WorldWideScience

Sample records for euseius alatus deleon

  1. Can Euseius alatus DeLeon (Acari: Phytoseiidae) prey on Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae) in coconut palm?; Pode Euseius alatus DeLeon (Acari: Phytoseiidae) predar Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae) em coqueiro?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Jose W. da S.; Domingos, Cleiton A.; Gondim Junior, Manoel G.C. [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Agronomia. Area de Fitossanidade]. E-mail: mguedes@depa.ufrpe.br; Moraes, Gilberto J. de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ). Dept. de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola]. E-mail: gjmoraes@carpa.ciagri.usp.br

    2009-01-15

    Mites of the genus Euseius are generally considered specialist as pollen feeders. Euseius alatus DeLeon is one of the six species of phytoseiid mites most commonly found on coconut plants in northeast Brazil associated with Aceria guerreronis Keifer. Although the morphology of E. alatus does not favor the exploitation of the meristematic area of the fruit inhabited by A. guerreronis, the predator may have some role in the control of this eriophyid during the dispersion process. The objective of this work was to evaluate the development and reproduction of E. alatus on the following diets: A. guerreronis, Ricinus communis pollen (Euphorbiaceae), and Tetranychus urticae Koch (Tetranychidae) + R. communis pollen + honey solution 10%. Euseius alatus developed slightly faster and had slightly higher oviposition rate when feeding on the diet composed of T. urticae + pollen + honey. However, life table parameters were very similar on all diets, suggesting that E. alatus may contribute in reducing the population of A. guerreronis in the field. (author)

  2. [Can Euseius alatus DeLeon (Acari: Phytoseiidae) prey on Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae) in coconut palm?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, José W da S; Domingos, Cleiton A; Gondim, Manoel G C; Moraes, Gilberto J de

    2009-01-01

    Mites of the genus Euseius are generally considered specialist as pollen feeders. Euseius alatus DeLeon is one of the six species of phytoseiid mites most commonly found on coconut plants in northeast Brazil associated with Aceria guerreronis Keifer. Although the morphology of E. alatus does not favor the exploitation of the meristematic area of the fruit inhabited by A. guerreronis, the predator may have some role in the control of this eriophyid during the dispersion process. The objective of this work was to evaluate the development and reproduction of E. alatus on the following diets: A. guerreronis, Ricinus communis pollen (Euphorbiaceae), and Tetranychus urticae Koch (Tetranychidae) + R. communis pollen + honey solution 10%. Euseius alatus developed slightly faster and had slightly higher oviposition rate when feeding on the diet composed of T. urticae + pollen + honey. However, life table parameters were very similar on all diets, suggesting that E. alatus may contribute in reducing the population of A. guerreronis in the field.

  3. Can Euseius alatus DeLeon (Acari: Phytoseiidae) prey on Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae) in coconut palm?

    OpenAIRE

    Melo, José W da S; DOMINGOS, Cleiton A; Gondim Jr, Manoel G C; de Moraes, Gilberto J.

    2009-01-01

    Ácaros do gênero Euseius são geralmente considerados especialistas na alimentação de pólen. Euseius alatus DeLeon é uma das seis espécies de ácaros fitoseídeos mais comumente encontrados em plantas de coqueiro no Nordeste do Brasil, associado com Aceria guerreronis Keifer. Apesar de a morfologia de E. alatus não favorecer a exploração da área meristemática do fruto habitada por A. guerreronis, o predador pode ter algum papel no controle do eriofídeo durante o processo de dispersão. O objetivo...

  4. Predatory potential of Euseius alatus (Phytoseiidae) on different life stages of Oligonychus ilicis (Tetranychidae) on coffee leaves under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Toledo, M A; Reis, P R; da Silveira, E C; de P Marafeli, P; de Souza-Pimentel, G C

    2013-04-01

    This study evaluated the predatory capacity of Euseius alatus (DeLeon) as a biological control agent of the pest mite Oligonychus ilicis (McGregor) on coffee leaves under laboratory conditions, using arenas containing 25 O. ilicis per coffee (Coffea arabica) leaf to one specimen of each stage of the predator mite. The functional response and oviposition rate of adult females of E. alatus were evaluated on coffee leaf arenas and offered from 1 to 125 immature stages of O. ilicis per arena. The number of preys killed and the number of eggs laid by the predator were evaluated every 24 h during 8 days. The preys consumed were daily replaced. Male and female adults of E. alatus were the most efficient in killing all developmental stages of O. ilicis. Larvae and nymphs of O. ilicis were the most consumed by all stages of the predatory mite. The functional response and oviposition rates of E. alatus increased as the prey density increased, with a positive and highly significant correlation. Regression analysis suggested a type II functional response, with a maximum predation of 22 O. ilicis/arena and a maximum oviposition rate of 1.7 eggs/day at a density of 70 O. ilicis/arena.

  5. Euonymus alatus: A Review on Its Phytochemistry and Antidiabetic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xifeng Zhai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Euonymus alatus (E. alatus is a medicinal plant used in some Asian countries for treating various conditions including cancer, hyperglycemia, and diabetic complications. This review outlines the phytochemistry and bioactivities of E. alatus related to antidiabetic actions. More than 100 chemical constituents have been isolated and identified from E. alatus, including flavonoids, terpenoids, steroids, lignans, cardenolides, phenolic acids, and alkaloids. Studies in vitro and in vivo have demonstrated the hypoglycemic activity of E. alatus extracts and its certain constituents. The hypoglycemic activity of E. alatus may be related to regulation of insulin signaling and insulin sensitivity, involving PPARγ and aldose reductase pathways. Further studies on E. alatus and its bioactive compounds may help to develop new agents for treating diabetes and diabetic complications.

  6. Resistance of the predacious mite, euseius kenyae (acari ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to assess whether the predacious phytoseiid mite, Euseius kenyae (Swirski and Ragusa), commonly found in major coffee growing regions in Kenya has developed resistance to Chlorpyrifos. Mite populations were collected from coffee farms harbouring E. kenyae and where Chlorpyrifos or other ...

  7. Species of the genus Euseius Wainstein (Acari: Phytoseiidae: Amblyseiinae) from Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jhih-Rong; Ho, Chyi-Chen; Ko, Chiun-Cheng

    2017-01-26

    The six mite species of the genus Euseius Wainstein from Taiwan are reviewed, including E. ovalis (Evans), E. daluensis sp. nov., E. macaranga sp. nov., E. paraovalis sp. nov., and two species recorded for the first time in Taiwan, E. aizawai (Ehara & Bhandhufalck) and E. circellatus (Wu & Li). Measurements of these species and an identification key for adult females of the six Euseius species from Taiwan are provided.

  8. Variações morfológicas intra e interpopulacionais de Euseius citrifolius Denmark & Muma e Euseius concordis (Chant (Acari, Phytoseiidae Intra and interpopulational morphological variations of Euseius citrifolius Denmark & Muma and Euseius concordis (Chant (Acari, Phytoseiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloyséia Cristina da Silva Noronha

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The determination of morphologic variability within and between populations of phytoseiid mites is important for the precise species identification. Euseius citrifolius Denmark & Muma, 1970 and Euseius concordis (Chant, 1959 are phytoseiids commonly found on different crops in Brazil and other South American countries. The morphologic characterization of populations preliminarily identified as E. citrifolius and E. concordis was done through examination of 10 adult females and 10 adult males of each population and of 2 to 10 adult females and males resulting from crosses between those populations. The plant substrate and collection site of each population were: E. citrijolius: Bauhinia sp. in Arroio do Meio, Rio Grande do Sul, Coffea arabica Linnaeus in Campinas, São Paulo and Terminalia catappa Linnaeus in Petrolina, Pernambuco. E. concordis: Passiflora edulis Sims. i.flavicarpa Deg. in Arroio do Meio, Manihot esculenta (Crantz in Jaguariúna, São Paulo, Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. in Pontes e Lacerda, Mato Grosso, T. catappa in Petrolina and C arabica in Viçosa, Minas Gerais. A comparison of the measurements of different structures of individuals of each population and of type specimens of E. citrifolius and E. concordis confirmed the preliminary identification of the populations. Significant relationships were observed between mean setal lengths and the respective ranges within each population. Females and males of E. citrifolius from Petrolina and E. concordis from Jaguariúna had some of the setae generally shorter than those of other populations of the same species. Measurements of males resulting from heterogamic crosses indicated that E. citrifolius and E. concordis reproduce by pseudo-arrhenotoky.

  9. The Kinematics of a Falling Dipterocarpus Alatus Seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun-Woo Song

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dipterocarpus Alatus (Thai:ยางนา, Yang Na is a tree found in Thailand and other Southeast Asian countries. The seeds have two wings and rotate as they fall. High-speed video analysis was used to determine the terminal velocity and spin frequency as a function of the mass of a seed. Values of wing velocity, lift force, and drag force were then determined. It was found that as the mass of the seed increased, terminal velocity, frequency, and lift force also increased. It was shown that 80-95% of the retarding force generated during the fall was from lift and that the coefficient of lift for the seed used was approximately 1.5.

  10. SELETIVIDADE DE CHLORFENAPYR E FENBUTATIN-OXIDE SOBRE DUAS ESPÉCIES DE ÁCAROS PREDADORES (ACARI: PHYTOSEIIDAE) EM CITROS SELECTIVITY OF CHLORFENAPYR AND FENBUTATIN-OXIDE ON TWO SPECIES OF PREDACEOUS MITES (ACARI: PHYTOSEIIDAE) IN CITRUS

    OpenAIRE

    REIS PAULO REBELLES; SOUSA ÉLBER OLIVEIRA

    2001-01-01

    Com o uso de bioensaios, verificaram-se os efeitos residual de contato, ovicida e de persistência dos produtos chlorfenapyr e fenbutatin-oxide sobre duas espécies de ácaros predadores, Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark & Muma e Euseius alatus DeLeon (Acari: Phytoseiidae), associados ao ácaro da leprose-dos-citros Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) (Acari: Tenuipalpidae). O efeito total sobre os adultos foi estudado por meio do método residual de contato com pulverização em superfície de vidro, confo...

  11. Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Euseius nicholsi (Ehara et Lee) (Acari:Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Tianrong; Que, Shengquan; Zou, Zhiwen; Wang, Jing; Li, Lei; Xia, Bin

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequence of Euseius nicholsi (Acarinae: Phytoseiidae) was determined by long PCR and primer walking methods. The complete mitochondrial genome is 15,561 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 21 transfer RNA genes. The overall base composition of the genome is A (34.69%), T (43.14%), C (8.06%) and G (14.10%). Stop codon was missed for the COXIII gene in E.nicholsi. The mitogenome would contribute to resolving phylogenetic position and interrelationships of Euseius.

  12. Free serum testosterone level in male rats treated with tribulus alatus extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid H. El-Tantawy

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of Tribulus alatus extracts on free serum testosterone in male rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Free serum testosterone level was measured in male rats treated with alcoholic extracts of the aerial part without fruits, fruits of Tribulus alatus and their fractions. RESULTS: All tested extracts showed significant increase in the level of free serum testosterone when compared to that of corresponding control, p < 0.05. Statistical comparison of all groups revealed that the maximum level was found in groups treated with chloroformic and ethanolic fractions of fruits extract. CONCLUSION: Tribulus alatus extract appears to possess aphrodisiac activity due to its androgen increasing property.

  13. Economic importance of oleoresin (Dipterocarpus alatus) to forest-adjacent households in Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrmose, Anne-Mette Hüls; Turreira Garcia, Nerea; Theilade, Ida

    2017-01-01

    to be learned about resin yield, harvest techniques, and the importance of resin to local livelihoods. This study quantifies yields from one of the most intensively tapped resin species, Dipterocarpus alatus, and estimates household incomes from resin extraction in Cambodia. A total of 43 resin tappers were...

  14. Reproductive compatibility between mite populations previously identified as Euseius concordis (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noronha, Aloyséia Cristina da Silva; de Moraes, Gilberto José

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the present research is to study the reproductive compatibility between populations of predatory mites previously identified as Euseius concordis (Chant) based on morphological characteristics. Colonies of these mite populations were established in the lab with specimens collected from different localities and host plants. Reproductive compatibility was evaluated through crosses and backcrosses within and between populations and the subsequent observation of females' oviposition, over a period of 10 days. The levels of oviposition obtained in the crosses between individuals from the same population were higher than those obtained in the crosses between individuals from different populations. Results indicate the occurrence of post-mating reproductive incompatibility between the mite population from Petrolina and the other populations studied. Crosses and backcrosses between populations involving female mites from Petrolina did not produce offspring, although endospermatophores were present inside the spermathecas of those females. Oviposition was reduced, and only sons were obtained, in crosses between populations with males from Petrolina. Crosses of females from Pontes e Lacerda and males from Jaguariúna and vice versa produced only male progeny. Our results established that the populations originating from Arroio do Meio, Pontes e Lacerda, Jaguarúna and Viçosa, are reproductively compatible. However, the latter populations and the population from Petrolina are genetically isolated. Based on these results we suggest that more cytological and genetic studies are needed to establish if this reproductive isolation represents a species barrier.

  15. Susceptibility of Euseius concordis (Mesostigmata: Phytoseiidae) to pesticides used in citrus production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Aline Aparecida; Zanardi, Odimar Zanuzo; Jacob, Cynthia Renata de Oliveira; de Oliveira, Monique Bárbara Rosa; Yamamoto, Pedro Takao

    2017-09-01

    Euseius concordis (Chant) is an important predatory mite found in citrus orchards. The toxicity of 19 pesticides used in citrus orchards on biological and population parameters of this mite was assessed. Our results indicated that formetanate hydrochloride, dimethoate and phosmet were highly harmful (100% mortality) to E. concordis. Carbosulfan, diflubenzuron, fenpropathrin, gamma-cyhalothrin, imidacloprid, lambda-cyhalothrin, lambda-cyhalothrin + thiamethoxam, mineral and vegetable oils, spinosad and thiamethoxam reduced the female's survival and/or fecundity, and were moderately harmful to E. concordis. Besides the acute toxicity, carbosulfan and formetanate hydrochloride were highly persistent [>30 days after spraying (DAS)]; dimethoate was moderately persistent (16-30 DAS); spinosad, gamma-cyhalothrin, lambda-cyhalothrin and lambda-cyhalothrin + thiamethoxam were slightly persistent (5-15 DAS); and the other pesticides were considered to be short-lived (<5 DAS). All compounds except lambda-cyhalothrin and thiamethoxam increased the pre-oviposition period in the female offspring. Carbosulfan, deltamethrin, diflubenzuron, etofenprox, fenpropathrin, gamma-cyhalothrin, mineral and vegetable oils, pyriproxyfen and tebufenozide reduced offspring fecundity, whereas thiamethoxam increased the fecundity. Mineral and vegetable oils reduced female longevity of the predator mite. Regarding population effects, imidacloprid, lambda-cyhalothrin, lambda-cyhalothrin + thiamethoxam and thiamethoxam led to an increase in net reproductive rate (R o ), intrinsic rate of increase (r), and finite rate of increase (λ) of E. concordis. Diflubenzuron, etofenprox, and mineral and vegetable oils reduced R o , r and λ. All pesticides except beta-cypermethrin, fenpropathrin and imidacloprid reduced the mean generation time (T) of the predator. Therefore, semi-field and field studies are needed to assess the compatibility of these compounds with E. concordis before adoption in IPM

  16. The Complete Maternally and Paternally Inherited Mitochondrial Genomes of a Freshwater Mussel Potamilus alatus (Bivalvia: Unionidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai B Wen

    Full Text Available Doubly uniparental inheritance (DUI of mitochondrial DNA, found only in some bivalve families and characterized by the existence of gender-associated mtDNA lineages that are inherited through males (M-type or females (F-type, is one of the very few exceptions to the general rule of strict maternal mtDNA inheritance in animals. M-type sequences are often undetected and hence still underrepresented in the GenBank, which hinders the progress of the understanding of the DUI phenomenon. We have sequenced and analyzed the complete M and F mitogenomes of a freshwater mussel, Potamilus alatus. The M-type was 493 bp longer (M = 16 560, F = 16 067 bp. Gene contents, order and the distribution of genes between L and H strands were typical for unionid mussels. Candidates for the two ORFan genes (forf and morf were found in respective mitogenomes. Both mitogenomes had a very similar A+T bias: F = 61% and M = 62.2%. The M mitogenome-specific cox2 extension (144 bp is much shorter than in other sequenced unionid mitogenomes (531-576 bp, which might be characteristic for the Potamilus genus. The overall topology of the phylogenetic tree is in very good agreement with the currently accepted phylogenetic relationships within the Unionidae: both studied sequences were placed within the Ambleminae subfamily clusters in the corresponding M and F clades.

  17. The Complete Maternally and Paternally Inherited Mitochondrial Genomes of a Freshwater Mussel Potamilus alatus (Bivalvia: Unionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Hai B; Cao, Zhe M; Hua, Dan; Xu, Pao; Ma, Xue Y; Jin, Wu; Yuan, Xin H; Gu, Ruo B

    2017-01-01

    Doubly uniparental inheritance (DUI) of mitochondrial DNA, found only in some bivalve families and characterized by the existence of gender-associated mtDNA lineages that are inherited through males (M-type) or females (F-type), is one of the very few exceptions to the general rule of strict maternal mtDNA inheritance in animals. M-type sequences are often undetected and hence still underrepresented in the GenBank, which hinders the progress of the understanding of the DUI phenomenon. We have sequenced and analyzed the complete M and F mitogenomes of a freshwater mussel, Potamilus alatus. The M-type was 493 bp longer (M = 16 560, F = 16 067 bp). Gene contents, order and the distribution of genes between L and H strands were typical for unionid mussels. Candidates for the two ORFan genes (forf and morf) were found in respective mitogenomes. Both mitogenomes had a very similar A+T bias: F = 61% and M = 62.2%. The M mitogenome-specific cox2 extension (144 bp) is much shorter than in other sequenced unionid mitogenomes (531-576 bp), which might be characteristic for the Potamilus genus. The overall topology of the phylogenetic tree is in very good agreement with the currently accepted phylogenetic relationships within the Unionidae: both studied sequences were placed within the Ambleminae subfamily clusters in the corresponding M and F clades.

  18. SELETIVIDADE DE CHLORFENAPYR E FENBUTATIN-OXIDE SOBRE DUAS ESPÉCIES DE ÁCAROS PREDADORES (ACARI: PHYTOSEIIDAE EM CITROS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REIS PAULO REBELLES

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o uso de bioensaios, verificaram-se os efeitos residual de contato, ovicida e de persistência dos produtos chlorfenapyr e fenbutatin-oxide sobre duas espécies de ácaros predadores, Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark & Muma e Euseius alatus DeLeon (Acari: Phytoseiidae, associados ao ácaro da leprose-dos-citros Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes (Acari: Tenuipalpidae. O efeito total sobre os adultos foi estudado por meio do método residual de contato com pulverização em superfície de vidro, conforme metodologia da IOBC. O efeito ovicida foi avaliado por meio de pulverização direta sobre os ovos dos ácaros predadores, também em superfície de vidro. A persistência dos produtos foi avaliada em laboratório, em arenas confeccionadas com folhas de laranjeira pulverizadas no campo, aos 0; 5; 15 e 30 dias após a aplicação. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que chlorfenapyr foi nocivo ao I. zuluagai e E. alatus e o fenbutatin-oxide foi levemente nocivo a E. alatus e inócuo a I. zuluagai. Nenhum dos produtos apresentou efeito ovicida. Fenbutatin-oxide apresentou baixa persistência para ambas as espécies de ácaros predadores, e chlorfenapyr, na dosagem de 31,3 ml, foi de baixa persistência, enquanto, na dosagem de 62,5 ml, foi moderadamente persistente. O fenbutatin-oxide apresentou-se inócuo e levemente nocivo aos ácaros predadores I. zuluagai e E. alatus, respectivamente, e de baixa persistência para ambas as espécies

  19. Risk assessment of Cry toxins of Bacillus thuringiensis on the predatory mites Euseius concordis and Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Thiago Rodrigues; Ausique, John Jairo Saldarriaga; Nunes, Daiane Heloisa; Ibanhes, Fernando Henrique; Delalibera Júnior, Italo

    2013-04-01

    Genetically modified plants carrying Cry toxins of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are widely used for pest control. Possible adverse effects as a result of the use of this control technique to non-target organisms is still a concern; however, few studies have addressed the effects of Bt crops on phytoseiid predatory mites. Phytoseiids are important for the natural control of phytophagous mites, but they can also feed on pollen, plant exudates, etc. Thus, phytoseiids may ingest Bt toxins through several pathways. In this paper, we evaluate the direct effect of Bt-toxins by feeding the predators on Bt cell suspensions, on solution of a Bt toxin and the tri-trophic effect by Bt expressed in transgenic plants. We present a method of conducting toxicological tests with Phytoseiidae which can be useful in studies of risk analysis of toxins to be expressed by genetically engineered plants. This method was used to evaluate the potential effect of ingestion of suspensions of Bt (1.25 × 10(8) spores/ml) and of purified protein Cry1Ia12 (0.006 mg/ml and 0.018 mg/ml) on Euseius concordis, a predatory mite that develops and reproduces best on pollen. The effects of genetically modified Bollgard(®) cotton, which carries the Cry1Ac protein, on Neoseiulus californicus, a selective predator that feeds more on spider mites than on pollen or insects, was determined by feeding them with Tetranychus urticae reared in Bollgard(®) cotton and on the non-transgenic isoline. When E. concordis was fed with suspension of Bt isolate derived from product Dipel(®) PM, no significant effects were detected. Similarly, Cry1Ia12 Bt toxin, at a concentration of 0.006 mg/ml, did not affect E. concordis. At a concentration of 0.018 mg/ml, however, the intake of this protein reduced the reproduction of E. concordis. There were no effects of Bollgard(®) cotton on the biological traits and on the predatory capacity of N. californicus. Results indicate that the Cry toxins of B. thuringiensis

  20. Typhlodromus pyri and Euseius finlandicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae) as potential biocontrol agents against spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) inhabiting willows: laboratory studies on predator development and reproduction on four diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchalska, Ewa K; Kozak, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    Typhlodromus pyri Scheuten and Euseius finlandicus (Oudemans) are important predators of phytophagous mites. The present laboratory study aimed to determine whether both species can develop and reach maturity feeding on spider mites occurring on willows, i.e., Schizotetranychus schizopus (Zacher), Schizotetranychus garmani Pritchard & Baker, and Tetranychus urticae Koch, and on Brassica napus L. pollen. The predators' development, reproduction and demographic parameters were significantly affected by diet. The data suggest that rape pollen can be useful in mass rearing of E. finlandicus but is completely unsuitable as alternative food for T. pyri. Short development time and high values of population parameters achieved by T. pyri feeding on larvae and protonymphs of S. schizopus and by E. finlandicus feeding on juvenile stages of S. garmani indicate great suitability of these preys as food for the phytoseiids, and make both predatory species promising biocontrol agents in spider mite control on willows.

  1. Fitoseídeos (Acari: Phytoseiidae associados a cafezais e fragmentos florestais vizinhos Phytoseiids (Acari: Phytoseiidae associated to coffee plantations and adjacent forest fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Azevedo Silva

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Existem poucas informações sobre a fauna de ácaros predadores (Phytoseiidae em ambientes naturais brasileiros adjacentes a agroecossistemas cafeeiros (Coffea spp. ou sobre a influência que essa vegetação exerce como reservatório de ácaros predadores. Neste estudo, objetivou-se avaliar a diversidade destes organismos em cafeeiros e fragmentos florestais adjacentes. Coletaram-se amostras das espécies Calyptranthes clusiifolia (Miq. O. Berg (Myrtaceae, Esenbeckia febrifuga (A. St.-Hil. A. Juss. ex Mart. (Rutaceae, Metrodorea stipularis Mart. (Rutaceae e Allophylus semidentatus (Miq. Radlk. (Sapindaceae, em oito fragmentos florestais, de 5 a 51 ha, e cafezais adjacentes, nos meses de junho (final período chuvoso e outubro (final período seco nos anos 2004 e 2005, na região Sul do Estado de Minas Gerais. Ácaros foram extraídos das folhas, utilizando o método de lavagem e, em seguida, montados em lâminas de microscopia em meio de Hoyer, para identificação específica. No total foram identificados 2.348 fitoseídeos, sendo 2.090 nos fragmentos florestais e 258 espécimes nos cafezais adjacentes, pertencentes a 38 espécies. Servindo-se de análise faunística, a espécie Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark & Muma, 1972 apresentou os melhores índices no agroecossistema cafeeiro, sendo muito frequente e constante nas épocas estudadas. Nos fragmentos florestais Amblyseius herbicolus Chant, 1959, Iphiseiodes affs. neonobilis Denmark & Muma, 1978, Leonseius regularis DeLeon, 1965 e Euseius alatus DeLeon, 1966 foram dominantes, muito abundantes, muito frequentes e constantes nas épocas estudadas. Podemos concluir que a vegetação nativa abriga ácaros predadores, inimigos naturais de ácaros-praga, que ocorrem na cultura cafeeira, possibilitando o desenvolvimento de programas de manejo ecológico com áreas de vegetação natural e agroecossistemas cafeeiros adjacentes.There is little information about the fauna of predatory mites

  2. BIOLOGIA E TABELA DE VIDA DO ÁCARO PREDADOR Euseius concordis (CHANT, 1959 (ACARI: PHYTOSEIIDAE EM PINHÃO-MANSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLECIA DE CARVALHO MARQUES

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the development and the intrinsic growth rate (rm of Euseius concordis on Tetranychus bastosi on physic nut (Jatropha curcas. The experiment was conducted in incubator BOD at 25 ° C and 70 % RH, with 12h photoperiod environment. The evaluations were performed twice daily for the biology of the mite, and once to the reproductive parameters. The average life cycle of fe-males was 6.3 ± 0.14 days and the males of 6.22 ± 0.14 days. The sex ratio was 0.64, and the average longevi-ty of females was 22.6 ± 2.22 days with an average production of 7,42 eggs per female. The parameters of the life table were obtained : net reproductive rate (Ro, 54,9 individuals ; average length of generations (T , 7,77 days; intrinsic growth rate (rm, 0,22 female per female per day; finite rate of increase (λ, 1,24 female per fe-male; and in population doubling time (TD, 3,16 days. The E. concordis mite has developed satisfactorily when created with T. diet bastosi, with the short development cycle.

  3. Comparative toxicity of pesticides in three phytoseiid mites with different life-style occurring in citrus: Euseius stipulatus, Neoseiulus californicus and Phytoseiulus persimilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argolo, Poliane Sá; Jacas, Josep A; Urbaneja, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Conservation and augmentative biological control strategies have been developed to take full advantage of the natural enemies that occur in Spanish citrus orchards. Among them, the predatory mites Euseius stipulatus, Neoseiulus californicus and Phytoseiulus persimilis play an important role in the biological control of tetranychid mites. However, these predatory mites are often affected by pesticides and information about the side-effects of these products against these beneficial arthropods is essential to guarantee their efficacy. The side-effects of some pesticides remain unknown and the primary aim of this study was to fill this gap. We have further used this information and that collected from other sources to compare the response of these three mite species to pesticides. Based on this information, E. stipulatus has the most tolerant species, followed by N. californicus and P. persimilis. Therefore, using E. stipulatus as an indicator species in citrus may have led to the paradox of selecting presumed selective pesticides resulting in excessive impact on N. californicus and, especially on P. persimilis. Because these two latter species are considered key for the biological control of T. urticae in citrus, especially clementines, in Spain, we propose to use P. persimilis as the relevant indicator of such effects on predacious mites occurring in citrus instead of E. stipulatus. This change could have a dramatic impact on the satisfactory control of tetranychid mites in citrus in the near future.

  4. Oviposição dos ácaros predadores Agistemus floridanus Gonzalez, Euseius concordis (Chant e Neoseiulus anonymus (Chant & Baker (Acari em resposta a diferentes tipos de alimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferla Noeli Juarez

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytoseiidae and Sigmaeidae are the most common predatory mites on rubber tree leaves in the State of Mato Grosso, associated with phytophagous mites of the families Eriophyidae, Tenuipalpidae and Tetranychidae. The aim of this work was to compare the effect of different kinds of food, including different species of mites commonly found on the rubber tree in Mato Grosso, and one kind of pollen, on the oviposition of the predators Agistemus floridanus Gonzalez, 1965 (Stigmaeidae, Euseius concordis (Chant, 1959 and Neoseiulus anonymus (Chant & Baker, 1965, both Phytoseiidae. Those predators are common on rubber tree leaves in Mato Grosso. For the tests with A. floridanus, discs of 2 cm in diameter of rubber tree leaves were used as substrate. Food provided to the predators were the mites Calacarus heveae Feres, 1992, Oligonychus gossypii (Zacher, 1921, Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks, 1904, Tenuipalpus heveae Baker, 1945 and Tetranychus mexicanus (McGregor, 1950, and pollen of Typha angustifolia L. Agistemus floridanus accepted a larger variety of foodthan other predators. This was the only predator with high oviposition rate when fed C. heveae and T. heveae, the phytophagous mites considered most important on rubber trees. Euseius concordis and A. floridanus had nearly the same oviposition rates when fed pollen of T. angustifolia (ca. one egg per female per day. Neoseiulus anonymus had the highest oviposition rate than other predators when fed O. gossypii and T. mexicanus. Polyphagotarsonemus latus was the least suitable food for the predators studied.

  5. Effects of Process Parameters on the Extraction of Quercetin and Rutin from the Stalks of Euonymus Alatus (Thumb. Sieb and Predictive Model Based on Least Squares Support Vector Machine Optimized by an Improved Fruit Fly Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangqing Liao

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE of quercetin and rutin from the stalks of Euonymus alatus (Thunb. Sieb in our laboratory, which aimed at evaluating and optimizing the process parameters, was investigated in this work. In addition, process parameters such as ethanol solution concentration, solvent volume/sample ratio, ultrasound power and extraction time, ultrasound frequency and extraction temperature were also first applied for evaluating the influence of extraction of quercetin and rutin. Optimum process parameters obtained were: ethanol solution 60%, extraction time 30 min, solvent volume/sample ratio 40 mL/g, ultrasound power 200 W, extraction temperature 30 °C and ultrasound frequency 80 kHz. Further a hybrid predictive model, which is based on least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM in combination with improved fruit fly optimization algorithm (IFOA, was first used to predict the UAE process. The established IFOA-LS-SVM model, in which six process parameters and extraction yields of quercetin and rutin were used as input variables and output variables, respectively, successfully predicted the extraction yields of quercetin and rutin with a low error. Moreover, by comparison with SVM, LS-SVM and multiple regression models, IFOA-LS-SVM model has higher accuracy and faster convergence. Results proved that the proposed model is capable of predicting extraction yields of quercetin and rutin in UAE process.

  6. Toxicidade de natuneem sobre Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae e ácaros predadores da família Phytoseiidae Toxicity of the natuneem over the Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae and mites predators from the family Phytoseiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Maria Brito

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A toxicidade de diferentes concentrações de Natuneem a Tetranychus urticae Koch e a dois ácaros predadores, Euseius alatus De Leon e Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks, foi estudada. Foi avaliada a toxicidade sobre ovos, e o efeito residual e repelente, sobre adultos. O tratamento dos ovos consistiu na imersão em diluições de Natuneem por cinco segundos, e o efeito residual e repelente sobre adultos consistiu na imersão de discos de folhas de Canavalia ensiformes (L. DC. também em diluições por cinco segundos. Natuneem foi repelente para T. urticae e E. alatus, quando testado nas concentrações de 0,25; 0,50 e 1,00%, e exibiu efeito neutro para P. macropilis. A toxicidade de Natuneem a ovos e adultos foi maior para T. urticae comparada à toxicidade observada para os ácaros predadores. A fecundidade de T. urticae foi reduzida significativamente por Natuneem em todas as concentrações, enquanto para os ácaros predadores a redução foi significante apenas nas maiores concentrações. Natuneem, nas concentrações testadas, apresentou melhor ação sobre o ácaro-rajado e menor impacto para os ácaros predadores.The toxicity of the Natuneem at different concentrations for both Tetranychus urticae Koch and two predatory mites Euseius alatus De Leon and Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks were studied. The toxicity on eggs, and the residual and repellent effects on adults was evaluated. Egg treatment consisted on dipping eggs into Natuneem dilutions for five seconds; and residual and repellent effects for adults consisted on dipping leaf discs of Canavalia ensiformes (L. DC. into the dilutions for five seconds. Natuneem was repellent for T. urticae and E. alatus at the concentrations 0.25, 0.50 and 1.0%, and exhibited neutral effect on P. macropilis. The toxicity of Natuneem on eggs and adults was greater for T. urticae compared to the toxicity on predatory mites. The fecundity of T. urticae was reduced significantly by Natuneem in all

  7. Ecology and distribution ofof Euseius finlandicus (Parasitiformes, Phytoseiidae in garden phytocenoses of Transcarpathian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Shtymak

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the ecology and distribution of the species Eu. finlandicus Oudemans, 1915 (Parasitiformes, Phytoseiidae in the garden phytocenoses of Transcarpathian region. In Ukraine, such studies were conducted for the Forest-Steppe zone. The mites were collected during the period of 2012–2014. In total, nine settlements of Transcarpathian region were studied. On the researched territory Eu. finlandicus inhabits at least 26 species of plants. For the first time, the status of the species Eu. finlandicus is determined in acaro-complexes of the family Phytoseiidae in garden phytocenoses of Transcarpathian region. The indices of occurrence and dominance for this species are calculated. Species of plants on which Eu. finlandicus is present in garden phytocenoses of Transcarpathian region are described. Results of the study suggest that Eu. finlandicus is a common species in garden phytocenoses of Transcarpathian region. The results can become the theoretical basis for development of schemes aimed at enhancing the protective function of useful mites in phytocenoses of the Uzhgorod district.

  8. Economic importance of oleoresin (Dipterocarpus alatus) to forest-adjacent households in Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Dyrmose, Anne-Mette Hüls; Turreira Garcia, Nerea; THEILADE, IDA; Meilby, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    The genus Dipterocarpus is the main source of marketable liquid oleoresin, which is important as a source of income for forest communities in Southeast Asia. However, deforestation and illegal as well as legal logging pose a threat to resin yielding species (Dipterocarpus spp.). There is still more to be learned about resin yield, harvest techniques, and the importance of resin to local livelihoods. This study quantifies yields from one of the most intensively tapped resin species, Dipterocar...

  9. Plantas de ocorrência espontânea como substratos alternativos para fitoseídeos (Acari, Phytoseiidae em cultivos de seringueira Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae Weeds as alternative substrates to phytoseiids (Acari, Phytoseiidae in rubber tree Hevea brasilienis, Muell. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Roberto Bellini

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar as espécies de plantas espontâneas em áreas de cultivo de seringueira que poderiam servir com reservatório de ácaros predadores. O trabalho foi conduzido em Olímpia, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, em dois cultivos de seringueira. A cada três meses, cerca de 1.000 cm³ de folhas de cada uma das cinco espécies de plantas espontâneas dominantes em cada cultivo foi tomada para determinar os fitoseídeos. Como as plantas espontâneas dominantes variaram durante o estudo, um total de 20 espécies foi verificado. Somente Cecropia sp. foi dominante em todo estudo, em ambos os cultivos. Um total de 336 fitoseídeos pertencentes às seguintes espécies foi encontrado: Euseius citrifolius Denmark & Muma, 1970, E. concordis (Chant, 1959, Galendromus annectens (DeLeon, 1958, Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark & Muma, 1972, Neoseiulus anonymus (Chant & Baker, 1965 e N. tunus (DeLeon, 1967. E. citrifolius (189 espécimes e N. tunus (138 espécimes foram os mais abundantes. A maior abundância (231espécimes e diversidade (5 espécies foram observadas sobre Cecropia sp. Sobre esta planta foi encontrado o maior número de ácaros por amostra (29 espécimes, seguida por Piper duncum Linnaeus (22, Guarea sp. (18 e Ageratum conyzoides Linnaeus (12. E. citrifolius tem sido determinado como um dos ácaros predadores mais abundantes sobre seringueiras cultivadas na região onde este trabalho foi conduzido. Cecropia sp. parece ser uma das plantas espontâneas mais importantes consideradas como reservatório de E. citrifolius porque está continuamente presente nos cultivos. Estudos complementares poderiam indicar a viabilidade de se manejar esta planta nas áreas de cultivo de seringueira para permitir o controle biológico dos ácaros-praga desta cultura.The objective of this study was to determine weed species of rubber tree cultivation areas that could serve as reservoirs of predatory mites. The work was conducted in Ol

  10. [Mites (Acari) associated to Myrtaceae in areas of Cerrado in the State of São Paulo with faunistic analysis of families Tarsonemidae and Phytoseiidae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofego, Antonio C; de Moraes, Gilberto J

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine and to analyse the diversity of mites on native Myrtaceae of the "Cerrado" vegetation type of the State of São Paulo, with particular attention to the families Phytoseiidae and Tarsonemidae. In the year 2000, mites were collected from Myrtaceae species in three "Cerrado" areas in the State of São Paulo. Samples of leaves, flowers and fruits were taken from three plant of each species in each site. Mites of 49 genera belonging to 14 families were found. Fourteen phytoseiid species of nine genera and 19 tarsonemid species of six genera were collected. The most abundant phytoseiids were Euseius citrifolius Denmark & Muma, Transeius bellottii (Moraes & Mesa) and Amblyseius acalyphus Denmark & Muma. The most abundant tarsonemids were Daidalotarsonemus tesselatus DeLeon, Daidalotarsonemus folisetae Lofego & Ochoa and Metatarsonemus megasolenidii Lofego & Ochoa. The highest indexes of diversity of phytoseiids and tarsonemids were observed in the fall; the lowest indexes were found in the winter for phytoseiids and in the spring for tarsonemids. Taking into consideration the total number of phytoseiids and tarsonemids collected in this work, the corresponding indexes of diversity (Shannon) were similar and close to 2.0. Different predatory mite species prevailed on distinct plant species, indicating the complementariness of the latter as reservoirs of the former.

  11. Relative contribution of biotic and abiotic factors to the population density of the cassava green mite, Mononychellus tanajoa (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rêgo, Adriano S; Teodoro, Adenir V; Maciel, Anilde G S; Sarmento, Renato A

    2013-08-01

    The cassava green mite, Mononychellus tanajoa, is a key pest of cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae), and it may be kept in check by naturally occurring predatory mites of the family Phytoseiidae. In addition to predatory mites, abiotic factors may also contribute to regulate pest mite populations in the field. Here, we evaluated the population densities of both M. tanajoa and the generalist predatory mite Euseius ho DeLeon (Acari: Phytoseiidae) over the cultivation cycle (11 months) of cassava in four study sites located around the city of Miranda do Norte, Maranhão, Brazil. The abiotic variables rainfall, temperature and relative humidity were also recorded throughout the cultivation cycle of cassava. We determined the relative importance of biotic (density of E. ho) and abiotic (rainfall, temperature and relative humidity) factors to the density of M. tanajoa. The density of M. tanajoa increased whereas the density of E. ho remained constant throughout time. A hierarchical partitioning analysis revealed that most of the variance for the density of M. tanajoa was explained by rainfall and relative humidity followed by E. ho density and temperature. We conclude that abiotic factors, especially rainfall, were the main mechanisms driving M. tanajoa densities.

  12. Vitro culture of axe-head glochidia in pink heelsplitter Potamilus alatus and mechanism of its high host specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Hai Bo; Jin, Wu; Ma, Xue Yan; Zheng, Bing Qing; Xu, Pao; Xu, Liang; Hua, Dan; Yuan, Xin Hua; Gu, Ruo Bo

    2018-01-01

    The basal media M199 or MEM was utilized in the classical method of vitro culture of glochidia where 1-5% CO2 was required to maintain stable physiological pH for completion of non-parasitic metamorphosis. The classical method encounters a great challenge to those glochidia which undergo development of visceral tissue but significantly increase in size during metamorphosis. The improved in vitro culture techniques and classical methods were firstly compared for non-parasitic metamorphosis and development of glochidia in pink heelsplitter. Based on the improved method, the optimal vitro culture media was further selected from 14 plasmas or sera, realizing the non-parasitic metamorphosis of axe-head glochidia for the first time. The results showed that addition of different plasma (serum) had significant effect on glochidial metamorphosis in pink heelsplitter. Only glochidia in the skewband grunt and red drum groups could complete metamorphosis, the metamorphosis rate in skewband grunt was 93.3±3.1% at 24±0.5°C, significantly higher than in marine and desalinated red drum. Heat-inactivated treatment on the plasma of yellow catfish and Barbus capito had significant effect on glochidia survival and shell growth. The metamorphosis rate also varied among different gravid period, and generally decreased with gravid time. Further comparison of free amino acid and fatty acid indicated that the taurine of high concentration was the only amino acid that might promote the rapid growth of glochidial shell, and the lack of adequate DPA and DHA might be an important reason leading to the abnormal foot and visceral development. Combined with our results of artificial selection of host fish, we tentatively established the mechanism of its host specialists in pink heelsplitter for the first time. This is the first report on non-parasite metamorphosis of axe-head glochidia based on our improved vitro culture method, which should provide important reference to fundamental theory research of glochidia metamorphosis and also benefit for better understand of mechanism of host specialists and generalists of Unionidae species.

  13. Method to produce acetyldiacylglycerols (ac-TAGs) by expression of an acetyltransferase gene isolated from Euonymus alatus (burning bush)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durrett, Timothy; Ohlrogge, John; Pollard, Michael

    2016-05-03

    The present invention relates to novel diacylglycerol acyltransferase genes and proteins, and methods of their use. In particular, the invention describes genes encoding proteins having diacylglycerol acetyltransferase activity, specifically for transferring an acetyl group to a diacylglycerol substrate to form acetyl-Triacylglycerols (ac-TAGS), for example, a 3-acetyl-1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol. The present invention encompasses both native and recombinant wild-type forms of the transferase, as well as mutants and variant forms. The present invention also relates to methods of using novel diacylglycerol acyltransferase genes and proteins, including their expression in transgenic organisms at commercially viable levels, for increasing production of 3-acetyl-1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerols in plant oils and altering the composition of oils produced by microorganisms, such as yeast, by increasing ac-TAG production. Additionally, oils produced by methods of the present inventions comprising genes and proteins are contemplated for use as biodiesel fuel, in polymer production and as naturally produced food oils with reduced calories.

  14. Bravocom süüdistab Tele2 ja EMT-d alatus konkurentsivõitluses / Kristiina Viiron

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Viiron, Kristiina, 1971-

    2007-01-01

    Kallines Tele2 ja EMT võrgust Bravocomi mobiilinumbritele helistamise minutihind. Bravocomi juhatuse esimees Peep Põldsamm peab nii kalli hinna - 4.50 minut - kehtestamist konkurentsivõitluseks. Tabelid: Hinnavõrdlus. Lisa: Tele2 ja EMT kommentaarid

  15. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , euseius kenyae (acari: phytoseiidae) to chlorpyrifos (dursban ®) in kenyan coffee farms. Abstract. ISSN: 1561-7645. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

  16. The Role of Local Knowledge and Traditional Extraction Practices in the Management of Giant Earthworms in Brazil: e0123913

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maria Auxiliadora Drumond; Artur Queiroz Guimarães; Hosken Pereira da Silva

    2015-01-01

      The giant earthworm, Rhinodrilus alatus (Righi 1971), has been captured in the southeastern Brazilian Cerrado biome for approximately 80 years and used as bait for amateur fishing throughout Brazil...

  17. The role of local knowledge and traditional extraction practices in the management of giant earthworms in Brazil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Drumond, Maria Auxiliadora; Guimarães, Artur Queiroz; da Silva, Raquel Hosken Pereira

    2015-01-01

    The giant earthworm, Rhinodrilus alatus (Righi 1971), has been captured in the southeastern Brazilian Cerrado biome for approximately 80 years and used as bait for amateur fishing throughout Brazil...

  18. A plasma membrane H ATPase gene is germination- induced in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-01-18

    Jan 18, 2010 ... Biol. 36(6): 580-585. Cox KH, Deleon DV, Angerer LM, Angerer RC (1984). Detection of. mRNA in sea urchin embryos by in situ hybridization using asymmetric RNA probes. Dev. Biol. 101: 485-502. Cuming AC (1993). Seed Development. In: Dey PM and Harborne JB. (eds) Methods in Plant Biochemistry.

  19. ÁCAROS ASOCIADOS AL CULTIVO DEL AGUACATE (Persea americana Mill EN LA COSTA CENTRAL DE PERÚ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis Muñoz Marticorena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En la costa central de Perú (Lima e Ica, se cultiva el aguacate con fines de exportación, especialmente la variedad Hass. Con el objetivo de conocer la diversidad de ácaros depredadores en huertos comerciales de aguacate, se realizaron recolectas en 6 lugares de la costa central, duran - te el 2010 al 2012. Se registraron 12 especies de la familia Phytoseiidae, de los cuales algunos tendrían potencial como depredadores eficien - tes de Oligonychus sp . (Guanilo et ál. 2012; estos son: Amblyseius aerialis (Muma, Ambly - seius chungas (Demmark y Muma, Amblyseiella setosa (Muma, Euseius emanus (El–Banhawy, Euseius concordis (Chant, Euseius stipulatus (Athias–Henriot, Phytoseiulus persimilis (Athias Henriot, Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks, Neo - seiulus californicus (McGregor, Typhlodromina subtropica (Chant, Typhlodromus ( Antoseius evectus (Schusters y Aristadromips n.sp. Se con - firmó que la vegetación espontánea cumple un rol importante en la conservación de las especies halladas en este cultivo y que además la intro - ducción de un ácaro depredador exótico, como Euseius stipulatus, contribuyó significativamente con el control de la plaga durante la temporada de invierno.

  20. Geïntegreerde bestrijding van trips in roos: Evaluatie van nieuwe roofmijten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijnakker, J.; Leman, A.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Predatory bugs (Anthocorids) and predatory mites (Phytoseiids) are the most effective beneficials against thrips. If predatory bugs have low affinity to the rose crop, there is a series of predatory mites which is suitable for this crop, including Amblyseius swirskii, Euseius ovalis,

  1. Vegetation Evaluation and Recommendations: Dredge Material Placement Areas and Adjacent Lands, Kaskaskia River Navigation Project, New Athens to Fayetteville.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-03

    EASTERN RED CEDAR. Infrequent woody invader in sandy DMP. *Kriia oppositifolia Raf. DWARF DANDELION. Infrequent in moist, sandy DMP. *Lactuca canadensis...canadense L. MOONSEED. Common vine in floodplain woods. Mimulus alatus Ait. WINGED MONKEY FLOWER. Common on muddy banks. * Mollugo verticillatus L

  2. The use of intertidal molluscs in the monitoring of heavy metals and organotin compounds in the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail, Ahmad

    2006-01-01

    Over 60% of human activities in the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia are concentrated in the coastal areas. High human activities in the coastal areas may cause hazardous chemical pollution. In this report, intertidal molluscs were used to assess heavy metals pollution in the coastal areas of the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Intertidal gastropods such as Thais, Cherithedia and Nerita, and bivalves such as Anadara, Isognomon alatus and Perna viridis have been studied and analysed for th...

  3. Multigene molecular systematics confirm species status of morphologically convergent Pagurus hermit crabs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Matzen da Silva

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In spite of contemporary morphological taxonomy appraisals, apparent high morphological similarity raises uncertainty about the species status of certain Pagurus hermit crabs. This is exemplified between two European species, Pagurus excavatus (Herbst, 1791 and Pagurus alatus (Fabricius 1775, whose species status is still difficult to resolve using morphological criteria alone. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To address such ambiguities, we used combinations of Maximum Likelihood (ML and Bayesian Inference (BI methods to delineate species boundaries of P. alatus and P. excavatus and formulate an intermediate Pagurus phylogenetic hypothesis, based upon single and concatenated mitochondrial (cytochrome oxidase I [COI] and nuclear (16S and 28s ribosomal RNA gene partitions. The molecular data supported the species status of P. excavatus and P. alatus and also clearly resolved two divergent clades within hermit crabs from the Northeast Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Despite the abundance and prominent ecological role of hermit crabs, Pagurus, in North East Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea ecosystems, many important aspects of their taxonomy, biology, systematics and evolution remain poorly explored. The topologies presented here should be regarded as hypotheses that can be incorporated into the robust and integrated understanding of the systematic relationships within and between species of the genus Pagurus inhabiting the Northeast Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.

  4. The role of local knowledge and traditional extraction practices in the management of giant earthworms in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Auxiliadora Drumond

    Full Text Available The giant earthworm, Rhinodrilus alatus (Righi 1971, has been captured in the southeastern Brazilian Cerrado biome for approximately 80 years and used as bait for amateur fishing throughout Brazil. Local knowledge and traditional extraction practices are crucial for the establishment of management strategies for the species because, although its extraction involves conflicts and social and environmental impacts, the species is one of the major sources of income for approximately 3,000 people, especially for members of an Afro-descendant community that has approximately 2,000 inhabitants. Participatory tools, such as seasonal calendar, transect walks and participatory maps, were individually or collectively used with extractors and traders (former extractors, and 129 semi-structured and unstructured interviews were conducted with the same individuals between 2005 and 2012. The capture of Rhinodrilus alatus was observed in different seasons and areas of occurrence of the species in 17 municipalities, where this giant earthworm is the only species extracted for trade. All information obtained was verified by community members in 17 meetings. The extractors have an extensive knowledge of the life history, behavior, distribution, and possible impacts of climate change on the species. Different capture techniques, which have different impacts, are used during the dry and rainy seasons and are passed by the extractors through the generations. Local knowledge contributed to the establishment of agreements for the use of capture techniques that have less impact, to the expansion of scientific knowledge and the reassessment of the conservation status of Rhinodrilus alatus. The present study may serve as an example for management projects for other giant earthworm species in other regions of Brazil and in other countries.

  5. The role of local knowledge and traditional extraction practices in the management of giant earthworms in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drumond, Maria Auxiliadora; Guimarães, Artur Queiroz; da Silva, Raquel Hosken Pereira

    2015-01-01

    The giant earthworm, Rhinodrilus alatus (Righi 1971), has been captured in the southeastern Brazilian Cerrado biome for approximately 80 years and used as bait for amateur fishing throughout Brazil. Local knowledge and traditional extraction practices are crucial for the establishment of management strategies for the species because, although its extraction involves conflicts and social and environmental impacts, the species is one of the major sources of income for approximately 3,000 people, especially for members of an Afro-descendant community that has approximately 2,000 inhabitants. Participatory tools, such as seasonal calendar, transect walks and participatory maps, were individually or collectively used with extractors and traders (former extractors), and 129 semi-structured and unstructured interviews were conducted with the same individuals between 2005 and 2012. The capture of Rhinodrilus alatus was observed in different seasons and areas of occurrence of the species in 17 municipalities, where this giant earthworm is the only species extracted for trade. All information obtained was verified by community members in 17 meetings. The extractors have an extensive knowledge of the life history, behavior, distribution, and possible impacts of climate change on the species. Different capture techniques, which have different impacts, are used during the dry and rainy seasons and are passed by the extractors through the generations. Local knowledge contributed to the establishment of agreements for the use of capture techniques that have less impact, to the expansion of scientific knowledge and the reassessment of the conservation status of Rhinodrilus alatus. The present study may serve as an example for management projects for other giant earthworm species in other regions of Brazil and in other countries.

  6. Population studies of arthropods on Melia azedarach in Seville (Spain), with special reference to Eutetranychus orientalis (Acari: Tetranychidae) and its natural enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Zamora, J E; López, C; Avilla, C

    2011-12-01

    Eutetranychus orientalis has become an important pest of the ornamental tree Melia azedarach in the city of Seville (Spain). Trees suffer total defoliation at the end of summer. Studies were conducted in a regular plantation of this tree in the Miraflores Park in 2008 and 2009, to determine the arthropod faunal composition, with particular interest in the possible natural enemies of E. orientalis. Eutetranychus orientalis accounted for 98.3% of the arthropods found on the leaflets. Two species of phytoseiids were found, Euseius scutalis and Euseius stipulatus, but they only represented 0.2% of the arthropods. The most abundant insect was the predator thrips Scolothrips longicornis, which accounted for 0.9% of the arthropods found. The population of E. orientalis reached two peaks in 2008, with 325 individuals per leaflet in August, and 100 individuals per leaflet in November. Scolothrips longicornis densities closely followed E. orientalis, and predation was observed on various mite instars. Phytoseiids did not show such a response to the E. orientalis densities. Eutetranychus orientalis was more abundant in the exterior part of the plantation. No differences of arthropod densities were found between the various orientations in the plantation (north vs. south, east vs. west), although E. orientalis densities were different between rows. Distribution of E. orientalis population was highly aggregative, that of S. longicornis population was less aggregative, whereas the phytoseiid population showed a random distribution.

  7. Can exotic phytoseiids be considered 'benevolent invaders' in perennial cropping systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palevsky, Eric; Gerson, Uri; Zhang, Zhi-Qiang

    2013-02-01

    Numerous natural enemies were adopted worldwide for the control of major pests, including exotic phytoseiid species (Acari: Mesostigmata: Phytoseiidae) that had been moved from continent to continent in protected and perennial agricultural systems. However, relatively fewer successes were recorded in perennial agricultural systems. In this manuscript we focus on the question: Can and will exotic phytoseiids provide better pest control than indigenous species in perennial agricultural systems? To answer this question, we review the efficacy of biological control efforts with phytoseiids in several case studies, where exotic and indigenous species were used against pests on indigenous host plants and some crops that were historically or recently introduced. Related factors affecting predator establishment, such as intraguild predation and pesticide effects are discussed, as well as the potential negative effects of exotic species releases on biological control and their impact on the indigenous natural fauna. On citrus, apple, grape and cassava exotic phytoseiids have enhanced biological control without negatively affecting indigenous species of natural enemies, except for the case of Euseius stipulatus (Athias-Henriot) on citrus that displaced Euseius hibisci (Chant) in a limited region of coastal California, USA, the latter considered to be an inferior biocontrol agent of Panonychus citri Koch. Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot on gorse, an invasive weed, is perhaps the only recorded case of a negative effect of an established exotic phytoseiid on biological control.

  8. Efficacy of and preference for reinforcement and response cost in token economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jowett Hirst, Erica S; Dozier, Claudia L; Payne, Steven W

    2016-06-01

    Researchers have shown that both differential reinforcement and response cost within token economies are similarly effective for changing the behavior of individuals in a group context (e.g., Donaldson, DeLeon, Fisher, & Kahng, 2014; Iwata & Bailey, 1974). In addition, these researchers have empirically evaluated preference for these procedures. However, few previous studies have evaluated the individual effects of these procedures both in group contexts and in the absence of peers. Therefore, we replicated and extended previous research by determining the individual effects and preferences of differential reinforcement and response cost under both group and individualized conditions. Results demonstrated that the procedures were equally effective for increasing on-task behavior during group and individual instruction for most children, and preference varied across participants. In addition, results were consistent across participants who experienced the procedures in group and individualized settings. © 2016 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  9. Psychology in the public service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimbardo, Philip G

    2002-01-01

    Philip G. Zimbardo outlines the challenges and opportunities he faces as the American Psychological Association's (APA's) 110th president. This article expands on remarks made in his introduction to Patrick H. DeLeon's presidential address at the APA's 2001 annual convention in San Francisco, California. Appearing now, mid-term in his presidency, that vision is a working blueprint of his activities and what he hopes to accomplish in his remaining tenure: enhancing psychologists' pride in psychology; developing more productive relationships with all media as gatekeepers to the public; publishing the standard high school psychology textbook; developing a compendium of all psychological research that illustrates how psychologists have made a significant difference in improving various aspects of the quality of life of individuals, groups, communities, and the United States; and encouraging greater unity of purpose and respect among psychologists across their many diverse domains and specialties.

  10. Heart rate as a sublethal indicator of thermal stress in juvenile freshwater mussels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfo, Tamara J; Cope, W Gregory; Arellano, Consuelo

    2009-11-01

    Freshwater mussels (Unionoida) are one of the most sensitive and rapidly declining faunal groups in the world. Rising water temperatures, caused by industrial discharges, land development, or climate change can further challenge threatened unionid communities. The direct relationship between heart rate and temperature in ectotherms enables the use of heart rate as an indicator of whole-animal thermal stress. The purpose of this study was to assess the utility of heart rate as an indicator of thermal stress in freshwater mussels. Seven species of juvenile mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea, Potamilus alatus, Ligumia recta, Ellipsaria lineolata, Megalonaias nervosa, Alasmidonta varicosa, and Villosa delumbis) were evaluated in response to a range of experimental temperatures (20-36 degrees C) at three acclimation temperatures (17, 22, and 27 degrees C). Heart rate was measured by direct visual observation through transparent mussel shells. The average heart rate for all 7 species at 20 degrees C was 55bpm, with a range from 38bpm (L. recta) to 65bpm (P. alatus). L. recta and V. delumbis exhibited significant changes in heart rate with increasing temperature at each of the three acclimation temperatures. The use of heart rate appears to be a suitable indicator of thermal stress in some unionid mussels.

  11. Population survey of phytoseiid mites and spider mites on peach leaves and wild plants in Japanese peach orchard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wari, David; Yamashita, Jun; Kataoka, Yoko; Kohara, Yoko; Hinomoto, Norihide; Kishimoto, Hidenari; Toyoshima, Shingo; Sonoda, Shoji

    2014-07-01

    A population survey of phytoseiid mites and spider mites was conducted on peach leaves and wild plants in Japanese peach orchards having different pesticide practices. The phytoseiid mite species composition on peach leaves and wild plants, as estimated using quantitative sequencing, changed during the survey period. Moreover, it varied among study sites. The phytoseiid mite species compositions were similar between peach leaves and some wild plants, such as Veronica persica, Paederia foetida, Persicaria longiseta, and Oxalis corniculata with larger quantities of phytoseiid mites, especially after mid-summer. A PCR-based method to detect the ribosomal ITS sequences of Tetranychus kanzawai and Panonychus mori from phytoseiid mites was developed. Results showed that Euseius sojaensis (specialized pollen feeder/generalist predator) uses both spider mites as prey in the field.

  12. Acarofauna da cafeicultura de cerrado em Patrocínio, Minas Gerais Acarofauna of cerrado's coffee crops in Patrocínio, Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Spongoski

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available A cultura do cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L. na região de cerrado do Estado de Minas Gerais, mais especificamente no Alto Paranaíba, está se desenvolvendo com muito sucesso. As doenças e pragas vêm causando redução na produtividade e na qualidade do café produzido. Os ácaros fitófagos fazem parte deste problema, pois causam danos econômicos. Sendo assim, este trabalho teve como objetivo o levantamento da acarofauna em cafeeiros daquela região. Foram feitas quatro amostragens de folhas, ramos e frutos, sendo duas no período das águas e duas no período de seca em 2002 e 2003. Foram identificadas três famílias de ácaros fitófagos, quatro de ácaros predadores e quatro de ácaros generalistas. As espécies de ácaros encontradas foram: Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939 (Tenuipalpidae; Oligonychus sp. (Tetranychidae; Tarsonemus confusus Ewing, 1939, Fungitarsonemus sp., Daidalotarsonemus sp., Phytonemus sp. (Tarsonemidae; Lorrya formosa Cooreman, 1958, Lorrya sp. (Tydeidae; Parapronematus acaciae Baker, 1965 (Iolinidae; Euseius concordis (Chant, 1959, Euseius citrifolius Denmark e Muma, 1970, Amblyseius herbicolus (Chant, 1959 (Phytoseiidae; Asca sp. (Ascidae; Bdella sp. (Bdellidae; Zetzellia sp. (Stigmaeidae, e espécimes da família Acaridae e da subordem Oribatida não identificadas. Trata-se do primeiro relato da ocorrência da espécie T. confusus em cafeeiro. Da família Tarsonemidae foram encontradas três novas espécies, e da família Iolinidae um novo gênero, para posterior descrição.The coffee (Coffea arabica L. growing in Cerrado areas of Patrocínio, State of Minas Gerais, more specifically in the region of Alto Paranaíba, have been expanding with success. Coffee diseases and pests result in reduction of the productivity and quality. Phytophagous mites are among the pests that cause economic damage. Therefore, this work had as objective the study of the mite fauna on coffee plants in those areas. Four surveys were

  13. Initial screening of little known predatory mites in Brazil as potential pest control agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vis, R M J; de Moraes, G J; Bellini, M R

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the oviposition rate and the survivorship of some of the most common predators on plants of the natural vegetation of southeastern Brazil, when confined with different food sources. Forty-four laboratory tests were carried out, each corresponding to a different combination of predator species and food source. The predators tested were: Phytoseiidae--Amblyseius acalyphus, Euseius citrifolius, Iphiseiodes zuluagai, Metaseiulus (Metaseiulus) camelliae, Typhlodromips cananeiensis; Stigmaeidae--Agistemus floridanus, Zetzellia malvinae; Tydeidae--Pronematus sp. For most predators, the highest oviposition rate and survivorship were obtained when the prey was one of the tenuipalpid mites, Brevipalpus phoenicis or Tenuipalpus heveae. With the exception of A. floridanus, the predators had low oviposition rate and survivorship on Calacarus heveae relative to their respective rate on other food sources. Predators had also generally low oviposition rate and survivorship when feeding on Tetranychus urticae, Oligonychus gossypii or Frankliniella sp.

  14. Potential of High-Resolution Satellite Imagery for Mapping Distribution and Evaluating Ecological Characteristics of Tree Species at the Angkor Monument, Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomita Mizuki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Large trees play several vital roles in the Angkor monuments landscape. They protect biodiversity, enhance the tourism experience, and provide various ecosystem services to local residents. A clear understanding of forest composition and distribution of individual species, as well as timely monitoring of changes, is necessary for conservation of these trees. using traditional field work, obtaining this sort of data is time-consuming and labour-intensive. This research investigates classification of very high resolution remote sensing data as a tool for efficient analyses. QuickBird satellite imagery was used to clarify the tree species community in and around Preah Khan temple, to elucidate differences in ecological traits among the three dominant species (Dipterocarpus alatus, Lagerstroemia calyculata and Tetrameles nudiflora, and to identify crowns of the dominant species.

  15. Influence of ozone on selected woody ornamentals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, F.A.; Coppolino, J.B.

    1971-01-01

    Approximately 900 plants of 24 woody ornamental species were exposed to 25 pphm ozone for 8 hr at 24 C, 75% relative humidity, and 1400 ft-c of light. Cercis canadensis, Cotoneaster divaricata, C. horizontalis, Forsythia intermedia spectabilis Lynwood Gold, Gleditsia triacanthos inermis, Rhododendron kaempheri Camp fire, R. kurume Snow, R. catawbiense album, R. nova zembla, R. roseium elegans, Sorbus aucuparia, Syringa vulgaris, and Viburnum carlesi were sensitive. The most common symptoms were brown to black necrotic stipples on the upper leaf surface and premature defoliation. Interveinal necrotic and chlorotic flecks occurred infrequently. Current leaves of intermediate age were most sensitive. Euonymous alatus compacta, Hedra helix, Juniperus communis depressa plumosa, Pachysandra terminalis, Pieris japonica, Pyracantha coccinea lalandi, Rhododendron caroliniana, R. mollis, Taxus cuspidata, T. media hicksi, and Vinca minor were resistant.

  16. Spatial and temporal distribution of mercury and methylmercury in bivalves from the French coastline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briant, N; Chouvelon, T; Martinez, L; Brach-Papa, C; Chiffoleau, J F; Savoye, N; Sonke, J; Knoery, J

    2017-01-30

    Marine mercury (Hg) concentrations have been monitored in the French coastline for the last half a century using bivalves. The analyses presented in this study concerned 192 samples of bivalves (mussels: Mytilus edulis and Mytilus galloprovincialis and oysters: Crassostrea gigas and Isognomon alatus) from 77 sampling stations along the French coast and in the French Antilles sea. The goals of this study were to assess MeHg levels in various common bivalves from French coastline, and to identify possible geographic, taxonomic or temporal variations of concentrations. We show that the evolution of methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations covary with total mercury (HgT) concentrations. Moreover, in most of the study sites, HgT concentrations have not decreased since 1987, despite regulations to decrease or ban mercury used for anthropic activities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Nitrous oxide production from temperate and tropical oyster species in response to nutrient loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, H.; Garate, M.; Moseman-Valtierra, S.

    2016-02-01

    Anthropogenic pollution, such as nitrogen (N), has the potential to increase greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in marine ecosystems. Some organisms can be used as important biological indicators for GHG emissions to their environment based on their feeding habits. With large inputs of these anthropogenic pollutants, emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent GHG, can be potentially increased from temperate invertebrates, though not much is known about tropical invertebrates. Thus, we compared N2O emissions in response to N additions from the temperate oyster species Crassostrea virginica and compared it to a tropical species, Isognomon alatus, found in Puerto Rico. Oysters were exposed to two seawater treatments: (1) no nutrient addition (control) and (2) 100µM ammonium nitrate. Each treatment had 4-5 replicates. Measurements for dissolved N2O and nutrients were taken at the start of the incubation and then at two, four, and five hours by collecting water samples of each tank. Dissolved N2O concentrations were analyzed using gas chromatography. We hypothesized that the N addition treatment would produce more N2O for both Rhode Island and Puerto Rico. We found that there was no significant difference between the control and N enriched treatments for C. virginica over the short timespan, although the N enriched treatment did have a steady trend in increasing in N2O concentration over time. Further analysis is needed for the I. alatus, though we expect an increase in N2O emissions due to warmer water temperatures, which might enhance microbial metabolism and production of N2O. This differs from work previously done in a long-term experiment on C. virginica, which showed that N2O significantly in the N enriched treatment over 28-days. Our study shows that short-term pulses of N may not potentially increase N2O emissions, though further analysis is needed for longer-term exposures.

  18. A distinct DGAT with sn-3 acetyltransferase activity that synthesizes unusual, reduced-viscosity oils in Euonymus and transgenic seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrett, Timothy P; McClosky, Daniel D; Tumaney, Ajay W; Elzinga, Dezi A; Ohlrogge, John; Pollard, Mike

    2010-05-18

    Endosperm and embryo tissues from the seeds of Euonymus alatus (Burning Bush) accumulate high levels of 3-acetyl-1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerols (acTAGs) as their major storage lipids. In contrast, the aril tissue surrounding the seed produces long-chain triacylglycerols (lcTAGs) typical of most other organisms. The presence of the sn-3 acetyl group imparts acTAGs with different physical and chemical properties, such as a 30% reduction in viscosity, compared to lcTAGs. Comparative transcriptome analysis of developing endosperm and aril tissues using pyrosequencing technology was performed to isolate the enzyme necessary for the synthesis of acTAGs. An uncharacterized membrane-bound O-acyltransferase (MBOAT) family member was the most abundant acyltransferase in the endosperm but was absent from the aril. Expression of this MBOAT in yeast resulted in the accumulation of acTAGs but not lcTAG; hence, the enzyme was named EaDAcT (Euonymus alatus diacylglycerol acetyltransferase). Yeast microsomes expressing EaDAcT possessed acetyl-CoA diacylglycerol acetyltransferase activity but lacked long-chain acyl-CoA diacylglycerol acyltransferase activity. Expression of EaDAcT under the control of a strong, seed-specific promoter in Arabidopsis resulted in the accumulation of acTAGs, up to 40 mol % of total TAG in the seed oil. These results demonstrate the utility of deep transcriptional profiling with multiple tissues as a gene discovery strategy for low-abundance proteins. They also show that EaDAcT is the acetyltransferase necessary and sufficient for the production of acTAGs in Euonymus seeds, and that this activity can be introduced into the seeds of other plants, allowing the evaluation of these unusual TAGs for biofuel and other applications.

  19. Associação e densidade populacional de ácaros predadores em plantas de erva-mate Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil. (Aqüifoliaceae na presença ou na ausência de ácaros fitófagos Association and populational density of mites predators in the mate-tea tree Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil. (Aqüifoliaceae with or without the presence of phytophagous mites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo de Gouvea

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a associação e a concentração de ácaros predadores em plantas de erva-mate Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil. (Aqüifoliaceae na presença ou não de ácaros fitófagos. O trabalho foi realizado em plantação comercial em Dois Vizinhos, PR, de agosto de 2001 a julho de 2002. Procederam-se coletas mensais de folhas de diferentes partes da planta. A contagem dos ácaros nas folhas foi realizada em laboratório com auxílio de microscópio estereoscópico. Foram constadas duas espécies de ácaros fitófagos, Dichopelmus notus Keifer e Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor, e três espécies de predadores, Euseius concordis (Chant, Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark & Muma e Agistemus sp., associadas às plantas de erva-mate. Foi observada associação de E. concordis e I. zuluagai a folhas com presença de D. notus e de Agistemus sp. a plantas com presença de D. notus e maior densidade populacional de E. concordis e de I. zuluagai em plantas com D. notus.This research was aimed at evaluating the association and concentration of predators mites in the mate-tea tree Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil. (Aqüifoliaceae with or without phytophagous mites. This study was conduced at Dois Vizinhos, State of Paraná, from August 2001 to July 2002, in a mate-tea tree commercial plantation. Leaf samples from different parts of the plant were taken monthly, and the number of mites was counted in laboratory. Two species of phytophagous mites, Dichopelmus notus Keifer and Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor, and three species of predator mites Euseius concordis (Chant, Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark & Muma, and Agistemus sp. were related to the mate-tea plant. The association of E. concordis and I. zuluagai to the leaves with D. notus, the association of Agistemus sp. to the plants with D. notus and a higher population density of E. concordis and I. zuluagai in plant with D. notus were observed.

  20. Trophic relationships in deep-water decapods of Le Danois bank (Cantabrian Sea, NE Atlantic): Trends related with depth and seasonal changes in food quality and availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartes, Joan E.; Huguet, C.; Parra, S.; Sanchez, F.

    2007-07-01

    The trophic relationships of decapod crustaceans on Le Danois bank (NE of Iberian Peninsula, NE Atlantic Ocean) were studied within the framework of the multidisciplinary project ECOMARG during two surveys, one in October 2003 and the other in April 2004. The diets of eleven species of decapods were analyzed and, within a rather continuous gradient of food source exploitation, 3 trophic groups were identified: (1) plankton feeders, comprising the shrimps Acanthephyra pelagica, Sergia robusta, and Pasiphaea tarda, which preyed on meso-bathypelagic taxa such as euphausiids and calanoids; (2) benthos feeders, comprising the crangonids Pontophilus norvegicus and Pontophilus spinosus, the crab Geryon trispinosus and the shrimp Aristeus antennatus; and (3) an intermediate group, including the rest of species, with mixed diets that included detritus. Among the third group, anomurans ( Munida tenuimana, Pagurus alatus, and Parapagurus pilosimanus) consumed phytoplanktonic detritus in April, suggesting a link with peaks of surface Chl a occurring between March and April in the study area. Gut pigment and isotopic (δ 13C/δ 15N correlations) analyses revealed that assemblages inhabiting the top of the bank (455-612 m) and the inner basin (642-1048 m, close to the Lastres canyon head) had different food sources, with species inhabiting the deepest region exhibiting a stronger dependence on marine snow derivatives. These results are consistent with the higher proportion of mud and sediment organic matter (OM) content in the inner basin (82.2% pellites; 6.3% OM at 1028 m) compared to the top of the Le Danois bank (only 13.9% pellites; 2.8% OM at 485 m), which is a hydrodynamically more active zone. Exploitation of different food sources is also consistent with differences in the trophic level of species, inferred from stable δ 15N isotope analyses, which yield values ranging from 6.88‰ for the hermit crab P. alatus to 13.52‰ for the crangonid shrimp P. norvegicus. Stomach

  1. La contaminación por metales pesados en la Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta, Caribe colombiano La contaminación por metales pesados en la Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta, Caribe colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campos C. Néstor Hernando

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Se dan los resultados de los estudios sobre la contaminación por metales pesados en la Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta. Las determinaciones se realizaron en el material en suspensión, en los bivalvos Crassostrea rhizophorae e Isognomon alatus y en los peces Gathorops spixii y Ariopsis bonillai. Los análisis de los metales Cd, Zn y Cu en el material en suspensión permitieron determinar que las mayores descargas de estos metales se suceden principalmente desde el Río Magdalena a través del Canal del Clarín y de los ríos que fluyen del piedemonte de la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta. La comparación de los contenidos en bivalvas permiten determinar la importancia de estos organismos como bioindicadores. Los análisis en las dos especies de peces mostraron una diferenciación en la capacidad de acumulación entre una y otra.  Al comparar los contenidos de metales entre los diferentes tipos de muestras con los cambios en los contenidos en el material en suspensión y la salinidad, se observó que estos dos parámetros son principalmente los que controlan la biodisponibilidad de los metales y además afectan los procesos fisiológicos de los organismos, aumentando o disminuyendo la capacidad de bioacumulación. Results of the studies of heavy metals pollution in the Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta are provided. The determinations have been done on the suspended matter, on the bivalves Crassostrea rhizophorae and Isognomon alatus, and in the fishes Gathorops spixii and Ariopsis bonillai. The analysis of Cd, Zn and Cu in the suspended matter led to determine that the discharges come principally from the Río Magdalena through the Canal del Clarín and the rivers coming from the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta. Comparisons of the concentration in bivalves show the importance of this organisms as bioindicators. The analysis in both fish species show a difference in their capacity of accumulation. Comparison of the metals contents between different types

  2. Thermal tolerance of juvenile freshwater mussels (Unionidae) under the added stress of copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfo, Tamara J; Cope, W Gregory; Arellano, Consuelo

    2010-03-01

    Freshwater mussels fulfill an essential role in aquatic communities, but are also one of the most sensitive and rapidly declining faunal groups in North America. Rising water temperatures, caused by global climate change or industrial discharges, can further challenge impaired unionid communities, but thermal stress is almost certainly not the only stressor affecting freshwater mussels. Metals, such as copper (Cu), are a common source of toxicant exposure in aquatic environments. The toxic effects of Cu on the early life stages of freshwater mussels have been well studied, and freshwater mussels are more sensitive to Cu than most aquatic organisms. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of a sublethal copper concentration on the upper thermal tolerance of three species, Lampsilis siliquoidea, Potamilus alatus, and Ligumia recta, of juvenile freshwater mussels in 48- and 96-h tests. Thermal tolerance was determined over a range of experimental temperatures (20-42 degrees C) at three acclimation temperatures (17, 22, and 27 degrees C). Median lethal temperatures (LT50s) were calculated in the absence and presence of Cu, and at 48 h ranged from 34.6 to 44.4 degrees C (mean 37.7 degrees C) without Cu, and from 33.8 to 38.9 degrees C (mean 35.8 degrees C) with Cu. The LT50s at 96 h ranged from 32.5 to 35.6 degrees C (mean 34.5 degrees C) without Cu and from 33.0 to 35.4 degrees C (mean 34.2 degrees C) with Cu. Potamilus alatus had a significantly lower 48 h LT50 with Cu than without Cu at the 22 degrees C acclimation temperature; there were no other significant differences in LT50s attributed to Cu. Survival trends showed limited evidence of interactive effects between copper and temperature for all three species, suggesting the combined stress of elevated temperatures and copper exposure to freshwater mussels should be further explored.

  3. [Mites (Acari) from rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg., Euphorbiaceae) and spontaneous euphorbiaceous in rubber trees cultivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellini, Marcos R; Feres, Reinaldo J F; Buosi, Renato

    2008-01-01

    Quarterly samples were done in 2001 on three rubber tree plantation in the northwest of the state of São Paulo. Three rubber trees of each locality were sampled. Between the rows of rubber tree four species of spontaneous euphorbiaceous were collected: Chamaesyce hirta, C. hyssopifolia, Euphorbia heterophylla and Phyllanthus tenellus. A total of 8.954 mites of 38 species, belonging to 31 genera of 11 families were collected. Tydeidae and Phytoseiidae had the highest diversity of species, 9 and 7, respectively. The most abundant families were Eriophyidae (3.594), Tydeidae (2.825) and Tenuipalpidae (1.027). The most abundant species on the rubber trees were: phytophagous - Calacarus heveae Feres, Tenuipalpus heveae Baker, Lorryia sp.2, Lorryia formosa Cooreman and Lorryia sp.1; predators - Zetzellia quasagistemas Hernandes & Feres, Pronematus sp., Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark & Muma and Euseius citrifolius Denmark & Muma. Among the spontaneous euphorbiaceous, predatory mites were abundantly found on C. hirta and E. heterophylla, mainly Pronematus sp. and E. citrifolius, suggesting that these plants could be important in the maintenance of these predators in the rubber tree cultivation areas. However, plants that can shelter predators and at the same time exert strong competition (nutrients, water etc) to rubber trees, can not be recommended for pest management programs. Studies about competition between rubber trees and spontaneous plants need to be conducted for feasible efficient programs of environmental management, aiming at the control of pest mites of rubber tree.

  4. Búsqueda de enemigos naturales nativos de Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande(thysanoptera: thripidae, sobre Dendranthema grandijlorum en el municipio de Piendamo, cauca.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro V. Ulises

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available En la empresa "Flores del Cauca" en el municipio de Piendamó a 1S00 m.s.n.m. con temperatura promedia de 18° C y HR de SO ± 5%, se hizo una búsqueda de enemigos naturales nativos de F. occidentalis (Thysanóptera: Thripidae sobre eras experimentales de Dendranthema grandiflorum libres de control químico. La búsqueda se extendió a los hospedantes alternos del tisanóptero en áreas aledañas al cultivo. Semanalmente se cosechaban plantas de crisantemo, se llevaban al laboratorio para la recolección de thrips y sus enemigos naturales nativos. En el laboratorio se realizaron bioensayos para probar la acción depredadora de algunos de los enemigos de F. occídentalis que fueron encontrados en crisantemo. Se encontraron los siguientes enemigos naturales nativos: El hemíptero Orius sp. (Anthocoridae. los ácaros Amblyseius herbjcolus. Euseius naindaimei y Thyplodromalus peregrinus (Phytoseiidae, larvas de Chrysopidae; los thrips leptothirs sp. y Haplotrips gowdeyi (Phlaeothripidae, un ácaro de la familia Ascidae; difereflles especies de arañas; larvas de la familia Coccinellidae y adultos de F. occidentalis infectados por hongos no identificados.

  5. Ocorrência e diversidade de ácaros (Acari, Arachnida associados a Tabebuia roseo-alba (Ridl. Sand (Bignoniaceae, no município de São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feres Reinaldo José Fazzio

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the mite fauna associated with Tabebuia roseo-alba, a native and ornamental tree, determining the abundance and seasonal occurrence of species and the diversity of the community. Twenty three species were found belonging to 11 families, 10 of predatory habits and five phytophagous. The food habits of the eight remaining species are not known. Besides the great richness, the diversity was small, as consequence of the dominance of Lorryia formosa Cooreman, 1958 and Aculus sp., the most abundant species. These species occurred in the same microhabitat but with seasonal segregation: L. formosa was the most abundant in the dry season, while Aculus sp. occurred only in the rainy season. In August, when the plant lost its leaves, the following species were found in the apical branch structures: Brevipalpus sp. (aff. phoenicis, Cheletogenes sp., Euseius citrifolius Denmark & Muma, 1970, Lorryia formosa, Pronematus sp., and diapause females of Tenuipalponychus tabebuiae Aguilar, Flechtmann & Ochoa, 1991. In September, with leaves growing again, Aceria sp. was the only species on the plant, and its abundance decreased accentuately in October. The richness and the abundance of the mite fauna were not correlated with the temperature or the precipitation. These data suggest that the plant phenology was more important than the climate in the occurrence of species.

  6. Efficacy of five acaricides against the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch and their side effects on some natural enemies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel A. Abou El-Ela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Five acaricides, Challenger, Ortus, Vertimec, Delmite and Bioca were investigated for controlling phytophagous mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch and their side effects on the predatory insects, mites and spiders at the El-Fayoum Governorate of cotton seedlings during the late season of 2007 and 2008. At the early seedling time, the application of the five tested compounds induced an average of 81.55%, 80.62%, 75.94%, 65.35% and 54.57% reduction in the population of spider mite during the 2007 season, and then changed to 79.72%, 77.92%, 72.54%, 60.05% and 47.97% reduction during the 2008 season. However, at the late season (fruiting time, the application of these compounds induced 83.24%, 84.11%, 76.34%, 56.29% and 59.57% reduction during the 2007 season changed to 84.78%, 84.94%, 77.31%, 55.58% and 58.68% reduction during 2008, respectively. As to the natural enemies, the highest reduction in the population after using the tested compounds was noticed for effect of Delmite during 2007 (33.79%, while the lowest ratio recorded when Ortus was used in the second season 2008 (18.53%. The side effect of the most important tested compounds (Challenger was investigated in the laboratory against the predatory phytoseiid mite, Euseius scutalis.

  7. Efficacy of indigenous predatory mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) against the citrus rust mite Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Acari: Eriophyidae): augmentation and conservation biological control in Israeli citrus orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maoz, Yonatan; Gal, Shira; Argov, Yael; Domeratzky, Sylvie; Melamed, Eti; Gan-Mor, Samuel; Coll, Moshe; Palevsky, Eric

    2014-07-01

    The citrus rust mite (CRM), Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Acari: Eriophyidae) is a cosmopolitan key pest of citrus, inflicting severe economic damage if not controlled. In Israel, CRM damages all citrus cultivars. International regulation and increasing control failures of CRM led growers to seek sustainable biological control solutions such as acarine biological control agents. Laboratory studies conducted in Israel have indicated that the indigenous predator species Amblyseius swirskii, Iphiseius degenerans, Typhlodromus athiasae and Euseius scutalis (all Acari: Phytoseiidae) can potentially control CRM. Our general objective in the present study was to bridge the gap of knowledge between laboratory studies and the lack of control efficacy of these species in commercial orchards. Predator augmentation in the field showed that although predator populations increased immediately following releases they later decreased and did not affect CRM populations. When A. swirskii augmentation was combined with a series of maize pollen applications, A. swirskii populations were enhanced substantially and continuously but again CRM populations were not affected. Growth chamber studies with CRM-infested seedlings, with or without a maize pollen supplement, indicated that pollen provisioning led to population increase of E. scutalis and A. swirskii but only E. scutalis significantly lowered CRM populations. Control with E. scutalis was confirmed in the field on CRM infested seedlings with pollen provisioned by adjacent flowering Rhodes grass. While experiments in mature citrus orchard showed that pollen supplement usually increased predator populations they also indicated that other factors such as intraguild interactions and pesticide treatments should be taken into account when devising CRM biological control programs.

  8. Influence of the webbing produced by Oligonychus ilicis (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae) on associated predatory phytoseiids; Influencia da teia de Oligonychus ilicis (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae) sobre os fitoseideos predadores associados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, Renato A. [Bioagri Laboratorios Ltda., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: r.franco@bioagri.com.br; Reis, Paulo R. [Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuaria de Minas Gerais (EPAMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Ecocentro], e-mail: paulo.rebelles@epamig.ufla.br; Zacarias, Mauricio S. [EMBRAPA Cafe, Lavras, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: zacarias@epamig.ufla.br; Oliveira, Daniel C. [Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), MG (Brazil)

    2010-01-15

    Oligonychus ilicis (McGregor) is among those mite species that can cause damage to coffee plants (Coffea spp.). Species of Phytoseiidae acari are considered the most important and studied predatory mites. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the webbing produced by O. ilicis on its predation by females of the phytoseiids Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark and Muma, Euseius citrifolius Denmark and Muma and Amblyseius herbicolus (Chant). Four bioassays were conducted, with three treatments and ten replicates. Each replicate consisted of 25 O. ilicis per experimental unit (a leaf disc of Coffea arabica) according to the tested developmental stage, in independent experiments. To spin the web, 15 adult females were put on each experimental unit for 24h; females were then removed, leaving only the web, and predators and prey to be tested were introduced. Predation was assessed after 24h. In the presence of webbing, the consumption of eggs, larvae and nymphs by I. zuluagai and eggs and larvae by E. citrifolius was lower. For A. herbicolus, egg predation was lower, but larval predation did not vary significantly and predation of nymphs and adults was higher in the presence of webbing. Predators as a whole were more efficient consuming larvae regardless of the presence of webbing. Considering the stages of O. ilicis altogether, webbing reduced the predation potential of I. zuluagai and E. citrifolius, but not of A. herbicolus. (author)

  9. Single versus multiple enemies and the impact on biological control of spider mites in cassava fields in West-Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onzo, Alexis; Sabelis, Maurice W; Hanna, Rachid

    2014-03-01

    To determine whether to use single or multiple predator species for biological pest control requires manipulative field experiments. We performed such tests in Benin (West Africa) in cassava fields infested by the cassava green mite Mononychellus tanajoa, and the cotton red mite Oligonychus gossypii. These fields also harboured the cassava apex-inhabiting predator Typhlodromalus aripo and either the leaf-inhabiting predator Amblydromalus manihoti or Euseius fustis. We manipulated predator species composition on individual plants to determine their effect on prey and predator densities. In fields with T. aripo plus A. manihoti, M. tanajoa densities were reduced by T. aripo alone or together with A. manihoti, but neither of these predators, alone or together, reduced O. gossypii densities. In fields with T. aripo plus E. fustis, T. aripo alone or together with E. fustis exerted significant control over O. gossypii, but weak control over M. tanajoa. Densities of any of the predator species were not affected by co-occurring predator species, suggesting a minor role for intraguild predation in the field, contrary to earlier experiments on small plants in the laboratory. We conclude that (1) T. aripo is the most effective predator species in suppressing M. tanajoa, (2) two predator species, T. aripo and E. fustis, are needed to suppress O. gossypii, and (3) predator species together on the same plant do not negatively affect each other nor the extent to which they control their prey. We argue that intraguild predation is reduced due to partial niche separation among predator species.

  10. Potential lethal and non-lethal effects of predators on dispersal of spider mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuki, Hatsune; Yano, Shuichi

    2014-11-01

    Predators can affect prey dispersal lethally by direct consumption or non-lethally by making prey hesitate to disperse. These lethal and non-lethal effects are detectable only in systems where prey can disperse between multiple patches. However, most studies have drawn their conclusions concerning the ability of predatory mites to suppress spider mites based on observations of their interactions on a single patch or on heavily infested host plants where spider mites could hardly disperse toward intact patches. In these systems, specialist predatory mites that penetrate protective webs produced by spider mites quickly suppress the spider mites, whereas generalist predators that cannot penetrate the webs were ineffective. By using a connected patch system, we revealed that a generalist ant, Pristomyrmex punctatus Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), effectively prevented dispersal of spider mites, Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida (Acari: Tetranychidae), by directly consuming dispersing individuals. We also revealed that a generalist predatory mite, Euseius sojaensis Ehara (Acari: Phytoseiidae), prevented between-patch dispersal of T. kanzawai by making them hesitate to disperse. In contrast, a specialist phytoseiid predatory mite, Neoseiulus womersleyi Schicha, allowed spider mites to escape an initial patch, increasing the number of colonized patches within the system. Our results suggest that ants and generalist predatory mites can effectively suppress Tetranychus species under some conditions, and should receive more attention as agents for conservation biological control in agroecosystems.

  11. [Populational dynamics of mites (Acari) in the mate-tea tree (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil.: Aquifoliaceae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gouvea, Alfredo; Boaretto, Luiz C; Zanella, Carla F; Alves, Luis F A

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this research was to analyze the populational dynamic of the phytophagous mites, as well as that of their natural predators in the plants Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil. (Aquifoliaceae). This study was conduced in Dois Vizinhos, State of Paraná, from August 2001 to July 2002. Leaf samples from different parts of the plant were taken and the number of mites was registered. During this period, two species of phytophagous mites, Dichopelmus notus Keifer, and Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor), and three species of predator mites identified as Euseius concordis (Chant), Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark & Muma, and Agistemus sp. were related to the mate-tea plant. Large numbers of D. notus appeared on mature leaves and on the inferior face of leaves. The mite was more frequent in the inferior and medium strata. O. yothersi occurred mainly on mature leaves. The concentration of E. concordis e I. zuluagai was higher on the inferior face of the leaves, and on the leaves of inferior and medium strata, as well as in the internal canopy region, and on mature leaves. The highest numbers of D. notus, O. yothersi, E. concordis and I. zuluagai occurred in periods with mild temperatures and little rain precipitation. The largest population density of Agistemus sp. occurred on the inferior face of the leaves, more often in periods of high temperature and heavy rain.

  12. Isolation and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite markers in Tetranychus urticae and cross amplification in other Tetranychidae and Phytoseiidae species of economic importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabater-Muñoz, B; Pascual-Ruiz, S; Gómez-Martínez, M A; Jacas, J A; Hurtado, M A

    2012-05-01

    Tetranychus urticae Koch is a cosmopolitan phytophagous mite considered as the most polyphagous species among spider mites. Population genetic studies using molecular markers such as microsatellites have proven to be extremely informative to address questions about population structure, phylogeography and host preferences. The aim of this study was to increase the available molecular tools to gain insight into the genetic structure of T. urticae populations of citrus orchards, which might help in their management. Five microsatellite DNA libraries were developed using probes with the motifs CT, CTT, GT and CAC following the FIASCO protocol. Positive clones, those that included the insert with the microsatellite, were detected using the PIMA-PCR technique. Combinations of primers were designed on 22 out of 32 new microsatellites loci and their polymorphism was tested in four populations sampled along the eastern coast of Spain. Eleven successful amplifications were obtained. Cross amplification was tested in the tetranychids Aphlonobia histricina, Eutetranychus banksi, E. orientalis, Oligonychus perseae, Panonychus citri, Tetranychus evansi, T. okinawanus and T. turkestani, and the phytoseiids Amblyseius swirskii, A. cucumeris, A. andersoni, Euseius stipulatus, Neoseiulus barkeri, N. californicus, Phytoseiulus persimilis and Typhlodromus phialatus. Eight successful cross amplifications were obtained.

  13. [Influence of the webbing produced by Oligonychus ilicis (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae) on associated predatory phytoseiids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Renato A; Reis, Paulo R; Zacarias, Mauricio S; Oliveira, Daniel C

    2010-01-01

    Oligonychus ilicis (McGregor) is among those mite species that can cause damage to coffee plants (Coffea spp.). Species of Phytoseiidae acari are considered the most important and studied predatory mites. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the webbing produced by O.ilicis on its predation by females of the phytoseiids Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark & Muma, Euseius citrifolius Denmark & Muma and Amblyseius herbicolus (Chant). Four bioassays were conducted, with three treatments and ten replicates. Each replicate consisted of 25 O.ilicis per experimental unit (a leaf disc of Coffea arabica) according to the tested developmental stage, in independent experiments. To spin the web, 15 adult females were put on each experimental unit for 24h; females were then removed, leaving only the web, and predators and prey to be tested were introduced. Predation was assessed after 24h. In the presence of webbing, the consumption of eggs, larvae and nymphs by I.zuluagai and eggs and larvae by E.citrifolius was lower. For A.herbicolus, egg predation was lower, but larval predation did not vary significantly and predation of nymphs and adults was higher in the presence of webbing. Predators as a whole were more efficient consuming larvae regardless of the presence of webbing. Considering the stages of O.ilicis altogether, webbing reduced the predation potential of I.zuluagai and E. citrifolius, but not of A. herbicolus.

  14. [Trichostrongyloidea nematodes, parasites of Microchiroptera].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durette-Desset, M C; Chabaud, A G

    1975-01-01

    1. a) List of Nematodes collected by Professor Aellen in european Microchiroptera. Additionnal morphological data to the study of Molinostrongylus alatus, M. panousei, M. skrjabini. Description of M. aelleni n. sp. b) Description of M. richardae n. sp., M. benexae n. sp. et M. bauchoti n. sp., parasites of malagasian Molossidae. c) Description of M. colleyi n. sp. and M. owyangi n. sp., parasites of Malaysian Vespertilioninae, and of Allintoschius dunni n. sp., discovered in Myotis mystacinus from Malaysia and Pipistrellus nanus from Africa. 2. Taking into account the characteristics of the synlophe, the 17 species of the genus Molinostrongylus may be divided into five groups, each one being reasonably well characteristic of the genus of their Chiropteran host. 3. The composition of the Trichostrongyloidea fauna of Chiroptera and its relationship with Trichostrongyloidea from other Mammals (Tupaiidae, Pholidotes, Primates, Sciuridés) are analysed. Six groups are separated and divided into two well defined lines: 1) genus Strongylacantha, and 2) 12 genera stemming more or less directly from the Molineinae, 4. The three conical outgrowths at the tip of the female tail which differenciate presently the Anoplostrogylinae from the Molineinae appear to be an unreliable characteristic. The two subfamilies form a complex group which will be better understood if the evolution of the synlophe and that of the caudal bursa of the males are taken into account.

  15. Effect of removal of hesperis matronalis (Dame's rocket) on species cover of forest understory vegetation in NW indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovic, N.B.; Leicht-Young, S. A.; Frohnapple, K.J.; Grundel, R.

    2009-01-01

    Exotic invasive plant species differ in their effects on indigenous vegetation as evidenced by research evaluating community response to their removal. We used a removal approach to quantify the response of a mesic woodland to the removal versus retention of an invasive plant, Hesperis matronalis (dame's rocket) from paired treatment plots over 3 y. Cover of H. matronalis did not differ between control and treatment plots prior to removal, declined in the removal plots and remained significantly lower in cover compared to the control plots. Removal did not significantly affect species richness and species diversity (evenness, Shannon and Simpson) at the plot scale, but did result in increased species richness overall in the removal plots in the last sampling year when compared to control plots. Non-metric multidimensional scaling ordination analysis indicated a significant compositional change in the spring plant composition of plots over the 3 y, reflecting an increase in exotic woody species. Exotic woody plants, especially Rosa multiflora and Euonymus alatus, increased in cover in response to H. matronalis removal. In the 3 y, neither native nor exotic forbs, nor native woody plants responded to the removal of H. matronalis in a statistically significant manner. The increasing cover of woody invasive plants in response to the removal of H. matronalis has important management implications for restoration of degraded communities.

  16. Estructura comunitaria de bivalvos y gasterópodos en raíces del mangle rojo Rhizophora mangle (Rhizophoraceae en isla Larga, bahía de Mochima, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Acosta Balbas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Las raíces del mangle rojo forman un complejo ecosistema donde se reproducen, refugian y establecen de manera permanente una gran diversidad de organismos. En este estudio, se evaluó la diversidad de bivalvos y gasterópodos que habitan las raíces del mangle rojo Rhizophora mangle, en isla Larga, Bahía de Mochima, estado Sucre Venezuela. Se realizaron recolectas bimensuales desde enero 2007 hasta mayo 2008, en cuatro zonas de estudio denominadas: zona sur, norte, este y oeste. En cada zona se muestrearon cinco raíces de mangle, de donde se obtuvieron los especímenes. Se analizaron un total 180 raíces y se contabilizaron 35 especies de bivalvos y 25 de gasterópodos. Los bivalvos más abundantes fueron: Isognomon alatus, Isognomon bicolor, Ostrea equestris, Crassostrea rhizophorae y Brachidontes exustus, mientras que los gasterópodos más frecuentes: Littorina angulifera, Cymatium pileare y Diodora cayenensis. Los meses donde se observaron las mayores abundancias de especies y número de individuos fueron enero y julio 2007 y marzo 2008. El ecosistema de manglar en isla Larga, presentó un número de individuos y especies superior al reportado en otros trabajos realizados en Venezuela y otras regiones del Caribe.

  17. ECOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF DIPTEROCARPACEAE OF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRASAD P. RAMA CHANDRA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Dipterocarpaceae is one of the important timber families of Andaman Islands whose members were largely exploited for their timber in the past. The current study discusses in detail about the family Dipterocarpaceae of North Andaman forest with reference to its species composition, population structure and other ecological entities. Data was analyzed using various ecological and statistical methods. Dipterocarps were encountered in 97 plots, occupying 80% of the sampled area with 68 stems ha-1 and basal area of 8.2 m2 ha-1. Dipterocarpaceae ranked 3rd with reference to stem density (11% and 1st with respect to basal area (18%. The family showed five species viz., Dipterocarpus alatus, D. costatus, D. gracilis, D. grandiflorus and Hopea odorata compounded from two genera – Dipterocarpus and Hopea. Keeping in view of the species demographic structure as well as regeneration status, conservative measures are suggested along with certain research questions which need immediate attention in the fragile insular ecosystems of Andaman Islands.

  18. [Community structure of bivalves and gastropods in roots of red mangrove Rhizophora mangle (Rhizophoraceae) in isla Larga, Mochima Bay, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta Balbas, Vanessa; Betancourt Tineo, Rafael; Prieto Arcas, Antulio

    2014-06-01

    The Rhizophora mangle roots form a complex ecosystem where a wide range of organisms are permanently established, reproduce, and find refuge. In this study, we assessed the diversity of bivalves and gastropods that inhabit red mangrove roots, in isla Larga, Mochima, Venezuela Sucre state. Bimonthly collections were made from January 2007 to May 2008, in four study areas denominated: South, North, East and West. In each area, five mangrove roots were sampled, and the specimens were obtained. We analyzed a total of 180 roots and a total of 35 bivalve species and 25 gastropod species were found. The most abundant bivalves were: Isognomon alatus, Isognomon bicolor, Ostrea equestris, Crassostrea rhizophorae and Brachidontes exustus; among gastropods, the most common where: Littorina angulifera, (Cymatium pileare and Diodora cayenensis. The months with the highest abundances and number of individuals for both groups were January and July 2007, and March 2008. The mangrove ecosystem in isla Larga, presented a number of individuals and species higher than those reported for other regions in Venezuela and the Caribbean.

  19. Overview of helminths in small mammals in the Zhiguli State Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda Yu. Kirillova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Helminths from a total of 24 species of small mammals, representing three orders (Insectivora, Chiroptera, Rodentia were examined in Zhiguli State Reserve (Russia. 90 species of helminthes were identified: Trematoda – 24, Cestoidea – 21, Nematoda – 43 and Acanthocephala – 2. For each helminth species the following traits are specified: systematic position, hosts, localization, host specificity, sites of findings and geographical distribution. Rodents, in which 33 helminth species were noted, were proven to have the richest parasite fauna. In chiropterans and insectivores 32 and 28 species of helminths were registered, respectively. Only one parasite species was common for all three orders of mammals – the acanthocephalan Moniliformis moniliformis. 14 species of parasites were discovered in mammals of Russia for the first time: Prosthodendrium hurkovaae, Rodentolepis erinacei, Staphylocystis syrdariensis, Aonchotheca erinacei, Crenosoma striatum, Tricholinstowia linstowi, T. talpae, Molinistrongylus alatus, M. spasskii, M. vespertilionis, Pterothominx neopulchra, Pterygodermatites bovieri, Syphacia nigeriana, Centrorhynchus aluconis, larvae, Moniliformis moniliformis, larvae. 21 species of parasitic worms were found for the first time in mammals of the Volga River basin. Nine helminth species, discovered in small mammals of the Zhiguli State Reserve, are of epidemiological and epizootiological importance.

  20. An Enhanced Understanding of Therapeutic Communities Worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiburcio, Nelson Jose; Kressel, David

    2011-01-01

    Therapeutic communities posit favorable treatment outcomes by relying on the community as the healing agent (Deleon 2000). Active treatment participation and treatment tenure are two domains that are positive predictors of positive treatment outcomes over time. Some of the more important domains that remain to be thoroughly investigated in international research on therapeutic community (TC) treatment outcome studies are the underlying effects of culture on the treatment process. Cultural components play a significant role, as also reported by various TC participants over the years (such as the effects of health literacy on sustaining abstinence from drug use over the long term, Tiburcio 2008). In recent years, health literacy has taken on a significant role in order for individuals to readily understand their needs (Schillinger et al 2002; Jorm et al 1997); or as pertains to feeling shamed in the process (Parikh et al 1996). As these and other studies suggest, the cultural competence of the providers is equally important. To our knowledge the "International TC Study" and findings presented herein constitute one of only a few studies that have conducted investigations comparing therapeutic community treatment modifications internationally, from the perspective of the participants themselves and which consider cultural components of this process. One key advantage of the resulting Qualitative datasets and analyses is that it not only includes residents' perspectives, and staff experiential elements, but importantly, incorporates staff debriefings about their respective interactions at each of the international treatment modalities, presenting well rounded depictions of each of these milieus. To that end, the data examined here presents an enhanced portrait of the provider-patient treatment dynamic, and lends voice to the various aspects of treatment participation in light of these cultural issues, and from the perspective of providers, as well as the participants.

  1. Seletividade de acaricidas e inseticidas a ácaros predadores (Acari: Phytoseiidae encontrados em seringueira no centro-oeste do Brasil Side-effect of acaricides and insecticides to predatory mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae found in rubber-trees in mid-west Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noeli Juarez Ferla

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Euseius concordis (Chant e Neoseiulus anonymus (Chant & Baker são ácaros predadores da família Phytoseiidae comumente encontrados em seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. em Mato Grosso, região centro-oeste do Brasil. Este trabalho foi realizado para verificar o efeito de acaricidas e inseticidas-acaricidas empregados em plantações de seringueira, e outros que teriam potencial para serem empregados contra insetos e ácaros considerados pragas dessa cultura, sobre E. concordis e N. anonymus. Utilizou-se o método residual de pulverização em superfície, recomendado como padrão pelo Grupo de Trabalho "Pesticidas e Artrópodes Benéficos", da Organização Internacional de Controle Biológico e Integrado de Plantas e Animais Nocivos/Seção Regional do Paleártico Oeste. Duas concentrações de cada um dos seguintes ingredientes ativos foram utilizadas: acefato, dicofol, endosulfan, formetanate, metomil, monocrotofós, óxido de fenbutatin e propargite. Uma das concentrações utilizadas foi uma média daquelas sugeridas pelos fabricantes para o controle de ácaros e insetos fitófagos presentes em outras culturas, uma vez que nenhum dos produtos testados tem registro para o uso em seringueira e a outra correspondeu à cerca de um terço da primeira. Endosulfan a 320ppm, dicofol a 100ppm e óxido de fenbutatin a 100 e 320ppm foram inócuos a E. concordis, enquanto que endosulfan a 320ppm e dicofol a 100ppm foram inócuos a N. anonymus. Acefato, formetanate e monocrotofós, nas concentrações testadas, foram nocivos às duas espécies.Euseius concordis (Chant and Neoseiulus anonymus (Chant & Baker are predatory mites of the family Phytoseiidae commonly found on rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. in the State of Mato Grosso, in the mid-west Brazil. This work was conducted to verify the effect of acaricides and insecticides-acaricides occasionally used in rubber tree plantations, and other products that could be used against

  2. Mites in assai palms (Euterpe oleracea Mart. conducted under different cropping systems = Acarofauna em açaizeiro (Euterpe oleracea Mart. conduzido em diferentes sistemas de cultivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Aguiar Rodrigues

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The assai palm (Euterpe oleracea is the most important palm tree of the genus Euterpe known in Brazil, which is grown under monocrop and intercrop systems. Despite its great usefulness, this palm tree is important for supplying two cost-effective food products, the fruit and the palm hearts. Due to its importance, the aim of this study was to carry out a survey of mite fauna present in assai crops in the town of São Luis, in the State of Maranhão, Brazil. Samples were collected monthly from August 2012 to July 2013, in assai groves under two systems of cultivation: monocrop and intercrop. A faunistic analysis was carried out using the ANAFAU software, when the following indices were determined: abundance, frequency, dominance, constancy and diversity. A total of 6,274 mites were found, with 4,748 in the intercrop system and 1,526 in the monocrop system. Among the occurrence of phytophagic mites, the families Tenuipalpidae and Tetranychidae were significant in both crops. For the families of predatory mites, the phytoseiid was considered super-dominant, super-abundant, super-frequent and constant; the species Amblyseius largoensis, Euseius concordis and Iphiseiodes zuluagai were dominant under both cropping systems, but the intercrop displayed greater diversity compared to the monocrop. For population dynamics, larger populations of mites were seen in periods of low rainfall under the two systems studied. = O açaizeiro (Euterpe oleraceae é a mais importante palmeira do gênero Euterpe conhecida no Brasil, que é cultivada em sistemas de cultivo solteiro e consorciado. Apesar da grande utilidade, esta palmeira se destaca no fornecimento de dois produtos alimentares economicamente rentáveis, os frutos e o palmito. Em razão da sua importância, objetivou-se com este trabalho realizar o levantamento da acarofauna presente em cultivos de açaizeiro no município de São Luís - Maranhão. As amostragens foram realizadas mensalmente, no per

  3. Diversidade e dinâmica populacional de ácaros em pomar cítrico Diversity and population dynamics of mites in citrus orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Zatti da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As plantas de citros hospedam diversas espécies de ácaros que causam sérios prejuízos à produção e qualidade de frutos no Brasil. Esta pesquisa teve por objetivo estudar a diversidade de ácaros e a dinâmica populacional das principais espécies de ácaros em pomar de citros, Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, localizado no município de Descalvado, Estado de São Paulo. Foram realizadas 14 avaliações em um período de 12 meses, de fevereiro de 2007 a fevereiro de 2008. Em cada avaliação, foram coletadas dez folhas e cinco frutos na parte interna de cada uma das 40 plantas demarcadas no pomar. Foram encontradas 34 espécies de ácaros, distribuídas em 17 famílias. As espécies mais abundantes foram: Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashmed (Eriophyidae, Panonychus citri (McGregor (Tetranychidae, Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes (Tenuipalpidae e Fungitarsonemus sp. (Tarsonemidae. Entre os ácaros predadores, a família Phytoseiidae foi a de maior riqueza (oito espécies e abundância (1.072 indivíduos. A espécie predominante foi Euseius concordis (Chant, correspondendo a 98,3% dos ácaros desta família. Foram observadas correlações significativas entre densidades populacionais de E. concordis e dos ácaros fitófagos P. citri, B. phoenicis e P. oleivora. Também foram observadas correlações significativas entre densidades populacionais desses ácaros e fatores meteorológicos como temperatura e precipitação pluvial. Os resultados indicam que E. concordis atua como inimigo natural de P. citri, B. phoenicis e P. oleivora no pomar cítrico estudado.The citrus plants are hosts of several species of mites, which cause severe damage to production and quality of fruits in Brazil. The objective of this research was to study the diversity of mites and population dynamics of the main mite species in a citrus orchard, Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, in Descalvado County, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Fourteen evaluations were conducted over a period of 12

  4. Egg hatching response to a range of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation doses for four predatory mites and the herbivorous spider mite Tetranychus urticae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koveos, Dimitrios S; Suzuki, Takeshi; Terzidou, Anastasia; Kokkari, Anastasia; Floros, George; Damos, Petros; Kouloussis, Nikos A

    2017-01-01

    Egg hatchability of four predatory mites-Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot, Iphiseius [Amblyseius] degenerans Berlese, Amblyseius swirskii Athias-Henriot, and Euseius finlandicus Oudemans (Acari: Phytoseiidae)-and the spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) was determined under various UV-B doses either in constant darkness (DD) or with simultaneous irradiation using white light. Under UV-B irradiation and DD or simultaneous irradiation with white light, the predator's eggs hatched in significantly lower percentages than in the control non-exposed eggs, which indicates deleterious effects of UV-B on embryonic development. In addition, higher hatchability percentages were observed under UV-B irradiation and DD in eggs of the predatory mites than in eggs of T. urticae. This might be caused by a higher involvement of an antioxidant system, shield effects by pigments or a mere shorter duration of embryonic development in predatory mites than in T. urticae, thus avoiding accumulative effects of UV-B. Although no eggs of T. urticae hatched under UV-B irradiation and DD, variable hatchability percentages were observed under simultaneous irradiation with white light, which suggests the involvement of a photoreactivation system that reduces UV-B damages. Under the same doses with simultaneous irradiation with white light, eggs of T. urticae displayed higher photoreactivation and were more tolerant to UV-B than eggs of the predatory mites. Among predators variation regarding the tolerance to UV-B effects was observed, with eggs of P. persimilis and I. degenerans being more tolerant to UV-B radiation than eggs of A. swirskii and E. finlandicus.

  5. Metabolic engineering of oilseed crops to produce high levels of novel acetyl glyceride oils with reduced viscosity, freezing point and calorific value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinjie; Rice, Adam; McGlew, Kathleen; Shaw, Vincent; Park, Hyunwoo; Clemente, Tom; Pollard, Mike; Ohlrogge, John; Durrett, Timothy P

    2015-08-01

    Seed oils have proved recalcitrant to modification for the production of industrially useful lipids. Here, we demonstrate the successful metabolic engineering and subsequent field production of an oilseed crop with the highest accumulation of unusual oil achieved so far in transgenic plants. Previously, expression of the Euonymus alatus diacylglycerol acetyltransferase (EaDAcT) gene in wild-type Arabidopsis seeds resulted in the accumulation of 45 mol% of unusual 3-acetyl-1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerols (acetyl-TAGs) in the seed oil (Durrett et al., 2010 PNAS 107:9464). Expression of EaDAcT in dgat1 mutants compromised in their ability to synthesize regular triacylglycerols increased acetyl-TAGs to 65 mol%. Camelina and soybean transformed with the EaDAcT gene accumulate acetyl-triacylglycerols (acetyl-TAGs) at up to 70 mol% of seed oil. A similar strategy of coexpression of EaDAcT together with RNAi suppression of DGAT1 increased acetyl-TAG levels to up to 85 mol% in field-grown transgenic Camelina. Additionally, total moles of triacylglycerol (TAG) per seed increased 20%. Analysis of the acetyl-TAG fraction revealed a twofold reduction in very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA), consistent with their displacement from the sn-3 position by acetate. Seed germination remained high, and seedlings were able to metabolize the stored acetyl-TAGs as rapidly as regular triacylglycerols. Viscosity, freezing point and caloric content of the Camelina acetyl-TAG oils were reduced, enabling use of this oil in several nonfood and food applications. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Membrane topology and identification of key residues of EaDAcT, a plant MBOAT with unusual substrate specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Tam N T; Shelton, Jennifer; Brown, Susan; Durrett, Timothy P

    2017-10-01

    Euonymus alatus diacylglycerol acetyltransferase (EaDAcT) catalyzes the transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to the sn-3 position of diacylglycerol to form 3-acetyl-1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol (acetyl-TAG). EaDAcT belongs to a small, plant-specific subfamily of the membrane bound O-acyltransferases (MBOAT) that acylate different lipid substrates. Sucrose gradient density centrifugation revealed that EaDAcT colocalizes to the same fractions as an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-specific marker. By mapping the membrane topology of EaDAcT, we obtained an experimentally determined topology model for a plant MBOAT. The EaDAcT model contains four transmembrane domains (TMDs), with both the N- and C-termini orientated toward the lumen of the ER. In addition, there is a large cytoplasmic loop between the first and second TMDs, with the MBOAT signature region of the protein embedded in the third TMD close to the interface between the membrane and the cytoplasm. During topology mapping, we discovered two cysteine residues (C187 and C293) located on opposite sides of the membrane that are important for enzyme activity. In order to identify additional amino acid residues important for acetyltransferase activity, we isolated and characterized acetyltransferases from other acetyl-TAG-producing plants. Among them, the acetyltransferase from Euonymus fortunei possessed the highest activity in vivo and in vitro. Mutagenesis of conserved amino acids revealed that S253, H257, D258 and V263 are essential for EaDAcT activity. Alteration of residues unique to the acetyltransferases did not alter the unique acyl donor specificity of EaDAcT, suggesting that multiple amino acids are important for substrate recognition. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The Yeast ATF1 Acetyltransferase Efficiently Acetylates Insect Pheromone Alcohols: Implications for the Biological Production of Moth Pheromones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Bao-Jian; Lager, Ida; Bansal, Sunil; Durrett, Timothy P; Stymne, Sten; Löfstedt, Christer

    2016-04-01

    Many moth pheromones are composed of mixtures of acetates of long-chain (≥10 carbon) fatty alcohols. Moth pheromone precursors such as fatty acids and fatty alcohols can be produced in yeast by the heterologous expression of genes involved in insect pheromone production. Acetyltransferases that subsequently catalyze the formation of acetates by transfer of the acetate unit from acetyl-CoA to a fatty alcohol have been postulated in pheromone biosynthesis. However, so far no fatty alcohol acetyltransferases responsible for the production of straight chain alkyl acetate pheromone components in insects have been identified. In search for a non-insect acetyltransferase alternative, we expressed a plant-derived diacylglycerol acetyltransferase (EaDAcT) (EC 2.3.1.20) cloned from the seed of the burning bush (Euonymus alatus) in a yeast system. EaDAcT transformed various fatty alcohol insect pheromone precursors into acetates but we also found high background acetylation activities. Only one enzyme in yeast was shown to be responsible for the majority of that background activity, the acetyltransferase ATF1 (EC 2.3.1.84). We further investigated the usefulness of ATF1 for the conversion of moth pheromone alcohols into acetates in comparison with Ea DAcT. Overexpression of ATF1 revealed that it was capable of acetylating these fatty alcohols with chain lengths from 10 to 18 carbons with up to 27- and 10-fold higher in vivo and in vitro efficiency, respectively, compared to Ea DAcT. The ATF1 enzyme thus has the potential to serve as the missing enzyme in the reconstruction of the biosynthetic pathway of insect acetate pheromones from precursor fatty acids in yeast.

  8. Accumulation, distribution and metabolism of 14C-1,1,1-trichloro-2, 2-, bis-(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p'-DDT) residues in a model tropical marine ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandiga, S O; Ongeri, D M K; Mbuvi, L; Lalah, J O; Jumba, I O

    2002-11-01

    Accumulation, distribution and metabolism of ring labelled, 14C-1,1,1,-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p'-DDT) in a model marine aquatic ecosystem consisting of seawater, sediment, oysters (Isognomonon alatus) and Humbug fish (Dascillus aruanus) were studied in the laboratory. 14C-p,p'-DDT distributes rapidly in the ecosystem immediately after application on the water surface with reduction of its concentration in the water phase from 1.18 ng g(-1) to 0.71 ng g(-1) after 2 hours and an increase in its content in the sediment and oysters. The bioconcentration factor reached a maximum of 19 x 10(3) in oysters, and 1657 in Humbug fish after 24 hours. The sediment concentration reached 117 ng g(-1) after 168 hours from start of application. A peak bioconcentration factor of 111 x 10(3) was calculated after 120 hours when 0.24 mg kg(-1) of 14C-p,p'-DDT was maintained through dosing every 24 hours with 0.002 mg kg(-1) of a mixture of labelled and non-labelled pesticide. The rate of depuration of accumulated 14C-p,p'-DDT sediment residues was up to 78.3% after 24 hours while oysters lost only 14.0% during the same period. The loss in Humbug fish was only 22.2% in three days. Volatilisation and sorption losses from seawater alone (without sediment/biota) were found to be very high in the range of 73.8 - 91.5% over 24 h for p,p'-DDT in aerated and nonaerated ecosystem. Gas chromatograph and TLC analysis of water, sediment and oyster samples revealed presence of p,p'-DDT and substantial amounts of p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDD three days after pesticide dosage.

  9. Eighteen-year study of South Australian dolphins shows variation in lung nematodes by season, year, age class, and location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomo, Ikuko; Kemper, Catherine M; Lavery, Trish J

    2010-04-01

    Between 1990 and 2007, carcasses of opportunistically collected short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis; n=238), Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus; n=167), and common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus; n=15) were examined for parasites and life history data. Three species of lung nematodes (Halocercus lagenorhynchi, Stenurus ovatus, Pharurus alatus) were identified in surface nodules, subsurface lesions, or airways. Nematode burdens were light to heavy and, in many cases, would have compromised the dolphins' health. The number of dolphins infected was related to species, year, season, age class, and geographic region. Nematodes were found in all three species but were more prevalent in short-beaked common dolphins (mean annual prevalence=26%) than in bottlenose dolphins (12%). There was a significant increase in prevalence of nematodes in short-beaked common dolphins in 2005-06 (63%) compared to 1990-2004 (14%), with a peak in April-June. More young short-beaked common dolphins were infected than subadults and adults and, during the unusual infection event, there were more dependent calves (dolphin (Tursiops spp.) calves but no increase in overall prevalence was detected during 2005-06. Because neonates of both short-beaked common dolphins and bottlenose dolphins were infected, mother-to-calf transmission is suspected for these species in South Australia. Numbers of infections in short-beaked common dolphins were higher in Gulf St Vincent than elsewhere in South Australia, particularly in 2005-06. The cause of the unusual infection event in short-beaked common dolphins is unknown. We discuss the influence of dolphin diet, life history, and external factors.

  10. Upper thermal tolerances of early life stages of freshwater mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfo, Tamara J.; Cope, W. Gregory; Arellano, Consuelo; Bringolf, Robert B.; Barnhart, M. Christopher; Hammer, E

    2010-01-01

    Freshwater mussels (order Unioniformes) fulfill an essential role in benthic aquatic communities, but also are among the most sensitive and rapidly declining faunal groups in North America. Rising water temperatures, caused by global climate change, industrial discharges, drought, or land development, could further challenge imperiled unionid communities. The aim of our study was to determine the upper thermal tolerances of the larval (glochidia) and juvenile life stages of freshwater mussels. Glochidia of 8 species of mussels were tested: Lampsilis siliquoidea, Potamilus alatus, Ligumia recta, Ellipsaria lineolata,Lasmigona complanata, Megalonaias nervosa, Alasmidonta varicosa, and Villosa delumbis. Seven of these species also were tested as juveniles. Survival trends were monitored while mussels held at 3 acclimation temperatures (17, 22, and 27°C) were exposed to a range of common and extreme water temperatures (20–42°C) in standard acute laboratory tests. The average median lethal temperature (LT50) among species in 24-h tests with glochidia was 31.6°C and ranged from 21.4 to 42.7°C. The mean LT50 in 96-h juvenile tests was 34.7°C and ranged from 32.5 to 38.8°C. Based on comparisons of LT50s, thermal tolerances differed among species for glochidia, but not for juveniles. Acclimation temperature did not affect thermal tolerance for either life stage. Our results indicate that freshwater mussels already might be living close to their upper thermal tolerances in some systems and, thus, might be at risk from rising environmental temperatures.

  11. Unionid bivalves (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionidae) of Presque Isle Bay, Erie, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masteller, E.C.; Maleski, K.R.; Schloesser, D.W.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine species composition and relative abundance of unionid bivalves (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionidae) in Presque Isle Bay, Erie, Pennsylvania 1990-1992. This information was compared with data from the only other extensive survey of unionids in the bay conducted in 1909-1911 (Ortmann 1919) to assess changes over the 80 years preceding the present study. A total of 1,540 individuals representing 18 species were collected in 1990-1992. Five relatively common species (between 7 and 42% of total individuals), six uncommon species (2 and 6%), and seven rare species (<1%) were found. The rare species were Anodontoides ferussacianus, Lasmigona costata, Ligumia recta, Ptychobranchus fasciolaris, Quadrula pustulosa pustulosa, Strophitus undaulatus, and Truncilla donaciformis. Five of the species found in Presque Isle Bay (Leptodea fragilis, Ligumia nasuta, Potamilus alatus, Quadrula quadrula, and Truncilla donaciformis) are listed as critically imperiled and one species (Truncilla truncata) as extirpated in the State of Pennsylvania by the Western Pennsylvania Conservancy. Comparisons between unionid populations in 1909-1911 and 1990-1992 indicate few substantial changes occurred during the past 80 years. A total of 22 species were found; 21 in 1909-1911 and 18 in 1990-1992. Seventeen species were found in both studies, an additional four in 1909-1911 and one in 1990-1992. The relative abundance of 11 of the 17 species found in both studies remained stable (i.e., common or uncommon) over the past 80 years. Only four species listed as uncommon in 1909-1911 were listed as rare in 1990-1992. However, the invasion of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) is considered a threat to the continued existence of the entire Unionidae fauna in Presque Isle Bay, a unique habitat of the Great Lakes.

  12. Mites fluctuation population on peach tree (Prunus persica (L. Batsch and in associated plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Rosana Eichelberger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of peach (Prunus persica (L. Batsch in Rio Grande do Sul, little is known about mites fluctuation population considered important to this crop. The objective of this study was to know the population diversity and fluctuation of mite species associated with Premier and Eldorado varieties in Roca Sales and Venâncio Aires counties, Rio Grande do Sul. The study was conducted from July 2008 to June 2009 when 15 plants were randomly chosen in each area. The plants were divided in quadrants and from each one a branch was chosen from which three leaves were removed: one collected in the apical region, another in the medium and the other in the basal region, totalizing 180 leaves/area. Five of the most abundant associated plants were collected monthly in enough amounts for the screening under the stereoscopic microscope during an hour. A total of 1,124 mites were found belonging to 14 families and 28 species. Tetranychus ludeni Zacher, 1913, Panonychus ulmi (Koch, 1836 and Mononychellus planki (McGregor, 1950 were the most abundant phytophagous mites, whereas Typhlodromalus aripo Deleon, 1967 and Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks, 1904 the most common predatory mites. The period of one hour under stereoscopic microscope was enough to get a representative sample. In both places evaluated the ecologic indices were low, but little higherin Premier (H' 0.56; EqJ: 0.43 when compared to Eldorado (H' 0.53; EqJ 0.40. In Premier constant species were not observed and accessory only Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939, T. ludeni and T. aripo. Higher abundance was observed in December and January and bigger amount in April. Already in Eldorado, T. ludeni and P. ulmi were constants. Greater abundance was observed in November and December, whereas grater richness in December and January. In both orchards were not found mites in buds. Tetranychus ludeni is the most abundant phytophagous mites with outbreak population in November, December and

  13. Effects of prey mite species on life history of the phytoseiid predators Typhlodromalus manihoti and Typhlodromalus aripo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanvossou, Désiré; Yaninek, J Steve; Hanna, Rachid; Dicke, Marcel

    2003-01-01

    The effects of prey mite suitability on several demographic characteristics of phytoseiid predators and the relationship of these effects to the potential of phytoseiid predators to control herbivorous mite populations are well documented. Evidence has also accumulated in the last 20 years demonstrating that phytoseiid predators utilize herbivorous prey mite-induced plant volatiles as olfactory cues in locating their herbivorous mite prey. but less well established is the predictability of reproductive success from the ability of the predators to utilize olfactory cues to locate their prey, and how these processes are related to the success of the predators as biological control agents of the herbivorous mite. In this study, we determined in laboratory no choice experiments, the development, survivorship and fecundity of the two neotropical phytoseiid predators Typhlodromalus manihoti Moraes and T. aripo DeLeon when feeding on three herbivorous mites, including the key prey species Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar), and the two alternative prey species Oligonychus gossypii (Zacher) and Tetranychus urticae (Koch). Intrinsic rate of increase (rm) of T. aripo was 2.1 fold higher on M. tanajoa as prey compared with T. urticae as prey, while it was almost nil on O. gossypii. For T. manihoti, rm was 2.3 fold higher on M. tanajoa as prey compared with O. gossypii as prey, while reproduction was nil on T. urticae. An independent experiment on odor-related prey preference of the two predator species (Gnanvossou et al. 2002) showed that T. manihoti and T. aripo preferred odors from M. tanajoa-infested leaves to odors from O. gossypii-infested leaves. Moreover, both predator species preferred odors from M. tanajoa-infested leaves over those from T. urticae-infested leaves. As reported here, life history of the two predatory mites matches odor-related prey preference if the key prey species is compared to the two inferior prey species. The implications of our findings for the

  14. The High Resolution Spectrum of the Ar-C_2H_2 Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauzin, C.; Didriche, K.; Herman, M.; Coudert, L. H.

    2011-06-01

    New spectra of the Ar-C_2H_2 van der Waals complex have been recorded using FANTASIO+, a new experimental setup with improved signal to noise and measurement accuracy over the previous one, FANTASIO. The spectra span the 6500--6600 cm-1 region corresponding to the ν_1 + ν_3 band of isolated acetylene. Several bands of the complex were observed. The strongest one connects the two ground van der Waals states and could be rotationally assigned. The yet unassigned weaker bands are combination bands involving changes in the van der Waals modes quantum numbers. The new experimental data have first been used to refine an ab initio potential energy surface (PES) obtained at CCSD(T) level with large basis sets including bond functions. Combination differences involving rotational levels of the strongest band lower state were calculated up to J=9 and K_a=1 and fitted together with microwave and infrared data. The approach used in the analysis treats exactly the large amplitude bending and stretching modes and the overall rotation of the complex. The parameters involved in the expansion of the PES were fitted to the line positions yielding RMS values of 0.021 MHz and 0.6× 10-3 Cm-1 for the microwave and infrared data, respectively. The new experimental data have also been used to refine the PES of the complex for the v_1=v_3=1 vibrational state of acetylene. Using the results of the previous analysis, rotational energies were retrieved for the strongest band upper state and analyzed. The results of this second analysis are not as satisfactory as the previous one. This may be due to perturbations or to the fact that the PES for the upper vibrational state differs from that of the ground vibrational state. Didriche, Lauzin, Foldès, De Ghellinck D'Elseghem Vaernewijck, and Herman, Molec. Phys. 108 (2010) 2155. Lauzin, Didriche, Macko, Demaison, Liévin, and Herman, J. Phys. Chem. A, 113 (2009) 2359. DeLeon and Muenter, J. Chem. Phys. 72 (1980) 6020 Liu and Jäger, J. Molec

  15. Mites fluctuation population on peach tree (Prunus persica (L. Batsch and in associated plants Flutuação populacional de ácaros na cultura do pessegueiro (Prunus persica (L. Batsch e em plantas associadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Rosana Eichelberger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of peach (Prunus persica (L. Batsch in Rio Grande do Sul, little is known about mites fluctuation population considered important to this crop. The objective of this study was to know the population diversity and fluctuation of mite species associated with Premier and Eldorado varieties in Roca Sales and Venâncio Aires counties, Rio Grande do Sul. The study was conducted from July 2008 to June 2009 when 15 plants were randomly chosen in each area. The plants were divided in quadrants and from each one a branch was chosen from which three leaves were removed: one collected in the apical region, another in the medium and the other in the basal region, totalizing 180 leaves/area. Five of the most abundant associated plants were collected monthly in enough amounts for the screening under the stereoscopic microscope during an hour. A total of 1,124 mites were found belonging to 14 families and 28 species. Tetranychus ludeni Zacher, 1913, Panonychus ulmi (Koch, 1836 and Mononychellus planki (McGregor, 1950 were the most abundant phytophagous mites, whereas Typhlodromalus aripo Deleon, 1967 and Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks, 1904 the most common predatory mites. The period of one hour under stereoscopic microscope was enough to get a representative sample. In both places evaluated the ecologic indices were low, but little higherin Premier (H' 0.56; EqJ: 0.43 when compared to Eldorado (H' 0.53; EqJ 0.40. In Premier constant species were not observed and accessory only Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939, T. ludeni and T. aripo. Higher abundance was observed in December and January and bigger amount in April. Already in Eldorado, T. ludeni and P. ulmi were constants. Greater abundance was observed in November and December, whereas grater richness in December and January. In both orchards were not found mites in buds. Tetranychus ludeni is the most abundant phytophagous mites with outbreak population in November, December and

  16. Impacts of seawater saturation state (ΩA = 0.4-4.6) and temperature (10, 25 °C) on the dissolution kinetics of whole-shell biogenic carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, Justin B.; Ghazaleh, Maite N.; Connolly, Brian; Westfield, Isaac; Castillo, Karl D.

    2016-11-01

    Anthropogenic increase of atmospheric pCO2 since the Industrial Revolution has caused seawater pH to decrease and seawater temperatures to increase-trends that are expected to continue into the foreseeable future. Myriad experimental studies have investigated the impacts of ocean acidification and warming on marine calcifiers' ability to build protective shells and skeletons. No studies, however, have investigated the combined impacts of ocean acidification and warming on the whole-shell dissolution kinetics of biogenic carbonates. Here, we present the results of experiments designed to investigate the effects of seawater saturation state (ΩA = 0.4-4.6) and temperature (10, 25 °C) on gross rates of whole-shell dissolution for ten species of benthic marine calcifiers: the oyster Crassostrea virginica, the ivory barnacle Balanus eburneus, the blue mussel Mytilus edulis, the conch Strombus alatus, the tropical coral Siderastrea siderea, the temperate coral Oculina arbuscula, the hard clam Mercenaria mercenaria, the soft clam Mya arenaria, the branching bryozoan Schizoporella errata, and the coralline red alga Neogoniolithon sp. These experiments confirm that dissolution rates of whole-shell biogenic carbonates decrease with calcium carbonate (CaCO3) saturation state, increase with temperature, and vary predictably with respect to the relative solubility of the calcifiers' polymorph mineralogy [high-Mg calcite (mol% Mg > 4) ≥ aragonite > low-Mg calcite (mol% Mg 1) with respect to both aragonite and calcite reveals fundamental differences between the dissolution kinetics of whole-shell biogenic CaCO3 and inorganic CaCO3. Thus, applying stoichiometric solubility products derived for inorganic CaCO3 to model gross dissolution of biogenic carbonates may substantially underestimate the impacts of ocean acidification on net calcification (gross calcification minus gross dissolution) of systems ranging in scale from individual organisms to entire ecosystems (e.g., net

  17. Mesopelagic fishes across the tropical and equatorial Atlantic: Biogeographical and vertical patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivar, M. Pilar; Hulley, P. Alexander; Castellón, Arturo; Emelianov, Mikhail; López, Cristina; Tuset, Víctor M.; Contreras, Tabit; Molí, Balbina

    2017-02-01

    In this investigation we analysed the changes in fish species occurrences and relative abundances across the tropical and equatorial Atlantic, and their vertical distribution patterns in relation to the different environmental scenarios. The study covers a wide region encompassing different water masses, and marked differences in productivity, from an oligotrophic zone close to the Brazilian coast, to a very productive upwelling region close to the Northwest African upwelling. Fishes were collected with a medium-sized midwater trawl (Mesopelagos), complemented by hauls made with a macrozooplankton net (MOCNESS). Species richness in the region was higher than in subtropical, temperate and cold regions. The total number of species and their overall abundance was lower in the stations closer to the Brazilian coast. Abundant species across the entire region were the gonostomatids Cyclothone alba, Cyclothone acclinidens, Cyclothone pallida and Cyclothone pseudopallida, the myctophid Lampanyctus alatus, the sternoptychid Sternoptyx diaphana, and the phosichthyid Vinciguerria nimbaria. The occurrences and abundances of C. parapallida, Lampanyctus nobilis and Lepidophanes guentheri were related to zones where AAIW waters occupied the mesopelagic layers, while other species such as Cyclothone livida and Polyipnus polli increased their abundance when AAIW disappears from their living depths. The presence of Eastern North Atlantic Central Water (ENACW) was associated with the occurrence of several myctophids (Benthosema glaciale, Ceratoscopelus maderensis, Diaphus holti, Diaphus rafinesquii, Hygophum hygomii, Lampanyctus crocodilus, Myctophum punctatum, Symbolophorus veranyi), and the gonostomatid Cyclothone braueri. In spite of the important differences in hydrographic features across the tropical and equatorial Atlantic, all stations showed either the general night migration into the epipelagic layers carried out by myctophids, phosicthyids, and some stomiids, or the

  18. Acute toxicity of two lampricides, 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) and a TFM: 1% niclosamide mixture, to sea lamprey, three species of unionids, haliplid water beetles, and American eel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boogaard, Michael A.; Rivera, Jane E.

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a series of toxicological treatments with 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) and a TFM:1% 2′,5-dichloro-4′-nitrosalicylanilide (niclosamide) mixture, two compounds used to control larval sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in Great Lakes tributaries, to evaluate the acute toxicity of the lampricides to a number of nontarget species of concern. Treatments were conducted with yellow stage American eel (Anguilla rostrata), adult and larval haliplid water beetles (Haliplus spp.), a surrogate for the endangered Hungerford’s crawling water beetle (Brychius hungerfordi), and adults of three unionid species—giant floater (Pyganadon grandis), fragile papershell (Leptodea fragilis), and pink heelsplitter (Potamilus alatus). Treatments were conducted using a serial dilution system consisting of nine test concentrations and an untreated control with 20% dilution between concentrations. Narcosis was evident among giant floaters exposed to the TFM and the TFM:1% niclosamide mixture and among pink heelsplitters exposed to the TFM:1% niclosamide mixture only but mostly at concentrations greater than 2-fold that required to kill 100% of larval sea lamprey (minimum lethal concentration (MLC)). Tests with the haliplid beetle suggest the risks to the Hungerford’s crawling water beetle associated with TFM applications are minimal. Concentrations over 2-fold the sea lamprey MLC did not kill adult or larval water beetles. Preliminary behavioral observations suggest water beetles may avoid treatment by crawling out of the water. Adult water beetles exposed to TFM at 3-fold the sea lamprey MLC were observed above the water line more often than controls. The lampricide TFM was not acutely toxic to American eel. Mortalities were rare among American eel exposed to TFM concentrations up to 7-fold the observed sea lamprey MLC. Similarly, for the TFM:1% niclosamide mixture, mortalities were rare among American eel exposed to nearly 5-fold the observed sea lamprey MLC

  19. Acaricidas utilizados na citricultura convencional e orgânica: manejo da leprose e populações de ácaros fitoseídeos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Júnior de Andrade

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O controle da leprose dos citros no Estado de São Paulo é realizado quase que exclusivamente com aplicações de acaricidas para o controle do ácaro vetor Brevipalpus phoenicis, as quais contribuem para o aumento dos custos de produção e podem afetar negativamente as populações de organismos benéficos. Portanto, o objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar, durante quatro safras, os efeitos de acaricidas indicados para o controle do ácaro B. phoenicis em citros convencional e orgânico sobre a evolução da leprose dos citros e sobre ácaros fitoseídeos. O experimento foi instalado em outubro de 2003, em pomar de laranja localizado no município de Reginópolis-SP. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, estabelecendo-se os tratamentos, expressos em mL de p.c./100 L de água: spirodiclofen a 20 mL e cyhexatin a 50 mL (aplicados em rotação, calda sulfocálcica a 4.000 mL e testemunha sem aplicação de acaricidas. Entretanto, a rotação entre spirodiclofen e cyhexatin iniciou-se em setembro de 2006 e, anteriormente a esse período, utilizou-se somente o spirodiclofen. A cada quinze dias, foram realizados levantamentos populacionais do ácaro B. phoenicis e dos ácaros predadores Iphiseiodes zuluagai e os do gênero Euseius. O nível de controle adotado para o B. phoenicis foi de 8,3%, sendo que as aplicações dos produtos foram realizadas com pulverizador de arrasto tratorizado munido com lanças manuais. Na safra de 2007-2008, coletaram-se 10 frutos caídos devido à leprose por parcela e quantificou-se o número de lesões de leprose presentes em cada fruto. Avaliaram-se, ao término da safra de 2007-2008, a produtividade, as perdas devido à leprose, bem como a incidência e a severidade da leprose. Constatou-se que o local das lesões no fruto é mais importante para determinar sua queda do que o número de lesões presentes. Quanto mais intensa a infestação do ácaro B. phoenicis, maior é o número de lesões de

  20. Species diversity of phytoseiid mites on different ecosystems in Sari district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Omidi

    2016-03-01

    the plants into water. Plant materials then removed from the solution and discarded. Mites in the solution were separated by pouring the solution through sieves of 20, 50, 200 and 400 meshes. Mites transferred into a labeled glass jar for further processing and identification in the laboratory. The mites were cleared in Nesbitt's fluid and mounted in Hoyer’s medium on microscope slides. The slides were dried at 45 °C for 1-2 weeks. Then the edge of the coverslip was sealed with colorless nail polish to prevent absorption of the air moisture. All specimens collected were nominally identified to species level by using a Nikon phase contrast microscope (E600 and related identification keys. The scientific names of the plants were adapted from a dictionary of Iranian plant names (Mozaffarian 1998. The ecological indices including Margalef's richness, Simpson, Shannon-Wiener and Pielou's evenness were calculated for species diversity, dominance, richness and evenness of the mites in different ecosystems. Some mite specimens were sent to Dr. E.A. Ueckermann of the ARC-Plant Protection Research Institute, Pretoria, South Africa for identification or species confirmation. Results and discussion A total number of 946 mites of 19 species belonging to 8 genera of three phytoseiid subfamilies namely Amblyseiinae, Typhlodrominae and Phytoseiinae were identified (Table 1. Most individual mites collected in this study, 698 mites in total (73%, belonged to 12 species of the Amblyseiinae which 68% of them (475 in total were Transeius caspiansis and 13% (90 mites in total were Euseius amissibilis. Phytoseius plumifer, the single species of the Phytoseiinae and the species of Typhlodrominae amounted to 16% (152 in total and 10% (96 in totals of the collected mites, respectively. In this study Amblyseiinae also had the highest proportion of species (63%, while Typhlodrominae and Phytoseiinae had 31% and 5% of the species, respectively. Most phytoseiids collected in this study were

  1. Biostratigraphy of Late Devonian deposits in Chah-Naser section, Northwest Kharanaq (Yazd area based on conodont fauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Yazdi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available برش چاه ناصر در شمال غرب خرانق و در مجاورت روستای هامانه (حوضه یزد قرار دارد که در این تحقیق مورد بررسی زیست چینه‏نگاری کنودونت‏ها قرار گرفته است. بر این اساس 48 نمونه 4 - 3 کیلوگرمی به صورت سیستماتیک از برش مورد مطالعه برداشت و به روش اسیدشویی مورد مطالعه قرار گرفت که از این تعداد 38 نمونه دارای بیش از 599 عنصر کنودونتی بود. با بررسی کنودونت های به دست آمده از این تعداد 15 گونه کنودونتی شناسایی شد که عبارتند از:   P. aequalis, P. aff. alatus, P. praepolitus, P. webbi, P. brevilaminus, P. aspelundi, Neopolygnathus. communis, P. semicostatus, P. sp. A, P. sp. B, I. alternatus alternatus, I. iowaensis iowaensis, I. cornotus, Pelekysgnathus incilinatus, Pelekysgnathus serradentatus, این گونه ها متعلق به 3 جنس: Polygnathus, Icriodus, Pelekysgnathus, بوده و زیست رخساره های پلی گناتید-ایکریوتید، ایکریوتید-پلی گناتید و پلیگناتید - پلکیس گناتید حاکی از محیط سکوی داخلی تا جلوی دریای کم عمق می باشند. بررسی فونای مورد مطالعه منجر به شناسایی 5 زیست زون کنودونتی زیر گردید:   Lower rhenana Zone, Middle to upper triangularis Zone, Lower crepida zones, Middle crepida to lower rhomboidea Zone, Lower rhomboidea to Upper terachytera zones   بدین ترتیب سن سازند بهرام در این برش فرازنین پسین تا فامنین میانی تعیین گردید. مرز فرازنین- فامنین در این برش منطبق بر یک افق 2 متری از خاک نسوزدارای میان لایه‏های ماسه‏سنگ و شیل