI and CATI and PAPI data collection methods, implemented in the Polish–Czech borderland in 2016 were used in this paper. Research on the Polish–Lithuanian borderland was also used in the paper to conduct comparative analysis, useful to identify and evaluate factors motivating sustainable cross-border cooperation in the Czech–Polish borderland. The sustainable, cross-border and inter-organizational cooperation in the borderlands results from the simultaneous interaction of three groups of factors: (1 people and institutions (the quality of interpersonal relationships; (2 cross-border planning, procedures and support mechanisms (e.g., the possibility of jointly planning the cross-border cooperation and obtaining EU funds for the development of the borderlands as well as the availability of other funds helpful in this kind of cooperation; and (3 environment (historical affinity and geographical proximity of neighboring border regions, system support at the regional and local level in neighboring countries.

  17. International Issues, High-Stakes Testing, and Border Pedagogy: Social Studies at Border High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, Timothy G.; McDermott, Benjamin R.

    2013-01-01

    A recently constructed border wall stands within walking distance of Border High School (BHS) and was created to impede the flow of people, goods, fauna, and contraband from Mexico into the United States (U.S.). The reality, however, is that this geopolitical border is fluid, allowing connections between sociopolitical zones. The researchers…

  18. Border Pedagogy Cafes: Grassroots Conversations that Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necochea, Juan; Cline, Zulmara

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory study uses qualitative methods to analyze the impact of conversations in the Border Pedagogy "Cafes" on more than 500 binational educators from the Tijuana/San Diego area on the U.S.-Mexico border. Four important themes emerged from the analysis that describe the impact of the cafes and offer a strong foundation on which…

  19. Green Belt Europe - borders separate, nature unites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwe Friedel

    2015-01-01

    During the period of the Cold War between 1945 and 1989, a "Green Belt" of valuable pristine landscapes developed along the border line between Eastern and Western Europe, the intensively fortified and guarded so called Iron Curtain. Due to the remoteness of the border areas, a high number of national parks and other large conservation areas can be found...

  20. Evaluating the Effectiveness Of Postfire Rehabilitation Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter R. Robichaud; Jan L. Beyers; Daniel G. Neary

    2000-01-01

    Spending on postfire emergency watershed rehabilitation has increased during the past decade. A west-wide evaluation of USDA Forest Service burned area emergency rehabilitation (BAER) treatment effectiveness was undertaken as a joint project by USDA Forest Service Research and National Forest System staffs. This evaluation covers 470 fires and 321 BAER projects, from...

  1. Safety evaluation and antimalarial effect of mechanochemically ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mechanochemical synthesis and characterization of trimethoprim - copper complex and its antimalarial efficacy on Plasmodium berghei infected mice and toxicity evaluation were investigated by evaluating percentage parasitemia and chemosuppresive effect of the drugs on Plasmodium berghei infected mice, status of ...

  2. Cost-Effectiveness of Combined Sexual and Injection Risk Reduction Interventions among Female Sex Workers Who Inject Drugs in Two Very Distinct Mexican Border Cities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose L Burgos

    Full Text Available We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of combined single session brief behavioral intervention, either didactic or interactive (Mujer Mas Segura, MMS to promote safer-sex and safer-injection practices among female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs in Tijuana (TJ and Ciudad-Juarez (CJ Mexico. Data for this analysis was obtained from a factorial RCT in 2008-2010 coinciding with expansion of needle exchange programs (NEP in TJ, but not in CJ.A Markov model was developed to estimate the incremental cost per quality adjusted life year gained (QALY over a lifetime time frame among a hypothetical cohort of 1,000 FSW-IDUs comparing a less intensive didactic vs. a more intensive interactive format of the MMS, separately for safer sex and safer injection combined behavioral interventions. The costs for antiretroviral therapy was not included in the model. We applied a societal perspective, a discount rate of 3% per year and currency adjusted to US$2014. A multivariate sensitivity analysis was performed. The combined and individual components of the MMS interactive behavioral intervention were compared with the didactic formats by calculating the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER, defined as incremental unit of cost per additional health benefit (e.g., HIV/STI cases averted, QALYs compared to the next least costly strategy. Following guidelines from the World Health Organization, a combined strategy was considered highly cost-effective if the incremental cost per QALY gained fell below the gross domestic product per capita (GDP in Mexico (equivalent to US$10,300.For CJ, the mixed intervention approach of interactive safer sex/didactic safer injection had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER of US$4,360 ($310-$7,200 per QALY gained compared with a dually didactic strategy. Using the dually interactive strategy had an ICER of US$5,874 ($310-$7,200 compared with the mixed approach. For TJ, the combination of interactive safer sex

  3. Revitalising Borders: Memory, Mobility and Materiality in a Latvian-Russian Border Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aija Lulle

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I investigate how an international border is 'revitalised' in political discourses as opposed to lived experiences. Based on narratives I have collected from border dwellers on both sides of the current border between Latvia and Rus-sia and placing them into a broader context of current border debates, I analyse how geographical and social mobility is remembered from Soviet times and reworked in current contexts. I argue that while politically the border is revitalised through aban-doning and forgetting the Soviet past and through the idea of constant threats in the future, locally it is revitalised through giving a life to the abandoned: memories of 'vigorous times' in life-courses and material things. People who dwell at the border did not move themselves: the international border moved several times in one cen-tury leaving border dwellers' memories and significant places on the 'other' side. I focus on how these borders were crossed in the past, how they are (not crossed now, and the social meanings assigned to these circumstances. In the current con-text I follow diverse paths of reasoning that describe how the uneven flow of goods and people through the Latvian-Russian border shapes the power dynamic against which the people living in the border area used to reconstruct imaginaries of 'Soviet times' versus 'Europe' and 'vigorous times' versus decline.

  4. CROSS-BORDER COOPERATION AT THE EXTERNAL BORDERS OF EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Popescu (Stîngaciu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To cooperate means to work and act together for a common advantage or purpose. The cooperation across borders, between different countries and regions sharing the same border, to reach common goals, is aimed to increase the overall competitiveness of the regional economy and to improve the quality of living standards for the these areas. European Union’s programmes are good accelerators for cross-border cooperation. The paper is focused on cross-border cooperation programmes at the external border of the EU and the expected impact of the allocated funds. The cross-border cooperation programmes are creating the conditions to exist the relationships between different social and economic stakeholders in order to contribute to economic and social development by supporting SME development, innovation, human resources development, civil society and local communities, increasing educational, social, cultural and sporting exchanges, improving local governance in different cross-border areas.

  5. Telemedicine as a means of effective speech evaluation for patients with cleft palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Elizabeth; Dorfman, Valerie; Tremper, Glendora; Kramer, Amanda; Sigler, Alicia; Gosman, Amanda

    2012-04-01

    Providing long-term multidisciplinary care for cleft lip/palate is a challenge for international humanitarian organizations that perform surgery across borders. The use of telemedicine as a means of evaluating speech in patients with cleft lip/palate has not been studied previously. We looked at determining whether a speech evaluation performed by a speech-language pathologist (SLP) using telemedicine would be equivalent to a speech evaluation performed in-person, in an international setting between Tijuana, Mexico and San Diego, CA. Spanish-speaking SLPs developed an informal protocol to evaluate several speech characteristics. Patients were simultaneously evaluated by 2 SLPs, one in-person in Tijuana and the other over telemedicine videoconference from San Diego, CA. In addition, we obtained data regarding the parents experience with telemedicine through a satisfaction survey. Results showed no statistically significant differences between the 2 methods of speech evaluation, particularly in oral muscle tone, resonance, lingual lateralization, oral pressure, and dentition. The satisfaction survey showed family satisfaction with the speech evaluation performed using telemedicine. Thus, telemedicine represents an effective medium for conducting speech assessment in patients with cleft lip/palate, allowing for increased access to care for underserved populations.

  6. Waiting line, the border and modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Tejeda González

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The philosophic discussion is the departure point related to Nietzsche and Heiddeger, about the coming of the nihilism to introduce us in the subjects of the border in the modern and postmodern world. That existencial condition approaches us the experience in the border, and to the fact to transfer and to live in the edges. In other dimensions, we found the present time of that philosophic debate, since the border subject acquires centrality. In the social, politic, and cultural land we paradoxically see as globalization leads to an weakeing of the borders and an increase of its importances. The border demarcation continues being important, but now it has to do with the proliferation of agents, regional and global forces, and tendencies make of the border a blurred and opened institution. The increase of the interdependence are causing that migration and border transfering to be changing the face of communities of many countries of the present world. The national states are painted of color by those migratory movements that give the diversity, the pluralidad and the multiculturalismo in the before homogeneous societies.

  7. Monitoring the effectiveness evaluation of investment projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skopin Alex O.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The article raised the question of monitoring regulatory evaluation of the effectiveness of regional investment projects. This is justified by the fact that the current regulatory framework defined indicators for measuring the effectiveness of regional investment projects, but these figures are usually used only at the design stage of the project, an interim assessment of the effectiveness of a sufficiently simplified and based on the level of exploration investment.

  8. Corporate governance effectiveness evaluation at an enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korniichuk A.А.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available On the base of the conducted research the article proposes the essence of the term «corporate governance» as a system of norms, rules, methods, principles and modern management tools, the use of which provides effective functioning of an enterprise and the balance of the stakeholders. It is substantiated that it is expedient to use the social-economic approach for the corporate governance effectiveness evaluation. The author offers the directions of organization corporate governance evaluation within the social-economic approach. The author proposes to investigate the effectiveness of corporate governance within the social, economic and organizational effectiveness. Implementation of the offered process of the enterprise’s corporate governance evaluation allows defining state of enterprise and areas of imbalance of stakeholders’ interests in the development of an organization. The received information about the effectiveness of the corporate governance can be used to analyze state and prospects of further development of an enterprise. Implementation of the effective corporate governance system is aimed on the achievement of enterprise’s activity profitability, stable financial state, balance of stakeholders’ interests, and high level of corporate culture of the functioning structure. Also the evaluation of the corporate governance effectiveness within the social-economic approach makes it possible to determine the conformity of the management actions and owners of an organization to the strategic objectives within the strategy of development.

  9. National Security Threats at the U.S.-Mexico Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-24

    from Latin America. There are enhanced “push” factors of overpopulation , civil unrest, unemployment, poverty and violence. Then there are the “pull...President Nixon. While it seems like a noble cause , it has had the same side effect as occurred during Prohibition, that is, the increased cash...resources to not only secure our border, but to address the underlying causes of the situation. The obstacle to effectively resolving any of

  10. Cross-Border Issues and Regional Integration in Financial Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Salami, Iwa

    2016-01-01

    Cross-border banking services by African banks within Africa have been on the rise since the last decade. As these services are provided predominantly by complex financial institutions and involve operating within a number of African financial systems, effective regulation of such entities can be challenging. The challenges are two-fold: regulating complex financial institutions on a consolidated basis and achieving effective supervisory cooperation between home and host country regulators of...

  11. Languaging the Borders of Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Kramsch

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Emerging from a discomfort with the blind spots encountered within and across theorizations of language and space in the field of human geography, in this article, we argue for “making space” for conceptualizations that speak from and through the everyday territories of migrants in Europe today. Inspired by a range of writers thinking postcolonially and multi/trans-lingually, the authors draw on their own embodied migrant experience to argue for re-envisioning Europe’s borders through multiple languaging practices. “Languaging”, in this view, takes linguistic practices in a migrant context as an inherently prosthetic activity, whereby any dominant, national host language is inevitably subject to the subterranean rumblings of all the languages a migrant brings with her on her global journeys. Conceived as being saturated with prosthetic “absence(s”, migrant languaging practices rework cultural geography’s bounded, inward-looking, and security-fixated understanding of the language/territory nexus, the better to open a vital space for re-envisioning language’s everyday territories as sites for translational solidarity and becoming.

  12. Borders, boundaries and desirable wishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Pinciaroli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available “Borders, boundaries and desirable wishes” is the title of the residential workshop offered to a group of young adults (aged 18-25 of the Centro di Salute Mentale (Mental Health Center of the DSM Basaglia of ASL TO2 in Turin. The idea of the workshop, the definition of the objectives and the topics, which are clearly expressed in the title, come from the work of the team dedicated to group psychotherapies, which has been offering group psychodrama sessions to young adults of this age since 2008. In the delicate move to the adult age, these young adults are lost and stuck in static realities where it is not possible to open up to the dimension of desire nor to the transforming encounter with the Other, since they didn’t have the experience of boundaries and lack. These two elements are necessary to acquire the ability to make projects for oneself. During the workshop the following instruments were used: group, psychodrama and art therapy. The group, as a paternal function, ensured the presence of safe boundaries enabling individuals to experiment; psychodrama and art therapy enabled the bodies to experience encounters and transformations, using doing as a metaphor for the movement against the inhibition of doing and as a way to show oneself to the Other and be able to see the Other. 

  13. Real-use evaluation of effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper; Hertzum, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Embracing real use in an iterative approach calls for systematic formative evaluation. Effects-driven IT Development has been suggested as a way of supporting a Participatory Design (PD) process involving implementations that expose mature prototypes to real work practices. This is followed...... by evaluations of how specified and desired effects are obtained. We present results from a project where high-level political goals ('More Warm Hands'; i.e., clinicians spending more time at the patient bedside) are aligned with the local clinical organization and practice. We demonstrate how to combine...

  14. [U.S.-Mexico cross-border cooperation in research on diabetes mellitus type 2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canela-Soler, Jaume; Frontini, María; Cerqueira, Maria Teresa; Ruiz-Holguín, Rosalba; Díaz-Apodaca, Beatriz A

    2010-09-01

    To describe and analyze, utilizing a case study approach, the U.S.- Mexico Border Diabetes Prevention and Control Project, a health research cooperation initiative incorporating the participation of federal, state, and local institutions of both countries. A model of equal representation, participation, consensus, and shared leadership was used, with the participation of more than 130 institutions. A sample of 4 020 people over 18 years of age was obtained by a random, multistage, stratified, clustered design. A questionnaire about diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) and health was applied. The statistical analysis took into account the design effect. The prevalence of diagnosed DM2 was 14.9% (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 12.5-17.6) and the prevalence of diagnosed DM2 adjusted by age was 19.5% (95% CI: 16.8-22.6) on the Mexican side of the border and 16.1% (IC95%: 13.5-19.2) on the U.S. border side. There were differences between the DM2 prevalence and risk factors along the border. The U.S.-Mexico Border Diabetes Prevention and Control Project allowed the border zone between the two countries to be considered, for the first time ever, as a unit for epidemiological research. A shared understanding among all participating institutions and entities of sociopolitical structures and procedures is required for effective border health cooperation initiatives.

  15. Elastic and hegemonic borders and discourse theory: Mexico’s southern border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Marengo Camacho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Discourse theory is useful for understanding the creation of borders, whether material or imaginary. This paper addresses three situations on Mexico’s southern border between 2000 and 2015 in which elements of discourse theory may be applied. The outcomes were the following: 1 correlations may be made between the elements of the discourse moving from the northern to the southern border, but not in the opposite direction; 2 the process of securitising the discourse about migrants is continuous, and new securitising elements are regularly added; 3 an “elastic borders” phenomenon exists, where borders extend or retract, thereby creating new border regions; and 4 discourses around the southern border are constructed with more pejorative elements than the northern, despite the fact that crime rates are higher in the north.

  16. Abuses at Europe’s borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Breen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Refugees and migrants have been regularly subjected to widespread rights violations by officials at some European borders. The EU needs to allow more legal avenues for people seeking protection to reach Europe safely.

  17. Externalization and Border-induced Displacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemberg-Pedersen, Martin

    and the international banking sector all have overlapping interests in privatized border control. Chapter five identifies the multiple flows, technological, personnel, funds and data, maintaining Europe’s border infrastructure, As migrants are circulated between detention camps and countries, dumped in deserts......This multidisciplinary Ph.D. dissertation engages with the timely and much debated topic of European border control. The first two chapters discuss several moral arguments claiming that border control facilitates solidarity and autonomy. These are assessed with reference to central debates...... in political philosophy concerning coercion, entry/exit, protection elsewhere and self-determination, and against the backdrop of empirical cases, such as the EU Commission’s UNHCR-donations, the Dublin II Regulation and the export of migrant camps to North Africa. In the third article the governance of asylum...

  18. Networks communities within and across borders

    CERN Document Server

    Cerina, Federica; Pammolli, Fabio; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the impact of borders on the topology of spatially embedded networks. Indeed territorial subdivisions and geographical borders significantly hamper the geographical span of networks thus playing a key role in the formation of network communities. This is especially important in scientific and technological policy making and highlights the interplay of the internationalization pressure toward a global innovation system against the administrative borders imposed by the national and continental institutions. In this study we introduce an outreach index to quantify the impact of borders on the community structure and apply it to the case of the European and US patent co-inventors networks. We find that (a) the US connectivity decays as a power of distance, whereas we observe a faster exponential decay for Europe; (b) European network communities essentially correspond to nations and contiguous regions while US communities span multiple states across the whole country without any characteristic geog...

  19. Conservative Libertarianism and the Ethics of Borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Camacho Beltran

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Many conservatives endorse a defence of closed borders grounded in basic liberal rights such as the basic right of association. Some conservatives also endorse libertarian principles of legitimacy. It is not clear though that this sort of defence of closed borders is somehow coherent with these libertarian ideals. I argue that conservative libertarians of this kind must reject this defence of closed borders because either it collapses into a form of statism incoherent with libertarian principles of legitimacy, or into an ideal precept without appeal regarding reality in the here and now that could only be applied to changing the very nature of the societies we know. As a result, at least conservative libertarians need to find a different source of justification for closed borders.

  20. Is areca innocent? The effect of areca (betel) nut chewing in a population of pregnant women on the Thai-Myanmar border

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chue, Amy L.; Carrara, Verena I.; Paw, Moo Kho; Pimanpanarak, Mupawjay; Wiladphaingern, Jacher; van Vugt, Michele; Lee, Sue J.; Nosten, François; McGready, Rose

    2012-01-01

    Eight manuscripts have specifically examined the effects of areca (betel) nut use in pregnant women, seven of which have documented adverse effects on birth weight, newborn neurological status, gender ratio and pregnancy outcomes such as anaemia and miscarriage following areca nut use during

  1. Corporate governance effectiveness evaluation at an enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    Korniichuk A.А.

    2017-01-01

    On the base of the conducted research the article proposes the essence of the term «corporate governance» as a system of norms, rules, methods, principles and modern management tools, the use of which provides effective functioning of an enterprise and the balance of the stakeholders. It is substantiated that it is expedient to use the social-economic approach for the corporate governance effectiveness evaluation. The author offers the directions of organization corporate governance evaluatio...

  2. Cross-border regional innovation system integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Weidenfeld, Adi; Williams, Allan

    2017-01-01

    The importance of inter-regional cooperation and innovation are widely accepted in the development rhetoric of the European Union. The highlighted importance of both themes in the context of borderlands has recently led to the coining of a new concept, cross-border regional innovation system...... of cross-border cooperation in a regional innovation system setting. The framework was further tested with illustrative empirical cases that demonstrate its feasibility....

  3. Evaluating the effectiveness of impact assessment instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cashmore, Matthew; Richardson, Tim; Hilding-Ryedvik, Tuija

    2010-01-01

    to sharpen effectiveness evaluation theory for impact assessment instruments this article critically examines the neglected issue of their political constitution. Analytical examples are used to concretely explore the nature and significance of the politicisation of impact assessment. It is argued...... that raising awareness about the political character of impact assessment instruments, in itself, is a vital step in advancing effectiveness evaluation theory. Broader theoretical lessons on the framing of evaluation research are also drawn from the political analysis. We conclude that, at least within......The central role of impact assessment instruments globally in policy integration initiatives has been cemented in recent years. Associated with this trend, but also reflecting political emphasis on greater accountability in certain policy sectors and a renewed focus on economic competitiveness...

  4. An open mind to closed borders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallet, Ulrike; Lefeber, Bob

    2017-04-01

    One aspect of "Science in tomorrow's classroom" is teaching geography students the basic skills and knowledge to play an active role in society as citizens. Topics that frame the development of good citizenship are wide-ranged and include climate change, migration and integration as well as democracy and identity. Often these kinds of topics do not allow for right or wrong answers or classroom lectures; it is more important to encourage students to find and discuss arguments with which to underpin their opinion. In this way, civic education is very suitable for active learning. Active learning is described as a method of learning in which students are actively involved in the learning process through (group) discussion, experiments or games. By doing so, students are stimulated to engage in higher-order thinking tasks such as analysis, synthesis, and evaluation, which are inherent to becoming responsible, reflective and critical citizens as well as (future) scientists. It has also been shown that the use of active learning methods significantly increased the number of meaningful geographical relationships that students give in tests (Karkdijk, 2012). I, therefore, propose to use active learning to approach civic education in the classroom. Specifically, I used a "mystery" to engage students in active learning on the highly polarizing subject of migration. A mystery (Leat, 1990) is a didactic method that uses short bits of information to solve an intriguing question. A current polarizing subject in society and in the classroom is the migration from Northern Africa and the Middle East to Europe and the increasing number of terrorist attacks by individuals who have radicalised before, during or after their journey over the Mediterranean. In class, students were asked to solve this migration mystery: "Could the terrorist attack in Berlin have been stopped by closing the borders of the Mediterranean countries to migrants?" In order to solve this mystery and to find an

  5. An Evaluation of "Effective Communication Skills" Coursebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Shameem

    2016-01-01

    In Communicative Language Teaching situation, role of material is not only important but also inevitable. In the traditional context of English teaching textbooks are considered the main source of materials. This paper will provide an evaluation of "Effective Communication Skills" ("ECS") coursebook that has been introduced as…

  6. EVALUATING THE EFFECTS OF HEALTH EDUCATION ON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adolescents constitute a sizeable proportion of new HIV infections. Their reported poor risk perception to HIV/AIDs calls for a more formidable way of reaching them with HIV prevention messages. This study evaluated the effects of peer-led health education on secondary school adolescents' perception and knowledge of ...

  7. Probing endocytosis from the enterocyte brush border using fluorescent lipophilic dyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E Michael

    2015-01-01

    The small intestinal brush border is a specialized cell membrane that needs to withstand the solubilizing effect of bile salts during assimilation of dietary nutrients and to achieve detergent resistance; it is highly enriched in glycolipids organized in lipid raft microdomains. In the present work......-toluenesulfonate), and CellMask Orange plasma membrane stain were used to study endocytosis from the enterocyte brush border of organ-cultured porcine mucosal explants. All the dyes readily incorporated into the brush border but were not detectably endocytosed by 5 min, indicating a slow uptake compared with other cell types...

  8. Local Border Traffic as a Form of Visa Liberalisation and Territorial Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kretinin G.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the issue of visa liberalisation between Russia and the European Union, which constitutes a key aspect of the parties’ diplomatic cooperation. This work sets out to identify the main results of Russia/EU cooperation. The authors have conducted a brief historical analysis of this area of relations. The visa “regionalisation” is considered in the context of identifying the key actors of the EU — Russia negotiations: the Kaliningrad region, Germany, Poland, and Lithuania. In their analysis, the authors rely mostly on primary sources: intergovernmental agreements on simplified border traffic, border-crossing statistics for the Kaliningrad region in the framework of the local border traffic, expert interviews, and related analytic reports. Specifically, local border traffic is viewed as the most effective form of interaction in the field of visa regime simplification and border territory development. An assessment of the positions of key negotiators shows that local border traffic between the Kaliningrad region of Russia and the Polish border voivodeships is a success, which stresses the need for a prompt transition to a visa-free regime with the EU.

  9. Summary findings from the border air quality study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-03-15

    The Border Air Quality Study (BAQS) is an ongoing study which supports the development of an international strategy for the Georgia Basin-Puget Sound airshed. The study investigates the association of health risks with the exposure to a range of air pollutants. It identified links between air pollutants and several health impacts ranging from asthma to birthweight. The tools developed for studying air quality provide greater spatial resolution, thus enabling the identification of pollution hot spots that require monitoring and intervention. The tools also provide spatially accurate exposure data for future research and enable land-use decisions that reduce risk to the most vulnerable populations, including children and the elderly. The study found that traffic-related air pollution is an additional risk factor for disease, such as bronchiolitis, asthma and middle ear infections in children. Although air pollution is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease, relatively few studies have evaluated the effects of chronic exposures. Therefore, the BAQS is currently assessing the relationship between air quality and cardiovascular diseases in the Metro Vancouver area, with particular attention to the combined effects of traffic-related air pollution and noise pollution. Wood smoke was also found to be an important source of air pollution, even in urban centres. The study showed that building design and ventilation can help reduce infiltration of air pollutants into buildings. It was concluded that despite some concerns, the air quality in the Georgia-Basin-Puget Sound region is good compared to other major metropolitan areas. Air quality managers can use the study to evaluate different policy scenarios and the associated economic costs of air pollution. 5 figs.

  10. INTERCEPTION OF ANIMAL-ORIGIN PRODUCTS AT LAND BORDERS IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Janice Eidt

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Infectious agents and veterinary diseases can be disseminated across borders and contribute to change the country sanitary status. The aim of this study was to identify the main animal products intercepted and seized by the agricultural surveillance units. This paper studied three Agricultural Surveillance Units located at land borders in the North region of Brazil: Assis Brasil and Epitaciolândia (Acre State and Pacaraima (Roraima State, respectively borders with Peru, Bolivia and Venezuela. The main animal products confiscated were dairy products, fish, meat, sausage, veterinary products (drugs, animal food (pet foods and apiculture products. Given the clandestine nature of animal transit and its products in these borders, the possibilities of introduction of infectious agents and diseases must be better evaluated, considering the type of products confiscated, as well as the sanitary status of the countries of origin.

  11. The Effects of Cross-border and Cross-industry Mergers and Acquisitions on Home-region and Global Multinational Enterprises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kling, Gerhard; Ghobadian, Abby; Hitt, Michael A.; Weitzel, Utz; O'Regan, Nicholas

    We examine the effects of international and product diversification through mergers and acquisitions (M&As) on the firm's risk-return profile. We identify the rewards from different types of M&As and investigate whether becoming a global firm is a value-enhancing strategy. Drawing on the theoretical

  12. Novel EUV mask black border suppressing EUV and DUV OoB light reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Shin; Kodera, Yutaka; Fukugami, Norihito; Komizo, Toru; Maruyama, Shingo; Watanabe, Genta; Yoshida, Itaru; Kotani, Jun; Konishi, Toshio; Haraguchi, Takashi

    2016-05-01

    EUV lithography is the most promising technology for semiconductor device manufacturing of the 10nm node and beyond. The image border is a pattern free dark area around the die on the photomask serving as transition area between the parts of the mask that is shielded from the exposure light by the Reticle Masking (REMA) blades and the die. When printing a die at dense spacing on an EUV scanner, the reflection from the image border overlaps edges of neighboring dies, affecting CD and contrast in this area. This is related to the fact that EUV absorber stack reflects 1-3% of actinic EUV light. To reduce this effect several types of image border with reduced EUV reflectance (HBB) has been developed to eliminate EUV and DUV OOB light reflection by applying optical design technique and special micro-fabrication technique. A new test mask with HBB is fabricated without any degradation of mask quality according to the result of CD performance in the main pattern, defectivity and cleaning durability. The imaging performance for N10 imaging structures is demonstrated on NXE:3300B in collaboration with ASML. This result is compared to the imaging results obtained for a mask with the earlier developed BB, and HBB has achieved ~3x improvement; less than 0.2 nm CD changes are observed in the corners of the die. A CD uniformity budget including impact of OOB light in the die edge area is evaluated which shows that the OOB impact from HBB becomes comparable with other CDU contributors in this area. Finally, we state that HBB is a promising technology allowing for CD control at die edges.

  13. Telemedicine as a Means of Effective Speech Evaluation for Cleft Palate Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Whitehead, Elizabeth; Dorfman, Valerie; Tremper, Glendora; Kramer, Amanda; Sigler, Alicia; Gosman, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    Providing long-term multidisciplinary care for cleft lip/palate is a challenge for international humanitarian organizations that perform surgery across borders. The use of telemedicine as a means of evaluating speech in patients with cleft lip/palate has not previously been studied. We looked at determining whether a speech evaluation performed by a Speech-Language Pathologist (SLP) using telemedicine would be equivalent to a speech evaluation performed in-person, in an international setting ...

  14. Genetic variation of Border disease virus species strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Giangaspero

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The 5´-untranslated region of Pestivirus strains isolated from domestic and wild animals were analysed to determine their taxonomic status according to nucleotide changes in the secondary genomic structure using the palindromic nucleotide substitutions (PNS method. A total of 131 isolates out of 536 Pestivirus strains evaluated, were clustered as Border disease virus (BDV species. The BDV strains were further divided into at least 8 genotypes or subspecies. Thirty-two isolates from small ruminants suffering from clinical symptoms of Border disease were clustered into bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1, BVDV-2 and classical swine fever (hog cholera virus species and also into the tentative BDV-2 species. Since the definition of an infectious disease is based primarily on a specific causative pathogen and taking into account the heterogeneity of the genus Pestivirus, clinical cases should be named according to the laboratory results. The PNS procedure could be useful for laboratory diagnosis of Border disease in domestic and wild ruminants.

  15. Evaluation of cooling tower environmental effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholas, G.W.; Sopocy, D.M.

    1974-11-01

    Cooling towers interact with the environment through the discharge of blowdown to a lake or stream and through the emission of moisture and warmed air to the atmosphere. The environmental effects of these interactions can be evaluated by measuring various physical and chemical properties of the cooling system and of the ambient meteorology and hydrology. Blowdown parameters used in this evaluation are temperature, pH, flow rate, total dissolved solids, biocide, and inhibitor concentrations. In addition to meteorological parameters, the atmospheric parameters which require evaluation include fogging, drift, salt deposition, and moist plume characteristics. The instrumentation needs for monitoring these parameters are discussed with respect to current status. Concepts and instrumentation requiring additional development are also cited. Instrumentation required for the measurement of meteorology, humidity, wind speed and direction, atmospheric temperature and stability, height of the mixed layer, fogging, visibility, and drift are included. Fog dispersal techniques are mentioned. (Air Pollut. Abstr.)

  16. Cross-border mobility and social networks: Laotians seeking medical treatment along the Thai border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochaton, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    Drawing upon research conducted on cross-border patients living in Laos and seeking care in Thailand, this paper examines the important role played by social networks in patients' decision-making and on the itineraries they choose to seek treatment on the Thai side of the border. Due to the vastly contrasting situations between the two countries in terms of healthcare supply, and considering Laotians' increasing demand for high quality healthcare, a number of them have managed to satisfy their needs by combining cross-border treatment with the use of the healthcare facilities provided by their own country. This study consisted first of household surveys conducted in five border areas (2006-2007) in Laos in order to quantify and map out cross-border healthcare-related travel patterns. Afterwards, interviews were conducted with cross-border patients (55), Laotian and Thai medical doctors (6), Thai social workers (5), and officials working in public institutions (12). While socioeconomic and spatial factors partly explain cross-border mobility, patients' social networks significantly influence treatment itineraries throughout the decision-making process, including logistical and financial considerations. The social networks existing at different geographical levels (neighbourhood, regional and global) are therefore a powerful analytical tool not only for understanding the emergence of these cross-border movements but also for justifying them in an authoritarian political environment such as Lao PDR's. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Measuring cross-border travel times for freight : Otay Mesa international border crossing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Cross border movement of people and goods is a vital part of the North American economy. : Accurate real-time data on travel times along the US-Mexico border can help generate a range : of tangible benefits covering improved operations and security, ...

  18. Effects of protease, phytase and a Bacillus sp. direct-fed microbial on nutrient and energy digestibility, ileal brush border digestive enzyme activity and cecal short-chain fatty acid concentration in broiler chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganapathi R Murugesan

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of protease and phytase (PP and a Bacillus sp. direct-fed microbial (DFM on dietary energy and nutrient utilization in broiler chickens. In the first experiment, Ross 308 broiler chicks were fed diets supplemented with PP and DFM in a 2×2 factorial arrangement. The 4 diets (control (CON, CON + PP, CON + DFM, and CON + PP + DFM were fed from 15-21 days of age. In Experiment 1, significant interaction (P≤0.01 between PP and DFM on the apparent ileal digestibility coefficient for starch, crude protein, and amino acid indicated that both additives increased the digestibility. Both additives increased the nitrogen retention coefficient with a significant interaction (P≤0.01. Although no interaction was observed, significant main effects (P≤0.01 for nitrogen-corrected apparent ME (AMEn for PP or DFM indicated an additive response. In a follow-up experiment, Ross 308 broiler chicks were fed the same experimental diets from 1-21 days of age. Activities of ileal brush border maltase, sucrase, and L-alanine aminopeptidase were increased (P≤0.01 by PP addition, while a trend (P = 0.07 for increased sucrase activity was observed in chickens fed DFM, in Experiment 2. The proportion of cecal butyrate was increased (P≤0.01 by DFM addition. Increased nutrient utilization and nitrogen retention appear to involve separate but complementary mechanisms for PP and DFM, however AMEn responses appear to have separate and additive mechanisms.

  19. Border regions as the tourist destination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majstorović Vukica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism, as a global phenomenon, has found its place in every corner of the world. During a certain period of time, the tourism market has become saturated by mass tourism causing the creation of new attractive destinations for tourists. Thus, some of the border areas in the world attract and keep passers-by while transforming into the new tourist destinations. In this paper, it is possible to see relations and interconnections between tourism and international boundaries. Tourism in border regions has an opportunity to activate these areas that are often neglected by the state. Some European countries have taken advantage of this opportunity and they improved their tourism industry by developing their border regions. This kind of tourism development can be applied in Serbia and, in that way, activate the border areas of our country. However, in order to develop tourism in these areas, it is necessary to have an adequate international cooperation between two or more states. This can be achieved by various instruments of cross-border cooperation in tourism through the engagement of neighbouring countries in joint plans and cooperation.

  20. The borders, they are a-changin'! The emergence of socio-digital borders in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena König

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Relying on big data, modern surveillance becomes increasingly influential in determining societal power relations. Lyon argues that modern surveillance always categorises people entailing social effects, what he conceptualises as social sorting. This paper assesses if patterns of social sorting can be found in the EU surveillance systems for migration Schengen Information System (SIS, Visa Information System (VIS and EUROpean DACtylographic comparison system (EURODAC, which are planned to be merged in order to ensure maximum efficiency in surveillance. To do so, the paper analyses relevant documents referring to SIS, VIS and EURODAC. These systems have assumed the traditional border function of deciding on societal inclusion and exclusion. I argue that, to some extent, socio-digital borders are drawn along the categories established through social sorting. The paper exemplifies how social sorting relying on big data may be a disempowering surveillance practice.

  1. The U.S.-Mexico Border and Children’s Social Imaginary: An Analysis of Wacha el Border and Beyond the Border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Iglesias-Prieto

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Norma Iglesias-Prieto’s article is based on the films Wacha el border, created by twelve children from Tijuana, and Beyond the Border, created by ten children from San Diego. It aims at understanding the extent to which the U.S.-Mexico border is significant in children’s social representations of themselves and others. Focusing on the Tijuana/San Diego transboundary urbanized region, Iglesias-Prieto questions traditional representations and perceptions of the border.

  2. Effects on atmospherics at 6 kHz and 9 kHz recorded at Tripura during the India-Pakistan Border earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. De

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The outcome of the results of some analyses of electromagnetic emissions recorded by VLF receivers at 6 kHz and 9 kHz over Agartala, Tripura, the North-Eastern state of India (Lat. 23° N, Long. 91.4° E during the large earthquake at Muzaffarabad (Lat. 34.53° N, Long. 73.58° E at Kashmir under Pakistan have been presented here. Spiky variations in integrated field intensity of atmospherics (IFIA at 6 and 9 kHz have been observed 10 days prior (from midnight of 28 September 2005 to the day of occurrence of the earthquake on 8 October 2005 and the effect continued, decayed gradually and eventually ceased on 16 October 2005. The spikes distinctly superimposed on the ambient level with mutual separation of 2–5 min. Occurrence number of spikes per hour and total duration of their occurrence have been found remarkably high on the day of occurrence of the earthquake. The spike heights are higher at 6 kHz than at 9 kHz. The results have been explained on the basis of generation of electromagnetic radiation associated with fracture of rocks, their subsequent penetration into the Earth's atmosphere and finally their propagation between Earth-ionosphere waveguide. The present observation shows that VLF anomaly is well-confined between 6 and 9 kHz.

  3. How Borders Come to Matter? The "Physicality" of the Border in Gloria Anzaldúa’s "Borderlands/La Frontera"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melina Pereira Savi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this piece I attempt to address the ways in which Gloria Anzaldúa, in Borderlands: La Frontera (2007, negotiates the idea of the border as having both discursive and material dimensions. In creating a new mestiza consciousness from the borderland, which is the space that is affected by the borderline, Anzaldúa develops concepts and ideas that can be linked to Donna Haraway’s articulation of the cyborg and to Karen Barad’s theory of an agential realist ontology in the sense that Anzaldúa engages creatively with contradicting parts of her identity in a cyborgian fashion, and sees the enactment of borders as both limiting and empowering, as having emotional and material effects. Anzaldúa then addresses these effects and demonstrates how she applies them in the fabrication of a new consciousness, the consciousness of the new mestiza. In this work, therefore, I explore how the border makes itself physically present in Anzaldúa’s Borderlands and how the discursive meets matter; and I do this by finding common threads and possible connections among the works of Anzaldúa, Haraway, and Barad.

  4. Formation of professional identity of Border Guard Service of Ukraine officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Malanchii

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the context of professional identity development of the Border Guard Service of Ukraine officers, considers the theoretical and practical approaches to the formation of professional identity, examines of service on the border conditions. The nature and intensity of the professional identity formation of border guard service officers determined the social environment and characteristics of the professional activities. Professional identity of a person depends on the content and activities and forms only during its implementation. Therefore, based on the principle active approach, professional identity can be considered as a relatively independent factor. It is concluded that not only objective and subjective factors determine the contents of the existing qualities of the border guard services officers. These factors also determine the content and effectiveness of necessary qualities formation, and intensity of professional identity formation.

  5. Order effect in interactive information retrieval evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Melanie Landvad; Borlund, Pia

    2016-01-01

    of such studies. Due to the limited sample of 20 test participants (Library and Information Science (LIS) students) inference statistics is not applicable; hence conclusions can be drawn from this sample of test participants only. Originality/value – Only few studies in LIS focus on order effect and none from......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to report a study of order effect in interactive information retrieval (IIR) studies. The phenomenon of order effect is well-known, and it is the main reason why searches are permuted (counter-balanced) between test participants in IIR studies. However...... the perspective of IIR. Keywords Evaluation, Research methods, Information retrieval, User studies, Searching, Information searches...

  6. Effects of the India–Pakistan border earthquake on the atmospherics at 6 kHz and 9 kHz recorded at Tripura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarsan Barui

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The unusual variations observed in the records of the integrated field intensity of the atmospherics (IFIA at 6 kHz and 9 kHz at Agartala, Tripura, in the north-eastern state of India (latitude, 23˚ N; longitude, 91.4˚ E during the large earthquake on October 8, 2005 at Muzaffarabad (latitude, 34.53˚ N; longitude, 73.58˚ E in Kashmir in Pakistan are here analyzed. Spiky variations in the IFIA at 6 kHz and 9 kHz were observed several days previous to the day of the earthquake (from midnight, September 28, 2005. The effects persisted for some days, decayed gradually, and eventually ceased on October 31, 2005. The spikes are distinctly superimposed on the ambient level

  7. Cross-border teleradiology-Experience from two international teleradiology projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Peeter [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Tallinn University of Technology, East Tallinn Central Hospital, Paernu mnt 104, 11312 Tallinn (Estonia)], E-mail: Peeter.Ross@itk.ee; Sepper, Ruth [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Tallinn University of Technology, Akadeemia tee 15, 12618 Tallinn (Estonia)], E-mail: Ruth.Sepper@gmail.com; Pohjonen, Hanna [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Tallinn University of Technology, Akadeemia tee 15, 12618 Tallinn (Estonia)], E-mail: Hanna.Pohjonen@rosalieco.fi

    2010-01-15

    Teleradiology aims to even radiologists' workload, ensure on-call services, reduce waiting lists, consult other specialists and cut costs. Cross-border teleradiology widens this scope beyond the country borders. However, the new service should not reduce the quality of radiology. Quality and trust are key factors in establishment of teleradiology. Additionally there are organizational, technical, legal, security and linguistic issues influencing the service. Herein, we have used experiences from two partially European Union funded telemedicine projects to evaluate factors affecting cross-border teleradiology. Clinical partners from Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Lithuania and the Netherlands went through 649 radiology test cases in two different teleradiology projects to build trust and agree about the report structure. Technical set-up was established using secure Internet data transfer, streaming technology, integration of workflows and creating structured reporting tool to overcome language barriers. The biggest barrier to overcome in cross-border teleradiology was the language issue. Establishment of the service was technically and semantically successful but limited to knee and hip X-ray examinations only because the structured reporting tool did not cover any other anatomical regions yet. Special attention has to be paid to clinical quality and trust between partners in cross-border teleradiology. Our experience shows that it is achievable. Legal, security and financial aspects are not covered in this paper because today they differ country by country. There is however an European Union level harmonization process started to enable cross-border eHealth in general.

  8. Novel Method for Border Irregularity Assessment in Dermoscopic Color Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Jaworek-Korjakowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. One of the most important lesion features predicting malignancy is border irregularity. Accurate assessment of irregular borders is clinically important due to significantly different occurrence in benign and malignant skin lesions. Method. In this research, we present a new approach for the detection of border irregularities, as one of the major parameters in a widely used diagnostic algorithm the ABCD rule of dermoscopy. The proposed work is focused on designing an efficient automatic algorithm containing the following steps: image enhancement, lesion segmentation, borderline calculation, and irregularities detection. The challenge lies in determining the exact borderline. For solving this problem we have implemented a new method based on lesion rotation and borderline division. Results. The algorithm has been tested on 350 dermoscopic images and achieved accuracy of 92% indicating that the proposed computational approach captured most of the irregularities and provides reliable information for effective skin mole examination. Compared to the state of the art, we obtained improved classification results. Conclusions. The current study suggests that computer-aided system is a practical tool for dermoscopic image assessment and could be recommended for both research and clinical applications. The proposed algorithm can be applied in different fields of medical image analysis including, for example, CT and MRI images.

  9. Pendulum migration and healthcare in border área.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaslavsky, Ricardo; Goulart, Bárbara Niegia Garcia de

    2017-12-01

    This article aims to reflect about the importance and the potential impact of pendulum migration in the pursuance for healthcare, and, specifically, about the peculiarity of this kind of mobility in border areas. It describes the context in which the pendulum migration is inserted for the modification of the urban space in the 20th century, makes initial comments about legal aspects of the theme in health sector, and describes the reality of the Brazil-Argentina-Paraguay triple border as an important location of pendulum migration for the pursuance of healthcare as an illustrative fact. In this way, hypotheses are formulated about the causes of the pendulum migration impact on patient's health like the effect of the distance covered from home to healthcare facilities, and organizational aspects related to healthcare like the uncertainty about having or not health assistance due to international mobility. It concludes that this kind of mobility is very common in the pursuance of healthcare despite the traditional approach to the theme mentioning only work or study. Besides that, it is very important to study its impact on health and to include this theme on the cross border healthcare debate.

  10. Empirical evaluation of augmented prototyping effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Koubek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Augmented reality is a scientific field well known for more than twenty years. Although there is a huge number of projects that present promising results, the real usage of augmented reality applications for fulfilling common tasks is almost negligible. We believe that one of the principal reasons is insufficient usability of these applications. The situation is analogous to the desktop, mobile or cloud application development or even to the web pages design. The first phase of a technology adoption is the exploration of its potential. As soon as the technical problems are overcome and the technology is widely accepted, the usability is a principal issue. The usability is utmost important also from the business point of view. The cost of augmented reality implementation into the production process is substantial, therefore, the usability that is directly responsible for the implemented solution effectiveness must be appropriately tested. Consequently, the benefit of the implemented solution can be measured.This article briefly outlines common techniques used for usability evaluation. Discussed techniques were designed especially for evaluation of desktop applications, mobile solutions and web pages. In spite of this drawback, their application on augmented reality products is usually possible. Further, a review of existing augmented reality project evaluations is presented.Based on this review, a usability evaluation method for our augmented prototyping application is proposed. This method must overcome the fact that the design is a creative process. Therefore, it is not possible to take into account common criteria such as time consumption.

  11. The changing forms and nature of borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Walther

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary borders are not always where you would expect them to be. On a flight to America, for instance, the crew will inform you that passengers are not allowed to congregate in groups around the toilets or anywhere in the aircraft. This US State Department regulation applies whether you are on Swiss soil waiting for takeoff, contemplating the Atlantic Ocean at an altitude of 33’000 feet above international waters, or landing at John F. Kennedy Airport in New York City. Borders are no lo...

  12. A CART extension using Quadratic Decision Borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartelius, Karsten

    1999-01-01

    -space into subsets which are successively more class-homogeneous. Guided by the fact that class-distributions in feature-space are very often hyper-elliptical shaped, we give an extension to the original CART which also uses quadratic shaped decision borders which can be modelled by a mean-vector and a dispersion......In this article we put forward an extention to the hierarchical CART classification method which uses quadratic decision borders. The original CART applies univariate splits on individual variables as well as splits on combinations of variables to recursively partition the feature...

  13. A CART extention using Quadratic Decision Borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartelius, Karsten

    1999-01-01

    -space into subsets which are successively more class-homogeneous. Guided by the fact that class-distributions in feature-space are very often hyper-elliptical shaped, we give an extension to the original CART which also uses quadratic shaped decision borders which can be modelled by a mean-vector and a dispersion......In this article we put forward an extention to the hierarchical CART classification method which uses quadratic decision borders. The original CART applies univariate splits on individual variables as well as splits on combinations of variables to recursively partition the feature...

  14. of the U. S.-Mexico Border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Meritet

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the possible impacts of liquefied natural gas (LNG projects on natural gas prices on both sides of the U. S.-Mexico border in California. In that state gas prices are high and demand is expected to grow. Several projects for LNG facilities have been proposed and have to cope with public opinions against them. In Baja California, four LNG projects are under development given the rising demand forecasted for the next years. After a detailed study of the opportunity for LNG projects, we conclude with an analysis of the fundamentals of the current and future price formation in both sides of the U. S.- Mexico border.

  15. Dimeric assembly of enterocyte brush border enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M

    1994-01-01

    The noncovalent, dimeric assembly of small intestinal brush border enzymes was studied by sedimentation analysis in density gradients of extracts of pulse-labeled pig jejunal mucosal explants. Like aminopeptidase N (EC 3.4.11.2), sucrase-isomaltase (EC 3.2.1.48-10), aminopeptidase A (EC 3...... appearance of the liposome-reconstituted enzyme [Norén et al. (1986) J. Biol. Chem. 261, 12306-12309], showing only the inner, membrane-anchored domains of the monomers to be in close contact with one another while the outer domains are far apart. In contrast to the other brush border enzymes studied...

  16. The EU Border Assistance Mission in Libya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højstrup Christensen, Gitte

    2017-01-01

    The EU Border Assistance Mission in Libya (EUBAM), with the objective of supporting Libyan authorities in improving and developing the security of the country’s borders, was launched in May 2013 but suspended during the summer of 2014, because the security situation in Libya deteriorated. Therefore......’s assessment of the EU Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) mission, EUBAM Libya, and its contribution to the country’s overall security situation12. It takes departure in the complete deliverables of the Work Package 3, with The Libyan Review as the main source of reference. The aim of this chapter...

  17. Effective potential evaluations in a modified PQCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabo Montes de Oca, A.; Martinez-Pedrera, D. [International Center for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Instituto de Cibernetica, Matematica y Fisica, Group of Theoretical Physics, La Habana (Cuba)

    2006-08-15

    A procedure discussed in a previous work for properly defining the Feynman diagrams at any number of loops in a modified version of PQCD, is employed here to evaluate some zero- and one-loop corrections to the effective potential, as functions of the gluon and quark condensate parameters. The calculated terms indicate an instability of massless QCD under the development of quark condensates even in the absence of the gluon one. Therefore, a mechanism is suggested for the dynamical generation of quark masses and condensates. The absence of indications coming from lattice calculations to this possibility could be determined by the current limitations in treating fermion determinants. (orig.)

  18. Crossing the Borders: An Eco-cinecritical Analysis of Plant Wars and Bird Without Borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Ching Li

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay reads two Asian nature-oriented films from the perspective of ecocinecriticism,an ecologically minded film criticism. Plant Wars, produced by PTSTaiwan, questions the demarcation between native plants and exotic plants as well asbetween plants and human beings so as to remap the in-between border area. Thestorytelling method it applies is to feature 14 currently native plants as the maincharacters, and illustrates their relationship to aboriginal people, farmers, beekeepersand to other insect species. Bird Without Borders, also produced by PTS, tells the storyof the migration journey of a group of black-faced spoonbills flying 16,000 kilometersall the way from Tainan, Taiwan, to Japan, along the border of South and North Korea,to a remote island of China to look for feeding places and then back to Taiwan to spendthe winter. Different layers of border-crossing are shown in Bird. One similarity ofthese two PTS productions is the search for border-crossing so as to redefine or revisewhat the border means. Plant questions the biological categorization of the native plantsand the exotic plants; Bird illustrates how the crew physically follows the route of thebirds’ flight which crosses the national borders to provide a vision of remapping thenatural territory through challenging the idea of a fixed “place.” Both are seeking forways to trespass the man-made borders: Plant via environmental imagination; Bird viasome physical movement. While the title of Plant Wars seemingly expresses its positionmore strongly through “wars,” Bird Without Borders explicitly asserts a dream of noborders.

  19. Border Security: A Conceptual Model of Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    and poverty issues),89 distance to POEs, and risk of deportation , cross-border attendance has reduced significantly, in turn slowing the passing down...plants eradicated in Colombia , or the number of illegal immigrants apprehended, or the number of assault weapons interdicted enroute to Mexico, for

  20. International Taxation and Cross-Border Banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, H.P.; Voget, J.; Wagner, W.B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines empirically how international taxation affects the volume and pricing of cross-border banking activities for a sample of banks in 38 countries over the 1998-2008 - period. Home country corporate income taxation of foreign-source bank income is found to reduce banking-sector FDI.

  1. THE LESSONS OF THE BORDER WAR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Willem Scholtz

    spare parts, etc. This was true of the Border War as well. In general, the troops fighting the counter-insurgency war in the north of Namibia were well supplied. Most of the ... body. This meant that the loading of supplies were undertaken haphazardly, without the needs of the frontline troops being taken into account, with the.

  2. International taxation and cross-border banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, H.P.; Voget, J.; Wagner, W.B.

    This paper examines empirically how international taxation affects the volume and pricing of cross-border banking activities for a sample of banks in 38 countries over the 1998�2008 period. International double taxation of foreign-source bank income is found to reduce banking-sector FDI.

  3. Sharing Knowledge and Experience Across Borders | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Yemeni farmers have to drill their wells as deep as six metres to get enough water to irrigate crops. In this parched country — bordered by Saudi Arabia to the north and Oman to the east ... Qahtan has noticed that engineering students are now working at a faster pace. "Designs are readily available on the Internet," he adds.

  4. Crossing Pedagogical Borders in the Yucatan Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willhauck, Susan

    2009-01-01

    A challenging intercultural teaching experience provided an opportunity for engaging embodied pedagogies that facilitated border crossings of language, age, gender, and experience. Influenced by the work of Augusto Boal, the author describes how improvisation, role-play, music, and drawing led seminary students in Mexico into sacred time and space…

  5. Border Lakes land-cover classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvin Bauer; Brian Loeffelholz; Doug. Shinneman

    2009-01-01

    This document contains metadata and description of land-cover classification of approximately 5.1 million acres of land bordering Minnesota, U.S.A. and Ontario, Canada. The classification focused on the separation and identification of specific forest-cover types. Some separation of the nonforest classes also was performed. The classification was derived from multi-...

  6. Developing a simulation for border safeguarding

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Rooyen, S

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available ). It deals with situations such as rhino poaching, smuggling of narcotics into South Africa, and transporting stolen goods and vehicles out and across the border. In Section 2 we discuss the JC2 concept as well as the role of the Interoperability...

  7. Cross-border flow of health information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Iorio, Concetta Tania; Carinci, Fabrizio; Brillante, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    The EUBIROD project aims to perform a cross-border flow of diabetes information across 19 European countries using the BIRO information system, which embeds privacy principles and data protection mechanisms in its architecture (privacy by design). A specific task of EUBIROD was to investigate...... the variability in the implementation of the EU Data Protection Directive (DPD) across participating centres....

  8. Cross-border Mergers and Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Daojuan

    This paper focuses on three topics in cross-border mergers and acquisitions (CBM&As) field: motivations for CBM&As, valuation techniques and CBM&A performance (assessment and the determinants). By taking an overview of what have been found so far in academic field and investigating...

  9. e Ethiopia-Eritrea Border Conflict

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Siphamandla Zondi and Emmanuel Réjouis the ruling of the Eritrea–Ethiopia Boundary Commission (EEBC) as agreed at. Algiers, and Eritrea laments the disregard of agreements, especially by the inter- national community that witnessed them. The Boundary Commission, charged with adjudicating a ruling on the border ...

  10. Leishmaniasis: sickness without borders | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    A fly carrying a deadly parasite is endemic in the jungles of the Iguazu Falls, located where the borders of Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay meet. For centuries, this insect did not bother anyone in this remote area. But as its territory has been encroached on by settlements, the disease has spread. With IDRC's support ...

  11. Imagined Borders: (UnBounded Spaces of Oil Extraction and Indigenous Sociality in “Post-Neoliberal” Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora E. Lu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze state practices of border-making through an ethnographic focus on Ecuadorian Amazonia and the Waorani, an Indigenous society, who, before sustained contact with the outside world began in 1958, possessed stark spatial and social borders often reinforced through warfare. Following that contact and the creation of various iterations of a legally-demarcated Waorani territory, the spatial and social borders of Waorani culture, based on a common property regime, came into conflict with the borders produced by the state in cooperation with transnational capitalism in the form of the oil industry. We discuss how these shifting borders led to cascading effects on Waorani reciprocity, their relationship to natural resources, sense of security and designation of membership in the community. Finally, we discuss how the leftist Ecuadorian state under President Rafael Correa justifies and facilitates the country’s oil-focused spatial processes through a post-neoliberal discourse.

  12. Cooperation in Crisis? An Analysis of Cross-Border Intermunicipal Relations in the Detroit-Windsor Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen Nelles

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The Detroit-Windsor region is linked by the automotive industry, significant cross-border labor and recreation flows, cultural similarities, and social problems stemming from the economic downturn. According to theories of cross-border cooperation this case should be one characterized by a degree of institutional integration and intermunicipal coordination. In reality, very few cross-border political relationships exist between local authorities in the region, even in this time of mutual crisis. This paper investigates the reasons for weak cross-border integration by testing theory against practice and argues that existing theoretical frameworks do not satisfactorily account for observed patterns of cooperation in the region. It also explores the different effects that crisis can have on cross-border partnerships at the metropolitan scale.

  13. Evaluating Process Effectiveness to Reduce Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Christena C.

    2017-01-01

    security; loss of confidence in government; failure of publicly funded projects; damage to the environment; ethics violations, and the list goes on; with local, national and even international consequences. The Plan-Do-Check-Act process, also known as the "process approach" can be used at any time to establish and standardize a process, and it can also be used to check periodically for "process creep" (i.e., informal, unauthorized changes that have occurred over time), any necessary updates and improvements. While ISO 9001 compliance is not mandated for all government agencies, if interpreted correctly, it can be useful in establishing a framework and implementing effective management systems and processes.4 Another method that can be used to evaluate effectiveness is the scorecard definitions in Mallory's Process Management Standard5 as a basis for evaluating work on the process level on effective, and continuously improved and improving processes. With processes on the lower end of the scale, agencies are vulnerable to a great many risks, with employees and managers making up many of the rules as they go, leading to the above listed negative results. Without clear guidance for nominal operations, off-nominal situations can, and do, increase the likelihood of chaos. In an increasingly technical environment, with inter-agency communication and collaboration becoming the norm, agencies need to come to grips with the fact that processes can become rapidly outdated, and that the technical community should take on an increased role in the maturation of the agency's processes. Industry has long known that effective processes are also efficient, and process improvement methods such as Kaizen, Lean, Six Sigma, 5S, and mistake proofing lead to increased productivity, improved quality, and decreased cost. Again, government agencies have different concerns, but inefficiencies and mistakes can have dire and wide reaching consequences for the public that they serve. While no one goes

  14. Border Security: The Role of the U.S. Border Patrol

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nunez-Neto, Blas

    2005-01-01

    .... Today, the USBP's primary mission is to detect and prevent the entry of terrorists, weapons of mass destruction, and illegal aliens into the country, and to interdict drug smugglers and other criminals along the border...

  15. Border Security: Immigration Issues in the 108th Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seghetti, Lisa M

    2004-01-01

    .... Prior to the terrorist attacks, the priorities for border security policy were beginning to shift from immigration-related issues to issues related to facilitating legitimate cross-border commerce...

  16. API and PNR data in use for border control authorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, Chang; McGauran, Rachel; Nelen, Hans

    Airplanes transport a large number of travelers simultaneously, and airports are often described as inland borders where strangers converge and disperse. They are also a conduit for terrorism and transnational crimes. Border control authorities have endeavored to obtain information regarding

  17. Cross-border shopping and tourism destination marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the economic impact that cross-border shopping has on the local tourism industry and the ways that cross-border shopping is taken advantage of in tourism destination marketing. Southern Jutland–situated in Denmark just north of the German border, where border shops situated...... just south of the same border enable Danes to capitalize on the lower value added tax levels in Germany–is utilized as an illustrative case example. The data was collected by analysing the relevant tourism destination marketing material and via interviews with local destination marketing organizations...... and tourism firms. Based on the empirical evidence it seems that the positive impact that cross-border shopping can have on attracting large numbers of tourists into the region can outweigh the negative impact of tourists preferring border shops to local products and services: cross-border shopping has become...

  18. Facilitating participation in formative evaluation supported by effect map

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granlien, Maren Sander

    2009-01-01

    designed effect map. The purpose of the effect map is twofold: a) To encourage user participation in the early activities of formative evaluation b) The effects specified can be used as formative evaluation measures and guidance in the process of improving the system. The evaluation approach and the effect...

  19. Characterization of emissions sources in the California-Mexico Border Region during Cal-Mex 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, M. A.; Lei, W.; Li, G.; Bei, N.; Barrera, H.; Tejeda, D.; Molina, L. T.; Cal-Mex 2010 Emissions Team

    2010-12-01

    The California-Mexico border region provides an opportunity to evaluate the characteristics of the emission processes in rapidly expanding urban areas where intensive international trade and commerce activities occur. Intense anthropogenic activities, biomass burning, as well as biological and geological sources significantly contribute to high concentration levels of particulate matter (PM), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), air toxics, and ozone observed in the California-US Baja California-Mexico border region. The continued efforts by Mexico and US for improving and updating the emissions inventories in the sister cities of San Diego-Tijuana and Calexico-Mexicali has helped to understand the emission processes in the border region. In addition, the recent Cal-Mex 2010 field campaign included a series of measurements aimed at characterizing the emissions from major sources in the California-Mexico border region. In this work we will present our analyzes of the data obtained during Cal-Mex 2010 for the characterization of the emission sources and their use for the evaluation of the recent emissions inventories for the Mexican cities of Tijuana and Mexicali. The developed emissions inventories will be implemented in concurrent air quality modeling efforts for understanding the physical and chemical transformations of air pollutants in the California-Mexico border region and their impacts.

  20. Border bases and order ideals: a polyhedral characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Braun, Gábor; Pokutta, Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    Border bases arise as a canonical generalization of Gr\\"obner bases. We provide a polyhedral characterization of all order ideals (and hence border bases) that are supported by a zero-dimensional ideal: order ideals that support a border basis correspond one-to-one to integral points of the order ideal polytope. In particular, we establish a crucial connection between the ideal and its combinatorial structure. Based on this characterization we adapt the classical border basis algorithm to all...

  1. International Border Management Systems (IBMS) Program : visions and strategies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, Michael; Mohagheghi, Amir Hossein

    2011-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), International Border Management Systems (IBMS) Program is working to establish a long-term border security strategy with United States Central Command (CENTCOM). Efforts are being made to synthesize border security capabilities and technologies maintained at the Laboratories, and coordinate with subject matter expertise from both the New Mexico and California offices. The vision for SNL is to provide science and technology support for international projects and engagements on border security.

  2. Hmong Across Borders or Borders Across Hmong? Social and Political Influences Upon Hmong People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasit Leepreecha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Hmong are a transnational ethnic people, because of their dispersal from China into Southeast Asia in the early 19th century and from Southeast Asia to Western countries from 1975 onward. However, even within the context of Southeast Asia and southern China, the Hmong are a transnational ethnic group, due to state boundaries and the enforcement of international laws.Scholars speak as though the Hmong population has crossed political and legal borders by their movement across state boundaries and international borders. However, I argue that it is the political, social, and legal borders that have cut across the Hmong people and subjected them to be citizens of different modern nation-states. Even in the present time, these borders still, and continuously, play important roles that cross and divide the Hmong people into distinctive subgroups and fragments. In this article, I will start by describing the generally understood situation of Hmong being across national borders, and then will explain my argument that borders are across the Hmong.

  3. [Priority health problems in the Mexico-United States border].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, H

    1991-01-01

    This paper shows a general scope of migration and border health in the US-Mexico border. Project CONSENSO's methodology and the results founded by the local and state health personnel are presented. This activity enabled health personnel from both countries to identify the most relevant health problems at the Northern and Southern US and Mexico border.

  4. Integrated control of the South African border environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Taute, BJE

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available border environment. This environment includes land border lines and ports of entry; the harbours, coastline and Exclusive Economic Zone in the sea; and the airports and air borders that can essentially be anywhere in the country where international...

  5. Gender, Cross-border Migrant Workers and Citizenship : Case Study ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Gender, Cross-border Migrant Workers and Citizenship : Case Study of the Burmese-Thai Border. Burmese women workers in Thai border factories are generally excluded from the benefits and protection that define citizenship entitlements. Their employment contracts are not protected by the regulations drawn up for ...

  6. Proceedings of Border Institute VI: transboundary ecosystem management

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Rick Van Schoik

    2005-01-01

    Ecosystems are bisected by international borders along the United States-Mexican border; infrastructure and the heightened security activities bisect the north-south cores, corridors, and buffers essential to preservation of ecosystems. The Southwest Consortium for Environmental Research and Policy (SCERP) and its partners convened an annual policy conference, Border...

  7. 78 FR 35044 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Visa Waiver Program Carrier Agreement (CBP Form I-775) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland...: 1651-0110. SUMMARY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) of the Department of Homeland Security...

  8. 77 FR 1497 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-10

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Application for Withdrawal of Bonded Stores for Fishing Vessels and Certificate of Use AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border... comments to U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Attn: Tracey Denning, Regulations and Rulings, Office of...

  9. U.S. Border Patrol Fiscal Year Statistics Southwest border sector deaths - FY 1998 through FY 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Southwest Border Sectors include: Del Rio, El Centro, El Paso, Laredo, Rio Grande Valley, San Diego, Tucson, Yuma Southwest Border Deaths By Fiscal Year (Oct. 1st...

  10. Cross-border Movement of People between Russia and Poland and Their Influence on the Economy of Border Regions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Natalia A Zaitseva; Valentin S Korneevets; Elena G Kropinova; Tatyana Yu Kuznetsova; Ludmila V Semenova

    2016-01-01

      The ever-increasing role of cross-border movement for the development of the economies of the regions of neighboring countries located in the immediate vicinity of the border defines the topicality of this research...

  11. U.S.-MEXICO TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER; BILATERAL TECHNICAL EXCHANGES FOR SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC GROWTH IN THE BORDER REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, Richard, D., Dr.

    2007-10-01

    s challenging environmental issues. The results also brought focus to the potential contributions that DOE’s science and technology could make for solving the many difficult, multi-generational problems faced by hundreds of bi-national communities along the 2,000-mile shared border of the United States and Mexico. Efforts to address these U.S.-Mexico border issues were initially sponsored by the DOE’s Albuquerque and Carlsbad offices. In subsequent years, the U.S. Congress directed appropriations to DOE’s Carlsbad office to address public health, safety and security issues prevalent within U.S.-Mexico border communities. With ASL’s assistance, DOE’s Albuquerque office developed contacts and formed partnerships with interested U.S and Mexican government, academic, and commercial organizations. Border industries, industrial effluents, and public health conditions were evaluated and documented. Relevant technologies were then matched to environmental problem sets along the border. Several technologies that were identified and subsequently supported by this effort are now operational in a number of U.S.-Mexico border communities, several communities within Mexico’s interior states, and in other parts of Latin America. As a result, some serious public health threats within these communities caused by exposure to toxic airborne pollutants have been reduced. During this time, DOE’s Carlsbad office hosted a bilateral conference to establish a cross-border consensus on what should be done on the basis of these earlier investigative efforts. Participating border region stakeholders set an agenda for technical collaborations. This agenda was supported by several Members of Congress who provided appropriations and directed DOE’s Carlsbad office to initiate technology demonstration projects. During the following two years, more than 12 private-sector and DOE-sponsored technologies were demonstrated in partnership with numerous border community stakeholders. All technologies

  12. Why socio-political borders and boundaries matter in conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dallimer, Martin; Strange, Niels

    2015-01-01

    on biodiversity and ecosystem conservation by fragmenting ownership, governance, and management. Where boundaries are in place, a lack of coordination on either side of a boundary affects the efficiency and efficacy of ecosystem management. We suggest four research pathways which will enhance our ability...... to address the adverse effects of socio-political borders on conservation: (i) scale-matching, (ii) quantification of the mutual economic benefits of conservation across boundaries, (iii) determining transboundary societal values, and (iv) acknowledging the importance of stakeholder behaviour and incentives....

  13. No Emergency Incident Recognizes Borders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    equipment to make it effective and functional. When the third training session was made available in Nogales , Arizona, in February through April...Mexico that included active participation and communication from the U.S. side. After departing Nogales , coordinators from both nations drafted and...approved a mutual aid agreement that allowed for the Nogales (Arizona) Fire Department to enter Mexico up to a certain restricted boundary and to

  14. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Forensic Psychiatric Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makushkina O.A.,

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the quantitative indicators, the analysis of which gives an idea of the strengths and means at the disposal of forensic health care. We discuss the possibility of using the existing statistical monitoring system for a dynamic assessment of the quality of the measures for primary prevention of socially dangerous acts and implementation of compulsory medical measures at the regional and federal levels. We emphasize the quality indicators of the process for specialized assistance: security environment, organizational culture, training and upgrading the skills of staff, completeness and quality of psychosocial interventions, the degree of profiling the psycho-educational work, the quality of psychotherapeutic contact and its dynamics. We discuss the problem of the validity of the criteria of rehabilitation interventions success by compliance with the methodological principles for the evaluation of their effectiveness. We suggest ways to improve the effectiveness of regional mental health services for the prevention of socially dangerous acts, approaches to peer review and monitoring of the work

  15. Sustainable rural development and cross-border cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Žaklina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of sustainable rural development comprises three aspects - social, economical and ecological. They are supposed to act in synergy, but, at the same time, these aspects are supposed to be competitive. Agriculture, as a traditional activity of rural economy, contributes to the sustainable development of rural areas only if there is an adequate resources management. If not, there will be a significant degradation of rural environment. These are the reasons why sustainable agriculture development is emphasized since it maximizes productivity and minimizes negative effects on nature and human resources. In this context, one should observe the connection between agriculture and tourism existing in the EU, where the application of sustainable agricultural development concept produces external effects connected to biodiversity protection and environment in rural areas. These become a good foundation for the development of rural and ecotourism. EU enlargement induced diversification of support programmes that EU gives to the candidate countries, as well as to those who are just entering the process of stabilization and association to the EU. Through cross-border cooperation projects, many goals can be accomplished, among which aspiration for promotion of sustainable economical and social development in border regions is one of the leading. Knowing that these regions are usually passive and underdeveloped, the projects of cross-border cooperation could induce development of those activities in local economy, which could bring better living conditions and economic prosperity on the one hand, and protection of environment on the other. Examples of this kind of projects in Serbia can usually be found in rural and ecotourism development.

  16. Deaths at the borders database : evidence of deceased migrants’ bodies found along the southern external borders of the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Last, T.K.; Mirto, Giorgia; Ulusoy, O.; Urquijo, Ignacio; Harte, J.M.; Bami, Nefeli; Pérez Pérez, Marta; Macias Delgado, Flor; Tapella, Amélie; Michalaki, Alexandra; Michalitsi, Eirini; Latsoudi, Efi; Tselepi, Naya; Chatziprokopiou, Marios; Spijkerboer, T.P.

    2017-01-01

    Irregular migrants and asylum seekers have died and continue to die attempting to cross the external borders of the EU without authorisation, seeking to enter the territories of its Member States. Yet, remarkably little is known about these ‘border deaths’. In 2015, the Human Costs of Border Control

  17. Off-shoring and out-sourcing the borders of EUrope: Libya and EU border work in the Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialasiewicz, L.

    2012-01-01

    The article examines some of the novel ways in which the European Union carries out its ‘border-work’- border-work that stretches far beyond the external borders of the current Union. It highlights, in particular, the role of EUrope's neighbours in new strategies of securitisation, drawing attention

  18. Atmospheric corrosion tests along the Norwegian-Russian border. Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriksen, J.F.; Mikhailov, A.A.

    1997-12-31

    A bilateral exposure programme was carried out along the Norwegian-Russian border in 1990-1991, 1992-1993 and 1993-1994 to evaluate quantitatively the effect of sulphur pollutants on the atmospheric corrosion of important materials in sub-arctic climate. The first part of the programme demonstrated that also in subarctic climate do metals corrode depending on the atmospheric corrosivity, and dose-response functions were derived which combined the effects of SO{sub 2} and time of wetness. The second part of the programme, which is described in this report, involved exposures of carbon steel, zinc and copper at two sites in Norway and three sites in Russia. It is concluded that the accelerated atmospheric corrosion of metals in regions along the border is mainly due to dry deposition of sulphur. At some sites, dry deposition of Cl contributes because of sea-salt aerosols. The corrosivity of acid precipitation is certain but could not be represented as a function because of the small differences observed in the pH values at the different sites. At all test sites the kinetics of corrosion of steel, zinc and copper are characterized by a reduced corrosion rate after one year of exposure. Time of wetness is an important parameter in predicting atmospheric corrosion of metals even on a regional scale. Hence, for monitoring and for trend-effect analysis, it is very important to determine the corrosivity of SO{sub 2} with time of wetness. In accordance with dose-response functions obtained, the yearly corrosion rate for steel and zinc are higher for the areas with higher amounts of dry deposition of Cl than for areas with analogous but only SO{sub 2}-containing atmosphere. 6 refs., 8 figs., 15 tabs.

  19. Cross-border cooperation potential in fostering redevelopment of degraded border areas - a case study approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre Castanho, Rui; Ramírez, Beatriz; Loures, Luis; Fernández-Pozo, Luis; Cabezas, José

    2017-04-01

    Border interactions have reached unprecedented levels in recent decades, not only due to their potential for territorial integration but also considering their role in supranational processes, such as landscape reclamation, infrastructure development and land use planning on European territory. In this scenario, successful examples related to the redevelopment of degraded areas have been showing positive impacts at several levels, such as the social, economic, environmental and aesthetic ones which have ultimately related this process, positively, to sustainability issues. However, concerning to border areas, and due to their inherent legislative and bureaucratic conflicts, the intervention in these areas is more complex. Still, and taking into account previously developed projects and strategies of cross-border cooperation (CBC) in European territory it is possible to identified that the definition of common master plans and common objectives are critical issues to achieve the desired territorial success. Additionally, recent studies have put forward some noteworthy ideas highlighting that it is possible to establish a positive correlation between CBC processes and an increasing redevelopment of degraded border areas, with special focus on the reclamation of derelict landscapes fostering soil reuse and redevelopment. The present research, throughout case study analysis at the Mediterranean level - considering case studies from Portugal, Spain, Monaco and Italy - which presents specific data on border landscape redevelopment, enables us to conclude that CBC processes have a positive influence on the potential redevelopment of degraded border areas, considering not only urban but also rural land. Furthermore, this paper presents data obtained through a public participation process which highlights that these areas present a greater potential for landscape reclamation, fostering resource sustainability and sustainable growth. Keywords: Spatial planning; Land

  20. Cross-border emergency management. Grenzueberschreitender Notfallschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayer, A.; Lombard, J.; Rauber, D. (eds.)

    1999-01-01

    The papers presented at the seminar give a survey of the cooperative activities, the national organisations, and the main aspects involved in cross-border emergency management by the neighbour states Germany, France, Switzerland and Austria. These major aspects are the leading themes of the various sessions of the seminar, devoted to: The legal bases and their implementation within national law; tasks and means in emergency management; bilateral agreements; decision-making processes in the early phase of an event, and in the late phase of an event; determination of the radiological situation; procedures of information and data exchange; information of the population; experience gained from cross-border emergency management exercises, and provision of bilateral assistance. (orig./CB)

  1. Borders, Tensegrity and Development in Dialogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsico, Giuseppina; Tateo, Luca

    2017-12-01

    In this article we propose a development of the Dialogical Self Theory by introducing the notions of borders, cogenetic logic and tensegrity that we have elaborated during the last 5 years, in order to introduce a stronger developmental and dynamic perspective within the theory. We start from the discussion of some recent advancements of the model proposed by Hermans et al. (Integrative Psychological and Behavioural Science, 51(4), 2017), who refer to the metaphor of democratic society of the Self to understand the challenges and possible directions of adaptation that the persons can face in those border-crossing processes characterizing contemporary western societies. We conceptualized the Self as a dynamic semiotic system in constant evolutive tension, rather than a system in equilibrium adapting to the environmental changing conditions. Then, we propose to replace the concept of stability and continuity of the Self with the more fruitful idea of tensional integrity.

  2. Measuring cross-border regional integration with composite indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu

    2016-01-01

    a sub-category for STI. Consequently, by ignoring cross-border innovation and knowledge flows, the Oresund integration index fails to take into account one of the most important drivers of economic growth in cross-border regions. Therefore, a new composite STI indicator (sub-category) was introduced......Earlier quantitative studies on cross-border regional integration processes have commonly neglected science, technology and innovation (STI) indicators: even the most notable example of a composite indicator approach to measuring cross-border regional integration, i.e. the Oresund index, lacks......-border regions....

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF CROSS-BORDER AREAS. STUDY CASES REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela\tȘLUSARCIUC

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to review study cases found in the scientific literature concerning the development of cross- border areas in European Union and its neighbourhood. The introductory part of the paper is drawing few considerations about the cross-border areas. Further we identified in the specific literature relevant study cases that provide lessons learned, tools and models that can contribute to the development of the cross-border areas. The last part of the paper is focusing on an inquiry about how this lessons, learned, tools and models may be adapted in case of cross-border areas along the Romanian border with the EU Eastern Neighbourhood.

  4. Borders and Borderlands in the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    and deterrents to participate in that activity because the risk premium creates high rewards for successful entrepreneurs . This also attracts a...it comes to the rights of individual citizens. For example, U.S. officials have found it more difficult to collaborate with Canadian than Mexican ...Security.” 13 Phil Williams, “ Mexican Drug Violence: Contextual or Contagious?” Paper presented at workshop Borders and Borderlands in the

  5. An artificial neural network method for lumen and media-adventitia border detection in IVUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shengran; Hu, Zhenghui; Lin, Qiang; Hau, William Kongto; Gao, Zhifan; Zhang, Heye

    2017-04-01

    Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) has been well recognized as one powerful imaging technique to evaluate the stenosis inside the coronary arteries. The detection of lumen border and media-adventitia (MA) border in IVUS images is the key procedure to determine the plaque burden inside the coronary arteries, but this detection could be burdensome to the doctor because of large volume of the IVUS images. In this paper, we use the artificial neural network (ANN) method as the feature learning algorithm for the detection of the lumen and MA borders in IVUS images. Two types of imaging information including spatial, neighboring features were used as the input data to the ANN method, and then the different vascular layers were distinguished accordingly through two sparse auto-encoders and one softmax classifier. Another ANN was used to optimize the result of the first network. In the end, the active contour model was applied to smooth the lumen and MA borders detected by the ANN method. The performance of our approach was compared with the manual drawing method performed by two IVUS experts on 461 IVUS images from four subjects. Results showed that our approach had a high correlation and good agreement with the manual drawing results. The detection error of the ANN method close to the error between two groups of manual drawing result. All these results indicated that our proposed approach could efficiently and accurately handle the detection of lumen and MA borders in the IVUS images. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Estimating maquiladora hazardous waste generation on the U.S./Mexico border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Mace M.; Kontuly, Thomas; Hepner, George F.

    1995-03-01

    Maquiladoras, manufacturing plants that primarily assemble foreign components for reexport, are located in concentrations along the northern frontier of the US/Mexico border. These plants process a wide variety of materials using modern industrial technologies within the context of developing world institutions and infrastructure. Hazardous waste generation by maquiladoras represents a critical environmental management issue because of the spatial concentration of these plants in border municipalities where the infrastructure for waste management is nonexistent or poor. These border municipalities contain rapidly increasing populations, which further stress their waste handling infrastructure capacities while exposing their populations to greater contaminant risks. Limited empirical knowledge exists concerning hazardous waste types and generation rates from maquiladorsas. There is no standard reporting method for waste generation or methodology for estimating generation rates at this time. This paper presents a method that can be used for the rapid assessment of hazardous waste generation. A first approximation of hazardous waste generation is produced for maquiladoras in the three municipalities of Nogales, Sonora, Mexicali, Baja California, and Cd. Juarez, Chihuahua, using the INVENT model developed by the World Bank. In addition, our intent is to evaluate the potential of the INVENT model for adaptation to the US/Mexico border industrial situation. The press of border industrial development, especially with the recent adoption of the NAFTA, make such assessments necessary as a basis for the environmental policy formulation and management needed in the immediate future.

  7. An Analysis on Religious-Ethnic Geopolitics, Security and Development in Border Towns. Case Study: Sistan and Baluchestan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISSA EBRAHIMZADEH

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Borders and border areas require security measures, which are very important to create security on the borders. The paper also analyzes the role of ethnic groups living near borderlines. Iran is an ethnically varied country and distinguishing characteristics of ethnic groups from each other in Iran is particularly concentrated on language, religion and ethnic components. These ethnic groups have been scattered as certain minority groups in border provinces and areas. The presence of Iranian nationals in the Western, Eastern and Northern borders which are contiguous with countries with the same religion and language creates by itself an appropriate context for the occurrence of ethnic crises in border areas and boundary underdevelopment is an another cause for this problem. In addition, the three components, namely religion, ethnicity, and language, should be taken into consideration in adopting policies and strategies to deal with these areas. In Sistan and Baluchestan, Iran, there are effective national strategies taking advantage of the presence and existence of religious and ethnic groups in the border towns, adopting security and development policies taking into account these two issues. They have a deep effect on regional development and national solidarity due to construction activities and infrastructure investments on the one hand and reducing insecurity and trafficking on the other hand.

  8. Changing European borders: from separation to interface? An introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen Nelles

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this special issue is to address the evolution of European borders from a comparative perspective. This collection of papers spans a wide variety of topics in the realm of borderland studies. Although each engages with a single empirical or theoretical case collectively they identify nuances relevant to the theoretical elaboration of borders, and particularly contribute to the field of sub-national cross-border cooperation. In the course of its analysis each paper contributes to a broader understanding of the definition of cross-border regions; identifies a set of barriers to cooperation in these contexts; explores the role of identities on cooperation and of the role of borders in constructing those identities; and reflects on the socio-political meanings and uses of these international boundaries. This introduction discusses theoretical significance of these contributions to major debates in the study of borders and border regions.

  9. Geological evolution of the North Sea: Cross-border basin modeling study on the schillground high

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heim, S.; Lutz, R.; Nelskamp, S.; Verweij, J.M.; Kaufmann, D.; Reinhardt, L.

    2013-01-01

    This study presents the results of a basin modeling study covering the cross-border area of the southern Schillground High in the Dutch-German offshore area. A high resolution petroleum system model has been constructed with the aim to evaluate the hydrocarbon generation potential of Carboniferous

  10. A promotora de salud model for addressing cardiovascular disease risk factors in the US-Mexico border region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcázar, Héctor; Alvarado, Matilde; Cantu, Frank; Pedregon, Veronica; Fulwood, Robert

    2009-01-01

    In 2002, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute partnered with the Health Resources and Services Administration's (HRSA's) Bureau of Primary Health Care and Office of Rural Health Policy to address cardiovascular health in the US-Mexico border region. From 2003 through 2005, the 2 agencies agreed to conduct an intervention program using Salud para su Corazón with promotores de salud (community health workers) in high-risk Hispanic communities served by community health centers (CHCs) in the border region to reduce risk factors and improve health behaviors. Promotores de salud from each CHC delivered lessons from the curriculum Your Heart, Your Life. Four centers implemented a 1-group pretest-posttest study design. Educational sessions were delivered for 2 to 3 months. To test Salud para su Corazón-HRSA health objectives, the CHCs conducted the program and assessed behavioral and clinical outcomes at baseline, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months after the intervention. A 2-sample paired t test and analyses of variance were used to evaluate differences from baseline to postintervention. Changes in heart-healthy behaviors were observed, as they have been in previous Salud para su Corazón studies, lending credibility to the effectiveness of a promotores de salud program in a clinical setting. Positive changes were also observed in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, triglyceride level, waist circumference, diastolic blood pressure, weight, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Results suggest that integrating promotores de salud into clinical practices is a promising strategy for culturally competent and effective service delivery. Promotores de salud build coalitions and partnerships in the community. The Salud para su Corazón-HRSA initiative was successful in helping to develop an infrastructure to support a promotores de salud workforce in the US-Mexico border region.

  11. Small Border Traffic and Cross-Border Tourism Between Poland and the Kaliningrad Oblast of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisiewicz Renata

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Polish and Russian cross-border cooperation is governed by lawful agreements. The enlargement of the Schengen Area had a significant impact on Kaliningrad Oblast relations and cross-border cooperation with its neighbours. The introduction of visas between Poland and Russia hindered and restricted local border trade which had for years been the only measure mitigating social and economic problems of the cross-border regions. Nevertheless, border traffic between Poland and Kaliningrad grew steadily, to exceed four million in 2012.

  12. Comparison of the organic waste management systems in the Danish-German border region using life cycle assessment (LCA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Bang; Møller, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the management of the organic household waste in the Danish-German border region and points out major differences between the systems and their potential effects on the environment using life cycle assessment (LCA). The treatment of organic waste from households in the Danish......-German border region is very different on each side of the border; the Danish region only uses incineration for the treatment of organic household waste while the German region includes combined biogas production and composting, mechanical and biological treatment (MBT) and incineration. Data on all parts...

  13. Public health surveillance using emergency medical service logs - U.S.--Mexico land border, El Paso, Texas, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    In 2008, approximately 358 million travelers entered the United States, of whom 206 million arrived via land ports of entry (POEs) on the U.S.--Mexico border. Effective response to infectious diseases of public health importance among travelers requires timely identification and reporting to state and federal health authorities. Currently, notifications are made primarily by U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) officers to CDC quarantine stations. However, CBP personnel have competing priorities and limited public health training.To evaluate the utility of monitoring emergency medical service (EMS) dispatch and response logs for ill travelers with symptoms or signs suggestive of infectious diseases, CDC screened medical records of patients transported by EMS during 2009 from the four POEs in El Paso, Texas. The screening was conducted using commercial software that monitors EMS logs and sends alerts in real time based on preestablished criteria (i.e., records containing keywords suggesting infectious diseases). Records that met the criteria were forwarded to El Paso Quarantine Station personnel and reviewed within 24 hours. If a reportable infectious disease was suspected, the final diagnosis was requested from the receiving hospital.This report summarizes the results of the evaluation, which found that, of 50,779 EMS responses in the city of El Paso, 455 (0.9%) records met alert criteria, 86 (0.2%) needed diagnostic confirmation, and nine (POEs but requires additional screening and follow-up by CDC.

  14. Border Malaria Associated with Multidrug Resistance on Thailand-Myanmar and Thailand-Cambodia Borders: Transmission Dynamic, Vulnerability, and Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adisak Bhumiratana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This systematic review elaborates the concepts and impacts of border malaria, particularly on the emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax multidrug resistance (MDR malaria on Thailand-Myanmar and Thailand-Cambodia borders. Border malaria encompasses any complex epidemiological settings of forest-related and forest fringe-related malaria, both regularly occurring in certain transmission areas and manifesting a trend of increased incidence in transmission prone areas along these borders, as the result of interconnections of human settlements and movement activities, cross-border population migrations, ecological changes, vector population dynamics, and multidrug resistance. For regional and global perspectives, this review analyzes and synthesizes the rationales pertaining to transmission dynamics and the vulnerabilities of border malaria that constrain surveillance and control of the world’s most MDR falciparum and vivax malaria on these chaotic borders.

  15. Border Malaria Associated with Multidrug Resistance on Thailand-Myanmar and Thailand-Cambodia Borders: Transmission Dynamic, Vulnerability, and Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhumiratana, Adisak; Intarapuk, Apiradee; Sorosjinda-Nunthawarasilp, Prapa; Maneekan, Pannamas; Koyadun, Surachart

    2013-01-01

    This systematic review elaborates the concepts and impacts of border malaria, particularly on the emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax multidrug resistance (MDR) malaria on Thailand-Myanmar and Thailand-Cambodia borders. Border malaria encompasses any complex epidemiological settings of forest-related and forest fringe-related malaria, both regularly occurring in certain transmission areas and manifesting a trend of increased incidence in transmission prone areas along these borders, as the result of interconnections of human settlements and movement activities, cross-border population migrations, ecological changes, vector population dynamics, and multidrug resistance. For regional and global perspectives, this review analyzes and synthesizes the rationales pertaining to transmission dynamics and the vulnerabilities of border malaria that constrain surveillance and control of the world's most MDR falciparum and vivax malaria on these chaotic borders. PMID:23865048

  16. Evaluating aid effectiveness in the aggregate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Hansen, Henrik

    The purpose of the present evaluation study is to discuss influential empirical studies that attempt to estimate the impact of foreign aid on economic growth. The study draws on a previous evaluation study, which introduces the general econometric methodology involved in making assessments about...

  17. Goal Relevance Moderates Evaluative Conditioning Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verwijmeren, Thijs; Karremans, Johan C.; Stroebe, Wolfgang; Wigboldus, Daniel H. J.

    2012-01-01

    An important process by which preferences emerge is evaluative conditioning, defined as a change in the evaluation of a stimulus by pairing it repeatedly and consistently with an affective stimulus. The current research focuses on the role of motivation in this learning process. Specifically, it was investigated whether a conditioning procedure…

  18. Borders as membranes :metaphors and models for improved policy in border regions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malczynski, Leonard A.; Passell, Howard David; Forster, Craig B. (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT); Cockerill, Kristan (Cockerill Consulting, Boone, NC)

    2005-10-01

    Political borders are controversial and contested spaces. In an attempt to better understand movement along and through political borders, this project applied the metaphor of a membrane to look at how people, ideas, and things ''move'' through a border. More specifically, the research team employed this metaphor in a system dynamics framework to construct a computer model to assess legal and illegal migration on the US-Mexico border. Employing a metaphor can be helpful, as it was in this project, to gain different perspectives on a complex system. In addition to the metaphor, the multidisciplinary team utilized an array of methods to gather data including traditional literature searches, an experts workshop, a focus group, interviews, and culling expertise from the individuals on the research team. Results from the qualitative efforts revealed strong social as well as economic drivers that motivate individuals to cross the border legally. Based on the information gathered, the team concluded that legal migration dynamics were of a scope we did not want to consider hence, available demographic models sufficiently capture migration at the local level. Results from both the quantitative and qualitative data searches were used to modify a 1977 border model to demonstrate the dynamic nature of illegal migration. Model runs reveal that current US-policies based on neo-classic economic theory have proven ineffective in curbing illegal migration, and that proposed enforcement policies are also likely to be ineffective. We suggest, based on model results, that improvement in economic conditions within Mexico may have the biggest impact on illegal migration to the U.S. The modeling also supports the views expressed in the current literature suggesting that demographic and economic changes within Mexico are likely to slow illegal migration by 2060 with no special interventions made by either government.

  19. Voces de la frontera/Voices from the Border: Using Case Studies of Pregnancy, Birth and Parenting along the U.S.-Mexico Border to Identify Shared Measures of Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selchau, Katherine; Babuca, Maricela; Bower, Kara; Castro, Yara; Flores, Araceli; Garcia, Jonah O; Reyes, Maria Lourdes F; Rojas, Yvonne; Shattuck, Laura

    2017-12-02

    Purpose This research analyzes the cases of five women living along the U.S.-Mexico border who overcame challenges during pregnancy or parenting with the support of a federally funded Healthy Start program, designed to eliminate disparities in perinatal health in disadvantaged communities with the poorest birth outcomes. Study objectives were to: (1) identify common factors that affect healthy maternal and child outcomes for Healthy Start participants; and (2) identify a shared definition of what success looks like for Healthy Start participants and opportunities for further study. Description Five border Healthy Start sites (CA, AZ, NM, and TX) contributed case stories from participants who had overcome access barriers to achieve positive pregnancy, birth or parenting outcomes. Case studies were collected using review of successful participant cases and non-structured interviews by Healthy Start staff, and analyzed using participatory methods and thematic analysis. Assessment Common barriers were: lack of insurance; isolation or unsupportive family relationships; timidness and lack of self-advocacy. Healthy Start programs have been successful in securing supportive relationships through the community health worker model; reducing isolation; obtaining insurance access and a medical home; building self-advocacy skills; and supporting participants to pursue their goals. Conclusion Identified barriers are in line with available literature on health care access and provide a U.S.-Mexico border-specific view. The Healthy Start model is effective at helping women to overcome barriers. Learning from this research may contribute to development of shared measures for more impactful evaluation of Healthy Start and similar programs.

  20. Effective Evaluation of Teaching: A Guide for Faculty and Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kite, Mary E., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book compiles several essays about effective evaluation of teaching. Contents of this publication include: (1) Conducting Research on Student Evaluations of Teaching (William E. Addison and Jeffrey R. Stowell); (2) Choosing an Instrument for Student Evaluation of Instruction (Jared W. Keeley); (3) Formative Teaching Evaluations: Is Student…

  1. Border Position as a Factor of Strategic and Territorial Planning in Russian Regions in the Baltic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedorov G.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the conditions of globalization, Russian border regions can form transborder regions through cooperation with the neighbouring territories of other states. The optimisation of spatial organisation of economy, social sphere, and nature management using the tools of spatial planning is fully justified in the case of transborder regions as well as in that of national ones. However, in Russia, spatial (strategic and territorial planning does not imply joint development of documents with the border regions of neighbouring states. Nevertheless, the border position of a region (at least, due to the presence of border zones has a significant effect on the content of regional strategies for socioeconomic development and schemes for territorial planning of constituent entities and municipal districts. The result is a combination of measures aimed simultaneously at solving defence problems, delivering economic security, and supporting trans-border cooperation. The Baltic macroregion has vast experience in developing joint Russia-EU programmes. This experience of coordinating activities in the economic and sociocultural spheres, as well as international spatial planning innovations (German landscape planning, etc., can be adopted in Russia.

  2. Cross border hospital use: analysis using data linkage across four Australian states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilsbury, Katrina; Rosman, Diana; Alan, Janine; Boyd, James H; Ferrante, Anna M; Semmens, James B

    2015-06-15

    To determine the quality and effectiveness of national data linkage capacity by performing a proof-of-concept project investigating cross-border hospital use and hospital-related deaths. Analysis of person-level linked hospital separation and death registration data of all public and private hospital patients in New South Wales, Queensland and Western Australia and of public hospital patients in South Australia, totalling 7.7 million hospital patients from 1 July 2004 to 30 June 2009. Counts and proportions of hospital stays and patient movement patterns. 223 262 patients (3.0%) travelled across a state border to attend hospitals, in particular, far northern and western NSW patients travelling to Queensland and SA hospitals, respectively. A further 48 575 patients (0.6%) moved their place of residence interstate between hospital visits, particularly to and from areas associated with major mining and tourism industries. Over 11 000 cross-border hospital transfers were also identified. Of patients who travelled across a state border to hospital, 2800 (1.3%) died in that hospital. An additional 496 deaths recorded in one jurisdiction occurred within 30 days of hospital separation from another jurisdiction. Access to person-level data linked across jurisdictions identified geographical hot spots of cross-border hospital use and hospital-related deaths in Australia. This has implications for planning of health service delivery and for longitudinal follow-up studies, particularly those involving mobile populations.

  3. Bauhäusler on the Franco-Spanish Border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Martínez de Guereñu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the travels of Bauhaus masters and instructors and on the transport of Bauhaus products to Spain in 1929, when the Franco-Spanish border was still culturally permeable. Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and Marcel Breuer introduced their tubular-steel furniture in the Spanish market. Mies and Lilly Reich designed the interiors of all German industrial sections at the Barcelona International Exposition, where the Bauhaus sent objects from its carpentry, metal, and weaving workshops. Josef and Anni Albers traveled to see the exhibition and then went to meet Vassily Kandinsky and Paul Klee, who spent over a month on holiday in the Côte Basque. Albers captured their trip in photo collages, Kandinsky registered his impressions in snapshots, while Klee wrote abundant correspondence and produced drawings. Focusing on the itineraries the Bauhäusler followed, along with the means by which they expressed their travel impressions, this article reveals the effect of travel in their later design attitudes and work. Significant cultural transfers between Germany and Spain took place in a critical moment of European history, suggesting that further developments of these learning experiences might have materialized later on both sides of the border, possibly even reaching across the Atlantic.

  4. Progressive Retinal Atrophy in the Border Collie: A new XLPRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Anne

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several forms of progressive retinal atrophy (PRA segregate in more than 100 breeds of dog with each PRA segregating in one or a few breeds. This breed specificity may be accounted for by founder effects and genetic drift, which have reduced the genetic heterogeneity of each breed, thereby facilitating the identification of causal mutations. We report here a new form of PRA segregating in the Border Collie breed. The clinical signs, including the loss of night vision and a progressive loss of day vision, resulting in complete blindness, occur at the age of three to four years and may be detected earlier through systematic ocular fundus examination and electroretinography (ERG. Results Ophthalmic examinations performed on 487 dogs showed that affected dogs present a classical form of PRA. Of those, 274 have been sampled for DNA extraction and 87 could be connected through a large pedigree. Segregation analysis suggested an X-linked mode of transmission; therefore both XLPRA1 and XLPRA2 mutations were excluded through the genetic tests. Conclusion Having excluded these mutations, we suggest that this PRA segregating in Border Collie is a new XLPRA (XLPRA3 and propose it as a potential model for the homologous human disease, X-Linked Retinitis Pigmentosa.

  5. Cassiterides Islands: in the borders of reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo PLÁCIDO SUAREZ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Cassiterides Islands are mentioned, since the first moments in the texts, as a place of the western extremes, where the valuable products proceed. Any way, the attraction of wealthy rises the imagination. In references apparently far of epic traditions, tha names on Artabri, cited as a people from Norwest of Iberian Peninsula, can do allu- sion to the region of South of Galicia and North of Portugal, «last of Lusitania through North and South West», as a border and mysterious space.

  6. Early seismicity of the Scottish Borders Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. W. Musson

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the seismicity of Southern Scotland and Northern England up to the year 1750. This area was formerly a border area between two states that eventually became politically united. Much of the area is uplands, and the seismicity is moderate to low. This makes for some problems in studying historical seismicity, yet the area provides a number of case studies of general interest in the field of historical seismology, including a rare case of being able to track down a «missing» earthquake.

  7. Of States and Borders on the Internet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shklovski, Irina; Struthers, David

    2010-01-01

    in Kazakhstan shows that the naming of a state-controlled space on the Internet, through the use of country code top-level domain names (ccTLDs), does in fact matter to the average user. People are aware of national boundary traversals as they navigate the Internet. Respondents in our study identified...... their activity on the Internet as happening within or outside the space of the state to which they felt allegiance and belonging. National borders are demarcated on the Internet through naming via ccTLDs and can result in individual expressions of various types of nationalism online. We find that cc...

  8. Crossing the border Historical and linguistic divides among the Bunaq in central Timor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoinette Schapper

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The Bunaq are a Papuan language-speaking people straddling the border of Indonesian West Timor and independent East Timor. This paper looks at the history of the Bunaq as a “border“ people in Timor.  “Border“ is interpreted here in two ways, as referring to: (i a political division, the boundary line separating one country from another, and (ii a linguistic division, the distinguishing line between Papuan and Austronesian languages. I examine the effect that the Bunaq position at the political and linguistic borders of Timor has had on the people and their language.

  9. Impact of Wind Power Generation on European Cross-Border Power Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zugno, Marco; Pinson, Pierre; Madsen, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    A statistical analysis is performed in order to investigate the relationship between wind power production and cross-border power transmission in Europe. A dataset including physical hourly cross-border power exchanges between European countries as dependent variables is used. Principal component...... analysis is employed in order to reduce the problem dimension. Then, nonlinear relationships between forecast wind power production as well as spot price in Germany, by far the largest wind power producer in Europe, and power flows are modeled using local polynomial regression. We find that both forecast...... wind power production and spot price in Germany have substantial nonlinear effects on power transmission on a European scale....

  10. Border Security Fencing and Wildlife: The End of the Transboundary Paradigm in Eurasia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnell, John D C; Trouwborst, Arie; Boitani, Luigi; Kaczensky, Petra; Huber, Djuro; Reljic, Slaven; Kusak, Josip; Majic, Aleksandra; Skrbinsek, Tomaz; Potocnik, Hubert; Hayward, Matt W; Milner-Gulland, E J; Buuveibaatar, Bayarbaatar; Olson, Kirk A; Badamjav, Lkhagvasuren; Bischof, Richard; Zuther, Steffen; Breitenmoser, Urs

    2016-06-01

    The ongoing refugee crisis in Europe has seen many countries rush to construct border security fencing to divert or control the flow of people. This follows a trend of border fence construction across Eurasia during the post-9/11 era. This development has gone largely unnoticed by conservation biologists during an era in which, ironically, transboundary cooperation has emerged as a conservation paradigm. These fences represent a major threat to wildlife because they can cause mortality, obstruct access to seasonally important resources, and reduce effective population size. We summarise the extent of the issue and propose concrete mitigation measures.

  11. Borders and Identity in Theory and Practice of the Eastern Baltic Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezhevich N.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available At the present stage of social development in Europe and Russia, studies analyzing and evaluating ethnic and national borders are of increasing relevance. Over the last three decades, the state borders in the Baltic region have been stable, which is not the case in Europe in general. The author believes that the key reason behind the current crisis in Russia-EU relations is the conspicuous neglect of Russian interests in the neighboring countries that formed after the disintegration of the USSR. However, escalation of the conflict was historically and geographically predetermined. The political borders of post-Soviet states do not coincide with the ethnic ones and, therefore, the attempts to consolidate states through ethnic mobilization meet corresponding resistance from groups with a different identity. In the Baltic region, these processes have not reached the Ukrainian scale; however, there are prerequisites for ethno-political conflicts of this type. The post-Crimean political debate in the Baltic states has shown that that hardliners of a strict assimilation model of state identity prevail in Vilnius, Riga, and Tallinn. This study sets out to analyze the political consequences of the conflict between the existing models of ethnopolitical identification in the border areas of the Eastern Baltic region. The main result of the study is that it has proved the existence of a special type of identity characteristic of border regions of the Baltic countries. In the context of this identity, the classic postmodernist dilemma of “us and them” is insufficient for a proper scientific analysis, and even more so for a political forecast. The formation of a special “double” or “transitional” identity in the border areas can serve both as a tool for strengthening of states and intergovernmental relations and as a ground for large-scale conflicts with hardly predictable consequences.

  12. Negotiating effectiveness in transnational advocacy evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arensman, Bodille; Wessel, Margit Van

    2017-01-01

    International development organizations increasingly use advocacy as a strategy to pursue effectiveness. However, establishing the effectiveness of advocacy is problematic and dependent on the interpretations of the stakeholders involved, as well as the interactions between them. This article

  13. Nd:YAG laser in endodontics: filling-material edge bordering on a root channel laser cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belikov, Andrei V.; Sinelnik, Yuri A.; Moroz, Boris T.; Pavlovskaya, Irina V.

    1997-12-01

    For the very first time it is represented a study of filling material edge bordering upon root channel cavity modified with a laser. As a filling material it is used a glass ionomer cement. It is demonstrated that Nd:YAG laser radiation effects on increase of grade of edge bordering on the average of 20 - 30% at temperature rise of no more than 2 - 3 degrees in periodontium area in a period of operation.

  14. Comparative balance of border regulations in four neighboring Caribbean countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Cristina Mantilla Valbuena

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to investigate whether there is a potential for border integration among four adjoining Caribbean countries: Colombia, Nicaragua, Panama and Costa Rica. The discussion is part of the “cross-border” concept and the integration of subnational entities in two or more nation states, with particular emphasis on the role played by the societies that inhabit border regions. A comparative analysis model is used to assess border regulations in each country’s various territorial levels based on relevant legal elements, autonomous processes and decentralization. The article concludes that the more modern each country’s border regulations and constitutional, political and administrative reforms are, the greater the likelihood of cross-border integration. Colombia and Nicaragua have the highest potential for integrating their borders, whereas Panama and Costa Rica have the lowest potential.

  15. Managing US-Mexico "border health": an organizational field approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins-Dogrul, Julie

    2006-12-01

    During World War II Mexican and US health professionals and organizations constructed a transnational organizational field to manage the border's public health problems. Despite barriers to inter-organizational cooperation, including disparate administrative structures and North-South stratification, the field's transnational approach to health on the border has continued for 60 years. Using archival data to track changes in the number and types of organizations, this article argues that the field practitioners call "border health" reconfigured during the North American Free Trade Association (NAFTA) decade from an era of loosely organized professionals to a specialized bureaucracies era. This change brought new vitality to border health, with transnational ties increasing and diversifying, but has not weakened entrenched cross-border inequalities. The organizational history of the US-Mexico border health field demonstrates how macro-politics and inter-organizational stratification shape transnational public health problems.

  16. Algeria Post Arab Spring : The Forced Virtualisation of the Borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louisa Dris-Aït Hamadouche

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Algeria is the core of the Maghreb and shares land borders with seven countries Maghreb and Sahel countries. However, since 2011, none of the seven land borders is stable and se-cure. So, even if Algeria is considered as a stable country, this stability is fragile and is likely to be more precarious if the country has to face simultaneously an economic crisis and deli-cate presidential succession. Domestic incertitude coupled to regional conflicts puts the Algerian borders under unprecedented pressure. Consequently, almost all the governmental declarations expressed worries about the vulnerability of the borders, and assurances about the security services determination to assure the state security. However, to what extant this promise can be entirely fulfilled, regarding the borders’ characteristics and the specificity of the context? Why is the virtualization of the borders forced? As regards to the growing per-meability of the borders, can their militarization guarantee their security?

  17. Evaluation of treatment effects by ranking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halekoh, U; Kristensen, K

    2008-01-01

    In crop experiments measurements are often made by a judge evaluating the crops' conditions after treatment. In the present paper an analysis is proposed for experiments where plots of crops treated differently are mutually ranked. In the experimental layout the crops are treated on consecutive...... plots usually placed side by side in one or more rows. In the proposed method a judge ranks several neighbouring plots, say three, by ranking them from best to worst. For the next observation the judge moves on by no more than two plots, such that up to two plots will be re-evaluated again...

  18. Electricity without borders - The need for cross-border transmission investment in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brancucci Martínez-Anido, C.

    2013-01-01

    An increase in cross-border electricity flows is foreseen in Europe in the coming decades due to large-scale penetration of renewable energy, the electrical integration of the Euro-Mediterranean region, the electrification of transport, and possible shifts in electricity generation dispatch caused

  19. Temporary reintroduction of border controls at French borders inside the Schengen Area

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    The French authorities have informed CERN that, in view of the upcoming COP21 Paris Climate Conference, France will exceptionally reintroduce controls at its borders with Schengen states for one month from 13 November to 13 December 2015. All border posts and crossing points between France and Switzerland will be affected by this measure.   Members of the personnel are therefore reminded that, when crossing borders within the Schengen Area*, they must carry: either, in the case of citizens of European Economic Area (EEA) countries and Switzerland, an official identity document (identity card or passport); or, in the case of non-EEA and non-Swiss citizens, an identity document together with a Schengen visa if they are subject to this obligation, or an identity document together with a residence permit issued by a Schengen state** if they have one.   The French authorities will make every effort to limit the impact of this measure on cross-border traffic, and wish to thank the members of th...

  20. Health, migration and border management: analysis and capacity-building at Europe's borders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollings, Jennifer; Samuilova, Mariya; Petrova-Benedict, Roumyana

    2012-04-01

    Three key elements were analysed in Hungary, Poland and Slovakia as a basis for strengthening the capacity of staff and structures related to health, migration and border management: public health concerns linked to migration, health needs and rights of migrants and the occupational health of staff. This IOM project was implemented through an in-depth situation analysis as well as the development of training modules and public health guidelines. Findings indicate a paucity of existing data, gaps in the health care for migrants and few existing tools for border officials and health professionals. Sets of training modules were developed for each of these groups, including common modules on migration and the right to health and intercultural communication, as well as targeted health modules. The guidelines promote good practices in the context of border management and detention. The EU is working towards a common immigration policy and integrated border management; however, a harmonized approach to migration and health is still lacking. Further research and piloting of the developed materials is needed to fully establish an adaptable, common toolkit.

  1. Nonstate Actors and the Open Border Policy: The Border Security Case Study of Nepal and India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Cross-Border Labour Mobility,” 9. 265 Jaroslaw Brezezinksi, “Poland in the European Union -Experiences First Year of Membership,” 2005, accessed... Labour Mobility,” 9. 267 Brzezinski, “Poland in the European Union ,” 47. 268 Ibid., 46. 66 expansion in air transport. Jaroslaw Brzezinski, a...a. Joining the European Union ..................................................60 6. Crime

  2. Effect of different non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, aspirin, nimesulide and celecoxib on the disaccharide hydrolases and histoarchitecture of the rat intestinal brush border membrane Efecto de diferentes fármacos anti-inflamatorios no esteroideos, aspirina, nimesulida y celecoxib, sobre las hidrolasas de disacárido y la histo-arquitectura de la membrana del borde en cepillo intestinal de la rata

    OpenAIRE

    N. Sood; N. Kaushal; S. N. Sanyal

    2008-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are known to cause gastrointestinal damage. New anti-inflammatory drugs have been developed in an attemptto improve their gastrointestinal side effect profile which however failed to do so. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to compare the effect of three different NSAIDs, aspirin, nimesulide and celecoxib on the intestinal brush border membrane (BBM) marker enzymes and correlate these alterations to the histoarchtecture of the int...

  3. Safe safekeeping: Protection for peace keepers / border control

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ahmed, R

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available for Peace Keepers / Border Control 4th Biennial Conference Rayeesa Ahmed 10 October 2012 Outline ? Introduction ? Landward Sciences competency areas ? Border safeguarding: ? Mobility packages ? Protection against dangerous animals ? Camouflage... and equipment against both existing and emerging threats, the threats must be researched and new protection concepts devised. ? CSIR 2012 Slide 4 Outline ? Introduction ? Landward Sciences key competency areas ? Border safeguarding: ? Mobility packages...

  4. European Union and the Smart Borders Package: A Critical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Valkama, Tuuli

    2017-01-01

    The European Commission suggested in 2008 that the EU border management should take a step forward to combat organised crime and illegal immigration. In 2013 the European Commission published its legislative proposal on the European Smart Borders package for automated border controls. The legislative proposal included three regulations: (1) a proposal to establish the Entry/Exit System that would automatically alert the authorities if a visa holder has exceed his/her stay; (2) a proposal...

  5. (AJST) AN EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and a compacted mixture of DPR + triple superphosphate + urea + potassium chloride (DTUK) with half of phosphorus from DPR and ... DPR or compacting DPR with TSP, urea, and KCl. INTRODUCTION. The main phosphate ...... evaluation of elemental sulfur and gypsum for flooded rice. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 51:120-123.

  6. Evaluating aid effectiveness in the aggregate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Hansen, Henrik

    The purpose of the present Evaluation Study is to discuss the methodological problems researchers are facing in gauging the impact of aid on economic growth. The discussion is nontechnical and aimed at an audience without much prior knowledge in the fields of macroeconomics and econometrics....

  7. Seismicity at Jalisco-Nayarit Border, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutz, M.; Nunez-Cornu, F.; Camarena, M.; Trejo, E.; Reyes-Davila, G.; Suarez-Plasencia, C.

    2003-12-01

    Since 2002 a regional seismic network from Jalisco Civil Defense and University of Guadalalajara is monitoring seismicity at the northwest border of Jalisco block. With the installation of a seismic station on Ceboruco Volcano, by Nayarit Civil Defense, coverage of the network extends to east. Ceboruco Volcano is located on the Tepic-Zacoalco graben, the east border of Jalisco block, this allow us to begin to monitoring this area. The zone of Bahia de Banderas, between the north coast of Jalisco and south coast of Nayarit, probably on a tectonic triple point, is a region of high seismic potential. Activ tectonic structures and clusters in the zone of El Tuito and the Dam Cajon de Pe¤as have been identified. The seismicity in the north area of the bay is low, meanwhile in the south, where the bay is deeper, the seismicity level is higher with an East-West tendency. At the east, the Amatlan de Ca¤as-Ameca zone presents continue activity, here have been possible to locate events with local magnitude between 2 and 4. Tectonovolcanic events registred at Ceboruco station presents waveform with scattering. The seismic distribution of the coast of Jalisco shows parallel alignments to the trench throughout al the coast. Other perpendicular alignments to the coastline show active morphologic structures within the Jalisco block related to the subduction of the Rivera plate under the Jalisco block.

  8. First Philosophy in the Border Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viggo Rossvaer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article will be devoted to such problems as a idea of subsidiarity, a cosmopolitan right and a visitor figure in context and interpretation of ancient and modern philosophy. The article deals with the concept of subsidiarity which is taken as a point of departure for the discipline of borderology, an academic study with Kantian roots. Borderology, according to the principle of subsidiarity, can present as a new field of investigation which invites philosophers and social scientists to replace a “top down” with a “bottom up” procedure. The figure of the visitor is close linked with the experience of subsidiarity which means the freedom and initiative below the level of State. In Immanuel Kant’s strategy for perpetual peace, the figure of the visitor launches a critique of a tendency to self-aggrandizement, characteristic of the modern State and thereby a defense of the political independence of local border regions. The visitor also invites us to see, think and work to liberate our own subjectivity from false voices of sovereignty. Kant articulates the offer of the visitor by bringing in the term Verkehr. Using Kant scholar Otfried Höffe,s methodology we show how idea of subsidiarity is overlooked in international political theory, explain some constitutive principles of borderology, from which is more important is the methodological principle of an intercultural discourse and presents borderology as an anti-Huntingtonian model for border studies.

  9. Regional trade and border markets between Niger, Benin and Nigeria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier; Tenikué, Michel; Kuepié, Mathias

    The objective of this methodological paper is to identify a number of products or sectors whose trade is relevant for border regions in West Africa. Focusing on Niger, Benin and Nigeria, we start with contextualising the importance of border markets by quantifying the changes in the relative values...... and volumes of imports and exports passing through border posts. In a second step, we determine which are the products most commonly found among the imports and exports of the border posts. The study shows that seven products are recognised as being heavily imported, subject to significant trade from large...

  10. "Crossing Borders" ja valmimislootuses Eesti Muusika- ja Teatriakadeemia / Malle Maltis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Maltis, Malle, 1977-

    2010-01-01

    19. - 29. augustini EMTAs toimunud rahvusvahelisest suvekursusest "Crossing Borders in Interpretation of Classical Music and Jazz". Kooli välissuhete prorektor sellest projektist ja muusikaakadeemia juurdeehitusest

  11. Integrated optical components based on planar photonic crystal waveguides with perturbed border holes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemi, Tapio; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Harpøth, Anders

    2005-01-01

    In this work, we have experimentally and by simulations investigated the effect of making small perturbations of the size of the border holes adjacent to the planar photonic crystal waveguide (PCW). The waveguide is created by removing one row of holes in the nearest-neighbour direction of air ho...

  12. What We Know about School Counseling: A Reaction to Borders and Drury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerler, Edwin R., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Responds to previous article by Borders and Drury (1992) on effectiveness of school counseling programs by focusing on conclusions that school counseling interventions have substantial impact on students' educational and personal development and that individual and small-group counseling, classroom guidance, and consultation activities seem to…

  13. Performance Assessment for California Teachers and English-Language Arts Candidates in a Rural Border Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Lasisi

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the appropriateness of the Performance Assessment for California Teachers (PACT) as an instrument of assessing English-language arts (ELA) teacher candidates' effectiveness in a rural border community. Eight -candidates participated in the study. The findings call into question the adequacy of PACT to assess the candidates'…

  14. Professional Development for Cross-Border Managers: New Growth Opportunities for Executive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalberg, Ernest J.

    2013-01-01

    The need of business enterprises for professionals trained for the challenges of cross-border assignments will increase exponentially through the decade. Business schools will be hard pressed to deliver programs with the scope, scale, and effectiveness necessary to address the unique competencies required for cross-cultural understanding and…

  15. Cross-Border Mergers and Acquisitions: The Role of Private Equity Firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Humphery-Jenner, M.; Sautner, Z.; Suchard, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    We study the role of private equity firms in cross-border mergers and acquisitions. We find that private equity-owned firms are more likely to become targets in crossborder M&A transactions. This effect is particularly strong in transactions where the target or its shareholders actively reach out

  16. Facilitating cultural border crossing in urban secondary science classrooms: A study of inservice teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Anna Karina

    Research acknowledges that if students are to be successful science, they must learn to navigate and cross cultural borders that exist between their own cultures and the subculture of science. This dissertation utilized a mixed methods approach to explore how inservice science teachers working in urban schools construct their ideas of and apply the concepts about the culture of science and cultural border crossing as relevant to the teaching and learning of science. The study used the lenses of cultural capital, social constructivism, and cultural congruency in the design and analysis of each of the three phases of data collection. Phase I identified the perspectives of six inservice science teachers on science culture, cultural border crossing, and which border crossing methods, if any, they used during science teaching. Phase II took a dialectical approach as the teachers read about science culture and cultural border crossing during three informal professional learning community meetings. This phase explored how teachers constructed their understanding of cultural border crossing and how the concept applied to the teaching and learning of science. Phase III evaluated how teachers' perspectives changed from Phase I. In addition, classroom observations were used to determine whether teachers' practices in their science classrooms changed from Phase I to Phase III. All three phases collected data through qualitative (i.e., interviews, classroom observations, and surveys) and quantitative (Likert items) means. The findings indicated that teachers found great value in learning about the culture of science and cultural border crossing as it pertained to their teaching methods. This was not only evidenced by their interviews and surveys, but also in the methods they used in their classrooms. Final conclusions included how the use of student capital resources (prior experiences, understandings and knowledge, ideas an interests, and personal beliefs), if supported by

  17. Evaluating Collaboration for Effectiveness: Conceptualization and Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Lydia I.; Brock, Donna-Jean P.; Savla, Jyoti

    2015-01-01

    Although collaboration is recognized as an effective means to address multifaceted community issues, successful collaboration is difficult to achieve and failure is prevalent. To effectively collaborate, collaborators must recognize the strengths and weaknesses within their own efforts. Using Mattessich and colleagues' work as a springboard, a…

  18. School in the border municipalities of Eastern Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifunović Vesna S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Border municipalities in eastern Serbia have peripheral position in relation to the central state territory: geographical distance from the administrative, political, economic and cultural center shaping their overall social development, which is generally far behind the devel­opment of other parts of Serbia. At various stages of transition, starting from the nineties to the present, the border municipalities were, it seems, more exposed to the negative effects of the neoliberal development strategy: there was a change of ownership of industry, as well as a deindustrialization, which led to significant reduction of the workforce. The devastation of the economies in these areas has intensified negative demographic processes in the border municipalities of Eastern Serbia with the onset of the economic crisis in the eighties and the subsequent processes there caused: (a depopulation (population between census periods from 1991 to 2011 fell by more than 20% of the territory of Bor district, (b reduction in the birth rate, which for decades was showing negative trends (eg. natural growth rate in the Negotin krajina, according to the Census of 2011, amounts to -6.7 % annually (v migration of the young, working population (Census 2011 shows that nearly one-quarter of the economically active population of the Bor district 'work abroad', ie. employment is found in western European countries, they educate their own children there and, apparently, do not intend to return to the place of birth. The devastation of the economy leads to a legitimate social devastation and collapse of culture (Mitrović, 2009 and education. The main parameter to be monitored in the new neoliberal strategies of development is economic growth, which points to the direction of changes in macroeconomic processes, but not to the improvement of the quality of life of people who participate in these processes. The achieved rate of economic growth does not automatically provide

  19. EVALUATING EFFECTIVENESS OF MOBILE BROWSER SECURITY WARNINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronak Shah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This work precisely evaluates whether browser security warnings are as ineffective as proposed by popular sentiments and past writings. This research used different kinds of Android mobile browsers as well as desktop browsers to evaluate security warnings. Security experts and developers should give emphasis on making a user aware of security warnings and should not neglect aim of communicating this to users. Security experts and system architects should emphasis the goal of communicating security information to end users. In most of the browsers, security warnings are not emphasized, and browsers simply do not show warnings, or there are a number of ways to hide those warnings of malicious sites. This work precisely finds that how inconsistent browsers really are in prompting security warnings. In particular, majority of the modern mobile web browsers are vulnerable to these security threats. We find inconsistency in SSL warnings among web browsers. Based on this work, we make recommendations for warning designers and researchers.

  20. On the Effective Evaluation of TCP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allman, Mark; Falk, Aaron

    2000-01-01

    Understanding the performance of the Internet's Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is important because it is the dominant protocol used in the Internet today. Various testing methods exist to evaluate TCP performance, however all have pitfalls an that need to be understood prior to obtaining useful results. Simulating TCP is difficult because of the wide range of variables, environments, and implementations available. Testing TCP modifications in the global Internet may not be the answer either: testing new protocols on real networks endangers other people's traffic and, if not done correctly, may also yield inaccurate or misleading results. In order for TCP research to be independently evaluated in the Internet research community there is a set of questions that researchers should try to answer. This paper attempts to list some of those questions and make recommendations as to how TCP testing can be structured to be provide useful answers.

  1. Effectiveness evaluation of flood defence structures in different geomorphological contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Stefano; Pazzi, Veronica; Fanti, Riccardo

    2017-04-01

    The flood risk in different geomorphological contexts of two less developed countries are investigated in order to evaluate the efficacy of the existing flood defence structures. In particular, a recent floodplain crossed by a wide meandering river and a narrow mountain valley flowed by creek with a torrential regime have been chosen for such analysis in North Albania and central Mexico, respectively. Both areas have been affected by disastrous floods in past years with considerable damages to properties and people. Some safety countermeasures have been performed over time, even if in a non-systematic way. For this reason, the current inclination to flood risk was assessed by means of a freeware software designed to perform one-dimensional (1D) hydraulic modelling for a full network of natural and anthropic channels (HEC-RAS software by Hydrologic Engineering Center River Analysis System). This new analyses take into account: i) the natural morphological variability along the river path, ii) the anthropic interventions on the fluvial dynamics, iii) the landscape appearance after the soil exploitation in the past years, and iv) all the changes induced by an exceeded informal urbanization. The reconstruction of the river and bordering areas geometric data was carried out according to the physical characteristics of the local environment: a bathymetric survey and near-river DGPS acquisitions for the open spaces of the Albanian floodplain, and traditional topographic methods for the highly vegetated Mexican valley. In both cases, the results show that the existing works are, on their own, poorly efficient in containing the predictable floods. Albanians levees seem underdimensioned, while the channelling works are too narrow to contain large amounts of water and solid transport as typical of the Mexican study area. Evidently, a new territorial planning is required in these areas, and some projects are now in place. However, it would be desirable that local authorities

  2. Evaluate the Effectiveness of Infant Vaccination in Adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Dadbinpoor

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Viral hepatitis is one of the causes of premature death in world peoples, according to WHO reports, five percentage of people are carrier, lethal from this disease is 1%, therefore about 1-1.5 million people each year die from complications of this disease. This disease varies from an acute to chronic illness. The aim of this study was to determine the level of anti-HBs Ag (hepatitis B surface antigen in vaccinated children that born in Abarkouh city in 1992 in order to evaluation of the efficacy childhood hepatitis B vaccination in adults . Materials and Methods: We measured anti-HBs Ag concentration in blood sera of 102 adult peoples than 600 new born children that vaccinated in 1992. Five milliliters (5ml of blood sample was taken from 102 cases (33 male and 69 female. Results: All blood samples were analyzed for anti-HBs Ag by ELISA method. 94 out of 102 samples (92.2% showed anti-HBs Ag concentrations higher than 30 Iu/ml (positive and, 4 out of 102 samples (3.9% showed anti-HBs Ag concentrations less than 10 Iu/ml (negative, 4 out of 102 samples (3.9% showed anti-HBs Ag concentrations between 10-30 Iu/ml (border line considered immune after 20 year after the third dose of the vaccination. Non signifi-cant association in males and females (93.9% vs.97.1% (P=0.390, df= 1, (2=.0.555 Conclusion: our results reinforce the importance of hepatitis B vaccine in new born and efficacy of HBV vaccination in Abarkuh (Yazd province is in the WHO standards.

  3. Abrupt skin lesion border cutoff measurement for malignancy detection in dermoscopy images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Sertan; Bayraktar, Mustafa; Kockara, Sinan; Mete, Mutlu; Halic, Tansel; Field, Halle E; Wong, Henry K

    2016-10-06

    Automated skin lesion border examination and analysis techniques have become an important field of research for distinguishing malignant pigmented lesions from benign lesions. An abrupt pigment pattern cutoff at the periphery of a skin lesion is one of the most important dermoscopic features for detection of neoplastic behavior. In current clinical setting, the lesion is divided into a virtual pie with eight sections. Each section is examined by a dermatologist for abrupt cutoff and scored accordingly, which can be tedious and subjective. This study introduces a novel approach to objectively quantify abruptness of pigment patterns along the lesion periphery. In the proposed approach, first, the skin lesion border is detected by the density based lesion border detection method. Second, the detected border is gradually scaled through vector operations. Then, along gradually scaled borders, pigment pattern homogeneities are calculated at different scales. Through this process, statistical texture features are extracted. Moreover, different color spaces are examined for the efficacy of texture analysis. The proposed method has been tested and validated on 100 (31 melanoma, 69 benign) dermoscopy images. Analyzed results indicate that proposed method is efficient on malignancy detection. More specifically, we obtained specificity of 0.96 and sensitivity of 0.86 for malignancy detection in a certain color space. The F-measure, harmonic mean of recall and precision, of the framework is reported as 0.87. The use of texture homogeneity along the periphery of the lesion border is an effective method to detect malignancy of the skin lesion in dermoscopy images. Among different color spaces tested, RGB color space's blue color channel is the most informative color channel to detect malignancy for skin lesions. That is followed by YCbCr color spaces Cr channel, and Cr is closely followed by the green color channel of RGB color space.

  4. Corporate governance effectiveness evaluation at an enterprise

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Korniichuk A.А

    2017-01-01

    ... «corporate governance» as a system of norms, rules, methods, principles and modern management tools, the use of which provides effective functioning of an enterprise and the balance of the stakeholder...

  5. Who’s Who at the Border? A rights-based approach to identifying human trafficking at international borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marika McAdam

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available International borders are widely touted as bastions in the fight against trafficking in persons. This article acknowledges the important role border officials play in preventing human trafficking, but calls for expectations to be tempered by deference to the conceptual complexity of cross-border trafficking and the migration processes involved. The fact that many trafficked victims begin their journeys as irregular or smuggled migrants highlights the challenge posed to border officials in identifying trafficked persons among the people they encounter. Indicators of trafficking generally relate to the exploitation phase, leaving border officials with little guidance as to how persons vulnerable to trafficking can be accurately identified before any exploitation has occurred. Ultimately, this paper advocates a pragmatic rights-based approach in designating anti-trafficking functions to border officials. A rights-based approach to border control acknowledges the core work of border officials as being to uphold border integrity, while ensuring that their performance of this role does not jeopardise the rights of those they intercept nor result in missed opportunities for specialists to identify trafficked persons and other vulnerable people among them.

  6. Post-translational suppression of expression of intestinal brush border enzymes by fructose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M

    1989-01-01

    The two major dietary sugars, fructose and sucrose, were found to suppress effectively the biosynthetic renewal of brush border enzymes in the gut. When studied in cultured explants of pig small intestine mucosa, 10-50 mM concentrations of fructose completely prevented the expression of mature am...... cotranslational glycosylation that in turn triggers a rapid proteolytic breakdown. Our findings suggest that renewal of digestive brush border enzymes is transiently suppressed during intake of fructose- or sucrose-rich meals.......The two major dietary sugars, fructose and sucrose, were found to suppress effectively the biosynthetic renewal of brush border enzymes in the gut. When studied in cultured explants of pig small intestine mucosa, 10-50 mM concentrations of fructose completely prevented the expression of mature...... aminopeptidase N and severely reduced that of sucrase-isomaltase. The instantly occurring and reversible suppressive effect manifested itself as a leupeptin-sensitive degradation of newly synthesized brush border enzymes. The likely mechanism of action of the dietary sugar is by causing an abnormal...

  7. [To exactly evaluate the treatment effect of strabismus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qun

    2005-07-01

    To analyze the reason of the big difference of the healing rate of strabismus surgery reported in the literature in China. In the evaluation of the effect of the strabismus treatment, analyzer we should strictly master the evaluation criteria, especially the criteria for evaluating sentience state and movement. The criteria for evaluating the healing rate for the strabismus with high incidence should be refined, including consideration of the patient's satisfaction.

  8. Evaluating the effectiveness of intercultural teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    With globalization and major immigration flows, intercultural teaching encounters are likely to increase, along with the need to assure intercultural teaching effectiveness.Thus, the purpose of this article is to present a conceptual framework for nurse educators to consider when anticipating an intercultural teaching experience. Kirkpatrick's and Bushnell's models provide a basis for the conceptual framework. Major concepts of the model include input, process, output, and outcome.The model may possibly be used to guide future research to determine which variables are most influential in explaining intercultural teaching effectiveness.

  9. STUDY REGARDING OVER BORDERS TOURISM AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP CULTURE IN THE DOMAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreş Solomia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was regarded as a qualitative research that measures entrepreneurship tendencies of the two regions from the border rural environment, initiation and management measures of business in the rural environment. The study regarding entrepreneurship education knowledge of target member groups from the partner border communities from Caras-Severin and Serbia has as main objective the evaluating of entrepreneurship knowledge of communities from the two regions of the rural environment, both with a strong touristic and cultural potential, for the purpose of rebirth of border socio-economical activities and the improvement of life quality by developing rural tourism. The objective desired from this study were: a quantitative and qualitative of information level gained by the members of the target groups regarding the initiation and development of business in tourism; the establishing of an entrepreneur profile for the respondents; the identification of the activity domain with a high potential of economical exploitation. Starting from the premises that only a correct evaluation and a detailed information of these aspects will determine the fact that the results of the research will represent the basis of the elaborati2ng of a development strategy for the rural tourism for the border rural communities, the research team, to which I was also a member of, has used the method of investigation and questionnaires as useful instruments in the development of the activities of the Centre for Border Rural Tourism. These instruments have contributed to the knowledge and measuring of present dimensions from the two dimensions, qualitative and quantitative, of the level of basic entrepreneurship knowledge in order to stimulate in the future the inhabitants’ involvment in the development of tourism activities and of economical-social ones.

  10. Investigating Halo and Ceiling Effects in Student Evaluations of Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Jared W.; English, Taylor; Irons, Jessica; Henslee, Amber M.

    2013-01-01

    Many measurement biases affect student evaluations of instruction (SEIs). However, two have been relatively understudied: halo effects and ceiling/floor effects. This study examined these effects in two ways. To examine the halo effect, using a videotaped lecture, we manipulated specific teacher behaviors to be "good" or "bad"…

  11. Evaluation of gamma irradiation effect and Pseudomonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antagonistic effect of Pseudomonas fluorescens and influence of gamma irradiation on the development of Penicillium expansum, the causal agent of postharvest disease on apple fruit was studied. P. fluorescens was originally isolated from rhizosphere of the apple trees. Suspension of P. fluorescens and P. expansum ...

  12. Ritalin Side Effects: Placebo Controlled Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1993-01-01

    The frequency of side effects of Ritalin was examined in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over trial in 206 children aged 5 through 15 years with ADHD at the Marshfield Clinic and Research Foundation, Marshfield, WI.

  13. Tax avoidance with cross-border hybrid instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    The rules demarcating debt and equity for tax purposes differ between countries, hence the possibility that a hybrid financial instrument is treated as equity in one country and debt in another. This may create a scope for tax avoidance by allowing firms that invest in foreign countries to combine...... tax deductible interest expenses in the host country and tax favored dividend income in the home country. In this paper, we first develop a formal model of hybrid instruments and show that, for a given pair of countries, firms in at least one country and sometimes in both can avoid taxes on investment...... in the other country with a cross-border hybrid instrument. We then investigate why countries tend to allow the use of hybrid instruments for tax avoidance and show that even if effective anti-avoidance rules are available, there exists a global policy equilibrium in which no country uses such rules...

  14. The shape of soap films and Plateau borders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortes, M A [Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais and Instituto de Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais e SuperfIcies, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais, P-1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Teixeira, P I C [Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa Rua Conselheiro EmIdio Navarro 1, P-1950-062 Lisbon (Portugal); Deus, A M [Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais and Instituto de Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais e SuperfIcies, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais, P-1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2007-06-20

    We have calculated the shapes of flat liquid films, and of the transition region to the associated Plateau borders (PBs), by integrating the Laplace equation with a position-dependent surface tension {gamma}(x), where 2x is the local film thickness. We discuss films in either zero or non-zero gravity, using standard {gamma}(x) potentials for the interaction between the two bounding surfaces. We have investigated the effects of the film flatness, liquid underpressure, and gravity on the shape of films and their PBs. Films may exhibit 'humps' and/or 'dips' associated with inflection points and minima of the film thickness. Finally, we propose an asymptotic analytical solution for the film width profile.

  15. The shape of soap films and Plateau borders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, M A; Teixeira, P I C; Deus, A M

    2007-06-20

    We have calculated the shapes of flat liquid films, and of the transition region to the associated Plateau borders (PBs), by integrating the Laplace equation with a position-dependent surface tension γ(x), where 2x is the local film thickness. We discuss films in either zero or non-zero gravity, using standard γ(x) potentials for the interaction between the two bounding surfaces. We have investigated the effects of the film flatness, liquid underpressure, and gravity on the shape of films and their PBs. Films may exhibit 'humps' and/or 'dips' associated with inflection points and minima of the film thickness. Finally, we propose an asymptotic analytical solution for the film width profile.

  16. [Health on the borders: access to and demands on the Brazilian National Health System by foreigners and non-resident Brazilians in cities along the border with MERCOSUR countries from the perspective of municipal health secretaries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanella, Ligia; Guimarães, Luisa; Nogueira, Vera Maria Ribeiro; Lobato, Lenaura de Vasconcelos Costa; Damacena, Giseli Nogueira

    2007-01-01

    In the context of forming common markets, border areas require special attention, since they anticipate the effects of integration processes. Along borders, different political, monetary, security, and social systems coexist; the intensification of flows resulting from integration raises challenges for the health systems, requiring specific policies focused on guaranteeing the right to health. This article presents the results of a study on the conditions for access to (and demands for) health services in the MERCOSUR border cities. A survey was performed with municipal health secretaries in the 69 Brazilian cities in the States of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Paraná, and Mato Grosso do Sul that border on the other MERCOSUR countries. The study attempted to identify the services demanded by the border population, mechanisms used for access, flows between services and systems, response strategies, and local agreements. Initiatives for cooperation between Brazilian and foreign local administrators were identified in nearly half of the municipalities and can orient the formulation of guidelines for border situations, allowing improvement in comprehensive access to health care.

  17. Sustainable Development Aspects in Cross-Border Cooperation Programmes: The Case of Macedonia and Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klodjan Seferaj

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The cross-border area between Albania and Macedonia can be considered as a region with agrarian or industrial-agrarian economy, although the overall picture should take into account significant contrasts within the region, between the two countries, but also between the southern and northern part, and between mountainous areas and lowlands. Agriculture, agribusiness, light industry, mining, energy production and tourism are the main economic sectors, which also have the biggest potential in the cross-border region. Both countries are gaining experience in EU funded cross-border cooperation programmes with other neighbouring countries and with each other. The scope of the research is the evaluation and analysis of the Integrated Pre-accession Assistance (IPA Cross-border Cooperation (CBC Programme Macedonia-Albania 2007-2013 and its sustainable development aspects. The research is trying to assess the impact of the programme since its start in 2007 and the impact of the implemented grants on the sustainable development. The importance of the sustainable development aspect is recognized and is formally included into various national strategic documents, however implementation is often problematic and sustainability aspects need to be examined on a more concrete level. The methodology used was qualitative with research tools such as desk studies of relevant program documentation, strategic and planning documentation and other relevant published materials. The desk review considered well over 40 documents relevant to the program, most of which were shared by the Ministry of European Integration (MoEI and other actors.

  18. Geothermal resources in the northwestern border

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eibenschutz, J.

    1982-10-01

    The Valley of Mexicali, located in one of the rifting zones of the world, has been assessed to contain a potential of between 850 and 1700 MW of electric capacity with present technology. Cerro Prieto, one of the areas in the valley, has a present operating capacity of 180 MW. Two more plants with a capacity of 220 MW each are being built for operation in 1983 and 1984 respectively. Aside from the electricity producing application of geothermal fluids, a process has been developed for the production of potassium chloride by evaporating the brine in a solar pond and further crystallizing the residues. Some processes are also being developed to use the hot water in hydroponics, aqua culture, etc. Collaboration with bordering bodies involved in geothermal energy has been very fruitful for the exchange of technical information. Agreements have been signed with San Diego Gas and Electric Company and Southern California Edison for the export of a total capacity of 275 MW.

  19. European Enlargement Across Rounds and Beyond Borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enlargement has been an almost constant part of European integration history – going from an improvised exercise to the EU’s most developed foreign policy tool. However, neither the longevity nor the complexity of enlargement has been properly historicised. European Enlargement across Rounds...... and Beyond Borders offers three interdisciplinary, innovative, and indeed radical, new ways of understanding and analysing EC/EU enlargements: first, tracing Longue Durée developments; second, investigating enlargement Beyond the Road to Membership; and third, exploring the Entangled Exchanges and synergies...... between the EC/EU and its outside. This edited volume will provide fresh perspectives on enlargement as one of the defining processes in Europe in the second half of the 20th century: How are we to understand enlargement as a policy? How has it changed the EU? What is the historical role of the British...

  20. Globalization and Cross-Border Labor Organizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Armbruster

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The globalization of the world economy has opened up new possibilities for cross-border labor organizing. In fact, several U.S. unions are working together with unions from Mexico, Honduras, Guatemala, the Dominican Republic, Japan, South Korea, and many European nations. For example, over the last several years, UNITE (Union of Needletrades, Industrial, and Textile Employees, the AFL-CIO, and the international garment workers trade secretariat have worked directly with maquiladora workers in Honduras and the Dominican Republic. These efforts led to the formation of several labor unions and the first contracts ever negotiated in the maquiladoras in the Dominican Republic. In addition, labor rights and solidarity organizations, like the Campaign for Labor Rights, Witness for Peace, and the US/Guatemala Labor Education Project (US/GLEP, along with many other groups, have also played key roles in the formation of maquiladora unions in Nicaragua and Guatemala.

  1. A Practical Spanish Grammar for Border Patrol Officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Border Patrol Academy, El Paso, TX.

    Designed to be used in the Spanish training program for probationary officers at the Border Patrol Academy in El Paso, Texas, this revised 21-lesson traditional grammar text includes special features that make it pertinent to the job of a patrol inspector in the Mexican border area. An extensive appendix is comprised of exercise translations,…

  2. Geology of the border region between Coahuila and Zacatecas, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vloten, van Roger

    1954-01-01

    The border region between Coahuila and Zacatecas is part of the mountainous country south of Parras in northeastern Mexico. It includes a thickness of about 2,600 meters of Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks that were deposited along the northern border of the Mexican geosyncline along the southern

  3. Communicative challenges of interpreting in cross-border ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article presents some of the challenges encountered by court interpreters who interpret in cross-border languages, i.e. languages spoken across the borders of two neighbouring countries. Data used in the article were collected from participants by adopting a qualitative approach, based on the observation of courtroom ...

  4. Cross-Border Banking in Europe : What's Next?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, F.; Beck, T.H.L.; Carletti, E.; Lane, P.; Schoenmaker, D.; Wagner, W.B.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the role of banks in cross-border finance has become an urgent priority. Cross-border banks have played a central role in the dynamics of the global crisis of 2007-2009. First, European banks had a surprisingly large exposure to the US securitised asset markets, which arose to a

  5. Cross-border insolvencies as a global economic problem | Stander ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a result of the continuing expansion of international trade and investment, there has been an increase in the occurrence of cross-border insolvencies. National insolvency laws have not kept pace with the trend, and there is a need to develop an efficient and fair system for the administration of cross-border insolvencies.

  6. The Green Room: How Border Walls Affect Wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckrich, Amanda

    2017-01-01

    The proposed wall along the U.S.-Mexico border would significantly affect wildlife. Most animals cannot get past walls that are hundreds of miles long and many meters tall. Some species along parts of the border where a wall already exists, such as jaguars and ocelots, suffer from dwindling populations and difficulty finding mates. This column…

  7. The National Guard on the Southwest Border: Defining The Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    The National Guard On The Southwest Border: Defining The Role by Colonel Tim Lawson United States Army National Guard...To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER The National Guard On The Southwest Border: Defining The Role 5b. GRANT NUMBER...for Strategic Leadership of the U.S. Army War College Homeland Defense and Security Issues Group 9. SPONSORING

  8. Infiltrating to Win: The Conduct of Border Denial Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-04

    declared anyone found within the restricted zones hostile. Friendly population buffers involved screening and removing all guerrilla supporters and...terrain was advantageous to infiltrators. The difficulty to secure border regions intensified if adjacent states were weak, developing or hostile to...region facilitated infiltration into South Vietnam because of mountainous terrain, double canopy jungle, and opportunistic international border seams. The

  9. Cross border mobility of nurse educators: Case studies from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study was to raise awareness on cross border mobility of nurse educators and draw on Foucault's analysis to conceptualise the means by which cross border migration of nurse educators could be revisited. A case study design of seven nurse educators who had migrated and came back to their countries ...

  10. 15 CFR 30.17 - Customs and Border Protection regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Customs and Border Protection regulations. 30.17 Section 30.17 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... Requirements § 30.17 Customs and Border Protection regulations. Refer to the DHS's CBP regulations, 19 CFR 192...

  11. 75 FR 70937 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-19

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Accreditation and Approval of Robinson International (USA) Inc., as a Commercial Gauger and Laboratory AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of... been approved to gauge and accredited to test petroleum and petroleum products for customs purposes, in...

  12. 77 FR 38076 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Accreditation and Approval of SGS North America, Inc., as a Commercial Gauger and Laboratory AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security... petroleum and petroleum products, organic chemicals and vegetable oils for customs purposes, in accordance...

  13. 76 FR 65207 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Notice of Cancellation of Customs Broker Licenses AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, U.S. Department of Homeland Security. ACTION: General notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to section 641 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended, (19 U.S.C. 1641) and the U.S. Customs and...

  14. Cross border reproductive care in six European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Mouzon, J; Pennings, G; Ferraretti, A P

    2010-01-01

    The quantity and the reasons for seeking cross border reproductive care are unknown. The present article provides a picture of this activity in six selected European countries receiving patients.......The quantity and the reasons for seeking cross border reproductive care are unknown. The present article provides a picture of this activity in six selected European countries receiving patients....

  15. Cross-border firing and injury patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nital Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cross-border firing are increasingly being common in the modern era. The injuries resulting from these low intensity conflicts are a source of anxiety among treating physicians and their respective governments. The provisions are required to minimise the suffering of the victims viz. Mode of injuries, mortality patterns, adequacy of treatment at pre-hospital and tertiary care hospital and provisions to decrease morbidity and mortality for the people living in these areas. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted in GMCH, Jammu who suffered injuries due to cross border firing in the month of October, 2014. 68 patients were reported in the causality wing. All the patients were referred from level 2 trauma centre. There were 51 males and 17 females out of which 5 were children. The cause of injury, involvement of organ system, cause of mortality and morbidity and loopholes in prehospital management were identified. Results: Sharpnel were the most common cause of injury followed by indirect trauma. The common cause of mortality was abdominal and thoracic injuries. There were 4 deaths at hospital 2 of which were brought dead and 2 died during the course of treatment. There were twenty patients with extremity injuries, fourteen with chest trauma, eleven with abdomen including parineal injuries, three with head injuries, eight with ENT injuries, three with eye injuries and nine with splinters in the back out of which two were in the spinal canal. Conclusion: Prehospital stabilisation, early transport, in-transit resuscitation, immediate surgery if required and implementation of triage model and ATLS protocol has been the key to reduce mortality and morbidity.

  16. Alcohol consumption and binge drinking among U.S.-Mexico border and non-border Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Raul; Mills, Britain; Vaeth, Patrice A C

    2012-04-01

    This paper examines differences in drinking and binge drinking between Mexican Americans living along the U.S.-Mexico border and those living in 2 metropolitan areas away from the border (Houston, Texas and Los Angeles, California). Respondents in the non-border area (Houston and Los Angeles) constitute a multistage probability sample (N = 1,288), who were interviewed as part of the 2006 Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey (HABLAS). Respondents in the border area (N = 1,307) constitute a household probability sample of Mexican Americans living on the U.S.-Mexico border. In both surveys, data were collected during computer-assisted interviews conducted in respondents' homes. The HABLAS and the border sample response rates were 76 and 67%, respectively. There were no differences between border and non-border Mexican American men in the proportion of drinkers, the proportion who binge drink at least once a year, and volume of alcohol consumption. However, within each location, there were significant differences in drinking by age, indicating that younger men drank more than men who were older. Border women showed significant differences across age-groups in the proportion of drinkers, in binge drinking, and volume of alcohol consumption, which were not seen among non-border women. Women's drinking seems to be more affected than men's by their residence on or off the U.S.-Mexico border. This is seen most clearly among young women 18 to 29 years old, and it is associated with an increased proportion of drinkers, a higher volume of drinking, and an increased proportion of women who report binge drinking. Increased drinking in this group of younger women seems to be associated with drinking in Mexico. Copyright © 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  17. Cross-Border Brides: Vietnamese Wives, Chinese Husbands in a Border-Area Fishing Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyễn Thị Phương Châm

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article traces the lives of a group of Vietnamese women driven by poverty and loss of marriageability to cross the border into China to marry men from the fishing village of Wanwei. Wanwei’s location, only 25 kilometers from the border with Vietnam, enables these women to make fairly regular trips back to their native villages to visit their birth families. Yet, despite the fact that they now live in a designated Jing (ethnic Vietnamese village, where a significant proportion of the population shares their ethnicity, their illegal residential status and recent arrival excludes them from the community of villagers who claim descent from Vietnamese immigrants in the sixteenth century. Despite the hardships these women face as a result of continuing poverty, lack of emotional intimacy in their marriages, and marginal social status, few see themselves as victims of human trafficking. Instead, most take pride in their agency and achievements.

  18. Rethinking Borders in Japan: Internal, Cultural, and Geopolitical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingyu Oh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Christopher Bondy. Voice, Silence, and Self: Negotiations of Buraku Identity in Contemporary Japan. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2015. 184 pp. $40 (cloth. Koichi Iwabuchi. Resilient Borders and Cultural Diversity. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2015. 137 pp. $75 (cloth/e-book. Akihiro Iwashita. Japan’s Border Issues: Pitfalls and Prospects. New York: Routledge, 2016. 144 pp. $160 (cloth. The books reviewed here address three different borders in present-day Japanese society: internal, cultural, and geopolitical. It is rare for three different authors to concurrently publish monographs on Japanese borders from three different angles. This may be a sign of increasing consciousness within Japan on the issues of diversity, multiethnicity, old and new forms of discrimination, and continuing border conflicts with neighboring countries...

  19. Does smoke cross the border? Cigarette tax avoidance in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Lakhdar, Christian; Vaillant, Nicolas Gérard; Wolff, François-Charles

    2016-12-01

    This paper examines the impact on cigarette sales of the successive increases in cigarette prices in France from 2002 to 2004. Since the price differential between France and neighboring countries increased over the period in question, cross-border purchases became more financially attractive for smokers living near borders. Results from difference-in-differences estimates indicate that the decrease in cigarette sales observed in French border departments was around 20 % higher from 2004 to 2007 compared to non-border departments. The loss of fiscal revenue due to cross-border shopping since the tax increase amounts to 2 billion euros over the period 2002-2007. Our findings highlight the need for improved coordination of policies aimed at reducing tobacco consumption across European Union countries.

  20. Parhelic-like circle from light scattering in Plateau borders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tufaile, A., E-mail: tufaile@usp.br; Tufaile, A.P.B.

    2015-03-06

    We are reporting a new simple optical element to generate halos. We have observed interesting patterns of light scattering in Plateau borders in foams. In analogy to the atmospheric phenomena known as parhelic circle, sun dogs, and sun pillars, we have named the features of the patterns observed as parlaseric circle, laser dogs, and laser pillars. The triangular symmetry of the Plateau borders is analogous to the hexagonal symmetry of ice crystals which produce these atmospheric phenomena. Working with one Plateau border at a time, we have observed wave optics phenomena that are not perceived in the atmospheric phenomena, such as diffraction and interference. - Highlights: • We obtained halo formation from light scattering in a Plateau border using an experiment. • We explained halo formation using geometrical theory of diffraction. • An optical element based on a Plateau border is proposed. • We compared some aspects of the parhelic circle with the parlaseric circle.

  1. INTERNATIONAL LOGISTICS SYSTEMS DESIGN AND EFFECTIVENESS EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Khalipova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In the paper the question of the development of a methodological approach to the determination of logistics systems’ performance and grounding of the most effective goods’ delivery schemes, based on the theory of functions and sets of multiple objects, vector optimization approaches and discrete maximum principle for multi-stage processes (phase method is considered. Methodology. To achieve the goals of the research, the model of logistic system represented by multiple object that defined by the structure and content. The object is represented by hybrid superposition, composed of sets, multi-sets, ordered sets (lists and inhomogeneous sets (sequences, corteges, which at each stage of cargo delivery present sets of technological operations of their processing, choices and decisions algorithms. Multiple structure of objects is constructive three, consisting of the carrier, signatures and axiomatic. To determine the effective scheme of delivery, applied discrete maximum principle using vector optimization criterion. Findings. In this article, logistics system of delivery is presented in the form of a multi-stage (phase of the process. Each stage reviews a plurality of discrete activities sets, which includes the possible technology cycles of operations in goods handling. At each stage of a multi-phase delivery process from the supplier to the consumer, these sets are different. Considered a model example solving the problem of vector optimization options for delivery of goods by the road in the international logistics system for the five-step process. Optimization performed on the basis of three indicators. Originality. In this paper, the choice of the most effective way of delivery goods produced using the theory of functions and sets of multiple objects, using the discrete maximum principle for multi-stage processes, based on the vector optimization criterion. At each of its stages are formed a plurality of valid solutions as

  2. Proposal for a model for analyzing strategies for cross-border trade union collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Rubio Campos

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present research is to analyze the effectiveness of cross-border union collaboration to address the adverse effects of globalization on working conditions. The methodology used is compared analysis, with cases from North America and the European Union. In a first level of analysis, the cases were divided into four typologies and in a second level two categories were constructed, the intensity and effectiveness of the collaboration, with graduation variables within each category. The value of the study lies in the new proposed model of analysis and the number of cases reviewed, but one limitation is its exploratory nature. It was found that cross-border union collaboration result an effective strategy to address the adverse effects of globalization on labor conditions, to varying degrees depending on institutionalization and frequency of collaboration.

  3. People, borders, trajectories: an approach to cross-border mobility and immobility in and to the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde, B.M.R. van der; Naerssen, Ton van

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present the outlines of a geographical approach to cross-border mobility, which in this article we use synonymously with international migration. The approach consists of three constitutive parts that we discern in international migration: people, borders and trajectories. People

  4. The Humanitarian Drone and the Borders: Unveiling the Rationales Underlying the Deployment of Drones in Border Surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marin, Luisa; Custers, Bart

    2016-01-01

    In these days economic and political pressures push for the deployment of drones’ technology in civil and commercial domains. This chapter focuses in particular on the deployment of drones in the context of border surveillance. Border surveillance is a shared competence between the European Union,

  5. Experiences in Regional Cross Border Co-operation in River Management. Comparing Three Cases at the Dutch–German Border

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiering, M.A.; Verwijmeren, J.A.; Lulofs, K.; Feld, C.

    2010-01-01

    Cross border co-operation is increasingly viewed as an obvious and logical consequence of an integrated perspective on river management. Consequently, we would expect an increase of cross border co-operation and collaboration in EU member states, through joint planning, co-management or

  6. Negotiating mobility, debating borders: migration diplomacy in Turkey-EU relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    İçduygu, A.; Üstübici, A.; Schwenken, H.; Ruß-Sattar, S.

    2014-01-01

    The concepts of 'citizenship' and 'border' have rarely been systematically brought together. New Border and Citizenship Politics challenges this, examining the intersections and dynamics of bordering processes and citizenship politics. Case-studies from the United States, Europe, the Mediterranean

  7. Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/7: A Generic Model for Cooperative Border Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Netzer, Colonel Gideon

    1999-03-01

    This paper presents a generic model for dealing with security problems along borders between countries. It presents descriptions and characteristics of various borders and identifies the threats to border security, while emphasizing cooperative monitoring solutions.

  8. The Use of Public Library Roles for Effectiveness Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van House, Nancy A.; Childers, Thomas A.

    1994-01-01

    Discussion of public library roles examines roles from the Public Library Association's planning and measurement tools for their usefulness in evaluating public library effectiveness, based on data from the Public Library Effectiveness Study. Indicators of library effectiveness are discussed, and a cluster analysis of libraries with similar role…

  9. The reproduction of borders and the contagiousness of illegalisation: A case of a Belgrade youth hostel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojić-Mitrović Marta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For the past couple of years, Serbia has become a transit country for the ever increasing number of migrants from Africa and Asia, travelling towards the EU. As part of the process of approaching the EU - first achieving the liberalisation of the visa regime for entry into the Schengen area in 2009 and then getting the official status of a candidate member in 2012 - Serbia needed to harmonise its policies with those of the EU, especially in the areas of border control and migration management. As a result, Serbia adopted a series of laws and policies which effectively illegalise migrants. In this paper, we first look into how migrant “illegality” is produced by Serbian migration legislation and policy, and second, we look at the consequences of this illegalisation. The first set of consequences are those that are felt by migrants themselves, as they are its principle target. The second set of consequences affects those persons that come into contact with the illegalised migrants. We speak of contagiousness of illegalisation, which affects those people who are providing professional services to illegalised persons. Under the treat of possible criminalisation, pressure is put on them to conduct “legality” checks and thus reproduce borders far away from the actual state border. We look particularly at reproduction of borders in the area of accommodation of migrants, taking as a case study a Belgrade youth hostel.

  10. Tissue Border Enhancement by inversion recovery MRI at 7.0 Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costagli, Mauro; Tiberi, Gianluigi [Imago7 Foundation, Pisa (Italy); IRCCS Stella Maris, Pisa (Italy); Kelley, Douglas A.C. [GE Healthcare Technologies, San Francisco, CA (United States); Symms, Mark R. [GE Applied Science Laboratory, Pisa (Italy); Biagi, Laura; Tosetti, Michela [IRCCS Stella Maris, Pisa (Italy); Stara, Riccardo; Cosottini, Mirco [Imago7 Foundation, Pisa (Italy); University of Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Maggioni, Eleonora [IRCCS Scientific Institute E. Medea, Bosisio Parini, Lecco (Italy); Politecnico di Milano, Milan (Italy); Barba, Carmen [Children' s Hospital A. Meyer - University of Florence, Neuroscience Department, Florence (Italy); Guerrini, Renzo [IRCCS Stella Maris, Pisa (Italy); Children' s Hospital A. Meyer - University of Florence, Neuroscience Department, Florence (Italy)

    2014-07-15

    This contribution presents a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) acquisition technique named Tissue Border Enhancement (TBE), whose purpose is to produce images with enhanced visualization of borders between two tissues of interest without any post-processing. The technique is based on an inversion recovery sequence that employs an appropriate inversion time to produce images where the interface between two tissues of interest is hypo-intense; therefore, tissue borders are clearly represented by dark lines. This effect is achieved by setting imaging parameters such that two neighboring tissues of interest have magnetization with equal magnitude but opposite sign; therefore, the voxels containing a mixture of each tissue (that is, the tissue interface) possess minimal net signal. The technique was implemented on a 7.0 T MRI system. This approach can assist the definition of tissue borders, such as that between cortical gray matter and white matter; therefore, it could facilitate segmentation procedures, which are often challenging on ultra-high-field systems due to inhomogeneous radiofrequency distribution. TBE allows delineating the contours of structural abnormalities, and its capabilities were demonstrated with patients with focal cortical dysplasia, gray matter heterotopia, and polymicrogyria. This technique provides a new type of image contrast and has several possible applications in basic neuroscience, neurogenetic research, and clinical practice, as it could improve the detection power of MRI in the characterization of cortical malformations, enhance the contour of small anatomical structures of interest, and facilitate cortical segmentation. (orig.)

  11. Crimmigration at the Internal Borders of Europe?
    Examining the Schengen Governance Package

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maartje A.H. van der Woude

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on how the Schengen Governance Package, and in particular the revised legal framework on the temporary reinstatement of internal border checks, should be valued within the broader process of crimmigration. First we elaborate upon both the recent incidents that underline the criminalization of migration in Europe and the recent developments in the Schengen legal framework on internal border control.  Subsequently, based on an analysis of official notification letters issued by the respective Member States, we analyse the development of how often, and on which grounds, they temporarily closed their internal borders in the period of January 2000 - March 2014. In doing so, we pay attention not only to the question whether Member States have been using (the fear of (crimmigration as a reason to invoke the exception clause, but also to the transparency of the procedures that were followed. Following an assessment of the Schengen Governance Package in light of this analysis, we address certain other forms of border control developing within the Schengen zone. In conclusion, we argue that the way in which the European Commission and the Council responded to immigration-related anxieties is understandable but might have contrary effects in the long run.

  12. CHIPS: Monitoring Colonias along the United States-Mexico border in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcher, Jean W.

    2008-01-01

    Colonias, which are unincorporated border settlements in the United States, have emerged in rural areas without the governance and services normally provided by local government. The expansion of colonias in the United States-Mexico border region can be traced to the rapid growth associated with the Mexican Border Industrial Program during the 1960s. This rapid population growth created a lack of affordable housing, causing new migrants in the United States to purchase rural homestead lots through a contract-for-deed program from land developers. Because of the need to keep prices affordable and the absence of effective land-use controls, these homesteads expanded into rural subdivisions, commonly called colonias, without proper infrastructure. Colonias have been identified in the four U.S. border states, with Texas having designated the majority, which numbered over 1,400 colonias in 2001. Because the region is binationally interconnected economically, politically, and socially, the phenomenon of colonias in the United States is a transborder issue.

  13. How Self-Evaluation can make schools more effective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Capperucci

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent European and North American government policies, implementing new systems of evaluation and accountability, have highlighted the use of performance data to inform judgments about schools and stimulate school improvement. This has led to the implementation of school self-evaluation considered as an effective means to increase school quality and effectiveness. Decentralization of education systems has promoted a broadening of educational evaluation methodologies and a conceptualization of theoretical approaches and research about school effectiveness and improvement.This study presents a self-evaluation model, called the ISSEMod, thought to improve school accountability, combining central control managed by public authorities (external control and the autonomy reserved for schools related to pedagogical, instructional and organizational practices (internal control. Using a sample of 58 Tuscan schools, an empirical and explorative model of school self-evaluation focused on a flexible system of areas and indicators to investigate and analyse school quality, is proposed here.

  14. Evaluation of hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of internal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Due to importance the evaluation of medicinal herbs efficacy and safety, the present study was conducted to investigate the antidiabetic and hypolipidemic effects of internal septum of walnut fruit (ISWF) ... To evaluate its anti-diabetic activity, the animals fasting blood glucose were determined on the first, 14th and 29th days.

  15. Empirical and Statistical Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Four ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data compression is the process of reducing the size of a file to effectively reduce storage space and communication cost. ... were evaluated using some set of predefined performance evaluation metrics namely compression ratio, compression factor, compression time, saving percentage, entropy and code efficiency.

  16. Evaluation of the effectiveness of the Imo State fisheriers extension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of the effectiveness of the Imo State fisheriers extension programme. DO Ohajianya, DO Onu, JA Echetama. Abstract. This study evaluated the Imo State Ministry of Agriculture Fisheries Extension Programmes. Questionnaires were used to collect data from 15 randomly selected extension staff and 200 ...

  17. HISTOLOGICAL PREPARATION OF INVERTEBRATES FOR EVALUATING CONTAMINANT EFFECTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although many studies in toxicologic pathology evaluate the effects of toxicants on fishes because of their similarities with other vertebrates, invertebrates can also provide insights into toxicant impacts on ecosystems. Invertebrates not only serve as food resources (e.g., ...

  18. Wind tunnel evaluation of Hi-Vol TSP effectiveness data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Wind tunnel evaluation of EPA's Hi-Vol TSP sampler for sampling effectiveness with regards to aerodynamic particle diameter (5 to 35 microns), wind speed (2, 8, 24...

  19. Evaluating the substantive effectiveness of SEA: Towards a better understanding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doren, D. van [Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands); Driessen, P.P.J., E-mail: p.driessen@uu.nl [Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands); Schijf, B. [Netherlands Commission for Environmental Assessment, P.O. Box 2345, 3500 GH Utrecht (Netherlands); Runhaar, H.A.C. [Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-01-15

    Evaluating the substantive effectiveness of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is vital in order to know to what extent the tool fulfills its purposes and produces expected results. However, the studies that have evaluated the substantive effectiveness of SEA produce varying outcomes as regards the tool's contribution to decision-making and have used a variety of approaches to appraise its effectiveness. The aim of this article is to discuss the theoretical concept of SEA substantive effectiveness and to present a new approach that can be applied for evaluation studies. The SEA effectiveness evaluation framework that will be presented is composed of concepts of, and approaches to, SEA effectiveness derived from SEA literature and planning theory. Lessons for evaluation can be learned from planning theory in particular, given its long history of analyzing and understanding how sources of information and decisions affect (subsequent) decision-making. Key concepts of this new approach are 'conformance' and 'performance'. In addition, this article presents a systematic overview of process and context factors that can explain SEA effectiveness, derived from SEA literature. To illustrate the practical value of our framework for the assessment and understanding of substantive effectiveness of SEA, three Dutch SEA case studies are examined. The case studies have confirmed the usefulness of the SEA effectiveness assessment framework. The framework proved helpful in order to describe the cumulative influence of the three SEAs on decision-making and the ultimate plan. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new framework to evaluate the substantive effectiveness of SEA is presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The framework is based on two key concepts: 'conformance' and 'performance.' Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The practical applicability of the framework is demonstrated by three Dutch cases. Black

  20. Environmental exposure of road borders to zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blok, J. [Royal Haskoning, P.O. Box 151, 6500 Ad Nijmegen (Netherlands)]. E-mail: Han.Blok@royalhaskoning.com

    2005-09-15

    The emissions of zinc along roads originating from tyre wear, corrosion of safety fence and other traffic-related sources have been quantified and validated by measured long-term loads in road run-off and airborne solids (drift) for 29 published case studies. The distribution pattern over the road border at various distances from the edge of the paved surface is assessed on the basis of 38 published case studies with measured concentrations in soil. For the impact assessment, the road border is differentiated into a zone that is part of the 'technosphere' and the 'target zone' beyond that technosphere that can be considered as part of the receiving environment. The 'technosphere' of the road includes the central reservation, the hard and the soft shoulder or, if one or both shoulders are not present, the so-called obstacle 'free zone' that is defined by road engineers. Pollution within the technosphere may require appropriate management of solid disposal and isolation from groundwater to prevent further distribution of pollutants to the environment. In the target zone along regional roads, the zinc load is about 4 mg/m{sup 2} year and this is of the same order of magnitude as that of atmospheric deposition in areas beyond the influence of roads (background). In the target zone along highways, the zinc load is increased in comparison to the background deposition. The average load of about 38 mg/m{sup 2} year is similar to that in fertilised agricultural land. Because most of the emitted zinc stays in the technosphere, the total amount entering this target zone along highways is limited. From the 140 tons of zinc per year that is released from tyre wear in The Netherlands, 64 tons is emitted in the urban area, 6.5 tons reaches to the target zones of all roads and only 1.1 tons of zinc will enter the target zone along highways. This amount will be further decreased by the application of porous asphalt in the near future. The

  1. Environmental exposure of road borders to zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blok, J

    2005-09-15

    The emissions of zinc along roads originating from tyre wear, corrosion of safety fence and other traffic-related sources have been quantified and validated by measured long-term loads in road run-off and airborne solids (drift) for 29 published case studies. The distribution pattern over the road border at various distances from the edge of the paved surface is assessed on the basis of 38 published case studies with measured concentrations in soil. For the impact assessment, the road border is differentiated into a zone that is part of the "technosphere" and the "target zone" beyond that technosphere that can be considered as part of the receiving environment. The "technosphere" of the road includes the central reservation, the hard and the soft shoulder or, if one or both shoulders are not present, the so-called obstacle "free zone" that is defined by road engineers. Pollution within the technosphere may require appropriate management of solid disposal and isolation from groundwater to prevent further distribution of pollutants to the environment. In the target zone along regional roads, the zinc load is about 4 mg/m(2) year and this is of the same order of magnitude as that of atmospheric deposition in areas beyond the influence of roads (background). In the target zone along highways, the zinc load is increased in comparison to the background deposition. The average load of about 38 mg/m(2) year is similar to that in fertilised agricultural land. Because most of the emitted zinc stays in the technosphere, the total amount entering this target zone along highways is limited. From the 140 tons of zinc per year that is released from tyre wear in The Netherlands, 64 tons is emitted in the urban area, 6.5 tons reaches to the target zones of all roads and only 1.1 tons of zinc will enter the target zone along highways. This amount will be further decreased by the application of porous asphalt in the near future. The emission from safety fence corrosion does not enter

  2. Evaluating The Effectiveness Of Production Process Using Pareto Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polák Pavel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the possibilities of using the Pareto method in evaluating the effectiveness of machine production processes. The paper deals with the production process of material cutting using progressive technology and subsequent evaluation of its effectiveness and quality. In the production process, we have used the method of material cutting by abrasive water jet. The Pareto analysis was used for eliminating the shortcomings in the quality of the final part.

  3. Research on the matters of innovative projects effectiveness evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Kharisova, Aliya; Puryaev, Aidar

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the concept of innovation and innovative projects. Based on research of domestic and foreign scientists it clarifies the concept of “innovation”. After the analysis of the features of innovative projects the authors concluded that the innovative projects effectiveness evaluation should take into account non-economic indicators such as social, ecological, resource, scientific and technological ones. The algorithm of innovative projects effectiveness evaluation taking int...

  4. Profile of the Illegal Import of Products of Animal Origin to Brazilian Cities at the Border with Argentina and Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, J G; Soares, V M; Santos, E A R; Tadielo, L E; Pellegrini, D C P; Duval, E H; Silva, W P

    2017-10-01

    International food transit is a risk to public and animal health when not subject to legal importation sanitation procedures. Due to the extensive border area, illegal food import in Brazil is a common practice, especially in Rio Grande do Sul (RS), a state that borders with Argentina and Uruguay. The objective of this study was to evaluate the profile of Brazilians living in cities in RS that border with Argentina (BR-AR) or Uruguay (BR-UR) regarding the practice of illegal import of products of animal origin and to determine associations between the population characteristics and illegal import. A questionnaire with information related to the personal profile, habits of acquisition of imported food, and knowledge of health risks deriving from the consumption of the imported products was elaborated. The questionnaire was administered in six cities in RS (three cities bordering Argentina and three cities bordering Uruguay) and responses were obtained from 744 individuals. The variables city, sex, level of education, and knowledge were subjected to the chi-square test to verify the association between these variables and food import. Part of the interviewees admitted to illegally importing products of animal origin at both BR-AR (65.17%) and BR-UR (76.28%) borders. Dairy products were the main imported goods, followed by raw and processed meat. The study revealed that illegal import is common at the frontier region of RS, especially that of products of animal origin, dairy, and raw and processed meat. Although illegal importation occurs at all the cities under study, it was higher at the BR-UR border. Also, knowledge of the health risks influences the decision to import food or not.

  5. Russia-Kazakhstan Border-Zone: Sociological Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza Kamchybekovna Biizhanova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article, based on the research conducted by the Center for Regional Sociology and Conflictology Studies of the Institute of Sociology of RAS, discusses the features of cross-border cooperation of Russia and Kazakhstan. It considers works of Western and Russian scientists to identify major approaches to the study of cross-border cooperation. It discusses strengthening of inter-ethnic and socio-economic integration and cross-border cooperation at the regional level. The borderland as a social phenomenon is an object of our study; the research is focused on local communities, understood as residents of Russian regions bordering with neighboring countries. This means that the research is devoted to local communities of the areas, located on Russia’s borders with different states – with the new neighbors, which appeared after the USSR collapse (e.g., Ukraine, Belarus, the Baltic States in the West, Kazakhstan in the East and the long-existing ones – Turkey, China, Mongolia, etc. For analysis we select the Orenburg Oblast, which has one of the longest border lines with Kazakhstan. We make an attempt to identify whether the border-zone can serve as a frontier base for the creation of a successful brand of the region based on the self-identification of local people and thereby increase the level of socio-cultural and socio-economic development of the region through the attraction of additional tourist flows and investment in the region. What is the specificity of self-identification of the border region population and how can border relations become a tool for development of socio-economic, socio-cultural and inter-state relations?

  6. Rates and predictors of DUI among U.S.-Mexico border and non-border Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Raul; Vaeth, Patrice A C; Mills, Britain A

    2013-10-01

    This paper examines driving under the influence (DUI) arrests and other related factors among Mexican Americans living in U.S.-Mexico border and non-border areas. Respondents in the non-border areas (primarily Houston and Los Angeles) constitute a multistage probability sample (N=1288) of these areas, interviewed as part of the 2006 Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey (HABLAS). Respondents in the border area (N=1307) were interviewed between March 2009 and July 2010 and constitute a household probability sample of Mexican Americans living on the border. In both surveys, data were collected during computer assisted interviews conducted in respondents' homes. The HABLAS and the border sample response rates were 76% and 67%, respectively. Border or non-border residential location was not associated with self-reported DUI, 12 month DUI arrest, or lifetime DUI arrest. An increase in consumption of 5 drinks per week was associated with an 18% increase in the chance of self-reporting DUI and an 18% increase in the probability of a lifetime DUI arrest. Binge drinkers were more likely to self-report a DUI event (OR=2.85, 95% CI=1.61-5.03; pDUI arrest (OR=2.81; 95% CI=1.43-5.53, pDUI as a major problem affecting Hispanics. However, while most correctly identified the legal blood alcohol content to drive in their state as .08 g/dl or lower, approximately one third of individuals were unaware of the legal limit. Compared to their non-border counterparts, border men were more likely to identify a bar/tavern/club and border women were more likely to identify a friend or relative's home as the places of last drink before the most recent DUI trip originated. In conclusion, border and non-border Mexican Americans are not different regarding DUI rates. These rates are high in both groups, especially among men. Intervention strategies to decrease DUI should be implemented not only in drinking establishments but also with families. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  7. Social and cultural influences among Mexican border entrepreneurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Bretones, Francisco; Cappello, Héctor M; Garcia, Pedro A

    2009-06-01

    Social and cultural conditions (including U.S. border and inland influence, role models within the family, and educational background) which affect locus of control and achievement motivation among Mexican entrepreneurs were explored among 64 selected entrepreneurs in two Mexican towns, one on the Mexico-U.S. border, the other located inland. Analyses showed that the border subsample scored higher on External locus of control; however, in both subsamples the father was an important element in the locus of control variable and the entrepreneur status. No statistically significant mean difference was noted for achievement motivation. Practical applications and limitations are discussed.

  8. CHANGING BORDERS, RETHINKING SOVEREIGNTY: TOWARDS A RIGHT TO MIGRATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Casas-Cortes

    Full Text Available Abstract The intervention of European Union border authorities in countries of Africa, Asia and Eastern Europe has shown how the European state “border” has been displaced from its national moorings and externalized across the territories of neighboring states. Our research examines the outsourcing of the southern European Union border, focusing on the case of Spain and its relationship with Morocco and countries of Western Africa. In this paper we describe the development and implementation of this strategy of migration management, signaling implications of border externalization from the point of geopolitics and legality, including a suggestive call to reclaim the legal tradition of the Right to Migrate.

  9. Social and Symbolic Capital in Border Region Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretzinger, Susanne; Royer, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    to a specific industry sector. The actors have relationships characterised by interdependencies of different strength and quality that define the boundaries. Empirically this contribution is sticking to a firm cluster in the Danish - German border region in Southern Jutland/Danmark. We found global players...... with a high sensitivity regarding the importance of social capital in the process of value creation. Managers on the firm- as well as on the web-level are aware of the potential, but the border between the countries is by the same one border of the cluster as an value adding unit....

  10. Satisfaction in border tourism: An analysis with structural equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Jimber del Río

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Border tourism is the temporary displacement of people to the dividing line between two countries contiguous areas. This activity promotes the economic development of these geographical regions. The aim of this research is to analyze visitors from the Dominican Republic and Haiti border. We propose the results of an empirical study with structural equations that show correlations between the attitude factor towards the border tourism, the value factors perceived by the tourist, satisfaction and loyalty of the visitor in the destination place.

  11. Analysis of tower locations for the secure border initiative network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendley, Keith W.

    2008-04-01

    The Secure Border Initiative Network (SBInet) is a series of sensor platforms along the U.S. border areas for the purpose of better monitoring cross-border excursions. From a technical standpoint, the challenge of SBInet is to provide the necessary area coverage needed while controlling costs. This paper presents one set of methods for analyzing different tower locations and technologies. Since the purpose of the paper is to consider analytical techniques, the terrain and tower locations used do not relate to the P28 area nor any other specific approaches or tower locations currently being studied for the SBInet program.

  12. Cause of Border Conflict over the World Heritage

    OpenAIRE

    Yamashita, Akihiro

    2010-01-01

    This paper attempts to show causes of border conflict between Thailand and Cambodia, and to look for the means of solving the conflict. Preah Vihear Temple is an old Khmer temple ruins situated on the border of Thailand and Cambodia. UNESCO decided to list it as a World Heritage Site on July 7, 2008. However, the two countries have been in a state of border conflict since that time. The conflict leaves dozens of casualties. This paper shows that there are two causes of conflict. The first one...

  13. Overall Equipment Effectiveness within Counterfactual Impact Evaluation Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rylková Žaneta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Counterfactual impact evaluation (CIE is a scientific quantitative approach mainly based on experiments and quasi experiments. CIE is trying to prove a causal relationship between outputs and outcomes. CIE does not take into account coherence of external incentives of companies with internal incentives that have or may have an impact on the behaviour of enterprises. The paper sets up internal evaluation indicators for businesses, counterfactuals useful for creating a more complex metrics evaluating businesses in the area of performance. The aim of the paper is to present model situation using the elementary principle of counterfactual impact evaluation based on “the Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE”.

  14. Learning from Cross-Border Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Emily; Millbank, Jenni; Karpin, Isabel; Stuhmcke, Anita

    2017-02-01

    Drawing upon the preliminary findings of an Australian empirical project on cross-border reproduction (CBR), this article argues that regulators and policymakers could learn from the experiences of those who travel overseas in order to access fertility treatment and surrogacy. It makes four principal observations. First, the distinction between so-called 'altruistic' and 'commercial' gamete donation and surrogacy is increasingly unsustainable and is not experienced as meaningful by many participants in CBR. Secondly, the status of the law in CBR is profoundly equivocal; for participants it is often there and not there at the same time. Thirdly, self-sourced information, from the internet and more specifically social media such as Facebook, is now the principal source of information and peer support for reproductive travellers. Fourthly, and relatedly, domestic reproductive services providers are often sidestepped. If one of the goals of regulation is to minimise the risk of harm to participants, it is not clear that it is currently achieving this aim, and this article argues that any reforms will only work if they are more responsive to the reality of CBR. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  15. Woolfian border poetics and contemporary circadian novels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anka Ryall

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Virginia Woolf’s circadian novel Mrs Dalloway (1925 has inspired many successors, some of them important works in their own right. Although few of these novels are as explicitly linked to Mrs Dalloway as Michael Cunningham’s The Hours (1998, more recent novels such as Ian McEwan’s Saturday (2005 and Gail Jones’ Five Bells (2011 clearly pay homage to Woolf’s use of the one-day format to reveal whole lives and show how those individual private lives are entangled in history. The essay highlights one particular aspect of these three works, their imaginative and often transformative reworking of elements of Woolfian border poetics, particularly the predominance in Mrs Dalloway of boundary tropes – windows, doors, thresholds – that create a sense of synchronicity between present and past. Adapting Woolf’s boundary tropes to representations of contemporary realities, all three novels in different ways suggest how the present is deepened ”when backed by the past”, as Woolf puts it her memoirs; that is, when the present is not only informed by a remembered past but experienced in terms of both re-enactment and renewal, continuity and change.

  16. Breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and early detection practices in United States-Mexico border Latinas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banegas, Matthew P; Bird, Yelena; Moraros, John; King, Sasha; Prapsiri, Surasri; Thompson, Beti

    2012-01-01

    Evidence suggests Latinas residing along the United States-Mexico border face higher breast cancer mortality rates compared to Latinas in the interior of either country. The purpose of this study was to investigate breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and use of breast cancer preventive screening among U.S. Latina and Mexican women residing along the U.S.-Mexico border. For this binational cross-sectional study, 265 participants completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire that obtained information on sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge, attitudes, family history, and screening practices. Differences between Mexican (n=128) and U.S. Latina (n=137) participants were assessed by Pearson's chi-square, Fischer's exact test, t tests, and multivariate regression analyses. U.S. Latinas had significantly increased odds of having ever received a mammogram/breast ultrasound (adjusted odds ratio [OR]=2.95) and clinical breast examination (OR=2.67) compared to Mexican participants. A significantly greater proportion of Mexican women had high knowledge levels (54.8%) compared to U.S. Latinas (45.2%, peducation, and insurance status were significantly associated with breast cancer screening use. Despite having higher levels of breast cancer knowledge than U.S. Latinas, Mexican women along the U.S.-Mexico border are not receiving the recommended breast cancer screening procedures. Although U.S. border Latinas had higher breast cancer screening levels than their Mexican counterparts, these levels are lower than those seen among the general U.S. Latina population. Our findings underscore the lack of access to breast cancer prevention screening services and emphasize the need to ensure that existing breast cancer screening programs are effective in reaching women along the U.S.-Mexico border.

  17. Determinants of Cross-border Venture Capital Investments in Emerging and Developed Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hain, Daniel; Johan, Sofia A.; Wang, Daojuan

    2016-01-01

    Frequent and open interaction between venture capitalists (VCs) and entrepreneurs is necessary for venture capital investments to occur. Increasingly, these investments are made across jurisdictions. The vast majority of these cross-border investments are carried out in a syndicate of two or more...... examine worldwide venture capital investment flows from 2000–2012 and consider the effects of geographical, cultural, and institutional proximity as well as institutional and relational trust. We find trust to mitigate the negative effects of geographical and cultural distance, where institutional trust...... VCs, indicating the effects of intra-industry networks needing further analysis. Using China as a model, we provide a novel multidimensional framework to explain cross-border investments in innovative ventures across developed and emerging economies. By analyzing a unique international dataset, we...

  18. The Effect of Brand on the Evaluation of Websites

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Angeli, Antonella; Hartmann, Jan; Sutcliffe, Alistair

    The effect of brand on consumer attitudes towards real and virtual goods is largely documented in consumer psychology and marketing. There is an obvious link between the design of a website and its brand. Yet, this effect has attracted little attention from the HCI community. This paper presents empirical evidence showing that brand attitude influences the evaluation of websites. The effect was reliable across different measures: people holding better attitudes were more positive in the evaluation of aesthetics, pleasure and usability. A sample of students (N=145) with a background in HCI was tested, suggesting that brand may influence the output of expert evaluators. The study provides support to the proposition of UX as a contextual-dependent response to the interaction with computing systems and has important implications for the design and evaluation of websites which are discussed in the conclusion.

  19. Evaluation of the effectiveness of solar radiation for the disinfection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of solar radiation as a disinfection agent for EPEC contaminated water. Effectiveness of SODIS was determined using viable coliform counts on VRBA medium and inactivation was determined by a reduction in growth of the organisms. The results show that it is possible ...

  20. Evaluation of burns healing effects of natural honey, Dermazine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The healing effect of natural honey was evaluated in vivo using the excision wound healing model.Unpurified honey was used to treat burns inflictedon the experimental rats. The healing effects othe honey were compared to that of dermazine, honey-dermazine mixture, and methylaed spirit. The burns healing agents all ...

  1. Evaluating the Effect of Program Visualization on Student Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez-Iturbide, J. Ángel; Hernán-Losada, Isidoro; Paredes-Velasco, Maximiliano

    An increase in student motivation is often cited as an expected effect of software visualization, but, as far as the authors are aware, no controlled experiments have yet demonstrated this. This paper therefore presents a controlled evaluation of this effect, conducted within the framework of self-determination theory. Students were tasked with…

  2. The effects of direct experience on consumer product evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de I.M.; Antonides, G.; Read, D.; Raaij, W.F.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of different sales strategies on consumer product evaluation were investigated. It was expected that direct product experience could decrease economic product valuation. Experiments 1 and 2 studied the effects of product trials and money-back guarantees on consumer willingness to pay

  3. Effectiveness evaluation of contingency sum as a risk management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Construction managers in a bid to effectively manage risks prone projects have adopted several methods, one of which is contingency sum. This study aims at evaluating the effectiveness of contingency sum as a risk management tool for construction projects in Niger Delta region of Nigeria. The objectives are to establish ...

  4. Evaluating the Effect of Program Visualization on Student Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez-Iturbide, J. Ángel; Hernán-Losada, Isidoro; Paredes-Velasco, Maximiliano

    2017-01-01

    An increase in student motivation is often cited as an expected effect of software visualization, but, as far as the authors are aware, no controlled experiments have yet demonstrated this. This paper therefore presents a controlled evaluation of this effect, conducted within the framework of self-determination theory. Students were tasked with…

  5. Evaluation of the loading effect on the optically modulated scatterer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sowa, Andrzej E.; Vogt-Ardatjew, R.A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the evaluation of the loading effect in the Optically Modulated Scatterer has been presented. A chosen location in the vicinity of a pyramidal absorber has been analyzed. The loading effect as a function of the distance between the scatterer and the absorber has been investigated.

  6. Inhibition of brush border sucrase by polyphenols in mouse intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shiffalli; Mahmood, Safrun; Khan, Rizwan H; Mahmood, Akhtar

    2009-11-23

    The interactions of gallic acid and tannic acid with purified brush border sucrase (EC 3.2.1.48) from mouse intestine have been studied. These findings indicate that both gallic acid and tannic acid inhibit sucrase activity, which is pH dependent. Kinetic analysis revealed that enzyme inhibition by gallic acid is a pure V effect at pH 5.0, which changes to mixed type at pH 7.2, and pure K effect at pH 8.5. In contrast, sucrase inhibition by tannic acid was a pure K effect at acidic pH and uncompetitive type in the alkaline pH range. Far-CD spectroscopic analysis revealed an increase in the helicity of the enzyme at acidic pH in the presence of tannic acid but no change at alkaline pH. Fluorescence spectra revealed a red shift in lambdamax of the enzyme, suggesting that tryptophan residues come to a more hydrophilic environment in the presence of polyphenols. These findings suggest that inhibition of mice sucrase by polyphenols is pH dependent, and is associated with conformational modifications of the enzyme.

  7. Health and Borders across Time and Cultures: Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Carrillo Garcia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of Portal brings together papers examining the intersection of health and borders. In this analysis health is understood not only as the absence of illness, but also as knowledge, as a right, and as the pursuit of identity and self-transformation. Similarly, borders here are used as both physical and mental constructs. The special issue represent a multidisciplinary effort that looks at health from a social science perspective through historical, socio-economic, and cultural approaches. It is also concerned with the health inequities across and within national borders, due to economic imperatives, changing technologies and environments. The articles in this special issue explore lessons learned and new ways of understanding health across time and borders, with specific reference to the cases of India, Australia, Hong Kong and China, Pakistan, and Thailand.

  8. Definig the US-Mexico border as hyperreality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Duarte-Herrera

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The US-Mexico border has been defined as a periphery, as a transborder social system, and more currently, as a station in transnational circuits. The two first definitions presuppose the strongly criticized concepts of region and cultural area. The third definition shares, along with the other two definitions, the positivist epistemological supposition that the border is a specific entity that can be known and experienced as such by any observer, no matter their social site. This paper is to support the definition of the border as a hyperreality constituted by speeches, practices, and experiences of the different social actors. From this posture, the image of the border as a formal geopolitical division is interpreted as a sustained image and reproduced by government agencies. Likewise, this writing is to support the documentation and promotion of alternative images constructed and reproduced by social actors from different power sites.

  9. Homeland Security: Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Border Surveillance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bolkcom, Christopher; Nunez-Neto, Blas

    2008-01-01

    .... Between POE, the United States Border Patrol (USBP) is charged with detecting and preventing the entry of terrorists, weapons of mass destruction, and unauthorized aliens into the country, and interdicting drug smugglers and other criminals...

  10. Status of mangroves along the countries bordering the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.; Wafar, S.; Jagtap, T.G.

    Distribution of mangroves in the countries bordering the Arabian Sea, including Gulf of Oman, Persian Gulf, Gulf of Aden and Red Sea, is reviewed and their present status is discussed. The estimated area of mangrove vegetation is 1140 sq. km...

  11. Cross-border entrepreneurship in a global world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emontspool, Julie; Servais, Per

    2017-01-01

    This paper shows that international entrepreneurship and immigrant entrepreneurship increasingly intersect in a global world. Both research streams address cross-border entrepreneurial activity in parallel to each other. International entrepreneurship focuses on outgoing entrepreneurial activity...

  12. Geopolitics in the Forest: A Border of Wilderness

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grygar, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 14, 1/2 (2016), s. 5-23 ISSN 1212-4923 Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : borders * Białowieża Forest * identity * Europeanization * environmental movement Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  13. Migration and the new technological borders of Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijstelbloem, H.; Meijer, A.

    2011-01-01

    European borders that aim to control migration and mobility increasingly rely on technology to distinguish between citizens and aliens. This book explores new tensions in Europe between states and citizens, and between politics, technology and human rights.

  14. 22 CFR 123.19 - Canadian and Mexican border shipments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FOR THE EXPORT OF DEFENSE ARTICLES § 123.19 Canadian and Mexican border shipments. A shipment originating in Canada or Mexico which incidentally transits the United States en route to a delivery point in...

  15. Smuggling and cross border shopping of tobacco in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joossens, L; Raw, M

    1995-05-27

    Governments have recently become concerned about cross border shopping and smuggling because it can decrease tax revenue. The tobacco industry predicted that, with the removal of border controls in the European Union, price differences between neighbouring countries would lead to a diversion of tobacco trade, legally and illegally, to countries with cheaper cigarettes. According to them this diversion would be through increased cross border shopping for personal consumption or through increased smuggling of cheap cigarettes from countries with low tax to countries with high tax, where cigarettes are more expensive. These arguments have been used to urge governments not to increase tax on tobacco products. The evidence suggests, however, that cross border shopping is not yet a problem in Europe and that smuggling is not of cheap cigarettes to expensive countries. Instead, more expensive "international" brands are smuggled into northern Europe and sold illegally on the streets of the cheaper countries of southern Europe.

  16. Does Technology Spill Over across National Borders and Technology Regimes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.W.B.; Candelon, B.; Economidou, C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates whether technology spills over across national borders and technology regimes. We advocate a modeling strategy where changes in technical efficiency capture technology spillovers as industries absorb and implement the best-practice (frontier) technology. Recently developed

  17. Does knowledge spill over across borders and technology regimes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Jaap; Candelon, Bertrand; Economidou, Claire

    This paper investigates whether technology spills over across national borders and technology regimes. We advocate a modeling strategy where improvements in technical efficiency capture technology spillovers as industries absorb and implement the best-practice technology. Dynamic panel-based

  18. Situational crime prevention and cross-border crime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleemans, Edward R.; Soudijn, Melvin R J; Weenink, Anton W.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter explores the consequences of cross-border crime for situational crime prevention. Many types of organised crime involve international smuggling activities – such as drug trafficking, money laundering, smuggling illegal immigrants, and other transnational illegal activities. Based on

  19. Shaping the Victim: Borders, security, and human trafficking in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Campbell

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Borders are productive sites where knowledge is gathered and migrant populations are formed. The knowledge gathered from victims of trafficking reinforces a victim narrative that represents a perceived threat to society by highlighting violence, criminality, coercion, and naivety. Using Albania as a case in point, the article looks at trafficked people and the narratives of victimhood that surround them. In the case of trafficked people, the border projected out towards other states produces a discursively defined victim of trafficking. When projected back within the national territory, the border essentially produces a criminalised sex worker. To argue this point, the article discusses the role victims of trafficking play in the EU and looks at how international norms espoused by the OSCE and IOM have prepped the Albanian border for EU ascension and created the means for governable populations within Albania.

  20. Protecting Our Perimeter: "Border Searches" Under the Fourth Amendment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vina, Stephen R

    2005-01-01

    .... This report does not address interior searches and seizures performed by immigration personnel since they are not traditional "border searches" in the Court's view. This report will be updated as warranted.

  1. Border Security and Military Support: Legal Authorizations and Restrictions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vina, Stephen R

    2006-01-01

    .... Reported escalations in criminal activity and illegal immigration, however, have prompted some law makers to reevaluate the extent and type of military support that occurs in the Mexico-United States border region...

  2. Time to Put the Military on the Border

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Deforge, Robert D

    2006-01-01

    .... It is well documented that the U.S. Border Patrol is undermanned, under-equipped, and under-trained to deal with the increasing numbers of illegal immigrants, escalating violent gang activity, and in the increasing incidents...

  3. Evaluating disease management programme effectiveness: an introduction to instrumental variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Ariel; Adams, John L

    2006-04-01

    This paper introduces the concept of instrumental variables (IVs) as a means of providing an unbiased estimate of treatment effects in evaluating disease management (DM) programme effectiveness. Model development is described using zip codes as the IV. Three diabetes DM outcomes were evaluated: annual diabetes costs, emergency department (ED) visits and hospital days. Both ordinary least squares (OLS) and IV estimates showed a significant treatment effect for diabetes costs (P = 0.011) but neither model produced a significant treatment effect for ED visits. However, the IV estimate showed a significant treatment effect for hospital days (P = 0.006) whereas the OLS model did not. These results illustrate the utility of IV estimation when the OLS model is sensitive to the confounding effect of hidden bias.

  4. Alcohol Use Patterns and DSM-5 Alcohol Use Disorder on Both Sides of the U.S.-Mexico Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Thomas K; Ye, Yu; Lown, E Anne; Cherpitel, Cheryl J; Zemore, Sarah; Borges, Guilherme

    2017-04-01

    Alcohol consumption patterns on the U.S.-Mexico border and their relationships with DSM-5 alcohol use disorders (AUD) have been understudied. Yet, the effects of drinking by Mexican-origin individuals may differ between cities on versus off the border both in the United States and in Mexico. We characterize prior 12-month drinking patterns and examine their relationships with AUD, in border and off-border cities of Texas and adjacent Mexican states. Data come from the U.S.-Mexico Study of Alcohol and Related Conditions involving 2,336 Mexican Americans in Texas and 2,460 Mexicans in bordering states of Nuevo Leon and Tamaulipas in Mexico. Drinking pattern was defined as an interaction between volume and maximum amount, or intensity (never vs. ever 5+/4+ [men/women], 8+, and 12+ drinks in a day). DSM-5 AUD was assessed using an adaptation of the Alcohol Section of the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview core. Separately by gender, 5 logistic regressions models controlling for age were estimated predicting symptoms in 2 or more AUD criteria domains from volume, heavy pattern and, successively, effects of country, and (by country) residing on vs. off the border, or in each of 3 cities/country. A segmentation analysis for Texas males based on rate of experiencing AUD generated several distinct volume groups, each partitioned by an empirically selected maximum, and helped identify a drinking-pattern typology. In gender-stratified models of AUD rates using this typology, adjusting for age, significant volume and intensity effects were seen, more strongly in the United States. Border versus interior differences implied more AUD for given patterns at the border in the United States and the reverse in Mexico, with some city differences also evident. Drinking-pattern analyses confirm that border proximity may affect drinking problems but in opposite directions in the United States and Mexico, possibly related to economic and psychological

  5. Effect of odour on multisensory environmental evaluations of road traffic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Like, E-mail: jianglike@yahoo.com; Masullo, Massimiliano, E-mail: Massimiliano.MASULLO@unina2.it; Maffei, Luigi, E-mail: luigi.maffei@unina2.it

    2016-09-15

    This study investigated the effect of odour on multisensory environmental evaluations of road traffic. The study aimed to answer: (1) Does odour have any effect on evaluations on noise, landscape and the overall environment? (2) How different are participants' responses to odour stimuli and are these differences influential on the evaluations? Experimental scenarios varied in three Traffic levels, three Tree screening conditions and two Odour presence conditions were designed, and presented to participants in virtual reality. Perceived Loudness, Noise Annoyance, Landscape Quality and Overall Pleasantness of each scenario were evaluated and the results were analysed. It shows that Odour presence did not have significant main effect on any of the evaluations, but has significant interactions with Traffic level on Noise Annoyance and with Tree screening on Landscape Quality, indicating the potential of odour to modulate noise and visual landscape perceptions in specific environmental content. Concerning participants' responses to odour stimuli, large differences were found in this study. However, the differences did not seem to be influential on environmental evaluations in this study. Larger samples of participants may benefit this study for more significant results of odour effect.

  6. Effective Practices for Evaluating Education and Public Outreach Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, S.

    2013-12-01

    Stephanie Baird Wilkerson, PhD Carol Haden EdD Magnolia Consulting,LLC Education and public outreach (EPO) program developers and providers seeking insights regarding effective practices for evaluating EPO activities programs benefit from understanding why evaluation is critical to the success of EPO activities and programs, what data collection methods are appropriate, and how to effectively communicate and report findings. Based on our extensive experience evaluating EPO programs, we will share lessons learned and examples of how these practices play out in actual evaluation studies. EPO program developers, providers, and evaluators must consider several factors that influence which evaluation designs and data collection methods will be most appropriate, given the nature of EPO programs. Effective evaluation practices of EPO programs take into account a program's phase of development, duration, and budget as well as a program's intended outcomes. EPO programs that are just beginning development will have different evaluation needs and priorities than will well-established programs. Effective evaluation practices consider the 'life' of a program with an evaluation design that supports a program's growth through various phases including development, revision and refinement, and completion. It would be premature and inappropriate to expect the attainment of longer-term outcomes of activities during program development phases or early stages of implementation. During program development, EPO providers should clearly define program outcomes that are feasible and appropriate given a program's scope and expected reach. In many respects, this directly relates to the amount of time, or duration, intended audiences participate in EPO programs. As program duration increases so does the likelihood that the program can achieve longer-term outcomes. When choosing which outcomes are reasonable to impact and measure, program duration should be considered. Effective evaluation

  7. Health and Borders across Time and Cultures: Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz Carrillo Garcia; Devleena Ghosh

    2011-01-01

    This special issue of Portal brings together papers examining the intersection of health and borders. In this analysis health is understood not only as the absence of illness, but also as knowledge, as a right, and as the pursuit of identity and self-transformation. Similarly, borders here are used as both physical and mental constructs. The special issue represent a multidisciplinary effort that looks at health from a social science perspective through historical, socio-economic, and cultura...

  8. Health Migration: Crossing Borders for Affordable Health Care

    OpenAIRE

    Miller-Thayer, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Approximately 45.7 million people in the United States are uninsured and unknown numbers of this population are underinsured, severely limiting their access to medical care. To address this problem, people use innovative strategies to increase their access through cross-border care options. The U.S.-Mexico border provides unique challenges and opportunities for health care in this context. The lower cost of medical and dental procedures and medications in Mexico makes that country an attracti...

  9. Injuries sustained after falls from bridges across the United States-Mexico border at El Paso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Susan F; Tyroch, Alan H

    2012-05-01

    To compare demographics and motivations for falls from bridges at the United States-Mexico border and in El Paso County, Texas, and to analyze injuries and injury patterns to support intentionality and to provide treatment recommendations. A retrospective observational review was conducted of hospital admissions to a trauma center after falls from bridges from 1995 to 2009. Statistical methods used were chi-square testing, T-test for means comparison, univariate correlations, and regression analysis. Of the 97 evaluated patients, 81.4% fell from U.S.-Mexico border bridges, including one patient who fell from a railway bridge; 74.7% of those falling from border bridges had a non-U.S. address, contrasting with 22.2% of those who fell within the United States. Falls over the border were associated with more immigration-related motivations and fewer suicide attempts. Injuries included lower extremities in 76 (78.4%) and thoracolumbar spine in 27 (27.8%) patients; 16 patients with a thoracolumbar spine fracture (59.3%) also had a lower extremity injury. Mean hospital length of stay was 7.2 days. Mean injury severity score was 8.45 (range 1-43). Age, injury severity score, and pelvic fracture increased the hospital length of stay. Patients fell while emigrating-immigrating based on residence and motivating factors. A dyad of lower extremity and thoracolumbar spine injuries coincided in 59.3% of those with a thoracolumbar spine injury; thoracolumbar spine imaging of patients evaluated after falls from bridges is recommended. Proposed prevention strategies include posting signs on bridges and installing catch-net safety barriers.

  10. Effects of Labeling and Group Category of Evaluators on Evaluations of Aggression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsukasa Teraguchi

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether the effect of labeling on people's evaluation of aggression varies according to the group category of the evaluators (i.e., whether they are ingroup members or third parties. Two labeling strategies--the negative labeling of victims (NL strategy and the positive labeling of aggressors (PL strategy--were adopted. We conducted an experiment using the hot sauce paradigm, as a way to assess aggressive intent that includes behavioral measures of evaluations. The results suggested that the NL strategy causes ingroup members to evaluate aggression in a more positive light, while the PL strategy has the same effect but on third parties instead. Thus, labeling strategies may increase the severity of aggressors' reaction and could also be a factor that can escalate a war or conflict.

  11. Clinical diagnosis of malaria on the Thai-Myanmar border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, K K; Maung, C; Katz, D L

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the prevailing practice of presumptively diagnosing malaria in all cases of febrile illness in a clinic serving a refugee population on the Thai-Myanmar border A retrospective review of 3,506 patient charts from December 1993 through June 1994 at the MaeSot medical clinic to compare clinical signs of malaria to blood smear findings. Patients presenting without fever were assumed not to have malaria; the remaining 2,111 patients presenting with fever had blood smears examined for malaria infection. Fever alone sufferedfrom poorpositive predictive value (54.7 percent) and specificity (59.3 percent). When fever was combined with hepatosplenomegaly and anemia, the positive predictive value and specificity improved (84.5 percent and 98.5 percent, respectively). However, this combination also resulted in an unacceptably poor sensitivity (16.5 percent) and false negative error rate (835/1,000). CONCLUSIONS. In this nonimmune refugee population, severe complications of falciparum malaria occur quickly and commonly; aggressive chemotherapy is necessary to reduce morbidity and mortality. Until laboratory facilities are made available, all cases offever should continue to be treated presumptively as malaria.

  12. 47 CFR 90.619 - Operations within the U.S./Mexico and U.S./Canada border areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Processing of Applications and the Selection and Assignment of Frequencies for Use in the 806-824 Mhz, 851...-901/935-940 MHz within the Mexico border region are subject to Effective Radiated Power (ERP) and Antenna Height limitations as indicated in Table 3 below. Table 3—Limits of Effective Radiated Power (ERP...

  13. Exploring the Prospects for Cross-Border Climate Change Adaptation between North Rhine-Westphalia and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eerd, M.C.J. van; Wiering, M.A.; Dieperink, C.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change will have various effects on river basins: precipitation levels and water temperature may change, floods and also droughts may occur more frequently. These effects do not respect man-made borders, so climate adaptation in itself is a transnational challenge. Adaptation can reduce the

  14. Regional Joint Border Commands: A Pathway to Improving Collaboration and Effectiveness for Border Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    information. But what exactly is collaboration in DHS? Eugene Bardach simply defines collaboration as any joint activity by two or more agencies intended to...increase pubic value by working together rather than separately ( Bardach , 1998, p. 8). Raymond L. Kay II looked at this more deeply when he... Bardach , E. (1998). Getting agencies to work together: The practice and theory of managerial craftsmanship. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution

  15. Opportunities for Cross-Border Entrepreneurship Development in a Cluster Model Exemplified by the Polish-Czech Border Region

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joanna Kurowska-Pysz

    2016-01-01

    ... such as culture, education and tourism. At the same time, Polish and Czech enterprises are not sufficiently mobilized to develop cross-border entrepreneurship, although a number of support instruments in this regard have been proposed...

  16. Resilience at the border: traditional botanical knowledge among Macedonians and Albanians living in Gollobordo, Eastern Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieroni, Andrea; Cianfaglione, Kevin; Nedelcheva, Anely; Hajdari, Avni; Mustafa, Behxhet; Quave, Cassandra L

    2014-03-31

    Ethnobotany in South-Eastern Europe is gaining the interest of several scholars and stakeholders, since it is increasingly considered a key point for the re-evaluation of local bio-cultural heritage. The region of Gollobordo, located in Eastern Albania and bordering the Republic of Macedonia, is of particular interest for conducting ethnobiological studies, since it remained relatively isolated for the larger part of the 20th Century and is traditionally inhabited by a majority of ethnic Macedonians and a minority of Albanians (nowadays both sharing the Muslim faith). An ethnobotanical survey focused on local food, medicinal, and veterinary plant uses was conducted with 58 participants using open and semi-structured interviews and via participant observation. We recorded and identified 115 taxa of vascular plants, which are locally used for food, medicinal, and veterinary purposes (representing 268 total plant reports). The Macedonian Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) was greater than the Albanian TEK, especially in the herbal and ritual domains. This phenomenon may be linked to the long socio-cultural and linguistic isolation of this group during the time when the borders between Albania and the former Yugoslavia were completely closed. Moreover, the unusual current food utilisation of cooked potatoes leaves, still in use nowadays among Macedonians, could represent the side effect of an extreme adaptation that locals underwent over the past century when the introduction of the potato crop made new strategies available for establishing stable settlements around the highest pastures. Additionally, the difference in use of Helichrysum plicatum, which is popular in the local Macedonian folk medicine but absent among Albanians, confirms the particular significance of this taxon as it relates to the yellow colour of its flowers in South Slavic folklore. Botanical studies with an ethnographic approach are crucial for understanding patterns of use of plants within

  17. Changing Dynamics of Cross-Border Intimate Partnership Formations in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    Intimate partnership formations across the borders at various levels challenge stereotypes and lead to enhanced social diversity but are understudied in Scandinavia. Our workshop presents and discusses these phenomena through research, practice and policy issues from Denmark and Finland within...... interdisciplinary framework. It explores processes related to "us and them" redefinitions and minority-majority relations through focus on motivations,identity, life course,gender,family dynamics especially intergenerational conflicts, diaspora and policy effects.  ...

  18. Cross-Border Patent Disputes: Unified Patent Court or International Commercial Arbitration?

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Alba Betancourt

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the enforcement of a patent that is registered in several countries involves the risk of getting different and conflicting decisions from the national courts. In 2013, 25 European countries entered in an agreement that aims to homogenise the patent system by creating the European patent with unitary effect and a Unified Patent Court (UPC). This article focuses on the UPC, which aims to have a single court proceeding for cross-border patent conflicts. Does the UPC system represent a...

  19. Evaluation of Effective Diaphragm Area for Pneumatic Actuator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Hogeun; Han, Bongsub; Seon, Juhyoung [SOOSAN INDUSTRIES, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The purpose of this study is to develop a methodology to calculate the exact effective diaphragm area using the results of diagnostic test to be performed in the evaluation of air operated valve performance. By using this developed methodology in pneumatic actuator performance evaluation, it can be reduce the possible errors arising from effective diaphragm area in the evaluation of performance of air operated valves. The performance assessment for the operability and structural integrity of air operated valves for the domestic nuclear power plant is in progress. One of the important parameters that determine the performance of the air operated valves is the effective diaphragm area of diaphragm type actuator. The effective diaphragm area is the actual area which the air pressure acting on the diaphragm. In general, the effective diaphragm area used for the performance evaluation of pneumatic actuator is provided by the manufacture or the actuator drawing. Flat type diaphragm was showed the difference between the measured value of EDA and the manufacture’s value, in the case of convoluted type diaphragm has showed that the measured value of EDA and manufacture’s value is almost the same. When evaluate a performance of a diaphragm actuator, accurate EDA is to be used because it is an important variable affecting the actuator performance. Particularly in the case of flat type diaphragm which EDA is changed in accordance with the stroke position, by using the EDA evaluation methodology developed in this study to minimize a possible error due to EDA when evaluating the performance of the air actuator.

  20. Selected indicators for evaluating the effectiveness of marketing communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Olejniczak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The issue of the evaluation of marketing activity in each institution most often refers to marketing communications and therefore promotional activities of the company. Whereas measuring the effectiveness of marketing communications results, we can use many tools-indicators, the use of which will track the progress and assess the effectiveness of our institution run by marketing communications. With a view to implementing effective marketing strategy we must be able to measure our success. In this article, has been made a review of selected indicators to evaluate the effectiveness of marketing communications. Cited indicators are commonly used. According to the authors, each institution should create its own set of indicators by which the effects of its operations will be best measured.

  1. A model to evaluate quality and effectiveness of disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmens, K M M; Nieboer, A P; van Schayck, C P; Asin, J D; Huijsman, R

    2008-12-01

    Disease management has emerged as a new strategy to enhance quality of care for patients suffering from chronic conditions, and to control healthcare costs. So far, however, the effects of this strategy remain unclear. Although current models define the concept of disease management, they do not provide a systematic development or an explanatory theory of how disease management affects the outcomes of care. The objective of this paper is to present a framework for valid evaluation of disease-management initiatives. The evaluation model is built on two pillars of disease management: patient-related and professional-directed interventions. The effectiveness of these interventions is thought to be affected by the organisational design of the healthcare system. Disease management requires a multifaceted approach; hence disease-management programme evaluations should focus on the effects of multiple interventions, namely patient-related, professional-directed and organisational interventions. The framework has been built upon the conceptualisation of these disease-management interventions. Analysis of the underlying mechanisms of these interventions revealed that learning and behavioural theories support the core assumptions of disease management. The evaluation model can be used to identify the components of disease-management programmes and the mechanisms behind them, making valid comparison feasible. In addition, this model links the programme interventions to indicators that can be used to evaluate the disease-management programme. Consistent use of this framework will enable comparisons among disease-management programmes and outcomes in evaluation research.

  2. Effectiveness and Evaluation of Crime Prevention Programs in Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Beato

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay analyzes previous studies evaluating the effectiveness of the crime prevention policies adopted by the Government of Minas Gerais (Brazil. In this work, greater emphasis is placed on studies evaluating outcomes than on studies dealing with the process of setting up and implementing programs and projects. In order to allow a more systematic discussion, the Maryland Scale, which categorizes research and evaluations according to the methodological strengths and weaknesses in five levels, is employed. Subsequently, the authors draw a parallel between Brazil and other settings. Finally, this essay lays out the implications of this discussion regarding the prevention programs. 

  3. Evaluation of effectiveness for MC&A programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkey, D. D. (David Dennis); DeMuth, S. F. (Scott F.); Longmire, V. L. (Victoria L.); Sinkule, B. J. (Barbara J.); Strittmatter, R. B. (Richard B.); Stevens, R. S. (Rebecca S.); Dawson, P. (Pamela); Preston, L. (Lynne)

    2004-01-01

    This paper is a progress report on a joint Los Alamos and Sandia National Laboratories effort to develop tools to evaluate MC&A system effectiveness and perform vulnerability assessments based on the system effectiveness metrics. It summarizes the work that the two labs have completed to date and provides an overview of the work remaining. The Department of Energy Office of Technology Development, SO-20.3, is presently considering whether it is possible to model MC&A programs at DOE facilities in order to better determine the need for and prioritize potential technology development projects. The intent is to develop an objective method of evaluating MC&A programs, to model the effect of changes to the systems used by the programs, and to quantify the extent to which these changes improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the programs. Project milestones include a review of the risk analysis tool developed at Sandia, ATLAS, to determine how MC&A system elements could be incorporated, identification of MC&A system elements and activities for which effectiveness metrics can be developed, and developing the metrics for these system elements. In addition, the milestones include validation of the system elements and effectiveness metrics by potential users. Upon completion of the development of MC&A system effectiveness metrics, we will determine the feasibility of integrating the data elements and process required for evaluation of MC&A effectiveness metrics into ATLAS.

  4. Evaluation of the Effect of State Subsidies on Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romualdas Ginevičius

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of market regulation tools on business is a complex phenomenon, and the after-effects of such regulation could be both favourable and adverse. The enhancement of the positive effect is a scientific task, which requires a systematic approach. In order to find a solution to this problem, it is necessary: a to identify the relevant factors; b to make a coherent evaluation of these factors and their influence on the phenomenon under investigation; c to establish the optimal form and extent of the SRB (State Regulation of Business tool required for the achievement of the desired results. The study analyses aims of economic regulation and business management from the point of view of a state. It also examines the practice in economic research and evaluation of EU Structural Funds in Lithuania and abroad. The research is focused on problems caused by state subsidies for business enterprises as one of the forms of SRB. The research also focuses on possibilities to enhance the effectiveness of business regulation. The main objects of this study are: state subsidies for business enterprises as a form of state intervention in the market, and the possible correlation between the specifications of subsidies and their effect on business. The evaluation presented in this study proved that EU subsidies had a direct positive influence on the effect of subsidies. The research into the influence of various subsidy criteria on the effect of subsidies revealed that a greater effect results from the rate rather than the size of funding.

  5. Mapping the potential of cross-border cooperation in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier; Vollmer, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Mapping the socio-economic potential of border regions can provide great insights as to where cross-border co-operation could be intensified in West Africa.......Mapping the socio-economic potential of border regions can provide great insights as to where cross-border co-operation could be intensified in West Africa....

  6. 78 FR 73875 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Canadian Border Boat Landing Permit (CBP Form I-68)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Canadian Border Boat... requirement concerning the Canadian Border Boat Landing Permit (Form I-68). This request for comment is being... information collection: Title: Canadian Border Boat Landing Permit. OMB Number: 1651-0108. Form Number: CBP...

  7. 76 FR 2917 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Canadian Border Boat Landing Permit (CBP Form I-68)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Canadian Border Boat... review and approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Canadian Border Boat Landing Permit..., mechanical, or other technological techniques or other forms of information. Title: Canadian Border Boat...

  8. 75 FR 61508 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Canadian Border Boat Landing Permit (CBP Form I-68)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Canadian Border Boat... concerning the Canadian Border Boat Landing Permit (Form I- ] 68). This request for comment is being made... information collection: Title: Canadian Border Boat Landing Permit. OMB Number: 1651-0108. Form Number: CBP...

  9. Mapping and assessing the environmental impacts of border tactical infrastructure in the Sky Island Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroline Patrick-Birdwell; Sergio Avila-Villegas; Jenny Neeley; Louise Misztal

    2013-01-01

    In this project we mapped the different types of border barriers, identified impacts of border infrastructure on public and private lands and conducted spatial analyses within the approximately 200 miles of international border in the Sky Island region. The Sky Island region, bisected by the U.S.-Mexico border, is critically important for its biodiversity and...

  10. Evaluating teaching effectiveness in nursing education:An Iranian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsali, Mahvash

    2005-01-01

    Background The main objective of this study was to determine the perceptions of Iranian nurse educators and students regarding the evaluation of teaching effectiveness in university-based programs. Methods An exploratory descriptive design was employed. 143 nurse educators in nursing faculties from the three universities in Tehran, 40 undergraduate, and 30 graduate students from Tehran University composed the study sample. In addition, deans from the three nursing faculties were interviewed. A researcher-developed questionnaire was used to determine the perceptions of both faculty and students about evaluating the teaching effectiveness of nurse educators, and an interview guide was employed to elicit the views of deans of faculties of nursing regarding evaluation policies and procedures. Data were analyzed using parametric and nonparametric statistics to identify similarities and differences in perceptions within the Iranian nurse educator group and the student group, and between these two groups of respondents. Results While faculty evaluation has always been a major part of university based nursing programs, faculty evaluation must be approached more analytically, objectively, and comprehensively to ensure that all nursing educators receive the fairest treatment possible and that the teaching-learning process is enhanced. Conclusion Educators and students stressed that systematic and continuous evaluation as well as staff development should be the primary goals for the faculty evaluation process. The ultimate goals is the improvement of teaching by nurse educators. PMID:16045808

  11. Methodology of investment effectiveness evaluation in the local energy market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamrat, W.

    1999-07-01

    The paper presents issues of investment effectiveness evaluation in the local energy market. Results of research presented in the paper are mainly proposing a concept of a methodology which allows the evaluation of investment processes in regional power markets at the decision-making stage. In this respect, selecting a rational investment strategy is an important stage of the entire investment process. In view of criteria of various nature, the construction of a methodology of investment effectiveness bears an especially important meaning for a local decision-maker or investor. It is of particular significance to countries that are undergoing a transition from a centrally planned economy to a market economy. (orig.)

  12. Evaluation of multimodal feedback effects on improving rowing competencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korman Maria

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the selection and preliminary evaluation of different types of modal and information feedback in virtual environment to facilitate acquisition and transfer of a complex motor-cognitive skill of rowing. Specifically, we addressed the effectiveness of immediate information feedback provided visually as compared to sensory haptic feedback on the improvement in hands kinematics and changes in cognitive load during the course of learning the basic rowing technique. Several pilot experiments described in this report lead to the evaluation and optimization of the training protocol, to enhance facilitatory effects of adding visual and haptic feedback during training.

  13. Cross-border ties and self-rated health status for young Latino adults in Southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Jacqueline M

    2013-03-01

    At the same time that health researchers have mostly ignored the cross-border nature of immigrant social networks, scholars of immigrant "transnationalism" have left health largely unexamined. This paper addresses this gap by analyzing the relationship between cross-border ties and self-rated health status for young Latino adults living in the greater Los Angeles area (n = 1268). Findings based on an ordered logistic regression analysis suggest that cross-border relationships may have both protective and adverse effects on overall health status. Specifically, those reporting a period of extended parental cross-border separation during childhood have lower odds of reporting better categories of self-rated health, all else equal. Conversely, a significant positive association was found between having a close relative living abroad and self-rated health status for foreign-born respondents when interacted with immigrant generation (foreign versus U.S.-born). Given the findings of significant negative and positive relationships between cross-border ties and self-rated general health status, I discuss the implications for future research on the social determinants of immigrant health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Role of Cross-border Mergers and Acquisitions in Foreign Direct Investment: Evidence from the Chinese Stock Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hua An

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this treatise, we provide empirical evidence based on stock and operating performance measures to show how cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&As are different from domestic transactions from the perspective of foreign acquirers. We analyze the shareholder wealth effect from 663 domestic and international M&As announced by Chinese corporations between 1994 and 2006. We have uncovered some differences between national and cross-border M&As. We find that foreign acquirers experience significantly higher stock and operating performance than transactions carried out only by domestic firms. Higher target gains for cross-border transactions are consistent with the acquirer's ability to correctly value or capture synergies in cross-border takeovers. We also examine the source of wealth gains in Chinese targets of foreign acquirers. We find that the exchange rate and taxes are more important in justifying the target premium in foreign takeovers than in domestic takeovers. Taken together, our results suggest that the realization of synergy is the main motive behind foreign takeovers. We also analyze the role of corporate governance in cross-border M&As. Consistent with our hypothesis, the dummy for B shares or H shares is positively related with the takeover premium, indicating that strong corporate governance standards influence the valuation process in transition economies.

  15. Activation effectiveness evaluation of innovation activity processes of the enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Елена Александровна Плахотник

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite the national importance of innovative activity development in Ukraine, clear relationship to the innovative process has not yet formed. There are a number of outstanding issues concerning the methods for activation effectiveness evaluation of innovative activity of the enterprises, identifying priority allocation of financial resources in the course of innovation. The ways of improving analytical methods for activity effectiveness evaluation of innovative activity of the enterprises in different sectors of the national economy are discussed in the article. They are based on the performances of their economic, social and technological development. The practical aspects of implementation of the methodology for effectiveness evaluation of innovative activity are developed. They can be used as the basis for approaches to the formation and evaluation of the implementation of the state industrial policy of Ukraine. It is proved that economy modernization, based on the formation of high-tech resources in the real economy, and effective participation of innovative activities in economic circulation allows economic growth in the conditions of new economy. Technology can effectively develop only under appropriate forms and methods of institutionalization and socialization. The complex nature of the processes of innovative development of domestic enterprises has predetermined the need for effective implementation of innovation level measurement system based on the definition of the integral performance index of their implementation and related sub-indices in its structure, based on a four-level hierarchical model. Integral performance indicator is a vector with the components of the sub-indices by kinds of influence factors. The proposed approach to the analysis of the activation effectiveness of innovative activity of the enterprises can be the basis for approaches to the development and evaluation of the implementation of the state industrial

  16. Exposure to Engineered Nanomaterial Results in Disruption of Brush Borders in Epithelia Models in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, James J.

    Engineered nanoparticles (NP; 10-9 m) have found use in a variety of consumer goods and medical devices because of the unique changes in material properties that occur when synthesized on the nanoscale. Although many definitions for nanoparticle exist, from the perspective of size, nanoparticle is defined as particles with diameters less than 100 nm in any external dimension. Examples of their use include titanium dioxide added as a pigment in products intended to be ingested by humans, silicon dioxide NPs are used in foods as an anticaking agent, and gold or iron oxide NPs can be used as vectors for drug delivery or contrast agents for specialized medical imaging. Although the intended use of these NPs is often to improve human health, it has come to the attention of investigators that NPs can have unintended or even detrimental effects on the organism. This work describes one such unintended effect of NP exposure from the perspective of exposure via the oral route. First, this Dissertation will explain an event referred to as brush border disruption that occurred after nanoparticles interacted with an in vitro model of the human intestinal epithelium. Second, this Dissertation will identify and characterize several consumer goods that were shown to contain titanium dioxide that are intended to be ingested. Third, this Dissertation shows that sedimentation due to gravity does not artifactually result in disruption of brush borders as a consequence of exposure to food grade titanium dioxide in vitro. Finally, this Dissertation will demonstrate that iron oxide nanoparticles elicited similar effects after exposure to an in vitro brush border expressing model of the human placenta. Together, these data suggest that brush border disruption is not an artifact of the material/cell culture model, but instead represents a bona fide biological response as a result of exposure to nanomaterial.

  17. Restoration of motion-blurred image based on border deformation detection: a traffic sign restoration model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiliang Zeng

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid development of motor vehicle Driver Assistance Systems (DAS, the safety problems associated with automatic driving have become a hot issue in Intelligent Transportation. The traffic sign is one of the most important tools used to reinforce traffic rules. However, traffic sign image degradation based on computer vision is unavoidable during the vehicle movement process. In order to quickly and accurately recognize traffic signs in motion-blurred images in DAS, a new image restoration algorithm based on border deformation detection in the spatial domain is proposed in this paper. The border of a traffic sign is extracted using color information, and then the width of the border is measured in all directions. According to the width measured and the corresponding direction, both the motion direction and scale of the image can be confirmed, and this information can be used to restore the motion-blurred image. Finally, a gray mean grads (GMG ratio is presented to evaluate the image restoration quality. Compared to the traditional restoration approach which is based on the blind deconvolution method and Lucy-Richardson method, our method can greatly restore motion blurred images and improve the correct recognition rate. Our experiments show that the proposed method is able to restore traffic sign information accurately and efficiently.

  18. Galectin-2 at the enterocyte brush border of the small intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Martha Kampp; Hansen, Gert H; Danielsen, E Michael

    2009-01-01

    The brush border of pig small intestine is a local hotspot for beta-galactoside-recognizing lectins, as evidenced by its prominent labeling with fluorescent lectin PNA. Previously, galectins 3-4, intelectin, and lectin-like anti-glycosyl antibodies have been localized to this important body...... boundary. Together with the membrane glycolipids these lectins form stable lipid raft microdomains that also harbour several of the major digestive microvillar enzymes. In the present work, we identified a lactose-sensitive 14-kDa protein enriched in a microvillar detergent resistant fraction as galectin-2....... Its release from closed, right-side-out microvillar membrane vesicles shows that at least some of the galectin-2 resides at the lumenal surface of the brush border, indicating that it plays a role in the organization/stabilization of the lipid raft domains. Galectin-2 was released more effectively...

  19. Evaluating the effectiveness of case method instruction in technical communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, S. G.

    1981-01-01

    The effectiveness of the case method as an instructional technique in improving technical writing was evaluated. The development of a self-report instrument that attempts to measure changes in attitude toward technical communication and the presentation results change are the purpose of this paper. Standards for developing a case set forth by Goldstein and Couture, were used to design an evaluation instrument to measure the effect instruction on student attitude toward technical communication. This self-report instrument is based on model developed and tested by Daly and Miller who studied writer attitude and apprehension toward writing. It was the most important objective of any evaluation is to provide information for improving the program.

  20. Drop coalescence and liquid flow in a single Plateau border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Alexandre; Fraysse, Nathalie; Raufaste, Christophe

    2015-05-01

    We report a comprehensive study of the flow of liquid triggered by injecting a droplet into a liquid foam microchannel, also called a Plateau border. This drop-injected experiment reveals an intricate dynamics for the liquid redistribution, with two contrasting regimes observed, ruled either by inertia or viscosity. We devoted a previous study [A. Cohen et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 218303 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.218303] to the inertial imbibition regime, unexpected at such small length scales. Here we report other features of interest of the drop-injected experiment, related to the coalescence of the droplet with the liquid microchannel, to both the inertial and viscous regimes, and to the occurrence of liquid flow through the soap films as well as effects of the interfacial rheology. The transition between the two regimes is investigated and qualitatively accounted for. The relevance of our results to liquid foam drainage is tackled by considering the flow of liquid at the nodes of the network of interconnected microchannels. Extensions of our study to liquid foams are discussed.