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Sample records for euthanasia animal

  1. Impact of euthanasia rates, euthanasia practices, and human resource practices on employee turnover in animal shelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogelberg, Steven G; Reeve, Charlie L; Spitzmüller, Christiane; DiGiacomo, Natalie; Clark, Olga L; Teeter, Lisa; Walker, Alan G; Starling, Paula G; Carter, Nathan T

    2007-03-01

    To examine the effects of euthanasia rates, euthanasia practices, and human resource practices on the turnover rate among employees with euthanasia responsibilities at animal shelters. Cross-sectional original study. 36 shelters across the United States that employed at least 5 full-time employees and performed euthanasia on site. By mail, 1 survey was sent to each shelter. Surveys were completed by a senior member of management and were returned by mail. Questions assessed characteristics (eg, euthanasia rates) and practices of the animal shelter, along with employee turnover rates. By use of correlation coefficients and stepwise regression analyses, key predictors of turnover rates among employees with euthanasia responsibilities were investigated. Employee turnover rates were positively related to euthanasia rate. Practices that were associated with decreased turnover rates included provision of a designated euthanasia room, exclusion of other live animals from vicinity during euthanasia, and removal of euthanized animals from a room prior to entry of another animal to be euthanized. Making decisions regarding euthanasia of animals on the basis of factors other than behavior and health reasons was related to increased personnel turnover. With regard to human resources practices, shelters that used a systematic personnel selection procedure (eg, standardized testing) had comparatively lower employee turnover. Data obtained may suggest several specific avenues that can be pursued to mitigate turnover among employees with euthanasia responsibilities at animal shelters and animal control or veterinary medical organizations.

  2. Euthanasia of Small Animals with Nitrogen; Comparison with Intravenous Pentobarbital

    OpenAIRE

    Quine, John P.; Buckingham, William; Strunin, Leo

    1988-01-01

    Intravenous pentobarbital (with or without addition of saturated potassium chloride) was compared with nitrogen gas exposure for euthanasia of small animals (dogs, cats, and rabbits) in a humane society environment. Initially, electrocardiographic) and electroencephalographic monitoring were used to establish the time of death in presedated animals given either pentobarbital or exposed to nitrogen; later, nitrogen euthanasia alone was studied. Sedation with acepromazine delayed the effects of...

  3. Attitudes of Austrian veterinarians towards euthanasia in small animal practice: impacts of age and gender on views on euthanasia

    OpenAIRE

    Hartnack, Sonja; Springer, Svenja; Pittavino, Marta; Grimm, Herwig

    2016-01-01

    Background Euthanasia of pets has been described by veterinarians as ?the best and the worst? of the profession. The most commonly mentioned ethical dilemmas veterinarians face in small animal practice are: limited treatment options due to financial constraints, euthanizing of healthy animals and owners wishing to continue treatment of terminally ill animals. The aim of the study was to gain insight into the attitudes of Austrian veterinarians towards euthanasia of small animals. This include...

  4. Guidelines for euthanasia of laboratory animals used in biomedical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Baias,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory animals are used in several fields of science research, especially in biology, medicine and veterinary medicine. The majority of laboratory animals used in research are experimental models that replace the human body in study regarding pharmacological or biological safety products, studies conducted for a betterunderstanding of oncologic processes, toxicology, genetic studies or even new surgical techniques. Experimental protocols include a stage in which animals are euthanized in order to remove organs and tissues,or for no unnecessary pain and suffering of animals (humane endpoints or to mark the end of research. The result of euthanasia techniques is a rapid loss of consciousness followed by cardiac arrest, respiratory arrest and disruption of brain activity. Nowadays, the accepted euthanasia techniques can use chemicals (inhalant agents like: carbon dioxide, nitrogen or argon, overdoses of injectable anesthetics or physical methods (decapitation, cervical spine dislocation, stunning, gunshot, pitching.

  5. Euthanasia of rats with carbon dioxide--animal welfare aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackbarth, H; Küppers, N; Bohnet, W

    2000-01-01

    A method of inducing euthanasia by carbon dioxide (CO2) inhalation in the home cage of an animal is described and tested for distress by behavioural as well as by hormonal measures. The animals were maintained in their home cage while CO2 was induced at a flow of 6 l/min. The behaviour of the animals was measured continuously as were the serum concentrations of glucose, ACTH and corticosterone 30, 75 and 120 s after the CO2 was introduced into the cage. In order to test for distress, two groups of rats were pre-treated with acepromazine (orally) and pentobarbiturate (i.p. injection) respectively, in order to reduce possible distress caused by CO2 euthanasia, and were compared with control groups. There were no signs of distress by behavioural or by hormonal changes. All changes seen could be attributed to experimental effects and, especially as there was no difference between the pre-treated and the control groups of rats, it must be assumed that the described method of euthanasia is in concordance with animal welfare, it leads to rapid death without severe distress or pain, and it seems therefore to be 'humane'.

  6. [Euthanasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julesz, Máté

    2013-04-28

    The problem of euthanasia emerges again and again in today's Europe. The Dutch type of regulation of euthanasia could be introduced into the Hungarian legal system. Today, in Hungary, the ethical guidelines of the chamber of medicine, the criminal law and the administrative health law also forbid active euthanasia. In Hungary, the criminal code reform of 2012 missed to liberalise the regulation of euthanasia. Such liberalisation awaits bottom-up support from the part of the society. In Europe, active euthanasia is legal only in the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxemburg and Switzerland. In Hungary, a passive form of euthanasia is legal, i.e. a dying patient may, under strict procedural circumstances, refuse medical treatment. The patient is not allowed to refuse medical treatment, if she is pregnant and foreseeably capable to give birth to her child.

  7. Euthanasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    Euthanasia means to cause humane death. Some current euthanasia techniques may become unacceptable over time and be replaced by new techniques as more data are gathered and evaluated. The following information and recommendations are based largely on the 1993 report of the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) Panel on Euthanasia. The recommendations in the panel report were intended to serve as guidelines, and they require the use of professional judgement for specific situations. Ultimately, it is the responsibility of those persons carrying out euthanasia to assure that it is done in the most humane manner possible.

  8. Euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, D W

    1992-01-01

    The principles of self-determination and individual well-being support the use of voluntary euthanasia by those who do not have moral or professional objections to it. Opponents of this posture cite the ethical wrongness of the act itself and the folly of any public or legal policy permitting euthanasia. Positive consequences of making euthanasia legally permissible respect the autonomy of competent patients desiring it, expand the population of patients who can choose the option, and release the dying patient from otherwise prolonged suffering and agony. Potentially bad consequences of permitting euthanasia include the undermining of the "moral center" of medicine by allowing physicians to kill, the weakening of society's commitment to provide optimal care for dying patients, and, of greatest concern, the "slippery slope" argument. The evaluation of the arguments leads to support for euthanasia, with its performance not incompatible with a physician's professional commitment.

  9. 42 CFR 9.6 - Animal care, well-being, husbandry, veterinary care, and euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Animal care, well-being, husbandry, veterinary care... SYSTEM § 9.6 Animal care, well-being, husbandry, veterinary care, and euthanasia. (a) What are the... chimpanzees can be trained through positive reinforcement to cooperate with a variety of veterinary and...

  10. Survey of U.S. zoo and aquarium animal care staff attitudes regarding humane euthanasia for population management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, David M; Ardaiolo, Matthew

    2016-05-01

    The humane euthanasia of animals for population management, or culling, has been suggested as one possible tool for managing animal populations for sustainability, and recent, highly publicized euthanasia of zoo animals in Copenhagen has stimulated global conversation about population management in zoos. We conducted a nationwide survey of U.S. zoo and aquarium personnel, including keepers, managers, and leaders of AZA animal programs, to assess their overall attitudes regarding population management euthanasia. The surveyed populations were generally very aware of the concept of population management euthanasia. Managers and animal program leaders were more supportive of euthanasia than keepers. We found that regardless of role, men were more supportive of euthanasia than women. Those personnel who were aware of instances of population management euthanasia at their institutions before were more supportive of it than those who were not. Support for culling varied with the kind of animal being considered for it, with three general taxon acceptability groupings emerging. Education, tenure in the profession, taxonomic expertise, and whether or not the responder took the survey before or after the Copenhagen events were not strong predictors of attitudes. Overall, the surveyed populations were approximately evenly split in terms of being in favor of euthanasia, not supporting euthanasia, or being unsure. Most responders indicated that they would be more likely to accept culling if more information was provided on its rationale. These results will form the basis for further discussions on the role of humane euthanasia for population management. Zoo Biol. 35:187-200, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Relationship between sources of pet acquisition and euthanasia of cats and dogs in an animal shelter: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbe Montoya, A I; Rand, J S; Greer, R M; Alberthsen, C; Vankan, D

    2017-06-01

    Approximately 140,000 unwanted dogs and cats are culled in Australia annually. There is a paucity of information linking sources of pet acquisition with subsequent euthanasia, which may inform evidence-based strategies to reduce euthanasia rates. This pilot study aimed to determine whether there is a higher risk of euthanasia related to the source of acquisition for pets surrendered to an animal shelter. Data for 5391 dogs and 5581 cats surrendered to one Queensland shelter between January 2006 and December 2009 were analysed. The main sources of acquisition for owner-surrendered dogs were 'shelter' and 'pet shop' and for owner-surrendered cats were 'own litter' and 'shelter'. Euthanasia rates for different sources varied. For adult dogs, acquisition through newspaper advertisements was associated with the highest euthanasia rate. Adult cats obtained as gifts (from friend or family member) had the highest euthanasia rate. For junior cats, the overwhelming source was the owner's own litter (68% of intake) and only kittens acquired as strays were at significantly higher risk of euthanasia. For both dogs and cats, animals acquired from shelters had lower rates of euthanasia than most other sources, which suggests that shelter-sourced animals may be considered a preferred source for pet acquisition to assist in reducing the number of adoptable pets euthanased. There was evidence from the study animal shelter that the risk of euthanasia was related to acquisition source. These findings should be confirmed by prospective studies, which should also investigate the interaction between acquisition source and other factors, using larger data sets from a variety of shelters. © 2017 Australian Veterinary Association.

  12. Impact of the economic recession on companion animal relinquishment, adoption, and euthanasia: a Chicago animal shelter's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Hsin-Yi; Hart, Lynette A

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated how the current economic recession (since December 2007) has affected dog and cat relinquishment, adoption, and euthanasia at the Anti-Cruelty Society animal shelter in Chicago, Illinois. The study compared temporal patterns of the investigated statistics before (2000-2007) the start of the current recession with the patterns after the start of the recession (2008-2010). The results showed that once the guardianship (ownership) of a nonhuman animal had been established, the recession did not greatly affect the owner's decision on relinquishment-except for the relinquishment of senior dogs, which may be associated with increased costs of care. However, an unfavorable economic environment may have reduced adoption of animals. The consequences of a decline in adoptions might be reflected in an increase in the proportion or number of sheltered animals euthanized. This study demonstrated how monitoring changes in temporal patterns in these shelter statistics can help guide animal shelters to better prepare for the current recession.

  13. A Good Death? Report of the Second Newcastle Meeting on Laboratory Animal Euthanasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Penny; Prescott, Mark J.; Carbone, Larry; Dennison, Ngaire; Johnson, Craig; Makowska, I. Joanna; Marquardt, Nicole; Readman, Gareth; Weary, Daniel M.; Golledge, Huw D. R.

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Millions of laboratory animals are killed each year worldwide. However, there is a lack of consensus regarding what methods of killing are humane for many species and stages of development. This report summarises research findings and discussions from an international meeting of experts and stakeholders, with recommendations to inform good practice for humane killing of mice, rats and zebrafish. It provides additional guidance and perspectives for researchers designing projects that involve euthanasing animals, researchers studying aspects of humane killing, euthanasia device manufacturers, regulators, and institutional ethics or animal care and use committees that wish to review local practice. Abstract Millions of laboratory animals are killed each year worldwide. There is an ethical, and in many countries also a legal, imperative to ensure those deaths cause minimal suffering. However, there is a lack of consensus regarding what methods of killing are humane for many species and stages of development. In 2013, an international group of researchers and stakeholders met at Newcastle University, United Kingdom to discuss the latest research and which methods could currently be considered most humane for the most commonly used laboratory species (mice, rats and zebrafish). They also discussed factors to consider when making decisions about appropriate techniques for particular species and projects, and priorities for further research. This report summarises the research findings and discussions, with recommendations to help inform good practice for humane killing. PMID:27563926

  14. Ethical dilemmas encountered by small animal veterinarians: characterisation, responses, consequences and beliefs regarding euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipperman, Barry; Morris, Patricia; Rollin, Bernard

    2018-05-12

    Small animal veterinarians' opinions were investigated regarding the frequency and nature of ethical dilemmas encountered, beliefs regarding euthanasia and balancing client and animal interests, prevalence and value of ethics training and proposals to mitigate the stressful effects of ethical dilemmas. The majority (52 per cent) of 484 respondents in the USA indicated via an online survey experiencing an ethical dilemma regarding the interests of clients and those of their patients at least weekly. Scenarios involving client financial concerns were commonly reported causes of ethical conflicts. While only 20 per cent of respondents indicated that other practitioners prioritise patient interests, 50 per cent of respondents characterised their own behaviour as prioritising patients. Most respondents (52 per cent) reported that ethical dilemmas are the leading cause, or are one of many equal causes, of work-related stress. Less experienced practitioners, general practitioners and associate veterinarians were more likely to encounter situations they defined as ethical dilemmas, and female respondents were more likely to find ethical dilemmas stressful. Most small animal veterinarians experience ethical dilemmas regularly, which contribute to moral stress. Results suggested that most small animal practitioners believe that greater awareness of moral stress and providing training in ethical theories and tools for coping with ethical dilemmas can ameliorate moral stress. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. A systematic review of the effects of euthanasia and occupational stress in personnel working with animals in animal shelters, veterinary clinics, and biomedical research facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotney, Rebekah L; McLaughlin, Deirdre; Keates, Helen L

    2015-11-15

    The study of occupational stress and compassion fatigue in personnel working in animal-related occupations has gained momentum over the last decade. However, there remains incongruence in understanding what is currently termed compassion fatigue and the associated unique contributory factors. Furthermore, there is minimal established evidence of the likely influence of these conditions on the health and well-being of individuals working in various animal-related occupations. To assess currently available evidence and terminology regarding occupational stress and compassion fatigue in personnel working in animal shelters, veterinary clinics, and biomedical research facilities. Studies were identified by searching the following electronic databases with no publication date restrictions: ProQuest Research Library, ProQuest Social Science Journals, PsycARTICLES, Web of Science, Science Direct, Scopus, PsychINFO databases, and Google Scholar. Search terms included (euthanasia AND animals) OR (compassion fatigue AND animals) OR (occupational stress AND animals). Only articles published in English in peer-reviewed journals that included use of quantitative or qualitative techniques to investigate the incidence of occupational stress or compassion fatigue in the veterinary profession or animal-related occupations were included. On the basis of predefined criteria, 1 author extracted articles, and the data set was then independently reviewed by the other 2 authors. 12 articles met the selection criteria and included a variety of study designs and methods of data analysis. Seven studies evaluated animal shelter personnel, with the remainder evaluating veterinary nurses and technicians (2), biomedical research technicians (1), and personnel in multiple animal-related occupations (2). There was a lack of consistent terminology and agreed definitions for the articles reviewed. Personnel directly engaged in euthanasia reported significantly higher levels of work stress and lower

  16. Euthanasia in small animals in Teresina – PI/ Eutanásia em pequenos animais em Teresina – PI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel Cardoso Saraiva de Almeida

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Euthanasia is a procedure frequently utilized in small animals with the objective to minimize suffering. In this way, it was realized the survey about reasons that leave the practitioner to realize the procedure and who are these animals. It was analyzed 17406 medical records. It was observed 166 euthanasia corresponding to 0.95%. The percentage of the euthanazied dogs were 97.59% and 2.41% felines. In relation to breed 26.10% were mongrel dogs, 20.48% German sheepherd, 9.04% Brazilian fila, 7.23% Pekinese and 36.75% other breeds. In relation to age, it was observed that 60.84% have 0 – 3 year, 15.06% 3 – 6 year, 4.82% 6 – 9 year, 4.22% 9 – 12 year, 1.2% above 12 year and 13.86% unknown age. About the reason of the euthanasia, 64.60% was sacrificed due to visceral leishmaniosis (calazar, 12.65% due to distemper and 22.89% due to other diseases. It was concluded that the most animals submitted to euthanasia were young, differently of the other countries. Among principal death reasons, it was included also infectious diseases that can be prevented by adequate vaccination.A eutanásia é um procedimento utilizado com freqüência em pequenos animais, com o objetivo principal de aliviar o sofrimento. Desta forma, realizou-se um levantamento sobre os motivos que levam um veterinário a indicá-la e quais são estes animais. Foram analisadas 17406 fichas, onde se observaram 166 eutanásias o que corresponde a 0,95%. A percentagem de cães eutanasiados foi de 97,59% e a de felinos 2,41%. Em relação à raça, 26,10% dos animais era sem raça definida, 20,48% pastor alemão, 9,04% fila brasileiro, 7,23% pequinês e 36, 75% outras raças. Com respeito à idade, registrou-se que 60,84% tinham entre 0 e 3 anos, 15,06% 3 e 6 anos, 4,82% 6 e 9 anos, 4,22% 9 e 12 anos, 1,20% acima de 12 anos e 13,86% idade desconhecida. Sobre o motivo da eutanásia, 64,60% dos animais foram eutanasiados devido à Leishmaniose Visceral Canina (calazar, 12,65% devido a

  17. Voluntary euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewin, Thurstan B

    1986-05-10

    Brewin comments upon James Rachels' The End of Life (Oxford University Press; 1986) and Voluntary Euthanasia (Peter Owen; 1986), a compilation edited by A.B. Downing and B. Smoker that is an expanded version of a 1969 work by Britain's Voluntary Euthanasia Society. Rachels maintains that it is illogical to distinguish between active and passive euthanasia. In Voluntary Euthanasia, 17 contributors argue the pros and cons of the issue. The Voluntary Euthanasia Society proposes that mentally competent persons be allowed by law to request euthanasia, either when taken ill or by advance directive. Brewin says he is almost but not quite convinced by the arguments for legalized voluntary euthanasia. He is concerned about the "slippery slope," the uncertainties of prognosis and quality of life judgments, the pressures to which the terminally ill or aged might be subjected, and the potentially negative impact of euthanasia on the physician patient relationship.

  18. The Impact of an Integrated Program of Return-to-Field and Targeted Trap-Neuter-Return on Feline Intake and Euthanasia at a Municipal Animal Shelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spehar, Daniel D; Wolf, Peter J

    2018-04-13

    Available evidence indicates that overall levels of feline intake and euthanasia at U.S. shelters have significantly declined in recent decades. Nevertheless, millions of cats, many of them free-roaming, continue to be admitted to shelters each year. In some locations, as many as 70% of cats, perhaps up to one million or more per year nationally, are euthanized. New approaches, including return-to-field (RTF) and targeted trap-neuter-return (TNR) appear to have transformative potential. The purpose of the present study was to examine changes in feline intake and euthanasia, as well as additional associated metrics, at a municipal animal shelter in Albuquerque, New Mexico, after institutionalized RTF and targeted TNR protocols, together referred to as a community cat program (CCP), were added to ongoing community-based TNR efforts and a pilot RTF initiative. Over the course of the CCP, which ran from April 2012 to March 2015, 11,746 cats were trapped, sterilized, vaccinated, and returned or adopted. Feline euthanasia at the Albuquerque Animal Welfare Department (AAWD) declined by 84.1% and feline intake dropped by 37.6% over three years; the live release rate (LRR) increased by 47.7% due primarily to these reductions in both intake and euthanasia. Modest increases in the percentage of cats returned to owner (RTO) and the adoption rate were also observed, although both metrics decreased on an absolute basis, while the number of calls to the city about dead cats declined.

  19. The Impact of an Integrated Program of Return-to-Field and Targeted Trap-Neuter-Return on Feline Intake and Euthanasia at a Municipal Animal Shelter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel D. Spehar

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Available evidence indicates that overall levels of feline intake and euthanasia at U.S. shelters have significantly declined in recent decades. Nevertheless, millions of cats, many of them free-roaming, continue to be admitted to shelters each year. In some locations, as many as 70% of cats, perhaps up to one million or more per year nationally, are euthanized. New approaches, including return-to-field (RTF and targeted trap-neuter-return (TNR appear to have transformative potential. The purpose of the present study was to examine changes in feline intake and euthanasia, as well as additional associated metrics, at a municipal animal shelter in Albuquerque, New Mexico, after institutionalized RTF and targeted TNR protocols, together referred to as a community cat program (CCP, were added to ongoing community-based TNR efforts and a pilot RTF initiative. Over the course of the CCP, which ran from April 2012 to March 2015, 11,746 cats were trapped, sterilized, vaccinated, and returned or adopted. Feline euthanasia at the Albuquerque Animal Welfare Department (AAWD declined by 84.1% and feline intake dropped by 37.6% over three years; the live release rate (LRR increased by 47.7% due primarily to these reductions in both intake and euthanasia. Modest increases in the percentage of cats returned to owner (RTO and the adoption rate were also observed, although both metrics decreased on an absolute basis, while the number of calls to the city about dead cats declined.

  20. Report on first certificate course on applied physiology of pain, analgesia, anesthesia, and euthanasia for laboratory animals held in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunatilake, Mangala

    2018-06-01

    Similar to human beings, pain is an unpleasant sensation experienced by animals as well. There is no exception when the animals are subjected to experimental procedures. Our duty as researchers/scientists is to prevent or minimize the pain in animals so as to lessen their suffering and distress during experimental procedures. The basics of the physiology of pain and pain perception, analgesia, anesthesia, and euthanasia of laboratory animals were included to complete the program, before the practical part was attempted and before advanced topics, such as comparison of anesthetic combinations, were discussed. Therefore, this course was organized in Sri Lanka for the first time in collaboration with the Comparative Biology Centre of Newcastle University, UK. During this course, we were able to demonstrate how an anesthesia machine could be used in laboratory animal anesthesia for the first time in the country. None of the animal houses in the country were equipped with an anesthesia machine at the time of conducting the course.

  1. A Good Death? Report of the Second Newcastle Meeting on Laboratory Animal Euthanasia

    OpenAIRE

    Hawkins, Penny; Prescott, Mark J.; Carbone, Larry; Dennison, Ngaire; Johnson, Craig; Makowska, I. Joanna; Marquardt, Nicole; Readman, Gareth; Weary, Daniel M.; Golledge, Huw D. R.

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Millions of laboratory animals are killed each year worldwide. However, there is a lack of consensus regarding what methods of killing are humane for many species and stages of development. This report summarises research findings and discussions from an international meeting of experts and stakeholders, with recommendations to inform good practice for humane killing of mice, rats and zebrafish. It provides additional guidance and perspectives for researchers designing projects...

  2. A Good Death? Report of the Second Newcastle Meeting on Laboratory Animal Euthanasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penny Hawkins

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Millions of laboratory animals are killed each year worldwide. There is an ethical, and in many countries also a legal, imperative to ensure those deaths cause minimal suffering. However, there is a lack of consensus regarding what methods of killing are humane for many species and stages of development. In 2013, an international group of researchers and stakeholders met at Newcastle University, United Kingdom to discuss the latest research and which methods could currently be considered most humane for the most commonly used laboratory species (mice, rats and zebrafish. They also discussed factors to consider when making decisions about appropriate techniques for particular species and projects, and priorities for further research. This report summarises the research findings and discussions, with recommendations to help inform good practice for humane killing.

  3. [Active euthanasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folker, A P; Hvidt, N

    1995-02-20

    The growing interest in the subject of active euthanasia in connection with the debate regarding legalization of such practices in Denmark necessitates taking a definite standpoint. The difference in concept between active and passive euthanasia is stressed, and the Dutch guidelines are reviewed. The article discusses how far the patient's autonomy should go, as it regards the consideration of self-determination as being too narrow a criterion in itself. The discussion on the quality of life is included, and the consequences of the process of expulsion as a sociological concept are considered--the risk of a patient feeling guilty for being alive and therefore feeling compelled to request active euthanasia. The changed function of the physician is underlined, and it is discussed whether active euthansia will cause a breach of confidence between the physician and his patient. In connection with the debate the following tendencies in society are emphasized: lack of clarity, increasing medicalization and utilitarian priorities.

  4. Neonatal euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kon, Alexander A

    2009-12-01

    Despite advances in the care of infants, there remain many newborns whose medical conditions are incompatible with sustained life. At times, healthcare providers and parents may agree that prolonging life is not an appropriate goal of care, and they may redirect treatment to alleviate suffering. While pediatric palliative treatment protocols are gaining greater acceptance, there remain some children whose suffering is unrelenting despite maximal efforts. Due to the realization that some infants suffer unbearably (ie, the burdens of suffering outweigh the benefits of life), the Dutch have developed a protocol for euthanizing these newborns. In this review, I examine the ethical aspects of 6 forms of end of life care, explain the ethical arguments in support of euthanasia, review the history and verbiage of the United States regulations governing limiting and withdrawing life-prolonging interventions in infants, describe the 3 categories of neonates for whom the Dutch provide euthanasia, review the published analyses of the Dutch protocol, and finally present some practical considerations should some form of euthanasia ever be deemed appropriate.

  5. Eutanasia Euthanasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Gherardi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Los avances de la medicina en el área tecnológica respecto de la aplicación de métodos de soporte vital en el paciente crítico y las modificaciones culturales que se han operado en la sociedad contemporánea con relación al derecho de los pacientes a decidir sobre el final de sus vidas, hacen imprescindible disponer de una definición de eutanasia que atienda la vigencia de este nuevo escenario. La exclusión de las llamadas formas pasivas y en general de la omisión como procedimiento o conducta posible para la provocación de la muerte y la necesidad de la voluntariedad explícita del paciente delimitarían muy concretamente el concepto de eutanasia. Del mismo modo, una referencia concreta sobre el modo de provocar la muerte debería integrar obligatoriamente su definición. Así, la eutanasia significaría básicamente provocar la muerte de un paciente portador de una enfermedad mortal, a su requerimiento y en su propio beneficio, por medio de la administración de un tóxico o veneno en dosis mortal. Esta definición muy restrictiva separaría la eutanasia de los casos de rechazo de tratamiento, aunque se produjera la muerte como resultado del mismo, y también de las situaciones en que la abstención o el retiro de un soporte vital en el paciente crítico permite la llegada de la muerte.Technological progress in medicine regarding the application of life-sustaining treatment in the critical patient and the cultural changes that have taken place in contemporary society with respect to the patients' right to decide over the end of their lives, demand the existence of a definition of euthanasia that will acknowledge this new scenario. The concept of euthanasia would be very specifically limited by the exclusion of so-called passive forms of euthanasia and of omission as a possible procedure to cause death and the need for the explicit request of the patient involved. Likewise, the definition of euthanasia should include a specific

  6. Euthanasia and criminal law

    OpenAIRE

    Ullrichová, Petra

    2008-01-01

    71 8. Summary- Euthanasia and criminal law Euthanasia is often regarded as a controversial topic that is being discussed all around the world. The legislative rules differ among the countries to various extent. The scope of this work is to offer a summary of legal regulations in euthanasia, particulary in the area of criminal law and a several examples of these regulations in Europe, USA and Australia. In the first chapter, the term of euthanasia is defined which is necessary for the purpose ...

  7. Euthanasia of Cattle: Practical Considerations and Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Jan Keith

    2018-04-17

    Acceptable methods for the euthanasia of cattle include overdose of an anesthetic, gunshot and captive bolt. The use of anesthetics for euthanasia is costly and complicates carcass disposal. These issues can be avoided by use of a physical method such as gunshot or captive bolt; however, each requires that certain conditions be met to assure an immediate loss of consciousness and death. For example, the caliber of firearm and type of bullet are important considerations when gunshot is used. When captive bolt is used, a penetrating captive bolt loaded with the appropriate powder charge and accompanied by a follow up (adjunctive) step to assure death are required. The success of physical methods also requires careful selection of the anatomic site for entry of a “free bullet” or “bolt” in the case of penetrating captive bolt. Disease eradication plans for animal health emergencies necessitate methods of euthanasia that will facilitate rapid and efficient depopulation of animals while preserving their welfare to the greatest extent possible. A portable pneumatic captive bolt device has been developed and validated as effective for use in mass depopulation scenarios. Finally, while most tend to focus on the technical aspects of euthanasia, it is extremely important that no one forget the human cost for those who may be required to perform the task of euthanasia on a regular basis. Symptoms including depression, grief, sleeplessness and destructive behaviors including alcoholism and drug abuse are not uncommon for those who participate in the euthanasia of animals.

  8. Euthanasia of Cattle: Practical Considerations and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Keith Shearer

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Acceptable methods for the euthanasia of cattle include overdose of an anesthetic, gunshot and captive bolt. The use of anesthetics for euthanasia is costly and complicates carcass disposal. These issues can be avoided by use of a physical method such as gunshot or captive bolt; however, each requires that certain conditions be met to assure an immediate loss of consciousness and death. For example, the caliber of firearm and type of bullet are important considerations when gunshot is used. When captive bolt is used, a penetrating captive bolt loaded with the appropriate powder charge and accompanied by a follow up (adjunctive step to assure death are required. The success of physical methods also requires careful selection of the anatomic site for entry of a “free bullet” or “bolt” in the case of penetrating captive bolt. Disease eradication plans for animal health emergencies necessitate methods of euthanasia that will facilitate rapid and efficient depopulation of animals while preserving their welfare to the greatest extent possible. A portable pneumatic captive bolt device has been developed and validated as effective for use in mass depopulation scenarios. Finally, while most tend to focus on the technical aspects of euthanasia, it is extremely important that no one forget the human cost for those who may be required to perform the task of euthanasia on a regular basis. Symptoms including depression, grief, sleeplessness and destructive behaviors including alcoholism and drug abuse are not uncommon for those who participate in the euthanasia of animals.

  9. Low-residue euthanasia of stranded mysticetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Craig A; McLellan, William A; Moore, Michael J; Barco, Susan G; Clarke, Elsburgh O; Thayer, Victoria G; Rowles, Teresa K

    2014-01-01

    Euthanasia of stranded large whales poses logistic, safety, pharmaceutical, delivery, public relations, and disposal challenges. Reasonable arguments may be made for allowing a stranded whale to expire naturally. However, slow cardiovascular collapse from gravitational effects outside of neutral buoyancy, often combined with severely debilitating conditions, motivate humane efforts to end the animal's suffering. The size of the animal and prevailing environmental conditions often pose safety concerns for stranding personnel, which take priority over other considerations. When considering chemical euthanasia, the size of the animal also necessitates large quantities of euthanasia agents. Drug residues are a concern for relay toxicity to scavengers, particularly for pentobarbital-containing euthanasia solutions. Pentobarbital is also an environmental concern because of its stability and long persistence in aquatic environments. We describe a euthanasia technique for stranded mysticetes using readily available, relatively inexpensive, preanesthetic and anesthetic drugs (midazolam, acepromazine, xylazine) followed by saturated KCl delivered via custom-made needles and a low-cost, basic, pressurized canister. This method provides effective euthanasia while moderating personnel exposure to hazardous situations and minimizing drug residues of concern for relay toxicity.

  10. Expected consequences of convenience euthanasia perceived by veterinarians in Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathwell-Deault, Dominick; Godard, Béatrice; Frank, Diane; Doizé, Béatrice

    2017-07-01

    In companion animal practice, convenience euthanasia (euthanasia of a physically and psychologically healthy animal) is recognized as one of the most difficult situations. There is little published on veterinary perceptions of the consequences of convenience euthanasia. A qualitative study on the subject based on interviews with 14 veterinarians was undertaken. The animal's interests in the dilemma of convenience euthanasia was taken into consideration, strictly from the point of view of the physical suffering and stress related to the procedure. The veterinarian's goal was to respect the animal's interests by controlling physical pain. Most often, veterinarians made their own interests and those of the owners a priority when considering the consequences of their decision to perform or refuse convenience euthanasia.

  11. Euthanasia using gaseous agents in laboratory rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentim, A M; Guedes, S R; Pereira, A M; Antunes, L M

    2016-08-01

    Several questions have been raised in recent years about the euthanasia of laboratory rodents. Euthanasia using inhaled agents is considered to be a suitable aesthetic method for use with a large number of animals simultaneously. Nevertheless, its aversive potential has been criticized in terms of animal welfare. The data available regarding the use of carbon dioxide (CO2), inhaled anaesthetics (such as isoflurane, sevoflurane, halothane and enflurane), as well as carbon monoxide and inert gases are discussed throughout this review. Euthanasia of fetuses and neonates is also addressed. A table listing currently available information to ease access to data regarding euthanasia techniques using gaseous agents in laboratory rodents was compiled. Regarding better animal welfare, there is currently insufficient evidence to advocate banning or replacing CO2 in the euthanasia of rodents; however, there are hints that alternative gases are more humane. The exposure to a volatile anaesthetic gas before loss of consciousness has been proposed by some scientific studies to minimize distress; however, the impact of such a measure is not clear. Areas of inconsistency within the euthanasia literature have been highlighted recently and stem from insufficient knowledge, especially regarding the advantages of the administration of isoflurane or sevoflurane over CO2, or other methods, before loss of consciousness. Alternative methods to minimize distress may include the development of techniques aimed at inducing death in the home cage of animals. Scientific outcomes have to be considered before choosing the most suitable euthanasia method to obtain the best results and accomplish the 3Rs (replacement, reduction and refinement). © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. The Choice of Euthanasia Method Affects Metabolic Serum Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierozan, Paula; Jernerén, Fredrik; Ransome, Yusuf; Karlsson, Oskar

    2017-08-01

    The impact of euthanasia methods on endocrine and metabolic parameters in rodent tissues and biological fluids is highly relevant for the accuracy and reliability of the data collected. However, few studies concerning this issue are found in the literature. We compared the effects of three euthanasia methods currently used in animal experimentation (i.e. decapitation, CO 2 inhalation and pentobarbital injection) on the serum levels of corticosterone, insulin, glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol and a range of free fatty acids in rats. The corticosterone and insulin levels were not significantly affected by the euthanasia protocol used. However, euthanasia by an overdose of pentobarbital (120 mg/kg intraperitoneal injection) increased the serum levels of glucose, and decreased cholesterol, stearic and arachidonic acids levels compared with euthanasia by CO 2 inhalation and decapitation. CO 2 inhalation appears to increase the serum levels of triglycerides, while euthanasia by decapitation induced no individual discrepant biomarker level. We conclude that choice of the euthanasia methods is critical for the reliability of serum biomarkers and indicate the importance of selecting adequate euthanasia methods for metabolic analysis in rodents. Decapitation without anaesthesia may be the most adequate method of euthanasia when taking both animal welfare and data quality in consideration. © 2017 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  13. Euthanasia and cryothanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minerva, Francesca; Sandberg, Anders

    2017-09-01

    In this article we discuss the moral and legal aspects of causing the death of a terminal patient in the hope of extending their life in the future. We call this theoretical procedure cryothanasia. We argue that administering cryothanasia is ethically different from administering euthanasia. Consequently, objections to euthanasia should not apply to cryothanasia, and cryothanasia could also be considered a legal option where euthanasia is illegal. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Euthanasia of Cattle: Practical Considerations and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Jan Keith

    2018-01-01

    Simple Summary Methods recognized as acceptable for the euthanasia of cattle include overdose of an anesthetic, gunshot and captive bolt. The most common injectable anesthetic agent used for euthanasia is pentobarbital and while it may be the preferred method for euthanasia in sensitive situations, it creates significant challenges for disposal of animal remains. Gunshot and captive bolt are the more common methods used on farms and ranches because they are inexpensive, humane and do not complicate carcass disposal. Firearms must be of the proper caliber and loaded with the proper ammunition. Captive bolt, equipped with a penetrating bolt, is to be used on adult animals, whereas the non-penetrating (mushroom head) bolt should be reserved for use in calves (three months of age or less). In addition to selection of the proper firearm or captive bolt, successful euthanasia requires use of the proper anatomic site and adjunctive steps to assure death. The indicators of unconsciousness and death must be clearly understood and confirmed in all situations involving euthanasia. Tools for the efficient depopulation of a large feedlot, dairy or beef cattle operation as may be required in a national animal health emergency situation have been developed and validated as effective. Finally, the human impact of euthanasia cannot be underestimated. Symptoms of mental illness including depression, grief, sleeplessness and destructive behaviors including alcoholism and drug abuse are not uncommon for those who participate in the euthanasia of animals. Abstract Acceptable methods for the euthanasia of cattle include overdose of an anesthetic, gunshot and captive bolt. The use of anesthetics for euthanasia is costly and complicates carcass disposal. These issues can be avoided by use of a physical method such as gunshot or captive bolt; however, each requires that certain conditions be met to assure an immediate loss of consciousness and death. For example, the caliber of firearm and

  15. Combining nitrous oxide with carbon dioxide decreases the time to loss of consciousness during euthanasia in mice--refinement of animal welfare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Aurelie A; Flecknell, Paul A; Golledge, Huw D R

    2012-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO(2)) is the most commonly used euthanasia agent for rodents despite potentially causing pain and distress. Nitrous oxide is used in man to speed induction of anaesthesia with volatile anaesthetics, via a mechanism referred to as the "second gas" effect. We therefore evaluated the addition of Nitrous Oxide (N(2)O) to a rising CO(2) concentration could be used as a welfare refinement of the euthanasia process in mice, by shortening the duration of conscious exposure to CO2. Firstly, to assess the effect of N(2)O on the induction of anaesthesia in mice, 12 female C57Bl/6 mice were anaesthetized in a crossover protocol with the following combinations: Isoflurane (5%)+O(2) (95%); Isoflurane (5%)+N(2)O (75%)+O(2) (25%) and N(2)O (75%)+O(2) (25%) with a total flow rate of 3 l/min (into a 7 l induction chamber). The addition of N(2)O to isoflurane reduced the time to loss of the righting reflex by 17.6%. Secondly, 18 C57Bl/6 and 18 CD1 mice were individually euthanized by gradually filling the induction chamber with either: CO(2) (20% of the chamber volume.min-1); CO(2)+N(2)O (20 and 60% of the chamber volume.min(-1) respectively); or CO(2)+Nitrogen (N(2)) (20 and 60% of the chamber volume.min-1). Arterial partial pressure (P(a)) of O(2) and CO(2) were measured as well as blood pH and lactate. When compared to the gradually rising CO(2) euthanasia, addition of a high concentration of N(2)O to CO(2) lowered the time to loss of righting reflex by 10.3% (Peuthanasia and hence may reduce the duration of any stress or distress to which mice are exposed during euthanasia.

  16. Euthanasia of rats with two concentrations of pentobarbitone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollen, Peter; Saxtorph, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Euthanasia of laboratory animals should be quick, painless and with a minimum of distress to the animal. Methods of euthanasia are the topic of an ongoing discussion, especially with respect to the degree of pain and distress associated with different methods. A common method of euthanasia of rats...... a reduced nociception, in the spine of rats receiving a mixture of pentobarbital and lidocaine, compared to rats receiving pentobarbital alone. However, it is our experience that visible signs of pain are not always observable during euthanasia. For this reason we performed a study comparing two...... concentrations of pentobarbitone (50 mg/ml vs. 200 mg/ml) for euthanasia in rats (n=12). The time point of loss of balance, immobility and respiratory stop were registered, and the behaviour was assessed from video recordings of the procedure. Our study revealed no differences between the two concentrations...

  17. Expected consequences of convenience euthanasia perceived by veterinarians in Quebec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathwell-Deault, Dominick; Godard, Béatrice; Frank, Diane; Doizé, Béatrice

    2017-01-01

    In companion animal practice, convenience euthanasia (euthanasia of a physically and psychologically healthy animal) is recognized as one of the most difficult situations. There is little published on veterinary perceptions of the consequences of convenience euthanasia. A qualitative study on the subject based on interviews with 14 veterinarians was undertaken. The animal’s interests in the dilemma of convenience euthanasia was taken into consideration, strictly from the point of view of the physical suffering and stress related to the procedure. The veterinarian’s goal was to respect the animal’s interests by controlling physical pain. Most often, veterinarians made their own interests and those of the owners a priority when considering the consequences of their decision to perform or refuse convenience euthanasia. PMID:28698691

  18. Euthanasia: Some Legal Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koza, Pamela

    1976-01-01

    Several sections of the Criminal Code of Canada which are relevant to the issue of euthanasia are discussed. In addition, the value placed on the sanctity of life by the law, the failure to recognize motive in cases of euthanasia, and disparate legal and medical definitions of death are also considered. (Author)

  19. Combining nitrous oxide with carbon dioxide decreases the time to loss of consciousness during euthanasia in mice--refinement of animal welfare?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelie A Thomas

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide (CO(2 is the most commonly used euthanasia agent for rodents despite potentially causing pain and distress. Nitrous oxide is used in man to speed induction of anaesthesia with volatile anaesthetics, via a mechanism referred to as the "second gas" effect. We therefore evaluated the addition of Nitrous Oxide (N(2O to a rising CO(2 concentration could be used as a welfare refinement of the euthanasia process in mice, by shortening the duration of conscious exposure to CO2. Firstly, to assess the effect of N(2O on the induction of anaesthesia in mice, 12 female C57Bl/6 mice were anaesthetized in a crossover protocol with the following combinations: Isoflurane (5%+O(2 (95%; Isoflurane (5%+N(2O (75%+O(2 (25% and N(2O (75%+O(2 (25% with a total flow rate of 3 l/min (into a 7 l induction chamber. The addition of N(2O to isoflurane reduced the time to loss of the righting reflex by 17.6%. Secondly, 18 C57Bl/6 and 18 CD1 mice were individually euthanized by gradually filling the induction chamber with either: CO(2 (20% of the chamber volume.min-1; CO(2+N(2O (20 and 60% of the chamber volume.min(-1 respectively; or CO(2+Nitrogen (N(2 (20 and 60% of the chamber volume.min-1. Arterial partial pressure (P(a of O(2 and CO(2 were measured as well as blood pH and lactate. When compared to the gradually rising CO(2 euthanasia, addition of a high concentration of N(2O to CO(2 lowered the time to loss of righting reflex by 10.3% (P<0.001, lead to a lower P(aO(2 (12.55 ± 3.67 mmHg, P<0.001, a higher lactataemia (4.64 ± 1.04 mmol.l(-1, P = 0.026, without any behaviour indicative of distress. Nitrous oxide reduces the time of conscious exposure to gradually rising CO(2 during euthanasia and hence may reduce the duration of any stress or distress to which mice are exposed during euthanasia.

  20. Rethinking voluntary euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyles, Byron J; Costreie, Sorin

    2013-12-01

    Our goal in this article is to explicate the way, and the extent to which, euthanasia can be voluntary from both the perspective of the patient and the perspective of the health care providers involved in the patient's care. More significantly, we aim to challenge the way in which those engaged in ongoing philosophical debates regarding the morality of euthanasia draw distinctions between voluntary, involuntary, and nonvoluntary euthanasia on the grounds that drawing the distinctions in the traditional manner (1) fails to reflect what is important from the patient's perspective and (2) fails to reflect the significance of health care providers' interests, including their autonomy and integrity.

  1. Difficult Decisions: Euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parakh, Jal S.; Slesnick, Irwin L.

    1992-01-01

    Focuses on the moral arguments for and against the controversial topic of voluntary active euthanasia. Discusses the question of legalization and decriminalization of the practice. Provides a student worksheet with questions to stimulate discussion on the issue. (MDH)

  2. Bioethics and euthanasia

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Pérez, Jorge Arturo

    2008-01-01

    Discourses on death and dying are multiple, heterogeneous and not always coincide and never fully complement. Each aims to define, meet and own death phenomenon. Each discipline created with its own resources. One of the first problems that euthanasia since its inception is the lot of concepts, types and subtitles in the world. The origin of this situation is that euthanasia only etymologically means "good death", which is sufficiently ambiguous and neutral that generates all kinds of interpr...

  3. Euthanasia: another face of murder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamgbose, Oluyemisi

    2004-02-01

    Debate over euthanasia is not a recent phenomenon. Over the years, public opinion, decisions of courts, and legal and medical approaches to the issue of euthanasia has been conflicting. The connection between murder and euthanasia has been attempted in a few debates. Although it is widely accepted that murder is a crime, a clearly defined stand has not been taken on euthanasia. This article considers euthanasia from the medical, legal, and global perspectives and discusses the crime of murder in relation to euthanasia, taking into consideration the issue of consent in the law of crime. This article concludes that in the midst of this debate on euthanasia and murder, the important thing is that different countries need to find their own solution to the issue of euthanasia rather than trying to import solutions from other countries.

  4. [Euthanasia outside Europe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julesz, Máté

    2014-08-10

    The passive form of euthanasia is legalized almost in every civilized country. Its active form is not a generally accepted legal institution. In Europe, active euthanasia is legalized only in The Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg and Switzerland. In Australia, the Act on the Rights of the Terminally Ill of 1995 legalized the institution of assisted suicide, which is not identical to active euthanasia. The difference lies in the fact that legalized active euthanasia means that the author of a murder is not punishable (under certain circumstances), whilst assisted suicide is not about murder, rather about suicide. In the first case, the patient is killed on his or her request by someone else. In the second case, the patient himself or herself executes the act of self-killing (by the assistance of a healthcare worker). In Australia, the institution of assisted suicide was repealed in 1997. Assisted suicide is legal in four USA member states: in Vermont, Washington, Montana and Oregon. In Uruguay, the active form of euthanasia has been legal since 1932.

  5. Euthanasia: a problem for psychiatrists

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    2004-02-17

    Feb 17, 2004 ... ally permissible to seek a person's death intending that death to be for their sake. Kinds of euthanasia can be distinguished in a number of im- portant ways. There is, first, the distinction between active and passive euthanasia. Active euthanasia is the intentional killing of a person (for their sake). Passive ...

  6. [Euthanasia and medical act].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Right to life -as the prohibition of intentionally and arbitrarily taking life, even with authorization of the concerned one- is an internationally recognized right. In many countries, debate regarding euthanasia is more centered in its convenience, social acceptability and how it is regulated, than in its substantial legitimacy. Some argue that euthanasia should be included as part of clinical practice of health professionals, grounded on individual's autonomy claims-everyone having the liberty to choose how to live and how to die. Against this, others sustain that life has a higher value than autonomy, exercising autonomy without respecting the right to life would become a serious moral and social problem. Likewise, euthanasia supporters some-times claim a 'right to live with dignity', which must be understood as a personal obligation, referred more to the ethical than to the strictly legal sphere. In countries where it is already legalized, euthanasia practice has extended to cases where it is not the patient who requests this but the family or some healthcare professional, or even the legal system-when they think that the patient is living in a condition which is not worthy to live. Generalization of euthanasia possibly will end in affecting those who need more care, such as elder, chronically ill or dying people, damaging severely personal basic rights. Nature, purpose and tradition of medicine rule out the practice of euthanasia, which ought not be considered a medical act or legitimately compulsory for physicians. Today's medicine counts with effective treatments for pain and suffering, such as palliative care, including sedative therapy, which best preserves persons dignity and keeps safe the ethos of the medical profession.

  7. EUTHANASIA DALAM PERSPEKTIF HUKUM ISLAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arifin Rada

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Euthanasia is an attempt to end someone life when he/she has an uncurable illness, euthanasia will be done in order to release his/her from suffering his/her illness. In Indonesia, euthanasia can not be done and it is classified as an illegal act. Both in the positive law and the ethics code regulate that performing an euthanasia is not allowed. Regarded to the perspective of Islamic law, also regulated that an active euthanasia is an act that is forbidden and punishable by God with a punishment of hell for those who did.

  8. Dutch euthanasia revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenigsen, R

    1997-01-01

    The results of a follow-up study of euthanasia by the Dutch government, five years after the first study, were published on November 26, 1996. This article provides a detailed review of the two reports comparing and contrasting the statistics cited therein. The author notes that the "rules of careful conduct" proposed by the courts and by the Royal Dutch Society of Medicine were frequently disregarded. Special topics included for the first time in the second study were the notification and non-prosecution procedure, euthanasia of newborns and infants, and assisted suicide in psychiatric practice. The authors of the follow-up report state that it would be desirable to reduce the number of "terminations of life without patients' request," but this must be the common responsibility of the doctor and the patient. They suggest that the person who does not wish to have his life terminated should declare this clearly, in advance, verbally and in writing, preferably in the form of a living will. Involuntary euthanasia was rampant in 1990 and equally rampant in 1995. The author concludes that Dutch doctors who practice euthanasia are not on the slippery slope. From the very beginning, they have been at the bottom.

  9. Euthanasia in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beslinda Rrugia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The right to live is a right guaranteed by the constitution as well as international legal acts in force in a country, and is based on the moral of a society. But does the right to live imply a parallel individual right to die? Or should the state protect the right to life of a person who does not want to live anymore, going like this against the will of that person? Albanian anthropology, as a post-communist society lacks the tradition of freedom, as in this case of the freedom that belongs to a man affected by an incurable disease. For this reason, in Albania not only we do not have a law on euthanasia, but the issue of euthanasia is not raised as an issue nor by the legislator nor by civil society. The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of euthanasia in Albania, as well as on some specific problems facing the Albanian reality. The methodology used in the paper consists with the combination of comparing legal provisions of euthanasia (or the lack of them in a vertical historical continuity.

  10. [Notes on euthanasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goic, Alejandro

    2005-03-01

    In the Judeo-Christian tradition, human life is held to be sacred, a semblance of the divine and a gift from God which the individual cannot dispose of at his or her own will. Hence, these monotheistic religions have made of the crime of murder a transgression of God's own commandment not to kill and have extended the applicability of this commandment to the practice of euthanasia and suicide. On the other hand, some non-religious traditions offer plausible reasons favoring euthanasia. This is a delicate matter for physicians, since the Hippocratic tradition forbids euthanasia and because as care-givers they must also bear the psychological, moral and emotional burden of carrying it out. Physicians are trained to preserve life but not to bring it to an end. As human beings, they must always respect the principle of nonmaleficence, and as physicians they must always respect as well the principle of beneficence. It is difficult to accept the fact that ending a human life can be an act of beneficence. In order to differentiate between passive and active euthanasia, the concept of proportionality of medical acts must be brought into consideration. For instance, using high doses of opiates to alleviate pain or withholding the use of an extraordinary method of treatment are not passive acts aimed at ending the life of a terminally ill patient, but medical acts that are reasonable, judicious and proportionate to the condition and irreversibility of a patient's illness. Therefore, so-called passive euthanasia cannot be considered the same as euthanasia. On the other hand, medically assisted suicide is a deceitful form of active euthanasia. The aim of this act is to cause death and the physician is morally responsible for such a death, since he is providing the means for bringing a human life to an end. Many times the desire to die expressed by terminally ill elderly and helpless patients is a request for help and an expression of reproach against a society that allows for

  11. [Euthanasia--a moral choice?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sveinsson, Olafur Arni

    2007-01-01

    Euthanasia has been heatedly discussed in Western countries over the last years. Only a few nations have legalized euthanasia or physician assisted suicide with the Dutch at the forefront of that field. Proponents of euthanasia mostly argue for euthanasia on two grounds. Firstly, that the patient has a right to die and secondly, that there is no substantial difference between euthanasia and palliative care. In this paper I will argue against both of the above. I discuss the arguments against euthanasia which are in principle four. Firstly, it is held by many that taking a human life is wrong under all circumstances. Secondly, that it is an unjustifiable demand to ask a person to take another person's life. In relation to that argument, euthanasia is not in accordance with the basic principles of medicine and nursing as they have evolved over the years and could therefore easily disrupt the therapeutic relationship. Thirdly, as shown from Holland there is empirical evidence that euthanasia is not under good enough surveillance and therefore invites misuse. Fourthly, even though euthanasia might possibly be justifiable under certain circumstances, legalisation might well invite abuse because of the message and pressure that the option places on both patients and professionals in terminal care. My answer to the euthanasia demand is palliative care, where dialogue between the patient and doctor is central. But the dialogue cannot be effective, unless both partners are willing and able to engage in sincere and frank conversations.

  12. ANALISIS TERHADAP PELAKSANAAN EUTHANASIA PASIF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umi Enggarsasi

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Dalam KUHP tidak satu pasal pun yang menjelaskan batasan atau pengertian euthanasia. Namun demikian, pengenaan terhadap euthanasia dianalogikan dengan delik-delik yang tercantum dalam pasal 338, 340, 344 KUHP. Dengan dasar itulah maka pelaksanaan euthanasia dilarang. Larangan euthanasia pasif tidak pernah efektif karena kematian sebagai akibat ketidakmampuan ilmu dan teknologi kedokteran, dipandang sebagai kematian alamiah, sedangkan terhadap kematian alamiah tentu saja tidak ditahan-tahan atau dilarang hukum pidana maupun kode etik kedokteran. Hukum pidana dan kode etik kedokteran, tidak mewajibkan dokter untuk mengobati pasien di Iuar batas kemampuan ilmu dan teknologi kedokteran. berdasarkan penerapan karakteristik delik omisionis terbukti bahwa, larangan euthanasia pasif tidak memenuhi kriteria untuk diterapkan sebagai perbuatan pidana. Dalam hal terjadinya euthanasia pasif, walaupun dokter melakukan perbuatan positif, secara logika, kematian pasien tidak dapat dihindari. Dengan demikian sulit untuk dibuktikan adanya hubungan kausal antara akibat yang dilarang timbulnya dengan kelakuan negatif dokter.

  13. Should Euthanasia Be Considered Iatrogenic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Silvana; Unguru, Yoram

    2017-08-01

    As more countries adopt laws and regulations concerning euthanasia, pediatric euthanasia has become an important topic of discussion. Conceptions of what constitutes harm to patients are fluid and highly dependent on a myriad of factors including, but not limited to, health care ethics, family values, and cultural context. Euthanasia could be viewed as iatrogenic insofar as it results in an outcome (death) that some might consider inherently negative. However, this perspective fails to acknowledge that death, the outcome of euthanasia, is not an inadvertent or preventable complication but rather the goal of the medical intervention. Conversely, the refusal to engage in the practice of euthanasia might be conceived as iatrogenic insofar as it might inadvertently prolong patient suffering. This article will explore cultural and social factors informing families', health care professionals', and society's views on pediatric euthanasia in selected countries. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Euthanasia is not medical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, J Donald; Somerville, Margaret A

    2013-01-01

    The public assumes that if euthanasia and assisted suicide were to be legalized they would be carried out by physicians. In furthering critical analysis, we supplement the discourse in the ethics and palliative care literature with that from medical education and evolving jurisprudence. Both proponents and opponents agree that the values of respect for human life and for individuals' autonomy are relevant to the debate. Advocates of euthanasia and assisted suicide give priority to the right to personal autonomy and avoid discussions of harmful impacts of these practices on medicine, law and society. Opponents give priority to respect for life and identify such harmful effects. These both require euthanasia to remain legally prohibited. Proposals are emerging that if society legalizes euthanasia it should not be mandated to physicians. The impact of characterizing euthanasia as 'medical treatment' on physicians' professional identity and on the institutions of medicine and law should be examined in jurisdictions where assisted suicide and euthanasia have been de-criminalized.

  15. Effects of euthanasia on brain physiological activities monitored in real-time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayevsky, Avraham; Barbiro-Michaely, Efrat; Ligeti, Laszlo; MacLaughlin, Alan C

    2002-10-01

    Animal experimentation is terminated by the euthanasia procedure in order to avoid pain and minimize suffering. Very little is known about the real time physiological changes taking place in the brain of animals during the euthanasia. Since there is no way to evaluate the suffering of animals under euthanasia, it is assumed that objective physiological changes taking place could serve as a good way to compare various types of euthanasia procedures. In the present study we compared the effect of euthanasia induced by i. v. injection of concentrated KCL to that of Taxan T-61 (a standard mixture used by veterinarians). The responses of the cat brain were evaluated by monitoring the hemodynamic (CBF), metabolic (NADH redox state), electrical (EcoG) and extracellular ion levels, as an indicator to the ionic homeostasis.

  16. Nursing students' approaches toward euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcelik, Hanife; Tekir, Ozlem; Samancioglu, Sevgin; Fadiloglu, Cicek; Ozkara, Erdem

    2014-01-01

    In Turkey, which is a secular, democratic nation with a majority Muslim population, euthanasia is illegal and regarded as murder. Nurses and students can be faced with ethical dilemmas and a lack of a legal basis, with a conflict of religious beliefs and social and cultural values concerning euthanasia. The aim of this study was to investigate undergraduate nursing students' attitudes towards euthanasia. The study, which had a descriptive design, was conducted with 600 students. The 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th year nursing students at a school of nursing were contacted in May 2009, and 383 students (63.8% of the study population of a total of 600 students) gave informed consent. Two tools were used in accordance with questionnaire preparation rules. The majority of students were female and single (96.9%), and their mean age was 21.3 ± 1.5 years. A majority (78.9%) stated they had received no training course/education on the concept of euthanasia. Nearly one-third (32.4%) of the students were against euthanasia; 14.3% of the students in the study agreed that if their relatives had an irreversible, lethal condition, passive euthanasia could be performed. In addition, 24.8% of the students agreed that if they themselves had an irreversible, lethal condition, passive euthanasia could be performed. Less than half (42.5%) of the students thought that discussions about euthanasia could be useful. There was a significant relation between the study year and being against euthanasia (p euthanasia could be abused (p euthanasia was unethical (p euthanasia.

  17. Euthanasia in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wal, G; Dillmann, R J

    1994-05-21

    The practice of euthanasia in the Netherlands is often used as an argument in debates outside the Netherlands--hence a clear description of the Dutch situation is important. This article summarises recent data and discusses conceptual issues and relevant characteristics of the system of health care. Special emphasis is put on regulation, including relevant data on notification and prosecution. Besides the practice of euthanasia the Dutch are confronted with the gaps in reporting of cases to the public prosecutor and the existence of cases of ending a life without an explicit request. Nevertheless, the "Dutch experiment" need not inevitably lead down the slippery slope because of the visibility and openness of this part of medical practice. This will lead to increased awareness, more safeguards, and improvement of medical decisions concerning the end of life.

  18. Should Pediatric Euthanasia be Legalized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Marije; Kaczor, Christopher; Battin, Margaret P; Maeckelberghe, Els; Lantos, John D; Verhagen, Eduard

    2018-02-01

    Voluntary active euthanasia for adults at their explicit request has been legal in Belgium and the Netherlands since 2002. In those countries, acceptance of the practice for adults has been followed by acceptance of the practice for children. Opponents of euthanasia see this as a dangerous slippery slope. Proponents argue that euthanasia is sometimes ethically appropriate for minors and that, with proper safeguards, it should be legally available in appropriate circumstances for patients at any age. In this Ethics Rounds, we asked philosophers from the United States and the Netherlands, and a Dutch pediatrician, to discuss the ethics of legalizing euthanasia for children. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. [EUTHANASIA AND ASSISTED SUICIDE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantero, Caroline

    2015-07-01

    Euthanasia and assisted suicide are not part of French laws of bioethics and lack, for the time being, definition and normative framework other than their criminal prosecution. To transform them into a right, these concepts certainly call for an ethical and legal debate. This paper aims to question the ideas to be considered, the conceptual bases and normative tools that may be useful to the discussion.

  20. [Limits to euthanasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kort, Susanne J

    2015-01-01

    A recent survey showed that less than half of Dutch physicians would find it conceivable to grant a request for euthanasia from a patient suffering from psychiatric disease or dementia, or who is tired of life. Because of a broader interpretation by the Regional Review Committees of the official criteria for due care, all recent cases of euthanasia in these specific groups of patients had been accepted. In this commentary it is argued that, following recent social developments in the Netherlands (including cuts in provision of care for the elderly and of mental health care, and a narrowed view about end-of-life issues), the official euthanasia criteria for due care are no longer suitable if we are to avoid a 'slippery slope' effect in cases such as those mentioned above. The criteria of a) a voluntary and well-considered request and b) absence of reasonable treatment alternatives are particularly under pressure. A plea is hold for a return to stricter interpretation of the criteria.

  1. Euthanasia and related practices worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, M J; Chambers, D; Corcoran, P; Keeley, H S; Williamson, E

    1998-01-01

    The present paper examines the occurrence of matters relating to the ending of life, including active euthanasia, which is, technically speaking, illegal worldwide. Interest in this most controversial area is drawn from many varied sources, from legal and medical practitioners to religious and moral ethicists. In some countries, public interest has been mobilized into organizations that attempt to influence legislation relating to euthanasia. Despite the obvious international importance of euthanasia, very little is known about the extent of its practice, whether passive or active, voluntary or involuntary. This examination is based on questionnaires completed by 49 national representatives of the International Association for Suicide Prevention (IASP), dealing with legal and religious aspects of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide, as well as suicide. A dichotomy between the law and medical practices relating to the end of life was uncovered by the results of the survey. In 12 of the 49 countries active euthanasia is said to occur while a general acceptance of passive euthanasia was reported to be widespread. Clearly, definition is crucial in making the distinction between active and passive euthanasia; otherwise, the entire concept may become distorted, and legal acceptance may become more widespread with the effect of broadening the category of individuals to whom euthanasia becomes an available option. The "slippery slope" argument is briefly considered.

  2. Should Pediatric Euthanasia be Legalized?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Marije; Kaczor, Christopher; Battin, Margaret P; Maeckelberghe, Els; Lantos, John D; Verhagen, Eduard

    Voluntary active euthanasia for adults at their explicit request has been legal in Belgium and the Netherlands since 2002. In those countries, acceptance of the practice for adults has been followed by acceptance of the practice for children. Opponents of euthanasia see this as a dangerous slippery

  3. Illness, suffering and voluntary euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varelius, Jukka

    2007-02-01

    It is often accepted that we may legitimately speak about voluntary euthanasia only in cases of persons who are suffering because they are incurably injured or have an incurable disease. This article argues that when we consider the moral acceptability of voluntary euthanasia, we have no good reason to concentrate only on persons who are ill or injured and suffering.

  4. [Active euthanasia, or assisted suicide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julesz, Máté

    2016-10-01

    Both active euthanasia and assisted suicide are legal in The Netherlands, Belgium, Luxemburg and, most recently, in Canada. Examination of national legislations of countries where both active euthanasia and assisted suicide are legal. The number of accomplished active euthanasia cases and that of assisted suicide cases. Analysis of national statistical data. Comparison of statistical data before and after 2010. Comparison of the related practices in the surveyed countries. The number of active euthanasia cases markedly predominates over the number of assisted suicide cases. Cancer is a main reason for active euthanasia, or assisted suicide. In countries with a larger population, the number of active euthanasia cases is higher than that in countries with a smaller population. Regarding the fact that the applicants for active euthanasia withdraw their requests in a smaller number than the applicants for assisted suicide, patients prefer the choice of active euthanasia. Since the related legislative product is too recent in Canada at present, it may be only presumed that a certain preference will also develop in the related practices in Canada. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(40), 1595-1600.

  5. Age and Acceptance of Euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Russell A.

    1980-01-01

    Study explores relationship between age (and sex and race) and acceptance of euthanasia. Women and non-Whites were less accepting because of religiosity. Among older people less acceptance was attributable to their lesser education and greater religiosity. Results suggest that quality of life in old age affects acceptability of euthanasia. (Author)

  6. Euthanasia for Detainees in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devolder, Katrien

    2016-07-01

    In 2011, Frank Van Den Bleeken became the first detainee to request euthanasia under Belgium's Euthanasia Act of 2002. This article investigates whether it would be lawful and morally permissible for a doctor to accede to this request. Though Van Den Bleeken has not been held accountable for the crimes he committed, he has been detained in an ordinary prison, without appropriate psychiatric care, for more than 30 years. It is first established that Van Den Bleeken's euthanasia request plausibly meets the relevant conditions of the Euthanasia Act and that, consequently, a doctor could lawfully fulfill it. Next, it is argued that autonomy-based reasons for euthanizing him outweigh complicity-based reasons against doing so, and that, therefore, it is also morally permissible for a doctor to carry out the euthanasia request.

  7. Assisted suicide and euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heide, Agnes

    2013-01-01

    Several countries have adopted laws that regulate physician assistance in dying. Such assistance may consist of providing a patient with a prescription of lethal medication that is self-administered by the patient, which is usually referred to as (physician) assistance in suicide, or of administering lethal medication to a patient, which is referred to as euthanasia. The main aim of regulating physician assistance in dying is to bring these practices into the open and to provide physicians with legal certainty. A key condition in all jurisdictions that have regulated either assistance in suicide or euthanasia is that physicians are only allowed to engage in these acts upon the explicit and voluntary request of the patient. All systems that allow physician assistance in dying have also in some way included the notion that physician assistance in dying is only accepted when it is the only means to address severe suffering from an incurable medical condition. Arguments against the legal regulation of physician assistance in dying include principled arguments, such as the wrongness of hastening death, and arguments that emphasize the negative consequences of allowing physician assistance in dying, such as a devaluation of the lives of older people, or people with chronic disease or disabilities. Opinion polls show that some form of accepting and regulating euthanasia and physician assistance in suicide is increasingly supported by the general population in most western countries. Studies in countries where physician assistance in dying is regulated suggest that practices have remained rather stable in most jurisdictions and that physicians adhere to the legal criteria in the vast majority of cases. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of sedation on onset and quality of euthanasia in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barletta, Michele; Hofmeister, Erik H; Peroni, John F; Thoresen, Merrilee; Scharf, Alexandra M; Quandt, Jane E

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if dexmedetomidine administered IV prior to euthanasia in sheep affected the speed or quality of euthanasia. Twenty clinically healthy Dorset-cross adult ewes between 1 and 3years of age were enrolled in a randomized blinded experimental trial. The subjects were randomly assigned to receive dexmedetomidine 5μg/kg IV or an equivalent volume of saline. Five minutes later, euthanasia was accomplished with a pentobarbital/phenytoin overdose given IV. The time to apnea, asystole, cessation of audible heartbeat, and absence of corneal reflex were recorded by two blinded investigators. If any muscle spasms, contractions, vocalization, and/or dysrhythmias were noted, the time was recorded and type of ECG abnormality was described. An overall score of the euthanasia event was assigned using a numeric rating scale (NRS) after the animal was declared dead. The time to loss of corneal reflex was significantly longer in sheep given dexmedetomidine compared with those who received saline (P=0.03). Although vocalization was observed only in some animals premedicated with dexmedetomidine, no significance was found for this event and no other significant differences between groups were noted. Dexmedetomidine at 5μg/kg IV 5min prior to injection of pentobarbital/phenytoin for euthanasia did not substantially affect the progress of euthanasia. Dexmedetomidine may be given to sedate sheep prior to euthanasia without concern for it adversely affecting the progress of euthanasia, however vocalization may occur. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Euthanasia: An Indian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Vinod K.; Basu, S.; Sarkhel, S.

    2012-01-01

    In our society, the palliative care and quality of life issues in patients with terminal illnesses like advanced cancer and AIDS have become an important concern for clinicians. Parallel to this concern has arisen another controversial issue-euthanasia or “mercy –killing” of terminally ill patients. Proponents of physician-assisted suicide (PAS) feel that an individual's right to autonomy automatically entitles him to choose a painless death. The opponents feel that a physician's role in the death of an individual violates the central tenet of the medical profession. Moreover, undiagnosed depression and possibility of social ‘coercion’ in people asking for euthanasia put a further question mark on the ethical principles underlying such an act. These concerns have led to strict guidelines for implementing PAS. Assessment of the mental state of the person consenting to PAS becomes mandatory and here, the role of the psychiatrist becomes pivotal. Although considered illegal in our country, PAS has several advocates in the form of voluntary organizations like “death with dignity” foundation. This has got a fillip in the recent Honourable Supreme Court Judgment in the Aruna Shaunbag case. What remains to be seen is how long it takes before this sensitive issue rattles the Indian legislature. PMID:22988327

  10. [Euthanasia through history and religion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajić, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Euthanasia represents an ethical, social, legal and medical issue, which is being disputed more and more frequently worldwide. In Serbia, it is illegal and punishable by law and subject to a prison sentence. Euthanasia verbatim, meaning "good death", refers to the practice of ending a life in order to relieve pain and suffering. It can be voluntary, when a person knowingly declares the wish to end life, and involuntary, when relatives and family make decisions on behalf of patients in coma. It can be active, when a person applies a medical procedure to end life and passive, when medical procedures which can extend a patient's life are not applied. EUTHANASIA THROUGH HISTORY: The term was known in old Greece, and Hippocrates mentioned it in his oath, which is now taken by all doctors in the world, by which they pledge not to apply a medicine which can lead to death of the patients, nor to give such counsel. Euthanasia had its most vigorous impetus in the mid-20th century when it was being carried out deliberately in Nazi Germany. All leading religions from Christianity, over Buddhism, to Islam, are directly or indirectly against any kind of euthanasia. EUTHANASIA TODAY: At the beginning of the 21st century, euthanasia was legalized in several most developed countries in the world, among them the Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, Switzerland, Japan, India and some American and Mexican federal states. The World Medical Association from 82 countries has condemned euthanasia, and called all medical workers who practice euthanasia to reconsider their attitudes and to stop this practice.

  11. Ethical And Religious Analysis On Euthanasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdi Omar Shuriye

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an analysis on euthanasia from ethical and religious perspectives. Historically, the classical Greek thinkers including Aristotle had categorically accepted euthanasia with the main reason of minimizing pain. However, as science develops ethical and religious isuues related to the subject have increasingly created fervent debates on euthanesia. ABSTRAK: Kertas ini mengkaji euthanasia dari perspektif agama dan etika. Sejarah telah melihat para pemikir Greek termasuk Aristotle secara kategorinya menerima Euthanasia dengan sebab utama untuk mengurangkan kesakitan. Bagaimanapun, apabila sains berkembang, perbahasan mengenai isu-isu agama dan etika tentang Euthanasia telah meningkat dengan nyata.KEYWORDS: mercy killing; religion; ethics; morality; euthanasia

  12. Responses of Male C57BL/6N Mice to Observing the Euthanasia of Other Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, Gregory P; Bottomley, Michael A; Grobe, Nadja

    2016-01-01

    The AVMA Panel on Euthanasia recommends that sensitive animals should not be present during the euthanasia of others, especially of their own species, but does not provide guidelines on how to identify a sensitive species. To determine if mice are a sensitive species we reviewed literature on empathy in mice, and measured the cardiovascular and activity response of mice observing euthanasia of conspecifics. We studied male 16-wk-old C57BL/6N mice and found no increase in cardiovascular parameters or activity in the response of the mice to observing CO2 euthanasia. Mice observing decapitation had an increase in all values, but this was paralleled by a similar increase during mock decapitations in which no animals were handled or euthanized. We conclude that CO2 euthanasia of mice does not have an impact on other mice in the room, and that euthanasia by decapitation likely only has an effect due to the noise of the guillotine. We support the conceptual idea that mice are both a sensitive species and display empathy, but under the controlled circumstances of the euthanasia procedures used in this study there was no signaling of stress to witnessing inhabitants in the room. PMID:27423146

  13. Evaluation of the Aesthetics of Physical Methods of Euthanasia of Anesthetized Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Debra L; Johnson, Steven W

    2011-01-01

    Dissection of living brain tissue for in vitro experiments requires the use of a rapid euthanasia method. However, the method must not subject animals to unnecessary pain and must be aesthetically acceptable to experimenters. The purposes of the current study were to assess the aesthetics of 6 euthanasia methods, measure the procedure duration, and evaluate brain for pathology after each procedure. We digitally recorded euthanasia of isoflurane-anesthetized rats by 6 physical methods: anesthetic overdose, cardiac exsanguination, decapitation, closed intrathoracic transection of the great vessels and heart, thoracic percussion, and thoracotomy with rupture of great vessels. Volunteer researchers and animal caretakers watched the video and completed an associated questionnaire. Anesthetic overdose and cardiac exsanguinations were rated most aesthetically pleasing, although these procedures took the longest to complete. In contrast, decapitation and thoracic percussion were the least aesthetically pleasing, but these methods were the quickest. No demographic factor was identified that could predict whether a given euthanasia procedure would be favored for aesthetic reasons, and participants provided a wide variety of rationales for the aesthetic ratings they assigned. Although all of these euthanasia methods meet the criteria of approved methods of euthanasia of anesthetized rats as defined by the AVMA, aesthetic features and the scientific need for rapid euthanasia are both considerations in selecting a method. PMID:22330717

  14. Conceptualization of convenience euthanasia as an ethical dilemma for veterinarians in Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathwell-Deault, Dominick; Godard, Béatrice; Frank, Diane; Doizé, Béatrice

    2017-03-01

    Companion animal welfare in our society has become increasingly important, yet many healthy animals are euthanized in veterinary facilities. How is it possible to explain the simultaneous presence of these opposing views of obligation toward animals? The goal of this study was to describe convenience euthanasia of companion animals as experienced by veterinarians in order to understand their thought processes. A qualitative study was undertaken to analyze the results of interviews of 14 veterinarians. The study showed that veterinarians interviewed assessed convenience euthanasia based mainly on their subjective evaluation of the owner-animal bond. As most owner-animal bonds stem from an anthropocentric point of view, decisions on convenience euthanasia were taken mostly by considering the veterinarian's and the client/owner's interests.

  15. Bias in Rating of Rodent Distress during Anesthesia Induction for Anesthesia Compared with Euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Brittany A; Hickman, Debra L

    2018-03-01

    Selection of an appropriate method of euthanasia involves balancing the wellbeing of the animal during the procedure with the intended use of the animal after death and the physical and psychologic safety of the observer or operator. The recommended practices for anesthesia as compared with euthanasia are very disparate, despite the fact that all chemical methods of euthanasia are anesthetic overdoses. To explain this disparity, this study sought to determine whether perception bias is inherent in the discussion of euthanasia compared with anesthesia. In this study, participants viewed videorecordings of the anesthesia of either 4 rats or 4 mice, from induction to loss of consciousness. Half of the participants were told that they were observing anesthesia; the other half understood that they were observing euthanasia. Participants were asked to rate the distress of the animals by scoring escape behaviors, fear behaviors, respiratory distress, and other distress markers. For mice, the participants generally rated the distress as high when they were told that the mouse was being euthanized, as compared with the participants who were told that the mouse was being anesthetized. For rats, the effect was not as strong, and the distress was generally rated higher when participants were told they were watching anesthesia. Because the interpretation of distress showed bias in both species-even though the bias differed regarding the procedure that interpreted as distressing-this study demonstrates that laboratory animal professionals must consider the influence of potential perception bias when developing policies for euthanasia and anesthesia.

  16. A concept analysis of voluntary active euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fenglin

    2006-01-01

    Euthanasia has a wide range of classifications. Confusion exists in the application of specific concepts to various studies. To analyze the concept of voluntary active euthanasia using Walker and Avant's concept analysis method. A comprehensive literature review from various published literature and bibliographies. Clinical, ethical, and policy differences and similarities of euthanasia need to be debated openly, both within the medical profession and publicly. Awareness of the classifications about euthanasia may help nurses dealing with "end of life issues" properly.

  17. Do the Physcians Defend Euthanasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarık Gündüz

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, after the definition and short historical development of Euthanasia, a questionnaire was given to 510 medical staff; 208 of whom are medical students who are in the 5th form and 302 of whom are physcians. In this questionnaire 6 multiple choice questions were asked about the knowledge level, social groups to comment and argue on the subject, the right of person to decide about his/her own life, opinions about current applications of euthanasia, whether he/she would agree on the application of the process and whether he would accept to get a responsibility in it or not. It was determined that among the people who attended the questionnaire, one third didn't have enough knowledge about the subject while 325 (63.72 % of them supported the application, still 351 (68.82 % of them refused to get a responsibility in the application of euthanasia, even if the process becomes legal. Opinions of the people who are with and against the idea were collected and summarized, it was determined that although passive euthanasia is not legal it is currently being applied when it is necessary and that physcians are biased to the legalization of the subject while they refuse to take a role in the application. Keywords : Euthanasia, Self Deliverance, Right to Life, Mercy Killing, Informed Consent

  18. The Legitimacy of Prohibiting Euthanasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gildenhuys, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ohn Arras argues against the legalization of physician- assisted suicide and active euthanasia on the basis of social costs that he anticipates will result from legalization. Arras believes that the legalization of highly restricted physician-assisted suicide will result in the legalization of active euthanasia without special restrictions, a prediction I grant for the sake of argument. Arras further anticipates that the practices of physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia will be abused, so that many patients who engage in these practices will lose out as a result. He refers to these losses as social costs to legalization. But the social costs at play in typical public policy debates are borne by individuals other than the agent who engages in the controversial activity, specifically by people who cannot be held responsible for enduring those costs. Even if plausible interpretations of Arras’ predictions about the abuse of the practice are granted, legalization of physician-assisted suicide or euthanasia brings no social costs of this latter sort. For this reason, and also because a ban on euthanasia is unfair to those who would profit from it, the losses in utility brought about by legalization would have to be very great to justify a ban.

  19. The Voluntary Euthanasia (Legalization) Bill (1936) revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helme, T

    1991-01-01

    In view of the continuing debate on euthanasia, the restrictions and safeguards which were introduced into the Voluntary Euthanasia (Legislation) Bill 1936 are discussed. Proposals for a new Terminal Care and Euthanasia Bill are suggested, based on some of the principles of the Mental Health Act 1983. PMID:2033626

  20. The Voluntary Euthanasia (Legalization) Bill (1936) revisited.

    OpenAIRE

    Helme, T

    1991-01-01

    In view of the continuing debate on euthanasia, the restrictions and safeguards which were introduced into the Voluntary Euthanasia (Legislation) Bill 1936 are discussed. Proposals for a new Terminal Care and Euthanasia Bill are suggested, based on some of the principles of the Mental Health Act 1983.

  1. 21 CFR 522.900 - Euthanasia solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Euthanasia solution. 522.900 Section 522.900 Food... Euthanasia solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter (mL) of solution contains: (1) 390 milligrams (mg.... For humane, painless, and rapid euthanasia. (2) Amount. One mL per 10 pounds of body weight. (3...

  2. Euthanasia: a summary of the law in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simillis, Constantinos

    2008-07-01

    When medical treatment becomes futile, or the patient's suffering is intractable, doctors face the agonising dilemma of whether to proceed with euthanasia. It is important for a doctor to be familiar with the law surrounding euthanasia, in order to avoid prosecution. This paper explores the law in England and Wales regarding the different categories of euthanasia: voluntary euthanasia, nonvoluntary euthanasia, passive euthanasia, and active euthanasia.

  3. Euthanasia: India's position in the global scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhar, Skand; Goel, Ashish

    2013-11-01

    Euthanasia requests have increased as the number of debilitated patients rises in both developed and developing countries such as India due to medical, psychosocial-emotional, socioenvironmental, and existential issues amid fears of potential misuse. WORLD'S POSITION: Albania, Colombia, the Netherlands, and Switzerland permit euthanasia conditionally. Australia's legalization of euthanasia has been withdrawn. The United States permits withdrawal of life support. Mexico and Norway permit active euthanasia. INDIA'S POSITION: Following the Aruna Shanbaug case the Supreme Court granted legal sanction to passive, but not active, euthanasia that is valid till the Parliament legislates on euthanasia. HANDLING EUTHANASIA REQUESTS: Acknowledging the complexity of the problem; individualizing the palliative approach; and accepting the 'There is no alternative' or 'There is no answer' (TINA) factor.

  4. Euthanasia of Danish dairy cows evaluated in two questionnaire surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sørensen Jan

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mortality risk in Danish dairy cows has more than doubled since 1990 (from 2% in 1990 to 5% in 2005. Until now, registrations about dead cows in the Danish Cattle Database have not included information about whether the cow died unassisted or was euthanized. Methods We interviewed a random sample of 196 Danish dairy farmers that had reported a dead cow to the Danish Cattle Database in 2002 and 196 dairy farmers that had reported a dead cow in 2006. Our objectives were to evaluate the proportion of euthanized cows, changes in the behaviour of farmers regarding euthanasia of cows over the years and possible reasons for these changes. Results It seems that the threshold for euthanasia of cows among farmers has changed. Farmers generally reported a lower threshold for euthanasia compared to 5–10 years ago. Conclusion The threshold for euthanasia of cows has, according to the dairy farmers, become lower. This might have positive impacts on animal welfare as more seriously ill cows are euthanized in the herds and not put through a period of suffering associated with disease and treatment or transported to a slaughterhouse in poor condition.

  5. [Guideline 'Organ donation following euthanasia"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, H.; Olthuis, G.J.; Siebelink, M.; Gerritsen, R; Heurn, E. van

    2017-01-01

    - The multidisciplinary guideline 'Organ donation following euthanasia' was published in March 2017 at request of the Minister of Health, Welfare and Sport.- This guideline provides recommendations for the organisation and implementation of a request to donate organs expressed by a patient who asks

  6. Voluntary euthanasia: a utilitarian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Peter

    2003-10-01

    Belgium legalised voluntary euthanasia in 2002, thus ending the long isolation of the Netherlands as the only country in which doctors could openly give lethal injections to patients who have requested help in dying. Meanwhile in Oregon, in the United States, doctors may prescribe drugs for terminally ill patients, who can use them to end their life--if they are able to swallow and digest them. But despite President Bush's oft-repeated statements that his philosophy is to 'trust individuals to make the right decisions' and his opposition to 'distant bureaucracies', his administration is doing its best to prevent Oregonians acting in accordance with a law that its voters have twice ratified. The situation regarding voluntary euthanasia around the world is therefore very much in flux. This essay reviews ethical arguments regarding voluntary euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide from a utilitarian perspective. I shall begin by asking why it is normally wrong to kill an innocent person, and whether these reasons apply to aiding a person who, when rational and competent, asks to be killed or given the means to commit suicide. Then I shall consider more specific utilitarian arguments for and against permitting voluntary euthanasia.

  7. Euthanasia Acceptance: An Attitudinal Inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopfer, Fredrick J.; Price, William F.

    The study presented was conducted to examine potential relationships between attitudes regarding the dying process, including acceptance of euthanasia, and other attitudinal or demographic attributes. The data of the survey was comprised of responses given by 331 respondents to a door-to-door interview. Results are discussed in terms of preferred…

  8. [Passive euthanasia and living will].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julesz, Máté

    2014-07-06

    This article deals with the intentional distinction between murder of first degree and passive euthanasia. In Hungary, active euthanasia is considered to be a murder of first degree, whilst the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxemburg and Switzerland have legalized the active form of mercy killing in Europe. The palliative terminal care, when e.g. giving pain-killer morphine to the patient, might result in decreasing the patient's life-span, and thus causing indirect euthanasia. However, the legal institution of living will exists in several counter-euthanasia countries. The living will allows future patients to express their decision in advance to refuse a life-sustaining treatment, e.g. in case of irreversible coma. The institution of living will exists in Germany and in Hungary too. Nevertheless, the formal criteria of living will make it hardly applicable. The patient ought to express his/her will before a notary public in advance, and he/she should hand it over when being hospitalized. If the patient is not able to present his/her living will to his/her doctor in the hospital, then his/her only hope remains that he/she has given a copy of the living will to the family doctor previously, and the family doctor will notify the hospital.

  9. Killing, letting die and euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husak, D N

    1979-12-01

    Medical ethicists debate whether or not the moral assessment of cases of euthanasia should depend on whether the patient is 'killed' or 'allowed to die'. The usual presupposition is that a clear distinction between killing and letting die can be drawn so that this substantive question is not begged. I contend that the categorisation of cases of instances of killing rather than as instances of letting die depends in part on a prior moral assessment of the case. Hence is it trivially rather than substantively true that the distinction has moral significance. But even if a morally neutral (ie non-question begging) distinction could be drawn, its application to the euthanasia controversy is problematic. I illustrate the difficulties of employing this distinction to reach moral conclusions by critically discussing Philippa Foot's recent treatment of euthanasia. I conclude that even if an act of euthanasia is an instance of killing, and there exists a prima facie moral duty not to kill, and no more stringent duty overrides this duty, one still cannot determine such an act to be morally impermissible.

  10. Killing, letting die and euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husak, D N

    1979-01-01

    Medical ethicists debate whether or not the moral assessment of cases of euthanasia should depend on whether the patient is 'killed' or 'allowed to die'. The usual presupposition is that a clear distinction between killing and letting die can be drawn so that this substantive question is not begged. I contend that the categorisation of cases of instances of killing rather than as instances of letting die depends in part on a prior moral assessment of the case. Hence is it trivially rather than substantively true that the distinction has moral significance. But even if a morally neutral (ie non-question begging) distinction could be drawn, its application to the euthanasia controversy is problematic. I illustrate the difficulties of employing this distinction to reach moral conclusions by critically discussing Philippa Foot's recent treatment of euthanasia. I conclude that even if an act of euthanasia is an instance of killing, and there exists a prima facie moral duty not to kill, and no more stringent duty overrides this duty, one still cannot determine such an act to be morally impermissible. PMID:541821

  11. Evaluation of the foetal time to death in mice after application of direct and indirect euthanasia methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Mediavilla, C; Cámara, J A; Salazar, S; Segui, B; Sanguino, D; Mulero, F; de la Cueva, E; Blanco, I

    2016-04-01

    Directive 2010/63/EU on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes requires that the killing of mammal foetuses during the last third of their gestational period should be accomplished through effective and humane methods. The fact that murine foetuses are resistant to hypoxia-mediated euthanasia renders the current euthanasia methods ineffective or humane for the foetuses when these methods are applied to pregnant female mice. We have assessed the time to death of foetuses after performing either indirect (dam euthanasia) or direct (via intraplacental injection--a new approach to euthanasia) euthanasia methods in order to determine a euthanasia method that is appropriate, ethical and efficient for the killing of mouse foetuses. The respective times to death of foetuses after performing the three most commonly used euthanasia methods (namely cervical dislocation, CO2inhalation and intraperitoneal sodium pentobarbital administration) were recorded. Absence of foetal heartbeat was monitored via ultrasound. We consider that the most effective and humane method of foetal euthanasia was the one able to achieve foetal death within the shortest possible period of time. Among the indirect euthanasia methods assessed, the administration of a sodium pentobarbital overdose to pregnant female mice was found to be the fastest for foetuses, with an average post-treatment foetal death of approximately 29.8 min. As for the direct euthanasia method assessed, foetal time to death after intraplacental injection of sodium pentobarbital was approximately 14 min. Significant differences among the different mouse strains employed were found. Based on the results obtained in our study, we consider that the administration of a sodium pentobarbital overdose by intraplacental injection to be an effective euthanasia method for murine foetuses. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Drugs used for euthanasia in Flanders, Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Stichele, R H; Bilsen, J J R; Bernheim, J L; Mortier, F; Deliens, L

    2004-02-01

    Our aim was to describe and assess the medicinal products and doses used for euthanasia in a series of cases, identified within an epidemiological death certificate study in Belgium, where euthanasia was until recently legally forbidden and where guidelines for euthanasia are not available. In a random sample of the deaths in 1998 in Belgium, the physicians who signed the death certificates were identified and sent an anonymous mail questionnaire. The questionnaires of the deaths classified as euthanasia cases were reviewed by a multi-disciplinary panel. A total of 22 among 1925 questionnaires pertained to voluntary euthanasia. In 17 cases, detailed information on the euthanatics (medicinal substances used for euthanasia) used was provided. Opioids were used in 13 cases (in 7 as a single drug). Time between last dose and expiry ranged from 4 to 900 min. The panel judged that only in 4 cases effective euthanatics were used. In the end-of-life decision cases perceived by Belgian physicians as euthanasia, pharmacological practices were disparate, although dominated by the use of morphine, in the very late phase of dying, in doses which were unlikely to be lethal. Most physicians clandestinely engaging in euthanasia in Belgium seemed unaware of procedures for guaranteeing a quick, mild and certain death. Information on the pharmacological aspects of euthanasia should be included in the medical curriculum and continuing medical education, at least in countries with a legal framework permitting euthanasia under specified conditions.

  13. Support for Voluntary Euthanasia with No Logical Slippery Slope to Non-Voluntary Euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskal, Steven

    2018-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that acceptance of voluntary euthanasia does not generate commitment to either non-voluntary euthanasia or euthanasia on request. This is accomplished through analysis of John Keown's and David Jones's slippery slope arguments, and rejection of their view that voluntary euthanasia requires physicians to judge patients as better off dead. Instead, voluntary euthanasia merely requires physicians to judge patients as within boundaries of appropriate deference. This paper develops two ways of understanding and defending voluntary euthanasia on this model, one focused on the independent value of patients' autonomy and the other on the evidence of well-being provided by patients' requests. Both avoid the purported slippery slopes and both are independently supported by an analogy to uncontroversial elements of medical practice. Moreover, the proposed analyses of voluntary euthanasia suggest parameters for the design of euthanasia legislation, both supporting and challenging elements of existing laws in Oregon and the Netherlands.

  14. Euthanasia: the perceptions of nurses in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poreddi, Vijayalakshmi; Nagarajaiah; Konduru, Reddemma; Math, Suresh Bada

    2013-04-01

    Euthanasia provokes controversies in various domains, such as the moral, ethical, legal, religious, scientific, and economic. India legalised passive euthanasia (withdrawal of life support) for patients with brain death or who are in a permanent vegetative state in 2011, but research on perceptions of euthanasia among people in India is limited. This study aimed to examine nurses' perceptions of the practice of euthanasia as well as factors influencing those perceptions. A non-probability quantitative, cross-sectional design was adopted for a sample of 214 nurses working at a tertiary care centre. Data was collected through self-reported questionnaires at the nurses workplace.The findings revealed mixed opinions on euthanasia among the nurses. However, the majority of the participants did not agree with the practice of euthanasia. Nonetheless, further research is needed on this issue across the country among various health professionals in the context of current legislation.

  15. [Euthanasia/assisted suicide. Ethical and socio-religious aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiriţă, V; Chiriţă, Roxana; Duică, Lavinia; Talau, Gh

    2009-01-01

    Euthanasia/Assisted Suicide are viewed differently by moral and religious references. In a religious way, cardinal confessions (Christianity, Judaism, Islamism, Buddhism) condemn euthanasia/assisted suicide and, in the same time have a more relaxed attitude regarding passive euthanasia. Other aspects of euthanasia regard financial/economic and ethical-medical considerations. All these contradictory standpoints are expressed in some legal acts that make specifications on the concept of "euthanasia"--Oregon's Death with Dignity Act (1994) and Netherlands's Euthanasia Law (2001).

  16. Advance directives for euthanasia in dementia: do law-based opportunities lead to more euthanasia?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, M.E.; Dröes, R.M.; Jonker, C.; Eefsting, J.A.; Hertogh, C.M.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To obtain insight into current practices regarding compliance with advance directives for euthanasia (ADEs) in cases of incompetent patients with dementia in Dutch nursing homes, in light of the legal possibility offered by the new euthanasia law to perform euthanasia in these cases.

  17. Euthanasia, National and International Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustin-Petru Ciasc

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The topic of euthanasia can be defined and analyzed upon considering several perspectives, such as the legal, religious, historical, philosophical, medical or ethical ones. This article attempts to supply a brief presentation of these perspectives, indicating the existing trends and standpoints at world level in connection to perceptions regarding the phenomenon mentioned, exemplified by opinions described in the doctrine and relevant jurisprudence. At the same time, in this article I will try to indicate the weak spots of the Romanian legislation in the euthanasia area, upon supplying some proposals for legislative intervention. Concomitantly, it should appear the idea that not the right to die per se is to receive motivations and be included in the law, but the duty to live. This should be done first by drafting an adequate law to the terminal states that would guide their medical practice and comply with the world legislative trends.

  18. Euthanasia and Death with Dignity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuvraj Dilip Patil

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Dying has become imposition upon humans, who seek to avoid it as they encounter the inevitably fatal aging process. After the case of Aruna Shanbag a nurse who spent 42 years in a vegetative state as a result of sexual assault, the issue of euthanasia-mercy killing gained attention. The formulation of regulatory provision for euthanasia was earlier examined in Health Ministry in th 2006 based on the 196 report of the law commission of India however; health ministry at that time had opted not to make law on it. Interestingly the health ministry has enacted bill for terminally ill patient in 2016. In this article author has discussed The Medical Treatment of Terminally Ill Patients (Protection of patients and medical practitioners bill- 2016 with position in other countries.

  19. Euthanasia, dying well and the slippery slope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allmark, P

    1993-08-01

    Arguments in favour of voluntary euthanasia tend to be put in utilitarian terms. This paper suggests an alternative, neo-Aristotelian argument justifying certain individual acts of both suicide and voluntary euthanasia. It goes on to examine the slippery slope arguments against legalizing euthanasia. It is suggested that such arguments cut both ways. However, the suggestion that we ought therefore to permit a social experiment in voluntary euthanasia is set alongside the Dutch experience. The latter seems to imply that if such experiments are to take place then great caution needs to be applied.

  20. Voluntary euthanasia: ethical concepts and definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, K; Chaloner, C

    Euthanasia is a highly emotive and contentious subject, giving rise to a great deal of debate. However, despite its frequent exposure in public and professional media, there appears to be a lack of clarity about the concepts and definitions used in the euthanasia debate. This suggests that discussions on this subject are inadequately informed and ineffectual. The ethical focus of the euthanasia debate concerns the moral legitimacy of 'voluntary euthanasia'. This article provides an overview and clarification of some of the key ethical issues at the centre of that debate.

  1. Declarations on euthanasia and assisted dying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inbadas, Hamilton; Zaman, Shahaduz; Whitelaw, Sandy; Clark, David

    2017-10-01

    Declarations on end-of-life issues are advocacy interventions that seek to influence policy, raise awareness and call others to action. Despite increasing prominence, they have attracted little attention from researchers. This study tracks the emergence, content, and purpose of declarations concerned with assisted dying and euthanasia, in the global context. The authors identified 62 assisted dying/euthanasia declarations covering 1974-2016 and analyzed them for originating organization, geographic scope, format, and stated viewpoint on assisted dying/euthanasia. The declarations emerged from diverse organizational settings and became more frequent over time. Most opposed assisted dying/euthanasia.

  2. [Euthanasia - an attempt to organize issue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmes, Tomasz; Wilk, Mateusz; Chowaniec, Czesław

    This article is an attempt to complete and holistically discuss problem of euthanasia, especially its ethical and legal aspects, comparing to Polish law. The subject of euthanasia arouse interest of the society because it touches one of the most important aspects of life, which is the death. Even bigger emotions are aroused amongst physicians. They are forced to put on the line the life as biggest value on the one side and autonomy of human being on the other. It also touches the empathy for suffering. The euthanasia was divided into three forms: active euthanasia, passive euthanasia and assisted suicide. Any form of euthanasia is illegal in Poland according to both the Penal Code and Code of Medical Ethics. Range of possible penal consequences perpetrator is very wide from waiver of punishment to life imprisonment and it comes from different penal qualification of the euthanasia. Qualification of the euthanasia is based on terms of intent of perpetrator's act, request of patient, strong empathy for suffering if the patient and decision based on up-to-date medical knowledge. It is valuable to mention "do-not-resuscitate" DNR procedure, which in case of medical futility is legally accepted in Poland, but in other form may be qualified as passive euthanasia.

  3. Declarations on euthanasia and assisted dying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inbadas, Hamilton; Zaman, Shahaduz; Whitelaw, Sandy; Clark, David

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Declarations on end-of-life issues are advocacy interventions that seek to influence policy, raise awareness and call others to action. Despite increasing prominence, they have attracted little attention from researchers. This study tracks the emergence, content, and purpose of declarations concerned with assisted dying and euthanasia, in the global context. The authors identified 62 assisted dying/euthanasia declarations covering 1974–2016 and analyzed them for originating organization, geographic scope, format, and stated viewpoint on assisted dying/euthanasia. The declarations emerged from diverse organizational settings and became more frequent over time. Most opposed assisted dying/euthanasia. PMID:28398131

  4. Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P.; Howard, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG)

  5. Euthanasia Assessment in Ebola Virus Infected Nonhuman Primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis K. Warren

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Multiple products are being developed for use against filoviral infections. Efficacy for these products will likely be demonstrated in nonhuman primate models of filoviral disease to satisfy licensure requirements under the Animal Rule, or to supplement human data. Typically, the endpoint for efficacy assessment will be survival following challenge; however, there exists no standardized approach for assessing the health or euthanasia criteria for filovirus-exposed nonhuman primates. Consideration of objective criteria is important to (a ensure test subjects are euthanized without unnecessary distress; (b enhance the likelihood that animals exhibiting mild or moderate signs of disease are not prematurely euthanized; (c minimize the occurrence of spontaneous deaths and loss of end-stage samples; (d enhance the reproducibility of experiments between different researchers; and (e provide a defensible rationale for euthanasia decisions that withstands regulatory scrutiny. Historic records were compiled for 58 surviving and non-surviving monkeys exposed to Ebola virus at the US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases. Clinical pathology parameters were statistically analyzed and those exhibiting predicative value for survival are reported. These findings may be useful for standardization of objective euthanasia assessments in rhesus monkeys exposed to Ebola virus and may serve as a useful approach for other standardization efforts.

  6. Evaluation of carbon dioxide dissipation within a euthanasia chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djoufack-Momo, Shelly M; Amparan, Ashlee A; Grunden, Beverly; Boivin, Gregory P-

    2014-07-01

    CO₂ euthanasia is used widely for small laboratory animals, such as rodents. A common necessity in many animal research facilities is to euthanize mice in sequential batches. We assessed the effects of several variables on the time it took for CO₂ to dissipate within a chamber. Using standard euthanasia time, changes in flow rate were compared between a slow 15% fill rate for 7 min, and a slow 15% followed by a rapid 50% filling for a total of 5 min. Additional variables assessed included the effects of opening the lid after the completion of chamber filling, turning the chamber over after completion of filling, and the use and removal of a cage from within the chamber. For all trials, CO₂ levels in the chambers peaked between 50% and 80%. After the gas was turned off, the concentration of CO₂ dropped to below 10% COv within 2 min, except when the lid was left on the chamber, where concentration levels remained above 10% after 20 min. CO₂ dissipation was significantly faster when the chamber was turned upside down after filling. Significant interaction effects occurred among the factors of cage presence within the chamber, flow rate, and chamber position. Only leaving the lid on the chamber had any practical implication for delaying CO₂ dissipation. We recommend that users allow 2 min for CO₂ to clear from the chamber before subsequent euthanasia procedures, unless the chamber is manipulated to increase the dissipation rate.

  7. Euthanasia – a Contemporary Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina PUSCĂ

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The right to life is one of the fundamental rights of people that have to be respected and protected by each state’s legislation. The connection between the right to life and criminal law is a significant one, as the Criminal Code incriminates a few categories of crimes that can prejudice it. Although that as an object of crimes against life, a person’s life is recognized, the right to life remains a value that can suffer from criminal attempts. Often, in literature, the correlation or the relation between certain criminal acts is discussed, such as the genocide, illegal abortion, euthanasia, infanticide and the right to life, the possibility of mutual influence and their coexistence. Furthermore, the problem ofeuthanasia involves also the examination of practical and juridical connotations connected to the free accomplishment of the human fundamental rights and the right to life in particular. Can thecompatibility or the incompatibility of euthanasia with the right to law be decisive? The answer can only be an affirmative one, as through this approach the judicial statute and the scope of euthanasia can be determined.

  8. Animator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tech Directions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

  9. From Advance Euthanasia Directive to Euthanasia: Stable Preference in Older People?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolt, Eva E; Pasman, H Roeline W; Deeg, Dorly J H; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D

    2016-08-01

    To determine whether older people with advance directive for euthanasia (ADEs) are stable in their advance desire for euthanasia in the last years of life, how frequently older people with an ADE eventually request euthanasia, and what factors determine this. Mortality follow-back study nested in a cohort study. The Netherlands. Proxies of deceased members of a cohort representative of Dutch older people (n = 168) and a cohort of people with advance directives (n = 154). Data from cohort members (possession of ADE) combined with after-death proxy information on cohort members' last 3 months of life. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed on determinants of a euthanasia request in individuals with an ADE. Response rate was 65%. One hundred forty-two cohort members had an ADE at baseline. Three months before death, 87% remained stable in their desire for euthanasia; 47% eventually requested euthanasia (vs 6% without an ADE), and 16% died after euthanasia. People with an ADE were more likely to request euthanasia if they worried about loss of dignity. The majority of older adults who complete an ADE will have a stable preference over time, but an advance desire for euthanasia does not necessarily result in a euthanasia request. Writing an ADE may reflect a person's need for reassurance that they can request euthanasia in the future. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  10. Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Howard, B.J. [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology (United Kingdom)

    1997-10-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG). 68 refs.

  11. Effect of method of euthanasia on sperm motility of mature Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutler, Shannon A; Johnson, Eric W; Still, Kenneth R; Schaeffer, David J; Hess, Rex A; Arfsten, Darryl P

    2007-03-01

    Euthanasia is one of the most commonly performed procedures in laboratory animal settings. The method of euthanasia may affect experimental results in studies using animals and must be compatible with research objectives including subsequent tissue analyses. Our present study was performed to evaluate the effects of 7 euthanasia methods on sperm motility in mature rats. Rats were euthanized using CO2, 2 commercially available euthanasia solutions (Beuthanasia-D and Sleepaway), and 4 volatile anesthetics (enflurane, halothane, isoflurane, and sevoflurane). Rats euthanized by rapid decapitation alone served as negative controls, and a-chlorohydrin-treated rats euthanized by rapid decapitation were positive controls for sperm impairment. For 5 of these methods, we also measured time to ataxia, recumbency, respiratory arrest, and no auscultable heartbeat. Immediately after euthanasia of each rat, distal caudal epididymides were removed; 1 was processed for automated sperm motility analysis, and the other was frozen for subsequent concentration analysis. Time to all measured parameters was less for volatile anesthetics than for Beuthanasia-D. Times to last respiration and no heartbeat were less for halothane and isoflurane than for enflurane and sevoflurane. Percentage motile sperm did not differ significantly between methods. Percentage progressively motile sperm did not vary significantly between methods except for Beuthanasia-D, for which it was significantly less than the negative control value. Specific sperm motion parameters for each euthanasia method except CO2 and Sleepaway varied significantly from the negative control. Our results indicate that the method of euthanasia is an important consideration when rat sperm motility parameters must be evaluated.

  12. Euthanasia in the Netherlands: a slippery slope?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toebes, Brigit

    2017-01-01

    The Dutch euthanasia legislation has been lauded as well as criticized by legal scholars and physicians in the Netherlands and abroad. The legal framework so established is renowned for setting a number of valuable due-care criteria for the physician to follow when performing euthanasia on a

  13. Euthanasia and Mental Retardation: Suggesting the Unthinkable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, Russell

    1989-01-01

    The article examines current opinions toward euthanasia of persons with mental retardation in light of the history of public and professional attitudes. It also discusses the rejection of euthanasia on moral and religious grounds, and notes the use of lifelong incarceration, based on eugenics principles, to accomplish similar ends. (DB)

  14. Techniques to Pass on: Technology and Euthanasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Proponents and opponents of euthanasia have argued passionately about whether it should be legalized. In Australia in the mid-1990s, following the world's first legal euthanasia deaths, Dr. Philip Nitschke initiated a different approach: a search for do-it-yourself technological means of dying with dignity. The Australian government has opposed…

  15. Euthanasia in Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Each of the Benelux countries (Belgium, Luxembourg, Netherlands) has enacted legislation that partially decriminalises euthanasia, defined as an act that intentionally terminates someone's life at their request. In the Netherlands and Luxembourg, but not in Belgium, the legislation partially decriminalised assisted suicide at the same time. In all three countries, euthanasia can only be performed by a doctor, in response to the patient's voluntary and well-considered request, and for patients who have an incurable disease that causes unbearable suffering, without any prospect of relief. In the Netherlands, minors can request euthanasia as of the age of 12 years. In 2011, reported euthanasia accounted for about 1% of deaths in Belgium and 3% in the Netherlands. In 75% of cases, cancer was the disease leading to a request for euthanasia. In the Netherlands, the number of cases of euthanasia reported by doctors in surveys matches the number that is officially declared. In Belgium, it is thought that there are as many unreported as reported cases of euthanasia. Since the enactment of euthanasia legislation, fewer deaths involve the intentional administration of lethal drugs without an explicit request from the patient.

  16. Effects of Clove Oil as a Euthanasia Agent on Blood Collection Efficiency and Serum Cortisol Levels in Danio rerio

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Daniel J; Klug, Jenna; Hankins, Miriam; Doerr, Holly M; Monticelli, Stephanie R; Song, Ava; Gillespie, Catherine H; Bryda, Elizabeth C

    2015-01-01

    Zebrafish are an important laboratory animal model for biomedical research and are increasingly being used for behavioral neuroscience. Tricaine methanesulfonate (MS222) is the standard agent used for euthanasia of zebrafish. However, recent studies of zebrafish behavior suggest that MS222 may be aversive, and clove oil might be a possible alternative. In this study, we compared the effects of MS222 or clove oil as a euthanasia agent in zebrafish on the volume of blood collected and on serum ...

  17. [Good death: euthanasia in the eyes of medical students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuře, Josef; Vaňharová, Michaela

    2014-01-01

    Both in the general public and in the professional communities, very diverse notions of euthanasia can be found. At the same time determining of the precise semantics of euthanasia is one of the crucial prerequisites for subsequent meaningful ethical discussion of euthanasia. The paper analyzes an empirical study investigating the understanding of euthanasia by medical students. The aim of the conducted research was to identify the semantic definitions of euthanasia used by the first-year medical students.

  18. The attitudes of nursing students to euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseh, Ladan; Heidari, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    One of the most common morally controversial issues in endof-life care is euthanasia. Examining the attitudes of nursing students to this issue is important because they may encounter situations related to euthanasia during their clinical courses. The aim of our study was to examine nursing students' attitudes to euthanasia in Shahrekord city in western Iran. This was done using the Euthanasia Attitude Scale. The scale is divided into four categories, ie ethical considerations, practical considerations, treasuring life and naturalistic beliefs. Of 132 nursing students, 120 participated in the study (response rate 93.1%). According to the study's findings, 52.5%, 2.5% and 45% of the students reported a negative, neutral and positive attitude to euthanasia, respectively. There was a significant correlation between the nursing students' attitudes to euthanasia and some demographic characteristics, including sex, age and religious beliefs. Iranian Muslim nursing students participating in the study had a negative attitude to euthanasia. Further studies are recommended among nursing students from different cultures and of different religious faiths.

  19. Chinese concepts of euthanasia and health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeboom-Faulkner, Margaret

    2006-08-01

    This article argues that taking concepts of euthanasia out of their political and economic contexts leads to violations of the premises on which the Stoic ideal of euthanasia is based: 'a quick, gentle and honourable death.' For instance, the transplantation of the narrowly defined concept of euthanasia developed under the Dutch welfare system into a developing country, such as the People's Republic of China (PRC), seems inadequate. For it cannot deal with questions of anxiety about degrading forms of dying and suffering without reference to its economic rationale, demanded by a scarcity (unequal distribution) of health care resources. The weakness of health care provisions for the terminally ill in Mainland China has become increasingly poignant since the collapse of collective health care institutions in the countryside since the reforms of the late-1980s. As in most cases where health care facilities are wanting, it is difficult to apply the criteria of gentleness and dignity at reaching death. Its solution lies not in a faster relief from suffering by euthanasia, but in extending the quality of life through distributive justice within Chinese healthcare policy-making. This paper begins with a brief description of the Dutch euthanasia law, after which it discusses Chinese conceptions of euthanasia in biomedical textbooks, the media and in surveys. It concludes by pointing out the need for a transnational framework in which both the specifics and generalities of euthanasia can be discussed.

  20. Attitudes toward euthanasia among Swedish medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Marit; Strang, Peter; Milberg, Anna

    2007-10-01

    Attitudes toward euthanasia differ between individuals and populations, and in many studies the medical profession is more reluctant than the general public. Our goal was to explore medical students' attitude toward euthanasia. A questionnaire containing open-ended questions was answered anonymously by 165 first- and fifth-year medical students. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis with no predetermined categories. The students' arguments opposing euthanasia were based on opinions of 1. euthanasia being morally wrong, 2. fear of possible negative effects on society, 3. euthanasia causing strain on physicians and 4. doubts about the true meaning of requests of euthanasia from patients. Arguments supporting euthanasia were based on 1. patients' autonomy and 2. the relief of suffering, which could be caused by severe illnesses, reduced integrity, hopelessness, social factors and old age. There are several contradictions in the students' arguments and the results indicate a possible need for education focusing on the possibility of symptom control in palliative care and patients' perceived quality of life.

  1. [Euthanasia and the doctrine of double effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Direct active euthanasia is prohibited in most countries while passive and indirect is not. However, many arguments against the legalization of voluntary active euthanasia are flawed. Ethical differences between active and passive or indirect euthanasia are difficult to maintain especially when the passivity of the actor causes death. The crucial point is not activity or passivity but respect for the autonomy of individual human beings. In particular there appears to be little ethical difference between active and indirect euthanasia. Indirect euthanasia has often been justified by the principle of double effect, which traces back to Thomas Aquinas. But resorting to this rule contains a logical fallacy. The principle of double effect does not allow foreseen and unwanted adverse effects of an action to occur when they are avoidable. In terminal sedation, an example for indirect euthanasia, hypoxemia and dehydration can easily be prevented by respirator therapy and fluid administration. Therefore the rule of double effect is not applicable. Indirect and direct active euthanasia cannot be ethically distinguished by resorting to the principle of double effect.

  2. Euthanasia, virtue ethics and the law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zyl, Liezl

    2002-02-01

    Following the recent revival of virtue ethics, a number of ethicists have discussed the moral problems surrounding euthanasia by drawing on concepts such as compassion, benevolence, death with dignity, mercy, and by inquiring whether euthanasia is compatible with human flourishing. Most of these writers assert, or simply assume, that their arguments concerning the morality of euthanasia also support their views with regard to legislation. I argue, against these writers, that legislation cannot and should not be based on our moral and religious beliefs concerning whether euthanasia allows a person to die a good death. I then outline an Aristotelian approach to the role of law and government in a good society, according to which the task of the legislator is not to ensure that people actually act virtuously, but is instead to make it possible for them to choose to live (and die) well by ensuring that they have access to the goods that are necessary for flourishing. In the second half of the paper I apply this approach to the question of whether voluntary active euthanasia should be legalised by asking (1) whether euthanasia always deprives people of the necessary conditions for flourishing, and (2) whether the option to request euthanasia is ever necessary for flourishing.

  3. Epileptiform activity during inert gas euthanasia of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gent, Thomas C; Detotto, Carlotta; Vyssotski, Alexei L; Bettschart-Wolfensberger, Regula

    2018-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is one of the most commonly used euthanasia agents for mice, yet it is highly aversive and nociceptive. Inert gases are a possible alternative, however there are qualitative reports of seizures resulting from exposure. Here we evaluate epileptiform activity caused by inert gases (N2, He, Ar and Xe) and CO2 in mice chronically instrumented for EEG/EMG undergoing single-gas euthanasia. We found that N2, He and Ar caused epileptiform activity in all animals, CO2 in half of animals and no epileptiform activity produced by Xe. Atmospheric O2 concentrations at epileptiform activity onset were significantly higher for CO2 than for all other gases and occurred soon after loss of motion, whereas N2 and Ar epileptiform activity occurred at cessation of neocortical activity. Helium caused the longest epileptiform activity and these commenced significantly before isoelectric EEG. We did not detect any epileptiform activity during active behaviour. Taken together, these results demonstrate that whilst epileptiform activity from inert gases and particularly Ar and N2 are more prevalent than for CO2, their occurrence at the onset of an isoelectric EEG is unlikely to impact on the welfare of the animal. Epileptiform activity from these gases should not preclude them from further investigation as euthanasia agents. The genesis of epileptiform activity from CO2 is unlikely to result from hypoxia as with the inert gases. Helium caused epileptiform activity before cessation of neocortical activity and for a longer duration and is therefore less suitable as an alternative to CO2.

  4. Carbon dioxide euthanasia in rats: Oxygen supplementation minimizes signs of agitation and asphyxia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, A.M.L.; Drinkenburg, W.H.I.M.; Hoenderken, R.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van

    1995-01-01

    This paper records the effects of carbon dioxide when used for euthanasia, on behaviour, electrical brain activity and heart rate in rats. Four different methods were used. Animals were placed in a box (a) that was completely filled with carbon dioxide; (b) into which carbon dioxide was streamed at

  5. Principialism and Dworkin: some notes on Euthanasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus Salvadori

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to carry out an analysis of the figure of euthanasia and its ethical implications. Addressed to aspects of bioethics and principlism, the theory developed by Beauchamp and Childress. Also presented is the right philosopher Ronald Dworkin position, in favor of euthanasia. Euthanasia is a complex, multidisciplinary subject, your debate is very timely because of the medical possibilities of keeping a person alive indefinitely, regardless of their suffering. The search for alternatives should continue in order to defend the autonomy of patients in their end of life choices and to respect their dignity.

  6. Euthanasia: a "kit" sold in Belgian pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    (1) In France, legislation adopted in 2005 recognises the right of dying patients to refuse further treatment, and the right of physicians to ease their suffering with treatments that, due to adverse effects, may shorten their life. Measures deliberately aimed at hastening death are forbidden. (2) In Belgium, medical euthanasia was decriminalised in 2002, and can now be carried out either in hospital or at home. Nearly 20 cases of euthanasia are reported per month in Belgium. (3) A Belgian pharmacy chain now markets a "euthanasia kit".

  7. [Could infant euthanasia be ever acceptable?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beca, J P; Leiva, A

    2014-10-01

    The recent enactment of a law that allows infant euthanasia in Belgium raises questions with varied answers. To contribute to a better understanding of the topic, euthanasia and legislation concepts are described. After a bioethical analysis, we propose as conclusion that children euthanasia could only be acceptable in very exceptional situations in which palliative measures have failed. The answer should be that it is not acceptable in our setting, not until we have public policies, protocols and palliative care services for terminally ill children.

  8. [Euthanasia in history and the present - in the spectrum between euthanasia and terminal care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Engelhardt, Dietrich

    2010-01-01

    Euthanasia signifies in antiquity an easy and happy death and not at all an active termination of life, which was forbidden in the Hippocratic oath, but justified by philosophers. In the Christian middle ages active euthanasia and abortion are explicitly refused. At the beginnings of modern times MORE (1516) and BACON (1623) plead for euthanasia and differentiate for the first time between "euthanasia interior" as a mental preparation and "euthanasia exterior" as a physical and direct termination of life. Around 1900 a change takes place--in medicine as well as in the humanities and arts. The lawyer Karl BINDING and the psychiatrist Alfred HOCHE (1920) support active euthanasia in the case of mental deficiency; similar views are taken by the population. Under the "Third Reich" euthanasia unlawfully is carried out as termination of life without or even against consent. Today oaths, declarations and laws are intended to prevent such a "medicine without humanity" (MITSCHERLICH and MIELKE 1947). Active voluntary euthanasia is under certain conditions allowed by the legislation in some countries (Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg). Essential seem the consideration of different types of euthanasia and above all a psychical-mental assistance in the process of dying. The height of culture is measured by dealing with death and dying.

  9. Method of euthanasia affects amygdala plasticity in horizontal brain slices from mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulisch, C; Eckers, N; Albrecht, D

    2011-10-15

    An important consideration in any terminal experiment is the method used for euthanizing animals. Although the prime consideration is that the method is humane, some methods can have a dramatic impact on experimental outcomes. The standard inhalant anesthetic for experiments in brain slices is isoflurane, which replaced the flammable ethers used in the pioneer days of surgery. To our knowledge, there are no data available evaluating the effects of the method of euthanasia on plasticity changes in brain slices. Here, we compare the magnitude of long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA) after euthanasia following either ether or isoflurane anesthesia, as well as in mice decapitated without anesthesia. We found no differences in input-output curves using different methods of euthanasia. The LTP magnitude did not differ between ether and normal isoflurane anesthesia. After deep isoflurane anesthesia LTP induced by high frequency stimulation of cortical or intranuclear afferents was significantly reduced compared to ether anesthesia. In contrast to ether anesthesia and decapitation without anesthesia, the low frequency stimulation of cortical afferents induced a reliable LA-LTD after deep isoflurane anesthesia. Low frequency stimulation of intranuclear afferents only caused LTD after pretreatment with ether anesthesia. The results demonstrate that the method of euthanasia can influence brain plasticity for hours at least in the interface chamber. Therefore, the method of euthanasia is an important consideration when brain plasticity will be evaluated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A comparative analysis of carbon dioxide displacement rates for euthanasia of the ferret.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzhugh, Dawn C; Parmer, Amanda; Shelton, Larry J; Sheets, James T

    2008-02-01

    Though carbon dioxide asphyxiation is a common method of euthanasia for laboratory animals, species-specific guidelines have not been established for this procedure in the domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo). The authors investigated the efficacy and stress effects of carbon dioxide euthanasia in 24 ferrets that had participated in previous experimental protocols. They euthanized ferrets by placing them in cages that were either prefilled with carbon dioxide or gradually filled at a displacement rate of 10%, 20% or 50% of the cage volume per min. Blinded observers subjectively evaluated ferret distress. Prefilling the cage or filling it at a rate of 50% volume per min resulted in less time to recumbency and to last breath than did filling the cage at a slower displacement rate. Slower carbon dioxide displacement rates also caused an increase in ferret blood glucose concentrations, which may indicate distress. Overall, observers found that prefilling the euthanasia cage caused the least stress to ferrets.

  11. Euthanasia in Belgium: legal, historical and political review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Toni C

    2017-01-01

    This article describes and evaluates the Belgian euthanasia experience by considering its practice and policy, both before and after the formal decriminalisation of euthanasia in 2002. The pre-legal practice of euthanasia, the evolution of euthanasia legislation, criticism of this legislation, the influence of politics, and later changes to the 2002 Act on Euthanasia are discussed, as well as the subject of euthanasia of minors and the matter of organ procurement. It is argued that the Belgian euthanasia experience is characterised by political expedition, and that the 2002 Act and its later amendments suffer from practical and conceptual flaws. Illegal euthanasia practices remain a live concern in Belgium, something which nations who are seeking to decriminalise euthanasia should consider. Copyright © 2017 by the National Legal Center for the Medically Dependent and Disabled, Inc.

  12. Euthanasia: a reply to Bartels and Otlowski.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prichard, Jeremy

    2012-03-01

    This article counters arguments made by Bartels and Otlowski in 2010 regarding euthanasia. It suggests that the authors over-emphasised the importance of individual autonomy in its bearing on the euthanasia debate. Drawing on literature concerning elder abuse as well as the "mercy-killing" cases reviewed by Bartels and Otlowski, the article contends that legalising euthanasia may increase the risk that some patients are pressured, inadvertently or deliberately, to request access. Safeguards to detect and deter pressure may be of limited effectiveness against such pressure. Regarding slippery slope arguments, the article discusses the potential for an Australian euthanasia system to eventually be extended in scope to encompass mental suffering. The article encourages consideration of long-term potentialities, including changes in macro-economic conditions.

  13. Medical students' perspectives on euthanasia and physician ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    autonomy is recognised as part of their inalienable constitutional rights, as .... these practices – as the SA Constitution regards individualism as equivalent to ... research relating to euthanasia/PAS, as religion and culture have a significant ...

  14. Neonatal euthanasia: lessons from the Groningen Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eduard Verhagen, A A

    2014-10-01

    Decisions about neonatal end-of-life care have been studied intensely over the last 20 years in The Netherlands. Nationwide surveys were done to quantify these decisions, provide details and monitor the effect of guidelines, new regulations and other interventions. One of those interventions was the Groningen Protocol for newborn euthanasia in severely ill newborns, published in 2005. Before publication, an estimated 20 cases of euthanasia per year were performed. After publication, only two cases in five years were reported. Studies suggested that this might be partly caused by the lack of consensus about the dividing line between euthanasia and palliative care. New recommendations about paralytic medication use in dying newborns were issued to increase transparency and to improve reporting of euthanasia. New surveys will be needed to measure the effects of these interventions. This cycle of interventions and measurements seems useful for continuous improvement of end-of-life care in newborns. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Dignity of human life: euthanasia and suicide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebrój, Lesław

    2005-07-01

    Euthanasia is commonly considered as a form of suicide. The study aims to explore if such a presumption could be justified. Philosophical analysis of concepts of "human being", "human person", "biological life" and "life of human person", undertaken in this article, proved that the effective cause of suicide is obviously different from such a cause of euthanasia. Suicide aims to destruct life of a human person which is considered deprived of its dignity. Euthanasia's effective cause is to protect the dignity of such a life which is threatened by low quality of biological life caused both by the disease as well as by the applied treatment even if palliative only. On the basis of these considerations the main conclusion is drawn: suicide and euthanasia having different moral (material) subjects should be also ethically evaluated in a different way.

  16. Attitudes Toward Euthanasia Among Turkish University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulas Karaahmetoglu, Gulsen; Kutahyalioglu, Nesibe Sumeyye

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to examine perceptions and attitudes toward euthanasia among university students who are pursuing bachelor's degrees. Although the legalization and application of euthanasia are discussed commonly by health-care professionals and partially by lawyers, the ideas of other segments of society, especially university students, are taken place very rarely. The research was conducted descriptively to determine the ideas of 1,170 students at Kastamonu University from six different departments: arts and sciences, theology, tourism, nursing, school of physical education, and sports with using a questionnaire. Findings demonstrated that 73.2% of the students do not approve euthanasia. Also, it was found that there are significant differences depending on age, gender, department of study, income level, place of living, and the loss of kinsmen. This study serves as a resource for future research to understand the effects of sociodemographic characteristics on the decision of euthanasia.

  17. The sensitivity argument against child euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, Geoff

    2018-02-01

    Is there a moral difference between euthanasia for terminally ill adults and euthanasia for terminally ill children? Luc Bovens considers five arguments to this effect, and argues that each is unsuccessful. In this paper, I argue that Bovens' dismissal of the sensitivity argument is unconvincing. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Euthanasia, empathy, compassion and Human Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Baum, Erica

    2017-01-01

    What is problematic in the study of empathy is his absence to the suffering of others. Euthanasia highlights the moral conflict about suffering or stop suffering facing at an irreversible and painful illness. I will analyze the conflict that has full respect of human dignity, laid down in Article 51 of the Civil and Commercial Code of Argentina, in relation to advance medical directives that involve a practice euthanasia, according to the Article 60 of the same legal body, should not be writt...

  19. Palliative care nurses' views on euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verpoort, Charlotte; Gastmans, Chris; Dierckx de Casterlé, Bernadette

    2004-09-01

    In debates on euthanasia legalization in Belgium, the voices of nurses were scarcely heard. Yet studies have shown that nurses are involved in the caring process surrounding euthanasia. Consequently, they are in a position to offer valuable ideas about this problem. For this reason, the views of these nurses are important because of their palliative expertise and their daily confrontation with dying patients. The aim of this paper is to report a study of the views of palliative care nurses about euthanasia. A grounded theory approach was chosen, and interviews were carried out with a convenience sample of 12 palliative care nurses in Flanders (Belgium). The data were collected between December 2001 and April 2002. The majority of the nurses were not a priori for or against euthanasia, and their views were largely dependent on the situation. What counted was the degree of suffering and available palliative options. Depending on the situation, we noted both resistance and acceptance towards euthanasia. The underlying arguments for resistance included respect for life and belief in the capabilities of palliative care; arguments underlying acceptance included the quality of life and respect for patient autonomy. The nurses commented that working in palliative care had a considerable influence on one's opinion about euthanasia. In light of the worldwide debate on euthanasia, it is essential to know how nurses, who are confronted with terminally ill patients every day, think about it. Knowledge of these views can also contribute to a realistic and qualified view on euthanasia itself. This can be enlightening to the personal views of caregivers working in a diverse range of care settings.

  20. Active euthanasia and assisted suicide: a perspective from an American abortion and Dutch euthanasia scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrave, C F

    1998-10-01

    To discuss the critical issues involved in the legalization of active euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide. Nursing, medical, legal, and ethics literature; newspaper articles; book chapters. The major terms employed in the discussion of active euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide are defined. The implications of the recent Supreme Court decision on these practices are outlined. The Dutch euthanasia and the American abortion scenarios are used as models for the interpretation of the effects of future legislation on such practices. Oncology nurses need to be cognizant of the crucial issues involved in the practices of active euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide and determine their philosophical stance regarding the practices. If active euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide practices are legalized, oncology nurses will have to make decisions about their desired degree of involvement in acts that will end their patients' lives.

  1. Requests for euthanasia in general practice before and after implementation of the Dutch Euthanasia Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Alphen, Jojanneke E; Donker, Gé A; Marquet, Richard L

    2010-01-01

    Background The Netherlands was the first country in the world to implement a Euthanasia Act in 2002. It is unknown whether legalising euthanasia under strict conditions influences the number and nature of euthanasia requests. Aim To investigate changes in the number of, and reasons for, requests for euthanasia in Dutch general practice after implementation of the Euthanasia Act. Design of study Retrospective dynamic cohort study comparing 5 years before (1998–2002) and 5 years after (2003–2007) implementation of the Act. Method Standardised registration forms were used to collect data on requests for euthanasia via the Dutch Sentinel Practice Network. This network of 45 general practices is nationally representative by age, sex, geographic distribution, and population density. Results The mean annual incidence of requests before implementation amounted to 3.1/10 000 and thereafter to 2.8/10 000 patients. However, trends differed by sex. The number of requests by males decreased significantly from 3.7/10 000 to 2.6/10 000 (P = 0.008); the requests by females increased non-significantly from 2.6/10 000 to 3.1/10 000. Before and after implementation, cancer remained the major underlying disease for requesting euthanasia: 82% versus 77% for men; 73% versus 75% for females. Pain was a major reason for a request, increasing in the period before implementation (mean 27%), but declining in the period thereafter (mean 22%). Loss of dignity became a less important reason after implementation (from 18% to 10%, P = 0.04), predominantly due to a marked decrease in the number of females citing it as a reason (from 17% to 6%, P = 0.02). Conclusion There was no increase in demand for euthanasia after implementation of the Euthanasia Act. Pain as a reason for requesting euthanasia showed an increasing trend before implementation, but declined thereafter. Loss of dignity as a reason declined, especially in females. PMID:20353671

  2. Influence of euthanasia method on blood and gill variables in normoxic and hypoxic Gulf killifish Fundulus grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larter, K F; Rees, B B

    2017-06-01

    In many experiments, euthanasia, or humane killing, of animals is necessary. Some methods of euthanasia cause death through cessation of respiratory or cardiovascular systems, causing oxygen levels of blood and tissues to drop. For experiments where the goal is to measure the effects of environmental low oxygen (hypoxia), the choice of euthanasia technique, therefore, may confound the results. This study examined the effects of four euthanasia methods commonly used in fish biology (overdose of MS-222, overdose of clove oil, rapid cooling and blunt trauma to the head) on variables known to be altered during hypoxia (haematocrit, plasma cortisol, blood lactate and blood glucose) or reflecting gill damage (trypan blue exclusion) and energetic status (ATP, ADP and ATP:ADP) in Gulf killifish Fundulus grandis after 24 h exposure to well-aerated conditions (normoxia, 7·93 mg O 2  l -1 , c. 150 mm Hg or c. 20 kPa) or reduced oxygen levels (0·86 mg O 2  l -1 , c. 17 mm Hg or c. 2·2 kPa). Regardless of oxygen treatment, fish euthanized by an overdose of MS-222 had higher haematocrit and lower gill ATP:ADP than fish euthanized by other methods. The effects of 24 h hypoxic exposure on these and other variables, however, were equivalent among methods of euthanasia (i.e. there were no significant interactions between euthanasia method and oxygen treatment). The choice of an appropriate euthanasia method, therefore, will depend upon the magnitude of the treatment effects (e.g. hypoxia) relative to potential artefacts caused by euthanasia on the variables of interest. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  3. Organ procurement after euthanasia: Belgian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ysebaert, D; Van Beeumen, G; De Greef, K; Squifflet, J P; Detry, O; De Roover, A; Delbouille, M-H; Van Donink, W; Roeyen, G; Chapelle, T; Bosmans, J-L; Van Raemdonck, D; Faymonville, M E; Laureys, S; Lamy, M; Cras, P

    2009-03-01

    Euthanasia was legalized in Belgium in 2002 for adults under strict conditions. The patient must be in a medically futile condition and of constant and unbearable physical or mental suffering that cannot be alleviated, resulting from a serious and incurable disorder caused by illness or accident. Between 2005 and 2007, 4 patients (3 in Antwerp and 1 in Liège) expressed their will for organ donation after their request for euthanasia was granted. Patients were aged 43 to 50 years and had a debilitating neurologic disease, either after severe cerebrovascular accident or primary progressive multiple sclerosis. Ethical boards requested complete written scenario with informed consent of donor and relatives, clear separation between euthanasia and organ procurement procedure, and all procedures to be performed by senior staff members and nursing staff on a voluntary basis. The euthanasia procedure was performed by three independent physicians in the operating room. After clinical diagnosis of cardiac death, organ procurement was performed by femoral vessel cannulation or quick laparotomy. In 2 patients, the liver, both kidneys, and pancreatic islets (one case) were procured and transplanted; in the other 2 patients, there was additional lung procurement and transplantation. Transplant centers were informed of the nature of the case and the elements of organ procurement. There was primary function of all organs. The involved physicians and transplant teams had the well-discussed opinion that this strong request for organ donation after euthanasia could not be waived. A clear separation between the euthanasia request, the euthanasia procedure, and the organ procurement procedure is necessary.

  4. Why Palliative Care for Children is Preferable to Euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Brian S

    2016-02-01

    Recent laws in Europe now allow for pediatric euthanasia. The author reviews some rationale for caution, and addresses why ensuring the availability of pediatric palliative care is an important step before allowing pediatric euthanasia. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Handicapped Infants and Euthanasia: A Challenge to Our Advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. David

    1985-01-01

    The issue of pediatric euthanasia for handicapped newborns is examined and contrasting viewpoints emphasizing the quality and the sanctity of life are considered. The author asserts that advocacy for handicapped children involves decisions regarding the euthanasia question. (CL)

  6. Report of Workshop on Euthanasia for Zebrafish-A Matter of Welfare and Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Almut; Collymore, Chereen; Finger-Baier, Karin; Geisler, Robert; Kaufmann, Larissa; Pounder, Kieran C; Schulte-Merker, Stefan; Valentim, Ana; Varga, Zoltan M; Weiss, Jürgen; Strähle, Uwe

    2017-12-01

    The increasing importance of zebrafish as a biomedical model organism is reflected by the steadily growing number of publications and laboratories working with this species. Regulatory recommendations for euthanasia as issued in Directive 2010/63/EU are, however, based on experience with fish species used for food production and do not take the small size and specific physiology of zebrafish into account. Consequently, the currently recommended methods of euthanasia in the Directive 2010/63/EU are either not applicable or may interfere with research goals. An international workshop was held in Karlsruhe, Germany, March 9, 2017, to discuss and propose alternative methods for euthanasia of zebrafish. The aim was to identify methods that adequately address the physiology of zebrafish and its use as a biomedical research model, follow the principles of the 3Rs (Replacement, Reduction, and Refinement) in animal experimentation and consider animal welfare during anesthesia and euthanasia. The results of the workshop are summarized here in the form of a white paper.

  7. Effectiveness of Rapid Cooling as a Method of Euthanasia for Young Zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Chelsea K; Bright, Lauren A; Marx, James O; Andersen, Robert P; Mullins, Mary C; Carty, Anthony J

    2018-01-01

    Despite increased use of zebrafish (Danio rerio) in biomedical research, consistent information regarding appropriate euthanasia methods, particularly for embryos, is sparse. Current literature indicates that rapid cooling is an effective method of euthanasia for adult zebrafish, yet consistent guidelines regarding zebrafish younger than 6 mo are unavailable. This study was performed to distinguish the age at which rapid cooling is an effective method of euthanasia for zebrafish and the exposure times necessary to reliably euthanize zebrafish using this method. Zebrafish at 3, 4, 7, 14, 16, 19, 21, 28, 60, and 90 d postfertilization (dpf) were placed into an ice water bath for 5, 10, 30, 45, or 60 min (n = 12 to 40 per group). In addition, zebrafish were placed in ice water for 12 h (age ≤14 dpf) or 30 s (age ≥14 dpf). After rapid cooling, fish were transferred to a recovery tank and the number of fish alive at 1, 4, and 12-24 h after removal from ice water was documented. Euthanasia was defined as a failure when evidence of recovery was observed at any point after removal from ice water. Results showed that younger fish required prolonged exposure to rapid cooling for effective euthanasia, with the required exposure time decreasing as fish age. Although younger fish required long exposure times, animals became immobilized immediately upon exposure to the cold water, and behavioral indicators of pain or distress rarely occurred. We conclude that zebrafish 14 dpf and younger require as long as 12 h, those 16 to 28 dpf of age require 5 min, and those older than 28 dpf require 30 s minimal exposure to rapid cooling for reliable euthanasia.

  8. Euthanasia: Murder or Not: A Comparative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    BANOVIĆ, Božidar; TURANJANIN, Veljko

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Euthanasia is one of the most intriguing ethical, medical and law issues that marked whole XX century and beginning of the XXI century, sharply dividing scientific and unscientific public to its supporters and opponents. It also appears as one of the points where all three major religions (Catholic, Orthodox, and Islamic) have the same view. They are strongly against legalizing mercy killing, emphasizing the holiness of life as a primary criterion by which the countries should start in their considerations. Studying criminal justice systems in the world, the authors concluded that the issue of deprivation of life from compassion is solved on three ways. On the first place, we have countries where euthanasia is murder like any other murder from the criminal codes. Second, the most numerous are states where euthanasia is murder committed under privilege circumstances. On the third place, in the Western Europe we have countries where euthanasia is a legal medical procedure, under requirements prescribed by the law. In this paper, authors have made a brief comparison of the solutions that exist in some Islamic countries, where euthanasia is a murder, with Western countries, where it represents completely decriminalized medical procedure. PMID:26056652

  9. Euthanasia and palliative sedation in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Almagor, Raphael; Ely, E Wesley

    2018-01-04

    The aim of this article is to use data from Belgium to analyse distinctions between palliative sedation and euthanasia. There is a need to reduce confusion and improve communication related to patient management at the end of life specifically regarding the rapidly expanding area of patient care that incorporates a spectrum of nuanced yet overlapping terms such as palliative care, sedation, palliative sedation, continued sedation, continued sedation until death, terminal sedation, voluntary euthanasia and involuntary euthanasia. Some physicians and nurses mistakenly think that relieving suffering at the end of life by heavily sedating patients is a form of euthanasia, when indeed it is merely responding to the ordinary and proportionate needs of the patient. Concerns are raised about abuse in the form of deliberate involuntary euthanasia, obfuscation and disregard for the processes sustaining the management of refractory suffering at the end of life. Some suggestions designed to improve patient management and prevent potential abuse are offered. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Euthanasia: Murder or Not: A Comparative Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banović, Božidar; Turanjanin, Veljko

    2014-10-01

    Background Euthanasia is one of the most intriguing ethical, medical and law issues that marked whole XX century and beginning of the XXI century, sharply dividing scientific and unscientific public to its supporters and opponents. It also appears as one of the points where all three major religions (Catholic, Orthodox, and Islamic) have the same view. They are strongly against legalizing mercy killing, emphasizing the holiness of life as a primary criterion by which the countries should start in their considerations. Studying criminal justice systems in the world, the authors concluded that the issue of deprivation of life from compassion is solved on three ways. On the first place, we have countries where euthanasia is murder like any other murder from the criminal codes. Second, the most numerous are states where euthanasia is murder committed under privilege circumstances. On the third place, in the Western Europe we have countries where euthanasia is a legal medical procedure, under requirements prescribed by the law. In this paper, authors have made a brief comparison of the solutions that exist in some Islamic countries, where euthanasia is a murder, with Western countries, where it represents completely decriminalized medical procedure.

  11. Euthanasia Acceptance as Related to Afterlife and Other Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopfer, Frederick J.; Price, William F.

    1978-01-01

    Information on euthanasia attitudes was obtained from fixed-schedule interviews gathered from 331 respondents. It was found that a favorable attitude toward euthanasia coincided with (1) belief in an afterlife; (2) a less favorable attitude toward euthanasia if relatives make the decision; and (3) younger respondents. (Author)

  12. Moving from voluntary euthanasia to non-voluntary euthanasia: equality and compassion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaraskekara, Kumar; Bagaric, Mirko

    2004-09-01

    The recent Dutch law legalising active voluntary euthanasia will reignite the euthanasia debate. An illuminating method for evaluating the moral status of a practice is to follow the implications of the practice to its logical conclusion. The argument for compassion is one of the central arguments in favour of voluntary active euthanasia. This argument applies perhaps even more forcefully in relation to incompetent patients. If active voluntary euthanasia is legalised, arguments based on compassion and equality will be directed towards legalising active non-voluntary euthanasia in order to make accelerated termination of death available also to the incompetent. The removal of discrimination against the incompetent has the potential to become as potent a catch-cry as the right to die. However, the legalisation of non-voluntary euthanasia is undesirable. A review of the relevant authorities reveals that there is no coherent and workable "best interests" test which can be invoked to decide whether an incompetent patient is better off dead. This provides a strong reason for not stepping onto the slippery path of permitting active voluntary euthanasia.

  13. Establishing 'quality of life' parameters using behavioural guidelines for humane euthanasia of captive non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambeth, Sp; Schapiro, Sj; Bernacky, Bj; Wilkerson, Gk

    2013-09-01

    Chronic pain and distress are universally accepted conditions that may adversely affect an animal's quality of life (QOL) and lead to the humane euthanasia of an animal. At most research institutions and zoological parks in the USA, a veterinarian, who has physically examined the animal and reviewed the clinical records, ultimately decides when an animal has reached a humane endpoint. To aid in the difficult process of interpreting pain and distress, we have developed specific behavioural guidelines, in addition to standard clinical information, to help define unique characteristics and traits of primates to assess and promote discussion of an individual primate's QOL, and thereby, to assist in the decision-making process regarding euthanasia. These guidelines advocate the creation of a QOL team when the animal is diagnosed with a life-threatening or debilitating chronic condition, or at the time the animal is entered into a terminal study. The team compiles a list of characteristics unique to that individual animal by utilising a questionnaire and a behavioural ethogram. This list enables the team to quantitatively assess any deviations from the established normal behavioural repertoire of that individual. Concurrently, the QOL team determines the number of behavioural deviations that are needed to trigger an immediate discussion of the necessity for humane euthanasia of the animal. The team remains intact once created, and revisits the animal's condition as frequently as deemed necessary. This process improves animal welfare by continuing the quest to optimally define QOL for captive primates, and potentially for all captive animals.

  14. An effective method for terrestrial arthropod euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennie, Neil A C; Loaring, Christopher D; Bennie, Mikaella M G; Trim, Steven A

    2012-12-15

    As scientific understanding of invertebrate life increases, so does the concern for how to end that life in an effective way that minimises (potential) suffering and is also safe for those carrying out the procedure. There is increasing debate on the most appropriate euthanasia methods for invertebrates as their use in experimental research and zoological institutions grows. Their popularity as pet species has also led to an increase in the need for greater veterinary understanding. Through the use of a local injection of potassium chloride (KCl) initially developed for use in American lobsters, this paper describes a safe and effective method for euthanasia in terrestrial invertebrates. Initial work focused on empirically determining the dose for cockroaches, which was then extrapolated to other arthropod species. For this method of euthanasia, we propose the term 'targeted hyperkalosis' to describe death through terminal depolarisation of the thoracic ganglia as a result of high potassium concentration.

  15. Euthanasia: an overview and the jewish perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesundheit, Benjamin; Steinberg, Avraham; Glick, Shimon; Or, Reuven; Jotkovitz, Alan

    2006-10-01

    End-of-life care poses fundamental ethical problems to clinicians. Defining euthanasia is a difficult and complex task, which causes confusion in its practical clinical application. Over the course of history, abuse of the term has led to medical atrocities. Familiarity with the relevant bioethical issues and the development of practical guidelines might improve clinical performance. To define philosophical concepts, to present historical events, to discuss the relevant attitudes in modern bioethics and law that may be helpful in elaborating practical guidelines for clinicians regarding euthanasia and end-of-life care. Concepts found in the classic sources of Jewish tradition might shed additional light on the issue and help clinicians in their decision-making process. An historical overview defines the concepts of active versus passive euthanasia, physician-assisted suicide and related terms. Positions found in classical Jewish literature are presented and analyzed with their later interpretations. The relevance and application in modern clinical medicine of both the general and Jewish approaches are discussed. The overview of current bioethical concepts demonstrates the variety of approaches in western culture and legal systems. Philosophically and conceptually, there is a crucial distinction between active and passive euthanasia. The legitimacy of active euthanasia has been the subject of major controversy in recent times in various countries and religious traditions. The historical overview and the literature review demonstrate the need to provide clearer definitions of the concepts relating to euthanasia, for in the past the term has led to major confusion and uncontrolled abuse. Bioethical topics should, therefore, be included in medical training and continuing education. There are major debates and controversies regarding the current clinical and legal approaches. We trust that classical Jewish sources might contribute to the establishment of clinical

  16. Euthanasia--he illusion of autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartling, O J

    2006-03-01

    The paper deals with some of the more common arguments used for the legalisation of voluntary euthanasia. It looks at these arguments from an ethical and philosophical point of view. First, the argument that to offer a person the possibility of euthanasia is to respect that person's autonomy is questionable. Can a person's decision on euthanasia be really autonomous? If euthanasia were legal everybody would be conscious of this option: the patient, the doctor, the family and the nursing staff. Thus, there could be indirect pressure on the patient to make a decision. The choice is meant to be free but the patient is not free not to make the choice. Secondly, a choice that seeks to alleviate suffering and thus improve life by annihilating it is irrational. Thirdly, autonomy as to one's own death is hardly exercised freely. Even an otherwise competent person may not be competent in deciding on his own death on account of despair, hopelessness, fear or maybe a feeling of being weak, superfluous and unwanted. This is a very uncertain base for decision-making, especially in the irrevocable decision of euthanasia. Finally, a competent person usually makes any choice in a responsible way and after due consideration; a 'good' decision should consider and respect the wishes and feelings of others. This will be no less the case in making a decision on the so-called free choice of euthanasia. Thus 'normal' behaviour in decision making will only add to the tendency of the already depressed person to feel a burden on his family, the staff and even on society.

  17. The bible and attitudes towards voluntary euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Shane

    2018-03-15

    Are beliefs about and behaviors towards the Bible associated with voluntary euthanasia attitudes? Using General Social Survey data and multivariate logistic regression, I find that individuals' views of the authorship and epistemological status of the Bible; the importance of the Bible in making decisions; and the frequency in which individuals read the Bible are associated with negative voluntary euthanasia attitudes, even when controlling for other religiosity and sociodemographic predictors. I find that the importance of the Bible in making decisions accounts for the effect of frequency of reading the Bible and viewing the Bible as the inspired word of God.

  18. Buddhism, euthanasia and the sanctity of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrett, R W

    1996-10-01

    Damien and John Keown claim that there is important common ground between Buddhism and Christianity on the issue of euthanasia and that both traditions oppose it for similar reasons in order to espouse a "sanctity of life" position. I argue that the appearance of consensus is partly created by their failure to specify clearly enough certain key notions in the argument: particularly Buddhism, euthanasia and the sanctity of life. Once this is done, the Keowns' central claims can be seen to be either false or only restrictedly true.

  19. Buddhism, euthanasia and the sanctity of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrett, R W

    1996-01-01

    Damien and John Keown claim that there is important common ground between Buddhism and Christianity on the issue of euthanasia and that both traditions oppose it for similar reasons in order to espouse a "sanctity of life" position. I argue that the appearance of consensus is partly created by their failure to specify clearly enough certain key notions in the argument: particularly Buddhism, euthanasia and the sanctity of life. Once this is done, the Keowns' central claims can be seen to be either false or only restrictedly true. PMID:8910785

  20. Flemish palliative care nurses' attitudes toward euthanasia: a quantitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gielen, Joris; van den Branden, Stef; van Iersel, Trudie; Broeckaert, Bert

    2009-10-01

    To adequately measure the attitudes of Flemish palliative care nurses toward euthanasia, and assess the relationship between these attitudes and demographic factors and the (perceived) influence of experience in palliative care on death anxiety. An anonymous questionnaire was sent to all nurses (n=589) employed in palliative care in Flanders, Belgium: 70.5% of the nurses (n=415) responded. A majority of the nurses supported the Belgian law regulating euthanasia but also believed that most euthanasia requests disappear as soon as a patient experiences the benefits of good palliative care. Three clusters were discovered: staunch advocates of euthanasia (150 nurses, 41.1%); moderate advocates of euthanasia (135 nurses, 37%); and (moderate) opponents of euthanasia (80 nurses, 21.9%). An absolute opposition between advocates and opponents of euthanasia was not observed. A statistically significant relationship was found between the euthanasia clusters and years of experience in palliative care, and (perceived) influence of experience in palliative care on anxiety when a patient dies. Flemish palliative care nurses' attitudes toward euthanasia are nuanced and contextual. By indicating that most euthanasia requests disappear as soon as a patient experiences the benefits of good palliative care, the nurses applied a 'palliative filter' a standard procedure in the case of a euthanasia request.

  1. Against euthanasia for children: a response to Bovens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczor, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    If we accept euthanasia for adults, should we also accept voluntary euthanasia for children? In 'Child Euthanasia: Should We Just Not Talk about It?', Luc Bovens answers this question affirmatively. Bovens examines five arguments against extending euthanasia to minors, the arguments being weightiness, capability of discernment, pressure, sensitivity and sufficient palliative care. He rejects each of these arguments. In this paper, I provide a rejoinder for each of his responses. I also critique his view that opponents of euthanasia have extra responsibility to promote palliative care. On the contrary, if euthanasia is legalised, advocates of euthanasia have a special obligation to promote improvements in palliative care. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. Non-voluntary passive euthanasia: the social consequences of euphemisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayers, Gwen M

    2007-11-01

    Non-voluntary passive euthanasia, the commonest form of euthanasia, is seldom mentioned in the UK. This article illustrates how the legal reasoning in Airedale NHS Trust v Bland contributed towards this conceptual deletion. By upholding the impermissibility of euthanasia, whilst at the same time permitting 'euthanasia' under the guise of 'withdrawing futile treatment', it is argued that the court (logically) allowed (withdrawing futile treatment and euthanasia). The Bland reasoning was incorporated into professional guidance, which extended the court's ruling to encompass patients who, unlike Anthony Bland, were sentient. But since the lawfulness of (withdrawing futile treatment and euthanasia) hinges on the futility of treatment, and since the guidance provides advice about withdrawing treatment from patients who differ from those considered in court, the lawfulness of such 'treatment decisions' is unclear. Legislation is proposed in order to redress the ambiguity that arose when moral decisions about 'euthanasia' were translated into medical decisions about 'treatment'.

  3. Veterinary surgeons' attitudes towards physician-assisted suicide: an empirical study of Swedish experts on euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Henrik; Lindblad, Anna; Algers, Bo; Lynöe, Niels

    2011-05-01

    To examine the hypothesis that knowledge about physician-assisted suicide (PAS) and euthanasia is associated with a more restrictive attitude towards PAS. A questionnaire about attitudes towards PAS, including prioritization of arguments pro and contra, was sent to Swedish veterinary surgeons. The results were compared with those from similar surveys of attitudes among the general public and physicians. All veterinary surgeons who were members of the Swedish Veterinary Association and had provided an email address (n=2421). Similarities or differences in response pattern between veterinary surgeons, physicians and the general public. The response pattern among veterinary surgeons and the general public was almost similar in all relevant aspects. Of the veterinarians 75% (95% CI 72% to 78%) were in favour of PAS, compared with 73% (95% CI 69% to 77%) among the general public. Only 10% (95% CI 5% to 15%) of the veterinary surgeons were against PAS, compared with 12% (95% CI 5% to 19%) among the general public. Finally, 15% (95% CI 10% to 21%) of veterinarians were undecided, compared with 15% (95% CI 8% to 22%) among the general public. Physicians had a more restrictive attitude to PAS than the general public. Since veterinary surgeons have frequent practical experience of euthanasia in animals, they do have knowledge about what euthanasia really is. Veterinary surgeons and the general public had an almost similar response pattern. Accordingly it seems difficult to maintain that knowledge about euthanasia is unambiguously associated with a restrictive attitude towards PAS.

  4. Effects of euthanasia method on stable-carbon and stable-nitrogen isotope analysis for an ectothermic vertebrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Meredith A

    2013-04-30

    Stable isotope analysis is a critical tool for understanding ecological food webs; however, results can be sensitive to sample preparation methods. To limit the possibility of sample contamination, freezing is commonly used to euthanize invertebrates and preserve non-lethal samples from vertebrates. For destructive sampling of vertebrates, more humane euthanasia methods are preferred to freezing and it is essential to evaluate how these euthanasia methods affect stable isotope results. Stable isotope ratios and elemental composition of carbon and nitrogen were used to evaluate whether the euthanasia method compromised the integrity of the sample for analysis. Specifically, the stable isotope and C:N ratios were compared for larval wood frogs (Rana sylvatica  =  Lithobates sylvaticus), an ectothermic vertebrate, that had been euthanized by freezing with four different humane euthanasia methods: CO2, benzocaine, MS-222 (tricaine methanesulfonate), and 70% ethanol. The euthanasia method was not related to the δ(13)C or δ(15)N values and the comparisons revealed no differences between freezing and any of the other treatments. However, there were slight (non-significant) differences in the isotope ratios of benzocaine and CO2 when each was compared with freezing. The elemental composition was altered by the euthanasia method employed. The percentage nitrogen was higher in CO2 treatments than in freezing, and similar (non-significant) trends were seen for ethanol treatments relative to freezing. The resulting C:N ratios were higher for benzocaine treatments than for both CO2 and ethanol. Similar (non-significant) trends suggested that the C:N ratios were also higher for animals euthanized by freezing than for both CO2 and ethanol euthanasia methods. The euthanasia method had a larger effect on elemental composition than stable isotope ratios. The percentage nitrogen and the subsequent C:N ratios were most affected by the CO2 and ethanol euthanasia methods, whereas

  5. Dementia and assisted suicide and euthanasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Beaufort, Inez D.; van de Vathorst, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    The number of dementia patients requesting euthanasia in the Netherlands has increased over the past five years. The issue is highly controversial. In this contribution we discuss some of the main arguments: the nature of suffering, the voluntariness of the request and the role of the physician. We

  6. Euthanasia of Severely Handicapped Infants: Ethical Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Libby

    Ethical decisions are involved in life and death decisions for severely handicapped infants. Although it has become common practice for physicians not to treat severely handicapped infants, the ethical considerations involved in euthanasia are complex. A review of the literature reveals that concerns center around the quality of life of the…

  7. A Bibliography on Euthanasia, 1958-1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilker, Christine; And Others

    This collection of materials represents a 20-year span (1958-1978) of references on euthanasia found through select indexes and abstracting services. The contents are organized into two general reference sections, periodicals and books, with citations listed alphabetically by author. The last two sections focus on the locations of these materials…

  8. UNDERGRADUATE NURSING EDUCATION RELATED TO EUTHANASIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croxon, Lyn; Anderson, Judith

    2016-09-01

    Euthanasia is a subject that has been debated in health ethics courses for many years. With the increase in quality palliative care and emphasis on 'dying well', in response to the increased number of people living with life limiting conditions (Swerissen & Duckett, 2014), it has not been so prevalent in public forum discussions of late.

  9. The effect of light level, CO2 flow rate, and anesthesia on the stress response of mice during CO2 euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Karin; Ethun, Kelly; Taylor, Douglas K

    2016-09-21

    Euthanasia protocols are designed to mitigate the stress experienced by animals, and an environment that induces minimal stress helps achieve that goal. A protocol that is efficient and practical in a typical animal research facility is also important. Light intensity, isoflurane, and CO2 flow rate were studied for their impact on the stress response of mice during CO2 euthanasia. Behavior was observed and scored during euthanasia and serum corticosterone was measured immediately after death. Unsurprisingly, animals euthanized with a high-flow rate of CO2 became unconscious in the least amount of time, while animals euthanized with a low-flow rate required the most time to reach unconsciousness. There was a significant increase in anxious behaviors in animals in the isoflurane group (F1,12 = 6.67, P = 0.024), the high-flow rate CO2 group (F1,12 = 10.24, P = 0.007), and bright chamber group (F1,12 = 7.27, P = 0.019). Serum corticosterone was highest in the isoflurane group (124.72 ± 83.98 ng/ml), however there was no significant difference in corticosterone levels observed for the other study variables of light and flow-rate. A darkened chamber and low CO2 flow rates help to decrease stress experienced during CO2 euthanasia, while the use of isoflurane was observed to increase the stress response during euthanasia.

  10. Effects of Clove Oil as a Euthanasia Agent on Blood Collection Efficiency and Serum Cortisol Levels in Danio rerio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Daniel J; Klug, Jenna; Hankins, Miriam; Doerr, Holly M; Monticelli, Stephanie R; Song, Ava; Gillespie, Catherine H; Bryda, Elizabeth C

    2015-09-01

    Zebrafish are an important laboratory animal model for biomedical research and are increasingly being used for behavioral neuroscience. Tricaine methanesulfonate (MS222) is the standard agent used for euthanasia of zebrafish. However, recent studies of zebrafish behavior suggest that MS222 may be aversive, and clove oil might be a possible alternative. In this study, we compared the effects of MS222 or clove oil as a euthanasia agent in zebrafish on the volume of blood collected and on serum levels of cortisol. Greater amounts of serum could be collected and lower serum levels of cortisol were present in fish euthanized with clove oil compared with equipotent dose of MS222. Euthanasia with clove oil did not blunt the expected elevation of serum cortisol levels elicited by an acute premortem stress. According to our findings, clove oil is a fast-acting agent that minimizes the cortisol response to euthanasia in zebrafish and allows the collection of large volumes of blood postmortem. These results represent a significant refinement in euthanasia methods for zebrafish.

  11. Nurses' attitudes to euthanasia: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verpoort, Charlotte; Gastmans, Chris; De Bal, Nele; Dierckx de Casterlé, Bernadette

    2004-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the scarce international literature concerning nurses' attitudes to euthanasia. Studies show large differences with respect to the percentage of nurses who are (not) in favour of euthanasia. Characteristics such as age, religion and nursing specialty have a significant influence on a nurse's opinion. The arguments for euthanasia have to do with quality of life, respect for autonomy and dissatisfaction with the current situation. Arguments against euthanasia are the right to a good death, belief in the possibilities offered by palliative care, religious objections and the fear of abuse. Nurses mention the need for more palliative care training, their difficulties in taking a specific position, and their desire to express their ideas about euthanasia. There is a need to include nurses' voices in the end-of-life discourse because they offer a contextual understanding of euthanasia and requests to die, which is borne out of real experience with people facing death.

  12. Evaluation of a Commercially Available Euthanasia Solution as a Voluntarily Ingested Euthanasia Agent in Laboratory Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Emily S; Boivin, Gregory P

    2018-01-01

    All currently accepted methods of euthanasia for laboratory mice involve some degree of stress, fear, anxiety, or pain. We evaluated the voluntary oral administration of a euthanasia drug in 99 male and 81 female mice of various strains. We first explored the palatability of sugar-cookie dough with various flavorings added. We placed the cookie dough in the cage with an adult mouse and recorded the amount ingested after 1 h. Mice readily ingested all flavors of sugar-cookie dough. We then added a euthanasia solution containing pentobarbital and phenytoin to all flavors of cookie dough and placed a small bolus in the cage of each mouse or mouse pair. We observed the mice for 1 h for clinical signs of pentobarbital intoxication and then weighed uneaten dough to determine the dose of pentobarbital ingested. Palatability declined sharply when euthanasia solution was present. Mice ingested higher doses of pentobarbital in cookie dough during the dark phase and after fasting. Ingestion caused ataxia in some mice but was not sufficient to cause loss of righting reflex, unconsciousness, or death in any mouse. We successfully identified sugar cookie dough as a drug vehicle that was readily and rapidly eaten by mice without the need for previous exposure. Additional research is needed to identify euthanasia compounds for mice that do not affect the palatability of cookie dough.

  13. Nurses’ Opinion About Euthanasia in East Azerbaijan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahimi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Euthanasia is one of the important challenges in the field of end of life care. There are few studies investigated the attitude of Shiite Muslim nurses about different aspects of euthanasia. Objectives The aim of present study was to investigate the attitude of Iranian Shiite nurses about different aspects of euthanasia in East Azerbaijan Provence, Iran, 2012. Patients and Methods In this descriptive study, 209 nurses (census sampling method from 6 educational hospitals in East Azerbaijan Province were participated. The attitude of nurses was investigated with Euthanasia Attitude Questionnaire, which is a 31-item scale. This scale investigate the attitude of nurses in 5 domains, including general attitude (3 items, legal and religious issues (5 items, end of life care (8 items, euthanasia decision making (8 items, and attitude toward different types of euthanasia (7 items. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis using SPSS software (ver. 13. Results Participants had a negative attitude towards all aspects of euthanasia. They reported that they would not participate in euthanasia procedure even this procedure was accepted by religious leaders and legal authorities. They believed that caring of end of life patients is a burden but this is not a reason for euthanasia and also they did not consider patients or their relative as decision makers for euthanasia. In addition, participants rejected all types of euthanasia. Conclusions Iranian nurses in East Azerbaijan Provence have negative attitudes toward different aspects of euthanasia and this negative attitude is not related to religious or legal issues. So, searching for the reasons for such an attitude needs more investigation.

  14. Euthanasia and ethical dillemas: Human dignity against sanctity of life

    OpenAIRE

    Simović, Darko Z.; Simeunović-Patić, Biljana J.

    2017-01-01

    The paper analyses ethical dilemmas and conflicting issues tied to euthanasia and the institutionalization of the right to a dignified death, viewed through a prism of arguments in favour of and against euthanasia, solutions of comparative law and the practice of the European Council and The European Court of Human Rights in this field, as well as the existing practices of physicians with respect to the implementation of various modalities of euthanasia. At the national lavel, the topic is be...

  15. Attitude to Euthanasia of Workers in Palliative Care

    OpenAIRE

    Poštová, Lenka

    2015-01-01

    This bsachelor thesis is devided into two parts, theoretical and practical. The work focuses on opinions of workers in palliative care on euthanasia. The theoretical part deals with the definition of palliative care, its goals and principles. Futhermore, it also introduced quality of palliative care in Czech Republic. Second chapter explains the term euthanasia and its forms. It also contains opinions of citizens of the Czech Republic on euthanasia. Third chapter is dedicated to terms such as...

  16. About the practice of psychiatric euthanasia: a commentary

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez-Castroman, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    Euthanasia motivated by mental disorders is legal in only a few countries and has a short history. In a recent report of all psychiatric euthanasia cases in Belgium between 2002 and 2013, Dierickx and colleagues suggest that the number of these cases is increasing, and provide a profile of the applicants. To date, knowledge of the practice of psychiatric euthanasia is limited, but rising public awareness might increase the number of requests. The authors reveal several shortcomings in cases o...

  17. [Dementia, end of life and euthanasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bier, J C; Salmon, E; Ivanoiu, A

    2014-09-01

    Among legislative criteria granting the right to practice euthanasia or assisted suicide, there are systematically four major elements. Precisely, any request must be voluntary, persistent, to be well thought and well informed. Such euthanasia raises numerous difficult questions in case of dementia. It also justifies thinking about possibilities that can offer specific arrangements of anticipated demands in such peculiar cases. Empirical experiences show us that it applies with difficulties in practice. Finally, to avoid that a big majority of these demands would find themselves not applied in practice, it would certainly be necessary to add to it structural valuation of advance care planning, and assure its recognition and development. These should not be limited to a single pathological target but would address all of us to increase advance care planning initiation, which remains the most limiting factor of such any early but continuous procedure.

  18. [Depression, cancer and physician-assisted euthanasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raats, Pascal C C; Oud, Marian J T

    2012-01-01

    A 73-year-old woman suffering from chronic recurrent depression and in the terminal phase of breast cancer requested euthanasia from her family doctor. Patients with a history of chronic depression have more difficulty proving that they have made a conscious choice to terminate their lives; however, depression does not necessarily alter the patient's ability to make decisions. In order to judge each case adequately, information from all those involved in the case (e.g. family, professionals) is important. It is vital that a SCEN ('Support and Counselling by Euthanasia in the Netherlands') doctor is consulted in good time in order to be sure that the patient is able to express himself or herself properly.

  19. The Dutch experience with euthanasia: lessons for Canada?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullens, A

    1995-06-01

    Anne Mullens used a recent fellowship provided by the Atkinson Foundation to take an in-depth look at euthanasia in the Netherlands. During her time in Holland, she discussed the issue with doctors who support and oppose euthanasia. She accompanied a doctor as he visited a patient who was dying of cancer and was beginning to consider the possibility of euthanasia. She talked to a nonphysician who is adamantly opposed to euthanasia and carries a card stating that. She visited a hospital in Amsterdam that has received requests from foreigners seeking euthansia. Mullens offers a comprehensive look at an issue that continues to provoke strong feelings among Canadian physicians and patients.

  20. The Dutch experience with euthanasia: lessons for Canada?

    OpenAIRE

    Mullens, A

    1995-01-01

    Anne Mullens used a recent fellowship provided by the Atkinson Foundation to take an in-depth look at euthanasia in the Netherlands. During her time in Holland, she discussed the issue with doctors who support and oppose euthanasia. She accompanied a doctor as he visited a patient who was dying of cancer and was beginning to consider the possibility of euthanasia. She talked to a nonphysician who is adamantly opposed to euthanasia and carries a card stating that. She visited a hospital in Ams...

  1. Validation of the Chinese expanded Euthanasia Attitude Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Alice Ming-Lin; Fok, Shiu-Yeu

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the validation of the Chinese version of an expanded 31-item Euthanasia Attitude Scale. A 4-stage validation process included a pilot survey of 119 college students and a randomized household survey with 618 adults in Hong Kong. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed a 4-factor structure of the scale, which can therefore be used to examine attitudes toward general, active, passive, and non-voluntary euthanasia. The scale considers the role effect in decision-making about euthanasia requests and facilitates cross-cultural comparison of attitudes toward euthanasia. The new Chinese scale is more robust than its Western predecessors conceptually and measurement-wise.

  2. Euthanasia of Danish dairy cows evaluated in two questionnaire surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Peter; Sørensen, Jan Tind

    2008-01-01

    a random sample of 196 Danish dairy farmers that had reported a dead cow to the Danish Cattle Database in 2002 and 196 dairy farmers that had reported a dead cow in 2006. Our objectives were to evaluate the proportion of euthanized cows, changes in the behaviour of farmers regarding euthanasia of cows over...... the years and possible reasons for these changes. Results It seems that the threshold for euthanasia of cows among farmers has changed. Farmers generally reported a lower threshold for euthanasia compared to 5-10 years ago. Conclusions The threshold for euthanasia of cows has, according to the dairy farmers...

  3. Physicians' opinions on palliative care and euthanasia in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georges, Jean-Jacques; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D; van der Heide, Agnes; van der Wal, Gerrit; van der Maas, Paul J

    2006-10-01

    In recent decades significant developments in end-of-life care have taken place in The Netherlands. There has been more attention for palliative care and alongside the practice of euthanasia has been regulated. The aim of this paper is to describe the opinions of physicians with regard to the relationship between palliative care and euthanasia, and determinants of these opinions. Cross-sectional. Representative samples of physicians (n = 410), relatives of patients who died after euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide (EAS; n = 87), and members of the Euthanasia Review Committees (ERCs; n = 35). Structured interviews with physicians and relatives of patients, and a written questionnaire for the members of the ERCs. Approximately half of the physicians disagreed and one third agreed with statements describing the quality of palliative care in The Netherlands as suboptimal and describing the expertise of physicians with regard to palliative care as insufficient. Almost two thirds of the physicians disagreed with the suggestion that adequate treatment of pain and terminal care make euthanasia redundant. Having a religious belief, being a nursing home physician or a clinical specialist, never having performed euthanasia, and not wanting to perform euthanasia were related to the belief that adequate treatment of pain and terminal care could make euthanasia redundant. The study results indicate that most physicians in The Netherlands are not convinced that palliative care can always alleviate all suffering at the end of life and believe that euthanasia could be appropriate in some cases.

  4. About the practice of psychiatric euthanasia: a commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Castroman, Jorge

    2017-06-27

    Euthanasia motivated by mental disorders is legal in only a few countries and has a short history. In a recent report of all psychiatric euthanasia cases in Belgium between 2002 and 2013, Dierickx and colleagues suggest that the number of these cases is increasing, and provide a profile of the applicants. To date, knowledge of the practice of psychiatric euthanasia is limited, but rising public awareness might increase the number of requests. The authors reveal several shortcomings in cases of psychiatric euthanasia and open avenues for future research.Please see related article: https://bmcpsychiatry.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12888-017-1369-0.

  5. [Euthanasia: legal comparison in selected European countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doležal, Adam

    2018-01-01

    This article deals with the subject of euthanasia (all its forms) and other end-of-life decisions, such as assisted suicide, withdrawing and whithholding life-sustaining treatments. Among other things, the article will also deal with the issue of the offense of Homicide by the Victims Request. Based on an empirical historical method, the article compares the various selected legal orders. From this analysis, it draws some conclusions that have an impact on ethical discourse. First of all, the terminology is defined in the article, which is very important in this area. Further, German law is being analysed, with emphasis on Nazi Germany. On that basis, the so-called reductio ad Hitlerum argument is rejected. Research continues and is followed by another states, the Netherlands, Belgium and Switzerland. By analysing them, the following ethical arguments used in euthanasia debates are examined: the argument of a slippery slope and the argument of respect for autonomy. Finally, the judgment of the European Court of Human Rights in the Pretty case is also analysed. On this case, we can demonstrate, how insufficient is argument of human dignity. The last part is dedicated to the Czech Republic and its legal order. Firstly, it focuses on the history of the legal regulation of euthanasia, but the main part deals with the current legal situation. In addition to the recent state of affairs, the bill of Death with dignity act is also being examined. At the end of the article it is pointed out that the Czech regulation is insufficient and changes are necessary. However, the proposed bill of Death with dignity act is not the right way to follow. Rather, it may be wise to adopt an amendment to the Penal Code that would introduce the offense of Homicide by the Victims Request.Key words: assisted suicide - euthanasia - Homicide by the Victims Request - medical futility - withdrawing and whithholding life-sustaining treatment.

  6. Use of a Non-Penetrating Captive Bolt for Euthanasia of Neonate Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Grist

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A non-penetrating captive bolt device, powered by a 1 grain 0.22″ cartridge delivering a calculated kinetic energy of 47 Joules was tested as a euthanasia method on 200 neonate goats (Capra aegagrus hircus of mean dead weight = 4.425 kg (SD (Standard deviation ± 0.4632, to assess effectiveness and shot position. Evaluation of the method was conducted using behavioural indicators of brain dysfunction followed by post mortem examination of the heads. Once correct shot position had been established, 100% of 158 kids (95% confidence interval 97.5% to 100% were successfully stunned/killed with a shot positioned on the midline, between the ears, with the chin tucked into the neck. The use of the Accles and Shelvoke CASH Small Animal Tool can therefore be recommended for the euthanasia of neonate goats with a 1 grain cartridge and a specific shooting position.

  7. Euthanasia: the role of good care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale, C; Addington-Hall, J

    1995-03-01

    The results from two surveys in England of relatives and others who knew people in samples drawn from death certificates are reported. The main focus is on a sample of 3696 people dying in 1990 in 20 health authorities, with supporting analysis from an earlier national sample of 639 people dying in 1987. The argument that good care and, in particular, hospice care is effective in reducing the desire for euthanasia has been proposed as an argument against the legalization of voluntary euthanasia. The findings suggest that the picture is in fact more complex. People who received hospice care were, if anything, more likely to have respondents who felt that it would have been better if they had died earlier. The latter held when controlling for other variables found to influence respondents' views, such as the level of distress and dependency experienced by the dying person. It appears possible that the same may apply to the dying peoples' own wishes, although here the time order of events could not be controlled for in the data. It is suggested that this may be due to hospice care being geared to helping patients express their fears and exercise choice. The wish for euthanasia may then be an assertion of personal control, rather than an act of surrender. Alternatively, people (and their relatives) who accept hospice care may be predisposed to consider the benefits of an earlier death.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarte, N B; Heintz, A P

    1999-12-01

    In the Netherlands there are about 9700 explicit requests for euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide (EAS) each year, of which approximately 3600 are granted. Other countries have criticized the Dutch policy concerning EAS. It has been suggested that palliative care in the Netherlands is not adequate and that euthanasia is often requested by patients with depression. In addition, this criticism is partly based on the firm stance that 'human life has an absolute value and a human being has under no circumstances the right of self-determination over his or her own life'. Many aspects of EAS are currently the focus of attention in the literature. In this review the following aspects of EAS are discussed: ethics, judicial questions, the relationship between depression and euthanasia, and the impact of EAS on members of the family. Also, the current situation concerning EAS in the Netherlands is summarized and described. Despite the fact that EAS have been widely discussed in the literature, the association between depression and the number of requests for EAS remains to be discovered. It is also not yet known what the effects of EAS are on members of the family, and whether unnatural death causes a higher incidence of complicated grief.

  9. Impact of anesthesia and euthanasia on metabolomics of mammalian tissues: studies in a C57BL/6J mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overmyer, Katherine A; Thonusin, Chanisa; Qi, Nathan R; Burant, Charles F; Evans, Charles R

    2015-01-01

    A critical application of metabolomics is the evaluation of tissues, which are often the primary sites of metabolic dysregulation in disease. Laboratory rodents have been widely used for metabolomics studies involving tissues due to their facile handing, genetic manipulability and similarity to most aspects of human metabolism. However, the necessary step of administration of anesthesia in preparation for tissue sampling is not often given careful consideration, in spite of its potential for causing alterations in the metabolome. We examined, for the first time using untargeted and targeted metabolomics, the effect of several commonly used methods of anesthesia and euthanasia for collection of skeletal muscle, liver, heart, adipose and serum of C57BL/6J mice. The data revealed dramatic, tissue-specific impacts of tissue collection strategy. Among many differences observed, post-euthanasia samples showed elevated levels of glucose 6-phosphate and other glycolytic intermediates in skeletal muscle. In heart and liver, multiple nucleotide and purine degradation metabolites accumulated in tissues of euthanized compared to anesthetized animals. Adipose tissue was comparatively less affected by collection strategy, although accumulation of lactate and succinate in euthanized animals was observed in all tissues. Among methods of tissue collection performed pre-euthanasia, ketamine showed more variability compared to isoflurane and pentobarbital. Isoflurane induced elevated liver aspartate but allowed more rapid initiation of tissue collection. Based on these findings, we present a more optimal collection strategy mammalian tissues and recommend that rodent tissues intended for metabolomics studies be collected under anesthesia rather than post-euthanasia.

  10. Impact of Anesthesia and Euthanasia on Metabolomics of Mammalian Tissues: Studies in a C57BL/6J Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overmyer, Katherine A.; Thonusin, Chanisa; Qi, Nathan R.; Burant, Charles F.; Evans, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    A critical application of metabolomics is the evaluation of tissues, which are often the primary sites of metabolic dysregulation in disease. Laboratory rodents have been widely used for metabolomics studies involving tissues due to their facile handing, genetic manipulability and similarity to most aspects of human metabolism. However, the necessary step of administration of anesthesia in preparation for tissue sampling is not often given careful consideration, in spite of its potential for causing alterations in the metabolome. We examined, for the first time using untargeted and targeted metabolomics, the effect of several commonly used methods of anesthesia and euthanasia for collection of skeletal muscle, liver, heart, adipose and serum of C57BL/6J mice. The data revealed dramatic, tissue-specific impacts of tissue collection strategy. Among many differences observed, post-euthanasia samples showed elevated levels of glucose 6-phosphate and other glycolytic intermediates in skeletal muscle. In heart and liver, multiple nucleotide and purine degradation metabolites accumulated in tissues of euthanized compared to anesthetized animals. Adipose tissue was comparatively less affected by collection strategy, although accumulation of lactate and succinate in euthanized animals was observed in all tissues. Among methods of tissue collection performed pre-euthanasia, ketamine showed more variability compared to isoflurane and pentobarbital. Isoflurane induced elevated liver aspartate but allowed more rapid initiation of tissue collection. Based on these findings, we present a more optimal collection strategy mammalian tissues and recommend that rodent tissues intended for metabolomics studies be collected under anesthesia rather than post-euthanasia. PMID:25658945

  11. How accurately is euthanasia reported on death certificates in a country with legal euthanasia: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joachim; Dierickx, Sigrid; Penders, Yolanda W H; Deliens, Luc; Chambaere, Kenneth

    2018-04-21

    Death certificates are the main source of information on the incidence of the direct and underlying causes of death, but may be unsuitable for monitoring the practice of medical assistance in dying, e.g. euthanasia, due to possible underreporting. This study examines the accuracy of certification of euthanasia. Mortality follow-back survey using a random sample of death certificates (N = 6871). For all cases identified as euthanasia we checked whether euthanasia was reported as a cause of death on the death certificate. We used multivariable logistic regression analysis to evaluate whether reporting varied according to patient and decision-making characteristics. Through the death certificates, 0.7% of all deaths were identified as euthanasia, compared with 4.6% through the mortality follow-back survey. Only 16.2% of the cases identified from the survey were reported on the death certificate. Euthanasia was more likely to be reported on the death certificate where death was from cancer (14% covered), neurological diseases (22%) and stroke (28%) than from cardiovascular disease (7%). Even when the recommended drugs were used or the physician self-labelled the end-of-life decision as euthanasia, euthanasia was only reported on the death certificate in 24% of cases. Death certificates substantially underestimate the frequency of euthanasia as a cause of death in Belgium. Mortality follow-back studies are essential complementary instruments to examine and monitor the practice of euthanasia more accurately. Death certificate forms may need to be modified and clear guidelines provided to physicians about recording euthanasia to ensure more accurate certification.

  12. New developments in India concerning the policy of passive euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanniyakonil, Scaria

    2018-02-15

    Euthanasia and assisted dying are illegal in India according to Sections 306 and 309 of the Indian Penal Code (IPC), and Article 21 of the Constitution of India. There have been a number of cases where the Indian High Courts and Indian Supreme Court issued differing verdicts concerning the right to life and the right to die. Nevertheless, on 7 March 2011, a paradigm shift happened as a result of the Indian Supreme Court's judgment on involuntary passive euthanasia in the case of Aruna Shanbaug. In its judgment, the Supreme Court requested the government to prepare a law on euthanasia. Accordingly, the 241st Report of the Law Commission of India proposed a bill to permit passive euthanasia. In May 2016 the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MOHFW) issued the draft bill for public comment in order to create an informed decision. The Indian people are divided on the issue of euthanasia. The majority of the scientific community welcome it, while some religious groups oppose it. Hindus, in general, express both supporting and opposing views on euthanasia, whereas, Christians and Muslims have hardened their opposition against it. The Supreme Court judgment and the Report of the Law Commission pave the way for the development of new policies pertaining to passive euthanasia by the central government of India. Once such legislation is passed, passive euthanasia may, and probably will, have an enormous impact on the cultural, political, public and medical spheres of India in the near future. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. An investigation into the attitude of professional nurses towards euthanasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Kunene

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to identify professional nurses attitudes towards euthanasia. A descriptive study of the attitudes of professional nurses towards euthanasia was undertaken. The data collecting instrument was a questionnaire, which was self-administered to 26 professional nurses working in different wards.

  14. An investigation into the attitude of professional nurses towards euthanasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Kunene

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to identify professional nurses attitudes towards euthanasia. A descriptive study of the attitudes of professional nurses towards euthanasia was undertaken. The data collecting instrument was a questionnaire, which was self-administered to 26 professional nurses working in different wards.

  15. After the Slippery Slope: Dutch Experiences on Regulating Active Euthanasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Th.A.

    2003-01-01

    “When a country legalizes active euthanasia, it puts itself on a slippery slope from where it may well go further downward.” If true, this is a forceful argument in the battle of those who try to prevent euthanasia from becoming legal. The force of any slippery-slope argument, however, is by

  16. Euthanasia in the Broader Framework of Dutch Penal Policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenhuijsen, M.S.; van Laanen, F.; Groenhuijsen, M.S.; van Laanen, F.

    2006-01-01

    The authors have regarded euthanasia in the broader framework of Dutch penal policies. They present euthanasia as a typical example of the pragmatic - rather than dogmatic - way the Dutch try to tackle difficult moral problems in connection with the criminal justice system. Definitions, statutory

  17. Suicide and Euthanasia - Special Types of Partner Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlmeier, Hermann

    1985-01-01

    Concentrates on the joint issues of suicide and euthanasia in the context of the doctor-patient relationship. A new evaluation of suicide prevention and euthanasia, especially as they relate to the training of medical students and doctors, is advocated. (Author/BL)

  18. A Right to Die?: Ethical Dilemmas of Euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Dianne E.; Hazler, Richard J.

    1992-01-01

    Euthanasia is considered an important social issue of the 1990s. Mental health professionals should understand the differences between voluntary, involuntary, passive, and active euthanasia; mercy killing, and assisted suicide. Encourages counselors to ethically formulate client-supportive positions to help clients face life-and-death decisions.…

  19. "Euthanasia" of Persons with Severe Handicaps: Refuting the Rationalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusthaus, Evelyn

    1985-01-01

    The article examines two common rationalizations for euthanasia of persons with severe handicaps and presents arguments to refute them. The article calls for parents, professionals, and friends of persons with severe handicaps to be vocal in refuting euthanasia and its rationales. (Author/CL)

  20. A critical appraisal of euthanasia under Nigerian laws | Obi | Nnamdi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although it is widely accepted that murder is crime under the Nigerian law, a clearly defined stand has not been taken on euthanasia. The Nigerian populace views euthanasia as an unnecessary paradox, murder in disguise, a situation where the supposed healer becomes a killer. This, therefore, forms the nitty-gritty of ...

  1. Euthanasia and the experiences of the Shona People of Zimbabwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we critically reflect on the concept of Euthanasia as understood in the West and in Africa, and especially in sub-Saharan Africa. From the Western block, we rely on the contributions of Ronald Otremba and James Rachels. In our view, Otremba represents the Traditional Western view of euthanasia, which holds ...

  2. Euthanasia and assisted suicide: a Christian ethical perspective | De ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article introduces and compares the contrasting views of two well-known theologians, Gilbert Meilaender and Harry Kuitert, on euthanasia and medically assisted suicide. Meilaender rejects euthanasia and medically assisted suicide, but accepts refusal of treatment, as long as it is not done with the intention to cause ...

  3. Death Education and Attitudes toward Euthanasia and Terminal Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagi, Mostafa H.; Lazerine, Neil G.

    1982-01-01

    Analyzed attitudes of 614 Protestant and Catholic Cleveland clergy toward terminal illness and euthanasia. Clergy responses revealed that, although eager to prolong life, terminally ill patients feared prolonged illness more than death. The controversial nature of euthanasia became more apparent with clergy who had more training in death…

  4. Interrogating Infanticide/ Child Euthanasia in the Roman Christian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this paper is an attempt to examine infanticide practices in the Roman Christian era and interrogate infanticide and child euthanasia in the same era. It also attempts to point out infanticide practices in Abuja and makes a distinction between infanticide and child euthanasia in Abuja. The study employed ...

  5. Human dignity and the future of the voluntary active euthanasia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The issue of voluntary active euthanasia was thrust into the public policy arena by the Stransham-Ford lawsuit. The High Court legalised voluntary active euthanasia – however, ostensibly only in the specific case of Mr Stransham-Ford. The Supreme Court of Appeal overturned the High Court judgment on technical grounds, ...

  6. Bioethics for clinicians: 11. Euthanasia and assisted suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavery, J V; Dickens, B M; Boyle, J M; Singer, P A

    1997-01-01

    Euthanasia and assisted suicide involve taking deliberate action to end or assist in ending the life of another person on compassionate grounds. There is considerable disagreement about the acceptability of these acts and about whether they are ethically distinct from decisions to forgo life-sustaining treatment. Euthanasia and assisted suicide are punishable offences under Canadian criminal law, despite increasing public pressure for a more permissive policy. Some Canadian physicians would be willing to practise euthanasia and assisted suicide if these acts were legal. In practice, physicians must differentiate between respecting competent decisions to forgo treatment, providing appropriate palliative care, and acceeding to a request for euthanasia or assisted suicide. Physicians who believe that euthanasia and assisted suicide should be legally accepted in Canada should pursue their convictions only through legal and democratic means. PMID:9164399

  7. Euthanasia: Global Scenario and Its Status in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhawat, Raghvendra Singh; Kanchan, Tanuj; Setia, Puneet; Atreya, Alok; Krishan, Kewal

    2018-04-01

    The legal and moral validity of euthanasia has been questioned in different situations. In India, the status of euthanasia is no different. It was the Aruna Ramachandra Shanbaug case that got significant public attention and led the Supreme Court of India to initiate detailed deliberations on the long ignored issue of euthanasia. Realising the importance of this issue and considering the ongoing and pending litigation before the different courts in this regard, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India issued a public notice on May 2016 that invited opinions from the citizens and the concerned stakeholders on the proposed draft bill entitled The Medical Treatment of Terminally Ill Patients (Protection of Patients and Medical Practitioners) Bill. Globally, only a few countries have legislation with discreet and unambiguous guidelines on euthanasia. The ongoing developments have raised a hope of India getting a discreet law on euthanasia in the future.

  8. Attitudes towards euthanasia in Iran: the role of altruism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghababaei, Naser

    2014-03-01

    Altruism is arguably the quintessential moral trait, involving willingness to benefit others and unwillingness to harm them. In this study, I explored how altruism and other personality variables relate to acceptance of euthanasia. In addition, I investigated the role of culture in attitudes to subcategorical distinctions of euthanasia. 190 Iranian students completed the Attitude Towards Euthanasia scale, the HEXACO Personality Inventory-Revised, and an interest in religion measure. Higher scores on altruism, Honesty-Humility, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness and religiousness were associated with viewing euthanasia as unacceptable. As expected, altruism explained unique variance in euthanasia attitude beyond gender, religiosity and broad personality factors. Cultural and individual differences should be taken into consideration in moral psychology research and end-of-life decision-making.

  9. Beliefs in and About God and Attitudes Toward Voluntary Euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Shane

    2018-06-01

    I use data from the General Social Survey to evaluate several hypotheses regarding how beliefs in and about God predict attitudes toward voluntary euthanasia. I find that certainty in the belief in God significantly predicts negative attitudes toward voluntary euthanasia. I also find that belief in a caring God and in a God that is the primary source of moral rules significantly predicts negative attitudes toward voluntary euthanasia. I also find that respondents' beliefs about the how close they are to God and how close they want to be with God predict negative attitudes toward voluntary euthanasia. These associations hold even after controlling for religious affiliation, religious attendance, views of the Bible, and sociodemographic factors. The findings indicate that to understand individuals' attitudes about voluntary euthanasia, one must pay attention to their beliefs in and about God.

  10. Evaluation of Best Practices for the Euthanasia of Zebra Finches (Taeniopygia guttata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Kathleen E; Bracchi, Lauren A; Lieberman, Mia T; Hill, Nichola J; Caron, Tyler J; Patterson, Mary M

    2017-11-01

    Although zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) have been used in biomedical research for many years, no published reports are available about euthanizing these small birds. In this study, we compared 5 methods for zebra finch euthanasia: sodium pentobarbital (NaP) given intracoelomically with physical restraint but no anesthesia; isoflurane anesthesia followed by intracoelomic injection of NaP; and CO2 asphyxiation at 20%, 40%, and 80% chamber displacement rates (percentage of chamber volume per minute). Birds undergoing euthanasia were videorecorded and scored by 2 observers for behaviors potentially related to discomfort or distress. Time to recumbency and time until respiratory arrest (RA) were also assessed. RA was achieved faster by using NaP in a conscious bird compared to using isoflurane anesthesia followed by NaP; however, neither method caused behaviors that might affect animal welfare, such as open-mouth breathing, to any appreciable extent. Among the CO2 treatment groups, there was an inverse correlation between the chamber displacement rate used and the duration of open-mouth breathing, onset of head retroflexion, and time to RA. The results demonstrate that the intracoelomic administration of NaP in an awake, restrained zebra finch is a rapid and effective method of euthanasia. If CO2 is used to euthanize these birds, a high displacement rate (for example, 80%) will minimize the duration of the procedure and associated behaviors.

  11. Post-sampling release of free fatty acids - effects of heat stabilization and methods of euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernerén, Fredrik; Söderquist, Marcus; Karlsson, Oskar

    2015-01-01

    The field of lipid research has made progress and it is now possible to study the lipidome of cells and organelles. A basic requirement of a successful lipid study is adequate pre-analytical sample handling, as some lipids can be unstable and postmortem changes can cause substantial accumulation of free fatty acids (FFAs). The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of conductive heat stabilization and euthanasia methods on FFA levels in the rat brain and liver using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The analysis of brain homogenates clearly demonstrated phospholipase activity and time-dependent post-sampling changes in the lipid pool of snap frozen non-stabilized tissue. There was a significant increase in FFAs already at 2min, which continued over time. Heat stabilization was shown to be an efficient method to reduce phospholipase activity and ex vivo lipolysis. Post-sampling effects due to tissue thawing and sample preparation induced a massive release of FFAs (up to 3700%) from non-stabilized liver and brain tissues compared to heat stabilized tissue. Furthermore, the choice of euthanasia method significantly influenced the levels of FFAs in the brain. The FFAs were decreased by 15-44% in the group of animals euthanized by pentobarbital injection compared with CO2 inhalation or decapitation. Our results highlight the importance of considering euthanasia methods and pre-analytical treatment in lipid analysis, factors which may otherwise interfere with the outcome of the experiments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Suicide, euthanasia and the duty to die: A Kantian approach to euthanasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budić Marina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the issues of euthanasia and thoroughly analyses Kantian response to the practice in question. In reference to Kant’s views on many related issues, such as murder, suicide, autonomy, rationality, honor and the value of human life, the main goal of this paper is to offer an explanation for one probable Kantian view on euthanasia in general, as well as an explanation for a specific form of euthanasia with regard to those patients suffering from dementia. The author’s arguments, according to which Kant could even argue that those persons who have begun suffering from dementia have a duty to die, have all been given special importance in this paper. The question is could and should this specific moral ever be allowed to become universal when considering the patients’ willingness to commit suicide once they start suffering from dementia or perhaps once they start experiencing a loss of rationality? Should suicide even become a patient’s duty? Furthermore, if a patient shows absolutely no intention or willingness of taking her/his own life, ‘should’ the doctor perform a non-voluntary euthanasia over the patient? This paper analyses the author’s arguments which are actually in favor of aforementioned questions, and aims to examine the plausibility of the act as well as to criticize it. The issue of euthanasia is very important, because the key question is what in fact constitutes the fundamental value of human life, which lies at the heart of this problem.

  13. Palliative sedation versus euthanasia: an ethical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Have, Henk; Welie, Jos V M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article was to review the ethical debate concerning palliative sedation. Although recent guidelines articulate the differences between palliative sedation and euthanasia, the ethical controversies remain. The dominant view is that euthanasia and palliative sedation are morally distinct practices. However, ambiguous moral experiences and considerable practice variation call this view into question. When heterogeneous sedative practices are all labeled as palliative sedation, there is the risk that palliative sedation is expanded to include practices that are actually intended to bring about the patients' death. This troublesome expansion is fostered by an expansive use of the concept of intention such that this decisive ethical concept is no longer restricted to signify the aim in guiding the action. In this article, it is argued that intention should be used in a restricted way. The significance of intention is related to other ethical parameters to demarcate the practice of palliative sedation: terminality, refractory symptoms, proportionality, and separation from other end-of-life decisions. These additional parameters, although not without ethical and practical problems, together formulate a framework to ethically distinguish a more narrowly defined practice of palliative sedation from practices that are tantamount to euthanasia. Finally, the article raises the question as to what impact palliative sedation might have on the practice of palliative care itself. The increasing interest in palliative sedation may reemphasize characteristics of health care that initially encouraged the emergence of palliative care in the first place: the focus on therapy rather than care, the physical dimension rather than the whole person, the individual rather than the community, and the primacy of intervention rather than receptiveness and presence. Copyright © 2014 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. QALYs, euthanasia and the puzzle of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrie, Stephen

    2015-08-01

    This paper considers the problems that arise when death, which is a philosophically difficult concept, is incorporated into healthcare metrics, such as the quality-adjusted life year (QALY). These problems relate closely to the debate over euthanasia and assisted suicide because negative QALY scores can be taken to mean that patients would be 'better off dead'. There is confusion in the literature about the meaning of 0 QALY, which is supposed to act as an 'anchor' for the surveyed preferences on which QALYs are based. In the context of the debate over euthanasia, the QALY assumes an ability to make meaningful comparisons between life-states and death. Not only is this assumption questionable, but the ethical debate is much more broad than the question of whether death is preferable to a state of living. QALYs are derived from preferences about health states, so do not necessarily reflect preferences about events (eg, dying) or actions (eg, killing). This paper presents a new kind of problem for the QALY. As it stands, the QALY provides confused and unreliable information when it reports zero or negative values, and faces further problems when it appears to recommend death. This should preclude its use in the debate over euthanasia and assisted suicide. These problems only apply where the QALY involves or seems to involve a comparison between life-states and death, and are not relevant to the more general discussion of the use of QALYs as a tool for comparing the benefits derived from treatment options. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Dementia and assisted suicide and euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beaufort, Inez D; van de Vathorst, Suzanne

    2016-07-01

    The number of dementia patients requesting euthanasia in the Netherlands has increased over the past five years. The issue is highly controversial. In this contribution we discuss some of the main arguments: the nature of suffering, the voluntariness of the request and the role of the physician. We argue that society has a duty to care for patients who suffer from dementia and to make their lives as good and comfortable as possible. We also argue that it can be morally acceptable for those who do not want to continue their life with dementia to choose to die. The choice can be based on good reasons.

  16. The Development of an Interactive Computer-Based Training Program for Timely and Humane On-Farm Pig Euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Caitlyn R; Pairis-Garcia, Monique D; Campler, Magnus R; Anthony, Raymond; Johnson, Anna K; Coleman, Grahame J; Rault, Jean-Loup

    2018-02-05

    With extensive knowledge and training in the prevention, management, and treatment of disease conditions in animals, veterinarians play a critical role in ensuring good welfare on swine farms by training caretakers on the importance of timely euthanasia. To assist veterinarians and other industry professionals in training new and seasoned caretakers, an interactive computer-based training program was created. It consists of three modules, each containing five case studies, which cover three distinct production stages (breeding stock, piglets, and wean to grower-finisher pigs). Case study development was derived from five specific euthanasia criteria defined in the 2015 Common Swine Industry Audit, a nationally recognized auditing program used in the US. Case studies provide information regarding treatment history, clinical signs, and condition severity of the pig and prompt learners to make management decisions regarding pig treatment and care. Once a decision is made, feedback is provided so learners understand the appropriateness of their decision compared to current industry guidelines. In addition to training farm personnel, this program may also be a valuable resource if incorporated into veterinary, graduate, and continuing education curricula. This innovative tool represents the first interactive euthanasia-specific training program in the US swine industry and offers the potential to improve timely and humane on-farm pig euthanasia.

  17. After the slippery slope: Dutch experiences on regulating active euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boer, Theo A

    2003-01-01

    "When a country legalizes active euthanasia, it puts itself on a slippery slope from where it may well go further downward." If true, this is a forceful argument in the battle of those who try to prevent euthanasia from becoming legal. The force of any slippery slope argument, however, is by definition limited by its reference to future developments which cannot empirically be sustained. Experience in the Netherlands--where a law regulating active euthanasia was accepted in April 2001--may shed light on the strengths as well as the weaknesses of the slippery slope argument in the context of the euthanasia debate. This paper consists of three parts. First, it clarifies the Dutch legislation on euthanasia and explains the cultural context in which it originated. Second, it looks at the argument of the slippery slope. A logical and an empirical version are distinguished, and the latter, though philosophically less interesting, proves to be most relevant in the discussion on euthanasia. Thirdly, it addresses the question whether Dutch experiences in the process of legalizing euthanasia justify the fear of the slippery slope. The conclusion is that Dutch experiences justify some caution.

  18. From Memory to Attitude: The Neurocognitive Process beyond Euthanasia Acceptance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Enke

    Full Text Available Numerous questionnaire studies on attitudes towards euthanasia produced conflicting results, precluding any general conclusion. This might be due to the fact that human behavior can be influenced by automatically triggered attitudes, which represent ingrained associations in memory and cannot be assessed by standard questionnaires, but require indirect measures such as reaction times (RT or electroencephalographic recording (EEG. Event related potentials (ERPs of the EEG and RT during an affective priming task were assessed to investigate the impact of automatically triggered attitudes and were compared to results of an explicit questionnaire. Explicit attitudes were ambivalent. Reaction time data showed neither positive nor negative associations towards euthanasia. ERP analyses revealed an N400 priming effect with lower mean amplitudes when euthanasia was associated with negative words. The euthanasia-related modulation of the N400 component shows an integration of the euthanasia object in negatively valenced associative neural networks. The integration of all measures suggests a bottom-up process of attitude activation, where automatically triggered negative euthanasia-relevant associations can become more ambiguous with increasing time in order to regulate the bias arising from automatic processes. These data suggest that implicit measures may make an important contribution to the understanding of euthanasia-related attitudes.

  19. From Memory to Attitude: The Neurocognitive Process beyond Euthanasia Acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enke, Martin; Meyer, Patric; Flor, Herta

    2016-01-01

    Numerous questionnaire studies on attitudes towards euthanasia produced conflicting results, precluding any general conclusion. This might be due to the fact that human behavior can be influenced by automatically triggered attitudes, which represent ingrained associations in memory and cannot be assessed by standard questionnaires, but require indirect measures such as reaction times (RT) or electroencephalographic recording (EEG). Event related potentials (ERPs) of the EEG and RT during an affective priming task were assessed to investigate the impact of automatically triggered attitudes and were compared to results of an explicit questionnaire. Explicit attitudes were ambivalent. Reaction time data showed neither positive nor negative associations towards euthanasia. ERP analyses revealed an N400 priming effect with lower mean amplitudes when euthanasia was associated with negative words. The euthanasia-related modulation of the N400 component shows an integration of the euthanasia object in negatively valenced associative neural networks. The integration of all measures suggests a bottom-up process of attitude activation, where automatically triggered negative euthanasia-relevant associations can become more ambiguous with increasing time in order to regulate the bias arising from automatic processes. These data suggest that implicit measures may make an important contribution to the understanding of euthanasia-related attitudes.

  20. Nurses' attitudes towards euthanasia in conflict with professional ethical guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terkamo-Moisio, Anja; Kvist, Tarja; Kangasniemi, Mari; Laitila, Teuvo; Ryynänen, Olli-Pekka; Pietilä, Anna-Maija

    2017-02-01

    Despite the significant role of nurses in end-of-life care, their attitudes towards euthanasia are under-represented both in the current literature and the controversial debate that is ongoing in several countries. What are the attitudes towards euthanasia among Finnish nurses? Which characteristics are associated with those attitudes? Cross-sectional web-based survey. Participants and research context: A total of 1003 nurses recruited via the members' bulletin of the Finnish Nurses Association and social media. Ethical considerations: Ethical approval was obtained from the Committee on Research Ethics of the university to which the authors were affiliated. The majority (74.3%) of the participants would accept euthanasia as part of Finnish healthcare, and 61.8% considered that Finland would benefit from a law permitting euthanasia. Most of the nurses (89.9%) thought that a person must have the right to decide on his or her own death; 77.4% of them considered it likely that they would themselves make a request for euthanasia in certain situations. The value of self-determination and the ability to choose the moment and manner of one's death are emphasized in the nurses' attitudes towards euthanasia. A continuous dialogue about euthanasia and nurses' shared values is crucial due to the conflict between nurses' attitudes and current ethical guidelines on nursing.

  1. [Active euthanasia in Colombia and assisted suicide in California].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julesz, Máté

    2016-01-31

    The institution of active euthanasia has been legal in Colombia since 2015. In California, the regulation on physician-assisted suicide will come into effect on January 1, 2016. The legal institution of active euthanasia is not accepted under the law of the United States of America, however, physician-assisted suicide is accepted in an increasing number of member states. The related regulation in Oregon is imitated in other member states. In South America, Colombia is not the first country to legalize active euthanasia: active euthanasia has been legal in Uruguay since 1932. The North American legal tradition markedly differs from the South American one and both are incompatible with the Central European rule of law. In Hungary and in most European Union countries, solely the passive form of euthanasia is legal. In the Benelux countries, the active form of euthanasia is legal because the supranational law of the European Union does not prohibit it. Notwithstanding, European Union law does not prescribe legalization of either the active form of euthanasia, or the physician-assisted suicide.

  2. From Memory to Attitude: The Neurocognitive Process beyond Euthanasia Acceptance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enke, Martin; Meyer, Patric; Flor, Herta

    2016-01-01

    Numerous questionnaire studies on attitudes towards euthanasia produced conflicting results, precluding any general conclusion. This might be due to the fact that human behavior can be influenced by automatically triggered attitudes, which represent ingrained associations in memory and cannot be assessed by standard questionnaires, but require indirect measures such as reaction times (RT) or electroencephalographic recording (EEG). Event related potentials (ERPs) of the EEG and RT during an affective priming task were assessed to investigate the impact of automatically triggered attitudes and were compared to results of an explicit questionnaire. Explicit attitudes were ambivalent. Reaction time data showed neither positive nor negative associations towards euthanasia. ERP analyses revealed an N400 priming effect with lower mean amplitudes when euthanasia was associated with negative words. The euthanasia-related modulation of the N400 component shows an integration of the euthanasia object in negatively valenced associative neural networks. The integration of all measures suggests a bottom-up process of attitude activation, where automatically triggered negative euthanasia-relevant associations can become more ambiguous with increasing time in order to regulate the bias arising from automatic processes. These data suggest that implicit measures may make an important contribution to the understanding of euthanasia-related attitudes. PMID:27088244

  3. Animal ethics dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, Trine; Hansen, Tina; Algers, Anne

    2006-01-01

    ) the blind hens; (2) ANDi the genetically modified monkey; (3) euthanasia of a healthy dog; (4) animal slaughter; and (5) rehabilitation of seals. Special consideration has been given to enhancing the pedagogic value of the program. Students can control their learning by selecting a variety of ways......'Animal Ethics Dilemma' is a freely available computer-supported learning tool (www.animalethicsdilemma.net or www.aedilemma.net) which has been developed primarily for veterinary undergraduates but is applicable also to students in other fields of animal science. The objectives of the computer...... program are to promote students' understanding of the ethics related to animal use, to illustrate ethical dilemmas that arise in animal use, to broaden students' moral imagination, and to enable students to differentiate between types of ethical argument. The program comprises five case studies: (1...

  4. EUTHANASIA STIPULATED BY ROMANIAN CRIMINAL LAW, MITIGATING CIRCUMSTANCES VS. OFFENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MONICA POCORA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to be a scientific approach to the issue of euthanasia, bringing into the debate current and future controversies raised by euthanasia, as a result of the introduction into the Romanian penal law of the criminal offence of homicide by request of the victim. The study represents an approach to moral, religious, constitutional, civil, criminal procedure debates and last but not least to criminal debates regarding the legalization of the euthanasia, as the most difficult task lies with the criminal law.

  5. After the Slippery Slope: Dutch Experiences on Regulating Active Euthanasia

    OpenAIRE

    Boer, Th.A.

    2003-01-01

    “When a country legalizes active euthanasia, it puts itself on a slippery slope from where it may well go further downward.” If true, this is a forceful argument in the battle of those who try to prevent euthanasia from becoming legal. The force of any slippery-slope argument, however, is by definition limited by its reference to future developments which cannot empirically be sustained. Experience in the Netherlands—where a law regulating active euthanasia was accepted in April 2001—may shed...

  6. A problem for the idea of voluntary euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, N

    1999-01-01

    I question whether, in those cases where physician-assisted suicide is invoked to alleviate unbearable pain and suffering, there can be such a thing as voluntary euthanasia. The problem is that when a patient asks to die under such conditions there is good reason to think that the decision to die is compelled by the pain, and hence not freely chosen. Since the choice to die was not made freely it is inadvisable for physicians to act in accordance with it, for this may be contrary to the patient's genuine wishes. Thus, what were thought to be cases of voluntary euthanasia might actually be instances of involuntary euthanasia. PMID:10390679

  7. Euthanasia: The conceptualization of the problem and important distinctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đerić Milijana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is twofold. On the one hand, the intention is to provide analysis of the issue of euthanasia. On the other hand, this approach necessarily leads to a discussion toward the provision of an adequate definition of euthanasia. Therefore the article, first of all, refers to the multi­layered aspect of the term euthanasia. To avoid ambiguity and other uncer­tainties while providing the definition of euthanasia, the authors carefully perform a conceptual analysis. This leads to the establishment of a clear distinction between actions which, due to their motives or their method of execution, cast a shadow on the meaning of this medical procedure. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179041: Dinamički sistemi u prirodi i društvu: filozofski i empirijski aspekti

  8. Belief in Life After Death and Attitudes Toward Voluntary Euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Shane

    2017-01-01

    Research has documented associations among religious affiliation, religious practice, and attitudes toward voluntary euthanasia, yet very few studies have investigated how particular religious beliefs influence these attitudes. I use data from the General Social Survey (GSS; N = 19,967) to evaluate the association between the belief in life after death and attitudes toward voluntary euthanasia. I find that those who believe in life after death are significantly less likely than those who do not believe in life after death or those who doubt the existence of life after death to have positive attitudes toward voluntary euthanasia. These associations hold even after controlling for religious affiliation, religious attendance, views of the Bible, and sociodemographic factors. The findings indicate that to understand individuals' views about voluntary euthanasia, one must pay attention to individuals' particular religious beliefs.

  9. Metaphors, stigma and the 'Alzheimerization' of the euthanasia debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Megan-Jane

    2013-07-01

    This paper reports the findings of an unobtrusive research inquiry investigating the possible use and misuse of Alzheimer's disease in public policy debate on the legalization of euthanasia. The component of the study being reported identified the problematic use of five key metaphors: the Alzheimer metaphor, which in turn was reinforced by three additional metaphors--the epidemic metaphor, the military metaphor, and the predatory thief metaphor; and the euthanasia metaphor. All metaphors were found to be morally loaded and used influentially to stigmatize Alzheimer's disease and mediate public opinion supporting the legalization of euthanasia as an end-of-life 'solution' for people with the disease. It is contended that, in the interests of promoting intellectual honesty and giving proper recognition to the extraordinary complexity of the issue, the problematic use and influence of metaphoric thinking in the public debate about Alzheimer's disease and euthanasia needs to be made transparent, questioned and challenged.

  10. [Control of the legal practice of euthanasia in Belgium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, M

    2015-01-01

    The Belgian law legalizing euthanasia under strict conditions came into effect September 22, 2002. Any physician performing euthanasia has to complete a registration document and to send it within four days to a federal commission whose mission is to verify that the legal conditions were fulfilled. From September 22, 2002 to December 31, 2013, 8.767 documents have been registered and analyzed by this commission. They are described in six reports referred to Parliament. The present paper analyzes the work of this commission and answers the criticisms concerning its quality and its efficiency. The allegations that clandestine euthanasia's escaping any control are performed are also discussed. In conclusion, it appears that the legal obligations concerning the practice of euthanasia in Belgium are fully effective.

  11. KONTEKS DAN KONSTRUKSI SOSIAL MENGENAI KEMATIAN ELEKTIF ( EUTHANASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helly Prajitno Soetjipto

    2015-09-01

    konteks sosial dan konstruksi sosial kematian. Euthanasia didiskusikan di dalam suatu kerangka pikir yang mencoba memberi perhatian kepada hal-hal yang kontekstual dan interpretatif fenomena sosial suatu proses kematian dan kejadian kematian

  12. Euthanasia and death with dignity in Japanese law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Katsunori

    2010-12-01

    In Japan, there are no acts and, specific provisions or official guidelines on euthanasia, but recently, as I will mention below, an official guideline on "death with dignity" has been made. Nevertheless in fact, this guideline provides only a few rules of process on terminal care. Therefore the problems of euthanasia and "death with dignity" are mainly left to the legal interpretation by literatures and judicial precedents of homicide (Article 199 of the Criminal Code; where there is no distinction between murder and manslaughter) and of homicide with consent (Article 202 of the Criminal Code). Furthermore, there are several cases on euthanasia or "death with dignity" as well as borderline cases in Japan. In this paper I will present the situation of the latest discussions on euthanasia and "death with dignity" in Japan from the viewpoint of medical law. Especially, "death with dignity" is seriously discussed in Japan, therefore I focus on it.

  13. Acceptance of Conditional Suicide and Euthanasia among Adult Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Analysis indicates that religious intensity, sex, age, and education are important associational variables regarding attitudes toward suicide and euthanasia. Males are more accepting than females. Females are influenced by family life conditions. Males are influenced by health status. (JMF)

  14. 75 A CRITICAL APPRAISAL OF EUTHANASIA UNDER NIGERIAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    disorder.2 Etymologically, the word is a derivative of two Greek words 'Euthukos' which .... continuation of treatment become futile in the future.37 .... sociological perspective, euthanasia or suicide has not been recognized as a viable option. A.

  15. Eutanasia y legislación Euthanasia and Legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Manuel Padovani Cantón

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se hace una revisión de los conceptos relacionados con la eutanasia, como son Distanasia y Ortotanasia y de los diferentes tipos de Eutanasia, como la Voluntaria, la no voluntaria y la Involuntaria, la Eutanasia Eugenésica. Se valoran las distintas posibilidades desde el punto de vista jurídico, donde puede estar regulada o no; la regulada puede serlo por norma penal, en ese caso la regulación puede ser como figura delictiva típica o dentro de otro tipo legal, y de la regulación no penal puede serlo por normas administrativas y puede tratarse de regulaciones permisivas o no permisivas. Se valoran estas posibilidades, exponiendo como tipifica en el Código Penal Cubano y cual es el criterio de los autores. A continuación se exponen algunos ejemplos de países donde se ha tratado o logrado tipificar la Eutanasia de forma diferente, exponiendo los resultados de un estudio hecho en Holanda antes de la despenalización de la Eutanasia y como se comportó la atención a pacientes terminales en ese año. Finalmente se expone el criterio de los autores en torno a la regulación legal de la Eutanasia.Concepts related to Euthanasia as Disthanasia and Ortothanasia are reviewed as well as the different types of Euthanasia, such as the Voluntary Euthanasia, the non Voluntary Euthanasia and the Involuntary Euthanasia, the Eugenesic Euthanasia. The different possibilities from the legal point of view are assessed; the Euthanasia may be regulated or not, the first type of Euthanasia may be regulated by penal rules. i.e., the regulation may be a typical delictive figure or to be within another legal type and in case of not penal regulation, it may be by administrative rules and in such case it may be treated of permissive regulations or not. These possibilities are valuated exposing how they are classified in the Cuban Penal Code and which is the authors´s criterion. The countries where the classification of Euthanasia has been treated or attained from

  16. Euthanasia in South Africa: Philosophical and theological considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojalefa L.J. Koenane

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Debates on euthanasia (or �mercy killing� have been a concern in moral, philosophical, legal, theological, cultural and sociological discourse for centuries. The topic of euthanasia inspires a variety of strong views of which the �slippery slope� argument is one. The latter warns that the principle(s underlying any ethical issue (including euthanasia may be distorted. Scholars� views on euthanasia are influenced mainly by cultural, personal, political and religious convictions. In South Africa, the issue of euthanasia has arisen from time to time, but the question of whether it should be legalised was not seriously considered until it recently attracted attention because of a particular case, that of Cape Town advocate Robin StranshamFord. Although euthanasia is still illegal (this is because the Stransham-Ford ruling is confined to this particular case only, as stated in the ratio decidendi by Judge Hans Fabricius of the High Court in Pretoria, the Court granted leave to appeal its April 2015 judgement regarding euthanasia in the application lodged by Stransham-Ford. In considering the contentious nature of the issue of euthanasia, this article adopts a multidisciplinary approach which includes historical, legal, theological, philosophical, theoretical and analytic frameworks, discussing euthanasia from philosophical and theological perspectives, in particular. We conclude by recommending that the subject of applied ethics, which helps to educate citizens about contemporary moral problems such as euthanasia, be introduced at school level. Exposing young people to the debates around thorny issues such as this would familiarise them with the discourse, encourage them to engage with it and empower them as mature citizens to make informed, reasonable decisions, obviating confusion and conflict which might otherwise arise. The problems surrounding the issue of euthanasia are multidimensional and have the capacity to polarise the nation and

  17. Medical Futility and Involuntary Passive Euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair-Collins, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Conflicts between providers and patients or their families surrounding end-of-life care are both regrettable and extremely challenging, interpersonally and ethically, for all involved. These conflicts often implicate the concept of medical futility. The concept of futility is too often conflated with distinct concepts that are more ethically salient, including the fiduciary responsibility to assess surrogate decision-making, and distributive justice. By distinguishing these concepts from futility, it becomes clear that there are some situations in which forgoing life-sustaining treatment over objection is permissible, and perhaps even obligatory. But the justification lies in the constellation of rights and responsibilities surrounding surrogate decision-making, or in distributive justice, but not futility. Once futility is disambiguated from these other concepts, the practice of withholding or withdrawing life-sustaining treatment over the objection of a valid surrogate or a competent patient, based on the alleged futility of such treatment, is more clearly described as involuntary passive euthanasia.

  18. Euthanasia from the perspective of hospice care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, G

    1994-01-01

    The hospice believes in the concept of a gentle and harmonious death. In most hospice settings there is also a rejection of active euthanasia. This set of two apparently conflicting principles can be defended on the basis of two arguments. The first is that doctors should not foster the intent to kill as part of their moral and clinical character. This allows proper sensitivity to the complex and difficult situation that arises in many of the most difficult terminal care situations. The second argument turns on the seduction of technological solutions to human problems and the slippery slope that may arise in the presence of a quick and convenient way of dealing with problems of death and dying.

  19. [Euthanasia and the paradoxes of autonomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira-Batista, Rodrigo; Schramm, Fermin Roland

    2008-01-01

    The principle of respect for autonomy has proved very useful for bioethical arguments in favor of euthanasia. However unquestionable its theoretical efficacy, countless aporiae can be raised when conducting a detailed analysis of this concept, probably checkmating it. Based on such considerations, this paper investigates the principle of autonomy, starting with its origins in Greek and Christian traditions, and then charting some of its developments in Western cultures through to its modern formulation, a legacy of Immanuel Kant. The main paradoxes of this concept are then presented in the fields of philosophy, biology, psychoanalysis and politics, expounding several of the theoretical difficulties to be faced in order to make its applicability possible within the scope of decisions relating to the termination of life.

  20. Pandangan Mori Ogai terhadap Euthanasia (Anrakushi dalam Takase Bune

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Unsriana

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Mori Ogai is a welknown Japanese author in the modern Japanese literature, that is literatures that reflect a modern society living. This modern society tries to disclose social status and raise freedom and righyt equality as the basic of modern life. One of his novels, Takase Bune clarifies Mori Ogai views on Euthanasia (Anrakushi. Article presents the views of a prominent writer as well as medical practitioner on the Japanese Army on Euthanasia practice.

  1. Assessment of nurses’ views about euthanasia according to their departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekir Karaarslan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study includes evaluation of views of the nurses working in two different university hospitals on euthanasia. Methods: This research was planned in form of a cross-sectional definitive questionnaire to analyze views of the nurses on euthanasia according to their departments. A face to face interview was performed with the nurses working in Medical Faculties of Dicle and Gaziantep Universities in 2013. One hundred and fifty two volunteers were examined according to the gender, age, marital status, number of children, family type that they live in, the department that they work, their frequency to meet death, professional experience, presence of any relative confined to bed, their ideas on whether the euthanasia law should be enacted, whether they would request euthanasia for themselves and their relatives. Result: Participants included 125 (82.2% women and 27 (17.8% men; average age was 26.68 ± 12.76 (20-56 years and 21 (13.8% cases did not report their ages. Eighty-nine (58.6% participants were married, 50 (32.9% participants were single and 105 (69.1% participants lived in an elementary family environment. Fifty eight (38.2% participants expressed an opinion on requirement of a legal regulation to make euthanasia possible and 40 (26.3% reported that they were uncertain about this subject. No statistically significant difference was detected between willingness and unwillingness of euthanasia according to their departments (p>0.05. Conclusion: As a result of this study, we find that some of the nurses consider application of the passive euthanasia occurs in our country although euthanasia is forbidden.

  2. The opinions of nurses and physicians related to euthanasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihal İşler

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The research was conducted to investigate the opinions of nurses and physicians pertaining to euthanasia who are working at Internal Medicine, Surgery and Intensive Care Unit departments at Baskent University Ankara hospital.Methods: The research is a descriptive one. The sample consisted of 154 nurses and physicians who are working at Internal Medicine, Surgery and Intensive Care Unit departments at Baskent University Ankara hospital and accepted to participate and could be reached. A questionnaire with 30 items was used to collect data to obtain the socio-demographic characteristics and the opinions pertaining to euthanasia of nurses and physicians. Frequencies, mean values and chi-square tests were used in statistical analysis.Results: The participants didn’t approve euthanasia with a high ratio however it was determined that almost half of them asserted it as patient’s rights of a patient who want his/her death to be fastened and who has no chance to be cured and who are spending the last days of their life with unbearable pain. Except the age groups and marital status there was no significant difference found statistically between the opinions of physicians and nurses regarding euthanasia (p>0.05.Conclusion: It was stated that nurses and physicians consider not active euthanasia but passive euthanasia as acceptable.

  3. Advance euthanasia directives: a controversial case and its ethical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David Gibbes; Dresser, Rebecca; Kim, Scott Y H

    2018-03-03

    Authorising euthanasia and assisted suicide with advance euthanasia directives (AEDs) is permitted, yet debated, in the Netherlands. We focus on a recent controversial case in which a Dutch woman with Alzheimer's disease was euthanised based on her AED. A Dutch euthanasia review committee found that the physician performing the euthanasia failed to follow due care requirements for euthanasia and assisted suicide. This case is notable because it is the first case to trigger a criminal investigation since the 2002 Dutch euthanasia law was enacted. Thus far, only brief descriptions of the case have been reported in English language journals and media. We provide a detailed description of the case, review the main challenges of preparing and applying AEDs for persons with dementia and briefly assess the adequacy of the current oversight system governing AEDs. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. [Requests for active euthanasia: which reality in an oncology center.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chvetzoff, G; Perret, M; Thevenet, G; Arbiol, E; Gobet, S; Saltel, P

    2009-09-01

    Euthanasia is a controversial issue in today's society. In countries where euthanasia is legal, it is mainly associated with people with cancer. We retrospectively studied the frequency and basis of patients' requests for active euthanasia in the oncology setting.MethodsRecurrent requests for euthanasia made by the patients of Leon-Berard cancer center (Lyon, France) between 2001 and 2003 were recorded by questioning the physicians and nurse supervisors in charge or by collecting information from the minutes of multidisciplinary palliative care meetings. We also collected information on the general health status of the patients, their motives and their evolution over time, as well as responses from caregivers.ResultsWe identified 16 requests for euthanasia. These involved 8 men, 7 women and 1 child (median age, 56 years), corresponding to 1% of the total deaths recorded during the period. In 2 cases, the request had come from the family only. The most frequent motives were psychological distress (38%), desire for self-autonomy (31%) and pain (31%). Half of the patients, particularly those striving for autonomy, persisted with their request until death, whereas 2 of 3 requests motivated by physical or psychological distress were not maintained. Sedation was administered to 3 patients in response to recurrent requests.ConclusionRequests for euthanasia in cancer patients are rare but may occur. Sometimes suffering is not relieved by palliative care and the request is maintained. Dealing with these patients puts caregivers in a difficult situation.

  5. News media coverage of euthanasia: a content analysis of Dutch national newspapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietjens, Judith A C; Raijmakers, Natasja J H; Kouwenhoven, Pauline S C; Seale, Clive; van Thiel, Ghislaine J M W; Trappenburg, Margo; van Delden, Johannes J M; van der Heide, Agnes

    2013-03-06

    The Netherlands is one of the few countries where euthanasia is legal under strict conditions. This study investigates whether Dutch newspaper articles use the term 'euthanasia' according to the legal definition and determines what arguments for and against euthanasia they contain. We did an electronic search of seven Dutch national newspapers between January 2009 and May 2010 and conducted a content analysis. Of the 284 articles containing the term 'euthanasia', 24% referred to practices outside the scope of the law, mostly relating to the forgoing of life-prolonging treatments and assistance in suicide by others than physicians. Of the articles with euthanasia as the main topic, 36% described euthanasia in the context of a terminally ill patient, 24% for older persons, 16% for persons with dementia, and 9% for persons with a psychiatric disorder. The most frequent arguments for euthanasia included the importance of self-determination and the fact that euthanasia contributes to a good death. The most frequent arguments opposing euthanasia were that suffering should instead be alleviated by better care, that providing euthanasia can be disturbing, and that society should protect the vulnerable. Of the newspaper articles, 24% uses the term 'euthanasia' for practices that are outside the scope of the euthanasia law. Typically, the more unusual cases are discussed. This might lead to misunderstandings between citizens and physicians. Despite the Dutch legalisation of euthanasia, the debate about its acceptability and boundaries is ongoing and both sides of the debate are clearly represented.

  6. Attitude of doctors toward euthanasia in Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheetal Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Deliberation over euthanasia has been enduring for an extended period of time. On one end, there are populaces talking for the sacrosanctity of life and on the other end, there are those, who promote individual independence. All over the world professionals from different areas have already spent mammoth period over the subject. A large number of cases around the world have explored the boundaries of current legal distinctions, drawn between legitimate and nonlegitimate instances of ending the life. The term euthanasia was derived from the Greek words "eu" and "thanatos" which means "good death" or "easy death." It is also known as mercy killing. Euthanasia literally means putting a person to painless death especially in case of incurable suffering or when life becomes purposeless as a result of mental or physical handicap. Objective: To study the attitude of doctors toward euthanasia in Delhi. Methodology: It was a questionnaire based descriptive cross-sectional study carried out between July 2014 and December 2014. The study population included Doctors from 28 hospitals in Delhi both public and private. Equal numbers of doctors from four specialties were included in this study (50 oncologists, 50 hematologists, 50 psychiatrists, and 50 intensivists. Demographic questionnaire, as well as the Euthanasia Attitude Scale (EAS, a 30 items Likert-scale questionnaire developed by (Holloway, Hayslip and Murdock, 1995 was used to measure attitude toward Euthanasia. The scale uses both positively (16 items and negatively (14 items worded statements to control the effect of acquiescence. The scale also has four response categories, namely "definitely agree," "agree," "disagree," and "definitely disagree." The total score for the EAS was generated by adding all the sub-scales (question′s responses. The demographic questionnaire and EAS, a 30 items Likert-scale questionnaire developed by (Holloway, Hayslip and Murdock, 1995 was distributed

  7. Impact of anesthesia and euthanasia on metabolomics of mammalian tissues: studies in a C57BL/6J mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine A Overmyer

    Full Text Available A critical application of metabolomics is the evaluation of tissues, which are often the primary sites of metabolic dysregulation in disease. Laboratory rodents have been widely used for metabolomics studies involving tissues due to their facile handing, genetic manipulability and similarity to most aspects of human metabolism. However, the necessary step of administration of anesthesia in preparation for tissue sampling is not often given careful consideration, in spite of its potential for causing alterations in the metabolome. We examined, for the first time using untargeted and targeted metabolomics, the effect of several commonly used methods of anesthesia and euthanasia for collection of skeletal muscle, liver, heart, adipose and serum of C57BL/6J mice. The data revealed dramatic, tissue-specific impacts of tissue collection strategy. Among many differences observed, post-euthanasia samples showed elevated levels of glucose 6-phosphate and other glycolytic intermediates in skeletal muscle. In heart and liver, multiple nucleotide and purine degradation metabolites accumulated in tissues of euthanized compared to anesthetized animals. Adipose tissue was comparatively less affected by collection strategy, although accumulation of lactate and succinate in euthanized animals was observed in all tissues. Among methods of tissue collection performed pre-euthanasia, ketamine showed more variability compared to isoflurane and pentobarbital. Isoflurane induced elevated liver aspartate but allowed more rapid initiation of tissue collection. Based on these findings, we present a more optimal collection strategy mammalian tissues and recommend that rodent tissues intended for metabolomics studies be collected under anesthesia rather than post-euthanasia.

  8. [Qualitative research about euthanasia concept, between Spanish doctors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuervo Pinna, M Á; Rubio, M; Altisent Trota, R; Rocafort Gil, J; Gómez Sancho, M

    2016-01-01

    The decriminalisation of euthanasia and assisted medical suicide has generated a continuous debate. The terminological confusion is one of the main difficulties in obtaining medical practice consensus. The objective of this study was to determine whether the terms of Euthanasia and physician assisted suicide are used with the same meaning by doctors in Extremadura (Spain). A qualitative study was conducted using two focus groups in which doctors from different specialties who attended a large number of terminal patients participated. No other focus group was required due to saturation. The sessions were tape recorded and transcribed by two experts in qualitative methodology. Atlas.ti software was used for the analysis. We were advised by the "Health Care at the end of life" Group of the Organizacion Médica Colegial of Spain. Terminological confusion was verified in: 1) The mixture of etymological, functional and social concepts, 2) the term Passive Euthanasia, 3) the association between euthanasia and physician assisted suicide, 4) the confusion with the equivalent "wish to hasten death", and 5) the difficulty of differentiating sedation with Euthanasia. There was consensus on some aspects: a) Full voluntariness, b) the condition of terminal illness, and c) the condition of unbearable symptoms. Conceptual variability persists in relation to the concept of Euthanasia, and is particularly noticeable in the persistence of the concept of passive euthanasia. It would be desirable to achieve a common language to assign a precise meaning to these words to help doctors in their professional practice. Copyright © 2015 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Clinical problems with the performance of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H. Groenewoud (Hanny); A. van der Heide (Agnes); B.D. Onwuteaka-Philipsen (Bregje); D.L. Willems (Dick); P.J. van der Maas (Paul); G. van der Wal (Gerrit)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND AND METHODS: The characteristics and frequency of clinical problems with the performance of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide are uncertain. We analyzed data from two studies of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide in The

  10. Involuntary Euthanasia and Current Attempts to Define Persons with Mental Retardation as Less Than Human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusthaus, Evelyn W.

    1985-01-01

    The author examines current attempts to define mentally retarded persons as less than human and suggests that these ideologies are being used to justify euthanasia practices and to formulate euthanasia policies. (CL)

  11. Communication about euthanasia in general practice: opinions and experiences of patients and their general practitioners.

    OpenAIRE

    Borgsteede, S.D.; Deliens, L.; Graafland-Riedstra, C.; Francke, A.L.; Wal, G. van der; Willems, D.L.

    2007-01-01

    Public opinion and professional organisations dominate the euthanasia debate, and there is a need to understand the opinions of people confronted with euthanasia. The aim of this study was to investigate whether patients and their GPs talk about euthanasia, and if so, how they communicate about this. METHODS: Qualitative, semi-structured interviews were held with 20 GPs and 30 of their patients in primary care in the Netherlands, where euthanasia is legalised. The patients had a life expectan...

  12. The complexity of nurses' attitudes toward euthanasia: a review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Berghs, M; d Dierckx,; Gastmans, C

    2005-01-01

    In this literature review, a picture is given of the complexity of nursing attitudes toward euthanasia. The myriad of data found in empirical literature is mostly framed within a polarised debate and inconclusive about the complex reality behind attitudes toward euthanasia. Yet, a further examination of the content as well as the context of attitudes is more revealing. The arguments for euthanasia have to do with quality of life and respect for autonomy. Arguments against euthanasia have to d...

  13. The right to self-determination of minors with particular reference to the problem of euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Adelaide; Baratta, Adriana

    2009-03-01

    This article deals with the problem of euthanasia, a topic of recent interest, namely the rights of minors to make their own decision regarding to euthanasia. In fact the problem of decisions on euthanasia has always been considered an adult interest while leaving the will of minors in the hands of their parents or tutors. The purpose of this article is to underline the rights of self-determination of minors on the problem of euthanasia in Italy.

  14. Trust increases euthanasia acceptance: a multilevel analysis using the European Values Study

    OpenAIRE

    K?neke, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Background This study tests how various kinds of trust impact attitudes toward euthanasia among the general public. The indication that trust might have an impact on euthanasia attitudes is based on the slippery slope argument, which asserts that allowing euthanasia might lead to abuses and involuntary deaths. Adopting this argument usually leads to less positive attitudes towards euthanasia. Tying in with this, it is assumed here that greater trust diminishes such slippery slope fears, and t...

  15. Technical Brief: A comparison of two methods of euthanasia on retinal dopamine levels

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Christopher K.; Iuvone, P. Michael

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Mice are commonly used in biomedical research, and euthanasia is an important part of mouse husbandry. Approved, humane methods of euthanasia are designed to minimize the potential for pain or discomfort, but may also influence the measurement of experimental variables. Methods We compared the effects of two approved methods of mouse euthanasia on the levels of retinal dopamine. We examined the level of retinal dopamine, a commonly studied neuromodulator, following euthanasia by carbo...

  16. Neonatal euthanasia is unsupportable: the Groningen protocol should be abandoned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kon, Alexander A

    2007-01-01

    The growing support for voluntary active euthanasia (VAE) is evident in the recently approved Dutch Law on Termination of Life on Request. Indeed, the debate over legalized VAE has increased in European countries, the United States, and many other nations over the last several years. The proponents of VAE argue that when a patient judges that the burdens of living outweigh the benefits, euthanasia can be justified. If some adults suffer to such an extent that VAE is justified, then one may conclude that some children suffer to this extent as well. In an attempt to alleviate the suffering of extremely ill neonates, the University Medical Center Groningen developed a protocol for neonatal euthanasia. In this article, I first present the ethical justifications for VAE and discuss how these arguments relate to euthanizing ill neonates. I then argue that, even if one accepts the justification for VAE in adults, neonatal euthanasia cannot be supported, primarily because physicians and parents can never accurately assess the suffering of children. I argue that without the testament of the patient herself as to the nature and magnitude of her suffering, physicians can never accurately weigh the benefits and burdens of a child's life, and therefore any such system would condemn to death some children whose suffering is not unbearable. I conclude that because the primary duty of physicians is to never harm their patients, neonatal euthanasia cannot be supported.

  17. Demographic and psychological correlates of New Zealanders support for euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Carol Hj; Duck, Isabelle M; Sibley, Chris G

    2017-01-13

    To explore the distribution of New Zealanders' support towards the legalisation of euthanasia and examine demographic and psychological factors associated with these attitudes. 15,822 participants responded to the 2014/15 New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study (NZAVS) survey. This survey included an item on people's attitudes towards euthanasia, and information on their demographic and psychological characteristics. The majority of New Zealanders expressed support for euthanasia, which was assessed by asking "Suppose a person has a painful incurable disease. Do you think that doctors should be allowed by law to end the patient's life if the patient requests it?" Non-religious, liberal, younger, employed, non-parents and those living in rural areas were more supportive. Those of Pacific or Asian ethnicity, with lower income and higher deprivation, education and socio-economic status were less supportive. Furthermore, those high on extraversion, conscientiousness and neuroticism showed more support, while those high on agreeableness and honesty-humility exhibited less support. There is strong public support for euthanasia when people are asked whether doctors should be allowed by law to end the life of a patient with a painful incurable disease upon their request. There are reliable demographic and personality differences in support for euthanasia.

  18. The slippery slope from contraception to euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kippley, J F

    1978-01-01

    The key element in natural family planning that keeps it from being the 1st to abortion is the emphasis on natural. A purely secular form of noncontraceptive birth control fails to avoid being the 1st step down the slippery slope toward abortion and then euthanasia. It is felt that the fundamental difference is in what is absolutized. The Western culture has absolutized family planning, thus, when people think that their right to plan the size of their family is an absolute right, and things do not go according to plans, they pursue their absolutized plans even if it means invading some other person's right to life. As Malcom Muggeridge has pointed out, as soon as a culture accepts the killing of the defenseless and innocent, the principle has been established for killing anyone who is socially inconvenient. However, when doing things according to God's laws, all individual plans are made relative. We do not attempt test-tube techniques and we do not resort to abortion or to sterilization. Some will reject the inherently religious overtones of the full meaning of natural (defined as acting in accord with the nature God has given each person), but at least, they have been given something to think about.

  19. Health workers' attitudes toward euthanasia in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeo, K; Satoh, K; Minamisawa, H; Mitoh, T

    1991-01-01

    Despite impressive life-saving medical advancements, diseases for which there are no cure still exist. In the past doctors and health workers in Japan often preferred not to disclose the diagnosis of an incurable disease--particularly cancer--to patients. A 1980 study revealed that only 17% of the Japanese doctors questioned actually had the experience of informing their patients they had cancer, while reportedly in the US 98% of doctors inform patients they have cancer. This attitude in Japan, however, is changing. And with this change such issues as care of the terminally ill after being informed about their diagnosis, human rights problems and other issues have arisen. In fact, euthanasia, although highly criticized when first introduced, is now being increasingly preferred to medical treatment that prolongs life in the presence of severe pain associated with an incurable disease. After reading a 1982 survey that revealed that 84% of the Japanese people interviewed would prefer to die with dignity rather than prolong life with a machine, four researchers decided to examine terminal care more fully, this time from the viewpoint of the medical staff. Below, their study results.

  20. The reporting rate of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide: a study of the trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rurup, Mette L; Buiting, Hilde M; Pasman, H Roeline W; van der Maas, Paul J; van der Heide, Agnes; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D

    2008-12-01

    To study trends in reporting rates of euthanasia from 1990 to 2005 in relation to whether recommended or nonrecommended drugs were used, and the most important differences between reported and unreported cases in 2005. Questionnaires were sent to a sample of 6860 physicians who had reported a death in 2005 (response 78%). Previously, 3 similar studies were done at 5-year intervals. The total number of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide cases was estimated using a "gold standard" definition: death was-according to the physician-the result of the use of drugs at the explicit request of the patient with the explicit goal of hastening death (denominator). The Euthanasia Review Committees provided the number of reported cases (numerator). The reporting rate of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide increased from 18% in 1990, 41% in 1995, and 54% in 2001 to 80% in 2005. The reporting rate in the subgroup of euthanasia with recommended drugs (barbiturates and muscle relaxants) was 73% in 1995, 71% in 2001, and 99% in 2005. The reporting rate of euthanasia with nonrecommended drugs (eg, opioids) was below 3% in 1995, 2001, and 2005. Unreported euthanasia differed also from reported euthanasia in the fact that physicians less often labeled their act as euthanasia. Euthanasia with nonrecommended drugs is almost never reported. The total reporting rate increased because of an increase in the use of recommended drugs for euthanasia between 1995 and 2001, and an increase in the reporting rate for euthanasia with recommended drugs between 2001 and 2005.

  1. The labelling and reporting of euthanasia by Belgian physicians: a study of hypothetical cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smets, T.; Cohen, J.; Bilsen, J.; van Wesemael, Y.; Rurup, M.L.; Deliens, L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Belgium legalized euthanasia in 2002. Physicians must report each euthanasia case to the Federal Control and Evaluation Committee. This study examines which end-of-life decisions (ELDs) Belgian physicians label 'euthanasia', which ELDs they think should be reported and the physician

  2. Euthanasia: A National Survey of Attitudes toward Voluntary Termination of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, David E.; Neubecker, Ron C.

    1980-01-01

    A study on the attitudes of adults related to the voluntary termination of life showed that those persons with favorable attitudes toward suicide were also favorable toward euthanasia. Religiosity was negatively associated with pro-euthanasia attitudes. Whites and males were more favorable toward euthanasia than Blacks and females. (Author)

  3. Attitudes toward Euthanasia in Hong Kong--A Comparison between Physicians and the General Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Alice Ming-lin; Fok, Shiu-yeu

    2005-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a cross-sectional study that compared the attitudes of 618 respondents of a general household survey and a random sample of 1,197 physicians toward different types of euthanasia in Hong Kong. The general public was found to agree with active euthanasia and non-voluntary euthanasia and was neutral about passive…

  4. Attitudes toward Euthanasia as a Function of Death Fears and Demographic Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slezak, Michael E.

    1982-01-01

    Studied the relationship of attitudes toward euthanasia to death fears and demographic variables in a sample of 100 adults. Found the strongest predictors of euthanasia attitude were age and amount of education. Suggests individuals who are more experienced with life and death have a more positive attitude toward euthanasia. (Author)

  5. Communication about euthanasia in general practice: opinions and experiences of patients and their general practitioners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgsteede, Sander D.; Deliens, Luc; Graafland-Riedstra, Corrie; Francke, Anneke L.; van der Wal, Gerrit; Willems, Dick L.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Public opinion and professional organisations dominate the euthanasia debate, and there is a need to understand the opinions of people confronted with euthanasia. The aim of this study was to investigate whether patients and their GPs talk about euthanasia, and if so, how they communicate

  6. Communication about euthanasia in general practice: opinions and experiences of patients and their general practitioners.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgsteede, S.D.; Deliens, L.; Graafland-Riedstra, C.; Francke, A.L.; Wal, G. van der; Willems, D.L.

    2007-01-01

    Public opinion and professional organisations dominate the euthanasia debate, and there is a need to understand the opinions of people confronted with euthanasia. The aim of this study was to investigate whether patients and their GPs talk about euthanasia, and if so, how they communicate about

  7. News media coverage of euthanasia: A content analysis of Dutch national newspapers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A.C. Rietjens (Judith); N.J.H. Raijmakers (Natasja); P.S.C. Kouwenhoven (Pauline); C. Seale (Clive); G.J.M.W. van Thiel (Ghislaine); M.J. Trappenburg (Margo); J.J.M. van Delden (Hans); A. van der Heide (Agnes)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The Netherlands is one of the few countries where euthanasia is legal under strict conditions. This study investigates whether Dutch newspaper articles use the term euthanasia according to the legal definition and determines what arguments for and against euthanasia they

  8. Euthanasia and death with dignity: still poised on the fulcrum of homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, H

    1996-12-01

    This article questions whether the law of homicide is an appropriate mechanism to adjudicate the humanitarian issues involved in voluntary euthanasia; particularly where painful protracted dying appears inherently more harmful than euthanasia. The author suggests that even if euthanasia can provide death with dignity this will not be achieved while the law requires the undignified criminalisation of the practitioner.

  9. Voluntary active euthanasia: Is there a place for it in modern day ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. This article discusses various ethical and legal concepts regarding euthanasia and includes concepts like physician assisted suicide, assisted suicide, voluntary active euthanasia, killing vs. letting die, indirect euthanasia and terminal sedation. Is there a difference if death is only foreseen but not intended?

  10. Impact of anesthesia, analgesia, and euthanasia technique on the inflammatory cytokine profile in a rodent model of severe burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mousawi, Ahmed M; Kulp, Gabriela A; Branski, Ludwik K; Kraft, Robert; Mecott, Gabriel A; Williams, Felicia N; Herndon, David N; Jeschke, Marc G

    2010-09-01

    Anesthetics used in burn and trauma animal models may be influencing results by modulating inflammatory and acute-phase responses. Accordingly, we determined the effects of various anesthetics, analgesia, and euthanasia techniques in a rodent burn model. Isoflurane (ISO), ketamine-xylazine (KX), or pentobarbital (PEN) with or without buprenorphine were administered before scald-burn in 72 rats that were euthanized without anesthesia by decapitation after 24 h and compared with unburned shams. In a second experiment, 120 rats underwent the same scald-burn injury using KX, and 24 h later were euthanized under anesthesia or carbon dioxide (CO2). In addition, we compared euthanasia by exsanguination with that of decapitation. Serum cytokine levels were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In the first experiment, ISO was associated with elevation of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant 2 (CINC-2) and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), and KX and PEN was associated with elevation of CINC-1,CINC-2, IL-6, and MCP-1. Pentobarbital also decreased IL-1". IL-6 increased significantly when ISO or PEN were combined with buprenorphine. In the second experiment, euthanasia performed by exsanguination under ISO was associated with reduced levels of IL-1", CINC-1, CINC-2, and MCP-1, whereas KX reduced CINC-2 and increased IL-6 levels. Meanwhile, PEN reduced levels of IL-1" and MCP-1, and CO2 reduced CINC-2 and MCP-1. In addition,decapitation after KX, PEN, or CO2 decreased IL-1" and MCP-1, although we found no significant difference between ISO and controls. Euthanasia by exsanguination compared with decapitation using the same agent also led to modulation of several cytokines. Differential expression of inflammatory markers with the use of anesthetics and analgesics should be considered when designing animal studies and interpreting results because these seem to have a significant modulating impact. Our findings indicate that brief anesthesia with ISO

  11. Religion and nurses' attitudes to euthanasia and physician assisted suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gielen, Joris; van den Branden, Stef; Broeckaert, Bert

    2009-05-01

    In this review of empirical studies we aimed to assess the influence of religion and world view on nurses' attitudes towards euthanasia and physician assisted suicide. We searched PubMed for articles published before August 2008 using combinations of search terms. Most identified studies showed a clear relationship between religion or world view and nurses' attitudes towards euthanasia or physician assisted suicide. Differences in attitude were found to be influenced by religious or ideological affiliation, observance of religious practices, religious doctrines, and personal importance attributed to religion or world view. Nevertheless, a coherent comparative interpretation of the results of the identified studies was difficult. We concluded that no study has so far exhaustively investigated the relationship between religion or world view and nurses' attitudes towards euthanasia or physician assisted suicide and that further research is required.

  12. EUTHANASIA - A STUDY OF LAW, POLICY AND ETHICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachariah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Physician assisted suicide (PAS and Euthanasia as it is now known, is essentially the doctrine that when, owing to disease, senility or the like, a person’s life has permanently ceased to be either agreeable or useful , the sufferer should be painlessly killed either by himself or by another. The intentional termination of patient’s life in such a situation by an act or omission of medical care is called euthanasia or mercy killing. This is the most active area of research in contemporary bio ethics. The present article is aimed to have a global overview regarding legalization of euthanasia and the current Indian scenari o, legally and ethically regarding this issue

  13. Welfare, Quality of Life, and Euthanasia of Aged Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Catherine M; Ireland, Joanne L

    2016-08-01

    Duration of ownership strengthens the human-horse bond, affecting decision-making about the horse's welfare, quality of life (QoL), and euthanasia. Most owners consider their geriatric horses to have good or excellent QoL; however, increasing age is negatively associated with QoL. Management factors are important. The most common reasons for euthanasia include musculoskeletal disorders or lameness, colic, and nonspecific chronic diseases. The decision to euthanize is difficult, so the advice of the veterinarian and QoL are important. This article focuses on the human-horse bond, assessment of QoL, reasons for euthanasia, and owner experiences of mortality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. How should Australia regulate voluntary euthanasia and assisted suicide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Ben; Willmott, Lindy

    2012-12-01

    This article invites consideration of how Australia should regulate voluntary euthanasia and assisted suicide. It attempts to pose this question as neutrally as possible, acknowledging that both prohibition and legalisation of such conduct involve decisions about regulation. It begins by charting the wider field of law at the end of life, before considering the repeated, but ultimately unsuccessful, attempts at law reform in Australia. The situation in Australia is contrasted with permissive jurisdictions overseas where voluntary euthanasia and/or assisted suicide are lawful. The authors consider the arguments for and against legalisation of such conduct along with the available empirical evidence as to what happens in practice both in Australia and overseas. The article concludes by outlining a framework for deliberating on how Australia should regulate voluntary euthanasia and assisted suicide. It asks a threshold question of whether such conduct should be criminal acts (as they presently are), the answer to which then leads to a range of possible regulatory options.

  15. Intention, procedure, outcome and personhood in palliative sedation and euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Materstvedt, Lars Johan

    2012-03-01

    Palliative sedation at the end of life has become an important last-resort treatment strategy for managing refractory symptoms as well as a topic of controversy within palliative care. Furthermore, palliative sedation is prominent in the public debate about the possible legalisation of voluntary assisted dying (physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia). This article attempts to demonstrate that palliative sedation is fundamentally different from euthanasia when it comes to intention, procedure, outcome and the status of the person. Nonetheless, palliative sedation in its most radical form of terminal deep sedation parallels euthanasia in one respect: both end the experience of suffering. However, only the latter intentionally ends life and also has this as its goal. There is the danger that deep sedation could bring death forward in time due to particular side effects of the treatment. Still that would, if it happens, not be intended, and accordingly is defensible in view of the doctrine of double effect.

  16. Use of Tricaine Methanesulfonate (MS222) for Euthanasia of Reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, CJ; Papenfuss, T; Parker, J; Hahn, NE

    2009-01-01

    Tricaine methanesulfonate (MS222) injected into the intracoelomic cavity of reptiles was evaluated as a chemical euthanasia method. Three western fence lizards, 2 desert iguanas, 4 garter snakes, and 6 geckos were euthanized by intracoelomic injection of 250 to 500 mg/kg of 0.7% to 1% sodium-bicarbonate–buffered MS222 solution followed by intracoelomic injection of 0.1 to 1.0 ml unbuffered 50% (v/v) MS222 solution. A simple 2-stage protocol for euthanasia of reptiles by using MS222 is outlined. In addition, the conditions for safe use of MS222 are discussed. MS222 offers an alternative to sodium pentobarbital for euthanasia of reptiles. PMID:19245747

  17. Euthanasia in patients dying at home in Belgium: interview study on adherence to legal safeguards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smets, Tinne; Bilsen, Johan; Van den Block, Lieve; Cohen, Joachim; Van Casteren, Viviane; Deliens, Luc

    2010-01-01

    Background Euthanasia became legal in Belgium in 2002. Physicians must adhere to legal due care requirements when performing euthanasia; for example, consulting a second physician and reporting each euthanasia case to the Federal Review Committee. Aim To study the adherence and non-adherence of GPs to legal due care requirements for euthanasia among patients dying at home in Belgium and to explore possible reasons for non-adherence. Design of study Large scale, retrospective study. Setting General practice in Belgium. Method A retrospective mortality study was performed in 2005–2006 using the nationwide Belgian Sentinel Network of General Practitioners. Each week GPs reported medical end-of-life decisions taken in all non-sudden deaths of patients in their practice. GP interviews were conducted for each euthanasia case occurring at home. Results Interviews were conducted for nine of the 11 identified euthanasia cases. Requirements concerning the patient's medical condition were met in all cases. Procedural requirements such as consultation of a second physician were sometimes ignored. Euthanasia cases were least often reported (n = 4) when the physician did not regard the decision as euthanasia, when only opioids were used to perform euthanasia, or when no second physician was consulted. Factors that may contribute to explaining non-adherence to the euthanasia law included: being unaware of which practices are considered to be euthanasia; insufficient knowledge of the euthanasia law; and the fact that certain procedures are deemed burdensome. Conclusion Substantive legal due care requirements for euthanasia concerning the patient's request for euthanasia and medical situation were almost always met by GPs in euthanasia cases. Procedural consultation and reporting requirements were not always met. PMID:20353662

  18. Ethics policies on euthanasia in nursing homes: a survey in Flanders, Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemiengre, Joke; Dierckx de Casterlé, Bernadette; Verbeke, Geert; Van Craen, Katleen; Schotsmans, Paul; Gastmans, Chris

    2008-01-01

    In many European countries there is a public debate about the acceptability and regulation of euthanasia. In 2002, Belgium became the second country after the Netherlands to enact a law on euthanasia. Although euthanasia rarely occurs, the complexity of the clinical-ethical decision making surrounding euthanasia requests and the need for adequate support reported by caregivers, means that healthcare institutions increasingly need to consider how to responsibly handle euthanasia requests. The development of written ethics policies on euthanasia may be important to guarantee and maintain the quality of care for patients requesting euthanasia. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, development, position, and communication of written ethics policies on euthanasia in Flemish nursing homes. Data were obtained through a cross-sectional mail survey of general directors of all Catholic nursing homes in Flanders, Belgium. Of the 737 nursing homes invited to participate, 612 (83%) completed the questionnaire. Of these, only 15% had a written ethics policy on euthanasia. Presence of an ethics committee and membership of an umbrella organization were independent predictors of whether a nursing home had such a written ethics policy. The Act on Euthanasia and euthanasia guidelines advanced by professional organizations were the most frequent reasons (76% and 56%, respectively) and reference sources (92% and 64%, respectively) for developing ethics policies on euthanasia. Development of ethics policies occurred within a multidisciplinary context. In general, Flemish nursing homes applied the Act on Euthanasia restrictively by introducing palliative procedures in addition to legal due care criteria. The policy was communicated to the consulting general practitioner and nurses in 74% and 89% of nursing homes, respectively. Although the overall prevalence of ethics policies on euthanasia was low in Flemish nursing homes, institution administrators displayed growing

  19. Euthanasia: A Controversial Entity Among Students of Karachi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ameet; Naqvi, Syeda; Giyanwani, Pirthvi Raj; Yousuf, Fareeha; Masnoon, Aaliya; Bai, Kiran; Kumar, Deepak

    2017-07-24

    Background A serene death may be achieved through skilled and compassionate care, as well as by the dying person's own sense of having lived a righteous life. The purpose of this study is to acquire information about students' knowledge and understanding of euthanasia. Materials and Methods Four hundred and fifty-six students from four classes of two institutions with similar demographic characteristics were included in this cross-sectional study. A questionnaire adapted from a study of 'Gruber, et al.' was distributed among the respondents after obtaining a verbal informed consent. The questionnaire had two parts, first dealing with demographics of respondents, and in the second part students were given different situations and asked about their decision in that particular setting to understand their opinion about euthanasia. Results There were 31.7% medical students and 12.9% non-medical students in favor to provide complete medical information (p < 0.001) while 59.2% non-medical students thought that complete information should be given to a patient if any iatrogenic incident occurred. Same favored by 33.7% of medical students (p < 0.001). The majority of medical students (84.5%) felt that cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) must always be provided (p < 0.001) and this was acceptable more among females (p = 0.001). Furthermore, medical students (57.6%) were more in favor of continuing maximum medical treatment including CPR than non-medical students (42.9%, p = 0.003). A total of 83% non-medical students and 46% medical students found euthanasia an acceptable practice. Conclusion Results show a significant difference in perception of medical and non-medical students regarding euthanasia. Non-medical students are more in favor of euthanasia than medical students. Also, it is observed that males seem to be more inclined towards euthanasia while females are more in favor to provide maximum medical treatment.

  20. Comparison of carbon dioxide and argon euthanasia: effects on behavior, heart rate, and respiratory lesions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkholder, Tanya H; Niel, Lee; Weed, James L; Brinster, Lauren R; Bacher, John D; Foltz, Charmaine J

    2010-07-01

    In this study we compared rat (n = 16) responses to euthanasia with either gradual-fill CO(2) or rapid induction argon gas by evaluating the animals' heart rate via radiotelemetry, behavior, and vocalizations. We also evaluated the histologic effects of the gases. Rats were placed in an open test chamber 24 h before the start of the experiment. During baseline tests, rats were exposed to oxygen to evaluate the effects of the noise and movement of gas entering the chamber; 1 wk later, rats were euthanized by gas displacement with either 10%/min CO(2) or 50%/min argon gas. Rats tended to have higher heart rats and were more active during the baseline test, but these parameters were normal before the euthanasia experiment, suggesting that the rats had acclimated to the equipment. Heart rate, behavior, and ultrasonic vocalizations were recorded for 2 min after gas introduction in both groups. All rats appeared conscious throughout the test interval. The heart rates of rats exposed to argon did not change, whereas those of rats exposed to CO(2) declined significantly. Unlike those exposed to CO(2), rats euthanized with argon gas gasped and demonstrated seizure-like activity. There were no differences in the pulmonary lesions resulting from death by either gas. Our results suggest that argon as a sole euthanasia agent is aversive to rats. CO(2) using a 10%/min displacement may be less aversive than more rapid displacements. Future research investigating methods of euthanasia should allow sufficient time for the rats to acclimate to the test apparatus.

  1. Involvement of palliative care in euthanasia practice in a context of legalized euthanasia: A population-based mortality follow-back study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierickx, Sigrid; Deliens, Luc; Cohen, Joachim; Chambaere, Kenneth

    2018-01-01

    In the international debate about assisted dying, it is commonly stated that euthanasia is incompatible with palliative care. In Belgium, where euthanasia was legalized in 2002, the Federation for Palliative Care Flanders has endorsed the viewpoint that euthanasia can be embedded in palliative care. To examine the involvement of palliative care services in euthanasia practice in a context of legalized euthanasia. Population-based mortality follow-back survey. Physicians attending a random sample of 6871 deaths in Flanders, Belgium, in 2013. People requesting euthanasia were more likely to have received palliative care (70.9%) than other people dying non-suddenly (45.2%) (odds ratio = 2.1 (95% confidence interval, 1.5-2.9)). The most frequently indicated reasons for non-referral to a palliative care service in those requesting euthanasia were that existing care already sufficiently addressed the patient's palliative and supportive care needs (56.5%) and that the patient did not want to be referred (26.1%). The likelihood of a request being granted did not differ between cases with or without palliative care involvement. Palliative care professionals were involved in the decision-making process and/or performance of euthanasia in 59.8% of all euthanasia deaths; this involvement was higher in hospitals (76.0%) than at home (47.0%) or in nursing homes (49.5%). In Flanders, in a context of legalized euthanasia, euthanasia and palliative care do not seem to be contradictory practices. A substantial proportion of people who make a euthanasia request are seen by palliative care services, and for a majority of these, the request is granted.

  2. Involvement of palliative care in euthanasia practice in a context of legalized euthanasia: A population-based mortality follow-back study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierickx, Sigrid; Deliens, Luc; Cohen, Joachim; Chambaere, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    Background: In the international debate about assisted dying, it is commonly stated that euthanasia is incompatible with palliative care. In Belgium, where euthanasia was legalized in 2002, the Federation for Palliative Care Flanders has endorsed the viewpoint that euthanasia can be embedded in palliative care. Aim: To examine the involvement of palliative care services in euthanasia practice in a context of legalized euthanasia. Design: Population-based mortality follow-back survey. Setting/participants: Physicians attending a random sample of 6871 deaths in Flanders, Belgium, in 2013. Results: People requesting euthanasia were more likely to have received palliative care (70.9%) than other people dying non-suddenly (45.2%) (odds ratio = 2.1 (95% confidence interval, 1.5–2.9)). The most frequently indicated reasons for non-referral to a palliative care service in those requesting euthanasia were that existing care already sufficiently addressed the patient’s palliative and supportive care needs (56.5%) and that the patient did not want to be referred (26.1%). The likelihood of a request being granted did not differ between cases with or without palliative care involvement. Palliative care professionals were involved in the decision-making process and/or performance of euthanasia in 59.8% of all euthanasia deaths; this involvement was higher in hospitals (76.0%) than at home (47.0%) or in nursing homes (49.5%). Conclusion: In Flanders, in a context of legalized euthanasia, euthanasia and palliative care do not seem to be contradictory practices. A substantial proportion of people who make a euthanasia request are seen by palliative care services, and for a majority of these, the request is granted. PMID:28849727

  3. A Kenyan perspective on the use of animals in science education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Data was collected using questionnaires, administered at 39 highly ranked academic and research institutions aiming to identify those that used animals, their sources of animals, and application of the three Rs. Perceived challenges to the use of non-animal alternatives and common methods of euthanasia were ...

  4. French hospital nurses' opinion about euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide: a national phone survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendiane, M K; Bouhnik, A-D; Galinier, A; Favre, R; Obadia, Y; Peretti-Watel, P

    2009-04-01

    Hospital nurses are frequently the first care givers to receive a patient's request for euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide (PAS). In France, there is no consensus over which medical practices should be considered euthanasia, and this lack of consensus blurred the debate about euthanasia and PAS legalisation. This study aimed to investigate French hospital nurses' opinions towards both legalisations, including personal conceptions of euthanasia and working conditions and organisation. A phone survey conducted among a random national sample of 1502 French hospital nurses. We studied factors associated with opinions towards euthanasia and PAS, including contextual factors related to hospital units with random-effects logistic models. Overall, 48% of nurses supported legalisation of euthanasia and 29%, of PAS. Religiosity, training in pallative care/pain management and feeling competent in end-of-life care were negatively correlated with support for legalisation of both euthanasia and PAS, while nurses working at night were more prone to support legalisation of both. The support for legalisation of euthanasia and PAS was also weaker in pain treatment/palliative care and intensive care units, and it was stronger in units not benefiting from interventions of charity/religious workers and in units with more nurses. Many French hospital nurses uphold the legalisation of euthanasia and PAS, but these nurses may be the least likely to perform what proponents of legalisation call "good" euthanasia. Improving professional knowledge of palliative care could improve the management of end-of-life situations and help to clarify the debate over euthanasia.

  5. The complexity of nurses' attitudes toward euthanasia: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghs, M; Dierckx de Casterlé, B; Gastmans, C

    2005-08-01

    In this literature review, a picture is given of the complexity of nursing attitudes toward euthanasia. The myriad of data found in empirical literature is mostly framed within a polarised debate and inconclusive about the complex reality behind attitudes toward euthanasia. Yet, a further examination of the content as well as the context of attitudes is more revealing. The arguments for euthanasia have to do with quality of life and respect for autonomy. Arguments against euthanasia have to do with non-maleficence, sanctity of life, and the notion of the slippery slope. When the context of attitudes is examined a number of positive correlates for euthanasia such as age, nursing specialty, and religion appear. In a further analysis of nurses' comments on euthanasia, it is revealed that part of the complexity of nursing attitudes toward euthanasia arises because of the needs of nurses at the levels of clinical practice, communication, emotions, decision making, and ethics.

  6. Nursing and euthanasia: a review of argument-based ethics literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaghebeur, Toon; Dierckx de Casterlé, Bernadette; Gastmans, Chris

    2009-07-01

    This article gives an overview of the nursing ethics arguments on euthanasia in general, and on nurses' involvement in euthanasia in particular, through an argument-based literature review. An in-depth study of these arguments in this literature will enable nurses to engage in the euthanasia debate. We critically appraised 41 publications published between January 1987 and June 2007. Nursing ethics arguments on (nurses' involvement in) euthanasia are guided primarily by the principles of respect for autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence and justice. Ethical arguments related to the nursing profession are described. From a care perspective, we discuss arguments that evaluate to what degree euthanasia can be considered positively or negatively as a form of good nursing care. Most arguments in the principle-, profession- and care-orientated approaches to nursing ethics are used both pro and contra euthanasia in general, and nurses' involvement in euthanasia in particular.

  7. Intraperitoneal Injection of Ethanol for the Euthanasia of Laboratory Mice (Mus musculus) and Rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen-Worthington, Krystal H; Brice, Angela K; Marx, James O; Hankenson, F Claire

    2015-11-01

    Compassion, professional ethics, and public sensitivity require that animals are euthanized humanely and appropriately under both planned and emergent situations. According to the 2013 AVMA Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals, intraperitoneal injection of ethanol is "acceptable with conditions" for use in mice. Because only limited information regarding this technique is available, we sought to evaluate ethanol by using ECG and high-definition video recording. Mice (n = 85) and rats (n = 16) were treated with intraperitoneal ethanol (70% or 100%), a positive-control agent (pentobarbital-phenytoin combination [Pe/Ph]), or a negative-control agent (saline solution). After injection, animals were assessed for behavioral and physiologic responses. Pain-assessment techniques in mice demonstrated that intraperitoneal injection of ethanol was not more painful than was intraperitoneal Pe/Ph. Median time to loss of consciousness for all mice that received ethanol or Pe/Ph was 45 s. Median time to respiratory arrest was 2.75, 2.25, and 2.63 min, and time (mean ± SE) to cardiac arrest was 6.04 ± 1.3, 2.96 ± 0.6, and 4.03 ± 0.5 min for 70% ethanol, 100% ethanol, and Pe/Ph, respectively. No mouse that received ethanol or Pe/Ph regained consciousness. Although successful in mice, intraperitoneal ethanol at the doses tested (9.2 to 20.1 g/kg) was unsuitable for euthanasia of rats (age, 7 to 8 wk) because of the volume needed and prolonged time to respiratory effects. For mice, intraperitoneal injection of 70% or 100% ethanol induced rapid and irreversible loss of consciousness, followed by death, and should be considered as "acceptable with conditions."

  8. An Ethical Review of Euthanasia and Physician-assisted Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banović, Božidar; Turanjanin, Veljko; Miloradović, Anđela

    2017-02-01

    In the majority of countries, active direct euthanasia is a forbidden way of the deprivation of the patients' life, while its passive form is commonly accepted. This distinction between active and passive euthanasia has no justification, viewed through the prism of morality and ethics. Therefore, we focused on attention on the moral and ethical implications of the aforementioned medical procedures. Data were obtained from the Clinical Hospital Center in Kragujevac, collected during the first half of the 2015. The research included 88 physicians: 57 male physicians (representing 77% of the sample) and 31 female physicians (23% of the sample). Due to the nature, subject and hypothesis of the research, the authors used descriptive method and the method of the theoretical content analysis. A slight majority of the physicians (56, 8%) believe that active euthanasia is ethically unacceptable, while 43, 2% is for another solution (35, 2% took a viewpoint that it is completely ethically acceptable, while the remaining 8% considered it ethically acceptable in certain cases). From the other side, 56, 8% of respondents answered negatively on the ethical acceptability of the physician-assisted suicide, while 33% of them opted for a completely ethic viewpoint of this procedure. Out of the remaining 10, 2% opted for the ethical acceptability in certain cases. Physicians in Serbia are divided on this issue, but a group that considers active euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide as ethically unacceptable is a bit more numerous.

  9. Life support and euthanasia, a perspective on Shaw's new perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Jacob; Rodogno, Raffaele

    2011-02-01

    It has recently been suggested by Shaw (2007) that the distinction between voluntary active euthanasia, such as giving a patient a lethal overdose with the intention of ending that patient's life, and voluntary passive euthanasia, such as removing a patient from a ventilator, is much less obvious than is commonly acknowledged in the literature. This is argued by suggesting a new perspective that more accurately reflects the moral features of end-of-life situations. The argument is simply that if we consider the body of a mentally competent patient who wants to die, a kind of 'unwarranted' life support, then the distinction collapses. We argue that all Shaw has provided is a perspective that makes the conclusion that there is little distinction between voluntary active euthanasia and voluntary passive euthanasia only seemingly more palatable. In doing so he has yet to convince us that this perspective is superior to other perspectives and thus more accurately reflects the moral features of the situations pertaining to this issue.

  10. May Christians request medically assisted suicide and euthanasia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Etienne de Villiers

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the question: ‘Is it morally acceptable for terminally ill Christians to voluntarily request medically assisted suicide or euthanasia?’ After a brief discussion of relevant changes in the moral landscape over the last century, two influential, but opposite views on the normative basis for the Christian ethical assessment of medically assisted suicide and voluntary euthanasia are critically discussed. The inadequacy of both the view that the biblical message entails an absolute prohibition against these two practices, and the view that Christians have to decide on them on the basis of their own autonomy, is argued. An effort is made to demonstrate that although the biblical message does not entail an absolute prohibition it does have normative ethical implications for deciding on medically assisted suicide and voluntary euthanasia. Certain Christian beliefs encourage terminally ill Christians to live a morally responsible life until their death and cultivate a moral prejudice against taking the life of any human being. This moral prejudice can, however, in exceptional cases be outweighed by moral considerations in favour of medically assisted suicide or voluntary euthanasia.

  11. Beyond Baby Doe: Does Infant Transplantation Justify Euthanasia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, David L.

    1988-01-01

    The paper examines ethical issues in the transplantation of organs from infants with anencephaly into infants with severe heart and kidney disease. It argues that active euthanasia of infants with anencephaly should be prohibited to safeguard the rights of all persons with severe neurological disabilities. (Author/DB)

  12. The "Lethal Chamber": Further Evidence of the Euthanasia Option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elks, Martin A.

    1993-01-01

    Historical discussions of the euthanasia or "lethal chamber" option in relation to people with mental retardation are presented. The paper concludes that eugenic beliefs in the primacy of heredity over environment and the positive role of natural selection may have condoned the poor conditions characteristic of large, segregated institutions and…

  13. Organ Donation After Euthanasia in the Netherlands: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijngaarden, A K S; van Westerloo, D J; Ringers, J

    2016-11-01

    In 2014, there was still a shortage of available organs for transplantation, and 1044 patients were waiting for an organ in the Netherlands. Maximizing the pool of organ donors is part of the solution. In 2001, the Dutch Termination of Life on Request and Assisted Suicide Act was adopted, legalizing euthanasia under strict conditions. In 2010, 3136 reports were made of euthanasia and assisted suicide; in 2014, 5306 reports were made. Among them were patients with a desire to donate their organs after their deaths. Although a potential source of donor organs, only a few cases of organ donation after active euthanasia have been described. Since 2012, 16 combinations of these procedures have been performed in the Netherlands. The literature mentions 16 Belgian cases between 2005 and 2013. This limited number can be the result of lack of knowledge about this subject among healthcare professionals or because of practical, ethical, and/or legal considerations. Performing this combination has possible advantages, both in number as well as in transplantation outcomes. By describing a recent case in our center, we will try to outline the state of the art in the Netherlands and disseminate knowledge about the possibilities and limitations of organ donation after active euthanasia. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Validation of the Chinese Expanded Euthanasia Attitude Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Alice Ming-Lin; Fok, Shiu-Yeu

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the validation of the Chinese version of an expanded 31-item Euthanasia Attitude Scale. A 4-stage validation process included a pilot survey of 119 college students and a randomized household survey with 618 adults in Hong Kong. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed a 4-factor structure of the scale, which can therefore be…

  15. Gas alternatives to carbon dioxide for euthanasia: A piglet perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    The identification and validation of a humane method to euthanize piglets is critical to address concern that current methods are not acceptable. This research sought to: 1) identify a method of scientifically determining if pigs find a specific euthanasia method aversive, and 2) develop an innovati...

  16. Attitudes of Catholic and Protestant Clergy Toward Euthanasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagi, Mostafa H.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Even though Catholic and Protestant clergymen, in about the same proportions, tend to see the terminal patient as competent to make decisions concerning euthanasia, the two groups, strongly agree that neither the individual patient nor the state should be allowed sole responsibility for the decision. (Author)

  17. Patients' voices are needed in debates on euthanasia

    OpenAIRE

    Mak, Yvonne Y W; Elwyn, Glyn; Finlay, Ilora G

    2003-01-01

    Medically assisted death is legal in a few countries, and discussion about legalisation is ongoing in many others. But legalisation may be premature when we still do not know why patients want euthanasia and whether better end of life care would change their views

  18. Terminal sedation and euthanasia: A comparison of clinical practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A.C. Rietjens (Judith); J.J.M. van Delden (Hans); A. van der Heide (Agnes); A.M. Vrakking (Astrid); B.D. Onwuteaka-Philipsen (Bregje); P.J. van der Maas (Paul); G. van der Wal (Gerrit)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractBackground: An important issue in the debate about terminal sedation is the extent to which it differs from euthanasia. We studied clinical differences and similarities between both practices in the Netherlands. Methods: Personal interviews were held with a nationwide stratified sample

  19. Nurses and the euthanasia debate: reflections from New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, M; Bickley Asher, J

    2015-03-01

    Through an examination of the present situation relating to legalizing euthanasia and/or physician-assisted death in New Zealand, this paper is intended to encourage nurses worldwide to ponder about their own position on the ever present topic of assisted dying and euthanasia. In New Zealand, euthanasia remains illegal, but in 2012, the 'End of Life Choice Bill' was put in the ballot for potential selection for consideration by Parliament, later to be withdrawn. However, it is increasingly likely that New Zealand will follow international trends to offer people a choice about how their lives should end, and that such a Bill will be resubmitted in the near future. Undoubtedly, the passage of such legislation would have an impact on the day-to-day practices of nurses who work with dying people. This article has been prepared following a comprehensive review of appropriate literature both in New Zealand and overseas. This article aims to highlight the importance of nursing input into any national debates concerning proposed euthanasia or assisted dying laws. The discussion therefore covers New Zealand's experience of such proposed legislation, that is, the draft Bill itself and the implications for nurses, the history of the assisted dying debate in New Zealand, public and professional opinion, and national and international nursing responses to euthanasia. New Zealand nurses will eventually have an opportunity to make their views on proposed euthanasia legislation known, and what such legislation might mean for their practice. Nurses everywhere should seriously consider their own knowledge and viewpoint on this vitally important topic, and be prepared to respond as both individuals and as part of their professional bodies when the time inevitably arrives. The result will be a better informed set of policies, regulations and legislation leading to a more meaningful and dignified experience for dying people and their families. Nurses need to be fully informed about

  20. The Use of a Non-Penetrating Captive Bolt for the Euthanasia of Neonate Piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grist, Andrew; Lines, Jeff A; Knowles, Toby G; Mason, Charles W; Wotton, Stephen B

    2018-04-02

    The most common method for the on-farm euthanasia of neonate piglets is reported to be manual blunt force trauma. This paper presents the results of research to evaluate a mechanical non-penetrating captive bolt (the Accles and Shelvoke CASH small animal tool, Birmingham, UK) to produce an immediate stun/kill with neonate piglets. One hundred and forty-seven piglets (average dead weight = 1.20 kg ± 0.58 (standard deviation, SD), mean age = 5.8 days (median = 3)) were euthanized with the device and demonstrated immediate loss of consciousness, subjectively assessed by behavioural signs and no recovery. The result that 147 out of 147 animals were effectively stun/killed gives a 95% confidence interval for the true percentage of animals that would be effectively stun/killed of 97.5-100% with the use of the CASH small animal tool under the conditions of the current study. This research concludes that the CASH small animal tool, using a 1 grain brown coded cartridge, is suitable for producing a stun/kill in neonate piglets when applied in a frontal/parietal position.

  1. The Use of a Non-Penetrating Captive Bolt for the Euthanasia of Neonate Piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Grist

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The most common method for the on-farm euthanasia of neonate piglets is reported to be manual blunt force trauma. This paper presents the results of research to evaluate a mechanical non-penetrating captive bolt (the Accles and Shelvoke CASH small animal tool, Birmingham, UK to produce an immediate stun/kill with neonate piglets. One hundred and forty-seven piglets (average dead weight = 1.20 kg ± 0.58 (standard deviation, SD, mean age = 5.8 days (median = 3 were euthanized with the device and demonstrated immediate loss of consciousness, subjectively assessed by behavioural signs and no recovery. The result that 147 out of 147 animals were effectively stun/killed gives a 95% confidence interval for the true percentage of animals that would be effectively stun/killed of 97.5–100% with the use of the CASH small animal tool under the conditions of the current study. This research concludes that the CASH small animal tool, using a 1 grain brown coded cartridge, is suitable for producing a stun/kill in neonate piglets when applied in a frontal/parietal position.

  2. An exploratory pilot study of nurse-midwives' attitudes toward active euthanasia and abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrave, C F; Soudry, I

    2000-12-01

    Over the past three decades, active euthanasia and abortion have received increasing international attention. Since both these practices are relevant to the role of the nurse-midwife, it is important to know what influences their attitudes towards them. Therefore, the purpose of this study was: 1, to survey the attitudes of nurse-midwives' to active euthanasia and its legalization; 2, to determine the relationship between nurse-midwives' attitudes toward active euthanasia and its legalization, and attitudes toward abortion, self-reported religiosity and religious affiliation. The study setting was an international midwifery conference and the sample consisted of 139 nurse-midwives attending the conference. The majority of nurse-midwives displayed a positive attitude toward active euthanasia and its legalization. In addition, there was a positive relationship between their attitude to abortion and active euthanasia. Self-reported religiosity and religious affiliation were significantly related to attitudes toward active euthanasia and its legalization. An interesting positive relationship between country of practice and attitudes to euthanasia was also found. Nurse-midwives practicing in countries with more liberal euthanasia and assisted suicide legislation were more supportive of active euthanasia. With the increasing acceptance of active euthanasia's legalization, the results of this study pose some ethical questions that nurse-midwives internationally will have to consider.

  3. On-farm euthanasia practices and attitudes of commercial meat rabbit producers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Jessica; Percival, Aaron; Tapscott, Brian; Turner, Patricia V

    2017-09-16

    Appropriate and timely on-farm euthanasia is the responsibility of the producer, working together with their herd veterinarian. Unfortunately, validated methods for euthanasia of commercial meat rabbits are lacking and there are few educational materials available for producer training. Because euthanasia must be performed in a timely fashion to minimise suffering, it is critical to ensure that methods used are aesthetic, humane and effective. We surveyed Canadian meat rabbit producers for current on-farm euthanasia practices as well as attitudes towards the methods they employed and thoughts on novel euthanasia techniques. Surveys were distributed with a response rate of 26 per cent (n=26). Blunt force trauma was the most common euthanasia method used (54 per cent), followed by assisted manual cervical dislocation (31 per cent). Half of producers admitted to not having a euthanasia method in place for all age groups of rabbits, instead electing to let sick and injured rabbits die on their own. While some producers reported feeling highly skilled and satisfied with their current euthanasia method, 58 per cent reported concerns with their current method and 42 per cent desired alternative methods to be developed. Responses to additional questions on training and awareness of euthanasia resources indicated that veterinarians are not part of on-farm euthanasia planning for meat rabbits. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Awareness and Attitude of Select Professionals toward Euthanasia in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sheetal; Gupta, Shakti; Singh, I B; Madaan, Nirupam

    2016-01-01

    The topic of euthanasia has induced differences not only among professionals in the medical fraternity but also in other fields as well. The dying process is being lengthened by the new state of art technologies erupting as such higher pace, and it is at the expense of standard quality of life and of a gracious death. To study the awareness and attitude toward euthanasia among select professionals in Delhi. It was a questionnaire-based descriptive cross-sectional study. The study population included doctors, nurses, judges, lawyers, journalist, and social activists of Delhi. Tool included a sociodemographic questionnaire, two questions to know awareness regarding euthanasia and a modified euthanasia attitude scale used to measure attitude toward euthanasia. Data were analyzed using Stata 11.2. Through our study, it is evident that professionals who participated in the study (judges, advocates, doctors, nurses, journalists, and social activists) in Delhi were familiar with the term euthanasia. No significant difference was seen in the attitude of professionals of different age group and sex toward euthanasia. Through this study, it is found that judiciary group most strongly endorsed euthanasia. The attitude of doctors was elicited from mixed group with doctors belonging to different specialties. Oncologists are not in favor of any form of euthanasia. However, doctors from other specialties did support euthanasia.

  5. [Legal issues of physician-assisted euthanasia. Part II--Help in the dying process, direct and indirect active euthanasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, Johannes; Röbel, Andreas; Parzeller, Markus

    2013-01-01

    In Germany, physician-assisted euthanasia involves numerous risks for the attending physician under criminal and professional law. In the absence of clear legal provisions, four different categories of euthanasia have been developed in legal practice and the relevant literature: help in the dying process, direct active euthanasia, indirect active euthanasia and passive euthanasia. The so-called "help during the dying process" by administering medically indicated analgesic drugs without a life-shortening effect is exempt from punishment if it corresponds to the will of the patient. If the physician omits to give such analgesic drugs although the patient demands them, this is deemed a punishable act of bodily injury. The same applies if the physician administers analgesics against the will of the patient. Medically indicated pain treatment which has a potential or certain life-shortening effect (indirect active euthanasia) is permitted under certain conditions: if there are no alternative and equally suitable treatment options without the risk of shortening the patient's life, if the patient has given his consent to the treatment and if the physician does not act with the intention to kill. The deliberate killing of a dying or terminally ill patient for the purpose of ending his suffering (direct active euthanasia) is prohibited. This includes both deliberately killing a patient against or without his will (by so-called "angels of death") and the killing of a patient who expressly and earnestly demands such an act from his physician (killing on request/on demand). Physician-assisted suicide is generally not liable to punishment in Germany. Nevertheless, the action may be subject to punishment if the physician omits to rescue the life of an unconscious suicide victim. "Palliative sedation" is regarded as a special case. It may become necessary if certain symptoms in the terminal stage of a fatal disease unbearable for the patient cannot be controlled by any other

  6. Public attitudes toward euthanasia and suicide for terminally ill persons: 1977 and 1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCesare, M A

    2000-01-01

    This study replicates Singh's (1979) "classic" examination of correlates of euthanasia and suicide attitudes. The purposes of the current study were to assess (1) changes in public attitudes toward these voluntary termination of life practices, and (2) changes in the effects on attitudes of selected independent variables. I found Americans' approval of both euthanasia and suicide in 1996 to be higher than that in 1977. The increase in the approval of suicide, however, far outstripped that of euthanasia. Results of OLS regressions indicated that race, religious commitment, religious attendance, political identification, and suicide approval were statistically significant predictors of euthanasia approval. Only religious attendance and euthanasia approval were statistically significant predictors of suicide approval in both 1977 and 1996. The findings regarding euthanasia approval support those of Singh (1979); those regarding suicide approval do not. Triangulation of methods in future research is necessary to illuminate other aspects of these multifaceted issues.

  7. Non-voluntary and involuntary euthanasia in The Netherlands: Dutch perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Almagor, Raphael

    2003-01-01

    During the summer of 1999, twenty-eight interviews with some of the leading authorities on euthanasia policy were conducted in the Netherlands. They were asked about cases of non-voluntary (when patients are incompetent) and involuntary euthanasia (when patients are competent and made no request to die). This study reports the main findings, showing that most respondents are quite complacent with regard to breaches of the guideline that require the patient's consent as a prerequisite to performance of euthanasia.

  8. Death AND DIGNITY. WHY VOLUNTARY EUTHANASIA IS A QUESTION OF CHOICE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Andrew

    2016-12-01

    The prospect of voluntary euthanasia has created strong debate for decades and provoked passionate opinions from both sides of the fence. While not legal in Australia, a recent revived push for national voluntary euthanasia legislation has once again opened up the conversation and nurses have been encouraged to join the debate. Robert Fedele investigates the latest thinking and why more people are supporting voluntary euthanasia and the right to die with dignity.

  9. Euthanasia – Help to die : a literature review from patients' perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Kim; Jonas, Andersson

    2010-01-01

      Background: Euthanasia means help to die. Some terminally ill patients wish for euthanasia. Purpose: Illuminating terminally ill patients' desire for voluntary euthanasia. Method: A general literature study. Seven articles were reviewed and analyzed. Results: Patients do not want to live a painful life or die a painful death, patients want control over their lives and feel involved in decisions affecting their lives and the patients want to feel quality of life despite their illness or trea...

  10. [Ethics problems at the end of life. Terminal care--euthanasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampits, P

    2002-01-01

    The present discussion on active and passive euthanasia is characterised by the polarisation of various approaches deeply rooted in ideologies: quality of life versus sanctity of life. Autonomy, dignity, instrumentalization of human life are discussed. Furthermore the question of differentiation of active, direct and indirect euthanasia is raised. The author pleads for a reduction of dogmatic positions and recommends a moderate way between the general liberalisation and the general verdict of euthanasia on the moral and legal levels.

  11. News media coverage of euthanasia: A content analysis of Dutch national newspapers

    OpenAIRE

    Rietjens, Judith; Raijmakers, Natasja; Kouwenhoven, Pauline; Seale, Clive; Thiel, Ghislaine; Trappenburg, Margo; Delden, Hans; Heide, Agnes

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The Netherlands is one of the few countries where euthanasia is legal under strict conditions. This study investigates whether Dutch newspaper articles use the term euthanasia according to the legal definition and determines what arguments for and against euthanasia they contain. Methods. We did an electronic search of seven Dutch national newspapers between January 2009 and May 2010 and conducted a content analysis. Results: Of the 284 articles containing the term eut...

  12. Motivations of physicians and nurses to practice voluntary euthanasia: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Vézina-Im, Lydi-Anne; Lavoie, Mireille; Krol, Pawel; Olivier-D’Avignon, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    Background While a number of reviews have explored the attitude of health professionals toward euthanasia, none of them documented their motivations to practice euthanasia. The objective of the present systematic review was to identify physicians’ and nurses’ motives for having the intention or for performing an act of voluntary euthanasia and compare findings from countries where the practice is legalized to those where it is not. Methods The following databases were investigated: MEDLINE/Pu...

  13. Rational Suicide, Euthanasia, and the Very Old: Two Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Pamela Frances Wand

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Suicide amongst the very old is an important public health issue. Little is known about why older people may express a wish to die or request euthanasia and how such thoughts may intersect with suicide attempts. Palliative care models promote best care as holistic and relieving suffering without hastening death in severely ill patients; but what of those old people who are tired of living and may have chronic symptoms, disability, and reduced quality of life? Two cases of older people who attempted suicide but expressed a preference for euthanasia were it legal are presented in order to illustrate the complexity underlying such requests. The absence of a mood or anxiety disorder underpinning their wishes to die further emphasises the importance of understanding the individual’s narrative and the role of a formulation in guiding broad biopsychosocial approaches to management.

  14. [Conversations on the "good death": the bioethical debate on euthanasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira-Batista, Rodrigo; Schramm, Fermin Roland

    2005-01-01

    Despite extensive current debate on euthanasia, many open and apparently unsolvable issues persist, awaiting a better conceptual treatment. The area includes "prejudices and fundamentalisms" in relation to the theme, still viewed as taboo by a major share of society, specifically in the case of Brazil, while semantic imprecision in the term and argumentative tensions surround the issue, focusing on the principles of sacredness of life, quality of life, and autonomy and the so-called "slippery slope" argument. The purpose of the current essay is thus to serve as a sphere of inquiry concerning euthanasia, moving from historical antecedents towards a better solution to the problem and the demarcation of necessary future perspectives for enhanced understanding of the issue.

  15. Assisted suicide and voluntary euthanasia: role contradictions for physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Fiona; Downie, Robin

    2010-08-01

    It is widely assumed by the general public that if assisted suicide (AS) or euthanasia (VE) were legalised doctors must be essentially involved in the whole process including prescribing the medication and (in euthanasia) administering it. This paper explores some reasons for this assumption and argues that it flatly contradicts what it means to be a doctor. The paper is thus not mainly concerned with the ethics of AS/VE but rather with the concept of a doctor that has evolved since the time of Hippocrates to current professional guidance reflected in healthcare law. The paper argues that the most common recent argument for AS/VE--that patients have a right to control when and how they die--in fact points to the involvement not of doctors but of legal agencies as decision makers plus technicians as agents.

  16. A minimalist legislative solution to the problem of euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komesaroff, Paul A; Charles, Stephen

    2015-05-18

    Intense debate has continued for many years about whether voluntary euthanasia or assisted suicide should be permitted by law. The community is bitterly divided and there has been vigorous opposition from medical practitioners and the Australian Medical Association. Despite differences of religious and philosophical convictions and ethical values, there is widespread community agreement that people with terminal illnesses are entitled to adequate treatment, and should also be allowed to make basic choices about when and how they die. A problem with the current law is that doctors who follow current best practice cannot be confident that they will be protected from criminal prosecution. We propose simple changes to Commonwealth and state legislation that recognise community concerns and protect doctors acting in accordance with best current practice. This minimalist solution should be widely acceptable to the community, including both the medical profession and those who object to euthanasia for religious reasons. Important areas of disagreement will persist that can be addressed in future debates.

  17. Euthanasia and common sense: a reply to Garcia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seay, Gary

    2011-06-01

    J. L. A. Garcia holds that my defense of voluntary euthanasia in an earlier paper amounts to an "assault on traditional common sense" about what medical ethics permits physicians to do, particularly insofar as I hold that a physician's duty to abstain from intentionally killing is only a defeasible duty, not an unconditional one. But I argue here that it is Garcia's views that are more at odds with common sense, and that voluntary euthanasia is in fact a humane alternative that respects patient autonomy and is consistent with the most fundamental moral duties of physicians. Among these is a duty to relieve suffering, which can sometimes outweigh the fundamental duty to conserve life.

  18. Neonatal euthanasia: A claim for an immoral law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanden Eijnden, Serge; Martinovici, Dana

    2013-06-01

    Active ending of the life of a newborn baby is a crime. Yet its clandestine practise is a reality in several European countries. In this paper, we defend the necessity to institute a proper legal frame for what we define as active neonatal euthanasia. The only legal attempt so far, the Dutch Groningen protocol, is not satisfactory. We critically analyse this protocol, as well as several other clinical practises and philosophical stances. Furthermore, we have tried to integrate our opinions as clinicians into a law project, with the purpose of pinpointing several issues, specific of perinatality that should be addressed by such a law. In conclusion, we argue that the legalisation of neonatal euthanasia under exceptional circumstances is the only way to avoid all the "well-intentioned" malpractices associated with ending life at the very dawn of it.

  19. The last phase of life: who requests and who receives euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D; Rurup, Mette L; Pasman, H Roeline W; van der Heide, Agnes

    2010-07-01

    When suffering becomes unbearable for patients they might request for euthanasia. To study which patients request for euthanasia and which requests actually resulted in euthanasia in relation with diagnosis, care setting at the end of life, and patient demographics. A cross-sectional study covering all Dutch health care settings. In 2005, of death certificates of deceased persons, a stratified sample was derived from the Netherlands central death registry. The attending physician received a written questionnaire (n = 6860; response 78%). If deaths were reported to have been nonsudden, the attending physician filled in a 4-page questionnaire on end-of-life decision-making. Data regarding the deceased person's age, sex, marital status, and cause of death were derived from the death certificate. Of patients whose death was nonsudden, 7% explicitly requested for euthanasia. In about two thirds, the request did not lead to euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide being performed, in 39% because the patient died before the request could be granted and in 38% because the physician thought the criteria for due care were not met. Factors positively associated with a patient requesting for euthanasia are (young) age, diagnosis (cancer, nervous system), place of death (home), and involvement of palliative teams and psychiatrist in care. Diagnosis and place of death are also associated with requests resulting in euthanasia. Only a minority of patients request euthanasia at the end of life and of these requests a majority is not granted. Careful decision-making is necessary in all requests for euthanasia.

  20. What influences intentions to request physician-assisted euthanasia or continuous deep sedation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrens, Anne-Lore; Roelands, Marc; Van den Block, Lieve; Deforche, Benedicte; Deliens, Luc; Cohen, Joachim

    2018-09-01

    The increasing prevalence of euthanasia in Belgium has been linked to changing attitudes. Using National health survey data (N = 9651), we investigated Belgian adults' intention to ask a physician for euthanasia or continuous deep sedation in the hypothetical scenario of a terminal illness and examined its connection to sociodemographic and health characteristics. Respectively, 38.3 and 25.8% could envisage asking for euthanasia and continuous deep sedation. Those with very bad to fair subjective health and with depression more likely had an intention to ask for euthanasia, which suggests need for attention in the evaluation of requests from specific patient groups.

  1. [Futile medical care and euthanasia in the opinion of professional nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renn-Zurek, Agnieszka

    2014-03-01

    Futile medical care and euthanasia are hard to assess unequivocally and are becoming a frequent topic of social discussion. The problem requires both ethical and moral consideration as well as legal regulations. As a medical issue it has got both its supporters and opponents. The aim of the study was to evaluate of nurses' attitudes and knowledge concerning euthanasia and persistend therapy. The survey group included 183 nurses aged 30-58. The diagnostic method poll was applied, the technique used was a questionnaire. Among the nurses participating in the survey, 83% is against providing futile medical care when it is known that it will not bring any effect, while increasing the suffering and prolonging dying. 45% of the respondents consider euthanasia unacceptable, 41% think that euthanasia could be performed in cases in which patient's suffering cannot be relieved. 49% of the surveyed think that euthanasia should remain strictly prohibited by the Polish law, while 31% think that Polish legal system should legalize euthanasia. The nurses are aware that futile medical care for terminally ill and dying patients does not lead to successful treatment but instead it prolongs dying and suffering, at the same time resulting in extremely high financial costs. In most cases they are advocates of its discontinuing. The surveyed nurses differ in their approach towards euthanasia, some of them supporting the idea, the other--opposing it. Most of them express the opinion that euthanasia should be forbidden in the Polish law and their personal approach towards euthanasia is negative.

  2. A comparison of attitudes toward euthanasia among medical students at two Polish universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppert, Wojciech; Gottwald, Leszek; Majkowicz, Mikolaj; Kazmierczak-Lukaszewicz, Sylwia; Forycka, Maria; Cialkowska-Rysz, Aleksandra; Kotlinska-Lemieszek, Aleksandra

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the study conducted upon completion of obligatory palliative medicine courses among 588 medical students at two universities was to compare their attitudes toward euthanasia. Four hundred ninety-two (84.97 %) students were Catholics; 69 (11.73 %) declared they would practice euthanasia, 303 (51.53 %) would not, and 216 students (36.73 %) were not sure. The idea of euthanasia legalisation was supported by 174 (29.59 %) respondents, opposed by 277 (47.11 %), and 137 (23.30 %) were undecided. Five hundred fifty-six (94.56 %) students did not change their attitudes toward euthanasia after palliative medicine courses. Students from the two universities were found to have different opinions on practicing euthanasia, euthanasia law and possible abuse which might follow euthanasia legalisation, but they shared similar views on the choice of euthanasia if they themselves were incurably ill and the legalisation of euthanasia. Gender and religion influenced students' answers. Differences observed between medical students at the two universities might be related to gender and cultural differences.

  3. Suffering and euthanasia: a qualitative study of dying cancer patients' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Marit; Milberg, Anna; Strang, Peter

    2012-05-01

    Although intolerable suffering is a core concept used to justify euthanasia, little is known about dying cancer patients' own interpretations and conclusions of suffering in relation to euthanasia. Sixty-six patients with cancer in a palliative phase were selected through maximum-variation sampling, and in-depth interviews were conducted on suffering and euthanasia. The interviews were analyzed using qualitative content analysis with no predetermined categories. The analysis demonstrated patients' different perspectives on suffering in connection to their attitude to euthanasia. Those advocating euthanasia, though not for themselves at the time of the study, did so due to (1) perceptions of suffering as meaningless, (2) anticipatory fears of losses and multi-dimensional suffering, or (3) doubts over the possibility of receiving help to alleviate suffering. Those opposing euthanasia did so due to (1) perceptions of life, despite suffering, as being meaningful, (2) trust in bodily or psychological adaptation to reduce suffering, a phenomenon personally experienced by informants, and (3) by placing trust in the provision of help and support by healthcare services to reduce future suffering. Dying cancer patients draw varying conclusions from suffering: suffering can, but does not necessarily, lead to advocations of euthanasia. Patients experiencing meaning and trust, and who find strategies to handle suffering, oppose euthanasia. In contrast, patients with anticipatory fears of multi-dimensional meaningless suffering and with lack of belief in the continuing availability of help, advocate euthanasia. This indicates a need for healthcare staff to address issues of trust, meaning, and anticipatory fears.

  4. Study of the effect on shelter cat intakes and euthanasia from a shelter neuter return project of 10,080 cats from March 2010 to June 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicirelli, Jon

    2014-01-01

    Cat impoundments were increasing at the municipal San Jose animal shelter in 2009, despite long-term successful low cost sterilization programs and attempts to lower the euthanasia rate of treatable-rehabilitatable impounds beginning in 2008. San Jose Animal Care and Services implemented a new strategy designed to control overall feral cat reproduction by altering and returning feral cats entering the shelter system, rather than euthanizing the cats. The purpose of this case study was to determine how the program affected the shelter cat intakes over time. In just over four years, 10,080 individual healthy adult feral cats, out of 11,423 impounded at the shelter during this time frame, were altered and returned to their site of capture. Included in the 11,423 cats were 862 cats impounded from one to four additional times for a total of 958 (9.5%) recaptures of the previously altered 10,080 cats. The remaining 385 healthy feral cats were euthanized at the shelter from March 2010 to June 2014. Four years into the program, researchers observed cat and kitten impounds decreased 29.1%; euthanasia decreased from over 70% of intakes in 2009, to 23% in 2014. Euthanasia in the shelter for Upper Respiratory Disease decreased 99%; dead cat pick up off the streets declined 20%. Dog impounds did not similarly decline over the four years. No other laws or program changes were implemented since the beginning of the program. PMID:25374785

  5. Study of the effect on shelter cat intakes and euthanasia from a shelter neuter return project of 10,080 cats from March 2010 to June 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L. Johnson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cat impoundments were increasing at the municipal San Jose animal shelter in 2009, despite long-term successful low cost sterilization programs and attempts to lower the euthanasia rate of treatable-rehabilitatable impounds beginning in 2008. San Jose Animal Care and Services implemented a new strategy designed to control overall feral cat reproduction by altering and returning feral cats entering the shelter system, rather than euthanizing the cats. The purpose of this case study was to determine how the program affected the shelter cat intakes over time. In just over four years, 10,080 individual healthy adult feral cats, out of 11,423 impounded at the shelter during this time frame, were altered and returned to their site of capture. Included in the 11,423 cats were 862 cats impounded from one to four additional times for a total of 958 (9.5% recaptures of the previously altered 10,080 cats. The remaining 385 healthy feral cats were euthanized at the shelter from March 2010 to June 2014. Four years into the program, researchers observed cat and kitten impounds decreased 29.1%; euthanasia decreased from over 70% of intakes in 2009, to 23% in 2014. Euthanasia in the shelter for Upper Respiratory Disease decreased 99%; dead cat pick up off the streets declined 20%. Dog impounds did not similarly decline over the four years. No other laws or program changes were implemented since the beginning of the program.

  6. Nursing Students' Attitudes Towards Euthanasia: A Study In Yozgat, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysegül Koç

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: In Turkish culture, death is an integral part of life. This study aims to examine perceptions andattitudes towards euthanasia among student nurses pursuing bachelor’s degrees. As part of the study, interviews wereconducted with 147 student nurses using a questionnaire.Methodology: This descriptive study was conducted after obtaining the required permits, with the participation of 147student nurses, who volunteered to participate.Results: In all, 147 of the 173 questionnaires were obtained. A total of 84.4% of the participants (n:124 were female; 32.7%were 1st year students (n:48, 23.1% were 2nd year students (n:34, 20.4% were 3rd year students (n:30, and 23.8% were 4thyear students (n:35. Question 1 asked student nurses to identify their sources of information about euthanasia prior tobeginning their university education. A total of 70.7% of the students responded to this question (n:104 and 29.3% failed torespond (n:43. A total of 10.2% of the students said their main source of information on euthanasia was their family/relatives(n:15, 49.2% of the students said it was media (TV, newspaper, etc., 31.3% said it was health workers (n:46, and 8.8% saidit was their own research (n:13.Conclusion: This study aimed to examine the views of student nurses on euthanasia. It seems to be the case that euthanasiaand its related concepts will continue to be sources of ethical dilemmas. Future studies should make use of larger sampleswith similar characteristics, and conduct in-depth interviews, particularly with nurses employed in intensive care units.

  7. Rational Suicide, Euthanasia, and the Very Old: Two Case Reports

    OpenAIRE

    Wand, Anne Pamela Frances; Peisah, Carmelle; Draper, Brian; Jones, Carolyn; Brodaty, Henry

    2016-01-01

    Suicide amongst the very old is an important public health issue. Little is known about why older people may express a wish to die or request euthanasia and how such thoughts may intersect with suicide attempts. Palliative care models promote best care as holistic and relieving suffering without hastening death in severely ill patients; but what of those old people who are tired of living and may have chronic symptoms, disability, and reduced quality of life? Two cases of older people who att...

  8. Register-based predictors of violations of animal welfare legislation in dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otten, Nina Dam; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Thomsen, P. T.

    2014-01-01

    AWL) defined as occurrence of at least one of the two most frequently violated measures found at recent inspections in Denmark, namely (a) presence of injured animals not separated from the rest of the group and/or (b) animals in a condition warranting euthanasia still being present in the herd. A total of 25...

  9. Dutch nurses' attitudes towards euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bruchem-van de Scheur, Ada; van der Arend, Arie; van Wijmen, Frans; Abu-Saad, Huda Huijer; ter Meulen, Ruud

    2008-03-01

    This article presents the attitudes of nurses towards three issues concerning their role in euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide. A questionnaire survey was conducted with 1509 nurses who were employed in hospitals, home care organizations and nursing homes. The study was conducted in the Netherlands between January 2001 and August 2004. The results show that less than half (45%) of nurses would be willing to serve on committees reviewing cases of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide. More than half of the nurses (58.2%) found it too far-reaching to oblige physicians to consult a nurse in the decision-making process. The majority of the nurses stated that preparing euthanatics (62.9%) and inserting an infusion needle to administer the euthanatics (54.1%) should not be accepted as nursing tasks. The findings are discussed in the context of common practices and policies in the Netherlands, and a recommendation is made not to include these three issues in new regulations on the role of nurses in euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide.

  10. Early dementia diagnosis and the risk of suicide and euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Brian; Peisah, Carmelle; Snowdon, John; Brodaty, Henry

    2010-01-01

    Diagnosis of dementia is occurring earlier, and much research concerns the identification of predementia states and the hunt for biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease. Reports of suicidal behavior and requests for euthanasia in persons with dementia may be increasing. We performed a selective literature review of suicide risk in persons with dementia and the ethical issues associated with euthanasia in this population. In the absence of any effective treatments for Alzheimer's disease or other types of dementia, there is already evidence that persons with mild cognitive change and early dementia are at risk of suicidal behavior, often in the context of comorbid depression. The ensuing clinical, ethical, and legal dilemmas associated with physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia in the context of dementia are a subject of intense debate. By analogy, the preclinical and early diagnoses of Huntington's disease are associated with an increased risk of suicidal behavior. Thus there is the potential for a preclinical and early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (through biomarkers, neuroimaging, and clinical assessment) to result in increased suicide risk and requests for physician-assisted suicide. Although dementia specialists have long recognized the importance of a sensitive approach to conveying bad news to patients and families and the possibility of depressive reactions, suicidal behavior has not been regarded as a likely outcome. Such preconceptions will need to change, and protocols to monitor and manage suicide risk will need to be developed for this population. 2010 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Moral differences in deep continuous palliative sedation and euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juth, Niklas; Lindblad, Anna; Lynöe, Niels; Sjöstrand, Manne; Helgesson, Gert

    2013-06-01

    In palliative care there is much debate about which end of life treatment strategies are legitimate and which are not. Some writers argue that there is an important moral dividing-line between palliative sedation and euthanasia, making the first acceptable and the latter not. We have questioned this. In a recent article, Lars Johan Materstvedt has argued that we are wrong on two accounts: first, that we fail to account properly for the moral difference between continuous deep palliative sedation at the end of life and euthanasia, and, second, that we fail to account properly for the difference between permanent loss of consciousness and death. Regarding the first objection, we argue that Materstvedt misses the point: we agree that there is a difference in terms of intentions between continuous deep palliative sedation and euthanasia, but we question whether this conceptual difference makes up for a moral difference. Materstvedt fails to show that it does. Regarding the second objection, we argue that if nothing else is at stake than the value of the patient's life, permanent unconsciousness and death are morally indifferent.

  12. Sigmund Freud: smoking habit, oral cancer and euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemo, W L

    2004-01-01

    Sigmund Freud, the father of modern psychoanalysis had a well-known love of the cigar. The natural progression of this vice was the development of oral cancer for which he underwent a lengthy ordeal. An account is given in this article of Sigmund Freud's illness and care following the diagnosis of his oral cancer. The role of euthanasia and physician assisted suicide is also discussed. A review of relevant literature on Sigmund Freud's illness, risk factors for oral cancer and euthanasia was undertaken. Sigmund Freud was a heavy smoker with a 20-cigar/day habit. In 1923, a diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma of the palate was made, for which he underwent a lengthy ordeal which span a total of 16 years. During this period, he bluntly refused to quit smoking. Freud consulted many specialists (otolaryngologists, oral and maxillofacial surgeons, prosthodontists and general surgeons), during the course of his ordeal with oral cancer. He underwent 34 surgical procedures before his eventual death in 1939 through euthanasia. Continued indulgence in smoking and procrastination on the part of Freud, as well as mediocrity, negligence and incompetence on the part of the first surgeon that operated on Freud, could partly be responsible for his lengthy ordeal.

  13. When is physician assisted suicide or euthanasia acceptable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frileux, S; Lelièvre, C; Muñoz Sastre, M T; Mullet, E; Sorum, P C

    2003-12-01

    To discover what factors affect lay people's judgments of the acceptability of physician assisted suicide and euthanasia and how these factors interact. Participants rated the acceptability of either physician assisted suicide or euthanasia for 72 patient vignettes with a five factor design--that is, all combinations of patient's age (three levels); curability of illness (two levels); degree of suffering (two levels); patient's mental status (two levels), and extent of patient's requests for the procedure (three levels). Convenience sample of 66 young adults, 62 middle aged adults, and 66 older adults living in western France. In accordance with the functional theory of cognition of N H Anderson, main effects, and interactions among patient factors and participants' characteristics were investigated by means of both graphs and ANOVA. Patient requests were the most potent determinant of acceptability. Euthanasia was generally less acceptable than physician assisted suicide, but this difference disappeared when requests were repetitive. As their own age increased, participants placed more weight on patient age as a criterion of acceptability. People's judgments concur with legislation to require a repetition of patients' requests for a life ending act. Younger people, who frequently are decision makers for elderly relatives, place less emphasis on patient's age itself than do older people.

  14. Attitudes toward euthanasia among doctors in a tertiary care hospital in South India: A cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sneha Kamath

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: A majority of the doctors in this study supported euthanasia for the relief of unbearable pain and suffering. Religion and speciality appear to be significant in determining attitudes toward euthanasia.

  15. Trust increases euthanasia acceptance: a multilevel analysis using the European Values Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köneke, Vanessa

    2014-12-20

    This study tests how various kinds of trust impact attitudes toward euthanasia among the general public. The indication that trust might have an impact on euthanasia attitudes is based on the slippery slope argument, which asserts that allowing euthanasia might lead to abuses and involuntary deaths. Adopting this argument usually leads to less positive attitudes towards euthanasia. Tying in with this, it is assumed here that greater trust diminishes such slippery slope fears, and thereby increases euthanasia acceptance. The effects of various trust indicators on euthanasia acceptance were tested using multilevel analysis, and data from the European Values Study 2008 (N = 49,114, 44 countries). More precisely, the influence of people's general levels of trust in other people, and their confidence in the health care system, were measured--both at the individual and at the country level. Confidence in the state and the press were accounted for as well, since both institutions might monitor and safeguard euthanasia practices. It was shown that the level of trust in a country was strongly positively linked to euthanasia attitudes, both for general trust and for confidence in health care. In addition, within countries, people who perceived their fellow citizens as trustworthy, and who had confidence in the press, were more supportive of euthanasia than their less trusting counterparts. The pattern was, however, not true for confidence in the state and for confidence in the health care system at the individual level. Notably, all confirmative effects held, even when other variables such as religiosity, education, and values regarding autonomy were controlled for. Trust seems to be a noteworthy construct to explain differences in attitudes towards euthanasia, especially when drawing cross-country comparisons. Therefore, it should be added to the existing literature on correlates of euthanasia attitudes.

  16. Voluntary euthanasia in Northern Ireland: general practitioners' beliefs, experiences, and actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlade, K J; Slaney, L; Bunting, B P; Gallagher, A G

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There has been much recent interest in the press and among the profession on the subject of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide. The BMA recently conducted a 'consensus conference' over the internet to collect views on physician-assisted suicide. Any surveys to date have addressed a variety of specialties; however, no recent surveys have looked at general practitioner (GP) attitudes and experiences. AIM: To explore the attitudes of GPs in Northern Ireland towards the issue of patient requests for euthanasia, their nature, and doctors' experiences of such requests. METHOD: An anonymous, confidential postal survey of all (1053) GP principals in Northern Ireland. RESULTS: Seventy per cent of responders believe that passive euthanasia is both morally and ethically acceptable. Fewer (49%) would be prepared to take part in passive euthanasia. However, over 70% of physicians responding consider physician-assisted suicide and voluntary active euthanasia to be wrong. Thirty per cent of responders have received requests from patients for euthanasia in the past five years. One hundred and seven doctors gave information about these requests. Thirty-nine out of 54 patient requests for passive euthanasia had been complied with, as had one of 19 requests for physician-assisted suicide and four out of 38 patient requests for active euthanasia. Doctors perceived the main reasons why patients sought euthanasia was because of fear of loss of dignity and fear of being a burden to others. CONCLUSIONS: While the majority of GPs support passive euthanasia, they, in common with those who approve of assisted suicide and active euthanasia, often express a reluctance to take part in such actions. This may reflect the moral, legal, and emotional dilemmas doctors encounter when facing end-of-life decisions. PMID:11127168

  17. Motivations of physicians and nurses to practice voluntary euthanasia: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vézina-Im, Lydi-Anne; Lavoie, Mireille; Krol, Pawel; Olivier-D'Avignon, Marianne

    2014-04-10

    While a number of reviews have explored the attitude of health professionals toward euthanasia, none of them documented their motivations to practice euthanasia. The objective of the present systematic review was to identify physicians' and nurses' motives for having the intention or for performing an act of voluntary euthanasia and compare findings from countries where the practice is legalized to those where it is not. The following databases were investigated: MEDLINE/PubMed (1950+), PsycINFO (1806+), CINAHL (1982+), EMBASE (1974+) and FRANCIS (1984+). Proquest Dissertations and Theses (1861+) was also investigated for gray literature. Additional studies were included by checking the references of the articles included in the systematic review as well as by looking at our personal collection of articles on euthanasia. This paper reviews a total of 27 empirical quantitative studies out of the 1 703 articles identified at the beginning. Five studies were in countries where euthanasia is legal and 22 in countries where it is not. Seventeen studies were targeting physicians, 9 targeted nurses and 1 both health professionals. Six studies identified the motivations underlying the intention to practice euthanasia, 16 the behavior itself and 5 both intention and behavior. The category of variables most consistently associated with euthanasia is psychological variables. All categories collapsed, the four variables most frequently associated with euthanasia are past behavior, medical specialty, whether the patient is depressed and the patient's life expectancy. The present review suggests that physicians and nurses are motivated to practice voluntary euthanasia especially when they are familiar with the act of euthanasia, when the patient does not have depressive symptoms and has a short life expectancy and their motivation varies according to their medical specialty. Additional studies among nurses and in countries where euthanasia is legal are needed.

  18. Motivations of physicians and nurses to practice voluntary euthanasia: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background While a number of reviews have explored the attitude of health professionals toward euthanasia, none of them documented their motivations to practice euthanasia. The objective of the present systematic review was to identify physicians’ and nurses’ motives for having the intention or for performing an act of voluntary euthanasia and compare findings from countries where the practice is legalized to those where it is not. Methods The following databases were investigated: MEDLINE/PubMed (1950+), PsycINFO (1806+), CINAHL (1982+), EMBASE (1974+) and FRANCIS (1984+). Proquest Dissertations and Theses (1861+) was also investigated for gray literature. Additional studies were included by checking the references of the articles included in the systematic review as well as by looking at our personal collection of articles on euthanasia. Results This paper reviews a total of 27 empirical quantitative studies out of the 1 703 articles identified at the beginning. Five studies were in countries where euthanasia is legal and 22 in countries where it is not. Seventeen studies were targeting physicians, 9 targeted nurses and 1 both health professionals. Six studies identified the motivations underlying the intention to practice euthanasia, 16 the behavior itself and 5 both intention and behavior. The category of variables most consistently associated with euthanasia is psychological variables. All categories collapsed, the four variables most frequently associated with euthanasia are past behavior, medical specialty, whether the patient is depressed and the patient’s life expectancy. Conclusions The present review suggests that physicians and nurses are motivated to practice voluntary euthanasia especially when they are familiar with the act of euthanasia, when the patient does not have depressive symptoms and has a short life expectancy and their motivation varies according to their medical specialty. Additional studies among nurses and in countries where

  19. Euthanasia in Belgium: trends in reported cases between 2003 and 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierickx, Sigrid; Deliens, Luc; Cohen, Joachim; Chambaere, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Background: In 2002, the Belgian Act on Euthanasia came into effect, regulating the intentional ending of life by a physician at the patient’s explicit request. We undertook this study to describe trends in officially reported euthanasia cases in Belgium with regard to patients’ sociodemographic and clinical profiles, as well as decision-making and performance characteristics. Methods: We used the database of all euthanasia cases reported to the Federal Control and Evaluation Committee on Euthanasia in Belgium between Jan. 1, 2003, and Dec. 31, 2013 (n = 8752). The committee collected these data with a standardized registration form. We analyzed trends in patient, decision-making and performance characteristics using a χ2 technique. We also compared and analyzed trends for cases reported in Dutch and in French. Results: The number of reported euthanasia cases increased every year, from 235 (0.2% of all deaths) in 2003 to 1807 (1.7% of all deaths) in 2013. The rate of euthanasia increased significantly among those aged 80 years or older, those who died in a nursing home, those with a disease other than cancer and those not expected to die in the near future (p euthanasia requests, beyond the legal requirements to do so (p euthanasia request (from 34.0% in 2003 to 42.6% in 2013). These trends were not significant for cases reported in French. Interpretation: Since legalization of euthanasia in Belgium, the number of reported cases has increased each year. Most of those receiving euthanasia were younger than 80 years and were dying of cancer. Given the increases observed among non–terminally ill and older patients, this analysis shows the importance of detailed monitoring of developments in euthanasia practice. PMID:27620630

  20. Comparison of intraosseous pentobarbital administration and thoracic compression for euthanasia of anesthetized sparrows (Passer domesticus) and starlings (Sturnus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul-Murphy, Joanne R; Engilis, Andrew; Pascoe, Peter J; Williams, D Colette; Gustavsen, Kate A; Drazenovich, Tracy L; Keel, M Kevin; Polley, Tamsen M; Engilis, Irene E

    2017-08-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare intraosseous pentobarbital treatment (IPT) and thoracic compression (TC) on time to circulatory arrest and an isoelectric electroencephalogram (EEG) in anesthetized passerine birds. ANIMALS 30 wild-caught adult birds (17 house sparrows [Passer domesticus] and 13 European starlings [Sturnus vulgaris]). PROCEDURES Birds were assigned to receive IPT or TC (n = 6/species/group). Birds were anesthetized, and carotid arterial pulses were monitored by Doppler methodology. Five subdermal braided-wire electrodes were used for EEG. Anesthetic depth was adjusted until a continuous EEG pattern was maintained, then euthanasia was performed. Times from initiation of euthanasia to cessation of carotid pulse and irreversible isoelectric EEG (indicators of death) were measured. Data (medians and first to third quartiles) were summarized and compared between groups within species. Necropsies were performed for all birds included in experiments and for another 6 birds euthanized under anesthesia by TC (4 sparrows and 1 starling) or IPT (1 sparrow). RESULTS Median time to isoelectric EEG did not differ significantly between treatment groups for sparrows (19.0 and 6.0 seconds for TC and IPT, respectively) or starlings (88.5 and 77.5 seconds for TC and IPT, respectively). Median times to cessation of pulse were significantly shorter for TC than for IPT in sparrows (0.0 vs 18.5 seconds) and starlings (9.5 vs 151.0 seconds). On necropsy, most (14/17) birds that underwent TC had grossly visible coelomic, pericardial, or perihepatic hemorrhage. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that TC might be an efficient euthanasia method for small birds. Digital pressure directly over the heart during TC obstructed venous return, causing rapid circulatory arrest, with rupture of the atria or vena cava in several birds. The authors propose that cardiac compression is a more accurate description than TC for this procedure.

  1. Physiologic, Behavioral, and Histologic Responses to Various Euthanasia Methods in C57BL/6NTac Male Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, Gregory P; Bottomley, Michael A; Schiml, Patricia A; Goss, Lori; Grobe, Nadja

    2017-01-01

    Rodent euthanasia using exposure to increasing concentrations of CO2 has come under scrutiny due to concerns of potential pain during the euthanasia process. Alternatives to CO2, such as isoflurane and barbiturates, have been proposed as more humane methods of euthanasia. In this study, we examined 3 commonly used euthanasia methods in mice: intraperitoneal injection of pentobarbital–phenytoin solution, CO2 inhalation, and isoflurane anesthesia followed by CO2 inhalation. We hypothesized that pentobarbital–phenytoin euthanasia would cause fewer alterations in cardiovascular response, result in less behavioral evidence of pain or stress, and produce lower elevations in ACTH than would the isoflurane and CO2 methods, which we hypothesized would not differ in regard to these parameters. ACTH data suggested that pentobarbital–phenytoin euthanasia may be less stressful to mice than are isoflurane and CO2 euthanasia. Cardiovascular, behavioral, and activity data did not consistently or significantly support isoflurane or pentobarbital–phenytoin euthanasia as less stressful methods than CO2. Euthanasia with CO2 was the fastest method of the 3 techniques. Therefore, we conclude that using CO2 with or without isoflurane is an acceptable euthanasia method. Pathologic alterations in the lungs were most severe with CO2 euthanasia, and alternative euthanasia techniques likely are better suited for studies that rely on analysis of the lungs. PMID:28905718

  2. Euthanasia of neonatal mice with carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchett, K.; Corrow, D.; Stockwell, J.; Smith, A.

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to carbon dioxide (CO2) is the most prevalent method used to euthanize rodents in biomedical research. The purpose of this study was to determine the time of CO2 exposure required to euthanize neonatal mice (0 to 10 days old). Multiple groups of mice were exposed to 100% CO 2 for time periods between 5 and 60 min. Mice were placed in room air for 10 or 20 min after CO2 exposure, to allow for the chance of recovery. If mice recovered at one time point, a longer exposure was examined. Inbred and outbred mice were compared. Results of the study indicated that time to death varied with the age of the animals and could be as long as 50 min on the day of birth and differed between inbred and outbred mice. Institutions euthanizing neonatal mice with CO2 may wish to adjust their CO 2 exposure time periods according the age of the mice and their genetic background. Copyright 2005 by the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science.

  3. Invited commentary on … When unbearable suffering incites psychiatric patients to request euthanasia: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Steve

    2017-10-01

    Although the paper in this issue by Verhofstadt et al sheds some light on the features of unbearable suffering stemming from psychiatric disorder leading to a request for euthanasia, this is limited. The bulk of the paper illustrates the particular ethical challenges posed by the policy of making euthanasia available in these circumstances. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017.

  4. Review of CO₂ as a Euthanasia Agent for Laboratory Rats and Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, Gregory P; Hickman, Debra L; Creamer-Hente, Michelle A; Pritchett-Corning, Kathleen R; Bratcher, Natalie A

    2017-09-01

    Selecting an appropriate, effective euthanasia agent is controversial. Several recent publications provide clarity on the use of CO2 in laboratory rats and mice. This review examines previous studies on CO2 euthanasia and presents the current body of knowledge on the subject. Potential areas for further investigation and recommendations are provided.

  5. EUTHANASIA DALAM PERSPEKTIF HUKUM PIDANA, ETIKA PROFESI KEDOKTERAN DAN HAK ASASI MANUSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Tri Hastuti

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Euthanasia is an actual issue, that has been a long debate either law or medical world Does a medical doctor permitted to end a patients life, upon the request of a desperate patient because of the long, incurable disease? It is dilemma, indeed but anyhow euthanasia is strongly prohibited in KUHR medical ethics, and against the human rights.

  6. The Groningen Protocol for newborn euthanasia; which way did the slippery slope tilt?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, A. A. Eduard

    In The Netherlands, neonatal euthanasia has become a legal option and the Groningen Protocol contains an approach to identify situations in which neonatal euthanasia might be appropriate. In the 5 years following the publication of the protocol, neither the prediction that this would be the first

  7. The right to live or die? A perspective on voluntary euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Amber; Mushtaq, Ammara

    2014-09-01

    "It is choice alone that is being honored, without regards for what is chosen." The debate on euthanasia in medical community stays unresolved. In this manuscript, we present arguments for and against euthanasia, review arguments from both the sides and conclude it with our opinion.

  8. Perception of palliative care and euthanasia among recently graduated and experienced nurses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brzostek, T.; Dekkers, W.J.M.; Zalewski, Z.; Januszewska, A.; Gorkiewicz, M.

    2008-01-01

    Palliative care and euthanasia have become the subject of ethical and political debate in Poland. However, the voice of nurses is rarely heard. The aim of this study is to explore the perception of palliative care and euthanasia among recent university bachelor degree graduates and experienced

  9. News media coverage of euthanasia: a content analysis of Dutch national newspapers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietjens, J.A.C.; Raijmakers, N.J.; Kouwenhoven, P.S.C.; Seale, C.; van Thiel, G.J.M.W.; Trappenburg, M.J.; van Delden, J.J.M.; van der Heide, A.

    2013-01-01

    Background The Netherlands is one of the few countries where euthanasia is legal under strict conditions. This study investigates whether Dutch newspaper articles use the term ‘euthanasia’ according to the legal definition and determines what arguments for and against euthanasia they contain.

  10. Review of CO2 as a Euthanasia Agent for Laboratory Rats and Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, Gregory P; Hickman, Debra L; Creamer-Hente, Michelle A; Pritchett-Corning, Kathleen R; Bratcher, Natalie A

    2017-01-01

    Selecting an appropriate, effective euthanasia agent is controversial. Several recent publications provide clarity on the use of CO2 in laboratory rats and mice. This review examines previous studies on CO2 euthanasia and presents the current body of knowledge on the subject. Potential areas for further investigation and recommendations are provided. PMID:28903819

  11. Attitudes towards euthanasia and assisted suicide: a comparison between psychiatrists and other physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Tal Bergman; Azar, Shlomi; Huberfeld, Ronen; Siegel, Andrew M; Strous, Rael D

    2013-09-01

    Euthanasia and physician assisted-suicide are terms used to describe the process in which a doctor of a sick or disabled individual engages in an activity which directly or indirectly leads to their death. This behavior is engaged by the healthcare provider based on their humanistic desire to end suffering and pain. The psychiatrist's involvement may be requested in several distinct situations including evaluation of patient capacity when an appeal for euthanasia is requested on grounds of terminal somatic illness or when the patient is requesting euthanasia due to mental suffering. We compare attitudes of 49 psychiatrists towards euthanasia and assisted suicide with a group of 54 other physicians by means of a questionnaire describing different patients, who either requested physician-assisted suicide or in whom euthanasia as a treatment option was considered, followed by a set of questions relating to euthanasia implementation. When controlled for religious practice, psychiatrists expressed more conservative views regarding euthanasia than did physicians from other medical specialties. Similarly female physicians and orthodox physicians indicated more conservative views. Differences may be due to factors inherent in subspecialty education. We suggest that in light of the unique complexity and context of patient euthanasia requests, based on their training and professional expertise psychiatrists are well suited to take a prominent role in evaluating such requests to die and making a decision as to the relative importance of competing variables. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Treatment or Involuntary Euthanasia for Severely Handicapped Newborns: Issues of Philosophy and Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, T. Hennessy; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Recent reports have indicated that parents and/or physicians occasionally decide not to provide life-sustaining treatment (referred to as involuntary euthanasia), thus ensuring that the severely handicapped newborn will die. The issues involved relative to treatment or involuntary euthanasia are reviewed from two opposing perspectives…

  13. Attitudes towards euthanasia among Greek intensive care unit physicians and nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranidiotis, Georgios; Ropa, Julia; Mprianas, John; Kyprianou, Theodoros; Nanas, Serafim

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the attitudes of Greek intensive care unit (ICU) medical and nursing staff towards euthanasia. ICU physicians and nurses deal with end-of-life dilemmas on a daily basis. Therefore, the exploration of their stances on euthanasia is worthwhile. This was a descriptive quantitative study conducted in three ICUs in Athens. The convenience sample included 39 physicians and 107 nurses. Of respondents, 52% defined euthanasia inaccurately, as withholding or withdrawal of treatment, while 15% ranked limitation of life-support among the several forms of euthanasia, together with active shortening of the dying process and physician - assisted suicide. Only one third of participants defined euthanasia correctly. While 59% of doctors and 64% of nurses support the legalization of active euthanasia, just 28% and 26% of them, respectively, agree with it ethically. Confusion prevails among Greek ICU physicians and nurses regarding the definition of euthanasia. The majority of staff disagrees with active euthanasia, but upholds its legalization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Debreather: A Report on Euthanasia and Suicide Assistance Using Adapted Scuba Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Russel D.

    2010-01-01

    In response to the general prohibition of euthanasia and assisted suicide, some right-to-die activists have developed non-medical methods to covertly hasten death. One such method is a "debreather," a closed system breathing device that laypersons can use to induce hypoxia for persons seeking euthanasia or assisted suicide. This article presents…

  15. Expressed wishes and incidence of euthanasia in advanced lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardon, Koen; Deschepper, Reginald; Vander Stichele, Robert; Bernheim, Jan L; Mortier, Freddy; Schallier, Denis; Germonpré, Paul; Galdermans, Daniella; Van Kerckhoven, Willem; Deliens, Luc

    2012-10-01

    This study explores expressed wishes and requests for euthanasia (i.e. administration of lethal drugs at the explicit request of the patient), and incidence of end-of-life decisions with possible life-shortening effects (ELDs) in advanced lung cancer patients in Flanders, Belgium. We performed a prospective, longitudinal, observational study of a consecutive sample of advanced lung cancer patients and selected those who died within 18 months of diagnosis. Immediately after death, the pulmonologist/oncologist and general practitioner (GP) of the patient filled in a questionnaire. Information was available for 105 out of 115 deaths. According to the specialist or GP, one in five patients had expressed a wish for euthanasia; and three in four of these had made an explicit and repeated request. One in two of these received euthanasia. Of the patients who had expressed a wish for euthanasia but had not made an explicit and repeated request, none received euthanasia. Patients with a palliative treatment goal at inclusion were more likely to receive euthanasia. Death was preceded by an ELD in 62.9% of patients. To conclude, advanced lung cancer patients who expressed a euthanasia wish were often determined. Euthanasia was performed significantly more among patients whose treatment goal after diagnosis was exclusively palliative.

  16. Nurses' attitudes towards euthanasia: a cross-sectional study in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseh, Ladan; Rafiei, Hossein; Heidari, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Nurses have an important role in caring for terminally ill patients. They are often confronted with euthanasia but little is known about their attitudes towards it. The present study aimed to examine Iranian Muslim nurses' attitudes towards euthanasia. In this exploratory cross-sectional study, all qualified registered nurses working in two teaching hospitals (Kashani and Hajar hospitals) in Iran were invited to participate. The Euthanasia Attitude Scale (EAS) was used to assess the nurses' attitude towards euthanasia. Of 266 nurses who fit the criteria, 190 participated in the study (response rate 72.9%); 91.1% (n=173) were female and 8.9% (n=17) were male. In total, 57.4%, 3.2% and 39.5% of nurses reported a negative, neutral and positive attitude to euthanasia respectively. Nurses reported their most negative attitude to the domain 'practical consideration' with mean of 2.36±0.9 and most positive attitude to the domain 'treasuring life' with a mean EAS score of 2.85±0.4. The majority of Muslim nurses were found to have negative attitudes to euthanasia. We recommend that future studies should be conducted to examine Muslim nurses' attitudes to euthanasia in different cultures to determine the role of culture and religious beliefs in attitude to euthanasia.

  17. Attitudes towards, and wishes for, euthanasia in advanced cancer patients at a palliative medicine unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Sissel; Hølen, Jacob Chr; Kaasa, Stein; Loge, Håvard Jon; Materstvedt, Lars Johan

    2005-09-01

    Most studies on attitudes towards euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide (PAS) have been conducted in healthy populations. The aim of this study is to explore and describe attitudes towards, and wishes for, euthanasia/PAS in cancer patients with short life expectancy. Semi-structured interviews with 18 cancer patients with a life expectancy of less than nine months. All patients were recruited from an inpatient palliative medicine unit. Patients holding a positive attitude towards euthanasia/PAS do not necessarily want euthanasia/PAS for themselves. Wishes are different from requests for euthanasia/PAS. Fear of future pain and a painful death were the main reasons given for a possible wish for euthanasia/PAS. Worries about minimal quality of life and lack of hope also contributed to such thoughts. Wishes for euthanasia/PAS were hypothetical; they were future oriented and with a prerequisite that intense pain, lack of quality of life and/or hope had to be present. Additionally, wishes were fluctuating and ambivalent. The wish to die in these patients does not seem to be constant. Rather, this wish is more appropriately seen as an ambivalent and fluctuating mental 'solution' for the future. Health care providers should be aware of this when responding to utterances regarding euthanasia/PAS.

  18. Trends in acceptance of euthanasia among the general public in 12 European countries (1981-1999).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joachim; Marcoux, Isabelle; Bilsen, Johan; Deboosere, Patrick; van der Wal, Gerrit; Deliens, Luc

    2006-12-01

    We wanted to examine how the acceptance of euthanasia among the general public in Western Europe has changed in the last decades, and we wanted to look for possible explanations. We analysed data from the European Values Surveys, held in 1981, 1990, and 1999-2000 in 12 West European countries. In each country, representative samples of the general public were interviewed using the same structured questionnaire in all countries. Euthanasia was explained in the questionnaires as 'terminating the life of the incurably sick'. A total of 46 199 respondents participated in the surveys. A significant increase in acceptance of euthanasia could be observed in all countries except (West) Germany. While the average increase in euthanasia acceptance was 22%, the increase was particularly obvious in Belgium, Italy, Spain, and Sweden. Although changes in several characteristics of respondents, such as decrease in religious beliefs, rising belief in the right to self-determination, and (to a lesser extent) rise in levels of education, were associated with growing acceptance of euthanasia, they could only partly explain the increase of euthanasia acceptance over the years. An increase of euthanasia acceptance among the general public took place over the last two decades in almost all West European countries, possibly indicating a growing support for personal autonomy regarding medical end-of-life decisions. If this trend continues, it is likely to increase the public and political debate about the (legal) regulation of euthanasia under certain conditions of careful medical practice in several West European countries.

  19. [Euthanasia in Europe--ten countries with special consideration of the Netherlands and Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernstedt, T; Mohr, M; Kettler, D

    2000-04-01

    This article presents an overview of the current situation of euthanasia in Europe. Emphasis is given to the positions discussed in the Netherlands and in Germany. The current situation, the development of the legal positions, and the resulting debate are established by analysing English and German anesthesiological and medical-ethical journals. It has to be noted that many physicians are not satisfied with the terminology of euthanasia. The traditional concepts of euthanasia do not cover the aspect of accompanying terminally ill persons until they have died. The differentiation of active, passive, and indirect euthanasia does not correspond to the practical handling of the problem. Many physicians are in need of an open discussion of euthanasia-related issues. The way euthanasia is practiced in the Netherlands has strongly influenced the further development of the debate in Europe. Even though the Dutch model is rejected by the jurisdications of virtually all other countries, and official statements of medical corporations stick to the disapproval of active euthanasia, studies examining the attitudes towards euthanasia and the treatment of it in daily routine show that active interventions to shorten life are performed to different degrees outside of the Netherlands as well.

  20. News media coverage of euthanasia: a content analysis of Dutch national newspapers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietjens, J.A.C.; Raijmakers, N.J.H.; Kouwenhoven, P.S.C.; Seale, C.; van Thiel, G.J.M.W.; Trappenburg, M.; van Delden, J.J.M.; van der Heide, A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Netherlands is one of the few countries where euthanasia is legal under strict conditions. This study investigates whether Dutch newspaper articles use the term ‘euthanasia’ according to the legal definition and determines what arguments for and against euthanasia they contain.

  1. News media coverage of euthanasia: a content analysis of Dutch national newspapers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietjens, J.A.C.; Raijmakers, N.J.H.; Kouwenhoven, P.S.C.; Seale, C.; Thiel, G.J.M.W. van; Trappenburg, M.; Delden, J.J.M. van; Heide, A. van der

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Netherlands is one of the few countries where euthanasia is legal under strict conditions. This study investigates whether Dutch newspaper articles use the term ‘euthanasia’ according to the legal definition and determines what arguments for and against euthanasia they contain.

  2. The medical practice of euthanasia in Belgium and The Netherlands: legal notification, control and evaluation procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smets, T.; Bilsen, J.J.; Cohen, J.; Rurup, M.L.; Keyser, E.; Deliens, L.H.J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe and compare current legal procedures for notifying, controlling and evaluating (NCE-procedures) euthanasia in Belgium and the Netherlands, and to discuss the implications for a safe and controllable euthanasia practice. METHODS: We systematically studied and compared official

  3. A Comparative Study on Permissiveness Toward Euthanasia. Religiosity, Slippery Slope, Autonomy, and Death with Dignity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbakel, C.M.C.; Jaspers, E.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores explanations for the approval of euthanasia by assessing differences among individuals and countries, using four main arguments used by opponents and proponents in the public debate over euthanasia. We performed multilevel analysis on data from thirty-three countries, obtained

  4. A comparative study on permissiveness towards euthanasia : religiosity, slippery slope, autonomy, and death with dignity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbakel, E.; Jaspers, E.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores explanations for the approval of euthanasia by assessing differences among individuals and countries, using four main arguments used by opponents and proponents in the public debate over euthanasia. We performed multilevel analysis on data from thirtythree countries, obtained

  5. The Nazi Physicians as Leaders in Eugenics and "Euthanasia": Lessons for Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grodin, Michael A; Miller, Erin L; Kelly, Johnathan I

    2018-01-01

    This article, in commemoration of the 70th anniversary of the Doctors' Trial at Nuremberg, reflects on the Nazi eugenics and "euthanasia" programs and their relevance for today. The Nazi doctors used eugenic ideals to justify sterilizations, child and adult "euthanasia," and, ultimately, genocide. Contemporary euthanasia has experienced a progression from voluntary to nonvoluntary and from passive to active killing. Modern eugenics has included both positive and negative selective activities. The 70th anniversary of the Doctors' Trial at Nuremberg provides an important opportunity to reflect on the implications of the Nazi eugenics and "euthanasia" programs for contemporary health law, bioethics, and human rights. In this article, we will examine the role that health practitioners played in the promotion and implementation of State-sponsored eugenics and "euthanasia" in Nazi Germany, followed by an exploration of contemporary parallels and debates in modern bioethics. 1 .

  6. [Organ donation after active euthanasia in a patient with a neurodegenerative disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Gert; Giezeman, Ariane; Ultee, Fred; Hamers, Raoul

    2013-01-01

    In countries where active euthanasia by a physician is allowed under law - Belgium and the Netherlands - physicians are sometimes confronted with patients who want to donate organs after active euthanasia has been performed. This combination of procedures has been reported in Belgium, and this article is the first description of such a case in the Netherlands. It concerns a patient with a neurodegenerative disease who donated organs after euthanasia. The combination of two complex and controversial procedures - active euthanasia and organ donation - raises important ethical, legal and practical issues. It is suggested that with a thorough preparation and a strict separation of both procedures, organ donation after active euthanasia can strengthen patient autonomy and increase the number of donated organs.

  7. Attitudes Toward Euthanasia for Patients Who Suffer From Physical or Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Kfir; Bradley, Graham L; Duffy, Amanda

    2018-01-01

    This study examined whether attitudes toward euthanasia vary with type of illness and with the source of the desire to end the patient's life. The study used a 3 (illness type: cancer, schizophrenia, depression) × 2 (euthanasia type: patient-initiated, family-initiated) between-groups experimental design. An online questionnaire was administered to 324 employees and students from a Australian public university following random assignment of participants to one of the six vignette-based conditions. Attitudes toward euthanasia were more positive for patients with a physical illness than a mental illness. For a patient with cancer or depression, but not schizophrenia, approval was greater for patient-, than, family-, initiated euthanasia. Relationships between illness type and attitudes were mediated by perceptions of patient autonomy and illness controllability. Findings have implications for debate, practices, and legislation regarding euthanasia.

  8. Technical brief: a comparison of two methods of euthanasia on retinal dopamine levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Christopher K; Iuvone, P Michael

    2013-01-01

    Mice are commonly used in biomedical research, and euthanasia is an important part of mouse husbandry. Approved, humane methods of euthanasia are designed to minimize the potential for pain or discomfort, but may also influence the measurement of experimental variables. We compared the effects of two approved methods of mouse euthanasia on the levels of retinal dopamine. We examined the level of retinal dopamine, a commonly studied neuromodulator, following euthanasia by carbon dioxide (CO₂)-induced asphyxiation or by cervical dislocation. We found that the level of retinal dopamine in mice euthanized through CO₂ overdose substantially differed from that in mice euthanized through cervical dislocation. The use of CO₂ as a method of euthanasia could result in an experimental artifact that could compromise results when studying labile biologic processes.

  9. Cultural differences affecting euthanasia practice in Belgium: one law but different attitudes and practices in Flanders and Wallonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joachim; Van Wesemael, Yanna; Smets, Tinne; Bilsen, Johan; Deliens, Luc

    2012-09-01

    Since 2002, Belgium has had a national law legalising euthanasia. The law prescribes several substantive due care requirements and two procedural due care requirements, i.e. consultation with an independent physician and reporting of euthanasia to a Federal Control Committee. A large discrepancy in reporting rates between the Dutch-speaking (Flanders) and the French-speaking (Wallonia) parts of Belgium has led to speculation about cultural differences affecting the practice of euthanasia in both regions. Using Belgian data from the European Values Study conducted in 2008 among a representative sample of the general public and data from a large-scale mail questionnaire survey on euthanasia of 480 physicians from Flanders and 305 from Wallonia (conducted in 2009), this study presents empirical evidence of differences between both regions in attitudes towards and practice of euthanasia. Acceptance of euthanasia by the general population was found to be slightly higher in Flanders than in Wallonia. Compared with their Flemish counterparts, Walloon physicians held more negative attitudes towards performing euthanasia and towards the reporting obligation, less often labelled hypothetical cases correctly as euthanasia, and less often defined a case of euthanasia having to be reported. A higher proportion of Flemish physicians had received a euthanasia request since the introduction of the law. In cases of a euthanasia request, Walloon physicians consulted less often with an independent physician. Requests were more often granted in Flanders than in Wallonia (51% vs 38%), and performed euthanasia cases were more often reported (73% vs 58%). The study points out some significant differences between Flanders and Wallonia in practice, knowledge and attitudes regarding euthanasia and its legal requirements which are likely to explain the discrepancy between Wallonia and Flanders in the number of euthanasia cases reported. Cultural factors seem to play an important role in the

  10. Prevalence of depression in granted and refused requests for euthanasia and assisted suicide: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levene, Ilana; Parker, Michael

    2011-04-01

    There is an established link between depression and interest in hastened death in patients who are seriously ill. Concern exists over the extent of depression in patients who actively request euthanasia/physician-assisted suicide (PAS) and those who have their requests granted. To estimate the prevalence of depression in refused and granted requests for euthanasia/PAS and discuss these findings. Methods A systematic review was performed in MEDLINE and PsycINFO in July 2010, identifying studies reporting rates of depression in requests for and cases of euthanasia/PAS. One author critically appraised the strength of the data using published criteria. 21 studies were included covering four countries. There was considerable heterogeneity in methods of assessing depression and selecting patients. In the highest quality studies, in the Netherlands and Oregon, 8-47% of patients requesting euthanasia/PAS had depressive symptoms and 2-17% of completed euthanasia/PAS cases had depressive symptoms. In the Netherlands, depression was significantly higher in refused than granted requests, and there was no significant difference in the rate of depression between euthanasia cases and similar patients who had not made a request for euthanasia. It is unclear whether depression increases the probability of making a request for euthanasia/PAS, but in the Netherlands most requests in depressed patients are rejected, leaving a depression rate in cases that is similar to the surrounding population. Less evidence is available elsewhere, but some level of depression has been identified in patients undergoing euthanasia/PAS in all the countries studied. Whether the presence of depression is ever compatible with an ethical decision on euthanasia/PAS is discussed.

  11. News media coverage of euthanasia: a content analysis of Dutch national newspapers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The Netherlands is one of the few countries where euthanasia is legal under strict conditions. This study investigates whether Dutch newspaper articles use the term ‘euthanasia’ according to the legal definition and determines what arguments for and against euthanasia they contain. Methods We did an electronic search of seven Dutch national newspapers between January 2009 and May 2010 and conducted a content analysis. Results Of the 284 articles containing the term ‘euthanasia’, 24% referred to practices outside the scope of the law, mostly relating to the forgoing of life-prolonging treatments and assistance in suicide by others than physicians. Of the articles with euthanasia as the main topic, 36% described euthanasia in the context of a terminally ill patient, 24% for older persons, 16% for persons with dementia, and 9% for persons with a psychiatric disorder. The most frequent arguments for euthanasia included the importance of self-determination and the fact that euthanasia contributes to a good death. The most frequent arguments opposing euthanasia were that suffering should instead be alleviated by better care, that providing euthanasia can be disturbing, and that society should protect the vulnerable. Conclusions Of the newspaper articles, 24% uses the term ‘euthanasia’ for practices that are outside the scope of the euthanasia law. Typically, the more unusual cases are discussed. This might lead to misunderstandings between citizens and physicians. Despite the Dutch legalisation of euthanasia, the debate about its acceptability and boundaries is ongoing and both sides of the debate are clearly represented. PMID:23497284

  12. Minors and euthanasia: a systematic review of argument-based ethics literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuman, Giulia; Gastmans, Chris

    2017-07-01

    Euthanasia was first legalised in the Netherlands in 2002, followed by similar legislation in Belgium the same year. Since the beginning, however, only the Netherlands included the possibility for minors older than 12 years to request euthanasia. In 2014, the Belgian Act legalising euthanasia was amended to include requests by minors who possess the capacity of discernment. This amendment sparked great debate, and raised difficult ethical questions about when and how a minor can be deemed competent. We conducted a systematic review of argument-based literature on euthanasia in minors. The search process followed PRISMA guidelines. Thirteen publications were included. The four-principle approach of medical ethics was used to organise the ethical arguments underlying this debate. The justification for allowing euthanasia in minors is buttressed mostly by the principles of beneficence and respect for autonomy. Somewhat paradoxically, both principles are also used in the literature to argue against the extension of legislation to minors. Opponents of euthanasia generally rely on the principle of non-maleficence. The present analysis reveals that the debate surrounding euthanasia in minors is at an early stage. In order to allow a more in-depth ethical discussion, we suggest enriching the four-principle approach by including a care-ethics approach. What is Known: • The Netherlands and Belgium are the only two countries in the world with euthanasia legislation making it possible for minors to receive euthanasia. • This legislation provoked great debate globally, with ethical arguments for and against this legislation. What is New: • A systematic description of the ethical concepts and arguments grounding the debate on euthanasia in minors, as reported in the argument-based ethics literature. • A need has been identified to enrich the debate with a care-ethics approach to avoid oversimplifying the ethical decision-making process.

  13. Attitudes of young neurosurgeons and neurosurgical residents towards euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekman, M L D; Verlooy, J S A

    2013-11-01

    Euthanasia and physician assisted suicide (PAS) are two controversial topics in neurosurgical practice. Personal attitudes and opinions on these important issues may vary between professionals, and may also depend on their location since current legislation differs between European countries. As these issues may have significant impact on clinical practice, the goal of the present study was to survey the opinions of neurosurgical residents and young neurosurgeons across Europe with respect to euthanasia and physician assisted suicide. We performed a survey among the participants of the European Association of Neurosurgical Societies (EANS) training courses (2011-2012), asking residents and young neurosurgeons nine questions on euthanasia and PAS. For the analysis of this survey, we divided all 295 participants into four European regions (North, South, East, West). We found that even though most residents are aware of regulations about euthanasia or PAS in their country or hospital, a substantial number were not aware of the regulations. We observed no significant differences in terms of their opinions on euthanasia and PAS among the four European regions. While most are actually in favor of euthanasia or PAS, if legally allowed, under appropriate circumstances, very few neurosurgeons would be willing to actively participate in these end-of-life practices. The results of this first survey on neurosurgical residents' attitudes towards euthanasia and PAS show that a significant number of residents is not familiar with national and/or local regulations regarding euthanasia and PAS. If legally allowed, most residents would be in favor of euthanasia and PAS, but only a minority would be willing to actively participate in these practices. We did not observe a difference in stances on euthanasia and PAS among residents from different regions in Europe.

  14. Prevalence and content of written ethics policies on euthanasia in Catholic healthcare institutions in Belgium (Flanders).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastmans, Chris; Lemiengre, Joke; van der Wal, Gerrit; Schotsmans, Paul; Dierckx de Casterlé, Bernadette

    2006-04-01

    Euthanasia is performed worldwide, regardless of the existence of laws governing it. Belgium became the second country in the world to enact a law on euthanasia in 2002. Healthcare institutions bear responsibility for guaranteeing the quality of care for patients at the end of life, and for ensuring support for caregivers involved. Therefore, institutional ethics policies on end-of-life decision-making, especially on euthanasia, may be useful. A cross-sectional mail survey of general directors of Catholic hospitals and nursing homes in Belgium was used to describe the prevalence and content of written ethics policies for competent terminally ill, incompetent terminally ill, and non-terminally ill patients. Of the 298 targeted institutions, 81% of hospitals and 62% of nursing homes returned complete questionnaires. Of these, 79% of hospitals and 30% of nursing homes had a written ethics policy on euthanasia. Of hospitals 83% and of nursing homes 85% permitted euthanasia for competent terminally ill patients only in exceptional cases in accordance with legal due care criteria and provisions outlined by the palliative filter procedure. Euthanasia for incompetent terminally ill patients was prohibited by 27% of the hospitals and by 60% of the nursing homes. For non-terminally ill patients, these figures were 43 and 64%, respectively. Catholic healthcare institutions in Belgium (Flanders) made great efforts to develop written ethics policies on euthanasia. Only a small group of institutions completely prohibited euthanasia. Most of the institutions considered euthanasia to be an option if all possible alternatives (e.g., palliative filter procedure, which contains more rigorous criteria than those in the Belgian Euthanasia Act), have been thoroughly investigated.

  15. The Use of a Mechanical Non-Penetrating Captive Bolt Device for the Euthanasia of Neonate Lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grist, Andrew; Lines, Jeff A; Knowles, Toby G; Mason, Charles W; Wotton, Stephen B

    2018-04-02

    A non-penetrating captive bolt device, powered by a 1-grain 0.22″ cartridge delivering a calculated kinetic energy of 47 Joules was tested as a euthanasia method on 200 neonate lambs (Ovis aries) of 4.464 kg (SD (Standard deviation) ± 1.056) mean dead weight, to assess effectiveness and shot position. Every lamb (n = 200) was effectively stunned when the weapon was applied powered by a brown, 1-grain cartridge but 10/200 (5%) of the lambs displayed rhythmic or agonal breathing and were subsequently euthanased using euthatal (Merial, UK, GTIN: 03661103015550). Evaluation of the method was conducted using behavioural indicators of brain dysfunction followed by post-mortem examination of the heads. A second trial was conducted using a higher velocity 1.25-grain cartridge and a specific shot position on 48 lambs (mean dead weight = 6.21 kg, SD ± 1.24) averaging 5 days old. One hundred percent of the lambs in the second trial were immediately stun-killed. Given this complete kill rate and the sample size of the study, the study provides a statistical 95% confidence interval of 92.6% to 100%. The use of the Accles & Shelvoke “CASH” Small Animal Tool (Birmingham, UK) can therefore be recommended for the euthanasia of neonate lambs with a 1.25-grain cartridge and a specific shooting position.

  16. The Use of a Mechanical Non-Penetrating Captive Bolt Device for the Euthanasia of Neonate Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Grist

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A non-penetrating captive bolt device, powered by a 1-grain 0.22″ cartridge delivering a calculated kinetic energy of 47 Joules was tested as a euthanasia method on 200 neonate lambs (Ovis aries of 4.464 kg (SD (Standard deviation ± 1.056 mean dead weight, to assess effectiveness and shot position. Every lamb (n = 200 was effectively stunned when the weapon was applied powered by a brown, 1-grain cartridge but 10/200 (5% of the lambs displayed rhythmic or agonal breathing and were subsequently euthanased using euthatal (Merial, UK, GTIN: 03661103015550. Evaluation of the method was conducted using behavioural indicators of brain dysfunction followed by post-mortem examination of the heads. A second trial was conducted using a higher velocity 1.25-grain cartridge and a specific shot position on 48 lambs (mean dead weight = 6.21 kg, SD ± 1.24 averaging 5 days old. One hundred percent of the lambs in the second trial were immediately stun-killed. Given this complete kill rate and the sample size of the study, the study provides a statistical 95% confidence interval of 92.6% to 100%. The use of the Accles & Shelvoke “CASH” Small Animal Tool (Birmingham, UK can therefore be recommended for the euthanasia of neonate lambs with a 1.25-grain cartridge and a specific shooting position.

  17. To end life or not to prolong life: the effect of message framing on attitudes toward euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamliel, Eyal

    2013-05-01

    People ascribe "euthanasia" different values and view it differently. This study hypothesized that a different framing of objectively the same euthanasia situations would affect people's attitudes toward it. Indeed, "positive" framing of euthanasia as not prolonging life resulted in more support for both passive and active euthanasia relative to "negative" framing of the objectively same situations as ending life. Two experiments replicated this pattern using either continuous measures of attitude or dichotomous measures of choice. The article offers two theoretical explanations for the effect of message framing on attitudes toward euthanasia, discusses implications of this effect, and suggests future research.

  18. Belief in miracles and attitudes towards voluntary euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Shane

    2017-04-01

    Results of logistic regression analysis of data from the General Social Survey (N = 1,799) find that those who have a strong belief in miracles are more likely to say that a person with an incurable illness should not be allowed to accept medical treatments that painlessly hasten death than those who have a less strong belief in miracles or do not believe in miracles, net of respondents' religious affiliations, frequency of religious attendance, views of the Bible, and other sociodemographic controls. Results highlight the need to consider specific religious beliefs when predicting individuals' attitudes towards voluntary euthanasia.

  19. Killing, karma and caring: euthanasia in Buddhism and Christianity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keown, D; Keown, J

    1995-10-01

    In 1993 The Parliament of the World's Religions produced a declaration known as A Global Ethic which set out fundamental points of agreement on moral tissues between the religions of the world. However, the declaration did not deal explicitly with medical ethics. This article examines Buddhist and Christian perspectives on euthanasia and finds that in spite of their cultural and theological differences both oppose it for broadly similar reasons. Both traditions reject consequentialist patterns of justification and espouse a 'sanctity of life' position which precludes the intentional destruction of human life by act or omission.

  20. Killing, karma and caring: euthanasia in Buddhism and Christianity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keown, D; Keown, J

    1995-01-01

    In 1993 The Parliament of the World's Religions produced a declaration known as A Global Ethic which set out fundamental points of agreement on moral tissues between the religions of the world. However, the declaration did not deal explicitly with medical ethics. This article examines Buddhist and Christian perspectives on euthanasia and finds that in spite of their cultural and theological differences both oppose it for broadly similar reasons. Both traditions reject consequentialist patterns of justification and espouse a 'sanctity of life' position which precludes the intentional destruction of human life by act or omission. PMID:8558539

  1. The Traditional Model Does Not Explain Attitudes Toward Euthanasia: A Web-Based Survey of the General Public in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terkamo-Moisio, Anja; Kvist, Tarja; Laitila, Teuvo; Kangasniemi, Mari; Ryynänen, Olli-Pekka; Pietilä, Anna-Maija

    2017-08-01

    The debate about euthanasia is ongoing in several countries including Finland. However, there is a lack of information on current attitudes toward euthanasia among general Finnish public. The traditional model for predicting individuals' attitudes to euthanasia is based on their age, gender, educational level, and religiosity. However, a new evaluation of religiosity is needed due to the limited operationalization of this factor in previous studies. This study explores the connections between the factors of the traditional model and the attitudes toward euthanasia among the general public in the Finnish context. The Finnish public's attitudes toward euthanasia have become remarkably more positive over the last decade. Further research is needed on the factors that predict euthanasia attitudes. We suggest two different explanatory models for consideration: one that emphasizes the value of individual autonomy and another that approaches euthanasia from the perspective of fears of death or the process of dying.

  2. [Legal issues of physician-assisted euthanasia. Part III--Passive euthanasia, comparison of international legislation, conclusions for medical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, Johannes; Röbel, Andreas; Parzeller, Markus

    2013-01-01

    The generic term "passive euthanasia" includes different issues dealing with the omission, discontinuation or termination of life-sustaining or life-prolonging medical treatments. The debate around passive euthanasia focuses on the constitutional right of self-determination of every human being on the one hand and the constitutional mandate of the State to protect human life on the other. Issues of passive euthanasia always require a differentiated approach. Essentially, it comes down to the following: In Germany, the human right of self-determination includes the right to prohibit the performance of life-sustaining treatments, even if this leads to the death of the patient. A physician who does not take life-sustaining treatment measures because this is the free will expressed by the patient is not subject to prosecution. On the other hand, if the physician treats the patient against his will, this can be deemed a punishable act of bodily injury. The patient's will is decisive even if his concrete state of health does no longer allow him to freely express his will. In the Patient's Living Will Act of 2009, the German legislator clarified the juridical assessment of such constellations being of particular relevance in practice. A written living will of a person in which he requests to take or not to take certain medical treatment measures in case that he is no longer able to make the decision himself shall be binding for the people involved in the process of medical treatment. If there is no living will, the supposed will of the patient shall be relevant. In its judgment in the "Putz case", the German Federal Court of Justice ruled in 2010 that actions terminating a life-sustaining treatment that does not correspond to the patient's will must be limited to letting an already ongoing disease process run its course. In this context it is not important, however, whether treatment is discontinued by an active act or by omission. Under certain circumstances, the

  3. The dead donor rule, voluntary active euthanasia, and capital punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coons, Christian; Levin, Noah

    2011-06-01

    We argue that the dead donor rule, which states that multiple vital organs should only be taken from dead patients, is justified neither in principle nor in practice. We use a thought experiment and a guiding assumption in the literature about the justification of moral principles to undermine the theoretical justification for the rule. We then offer two real world analogues to this thought experiment, voluntary active euthanasia and capital punishment, and argue that the moral permissibility of terminating any patient through the removal of vital organs cannot turn on whether or not the practice violates the dead donor rule. Next, we consider practical justifications for the dead donor rule. Specifically, we consider whether there are compelling reasons to promulgate the rule even though its corresponding moral principle is not theoretically justified. We argue that there are no such reasons. In fact, we argue that promulgating the rule may actually decrease public trust in organ procurement procedures and medical institutions generally - even in states that do not permit capital punishment or voluntary active euthanasia. Finally, we examine our case against the dead donor rule in the light of common arguments for it. We find that these arguments are often misplaced - they do not support the dead donor rule. Instead, they support the quite different rule that patients should not be killed for their vital organs.

  4. [Euthanasia 2002-2014: The situation in Belgium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lossignol, D

    2016-10-01

    Since 2002, Belgian law has authorized the practice of euthanasia under certain clear conditions. All cases have to be reported to the Assessment and Control Commission (ACC). To date, more than 9000 cases have been reported. To make a statement about the Belgian experience requires consideration of several different essential points: detailed data and information from the ACC reports, their analysis, consequences on medical practice, problems experienced, legal and medical perspectives, criticism and attacks. The concept of individual and institutional conscience is also considered. Euthanasia for minors has been permitted since March 2014 but, to date, no case has been reported. In the light of what has happened in Belgium, we propose to analyse the legal situation in France. The Belgian experience is much more than an example and shows that, in difficult and painful situations, it is possible to meet the expectations of patients experiencing intolerable suffering with great respect and without imposing dogmatically something they do not wish. Copyright © 2015 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Physician-assisted Suicide and Euthanasia in Indian Context: Sooner or Later the Need to Ponder!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Farooq; Tadros, George

    2013-01-01

    Physician-assisted suicide (PAS) is a controversial subject which has recently captured the interest of media, public, politicians, and medical profession. Although active euthanasia and PAS are illegal in most parts of the world, with the exception of Switzerland and the Netherlands, there is pressure from some politicians and patient support groups to legalize this practice in and around Europe that could possibly affect many parts of the world. The legal status of PAS and euthanasia in India lies in the Indian Penal Code, which deals with the issues of euthanasia, both active and passive, and also PAS. According to Penal Code 1860, active euthanasia is an offence under Section 302 (punishment for murder) or at least under Section 304 (punishment for culpable homicide not amounting to murder). The difference between euthanasia and physician assisted death lies in who administers the lethal dose; in euthanasia, this is done by a doctor or by a third person, whereas in physician-assisted death, this is done by the patient himself. Various religions and their aspects on suicide, PAS, and euthanasia are discussed. People argue that hospitals do not pay attention to patients' wishes, especially when they are suffering from terminally ill, crippling, and non-responding medical conditions. This is bound to change with the new laws, which might be implemented if PAS is legalized. This issue is becoming relevant to psychiatrists as they need to deal with mental capacity issues all the time.

  6. Descriptions of euthanasia as social representations: comparing the views of Finnish physicians and religious professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jylhänkangas, Leila; Smets, Tinne; Cohen, Joachim; Utriainen, Terhi; Deliens, Luc

    2014-03-01

    In many western societies health professionals play a powerful role in people's experiences of dying. Religious professionals, such as pastors, are also confronted with the issues surrounding death and dying in their work. It is therefore reasonable to assume that the ways in which death-related topics, such as euthanasia, are constructed in a given culture are affected by the views of these professionals. This qualitative study addresses the ways in which Finnish physicians and religious professionals perceive and describe euthanasia and conceptualises these descriptions and views as social representations. Almost all the physicians interviewed saw that euthanasia does not fit the role of a physician and anchored it to different kinds of risks such as the slippery slope. Most of the religious and world-view professionals also rejected euthanasia. In this group, euthanasia was rejected on the basis of a religious moral code that forbids killing. Only one of the religious professionals - the freethinker with an atheist world-view - accepted euthanasia and described it as a personal choice, as did the one physician interviewed who accepted it. The article shows how the social representations of euthanasia are used to protect professional identities and to justify their expert knowledge of death and dying. © 2013 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2013 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Mental health and other clinical correlates of euthanasia attitudes in an Australian outpatient cancer population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, G L; Clover, K A; Parkinson, L; Rainbird, K; Kerridge, I; Ravenscroft, P; Cavenagh, J; McPhee, J

    2007-04-01

    A majority of patients with cancer have been reported to endorse euthanasia and physician assisted suicide (PAS) in general and a substantial proportion endorse these for themselves. However, the potential influence of mental health and other clinical variables on these decisions is not well understood. This study of 228 outpatients attending an oncology clinic in Newcastle, Australia used a cross-sectional design and logistic regression modelling to examine the relationship of demographic, disease status, mental health and quality of life variables to attitudes toward euthanasia and PAS. The majority reported support for euthanasia (79%, n=179), for PAS (69%, n=158) and personal support for euthanasia/PAS (68%, n=156). However, few reported having asked their doctor for euthanasia (2%, n=5) or PAS (2%, n=5). Three outcomes were modelled: support for euthanasia was associated with active religious belief (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.21, 95% CI: 0.10-0.46); support for PAS was associated with active religious belief (AOR 0.35, 95% CI: 18-0.70) and recent pain (AOR 0.87, 95% CI: 0.0.76-0.99); and personal support for euthanasia/PAS was associated with active religious belief (AOR 0.26, 95% CI: 0.14-0.48). Depression, anxiety, recent suicidal ideation, and lifetime suicide attempt were not independently associated with any of the three outcomes modelled. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Communication about euthanasia in general practice: opinions and experiences of patients and their general practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgsteede, Sander D; Deliens, Luc; Graafland-Riedstra, Corrie; Francke, Anneke L; van der Wal, Gerrit; Willems, Dick L

    2007-05-01

    Public opinion and professional organisations dominate the euthanasia debate, and there is a need to understand the opinions of people confronted with euthanasia. The aim of this study was to investigate whether patients and their GPs talk about euthanasia, and if so, how they communicate about this. Qualitative, semi-structured interviews were held with 20 GPs and 30 of their patients in primary care in the Netherlands, where euthanasia is legalised. The patients had a life expectancy of less than 6 months, and cancer, heart failure or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as underlying disease. Many patients did not communicate about euthanasia with their GP. Neither the patient nor the GP were clear in formulating their expectations concerning future decision making. The initial patient-GP communication consisted of an exchange of opinions about situations in which euthanasia would be desirable. GPs had different opinions about who should initiate communication, and found it difficult to judge the right moment to talk. It is essential to pay attention to education in communication about dying and euthanasia and to train the GPs to gain insight in the patient's end-of-life preferences, and to direct care at the best possible quality of life.

  9. Physicians and euthanasia: a Canadian print-media discourse analysis of physician perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, David Kenneth; Fishman, Jennifer R; Karsoho, Hadi; Sandham, Sarah; Macdonald, Mary Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Recent events in Canada have mobilized public debate concerning the controversial issue of euthanasia. Physicians represent an essential stakeholder group with respect to the ethics and practice of euthanasia. Further, their opinions can hold sway with the public, and their public views about this issue may further reflect back upon the medical profession itself. We conducted a discourse analysis of print media on physicians' perspectives about end-of-life care. Print media, in English and French, that appeared in Canadian newspapers from 2008 to 2012 were retrieved through a systematic database search. We analyzed the content of 285 articles either authored by a physician or directly referencing a physician's perspective. We identified 3 predominant discourses about physicians' public views toward euthanasia: 1) contentions about integrating euthanasia within the basic mission of medicine, 2) assertions about whether euthanasia can be distinguished from other end-of-life medical practices and 3) palliative care advocacy. Our data showed that although some medical professional bodies appear to be supportive in the media of a movement toward the legalization of euthanasia, individual physicians are represented as mostly opposed. Professional physician organizations and the few physicians who have engaged with the media are de facto representing physicians in public contemporary debates on medical aid in dying, in general, and euthanasia, in particular. It is vital for physicians to be aware of this public debate, how they are being portrayed within it and its potential effects on impending changes to provincial and national policies.

  10. Determinants of favourable opinions about euthanasia in a sample of French physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dany, Lionel; Baumstarck, Karine; Dudoit, Eric; Duffaud, Florence; Auquier, Pascal; Salas, Sébastien

    2015-11-05

    The question whether euthanasia should be legalised has led to substantial public debate in France. The objective of this study in a sample of French physicians was to establish the potential determinants of a favourable opinion about euthanasia in general and when faced with a specific situation as embodied in the Humbert affair. The study was a cross-sectional survey investigating two different samples of medical doctors: (1) those specialised in palliative care and affiliated to the French Society for Patient Accompaniment and Palliative Care; (2) medical interns (medical doctors in training course) in a French medical university (Marseille). A questionnaire was sent (email) to each voluntary participant including sociodemographics, professional status, mention of believing in God, and opinion about euthanasia (the question was designed to assess the general opinion about euthanasia and the opinion about a specific case, the Vincent Humbert' case (a man who was rendered quadriplegic, blind, and mute after an accident and has requested euthanasia). A total of 413 physicians participated in the research (participation rate: 48.5%). Less than half of the population were favourable to euthanasia in general and almost two-thirds of the population were favourable to Vincent Humbert's request for euthanasia. Based on the multivariate analysis, individuals believing in God and being a medical intern were significant independent factors linked to having a favourable opinion about euthanasia in general and about the Vincent Humbert's request. There is still no study in France on the development of opinion about euthanasia and its impact. The issue goes beyond the strictly professional sphere and involves broader socio-political stakes. These stakes do not necessarily take into account medical practices and experiences or the desires of end-of-life patients. The professional upheaval that the future French legal framework will doubtlessly trigger will require further

  11. Euthanasia, assisted dying and the right to die in Ghana: a socio-legal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Dapaa, Ernest

    2013-12-01

    There is unanimity among states to protect the continuation of life of the individual as a safeguard against their collective extinction. The right to life is accordingly guaranteed but its antithesis, the right to die is the subject of an unending debate. The controversy over the right to die is deepened by rapid advances in medicine, creating the capability for prolongation of life beyond the span which one's natural strength can endure. Ghana's supreme law explicitly guarantees the right to life but remains ambiguous on right to die, particularly euthanasia and assisted dying. Thus, some of the other rights, such as the right to dignity and not to be tortured, can creatively be exploited to justify some instances of euthanasia. Ghana's criminal code largely proscribes euthanasia. Notwithstanding, proscription of euthanasia and assisted dying by the law, in Ghana's empirical work undertaken in some of the communities in Ghana, suggests that euthanasia is quietly practisedin health facilities and private homes, especially in the rural areas. Contrary to the popular reasons assigned in the literature of the Western world, with respect to the practice or quest for legalization of euthanasia as being a necessity for providing relief from pain or hopeless quality of life, empirical data from social and anthropological studies conducted in Ghana reveal that poverty is the motivation for informal euthanasia practice in Ghana rather than genuine desire on part of patients to die or their relatives to see to their accelerated death. Apart from poverty, traditional cultural values of African societies consider non-natural death as a taboo and ignominy to the victim and his family. Thus, any move by the government to legalize euthanasia will need to be informed by widely held consultations and a possible referendum; otherwise the law may be just a mere transplant of Western models of legislation on euthanasia without reflecting the ethos of the African people.

  12. [Legal issues of physician-assisted euthanasia part I--terminology and historical overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, Johannes; Röbel, Andreas; Parzeller, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Under German criminal law, euthanasia assisted by the attending physician involves the risk of criminal prosecution. However, in the absence of clear legal provisions, the law concerning euthanasia has been primarily developed by court rulings and jurisprudential literature in the last 30 years. According to a traditional classification there are four categories of euthanasia: help in the dying process, direct active euthanasia, indirect active euthanasia and passive euthanasia. However, there is still no generally accepted definition for the general term "euthanasia". The development of the law on the permissibility of euthanasia was strongly influenced by the conflict between the right of self-determination of every human being guaranteed by the Constitution and the constitutional mandate of the state to protect and maintain human life. The decisions of the German Federal Court of Justice on euthanasia in the criminal trials "Wittig" (1984), "Kempten" (1994) and "Putz" (2010) as well as the ruling of the 12th Division for Civil Matters of the Federal Court of Justice (2003) are of special importance. Some of these decisions were significantly influenced by the discussions in the jurisprudential literature. However, the German Bundestag became active for the first time as late as in 2009 when it adopted the 3rd Guardianship Amendment Act, which also contains provisions on the legal validity of a living will independent of the nature and stage of an illness. In spite of the new law, an analysis of the "Putz" case makes it especially clear that the criminal aspects of legal issues at the end of a person's life still remain controversial. It is to be expected that this issue will remain the subject of intensive discussion also in the next few years.

  13. The Groningen Protocol for newborn euthanasia; which way did the slippery slope tilt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, A A Eduard

    2013-05-01

    In The Netherlands, neonatal euthanasia has become a legal option and the Groningen Protocol contains an approach to identify situations in which neonatal euthanasia might be appropriate. In the 5 years following the publication of the protocol, neither the prediction that this would be the first step on a slippery slope, nor the prediction of complete transparency and legal control became true. Instead, we experienced a transformation of the healthcare system after antenatal screening policy became a part of antenatal care. This resulted in increased terminations of pregnancy and less euthanasia.

  14. Avoiding a fate worse than death: an argument for legalising voluntary physician-based euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werren, Julia; Yuksel, Necef; Smith, Saxon

    2012-09-01

    The legalisation of voluntary physician-based euthanasia is currently the subject of much political, social and ethical debate and there is evidence in Australia of growing support for its implementation. In addressing many of the issues that surround legalisation, the article looks at some overseas jurisdictions that have legalised euthanasia to determine whether the social, political and ethical concerns prominent in the Australian debate have proved problematic in other jurisdictions. In addition, the article examines the report on the Dying with Dignity Bill 2009 (Tas) which commented extensively on the issues relating to voluntary physician-based euthanasia.

  15. Aruna Shanbaug: Is Her Demise the End of the Road for Legislation on Euthanasia in India?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchan, Tanuj; Atreya, Alok; Krishan, Kewal

    2016-08-01

    Aruna Ramachandra Shanbaug breathed her last after 42 years of being in a persistent vegetative state. Euthanasia in any form is not permitted in India and it was only in the year 2011 that a petition was filed in the court that urged the cessation of her force feeding with a nasogastric tube and the request for her peaceful death. What followed was a string of arguments and counter arguments relating to Euthanasia. The sad demise of Aruna Shanbaug is not the end of an individual, but may be the end of the road for clear cut guidelines and legislation on Euthanasia in India.

  16. The Big Pet Diabetes Survey: Perceived Frequency and Triggers for Euthanasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stijn J.M. Niessen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Current pet diabetes mellitus (DM treatment necessitates the active daily involvement of owners and can be costly. The current study aimed to investigate the owner population which opts for euthanasia instead of DM treatment. A survey was designed using multiple feedback steps and made available online to veterinarians world-wide. A total of 1192 veterinarians completed the survey and suggested a median one in 10 diabetic pets are euthanased at diagnosis; a further median one in 10 within one year because of lack of success or compliance. Perceived most important motivating factors included “presence concurrent disease” (45% respondents; “costs” (44%; “animal age” (37%; “problems obtaining adequate control” (35%; “pet welfare” (35%; and “impact owner’s lifestyle” (32%. Cats in Canadian (odds ratio (OR 2.7, Australian (OR 2.3, rural (OR 1.6 and mixed (OR 1.7 practices were more likely to be euthanased because of DM diagnosis, while cats presented to referral/university were less likely to be euthanased (OR 0.6. Dogs were more likely to be euthanased because of DM in Canadian (OR 1.8, rural (OR 1.8 and mixed (OR 1.6 practices. The survey results suggest that benefit exists in improved DM education with emphasis on offering a choice of treatment styles ranging from intense and expensive to hands-off and cheap.

  17. The Big Pet Diabetes Survey: Perceived Frequency and Triggers for Euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niessen, Stijn J M; Hazuchova, Katarina; Powney, Sonya L; Guitian, Javier; Niessen, Antonius P M; Pion, Paul D; Shaw, James A; Church, David B

    2017-05-14

    Current pet diabetes mellitus (DM) treatment necessitates the active daily involvement of owners and can be costly. The current study aimed to investigate the owner population which opts for euthanasia instead of DM treatment. A survey was designed using multiple feedback steps and made available online to veterinarians world-wide. A total of 1192 veterinarians completed the survey and suggested a median one in 10 diabetic pets are euthanased at diagnosis; a further median one in 10 within one year because of lack of success or compliance. Perceived most important motivating factors included "presence concurrent disease" (45% respondents); "costs" (44%); "animal age" (37%); "problems obtaining adequate control" (35%); "pet welfare" (35%); and "impact owner's lifestyle" (32%). Cats in Canadian (odds ratio (OR) 2.7), Australian (OR 2.3), rural (OR 1.6) and mixed (OR 1.7) practices were more likely to be euthanased because of DM diagnosis, while cats presented to referral/university were less likely to be euthanased (OR 0.6). Dogs were more likely to be euthanased because of DM in Canadian (OR 1.8), rural (OR 1.8) and mixed (OR 1.6) practices. The survey results suggest that benefit exists in improved DM education with emphasis on offering a choice of treatment styles ranging from intense and expensive to hands-off and cheap.

  18. Differences between terminally ill cancer patients who died after euthanasia had been performed and terminally ill cancer patients who did not request euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georges, Jean-Jacques; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D; van der Wal, Gerrit; van der Heide, Agnes; van der Maas, Paul J

    2005-12-01

    Palliative care, directed at improving the quality of life of terminally ill patients, is generally not aimed at any form of postponing or hastening death. It is possible that high quality palliative care could prevent requests for euthanasia. However, empirical evidence on this issue is scarce. In a national survey of end-of-life medical decisions in The Netherlands the subject of care at the end of life has been addressed. Data on terminally ill cancer patients who died after their request was granted and euthanasia had been performed were compared with those of terminally ill cancer patients who did not request euthanasia. The results show that the prevalence and severity of symptoms e.g., pain, feeling unwell, nausea, was higher in patients who died after their request was granted and euthanasia had been performed. No differences concerning the treatment of symptoms or the care provided were found between the two groups. The results suggest that the practice of euthanasia is mainly related to the patient's suffering.

  19. Animal welfare and the human-animal bond: considerations for veterinary faculty, students, and practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wensley, Sean P

    2008-01-01

    Consideration of the human-animal bond typically focuses on the benefits of companion animals to human health and well-being, but it is essential that in realizing these benefits the welfare needs of the animals, both physical and mental, are also met. Positive emotional relationships with animals are likely to increase recognition of animal sentience and so help create positive attitudes toward animals at the societal level, but, at the individual level, the animals to which humans are bonded should also benefit from the human-animal relationship. A strong human-animal bond may benefit animal welfare (e.g., by motivating an owner to commit time and funds to necessary veterinary medical treatment), but may also be the source of compromised welfare. Highly bonded owners may, for example, be reluctant to permit euthanasia on humane grounds, and the anthropomorphic nature of many human-companion animal bonds can contribute to the development of problem behaviors and obesity. The challenge for the veterinary profession is to ensure that widespread positive sentiment toward animals, which the human-animal bond generates, is translated in to human behavior and actions that are conducive to good animal welfare. This, it is suggested, can be achieved through adequate veterinary education in veterinary and animal welfare science, ethics, and communication.

  20. [Discuss the relationship between physicians and pharmacists in the context of euthanasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buijsen, M A J M

    2018-01-01

    Physicians are regularly confronted with pharmacists who refuse to provide euthanasia drugs. They do not always understand that the provision of euthanasia drugs is not a normal professional activity for pharmacists. It is a lot less clear that pharmacists are also allowed to have fundamental objections. In addition, professional standards lack clarity for pharmacists who do not have such objections to the provision of euthanasia drugs. The relationship between physicians and pharmacists in the context of euthanasia presents problems overlooked by researchers of the third evaluation of the Termination of Life on Request and Assisted Suicide (review procedures) Act (WTL). The professional bodies of physicians and pharmacists should address these as soon as possible.

  1. The need to exercise caution in accepting addiction as a reason for performing euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Wayne; Parker, Malcolm

    2017-10-10

    The recent practice in Belgium and the Netherlands of accepting addiction as a reason for performing euthanasia raises important issues for the field of addiction and the practice of euthanasia. In this paper we outline some of these issues. We also argue that physicians making decisions about whether to accept requests for euthanasia from people with an allegedly untreatable addiction should consider two issues carefully. They should ensure that: (1) the person has the capacity to give free and informed consent to undergo euthanasia; and (2) their request is the outcome of a deliberative process in which all reasonable treatment options and harm reduction measures have been offered to and considered by the person. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  2. A Collection of Brain Sections of "Euthanasia" Victims: The Series H of Julius Hallervorden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wässle, Heinz

    2017-12-01

    Julius Hallervorden, a distinguished German neuropathologist, admitted on several occasions that he had received some five hundred brains of "euthanasia" victims from the Nazi killing centres for the insane. He investigated the brains in the summer of 1942; however, their traces were subsequently lost. The present study shows, that the Series H, which was part of the Hallervorden collection of brain sections in the Max Planck Institute for Brain Research, comprises the brain sections of the above mentioned five hundred euthanasia victims. The provenance of 105 patients could be reconstructed and 84 are for sure euthanasia victims. Most of them were killed in Bernburg or in Sonnenstein-Pirna. Hallervorden used the brain sections of Series H until 1956 for his studies and never publicly regretted this abuse of the brains of euthanasia victims. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A Survey of Special Educators' Attitudes toward Euthanasia for Infants with Severe Handicaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Diane M.; May, Deborah C.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes findings from a survey of the attitudes of 188 special education teachers toward ethical dilemmas surrounding surgery, active and passive euthanasia and the right to die. (Author/PB)

  4. Euthanasia for people with psychiatric disorders or dementia in Belgium: analysis of officially reported cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierickx, Sigrid; Deliens, Luc; Cohen, Joachim; Chambaere, Kenneth

    2017-06-23

    Euthanasia for people who are not terminally ill, such as those suffering from psychiatric disorders or dementia, is legal in Belgium under strict conditions but remains a controversial practice. As yet, the prevalence of euthanasia for people with psychiatric disorders or dementia has not been studied and little is known about the characteristics of the practice. This study aims to report on the trends in prevalence and number of euthanasia cases with a psychiatric disorder or dementia diagnosis in Belgium and demographic, clinical and decision-making characteristics of these cases. We analysed the anonymous databases of euthanasia cases reported to the Federal Control and Evaluation Committee Euthanasia from the implementation of the euthanasia law in Belgium in 2002 until the end of 2013. The databases we received provided the information on all euthanasia cases as registered by the Committee from the official registration forms. Only those with one or more psychiatric disorders or dementia and no physical disease were included in the analysis. We identified 179 reported euthanasia cases with a psychiatric disorder or dementia as the sole diagnosis. These consisted of mood disorders (N = 83), dementia (N = 62), other psychiatric disorders (N = 22) and mood disorders accompanied by another psychiatric disorder (N = 12). The proportion of euthanasia cases with a psychiatric disorder or dementia diagnosis was 0.5% of all cases reported in the period 2002-2007, increasing from 2008 onwards to 3.0% of all cases reported in 2013. The increase in the absolute number of cases is particularly evident in cases with a mood disorder diagnosis. The majority of cases concerned women (58.1% in dementia to 77.1% in mood disorders). All cases were judged to have met the legal requirements by the Committee. While euthanasia on the grounds of unbearable suffering caused by a psychiatric disorder or dementia remains a comparatively limited practice in Belgium, its

  5. [Euthanasia and physician assisted suicide: what is the problem?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Del Río, Asunción

    2014-01-01

    Some persons with refractory and unbearable suffering caused by an illness or medical condition wish to die by euthanasia or physician assisted suicide in order to have a certain and painless death. Physicians who agree to help a patient to die have previously confirmed that his/her illness cannot be cured, his/her suffering cannot be relieved and he/ she is of sound mind. Being well informed of his/her condition, the patient arrives to the conclusion that in his/her situation being death is better that being alive. How to explain that there are very few places in which physicians are allowed to help their patients to die? The main arguments against legalizing physician-assisted death are analyzed in this article.

  6. Psychiatry trainees' attitudes towards euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontaxaki, M-I; Paplos, K; Dasopoulou, M; Kontaxakis, V

    2018-01-01

    We investigated the attitudes towards Euthanasia (EUT) and Physician-Assisted Suicide (PAS) in a sample of Greek Psychiatry trainees (PT), (n=120, mean age 32.01±0.21, male 60.0%) and compared these to those of medical trainees of other specialties (OMT), i.e. internal medicine, surgery, intensive care (n=154, mean age 32.97±1.17, male 57.1%). Most of the responders were for the acceptance of EUT and PAS under some circumstances. More often PT answer "never" in the question regarding the permission to withdraw life-sustaining medical treatment to hasten death, if that requested by a terminally ill patient (pquality of life (plife decisions. Also, it is important for educators to have understanding the views of the trainees since soon in the future, the new generation of physicians will have to make end of life decisions.

  7. Professed religious affiliation and the practice of euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baume, P; O'Malley, E; Bauman, A

    1995-02-01

    Attitudes towards active voluntary euthanasia (AVE) and physician-assisted suicide (PAS) among 1,238 doctors on the medical register of New South Wales varied significantly with self-identified religious affiliation. More doctors without formal religious affiliation ('non-theists') were sympathetic to AVE, and acknowledged that they had practised AVE, than were doctors who gave any religious affiliation ('theists'). Of those identifying with a religion, those who reported a Protestant affiliation were intermediate in their attitudes and practices between the agnostic/atheist and the Catholic groups. Catholics recorded attitudes most opposed to AVE, but even so, 18 per cent of Catholic medical respondents who had been so requested, recorded that they had taken active steps to bring about the death of patients.

  8. [Euthanasia: the law, a few notions and the question of assisted suicide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herremans, J

    2008-09-01

    Conforming to the Belgian Law on Euthanasia of 28 May 2002, the definition of euthanasia is "an act practised by a third party intentionally, ending the life of a person at that person's request". Doctors who practise euthanasia commit no offence if they follow the prescribed conditions and procedures. The voluntary, well considered request for euthanasia must be initiated by an adult patient, complaining of unbearable physical or mental suffering caused by a serious and incurable medical condition, whether accidental or pathological. Consultation with a second doctor is required. If the death is not to be expected within a short period of time--in other words, for not terminally-ill patients--, the intervention of a third doctor is required, either a psychiatrist or a specialist of the patient's pathology. In that case, a delay of at least one month between the request and the euthanasia has to be respected. The doctor must declare the act of euthanasia to a Federal Commission composed of 8 doctors, 4 lawyers and 4 persons familiar with the problems of patients suffering from an incurable disease. This Commission has also to produce every other year a statistical and evaluation report for Parliament. The living will, called "advance declaration", is officially recognized but strictly limited to the state of irreversible unconsciousness of the patient. This law on the de-criminalization of euthanasia recognizes the right of personal autonomy for the patient and the principle of freedom of conscience for everyone. The law refers explicitly to the concept of euthanasia but does not specify the method to be used by the doctor. If it is the wish of the patient, and if the physical condition of the patient allows this solution, "assisted suicide" is permitted.

  9. Murder-suicide involving BC doctor raises troubling questions about euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, V

    1995-01-01

    The deaths last September of a British Columbia physician and his wife have raised troubling questions about euthanasia and Alzheimer's disease. Police described the deaths of Dr. Tom Powell and his wife Dr. Lorraine Miles, a retired dentist, as a murder-suicide. Friends of the couple wonder if more lenient laws concerning euthanasia and assisted suicide might have saved Miles' life. Images p1856-a PMID:7773902

  10. Invited commentary on … When unbearable suffering incites psychiatric patients to request euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Brendan D

    2017-10-01

    Euthanasia is available in Belgium and Luxembourg for untreatable and unbearable suffering resulting from 'physical and/or psychological suffering that cannot be alleviated and results from a serious and incurable disease, caused by accident or illness'. Verhofstadt et al 's valuable analysis of testimonials from psychiatric patients requesting euthanasia demonstrates that elements of this suffering might well be alleviated. We should not kill our patients. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017.

  11. Organization position statements and the stance of "studied neutrality" on euthanasia in palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Megan-Jane

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, palliative care and related organizations have increasingly adopted a stance of "studied neutrality" on the question of whether euthanasia should be legalized as a bona fide medical regimen in palliative care contexts. This stance, however, has attracted criticism from both opponents and proponents of euthanasia. Pro-euthanasia activists see the stance as an official position of indecision that is fundamentally disrespectful of a patient's right to "choose death" when life has become unbearable. Some palliative care constituents, in turn, are opposed to the stance, contending that it reflects an attitude of "going soft" on euthanasia and as weakening the political resistance that has hitherto been successful in preventing euthanasia from becoming more widely legalized. In this article, attention is given to examining critically the notion and possible unintended consequences of adopting a stance of studied neutrality on euthanasia in palliative care. It is argued that although palliative care and related organizations have an obvious stake in the outcome of the euthanasia debate, it is neither unreasonable nor inconsistent for such organizations to be unwilling to take a definitive stance on the issue. It is further contended that, given the long-standing tenets of palliative care, palliative care organizations have both a right and a responsibility to defend the integrity of the principles and practice of palliative care and to resist demands for euthanasia to be positioned either as an integral part or logical extension of palliative care. Copyright © 2012 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Written institutional ethics policies on euthanasia: an empirical-based organizational-ethical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemiengre, Joke; Dierckx de Casterlé, Bernadette; Schotsmans, Paul; Gastmans, Chris

    2014-05-01

    As euthanasia has become a widely debated issue in many Western countries, hospitals and nursing homes especially are increasingly being confronted with this ethically sensitive societal issue. The focus of this paper is how healthcare institutions can deal with euthanasia requests on an organizational level by means of a written institutional ethics policy. The general aim is to make a critical analysis whether these policies can be considered as organizational-ethical instruments that support healthcare institutions to take their institutional responsibility for dealing with euthanasia requests. By means of an interpretative analysis, we conducted a process of reinterpretation of results of former Belgian empirical studies on written institutional ethics policies on euthanasia in dialogue with the existing international literature. The study findings revealed that legal regulations, ethical and care-oriented aspects strongly affected the development, the content, and the impact of written institutional ethics policies on euthanasia. Hence, these three cornerstones-law, care and ethics-constituted the basis for the empirical-based organizational-ethical framework for written institutional ethics policies on euthanasia that is presented in this paper. However, having a euthanasia policy does not automatically lead to more legal transparency, or to a more professional and ethical care practice. The study findings suggest that the development and implementation of an ethics policy on euthanasia as an organizational-ethical instrument should be considered as a dynamic process. Administrators and ethics committees must take responsibility to actively create an ethical climate supporting care providers who have to deal with ethical dilemmas in their practice.

  13. Awareness and Attitude of Select Professionals toward Euthanasia in Delhi, India

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Sheetal; Gupta, Shakti; Singh, IB; Madaan, Nirupam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The topic of euthanasia has induced differences not only among professionals in the medical fraternity but also in other fields as well. The dying process is being lengthened by the new state of art technologies erupting as such higher pace, and it is at the expense of standard quality of life and of a gracious death. Aim: To study the awareness and attitude toward euthanasia among select professionals in Delhi. Methodology: It was a questionnaire-based descriptive cross-section...

  14. A comparative study on permissiveness towards euthanasia: religiosity, slippery slope, autonomy, and death with dignity

    OpenAIRE

    Verbakel, E.; Jaspers, E.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores explanations for the approval of euthanasia by assessing differences among individuals and countries, using four main arguments used by opponents and proponents in the public debate over euthanasia. We performed multilevel analysis on data from thirtythree countries, obtained from the European Values Study 1999/2000 and theWorld Values Survey 2000; we enriched these data with countryspecific information. First, our results supported the hypothesis based on the religion arg...

  15. Boundaries, borders, and limits. A phenomenological reflection on ethics and euthanasia

    OpenAIRE

    Leget, C

    2006-01-01

    The subject of euthanasia divides both people and nations. It will always continue to do so because the arguments for and against this issue are intrinsically related to each other. This paper offers an analysis of the interrelation of the arguments, departing from a phenomenology of boundaries. From the participant perspective the boundary of euthanasia appears as a limit. From a helicopter perspective it appears as a border. Reflecting on both perspectives they turn out to complement each o...

  16. Evaluation of Alternative Euthanasia Methods of Neonatal Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailesh Gurung

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Hatched male layer chicks are currently euthanized by maceration in the United States. Public concerns on the use of maceration have led to the search for alternative methods. We hypothesized that gas inhalation and low atmospheric pressure stunning (LAPS are viable and humane alternatives to instantaneous mechanical destruction. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physiological and behavioral responses of recently hatched male layer chicks when subjected to carbon dioxide, nitrogen inhalation, or LAPS. The study consisted of seven treatments: breathing air (NEG, 25% carbon dioxide (CO2, 50% CO2, 75% CO2, 90% CO2, 100% nitrogen (N2, or LAPS. Ten day-of-hatch, male layer chicks were randomly assigned to each treatment, and each treatment was replicated on ten different days. A custom-made vacuum system was used to reduce air pressure inside the chamber from 100.12 kPa to 15.3 kPa for the LAPS treatment. Serum corticosterone and serotonin levels were measured using commercially available competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Latencies to loss of posture and motionlessness were determined from video recordings. The 25% and 50% CO2 treatments were discontinued after the first replication, as the majority of the chicks recovered. The chicks in the negative (NEG group had significantly higher levels of corticosterone than the other four euthanasia treatments. On the other hand, the serotonin levels of chicks in the NEG group was significantly lower when compared to the other four euthanasia treatments. The latencies to loss of posture and motionlessness of chicks exposed to 75% and 90% CO2 were significantly shorter than those in the LAPS and N2 inhalation treatments. These data suggest that the stress responses of chicks to the CO2, N2, and LAPS treatments do not differ among each other. However, the CO2 inhalation method was faster in inducing loss of posture and motionlessness in chicks than the LAPS and N2 inhalation

  17. Evaluation of Alternative Euthanasia Methods of Neonatal Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurung, Shailesh; White, Dima; Archer, Gregory; Zhao, Dan; Farnell, Yuhua; Byrd, J Allen; Peebles, E David; Farnell, Morgan

    2018-03-09

    Hatched male layer chicks are currently euthanized by maceration in the United States. Public concerns on the use of maceration have led to the search for alternative methods. We hypothesized that gas inhalation and low atmospheric pressure stunning (LAPS) are viable and humane alternatives to instantaneous mechanical destruction. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physiological and behavioral responses of recently hatched male layer chicks when subjected to carbon dioxide, nitrogen inhalation, or LAPS. The study consisted of seven treatments: breathing air (NEG), 25% carbon dioxide (CO₂), 50% CO₂, 75% CO₂, 90% CO₂, 100% nitrogen (N₂), or LAPS. Ten day-of-hatch, male layer chicks were randomly assigned to each treatment, and each treatment was replicated on ten different days. A custom-made vacuum system was used to reduce air pressure inside the chamber from 100.12 kPa to 15.3 kPa for the LAPS treatment. Serum corticosterone and serotonin levels were measured using commercially available competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Latencies to loss of posture and motionlessness were determined from video recordings. The 25% and 50% CO₂ treatments were discontinued after the first replication, as the majority of the chicks recovered. The chicks in the negative (NEG) group had significantly higher levels of corticosterone than the other four euthanasia treatments. On the other hand, the serotonin levels of chicks in the NEG group was significantly lower when compared to the other four euthanasia treatments. The latencies to loss of posture and motionlessness of chicks exposed to 75% and 90% CO₂ were significantly shorter than those in the LAPS and N₂ inhalation treatments. These data suggest that the stress responses of chicks to the CO₂, N₂, and LAPS treatments do not differ among each other. However, the CO₂ inhalation method was faster in inducing loss of posture and motionlessness in chicks than the LAPS and N

  18. Bom Bunuh Diri dan Euthanasia (Perspektif Hukum Islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Thobroni

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Perjuangan tidak pernah mengenal kata akhir, namun cara berjuang tiap umat sering kali mengalami perubahan searah dengan perubahan sarana-sarana perang. Pada tahun-tahun terakhir, sering terdengar upaya beberapa kelompok muslim yang melakukan bom bunuh diri atau juga dikenal sebagai suicide bombing dan human bombing atau bom manusia. Secara umum ada dua reaksi para ulama dalam menyikapinya, sebagian melarang dan sebagian lagi memuji. Kedua kelompok tersebut sama-sama menyertakan argumen-argumennya, baik secara naqly maupun aqly. Kejelasan hukum syara’ sangat dibutuhkan dalam masalah yang amat krusial ini. Ini dikarenakan perbedaan yang ada cukup tajam dan mengandung berbagai implikasinya baik di dunia maupun di akhirat. Bagi mereka yang menganggap aksi bom manusia sebagai aksi bunuh diri (‘amaliyat intihariyah, maka implikasi kepada para pelakunya ialah tidak diberlakukan hukum-hukum mati syahid, namun dipandang sebagai orang hina karena berputus asa menghadapi kesulitan hidup. Di akhirat, pelakunya dianggap akan masuk neraka, karena telah bunuh diri. Sedangkan bagi mereka yang menganggap aksi bom bunuh diri sebagai aksi mati syahid (‘amaliyat istisyhadiyah, maka implikasi kepada para pelakunya adalah diberlakukan hukum-hukum mati syahid. Dia dianggap sebagai pahlawan dan teladan keberanian yang patut dicontoh dan di akhirat akan masuk surga. Karena hidup dan mati ada di tangan Tuhan, serta merupakan karunia dan wewenang Tuhan, maka Islam melarang orang melakukan pembunuhan, baik terhadap orang lain (kecuali dengan alas an yang dibenarkan oleh agama maupun terhadap dirinya sendiri (bunuh diri dengan alasan apapun. Hukum bunuh diri dan euthanasia masih dipersoalkan di kalangan masyarakat. Pro kontra inilah yang mendorong penulis untuk memilih tema hukum bom bunuh diri dan euthanasia dalam perspektif hukum Islam.

  19. What people close to death say about euthanasia and assisted suicide: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapple, A; Ziebland, S; McPherson, A; Herxheimer, A

    2006-12-01

    To explore the experiences of people with a "terminal illness", focusing on the patients' perspective of euthanasia and assisted suicide. A qualitative study using narrative interviews was conducted throughout the UK. The views of the 18 people who discussed euthanasia and assisted suicide were explored. These were drawn from a maximum variation sample, who said that they had a "terminal" illness, malignant or non-malignant. That UK law should be changed to allow assisted suicide or voluntary euthanasia was felt strongly by most people. Those who had seen others die were particularly convinced that this should be a right. Some had multiple reasons, including pain and anticipated pain, fear of indignity, loss of control and cognitive impairment. Those who did not want to be a burden also had other reasons for wanting euthanasia. Suicide was contemplated by a few, who would have preferred a change in the law to allow them to end their lives with medical help and in the company of family or friends. The few who opposed a change in UK law, or who felt ambivalent, focused on involuntary euthanasia, cited religious reasons or worried that new legislation might be open to abuse. Qualitative research conducted on people who know they are nearing death is an important addition to the international debate on euthanasia and assisted suicide. Those who had seen others die were particularly convinced that the law should be changed to allow assisted death.

  20. Legalizing euthanasia or assisted suicide: the illusion of safeguards and controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, J.

    2011-01-01

    Euthanasia or assisted suicide—and sometimes both—have been legalized in a small number of countries and states. In all jurisdictions, laws and safeguards were put in place to prevent abuse and misuse of these practices. Prevention measures have included, among others, explicit consent by the person requesting euthanasia, mandatory reporting of all cases, administration only by physicians (with the exception of Switzerland), and consultation by a second physician. The present paper provides evidence that these laws and safeguards are regularly ignored and transgressed in all the jurisdictions and that transgressions are not prosecuted. For example, about 900 people annually are administered lethal substances without having given explicit consent, and in one jurisdiction, almost 50% of cases of euthanasia are not reported. Increased tolerance of transgressions in societies with such laws represents a social “slippery slope,” as do changes to the laws and criteria that followed legalization. Although the initial intent was to limit euthanasia and assisted suicide to a last-resort option for a very small number of terminally ill people, some jurisdictions now extend the practice to newborns, children, and people with dementia. A terminal illness is no longer a prerequisite. In the Netherlands, euthanasia for anyone over the age of 70 who is “tired of living” is now being considered. Legalizing euthanasia and assisted suicide therefore places many people at risk, affects the values of society over time, and does not provide controls and safeguards. PMID:21505588

  1. THE DILEMMA "FOR" AND "AGAINST" EUTHANASIA AND LEGAL AWARENESS OF THE DISABLED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paraskeva Mancheva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to study the legal awareness of the disabled and to solve the "for" or "against" euthanasia issue Material and methods: The study includes 305 polymorbid disabled people and is certificated by the General territorial Expert Medical Commission (LEDC at University Hospital "St. Marina " Varna for the period October-December 2011. The study uses sociological method - direct and group inquiry and statistical methods: analysis (χ2, analysis of variance, correlation analysis (r, regression analysis (β. The processing of the results was performed by SPSS v.17.0 for Windows. Results: The study of the legal awareness of euthanasia revealed a need for more information among polymorbid disabled people. There is a discrepancy between their more positive, supportive attitude (acceptance of euthanasia and lack of willingness to actually conduct. The reasons for this can be found in the sporadic public discussions on the debate on euthanasia and in the increased distrust of the health care system. Respondents believe that euthanasia at this stage cannot be imputed as an obligation for the Bulgarian medics. Conclusion: The legal public awareness issue is essential to protect the rights of the citizens, for the realization of those activities that require strict compliance with the Constitution, laws and regulations. The legal awareness study of the disabled for solution of the "for" or "against" euthanasia issue presents an opportunity to discuss a way out of a hopeless situation for patients in terminal condition.

  2. Legalizing euthanasia or assisted suicide: the illusion of safeguards and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, J

    2011-04-01

    Euthanasia or assisted suicide-and sometimes both-have been legalized in a small number of countries and states. In all jurisdictions, laws and safeguards were put in place to prevent abuse and misuse of these practices. Prevention measures have included, among others, explicit consent by the person requesting euthanasia, mandatory reporting of all cases, administration only by physicians (with the exception of Switzerland), and consultation by a second physician.The present paper provides evidence that these laws and safeguards are regularly ignored and transgressed in all the jurisdictions and that transgressions are not prosecuted. For example, about 900 people annually are administered lethal substances without having given explicit consent, and in one jurisdiction, almost 50% of cases of euthanasia are not reported. Increased tolerance of transgressions in societies with such laws represents a social "slippery slope," as do changes to the laws and criteria that followed legalization. Although the initial intent was to limit euthanasia and assisted suicide to a last-resort option for a very small number of terminally ill people, some jurisdictions now extend the practice to newborns, children, and people with dementia. A terminal illness is no longer a prerequisite. In the Netherlands, euthanasia for anyone over the age of 70 who is "tired of living" is now being considered. Legalizing euthanasia and assisted suicide therefore places many people at risk, affects the values of society over time, and does not provide controls and safeguards.

  3. The history of euthanasia debates in the United States and Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, E J

    1994-11-15

    Debates about the ethics of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide date from ancient Greece and Rome. After the development of ether, physicians began advocating the use of anesthetics to relieve the pains of death. In 1870, Samuel Williams first proposed using anesthetics and morphine to intentionally end a patient's life. Over the next 35 years, debates about the ethics of euthanasia raged in the United States and Britain, culminating in 1906 in an Ohio bill to legalize euthanasia, a bill that was ultimately defeated. The arguments propounded for and against euthanasia in the 19th century are identical to contemporary arguments. Such similarities suggest four conclusions: Public interest in euthanasia 1) is not linked with advances in biomedical technology; 2) it flourishes in times of economic recession, in which individualism and social Darwinism are invoked to justify public policy; 3) it arises when physician authority over medical decision making is challenged; and 4) it occurs when terminating life-sustaining medical interventions become standard medical practice and interest develops in extending such practices to include euthanasia.

  4. What people close to death say about euthanasia and assisted suicide: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapple, A; Ziebland, S; McPherson, A; Herxheimer, A

    2006-01-01

    Objective To explore the experiences of people with a “terminal illness”, focusing on the patients' perspective of euthanasia and assisted suicide. Method A qualitative study using narrative interviews was conducted throughout the UK. The views of the 18 people who discussed euthanasia and assisted suicide were explored. These were drawn from a maximum variation sample, who said that they had a “terminal” illness, malignant or non‐malignant. Results That UK law should be changed to allow assisted suicide or voluntary euthanasia was felt strongly by most people. Those who had seen others die were particularly convinced that this should be a right. Some had multiple reasons, including pain and anticipated pain, fear of indignity, loss of control and cognitive impairment. Those who did not want to be a burden also had other reasons for wanting euthanasia. Suicide was contemplated by a few, who would have preferred a change in the law to allow them to end their lives with medical help and in the company of family or friends. The few who opposed a change in UK law, or who felt ambivalent, focused on involuntary euthanasia, cited religious reasons or worried that new legislation might be open to abuse. Conclusion Qualitative research conducted on people who know they are nearing death is an important addition to the international debate on euthanasia and assisted suicide. Those who had seen others die were particularly convinced that the law should be changed to allow assisted death. PMID:17145910

  5. When unbearable suffering incites psychiatric patients to request euthanasia: qualitative study†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhofstadt, Monica; Thienpont, Lieve; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Ygram

    2017-01-01

    Background The concept of ‘unbearable suffering’ is central to legislation governing whether euthanasia requests may be granted, but remains insufficiently understood, especially in relation to psychiatric patients. Aims To provide insights into the suffering experiences of psychiatric patients who have made a request for euthanasia. Method Testimonials from 26 psychiatric patients who requested euthanasia were analysed using QualiCoder software. Results Five domains of suffering were identified: medical, intrapersonal, interpersonal, societal and existential. Hopelessness was confirmed to be an important contributor. The lengthy process of applying for euthanasia was a cause of suffering and added to experienced hopelessness, whereas encountering physicians who took requests seriously could offer new perspectives on treatment. Conclusions The development of measurement instruments to assess the nature and extent of suffering as experienced by psychiatric patients could help both patients and physicians to better navigate the complicated and sensitive process of evaluating requests in a humane and competent way. Some correlates of suffering (such as low income) indicate the need for a broad medical, societal and political debate on how to reduce the burden of financial and socioeconomic difficulties and inequalities in order to reduce patients' desire for euthanasia. Euthanasia should never be seen (or used) as a means of resolving societal failures. PMID:28970302

  6. When unbearable suffering incites psychiatric patients to request euthanasia: qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhofstadt, Monica; Thienpont, Lieve; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Ygram

    2017-10-01

    Background The concept of 'unbearable suffering' is central to legislation governing whether euthanasia requests may be granted, but remains insufficiently understood, especially in relation to psychiatric patients. Aims To provide insights into the suffering experiences of psychiatric patients who have made a request for euthanasia. Method Testimonials from 26 psychiatric patients who requested euthanasia were analysed using QualiCoder software. Results Five domains of suffering were identified: medical, intrapersonal, interpersonal, societal and existential. Hopelessness was confirmed to be an important contributor. The lengthy process of applying for euthanasia was a cause of suffering and added to experienced hopelessness, whereas encountering physicians who took requests seriously could offer new perspectives on treatment. Conclusions The development of measurement instruments to assess the nature and extent of suffering as experienced by psychiatric patients could help both patients and physicians to better navigate the complicated and sensitive process of evaluating requests in a humane and competent way. Some correlates of suffering (such as low income) indicate the need for a broad medical, societal and political debate on how to reduce the burden of financial and socioeconomic difficulties and inequalities in order to reduce patients' desire for euthanasia. Euthanasia should never be seen (or used) as a means of resolving societal failures. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017.

  7. Physician-Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia in the ICU: A Dialogue on Core Ethical Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goligher, Ewan C; Ely, E Wesley; Sulmasy, Daniel P; Bakker, Jan; Raphael, John; Volandes, Angelo E; Patel, Bhavesh M; Payne, Kate; Hosie, Annmarie; Churchill, Larry; White, Douglas B; Downar, James

    2017-02-01

    Many patients are admitted to the ICU at or near the end of their lives. Consequently, the increasingly common debate regarding physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia holds implications for the practice of critical care medicine. The objective of this article is to explore core ethical issues related to physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia from the perspective of healthcare professionals and ethicists on both sides of the debate. We identified four issues highlighting the key areas of ethical tension central to evaluating physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia in medical practice: 1) the benefit or harm of death itself, 2) the relationship between physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia and withholding or withdrawing life support, 3) the morality of a physician deliberately causing death, and 4) the management of conscientious objection related to physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia in the critical care setting. We present areas of common ground and important unresolved differences. We reached differing positions on the first three core ethical questions and achieved unanimity on how critical care clinicians should manage conscientious objections related to physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia. The alternative positions presented in this article may serve to promote open and informed dialogue within the critical care community.

  8. Euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide? A survey from the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouwenhoven, Pauline S C; van Thiel, Ghislaine J M W; Raijmakers, Natasja J H; Rietjens, Judith A C; van der Heide, Agnes; van Delden, Johannes J M

    2014-03-01

    Legalizing euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide (PAS) is a current topic of debate in many countries. The Netherlands is the only country where legislation covers both. To study physicians' experiences and attitudes concerning the choice between euthanasia and PAS. A questionnaire including vignettes was sent to a random sample of 1955 Dutch general practitioners, elderly care physicians and medical specialists. In total, 793 physicians (41%) participated. There was no clear preference for euthanasia (36%) or PAS (34%). Two thirds of physicians thought that PAS underlines the autonomy and responsibility of the patient and considered this a reason to choose PAS. Reasons for not choosing PAS were expected practical problems. A minority (22%) discussed the possibility of PAS with their patient in case of a request for assistance in dying. Patients receiving PAS more often experienced psychosocial suffering in comparison with patients receiving euthanasia. In vignettes of patients with a request for assistance in dying due to psychosocial suffering, physicians agreed more often with the performance of PAS than with euthanasia. Dutch physicians perceive a difference between euthanasia and PAS. Although they believe PAS underlines patient autonomy and responsibility, the option of PAS is rarely discussed with the patient. The more psychosocial in nature the patient's suffering, the more physicians choose PAS. In these cases, PAS seems to fulfil physicians' preferences to emphasize patient autonomy and responsibility. Expected technical problems and unfamiliarity with PAS also play a role. Paradoxically, the choice for PAS is predominantly a physician's one.

  9. Euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide: knowledge, attitudes and experiences of nurses in Andalusia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayo-Velázquez, María-Isabel; Simón-Lorda, Pablo; Cruz-Piqueras, Maite

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge, attitudes and experiences of Spanish nurses in relation to euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide. In an online questionnaire completed by 390 nurses from Andalusia, 59.1% adequately identified a euthanasia situation and 64.1% a situation involving physician-assisted suicide. Around 69% were aware that both practices were illegal in Spain, while 21.4% had received requests for euthanasia and a further 7.8% for assisted suicide. A total of 22.6% believed that cases of euthanasia had occurred in Spain and 11.4% believed the same for assisted suicide. There was greater support (70%) for legalisation of euthanasia than for assisted suicide (65%), combined with a greater predisposition towards carrying out euthanasia (54%), if it were to be legalised, than participating in assisted suicide (47.3%). Nurses in Andalusia should be offered more education about issues pertaining to the end of life, and extensive research into this area should be undertaken.

  10. The medical practice of euthanasia in Belgium and The Netherlands: legal notification, control and evaluation procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smets, Tinne; Bilsen, Johan; Cohen, Joachim; Rurup, Mette L; De Keyser, Els; Deliens, Luc

    2009-05-01

    To describe and compare current legal procedures for notifying, controlling and evaluating (NCE-procedures) euthanasia in Belgium and the Netherlands, and to discuss the implications for a safe and controllable euthanasia practice. We systematically studied and compared official documents relating to the Belgian and the Dutch NCE-procedures for euthanasia. In both countries, physicians are required to notify their cases to a review Committee, stimulating them to safeguard the quality of their euthanasia practice and to make societal control over the practice of euthanasia possible. However, the procedures in both countries differ. The main differences are that the Dutch notification and control procedures are more elaborate and transparent than the Belgian, and that the Belgian procedures are primarily anonymous, whereas the Dutch are not. Societal evaluation is made in both countries through the Committees' summary reports to Parliament. Transparent procedures like the Dutch may better facilitate societal control. Informing physicians about the law and the due care requirements for euthanasia, and systematic feedback about their medical actions are both pivotal to achieving efficient societal control and engendering the level of care needed when performing such far-reaching medical acts.

  11. Dying cancer patients' own opinions on euthanasia: an expression of autonomy? A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Marit; Milberg, Anna; Strang, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Deliberations on euthanasia are mostly theoretical, and often lack first-hand perspectives of the affected persons. Sixty-six patients suffering from cancer in a palliative phase were interviewed about their perspectives of euthanasia in relation to autonomy. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using qualitative content analysis with no predetermined categories. The informants expressed different positions on euthanasia, ranging from support to opposition, but the majority were undecided due to the complexity of the problem. The informants' perspectives on euthanasia in relation to autonomy focused on decision making, being affected by (1) power and (2) trust. Legalization of euthanasia was perceived as either (a) increasing patient autonomy by patient empowerment, or (b) decreasing patient autonomy by increasing the medical power of the health care staff, which could be frightening. The informants experienced dependence on others, and expressed various levels of trust in others' intentions, ranging from full trust to complete mistrust. Dying cancer patients perceive that they cannot feel completely independent, which affects true autonomous decision making. Further, when considering legalization of euthanasia, the perspectives of patients fearing the effects of legalization should also be taken into account, not only those of patients opting for it.

  12. [Terminal sedation: consultation with a second physician as is the case in euthanasia and assisted suicide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsioen, B P; Schuurman, W H A Elink; van den Hurk, A J P M; van der Poel, B N M; Runia, E H

    2005-02-26

    In terminally-ill patients in the Netherlands deep sedation by means of a continuous subcutaneous infusion with midazolam occurs more frequently than euthanasia and assisted suicide. Deep terminal sedation is applied to relieve symptoms during the phase of dying, but in contrast to euthanasia and assisted suicide, does not hasten death. In three terminally-ill patients, a 65-year-old man suffering from pulmonary carcinoma, a 94-year-old woman with general malaise, nausea and anorexia, and a 79-year-old woman in the final stage of ovarian carcinoma, a general-practitioner advisor was consulted about an end-of-life decision--deep terminal sedation versus euthanasia or assisted suicide. The first two patients were given deep sedation until death, in both cases a day and a half later. The third patient's request for euthanasia was considered to meet the legal criteria for euthanasia. Compliance with the Dutch statutory criteria for due care in euthanasia and assisted suicide might also be helpful when deciding about terminal deep sedation, but the role and responsibility of the attending physician may differ. However, the radical effects of sedation on the terminally-ill patient and the rapid changes in the clinical situation of the patient when the decision to sedate is taken, both emphasize the need for consultation with another physician.

  13. Two decades of research on euthanasia from the Netherlands. What have we learnt and what questions remain?

    OpenAIRE

    Rietjens, Judith; Maas, Paul; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje; Delden, Hans; Heide, Agnes

    2009-01-01

    textabstractTwo decades of research on euthanasia in the Netherlands have resulted into clear insights in the frequency and characteristics of euthanasia and other medical end-of-life decisions in the Netherlands. These empirical studies have contributed to the quality of the public debate, and to the regulating and public control of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide. No slippery slope seems to have occurred. Physicians seem to adhere to the criteria for due care in the large majority...

  14. Attitudes of belgian students of medicine, philosophy, and law toward euthanasia and the conditions for its acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelands, Marc; Van den Block, Lieve; Geurts, Sylvie; Deliens, Luc; Cohen, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Euthanasia is legal in Belgium if due care criteria are met, which is judged by committees including physicians, ethicists, and jurists. We examined whether students in these disciplines differ in how they judge euthanasia as an acceptable act. A cross-sectional, anonymous e-mail survey revealed that they have similar attitudes and accept its legalization. Therefore, joint decision-making of physicians, ethicists, and lawyers regarding euthanasia seems to have a common attitudinal base in Belgium. However, they differ to some extent regarding the conditions they put forward for euthanasia being acceptable. Philosophy of life (religion) was an independent predictor of these attitudes.

  15. Vulnerability and the 'slippery slope' at the end-of-life: a qualitative study of euthanasia, general practice and home death in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwood, Frances; Kimsma, Gerrit; Battin, Margaret P

    2009-12-01

    One enduring criticism of the Dutch euthanasia policy is the 'slippery slope' argument that suggests that allowing physicians to conduct legal euthanasia or assisted suicide would eventually lead to patients being killed against their will. What we currently know about euthanasia and its practices in The Netherlands is predominantly based on retrospective quantitative or interview-based studies, but these studies fail to detail the mechanisms of day-to-day practice. To examine the practices that surround euthanasia, particularly among vulnerable patients, using qualitative observation-based data. A 15-month qualitative, observation-based study of home death and general practice in the greater Amsterdam region of The Netherlands. Study included observation and interviews with a sample of 15 (GPs and 650 of their patients, 192 of whom were living with terminal or life-threatening illness (with and without requests for euthanasia). Euthanasia practice typically involves extensive deliberations, the majority of which do not end in a euthanasia death. Euthanasia discussions or 'euthanasia talk' share at least two consequences: (i) the talk puts the onus on patients to continue discussions towards a euthanasia death and (ii) there is a socio-therapeutic component, which tends to affirm social bonds and social life. While this qualitative evidence cannot disprove existence of abuse, it suggests that euthanasia practices have evolved in such a way that patients are more likely to talk about euthanasia than to die a euthanasia death.

  16. Involuntary euthanasia of severely ill newborns: is the Groningen Protocol really dangerous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voultsos, P; Chatzinikolaou, F

    2014-01-01

    Advances in medicine can reduce active euthanasia of newborns with severe anomalies or unusual prematurity, but they cannot eliminate it. In the Netherlands, voluntary active euthanasia among adults and adolescents has been allowed since 2002, when the so-called Groningen Protocol (GP) was formulated as an extension of the law on extremely premature and severely ill newborns. It is maintained that, at bioethical level, it serves the principle of beneficence. Other European countries do not accept the GP, including Belgium. Admissibility of active euthanasia is a necessary, though inadequate, condition for acceptance of the GP. Greece generally prohibits euthanasia, although the legal doctrine considers some of the forms of euthanasia permissible, but not active or involuntary euthanasia. The wide acceptance of passive newborns euthanasia, especially when the gestational age of the newborns is 22-25 weeks ("grey zone"), admissibility of practices within the limits between active and passive euthanasia (e.g., withholding/withdrawing), of "indirect active euthanasia" and abortion of the late fetus, the tendency to accept after-birth-abortion (infanticide) in the bioethical theory, the lower threshold for application of withdrawing in neonatal intensive care units compared with pediatric intensive care units, all the above advocate wider acceptance of the GP. However, the GP paves the way for a wide application of involuntary (or pseudo-voluntary) euthanasia (slippery slope) and contains some ambiguous concepts and requirements (e.g., "unbearable suffering"). It is suggested that the approach to the sensitive and controversial ethical dilemmas concerning the severely ill newborns is done not through the GP, but rather, through a combination of virtue bioethics (especially in the countries of the so-called "Mediterranean bioethical zone") and of the principles of principlism which is enriched, however, with the "principle of mutuality" (enhancement of all values and

  17. Physicians and euthanasia: a Canadian print-media discourse analysis of physician perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, David Kenneth; Karsoho, Hadi; Sandham, Sarah; Macdonald, Mary Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent events in Canada have mobilized public debate concerning the controversial issue of euthanasia. Physicians represent an essential stakeholder group with respect to the ethics and practice of euthanasia. Further, their opinions can hold sway with the public, and their public views about this issue may further reflect back upon the medical profession itself. Methods We conducted a discourse analysis of print media on physicians’ perspectives about end-of-life care. Print media, in English and French, that appeared in Canadian newspapers from 2008 to 2012 were retrieved through a systematic database search. We analyzed the content of 285 articles either authored by a physician or directly referencing a physician’s perspective. Results We identified 3 predominant discourses about physicians’ public views toward euthanasia: 1) contentions about integrating euthanasia within the basic mission of medicine, 2) assertions about whether euthanasia can be distinguished from other end-of-life medical practices and 3) palliative care advocacy. Interpretation Our data showed that although some medical professional bodies appear to be supportive in the media of a movement toward the legalization of euthanasia, individual physicians are represented as mostly opposed. Professional physician organizations and the few physicians who have engaged with the media are de facto representing physicians in public contemporary debates on medical aid in dying, in general, and euthanasia, in particular. It is vital for physicians to be aware of this public debate, how they are being portrayed within it and its potential effects on impending changes to provincial and national policies. PMID:26389090

  18. Nurses attitudes towards death, dying patients and euthanasia: A descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ay, Melike Ayça; Öz, Fatma

    2018-01-01

    Attitudes of nurses towards death and related concepts influence end-of-life care. Determining nurses' views and attitudes towards these concepts and the factors that affect them are necessary to ensure quality end-of-life care. The purpose of this study was to determine nurses' views and attitudes about death, dying patient, euthanasia and the relationships between nurses' characteristics. Participants consist of the nurses who volunteered to take part in this descriptive study from 25 hospitals (n = 340) which has a paediatric or adult intensive care unit and located within the boundaries of Ankara, Turkey. 'Nurse Information Form' and 'Attitude Scale about Euthanasia, Death and Dying Patients (DAS)' were used as data collection tool. Ethical consideration: Written permissions were received from the 'Noninterventional Clinical Researches Ethics Board' of authors' university and education councils of each hospital. Informed consent was obtained from participants. It is found that there are statistically significant difference among the factors of marital status, having a child, years of experience, bereavement experience, affected by working with dying patient, definition of euthanasia, views about patients who are appropriate for euthanasia, views about patients who desire to die and feeling need for counselling on these concepts according to the mean total score of nurses' attitudes about euthanasia, death and dying patient (p euthanasia and work with dying patient. This is reflected in their attitude. In order to gain positive attitude towards death, dying patient and euthanasia, the implementation of training and consulting services to nurses at appropriate intervals during both education and professional life are required.

  19. Should euthanasia be legal? An international survey of neonatal intensive care units staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuttini, M; Casotto, V; Kaminski, M; de Beaufort, I; Berbik, I; Hansen, G; Kollée, L; Kucinskas, A; Lenoir, S; Levin, A; Orzalesi, M; Persson, J; Rebagliato, M; Reid, M; Saracci, R

    2004-01-01

    To present the views of a representative sample of neonatal doctors and nurses in 10 European countries on the moral acceptability of active euthanasia and its legal regulation. A total of 142 neonatal intensive care units were recruited by census (in the Netherlands, Sweden, Hungary, and the Baltic countries) or random sampling (in France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom); 1391 doctors and 3410 nurses completed an anonymous questionnaire (response rates 89% and 86% respectively). The staff opinion that the law in their country should be changed to allow active euthanasia "more than now". Active euthanasia appeared to be both acceptable and practiced in the Netherlands, France, and to a lesser extent Lithuania, and less acceptable in Sweden, Hungary, Italy, and Spain. More then half (53%) of the doctors in the Netherlands, but only a quarter (24%) in France felt that the law should be changed to allow active euthanasia "more than now". For 40% of French doctors, end of life issues should not be regulated by law. Being male, regular involvement in research, less than six years professional experience, and having ever participated in a decision of active euthanasia were positively associated with an opinion favouring relaxation of legal constraints. Having had children, religiousness, and believing in the absolute value of human life showed a negative association. Nurses were slightly more likely to consider active euthanasia acceptable in selected circumstances, and to feel that the law should be changed to allow it more than now. Opinions of health professionals vary widely between countries, and, even where neonatal euthanasia is already practiced, do not uniformly support its legalisation.

  20. Nursing staff and euthanasia in the Netherlands. A nation-wide survey on attitudes and involvement in decision making and the performance of euthanasia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francke, A.L.; Albers, G.; Bilsen, J.; Veer, A.J.E. de; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.D.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To give insight into Dutch nursing staff’s attitudes and involvement regarding euthanasia. Methods: The sample was recruited from a nation-wide existent research panel of registered nurses and certified nursing assistants. Descriptive analyses and multivariate logistic regression

  1. Differences between terminally ill cancer patients who died after euthanasia had been performed and terminally ill cancer patients who did not request euthanasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georges, J.J.; Philipsen, B.D.; van der, Wal G.; van der, Heide A.; van der Maas, P.J.

    2005-01-01

    Palliative care, directed at improving the quality of life of terminally ill patients, is generally not aimed at any form of postponing or hastening death. It is possible that high quality palliative care could prevent requests for euthanasia. However, empirical evidence on this issue is scarce. In

  2. Attitudes on euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide among medical students in Athens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontaxakis, Vp; Paplos, K G; Havaki-Kontaxaki, B J; Ferentinos, P; Kontaxaki, M-I V; Kollias, C T; Lykouras, E

    2009-10-01

    Attitudes towards assisted death activities among medical students, the future health gatekeepers, are scarce and controversial. The aims of this study were to explore attitudes on euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide among final year medical students in Athens, to investigate potential differences in attitudes between male and female medical students and to review worldwide attitudes of medical students regarding assisted death activities. A 20- item questionnaire was used. The total number of participants was 251 (mean age 24.7±1.8 years). 52.0% and 69.7% of the respondents were for the acceptance of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide, respectively. Women's attitudes were more often influenced by religious convictions as well as by the fact that there is a risk that physician-assisted suicide might be misused with certain disadvantaged groups. On the other hand, men more often believed that a request for physician-assisted suicide from a terminally ill patient is prima-facie evidence of a mental disorder, usually depression. Concerning attitudes towards euthanasia among medical students in various countries there are contradictory results. In USA, the Netherlands, Hungary and Switzerland most of the students supported euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide. However, in many other countries such as Norway, Sweden, Yugoslavia, Italy, Germany, Sudan, Malaysia and Puerto Rico most students expressed negative positions regarding euthanasia and physician assisted suicide.

  3. Public acceptance of euthanasia in Europe: a survey study in 47 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joachim; Van Landeghem, Paul; Carpentier, Nico; Deliens, Luc

    2014-02-01

    In recent years, the European euthanasia debate has become more intense, and the practice was legalized in the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg. We aimed to determine the current degree of public acceptance of euthanasia across Europe and investigate what factors explain differences. Data were derived from the 2008 wave of the European Values Survey (EVS), conducted in 47 European countries (N = 67,786, response rate = 69 %). Acceptance of euthanasia was rated on a 1-10 scale. Relatively high acceptance was found in a small cluster of Western European countries, including the three countries that have legalized euthanasia and Denmark, France, Sweden and Spain. In a large part of Europe public acceptance was relatively low to moderate. Comparison with the results of the previous EVS wave (1999) suggests a tendency towards a polarization in Europe, with most of Western Europe becoming more permissive and most of Eastern Europe becoming less permissive. There is roughly a West-East division in euthanasia acceptance among the European public, making a pan-European policy approach to the issue difficult.

  4. Mahātmā Gandhi's view on euthanasia and assisted suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gielen, Joris

    2012-07-01

    To many in India and elsewhere, the life and thoughts of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi are a source of inspiration. The idea of non-violence was pivotal in his thinking. In this context, Gandhi reflected upon the possibility of what is now called 'euthanasia' and 'assisted suicide'. So far, his views on these practices have not been properly studied. In his reflections on euthanasia and assisted suicide, Gandhi shows himself to be a contextually flexible thinker. In spite of being a staunch defender of non-violence, Gandhi was aware that violence may sometimes be unavoidable. Under certain conditions, killing a living being could even be an expression of non-violence. He argued that in a few rare cases it may be better to kill people who are suffering unbearably at the end of life. In this way, he seems to support euthanasia and assisted suicide. Yet, Gandhi also thought that as long as care can be extended to a dying patient, his or her suffering could be relieved. Since in most cases relief was thus possible, euthanasia and assisted suicide were in fact redundant. By stressing the importance of care and nursing as an alternative to euthanasia and assisted suicide, Gandhi unconsciously made himself an early advocate of palliative care in India. This observation could be used to strengthen and promote the further development of palliative care in India.

  5. Emotional and psychological effects of physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia on participating physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Kenneth R

    2006-01-01

    This is a review and evaluation of medical and public literature regarding the reported emotional and psychological effects of participation in physician-assisted suicide (PAS) and euthanasia on the involved physicians. Articles in medical journals, legislative investigations and the public press were obtained and reviewed to determine what has been reported regarding the effects on physicians who have been personally involved in PAS and euthanasia. The physician is centrally involved in PAS and euthanasia, and the emotional and psychological effects on the participating physician can be substantial. The shift away from the fundamental values of medicine to heal and promote human wholeness can have significant effects on many participating physicians. Doctors describe being profoundly adversely affected, being shocked by the suddenness of the death, being caught up in the patient's drive for assisted suicide, having a sense of powerlessness, and feeling isolated. There is evidence of pressure on and intimidation of doctors by some patients to assist in suicide. The effect of countertransference in the doctor-patient relationship may influence physician involvement in PAS and euthanasia. Many doctors who have participated in euthanasia and/or PAS are adversely affected emotionally and psychologically by their experiences.

  6. Culturally sanctioned suicide: Euthanasia, seppuku, and terrorist martyrdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Joseph M

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is one of the greatest concerns in psychiatric practice, with considerable efforts devoted to prevention. The psychiatric view of suicide tends to equate it with depression or other forms of mental illness. However, some forms of suicide occur independently of mental illness and within a framework of cultural sanctioning such that they aren’t regarded as suicide at all. Despite persistent taboos against suicide, euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide in the context of terminal illness is increasingly accepted as a way to preserve autonomy and dignity in the West. Seppuku, the ancient samurai ritual of suicide by self-stabbing, was long considered an honorable act of self-resolve such that despite the removal of cultural sanctioning, the rate of suicide in Japan remains high with suicide masquerading as seppuku still carried out both there and abroad. Suicide as an act of murder and terrorism is a practice currently popular with Islamic militants who regard it as martyrdom in the context of war. The absence of mental illness and the presence of cultural sanctioning do not mean that suicide should not be prevented. Culturally sanctioned suicide must be understood in terms of the specific motivations that underlie the choice of death over life. Efforts to prevent culturally sanctioned suicide must focus on alternatives to achieve similar ends and must ultimately be implemented within cultures to remove the sanctioning of self-destructive acts. PMID:25815251

  7. Species specific anaesthetics for fish anaesthesia and euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Readman, Gareth D; Owen, Stewart F; Knowles, Toby G; Murrell, Joanna C

    2017-08-02

    There is a need to ensure that the care and welfare for fish maintained in the laboratory are to the highest standards. This extends to the use of anaesthetics for both scientific study, humane killing and euthanasia at end of life. An anaesthetic should not induce negative behaviours and fish should not seek to avoid the anaesthetic. Surprisingly little information is available to facilitate a humane choice of anaesthetic agent for fish despite over 100 years of use and the millions of fish currently held in thousands of laboratories worldwide. Using a chemotaxic choice chamber we found different species specific behavioural responses among four closely related fish species commonly held in the laboratory, exposed to three widely used anaesthetic agents. As previously found for zebrafish (Danio rerio), the use of MS-222 and benzocaine also appears to induce avoidance behaviours in medaka (Oryzias latipes); but etomidate could provide an alternative choice. Carp (Cyprinus carpio), although closely related to zebrafish showed avoidance behaviours to etomidate, but not benzocaine or MS-222; and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) showed no avoidance to the three agents tested. We were unable to ascertain avoidance responses in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and suggest different test paradigms are required for that species.

  8. Physician assisted suicide: the great Canadian euthanasia debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    A substantial majority of Canadians favours a change to the Criminal Code which would make it legally permissible, subject to careful regulation, for patients suffering from incurable physical illness to opt for either physician assisted suicide (PAS) or voluntary active euthanasia (VAE). This discussion will focus primarily on the arguments for and against decriminalizing physician assisted suicide, with special reference to the British Columbia case of Lee Carter vs. Attorney General of Canada. The aim is to critique the arguments and at the same time to describe the contours of the current Canadian debate. Both ethical and legal issues raised by PAS are clarified. Empirical evidence available from jurisdictions which have followed the regulatory route is presented and its relevance to the slippery slope argument is considered. The arguments presented by both sides are critically assessed. The conclusion suggested is that evidence of harms to vulnerable individuals or to society, consequent upon legalization, is insufficient to support continued denial of freedom to those competent adults who seek physician assistance in hastening their death. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Death with dignity and euthanasia: comparative European approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byk, Christian

    2007-09-01

    From 1800 to 1960, the average life expectancy doubled making medical activities a fight against death. In doing so, the dying process became medicalized. Some infectious diseases clearly disappeared while new surgical interventions, such as organ transplants, may be viewed as some kinds of human resuscitation. Sociologically, medicine has replaced religion and doctors are the new priests of our techno society. Paradoxically this has created a new fear The artificial process of dying is replacing death but it is transforming the individuals into artificially supported and suffering bodies relying on medical supervision while the family is left away, making social solidarity and compassion a relic of the past. There comes the wish to re appropriate our own death, to give a true meaning to the dying process by making it peaceful and respectful of our human dignity. This evolution takes place in a very controversial context because it is founded on various and contradictory attitudes. A rights based approach will support both the termination of futile treatment and active euthanasia while a duty-based approach will allow the physicians to accept responding positively to death claims that follow some predetermined criteria and refused others.

  10. Two decades of research on euthanasia from the Netherlands. What have we learnt and what questions remain?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A.C. Rietjens (Judith); P.J. van der Maas (Paul); B.D. Onwuteaka-Philipsen (Bregje); J.J.M. van Delden (Hans); A. van der Heide (Agnes)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractTwo decades of research on euthanasia in the Netherlands have resulted into clear insights in the frequency and characteristics of euthanasia and other medical end-of-life decisions in the Netherlands. These empirical studies have contributed to the quality of the public debate, and to

  11. Cultural differences affecting euthanasia practice in Belgium: One law but different attitudes and practices in Flanders and Wallonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, J.; van Wesemael, Y.; Smets, T.; Bilsen, J.; Deliens, L.

    2012-01-01

    Since 2002, Belgium has had a national law legalising euthanasia. The law prescribes several substantive due care requirements and two procedural due care requirements, i.e. consultation with an independent physician and reporting of euthanasia to a Federal Control Committee. A large discrepancy in

  12. Terminating a Child’s Life? Religious, Moral, Cognitive, and Emotional Factors Underlying Non-Acceptance of Child Euthanasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csilla Deak

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Is opposition to child euthanasia motivated only by ideology, or also by other personality characteristics and individual differences? In Belgium, the first country to legalize child euthanasia (in 2014, we investigated religious, moral, emotional, and cognitive factors underlying the (disapproval of this legalization ('N' = 213. Disapproval was associated with religiousness, collectivistic morality (loyalty and purity, and prosocial dispositions, in terms of emotional empathy and behavioral generosity, but not values (care and fairness. It was also associated with low flexibility in existential issues and a high endorsement of slippery slope arguments, but not necessarily low openness to experience. A regression analysis showed that in addition to religiousness, low flexibility in existential issues and high empathy and generosity distinctly predicted opposition to child euthanasia. Whereas most of the findings parallel those previously reported for adult euthanasia, the role of prosocial inclinations in predicting moral opposition seems to be specific to child euthanasia.

  13. Support for voluntary and nonvoluntary euthanasia: what roles do conditions of suffering and the identity of the terminally ill play?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Robert; Chantagul, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the level of support for voluntary and nonvoluntary euthanasia under three conditions of suffering (pain; debilitated nature of the body; burden on the family) experienced by oneself, a significant other, and a person in general. The sample consisted of 1,897 Thai adults (719 males, 1,178 females) who voluntarily filled in the study's questionnaire. Initial multivariate analysis of variance indicated significant group (oneself, significant other, person in general) differences in level of support for voluntary and nonvoluntary euthanasia and under the three conditions of suffering. Multigroup path analysis conducted on the posited euthanasia model showed that the three conditions of suffering exerted differential direct and indirect influences on the support of voluntary and nonvoluntary euthanasia as a function of the identity of the person for whom euthanasia was being considered. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  14. Self-Euthanasia, the Dutch Experience: In Search for the Meaning of a Good Death or Eu Thanatos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vink, Ton

    2016-11-01

    My main purpose in this article is to establish the meaning of a 'good death' when death is self-chosen. I will take as my point of departure the new notion of 'self-euthanasia' and the corresponding practice that has evolved in the Netherlands in recent years. Both physician-euthanasia and self-euthanasia refer to an ideal process of a good death, the first being ultimately the physician's responsibility, while the second is definitely the responsibility of the individual choosing to die. However, if we also accept the existence of a fundamental moral difference between ending another person's life and ending your own life, and if we accept this moral difference to be also relevant to the normatively laden good death, then this difference represents a strong reason for preferring self-euthanasia to physician-euthanasia. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. [After the Action T4 : "Regionalized euthanasia" in the Günzburg Psychiatric Hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söhner, F; V Cranach, M; Fangerau, H; Becker, T

    2017-09-01

    In Bavarian psychiatric hospitals approximately 15,000 people with mental handicaps and mental illnesses were killed after the so-called Action T4. The Heil- und Pflegeanstalt (psychiatric hospital) Günzburg was a so-called Zwischenanstalt (interim institution). The aim of the study was to analyze its role in carrying out "regionalized euthanasia". Based on defined criteria the patient records of deceased patients at the Günzburg Psychiatric Hospital between July 1941 and December 1943 were analyzed to establish whether criteria for "regionalized euthanasia" were fulfilled. During the study period 45 patients at the Günzburg Psychiatric Hospital probably died following actions by direct or indirect intention to kill using malnutrition, neglect, medication overdose or a combination of these actions. The Günzburg Psychiatric Hospital was involved in "regionalized euthanasia".

  16. Euthanasia and normality in Romania or Being reluctant to a good death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Petra Marinescu-Nenciu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper explores the perspectives of introducing human euthanasia on the Romanian public agenda by using the realm of normality as framework for argumentation. When choosing the topic I was inspired by the growing debate regarding physician-assisted suicide in the context of the global population aging on the one hand and by a recent Romanian public opinion’s strong opposition to the organization of a national referendum regarding stray dogs’ euthanasia. The premises of the paper are based on the findings of various studies underlining 1 the traditional feature of the Romanians and 2 their poor health condition prone to make them anxious and also more preoccupied with their well-being. The argumentation points to the fact that in a modern society as the Romanian one, the concepts of euthanasia and normality are prone to enter a complex relationship with various displays and implications that are discussed further on in the paper.

  17. Human dignity and the future of the voluntary active euthanasia debate in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordaan, Donrich W

    2017-04-25

    The issue of voluntary active euthanasia was thrust into the public policy arena by the Stransham-Ford lawsuit. The High Court legalised voluntary active euthanasia - however, ostensibly only in the specific case of Mr Stransham-Ford. The Supreme Court of Appeal overturned the High Court judgment on technical grounds, not on the merits. This means that in future the courts can be approached again to consider the legalisation of voluntary active euthanasia. As such, Stransham-Ford presents a learning opportunity for both sides of the legalisation divide. In particular, conceptual errors pertaining to human dignity were made in Stransham-Ford, and can be avoided in future. In this article, I identify these errors and propose the following three corrective principles to inform future debate on the subject: (i) human dignity is violable; (ii) human suffering violates human dignity; and (iii) the 'natural' causes of suffering due to terminal illness do not exclude the application of human dignity.

  18. U.K. physicians' attitudes toward active voluntary euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, George E; Lancaster, Carol J; Clark, David; Ahmedzai, Sam H; Noble, William

    2002-01-01

    A comparison of the views of geriatric medicine physicians and intensive care physicians in the United Kingdom on the topics of active voluntary euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide revealed rather different attitudes. Eighty percent of geriatricians, but only 52% of intensive care physicians, considered active voluntary euthanasia as never justified ethically. Gender and age did not play a major part in attitudinal differences of the respondents. If the variability of attitudes of these two medical specialties are anywhere near illustrative of other physicians in the United Kingdom, it would be difficult to formulate and implement laws and policies concerning euthanasia and assisted suicide. In addition, ample safeguards would be required to receive support from physicians regarding legalization.

  19. Killing people: what Kant could have said about suicide and euthanasia but did not

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassington, I

    2006-01-01

    An agent who takes his own life acts in violation of the moral law, according to Kant; suicide, and, by extension, assisted suicide are therefore wrong. By a similar argument, and with a few important exceptions, killing is wrong; implicitly, then, voluntary euthanasia is also wrong. Kant's conclusions are uncompelling and his argument in these matters is undermined on considering other areas of his thought. Kant, in forbidding suicide and euthanasia, is conflating respect for persons and respect for people, and assuming that, in killing a person (either oneself or another), we are thereby undermining personhood. But an argument along these lines is faulty according to Kant's own standards. There is no reason why Kantians have to accept that self‐killing and euthanasia are contrary to the moral law. Even if some Kantians adhere to this doctrine, others can reject it. PMID:17012496

  20. First Do No Harm: Euthanasia of Patients with Dementia in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Almagor, Raphael

    2016-02-01

    In Memory of Ed Pellegrino. Euthanasia in Belgium is not limited to terminally ill patients. It may be applied to patients with chronic degenerative diseases. Currently, people in Belgium wish to make it possible to euthanize incompetent patients who suffer from dementia. This article explains the Belgian law and then explores arguments for and against euthanasia of patients with dementia. It probes the dementia paradox by elucidating Dworkin's distinction between critical and experiential interests, arguing that at the end-of-life this distinction is not clearcut. It argues against euthanasia for patients with dementia, for respecting patients' humanity and for providing them with more care, compassion, and good doctoring. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Method of Euthanasia Influences the Oocyte Fertilization Rate with Fresh Mouse Sperm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazzard, Karen C; Watkins-Chow, Dawn E; Garrett, Lisa J

    2014-01-01

    In vitro fertilization (IVF) is used to produce mouse embryos for a variety of reasons. We evaluated the effect of the method of euthanasia on the fertilization rate in 2 different IVF protocols. Oocytes collected from C57BL/6J female mice euthanized by CO2 inhalation or cervical dislocation were used in IVF with fresh sperm from either wild-type or genetically engineered C57BL/6J. Compared with CO2 inhalation, cervical dislocation improved the resulting rate of fertilization by 18% in an IVF method using Cook media and by 13% in an IVF method using methyl-B cyclodextrin and reduced glutathione. The lower fertilization rate due to euthanasia by CO2 inhalation was accompanied by changes in blood pH and body temperature despite efforts to minimize temperature drops. In our hands, euthanasia by cervical dislocation improved fertilization rates and consequently reduced the number of egg-donor mice required. PMID:25650969

  2. Can hospitals prohibit euthanasia? An analysis from a European human rights perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tack, Sylvie

    2011-06-01

    At present, in four European countries euthanasia and/ or physician assisted suicide (PAS) are tolerated under strict legal conditions. However, in practice these patient groups are often deprived of the possibility to undergo such decisions. Particularly Catholic health care institutions have developed policies which restrict the internal application of the law. Yet, the legitimacy of such policies is questionable. From a European human rights perspective it can be defended that the freedom of association allows hospitals to develop policies elaborating their ethical stances on euthanasia and PAS. However, to respect the patient's right to self-determination the concerned hospitals should at least inform current and future patients about the restrictive policy and deal carefully with euthanasia and PAS requests. If a patient's wish remains seriously incompatible with the ethical stances of the hospital, at least reasonable and attainable alternatives (such as a referral to a tolerant regional hospital) should be offered.

  3. Ancient euthanasia: 'good death' and the doctor in the graeco-Roman world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hooff, Anton J L

    2004-03-01

    This article maps the concept of 'good death' (euthanasia) in the ancient world and explores the marginal role of the doctor at a 'good dying'. His assistance was not needed when the Homeric warrior died as a hero and was expected to accept death with resignation. Later the city-state regarded as heroes the men fallen for the cause of the community, honouring these model citizens as those who died well. In the more individualistic age of Hellenism and the Roman Empire, a death in luxury or without suffering could be styled euthanasia. The doctor had neither a place in those acts of dying nor in cases of natural death. He shunned death as a failure of his art. Sometimes a doctor was called in to assist in voluntary death, a role that was not forbidden by the Hippocratic oath. An appeal to this oath by opponents of euthanasia in the modern sense of the word therefore is mistaken.

  4. Killing people: what Kant could have said about suicide and euthanasia but did not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassington, I

    2006-10-01

    An agent who takes his own life acts in violation of the moral law, according to Kant; suicide, and, by extension, assisted suicide are therefore wrong. By a similar argument, and with a few important exceptions, killing is wrong; implicitly, then, voluntary euthanasia is also wrong. Kant's conclusions are uncompelling and his argument in these matters is undermined on considering other areas of his thought. Kant, in forbidding suicide and euthanasia, is conflating respect for persons and respect for people, and assuming that, in killing a person (either oneself or another), we are thereby undermining personhood. But an argument along these lines is faulty according to Kant's own standards. There is no reason why Kantians have to accept that self-killing and euthanasia are contrary to the moral law. Even if some Kantians adhere to this doctrine, others can reject it.

  5. Method of euthanasia influences the oocyte fertilization rate with fresh mouse sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazzard, Karen C; Watkins-Chow, Dawn E; Garrett, Lisa J

    2014-11-01

    In vitro fertilization (IVF) is used to produce mouse embryos for a variety of reasons. We evaluated the effect of the method of euthanasia on the fertilization rate in 2 different IVF protocols. Oocytes collected from C57BL/6J female mice euthanized by CO2 inhalation or cervical dislocation were used in IVF with fresh sperm from either wild-type or genetically engineered C57BL/6J. Compared with CO2 inhalation, cervical dislocation improved the resulting rate of fertilization by 18% in an IVF method using Cook media and by 13% in an IVF method using methyl-B cyclodextrin and reduced glutathione. The lower fertilization rate due to euthanasia by CO2 inhalation was accompanied by changes in blood pH and body temperature despite efforts to minimize temperature drops. In our hands, euthanasia by cervical dislocation improved fertilization rates and consequently reduced the number of egg-donor mice required.

  6. [Werner Catel--a protagonist in Nazi "pediatric euthanasia" and his post-war career].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Hans-Christian; Zankel, Sönke

    2003-01-01

    This article deals with the biography of Werner Catel, a German paediatrician and protagonist of the Nazi programme for "euthanasia of children". Based on original research into recently discovered source materials, two aspects of Catel's life are considered. Firstly, Catel's attitude towards "euthanasia" is analysed. This analysis is not limited to the period of National Socialism, but focuses also on the phase before 1933 and especially on the era after 1945. Secondly, the authors explore Catel's academic career. What effects on his career in the later Federal Republic of Germany had his exposed role in the Nazi programme for "euthanasia of children"? In this context it is also examined how the Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel/Germany, which employed Catel until 1960 in a leading position, judged the work of its former professor after his death.

  7. Boundaries, borders, and limits. A phenomenological reflection on ethics and euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leget, C

    2006-05-01

    The subject of euthanasia divides both people and nations. It will always continue to do so because the arguments for and against this issue are intrinsically related to each other. This paper offers an analysis of the interrelation of the arguments, departing from a phenomenology of boundaries. From the participant perspective the boundary of euthanasia appears as a limit. From a helicopter perspective it appears as a border. Reflecting on both perspectives they turn out to complement each other: the positive effects of the former correspond to the negative effects of the latter. In order to see how this interrelation of viewpoints works out in the case of euthanasia a paradigmatic case is analysed from the perspective of the patient, the doctor, and the family. This phenomenological analysis does not directly lead to normative conclusions. It helps by both paying attention to, and dealing with, the complexity of the issue with intellectual honesty.

  8. Animal research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I.A.S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the ethical issues in animal research using a combined approach of ethical theory and analysis of scientific findings with bearing on the ethical analysis. The article opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. The use of animals...... in research is analyzed from the viewpoint of three distinct ethical approaches: contractarianism, utilitarianism, and animal rights view. On a contractarian view, research on animals is only an ethical issue to the extent that other humans as parties to the social contract care about how research animals...... are faring. From the utilitarian perspective, the use of sentient animals in research that may harm them is an ethical issue, but harm done to animals can be balanced by benefit generated for humans and other animals. The animal rights view, when thoroughgoing, is abolitionist as regards the use of animals...

  9. Isoflurane is a suitable alternative to ether for anesthetizing rats prior to euthanasia for gene expression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsu, Noriyuki; Igarashi, Yoshinobu; Aoshi, Taiki; Hamaguchi, Isao; Saito, Masumichi; Mizukami, Takuo; Momose, Haruka; Ishii, Ken J; Yamada, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Diethyl ether (ether) had been widely used in Japan for anesthesia, despite its explosive properties and toxicity to both humans and animals. We also had used ether as an anesthetic for euthanizing rats for research in the Toxicogenomics Project (TGP). Because the use of ether for these purposes will likely cease, it is required to select an alternative anesthetic which is validated for consistency with existing TGP data acquired under ether anesthesia. We therefore compared two alternative anesthetic candidates, isoflurane and pentobarbital, with ether in terms of hematological findings, serum biochemical parameters, and gene expressions. As a result, few differences among the three agents were observed. In hematological and serum biochemistry analysis, no significant changes were found. In gene expression analysis, four known genes were extracted as differentially expressed genes in the liver of rats anesthetized with ether, isoflurane, or pentobarbital. However, no significant relationships were detected using gene ontology, pathway, or gene enrichment analyses by DAVID and TargetMine. Surprisingly, although it was expected that the lung would be affected by administration via inhalation, only one differentially expressed gene was extracted in the lung. Taken together, our data indicate that there are no significant differences among ether, isoflurane, and pentobarbital with respect to effects on hematological parameters, serum biochemistry parameters, and gene expression. Based on its smallest affect to existing data and its safety profile for humans and animals, we suggest isoflurane as a suitable alternative anesthetic for use in rat euthanasia in toxicogenomics analysis.

  10. Euthanasia and assisted suicide in Dutch hospitals: the role of nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bruchem-van de Scheur, G G; van der Arend, Arie J G; Huijer Abu-Saad, Huda; van Wijmen, Frans C B; Spreeuwenberg, Cor; Ter Meulen, Ruud H J

    2008-06-01

    To report a study on the role of nurses in euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide in hospitals, conducted as part of a wider study on the role of nurses in medical end-of-life decisions. Issues concerning legislation and regulation with respect to the role of nurses in euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide gave the Dutch Minister for Health reason to commission a study on the role of nurses in medical end-of-life decisions in hospitals, homecare and nursing homes. A questionnaire was sent in 2003 to 692 nurses employed in 73 hospital locations. The response suitable for analysis was from 532 (76.9%) nurses. Data were quantitatively analysed using spss version 11.5 for Windows. In almost half of the cases (45.1%), the nurse was the first with whom patients discussed their request for euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide. Consultations between physicians and nurses quite often took place (78.8%). In several cases (15.4%), nurses themselves administered the euthanatics with or without a physician. It is not self-evident that hospitals have guidelines concerning euthanasia/physician-assisted suicide. In the decision-making process, the consultation between the physician and the nurse needs improvement. In administering the euthanatics, physicians should take responsibility and should not leave these actions to nurses. Guidelines may play an important role to improve the collaboration between physicians and nurses and to prevent procedural, ethical and legal misunderstandings. Nurses in clinical practice are often closely involved in the last stage of a person's life. Consequently, they are often confronted with caring for patients requesting euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide. The results provide relevant information and may help nurses in defining their role in euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide, especially in case these practices should become legalised.

  11. Establishing specialized health services for professional consultation in euthanasia: experiences in the Netherlands and Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilsen Johan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg have adopted laws decriminalizing euthanasia under strict conditions of prudent practice. These laws stipulate, among other things, that the attending physician should consult an independent colleague to judge whether the substantive criteria of due care have been met. In this context initiatives were taken in the Netherlands and Belgium to establish specialized services providing such consultants: Support and Consultation for Euthanasia in the Netherlands (SCEN and Life End Information Forum (LEIF in Belgium. The aim of this study is to describe and compare these initiatives. Methods We studied and compared relevant documents concerning the Dutch and Belgian consultation service (e.g. articles of bye-laws, inventories of activities, training books, consultation protocols. Results In both countries, the consultation services are delivered by trained physicians who can be consulted in cases of a request for euthanasia and who offer support and information to attending physicians. The context in which the two organisations were founded, as well as the way they are organised and regulated, is different in each country. By providing information on all end-of-life care matters, the Belgian LEIF seems to have a broader consultation role than the Dutch SCEN. SCEN on the other hand has a longer history, is more regulated and organised on a larger scale and receives more government funding than LEIF. The number of training hours for physicians is equal. However, SCEN-training puts more emphasis on the consultation report, whereas LEIF-training primarily emphasizes the ethical framework of end-of-life decisions. Conclusion In case of a request for euthanasia, in the Netherlands as well as in Belgium similar consultation services by independent qualified physicians have been developed. In countries where legalising physician-assisted death is being contemplated, the development of such a

  12. [Euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide : Attitudes of physicians and nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenz, J; Tryba, M; Zenz, M

    2015-04-01

    The current debate about end-of-life decisions in Germany focuses on physician-assisted suicide (PAS). However, there is only limited information available on physicians' attitudes towards euthanasia or PAS, and no data on nurses' attitudes. The aim is to explore attitudes of physicians and nurses with a special interest in palliative care and pain medicine using a case-related questionnaire. An anonymous questionnaire, consisting of eight questions, was distributed to all participants of a palliative care congress and a pain symposium. The questions focused on two scenarios: (1) a patient with an incurable fatal illness, (2) a patient with an incurable but nonfatal illness. The question was: Should euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide (PAS) be allowed. In addition, the participants were asked what they wanted for themselves if they were the patient concerned. A total of 317 questionnaires were analyzed; the return rate was 70 %. The general support for euthanasia and PAS was high: 40.5 % supported euthanasia in case of a fatal illness ("definitely…", "probably should be allowed"), 53.5 % supported PAS. The support decreased in case of a nonfatal illness; however, it increased when the participants were asked about their attitudes if they were the patient concerned. Nurses were more open towards euthanasia and PAS. In physicians the rejection of PAS was directly related to a higher level of qualification in the field of palliative care. The fact that nurses had a more positive attitude towards euthanasia and PAS and that all respondents accepted life-ending acts for themselves more than for their patients hints to still existing severe deficits in Germany.

  13. Regional variation in the practice of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, J J E; Putter, H

    2016-11-01

    The practice of euthanasia and physicianassisted suicide has been compared between countries, but it has not been compared between regions within the Netherlands. This study assesses differences in the frequencies, characteristics, and trends of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide between five regions in the Netherlands and tries to explain the differences by demographic, socioeconomic, and health-related differences between these regions. Data on the frequencies, characteristics, and trends of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide for each region and each year from 2002 through 2014 were derived from the annual reports of the Regional Review Committees. Averages and trends were determined using a regression model with the regions and years as independent variables. Demographic, socioeconomic, and health-related variables for each region and each year were derived from the Central Bureau for Statistics and added to the model as covariates. The frequencies, characteristics, and trends of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide differed between the regions, whereas the frequencies of non-assisted suicide did not differ. Euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide were most frequent and were performed most often by general practitioners, in patients with cancer, in the patient's home, in North Holland. The regional differences remained after adjustment for demographic, socioeconomic, and health-related differences between the regions. More detailed research is needed to specify how and why the practice of euthanasia and physicianassisted suicide differs between regions in the Netherlands and to what extent these differences reflect a deficiency in the quality of care, such as other forms of regional variation in health care practice.

  14. Psychosocial determinants of physicians' intention to practice euthanasia in palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, Mireille; Godin, Gaston; Vézina-Im, Lydi-Anne; Blondeau, Danielle; Martineau, Isabelle; Roy, Louis

    2015-01-22

    Euthanasia remains controversial in Canada and an issue of debate among physicians. Most studies have explored the opinion of health professionals regarding its legalization, but have not investigated their intentions when faced with performing euthanasia. These studies are also considered atheoretical. The purposes of the present study were to fill this gap in the literature by identifying the psychosocial determinants of physicians' intention to practice euthanasia in palliative care and verifying whether respecting the patient's autonomy is important for physicians. A validated anonymous questionnaire based on an extended version of the Theory of Planned Behavior was mailed to a random sample of 445 physicians from the province of Quebec, Canada. The response rate was 38.3% and the mean score for intention was 3.94 ± 2.17 (range: 1 to 7). The determinants of intention among physicians were: knowing patients' wishes (OR = 10.77; 95%CI: 1.33-86.88), perceived behavioral control-physicians' evaluation of their ability to adopt a given behavior-(OR = 4.35; 95%CI: 1.44-13.15), moral norm-the appropriateness of adopting a given behavior according to one's personal and moral values-(OR = 3.22; 95%CI: 1.29-8.00) and cognitive attitude-factual consequences of the adoption of a given behavior-(OR = 3.16; 95%CI: 1.20-8.35). This model correctly classified 98.8% of physicians. Specific beliefs that might discriminate physicians according to their level of intention were also identified. For instance, physicians' moral norm was related to the ethical principle of beneficence. Overall, physicians have weak intentions to practice euthanasia in palliative care. Nevertheless, respecting patients' final wishes concerning euthanasia seems to be of particular importance to them and greatly affects their motivation to perform euthanasia.

  15. Nurses' involvement in the care of patients requesting euthanasia: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bal, Nele; Gastmans, Chris; Dierckx de Casterlè, Bernadette

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to thoroughly examine the involvement and experiences of nurses in the care of mentally competent, adult patients requesting euthanasia (i.e. administration of lethal drugs by someone other than the person concerned with the explicit intention of ending a patient's life, at the latter's explicit request) by means of a literature review. A keyword search was used to identify relevant journal articles and books published between 1990 and 2007. Manual searches of review article bibliographies were also conducted as well as searches of archives and collections of key journals. The electronic databases Medline, Cinahl, PsycINFO, The Cochrane Library, Social Sciences Citation Index, and Invert were searched using a combination of keywords and carefully constructed inclusion criteria. Forty-two publications of empirical research were identified and included in the present study after critical appraisal. The included publications represented 35 separated studies (20 quantitative, 11 qualitative and 4 mixed-method publications) and 28 different research samples. Analysis of these studies revealed that nurses across diverse geographic and clinical settings play a major role in caring for and showing a personal interest in patients requesting euthanasia. The nurses' feelings about euthanasia and their involvement are extremely complex. Descriptions of personal conflict, moral uncertainty, frustration, fear, secrecy,and guilt appear to reflect a complex array of personal and professional values as well as social, religious, and legal rules. Nurses can make a significant contribution to the quality of care by assisting and counseling patients and their families, physicians, and their nursing colleagues in a professional manner, even in countries where euthanasia is not legal. However, research on nurses' involvement in euthanasia has methodological and terminological problems,leading to our recommendation for more carefully designed qualitative studies

  16. Dealing with requests for euthanasia: a qualitative study investigating the experience of general practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georges, J-J; The, A M; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B D; van der Wal, G

    2008-03-01

    Caring for terminally ill patients is a meaningful task, however the patient's suffering can be a considerable burden and cause of frustration. The aim of this study is to describe the experiences of general practitioners (GPs) in The Netherlands in dealing with a request for euthanasia from a terminally ill patient. The data, collected through in-depth interviews, were analysed according to the constant comparative method. Having to face a request for euthanasia when attempting to relieve a patient's suffering was described as a very demanding experience that GPs generally would like to avoid. Nearly half of the GPs (14/30) strive to avoid euthanasia or physician assisted suicide because it was against their own personal values or because it was emotional burdening to be confronted with this issue. They explained that by being directed on promoting a peaceful dying process, or the quality of end-of-life of a patient by caring and supporting the patient and the relatives it was mainly possible to shorten patient's suffering without "intentionally hastening a patient's death on his request". The other GPs (16/30) explained that as sometimes the suffering of a patient could not be lessened they were open to consider a patient's request for euthanasia or physician assisted suicide. They underlined the importance of a careful decision-making process, based on finding a balance between the necessity to shorten the patient's suffering through euthanasia and their personal values. Dealing with requests for euthanasia is very challenging for GPs, although they feel committed to alleviate a patient's suffering and to promote a peaceful death.

  17. Physician-assisted deaths under the euthanasia law in Belgium: a population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambaere, Kenneth; Bilsen, Johan; Cohen, Joachim; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D; Mortier, Freddy; Deliens, Luc

    2010-06-15

    Legalization of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide has been heavily debated in many countries. To help inform this debate, we describe the practices of euthanasia and assisted suicide, and the use of life-ending drugs without an explicit request from the patient, in Flanders, Belgium, where euthanasia is legal. We mailed a questionnaire regarding the use of life-ending drugs with or without explicit patient request to physicians who certified a representative sample (n = 6927) of death certificates of patients who died in Flanders between June and November 2007. The response rate was 58.4%. Overall, 208 deaths involving the use of life-ending drugs were reported: 142 (weighted prevalence 2.0%) were with an explicit patient request (euthanasia or assisted suicide) and 66 (weighted prevalence 1.8%) were without an explicit request. Euthanasia and assisted suicide mostly involved patients less than 80 years of age, those with cancer and those dying at home. Use of life-ending drugs without an explicit request mostly involved patients 80 years of older, those with a disease other than cancer and those in hospital. Of the deaths without an explicit request, the decision was not discussed with the patient in 77.9% of cases. Compared with assisted deaths with the patient's explicit request, those without an explicit request were more likely to have a shorter length of treatment of the terminal illness, to have cure as a goal of treatment in the last week, to have a shorter estimated time by which life was shortened and to involve the administration of opioids. Physician-assisted deaths with an explicit patient request (euthanasia and assisted suicide) and without an explicit request occurred in different patient groups and under different circumstances. Cases without an explicit request often involved patients whose diseases had unpredictable end-of-life trajectories. Although opioids were used in most of these cases, misconceptions seem to persist about their

  18. Euthanasia and Lavage Mediated Effects on Bronchoalveolar Measures of Lung Injury and Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, Robert M; Birukova, Anastasiya; Yeager, Michael J; Reece, Sky W; Gowdy, Kymberly M

    2018-02-26

    Accurate and reproducible assessments of experimental lung injury and inflammation are critical to basic and translational research. In particular, investigators use varied methods of bronchoalveolar lavage and euthanasia but their impact to assessments of injury and inflammation are unknown. To define potential effects, we compared methods of lavage and euthanasia in uninjured mice and following a mild lung injury model (ozone). C57BL/6J male mice age 8-10 weeks underwent BAL following euthanasia with ketamine/xylazine, carbon dioxide (C0 2 ), or isoflurane. BAL methods included 800-μL instilled and withdrawn three times, and 1 or 3 passive fill(s) and drainage to 20cm H20. Parallel experiments were performed 24hr following 3hr of ozone (O 3 ) exposure at 2 parts per million (ppm). BAL total cell counts/differentials and total protein/albumin were determined. Lung histology was evaluated for lung inflammation/injury. BAL cells were cultured and stimulated with PBS, phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 4hr and supernatants were evaluated for cytokine content. In uninjured mice, we observed differences due to the lavage and euthanasia methods. The lavage method increased uninjured and O 3 exposure total cells and total protein/albumin with 800-μL instillation having the highest values. Isoflurane increased uninjured total BAL cells, while C0 2 euthanasia increased the uninjured total protein/albumin levels. These effects limited the ability to detect differences in BAL injury measures following O 3 exposure. In conclusion, the method of lavage and euthanasia affects measures of lung inflammation/injury and should be considered a variable in model assessment.

  19. The Opinions of GP's Patients About Suicide, Assisted Suicide, Euthanasia, and Suicide Prevention: An Italian Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poma, Stefano Zanone; Vicentini, Silvia; Siviero, Francesca; Grossi, Antonello; Toniolo, Emanuele; Baldo, Vincenzo; De Leo, Diego

    2015-08-01

    A survey about opinions on end-of-life issues of a population represented by 1,171 people in the waiting room of general practitioners' surgeries was conducted in a province of northern Italy. Most subjects did not consider suicide as a reasonable option even in cases of a serious and incurable disease. Moreover, subjects did not consider euthanasia as a possible option either; however, they did express an opposite attitude when considering euthanasia in a third-person perspective. People with a personal history of suicidal behavior appear to present as a different population, overall expressing more open attitudes. © 2014 The American Association of Suicidology.

  20. The empirical slippery slope from voluntary to non-voluntary euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Penney

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the evidence for the empirical argument that there is a slippery slope between the legalization of voluntary and non-voluntary euthanasia. The main source of evidence in relation to this argument comes from the Netherlands. The argument is only effective against legalization if it is legalization which causes the slippery slope. Moreover, it is only effective if it is used comparatively-to show that the slope is more slippery in jurisdictions which have legalized voluntary euthanasia than it is in jurisdictions which have not done so. Both of these elements are examined comparatively.

  1. Is there a logical slippery slope from voluntary to nonvoluntary euthanasia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David Albert

    2011-12-01

    John Keown has constructed a logical slippery slope argument from voluntary euthanasia (VAE) to nonvoluntary euthanasia (NVAE). VAE if justified implies that death can be of overall benefit, in which case it should also be facilitated in those who cannot consent (NVAE). Hallvard Lillehammer asserts that Keown's argument rests on a fallacy. However, pace Lillehammer, it can be restated to escape this fallacy. Its validity is confirmed by applying to VAE some well-established general principles of medical decision making. Thus, either VAE and NVAE must be accepted together or, if NVAE is regarded as unacceptable, VAE should also be rejected.

  2. Attitude toward euthanasia scale: psychometric properties and relations with religious orientation, personality, and life satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghababaei, Naser; Wasserman, Jason Adam

    2013-12-01

    End-of-life decisions (ELDs) represent a controversial subject, with ethical dilemmas and empirical ambiguities that stand at the intersection of ethics and medicine. In a non-Western population, we examined individual differences in perceiving ELDs that end the life of a patient as acceptable and found that an attitude toward euthanasia (ATE) scale consists of 2 factors representing voluntary and nonvoluntary euthanasia. Also, acceptance of ELDs that end the life of a patient negatively correlated with life satisfaction, honesty-humility, conscientiousness, and intrinsic and extrinsic personal motivation toward religion. These findings provided additional construct validity of the ATE scale.

  3. Raping and making love are different concepts: so are killing and voluntary euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, J

    1988-01-01

    The distinction between 'kill' and 'help to die' is argued by analogy with the distinction between 'rape' and 'make love to'. The difference is the consent of the receiver of the act, therefore 'kill' is the wrong word for an act of active voluntary euthanasia. The argument that doctors must not be allowed by law to perform active voluntary euthanasia because this would recognise an infringement of the sanctity of life ('the red light principle') is countered by comparing such doctors with the drivers of emergency vehicles, who are allowed to drive through red lights. PMID:3184136

  4. The dilemma of euthanasia: Evaluation of nurses’ attitudes against this dilemma

    OpenAIRE

    Hlias Kolovos; Minas Kakampouras; Ioannis Liakopoulos; Ioanna Christopoulou

    2010-01-01

    The progress of science didn’t only have as a result to cure most illnesses, but also to find methods to maintain life in human beings. But who decides about life or death? How much has this dilemma been a great concern of the Greek nursing profession?Purpose: The aim of this research is to investigate the attitudes of Greek nurses towards the decisions of euthanasia and specifically towards energetic and passive euthanasia and assisted suicide.Material – Method: The data for the research wer...

  5. In Vivo Recording of Neural and Behavioral Correlates of Anesthesia Induction, Reversal, and Euthanasia in Cephalopod Molluscs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna M. Butler-Struben

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cephalopod molluscs are among the most behaviorally and neurologically complex invertebrates. As they are now included in research animal welfare regulations in many countries, humane and effective anesthesia is required during invasive procedures. However, currently there is no evidence that agents believed to act as anesthetics produce effects beyond immobility. In this study we demonstrate, for the first time, that two of the most commonly used agents in cephalopod general anesthesia, magnesium chloride and ethanol, are capable of producing strong and reversible blockade of afferent and efferent neural signal; thus they are genuine anesthetics, rather than simply sedating agents that render animals immobile but not insensible. Additionally, we demonstrate that injected magnesium chloride and lidocaine are effective local anesthetic agents. This represents a considerable advance for cephalopod welfare. Using a reversible, minimally invasive recording procedure, we measured activity in the pallial nerve of cuttlefish (Sepia bandensis and octopus (Abdopus aculeatus, Octopus bocki, during induction and reversal for five putative general anesthetic and two local anesthetic agents. We describe the temporal relationship between loss of behavioral responses (immobility, loss of efferent neural signal (loss of “consciousness” and loss of afferent neural signal (anesthesia for general anesthesia, and loss of afferent signal for local anesthesia. Both ethanol and magnesium chloride were effective as bath-applied general anesthetics, causing immobility, complete loss of behavioral responsiveness and complete loss of afferent and efferent neural signal. Cold seawater, diethyl ether, and MS-222 (tricaine were ineffective. Subcutaneous injection of either lidocaine or magnesium chloride blocked behavioral and neural responses to pinch in the injected area, and we conclude that both are effective local anesthetic agents for cephalopods. Lastly, we

  6. In Vivo Recording of Neural and Behavioral Correlates of Anesthesia Induction, Reversal, and Euthanasia in Cephalopod Molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler-Struben, Hanna M; Brophy, Samantha M; Johnson, Nasira A; Crook, Robyn J

    2018-01-01

    Cephalopod molluscs are among the most behaviorally and neurologically complex invertebrates. As they are now included in research animal welfare regulations in many countries, humane and effective anesthesia is required during invasive procedures. However, currently there is no evidence that agents believed to act as anesthetics produce effects beyond immobility. In this study we demonstrate, for the first time, that two of the most commonly used agents in cephalopod general anesthesia, magnesium chloride and ethanol, are capable of producing strong and reversible blockade of afferent and efferent neural signal; thus they are genuine anesthetics, rather than simply sedating agents that render animals immobile but not insensible. Additionally, we demonstrate that injected magnesium chloride and lidocaine are effective local anesthetic agents. This represents a considerable advance for cephalopod welfare. Using a reversible, minimally invasive recording procedure, we measured activity in the pallial nerve of cuttlefish ( Sepia bandensis ) and octopus ( Abdopus aculeatus, Octopus bocki ), during induction and reversal for five putative general anesthetic and two local anesthetic agents. We describe the temporal relationship between loss of behavioral responses (immobility), loss of efferent neural signal (loss of "consciousness") and loss of afferent neural signal (anesthesia) for general anesthesia, and loss of afferent signal for local anesthesia. Both ethanol and magnesium chloride were effective as bath-applied general anesthetics, causing immobility, complete loss of behavioral responsiveness and complete loss of afferent and efferent neural signal. Cold seawater, diethyl ether, and MS-222 (tricaine) were ineffective. Subcutaneous injection of either lidocaine or magnesium chloride blocked behavioral and neural responses to pinch in the injected area, and we conclude that both are effective local anesthetic agents for cephalopods. Lastly, we demonstrate that a

  7. Anesthesia for euthanasia influences mRNA expression in healthy mice and after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staib-Lasarzik, Irina; Kriege, Oliver; Timaru-Kast, Ralph; Pieter, Dana; Werner, Christian; Engelhard, Kristin; Thal, Serge C

    2014-10-01

    Tissue sampling for gene expression analysis is usually performed under general anesthesia. Anesthetics are known to modulate hemodynamics, receptor-mediated signaling cascades, and outcome parameters. The present study determined the influence of anesthetic paradigms typically used for euthanization and tissue sampling on cerebral mRNA expression in mice. Naïve mice and animals with acute traumatic brain injury induced by controlled cortical impact (CCI) were randomized to the following euthanasia protocols (n=10-11/group): no anesthesia (NA), 1 min of 4 vol% isoflurane in room air (ISO), 3 min of a combination of 5 mg/kg midazolam, 0.05 mg/kg fentanyl, and 0.5 mg/kg medetomidine intraperitoneally (COMB), or 3 min of 360 mg/kg chloral hydrate intraperitoneally (CH). mRNA expression of actin-1-related gene (Act1), FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog B (FosB), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), heat shock protein beta-1 (HspB1), interleukin (IL)-6, tight junction protein 1 (ZO-1), IL-1ß, cyclophilin A, micro RNA 497 (miR497), and small cajal body-specific RNA 17 were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in hippocampus samples. In naïve animals, Act1 expression was downregulated in the CH group compared with NA. FosB expression was downregulated in COMB and CH groups compared with NA. CCI reduced Act1 and FosB expression, whereas HspB1 and TNFα expression increased. After CCI, HspB1 expression was significantly higher in ISO, COMB, and CH groups, and TNFα expression was elevated in ISO and COMB groups. MiR497, IL-6, and IL-1ß were upregulated after CCI but not affected by anesthetics. Effects were independent of absolute mRNA copy numbers. The data demonstrate that a few minutes of anesthesia before tissue sampling are sufficient to induce immediate mRNA changes, which seem to predominate in the early-regulated gene cluster. Anesthesia-related effects on gene expression might explain limited reproduciblity of real

  8. The dangers of euthanasia and dementia: how Kantian thinking might be used to support non-voluntary euthanasia in cases of extreme dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Robert

    2012-06-01

    Some writers have argued that a Kantian approach to ethics can be used to justify suicide in cases of extreme dementia, where a patient lacks the rationality required of Kantian moral agents. I worry that this line of thinking may lead to the more extreme claim that euthanasia is a proper Kantian response to severe dementia (and similar afflictions). Such morally treacherous thinking seems to be directly implied by the arguments that lead Dennis Cooley and similar writers to claim that Kant might support suicide. If rationality is the only factor in valuing a human life, then the loss of that rationality (however such loss might be defined) would allow us to use essentially utilitarian thinking in order to support non-voluntary euthanasia, since the patients themselves would no longer be moral agents that demand respect. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. POPULATION OF DOGS AND HOUSING CONDITIONS IN POLISH SHELTERS FOR HOMELESS ANIMALS EXEMPLIFIED BY THE DATA FROM THE SZCZECIN SHELTER FOR HOMELESS ANIMALS IN THE YEARS 2002 - 2007

    OpenAIRE

    MAŁGORZATA PIERKO; MARCELINA GAIK

    2009-01-01

    The analysis included the state and the housing conditions in the shelter, the population of dogs, adoptions, euthanasias, castrations, deaths, escapes, the number of dogs rehomed by the original owners. The observations ascertained the trends regarding the homeless dogs in the shelter, the future prospects for the center and its rank among other animal shelters in Poland. The overpopulation problem was noted, and henceforth the the exceeding quantity of euthanized and dead cases. Another pro...

  10. [Ethics in intensive care and euthanasia : With respect to inactivating defibrillators at the end of life in terminally ill patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trappe, H-J

    2017-04-01

    In critically ill patients, intensive care medical procedures allow diseases to be cured or controlled that were considered incurable many years ago. For patients with terminal heart failure or heart disease with other severe comorbidities (cancer, stroke), the questions whether the deactivation of defibrillators is appropriate or must be regarded as active euthanasia may arise. Notable cases from the author's hospital are analyzed. The literature on the topic euthanasia and basic literature regarding defibrillator therapy are discussed. It is undisputed that patients as part of their self-determination have the right to renounce treatment. Active euthanasia and the thereby deliberate induction of death is prohibited by law in Germany and will be prosecuted. Passive euthanasia is the omission or reduction of possibly life-prolonging treatment measures. Passive euthanasia requires the patient's consent and is legally and ethically permissible. Indirect euthanasia takes into account acceleration of death as a side effect of a medication. Unpunishable assisted suicide ("assisted suicide") is the mere assistance of self-controlled and self-determined death. Assisted suicide is fundamentally not a criminal offense in Germany. Deactivation of a defibrillator is a treatment discontinuation, which is only permitted in accordance with the wishes of the patient. It is not a question of passive or active euthanasia. Involvement of a local ethics committee and/or legal consultation is certainly useful and sometimes also allows previously unrecognized questions to be answered.

  11. Granted, undecided, withdrawn, and refused requests for euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Weide, M.C.; Philipsen, B.D.; van der Wal, G.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aims of this study were to obtain information about the characteristics of requests for euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide (EAS) and to distinguish among different types of situations that can arise between the request and the physician's decision. METHODS: All general

  12. Pereira's attack on legalizing euthanasia or assisted suicide: smoke and mirrors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, J; Chambaere, K; Bernheim, J L

    2012-06-01

    To review the empirical claims made in: Pereira J. Legalizing euthanasia or assisted suicide: the illusion of safeguards and controls. Curr Oncol 2011;18:e38-45. We collected all of the empirical claims made by Jose Pereira in "Legalizing euthanasia or assisted suicide: the illusion of safeguards and controls." We then collected all reference sources provided for those claims. We compared the claims with the sources (where sources were provided) and evaluated the level of support, if any, the sources provide for the claims. We also reviewed other available literature to assess the veracity of the empirical claims made in the paper. We then wrote the present paper using examples from the review. Pereira makes a number of factual statements without providing any sources. Pereira also makes a number of factual statements with sources, where the sources do not, in fact, provide support for the statements he made. Pereira also makes a number of false statements about the law and practice in jurisdictions that have legalized euthanasia or assisted suicide. Pereira's conclusions are not supported by the evidence he provided. His paper should not be given any credence in the public policy debate about the legal status of assisted suicide and euthanasia in Canada and around the world.

  13. Autonomy-based arguments against physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia: a critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöstrand, Manne; Helgesson, Gert; Eriksson, Stefan; Juth, Niklas

    2013-05-01

    Respect for autonomy is typically considered a key reason for allowing physician assisted suicide and euthanasia. However, several recent papers have claimed this to be grounded in a misconception of the normative relevance of autonomy. It has been argued that autonomy is properly conceived of as a value, and that this makes assisted suicide as well as euthanasia wrong, since they destroy the autonomy of the patient. This paper evaluates this line of reasoning by investigating the conception of valuable autonomy. Starting off from the current debate in end-of-life care, two different interpretations of how autonomy is valuable is discussed. According to one interpretation, autonomy is a personal prudential value, which may provide a reason why euthanasia and assisted suicide might be against a patient's best interests. According to a second interpretation, inspired by Kantian ethics, being autonomous is unconditionally valuable, which may imply a duty to preserve autonomy. We argue that both lines of reasoning have limitations when it comes to situations relevant for end-of life care. It is concluded that neither way of reasoning can be used to show that assisted suicide or euthanasia always is impermissible.

  14. Psychiatric consultation with regard to requests for euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewoud, JH; van der Heide, A; Tholen, AJ; Schudel, WJ; Hengeveld, MW; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, BD; van der Maas, PJ; van der Wal, G

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this article is to describe the practice of psychiatric consultation with regard to explicit requests for euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide in the Netherlands. Written questionnaires were sent to an unselected sample of 673 Dutch psychiatrists, about half of all such

  15. Velcro on the slippery slope: the role of psychiatry in active voluntary euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, C J

    1995-12-01

    The aim of the paper is to determine the role that psychiatrists should play in legislation that establishes a right to active voluntary euthanasia (AVE). One version of the "slippery slope" argument, usually invoked against the legalisation of AVE, is recast as an argument for the introduction of strong safeguards in any future AVE legislation. The literature surrounding the prevalence of psychiatric illnesses in the terminally ill, physicians' ability to identify such illnesses and the aetiology of suicide in the terminally ill is examined. The strength of the slippery slope argument, combined with the poor ability of general physicians to diagnose psychiatric illness in the terminally ill, demands that any legislation allowing AVE should require a mandatory psychiatric review of the patient requesting euthanasia. Any legislation adopted that establishes a right to active voluntary euthanasia should include a mandatory psychiatric review of the person requesting euthanasia and a cooling off period before the request is acceded to. In addition, the discovery of a serious mental illness ought to disqualify the affected person from the right to AVE until that illness resolves.

  16. Non-faith-based arguments against physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulmasy, Daniel P; Travaline, John M; Mitchell, Louise A; Ely, E Wesley

    2016-08-01

    This article is a complement to "A Template for Non-Religious-Based Discussions Against Euthanasia" by Melissa Harintho, Nathaniel Bloodworth, and E. Wesley Ely which appeared in the February 2015 Linacre Quarterly . Herein we build upon Daniel Sulmasy's opening and closing arguments from the 2014 Intelligence Squared debate on legalizing assisted suicide, supplemented by other non-faith-based arguments and thoughts, providing four nontheistic arguments against physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia: (1) "it offends me"; (2) slippery slope; (3) "pain can be alleviated"; (4) physician integrity and patient trust. Lay Summary: Presented here are four non-religious, reasonable arguments against physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia: (1) "it offends me," suicide devalues human life; (2) slippery slope, the limits on euthanasia gradually erode; (3) "pain can be alleviated," palliative care and modern therapeutics more and more adequately manage pain; (4) physician integrity and patient trust, participating in suicide violates the integrity of the physician and undermines the trust patients place in physicians to heal and not to harm.

  17. The legislation of active voluntary euthanasia in Australia: will the slippery slope prove fatal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerridge, I H; Mitchell, K R

    1996-10-01

    At 2.00 am on the morning of May 24, 1995 the Northern Territory Legislative Assembly Australia passed the Rights of the Terminally Ill Act by the narrow margin of 15 votes to 10. The act permits a terminally ill patient of sound mind and over the age of 18 years, and who is either in pain or suffering, or distress, to request a medical practitioner to assist the patient to terminate his or her life. Thus, Australia can lay claim to being the first country in the world to legalise voluntary active euthanasia. The Northern Territory's act has prompted Australia-wide community reaction, particularly in South Australia, Tasmania and the Australian Capital Territory where proposals to legalise euthanasia have already been defeated on the floor of parliament. In New South Wales (NSW) the AIDS Council of NSW has prepared draft euthanasia legislation to be introduced into the Upper House as a Private Member's Bill some time in 1996. In this paper, we focus on a brief description of events as they occurred and on the arguments for and against the legalisation of euthanasia which have appeared in the media.

  18. The legislation of active voluntary euthanasia in Australia: will the slippery slope prove fatal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerridge, I H; Mitchell, K R

    1996-01-01

    At 2.00 am on the morning of May 24, 1995 the Northern Territory Legislative Assembly Australia passed the Rights of the Terminally Ill Act by the narrow margin of 15 votes to 10. The act permits a terminally ill patient of sound mind and over the age of 18 years, and who is either in pain or suffering, or distress, to request a medical practitioner to assist the patient to terminate his or her life. Thus, Australia can lay claim to being the first country in the world to legalise voluntary active euthanasia. The Northern Territory's act has prompted Australia-wide community reaction, particularly in South Australia, Tasmania and the Australian Capital Territory where proposals to legalise euthanasia have already been defeated on the floor of parliament. In New South Wales (NSW) the AIDS Council of NSW has prepared draft euthanasia legislation to be introduced into the Upper House as a Private Member's Bill some time in 1996. In this paper, we focus on a brief description of events as they occurred and on the arguments for and against the legalisation of euthanasia which have appeared in the media. PMID:8910778

  19. Questionnaire-based survey suggests that the majority of Danish geriatricians are against euthanasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilvemark, Johan; Dahle, Bård; Matzen, Lars Erik

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Euthanasia (EU) and/or physician-assisted suicide (PAS) is legal in some countries and being considered in others. Attitudes to EU/PAS among Danish geriatricians were studied. METHODS: An online questionnaire with 12 questions was e-mailed to all members of the Danish Geriatric...

  20. Assisted Suicide, Euthanasia, and Suicide Prevention: The Implications of the Dutch Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendin, Herbert

    1995-01-01

    A study illustrates how legal sanction promotes a culture that transforms suicide into assisted suicide and encourages choosing death when faced with serious illness. The question of extending legal euthanasia to those not physically ill complicates the issue. Also, doctors may feel they can end a terminally-ill patient's life without consent.…