WorldWideScience

Sample records for european urban system

  1. The URBAN programme and the European urban policy discourse: successful instruments to Europeanize the urban level?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dukes, M.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    The European Community Initiative URBAN, explored in this article for seven countries in general and for two individual cities in the Netherlands in more detail, is a micro example of the ongoing struggle between European and national policy actors who contest each others’ authority. The programme,

  2. European Urban Fictions in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Hassenpflug

    2008-11-01

    pragmatisme qu’une vraie compétence culturelle. On offre ici ce qui est souhaité par le client chinois : une ville composée de voisinages clos, avec une scène urbaine commercialisée et ouverte, d’architectures et de textures européennes scannées voire imitées. Pourquoi alors ces fictions urbaines ? Parce qu’aujourd’hui en Chine, la présence de l’Autre, de l’Etranger, est vécue comme une libération et en aucun cas comme une menace. Mais également parce que, dans le monde contemporain dans lequel la notion de l’identité de marque (‘branding’ fait depuis longtemps partie de la normalité, le symbole de l’exotisme est vu comme une forme de distinction sociale par les membres des nouvelles classes moyennes et supérieures. À pioneering spirit has risen in China. À tremendous redistribution of people from the country to the city is in progress. More than 200 million migrant laborers are currently pushing into the sprawling metropolises. In order to provide relief for the urban cores, satellite cities ― both within and outside of the city fringe ― are springing up like mushrooms all across the country. By doing so, often new, postmodern methods are implemented, which differ distinctively from Western satellite city planning from the 19 th and 20 th century. Through “theme cities” the attempt is made to implant the spatial images and lifestyles of foreign cultures into China. This contribution describes and analyses the spatial implications of the transposition of European urban concepts and textures to China. This is exemplified by presenting three theme cities of the ‘One City, Nine Villages-Plan’ of Shanghai, the ‘German city’ Anting, the ‘English city’ Taiwushi, and the ‘Swedish city’ Luodian. This research is complemented by introducing the Dutch urban copy in Shenyang in northern China and a brief visit to the theme park ‘Window of the World’ in southern China. The case of the German city Anting proves how

  3. EUROPEAN URBANIZATION – BETWEEN STRENGTHS AND RISKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Danu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available On the European continent, urban population, representing a significant segment of the market, with features specific to a particular model of purchase, consumption, lifestyle, etc. , has the potential for growth. The possible effects of this increase (strengths or risks, include: increasing opportunities for employment, increasing level and structure of demand for consumer goods and, in conjunction, of the level and structure of supply, raising of the standard of living, changing requirements and personal taste level population, increased interaction, socializing, psycho-social conversions on the recently urbanised population as well as for the people there, etc. but also the increase in demand for land areas intended for dwellings, commercial premises and hence reducing spaces with vegetation, increasing the degree of concentration of the population in a small grounds, effects on air quality, etc. This study highlights dynamic and interdependent effects of European urbanization on the human population, businesses, and the environment.

  4. Urban Environment in European Big Cities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaishar, Antonín; Cetkovský, Stanislav; Kallabová, Eva; Klusáček, Petr; Kolibová, Barbora; Lacina, Jan; Mikulík, Oldřich; Zapletalová, Jana

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 1 (2006), s. 46-62 ISSN 1210-8812 Grant - others:EU(XE) EVK4-CT-2002-00086 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3086906 Keywords : European big cities * urban environment * reurbanisation * životní prostředí * Bologna * Ljubljana * León * Brno * Leipzig Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  5. Healthy urban planning in European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Hugh; Grant, Marcus; Mitcham, Claire; Tsourou, Catherine

    2009-11-01

    This article describes the WHO 'healthy urban planning' (HUP) initiative as it has developed through the laboratory of the Healthy Cities movement and evaluates the degree to which applicant cities successfully developed plans for HUP. The paper provides a brief historical perspective on the relationship of health and planning and an overview of the ways in which urban spatial development affects health. It then turns to the WHO European Healthy Cities Network (WHO-EHCN) and explains the evolution of the HUP programme through Phase III (1998-2002) of the Healthy Cities Project, showing how the programme has grown from experimental beginnings to being 'mainstreamed' in Phase IV (2003-2008). Each city wishing to join the WHO-EHCN in this latter phase produced a programme for further development of HUP, and these were assessed by the Bristol Collaborating Centre. The paper presents the overall results, concluding that a significant progress has been made and the most advanced cities have much to offer municipalities everywhere in the best practice for integrating health into urban planning.

  6. Urban-rural linkages enhancing European territorial competitiveness: background paper

    OpenAIRE

    Davidson, Gill

    2008-01-01

    This background paper provides the context for the seminar on urban-rural linkages enhancing European territorial competitiveness, to be held by DG REGIO on 17th September 2008. This seminar forms part of an ongoing debate at European level on the importance of urban-rural linkages for territorial competitiveness, and on appropriate support mechanisms to assist these developments in Member States.

  7. Exploring European urban policy: Towards an EU-national urban agenda?

    OpenAIRE

    Moneyba González Medina; Valeria Fedeli

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the European Union has reactivated the “urban agenda process”. The mainstreaming of the “urban dimension” into the EU policies (2009), the explicit integration of the “urban policy” in the new Cohesion policy (2012) and the public consultation on the EU urban agenda (2014) are some examples which offer a new interesting framework for European urban research. Thus, this article addresses, on the one hand, the evolution of the “European urban agenda process”, based on the conso...

  8. European urban sprawl: sustainability, cultures of (antiurbanism and "hybrid cityscapes"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Pichler-Milanović

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper has its origins in a comparative research project examining aspects of urban sprawl in Europe undertaken within the 5.FP EU. The project Urban Sprawl: European Patterns, Environmental Degradation and Sustainable Development (URBS PANDENS EVK4-CT- 2001-00052 sought to understand recent trends in urban sprawl in a number of case study urban regions and to advise the European Commission on policy development with regard to the control, management and amelioration of the effects of urban sprawl.

  9. E – urban systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franc J. Zakrajšek

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Information and tele-communication technology are increasingly affecting life and employment. According to predictions, more than 80% of all business operations will be carried out electronically through so called e-business. Recently even in Slovenia discussions have begun on “e-government”. Despite desired or undesired control, virtual networks are changing urban systems into e-urban systems. The extent of benefits to the public also depend on planners. The article presents concepts with the signature “e” to describe urban systems, day-to-day life, real-estate and simulation.

  10. Swedish European Union Battle Group in Urban Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-17

    urbanization that follows population growth is not the only factor that increases the likelihood of UO in the future. Another important factor is...C. 2004. Urban Battle Fields of South Asia: lessons learned from Sri Lanka, India, and Pakistan . Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation. www.rand.org...SWEDISH EUROPEAN UNION BATTLE GROUP IN URBAN OPERATIONS A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and General

  11. Definitions of urban areas feasible for examining urban health in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breckenkamp, Jürgen; Patterson, Lesley; Scharlach, Martina; Hellmeier, Wolfgang; Verma, Arpana

    2017-05-01

    As part of the EU-funded project, European Urban Health Indicator System (EURO-URHIS), a definition of urban areas (UAs) and of urban populations was needed to be able to identify comparable UAs in all member states. A literature review on existing definitions, as well as those used by other relevant projects, was performed. A survey of national experts in public health or land planning was also conducted. An algorithm was proposed to find UAs, which were feasible for the focus of EURO-URHIS. No unique general definition of UAs was found. Different fields of research define UAs differently. None of the definitions found were feasible for EURO-URHIS. All of them were found to have critical disadvantages when applied to an urban health project. An ideal definition for this type of project needs to provide a description of the situation without recourse to administrative boundaries yet inform the collection of routine data for urban health monitoring. These requirements were found to contradict each other and were not met in any existing definition. An algorithm was developed for the definition of UAs for the purpose of this study whereby national experts would select regions which are urban as an agglomeration or as a metropolitan area and which are potentially interesting in terms of public health; identify the natural boundaries, where countryside ends and residential or commercial areas of the region begin (e.g. by aerial photos); identify local government boundaries or other official boundaries used for routine data collection purposes which approximate the natural UA as closely as possible and list all administrative areas which are contained in the larger UA. The aggregation of all administrative areas within the original region formed the UA which was used in the project. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  12. Urban management in a European context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Bačlija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the works of John Rex (1968, Ray Pahl (1970, 1975, 1979 and Peter Williams (1976, 1978, the concept of urban management and its (reconceptualisation has reached beyond one discipline and beyond its normative definition. Many authors have attempted to offer an adequate definition; however, convergence on this topic has never occurred. As Richard Stren (1993 notes, the vagueness of the concept exists despite analytical and comparative work on this subdiscipline. To date, Williams’ (1978 question of whether urban management is a framework for study, a process or a structure remains unanswered. This paper explains the (reconceptualisation of urban management as a reform of city administration and claims that its primary task is to bring about a much needed balance between the social and economic development of the city. In addition, the empirical study “Urban management in EU cities” presented in this paper offers several conclusions. The most relevant conclusion is that EU cities already commonly employ this concept of urban management. Other conclusions are that, if a city is large, there is a greater possibility that the city administration will adopt urban management; that, if the city is more successful economically (Lisbon benchmark, there is a greater possibility that the city administration will adopt urban management; and that the city’s power (Index of City Power and urban management (Urban Management Index are not correlated. This final conclusion could imply that the autonomy of city government is irrelevant for successfully implementing urban management. Based on the survey conducted, it can be concluded that implementing an urban management concept, when that concept is defined as proposed in this paper, has a positive effect on some aspects of a city’s performance.

  13. The European Dimension of the Global Urban Development Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bubenko Pavlo T.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at studying the process of evolutionary formation of the EU Cities Development Program and analyzing the strategic instrumentarium for the urban development within the currently established EU urban policy at the present stage. The key features of the process of formation of the EU urban policy have been analyzed, the main stages of evolutionary formation of the integrated EU Cities Development Program have been defined and described. In the context of ensuring an integrated approach to the sustainable urban development and complementary positioning of urban development in the EU’s territorial development and cohesion strategies, the European Union’s normative and legal framework on urban development was researched. As a result of the conducted research, the strategic instrumentarium of implementation of the EU Cities Development Program has been systematized.

  14. Spatial Planning Experiences for Vulnerability Reduction in the Wildland-Urban Interface in Mediterranean European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galiana-Martín Luis

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Expansion of the wildland-urban interface in countries in the European Mediterranean basin is increasing vulnerability to forest fires. Despite more effective extinction systems, this is still a growing problem. This article defends the importance of spatial planning (land-use and urban planning and the need for systematic intervention to mitigate this wildfire risk. A critical review of the current situation, noting intervention focused on buildings and plots and insufficient action on intermediate spatial scales, is followed by the presentation of significant and relevant experiences in the European context.

  15. Urban mining systems

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamura, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on the fundamental concept of and current endeavors in “urban mining” among those who are interested in both metal resources and ecology. Systems for recycling and reusing precious metals and rare-earth minerals contained in used and discarded electronics are introduced in this book. The target audience is not academic researchers in the resource management and ecology fields but, rather, citizens who are concerned about our future environment and want to do something for the future.

  16. European Commission funded program on the impact of air pollution on population health: the example of HEalth Risk from Environmental Pollution Levels in Urban Systems (HEREPLUS Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe La Torre

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available HEalth Risk from Environmental Pollution Levels in Urban Systems (HEREPLUS project has been thought and carried out to fill some of the identified gaps in the evidence base and develop and apply an integrated methodology for assessing and quantifying the health risk associated to outdoor pollution exposure and for investigating the potential mitigating role of urban green. Results of HEREPLUS have demonstrated that these are no watertight compartments and that some issues should be tackled in an integrated approach. For instance, benefits from a proper selection of vegetation species in a city could be assessed in terms of load of pollutants removed from the atmosphere, and furthermore this data translated into health benefits. Additionally, health outcomes could be better interpreted in terms of a spatial analysis that previously had defined the high risk areas associated to a specific pollutant and, in consequence, action plans can be defined taking into account this geo-referenced information.

  17. Creating Sustainable Urban Water Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, S. J.

    2013-01-01

    Managing urban water infrastructure is conventionally the professional domain of engineers. As urban water systems are placed under increasing pressure due to population growth, rapid urbanisation and climate change, the provision of water and sanitation services to cities has become a wicked problem. As such it cannot be adequately addressed by engineers alone, and requires greater attention from urban designers and planners. The move to sustainable urban water systems will involve greater a...

  18. A covenant of halflings? developing a roadmap for the european urban transport goal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Schippl, Jens; Anderton, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In the 2011 Transport Policy White Paper, the European Commission introduced ten goals for a more competitive and resource efficient transport system. One of the goal concerns urban transport, with the dual targets: “To halve the use of ‘conventionally-fuelled’ cars in urban transport by 2030......; and to phase them out by 2050; and “To achieve ‘essentially CO2- free city logistics’ in major urban centres by 2030.” This paper describes how the EU FP7 project TRANSFORUM conducted a stakeholder-driven process to produce a roadmap for the urban transport goal. A main conclusion was that the implementation...... of a roadmap for urban transport needs to adopt a broad and open approach, given the diversity among member states and cities across Europe. Also it was found that replacing conventional vehicles and fuels is an important but not sufficient strategy to reach the goal. A roadmap to reach towards the ‘halving...

  19. Urban green commons: Insights on urban common property systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colding, J.; Barthel, S.; Bendt, P.; Snep, R.P.H.; Knaap, van der W.G.M.; Ernstson, H.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to shed new light on urban common property systems. We deal with urban commons in relation to urban green-space management, referring to them as urban green commons. Applying a property-rights analytic perspective, we synthesize information on urban green commons from three

  20. New proposal for sustainable urban transport plans across Europe. European Perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stead, D. [OTB Research Institute for Housing, Mobility and Urban Studies, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)

    2004-07-01

    The title proposal of the Commission of the European Communities, 'Towards a thematic strategy on the urban environment' (COM(2004)60) is briefly discussed concerning the implications for sustainable urban transport in European cities in different countries of the European Union (EU)

  1. European Marine Information System. Eumaris; European Marine Information System. Eumaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caiaffa, E. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1999-07-01

    The present paper summarises the activities developed by ETC/MCE, under European Environment Agency (EEA) contract, on the Geographic Information System. The aim of present paper is to introduce some general concepts about the Geographic Information Systems and to investigate the potential of G.I.S. as tool for the assessment of the European seas. Care has also been taken to explain the main technical and educational reasons that led to EUMARIS GIS birth, its evolution in the last year, till to its presentation at the Inter-Regional Forum of the European Conventions held in Venice. GIS is a technological tool phenomenon involving various aspects and different issues; many examples of thematic maps involving that different subjects are shown in the paper. [Italian] Il presente articolo riassume le attivita' svolte, nell'ambito del Geographic Information System, dall'ETC/MCE sotto contratto con l'Agenzia Europea per l'Ambiente (EEA) che ha sede a Copenhagen. Scopo del presente articolo e' quello di introdurre alcuni concetti generali sui Geographic Information System (GIS) e di dimostrare la possibilita' di utilizzare il GIS stesso come strumento per la valutazione dello stato dei mari dell'Europa. Si e' cercato di spiegare le principali ragioni tecniche che hanno portato alla nascita del progeto del GIS EUMARIS, alla sua realizzazione fino alla sua presentazione all'Inter-Regional Forum of European Conventions tenutosi a Venezia. Si e' cercato anche di mostrare come un GIS per sua natura e' uno strumento che coinvolge vari aspetti tecnologici e differenti tipi di dati; nell'articolo vengono mostrati diversi esempi di mappe tematiche che contengono tali differenti argomenti.

  2. European urban spawl: sustainability, cultures of (antiurbanism and “hibrid cityscapes”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Pichler Milanović

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper has its origins in a comparative research project examining aspects of urban sprawlin Europe undertaken within the 5.FP EU. The project Urban Sprawl: European Patterns,Environmental Degradation and Sustainable Development (URBS PANDENS EVK4-CT-2001-00052 sought to understand recent trends in urban sprawl in a number of case studyurban regions and to advise the European Commission on policy development with regard tothe control, management and amelioration of the effects of urban sprawl.

  3. European Healthy City Network Phase V: patterns emerging for healthy urban planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Marcus

    2015-06-01

    There is a tradition of planning cities and their infrastructure to successfully tackle communicable disease arising from urban development. Non-communicable disease follows a different course. Development brings in its wake a basket of adverse health and health equity outcomes that are proving difficult to tackle. In response, within Phase V of the European Healthy Cities Network, municipalities have implemented a range of policy and physical interventions using a settings approach. Owing to the time lag between physical interventions and health outcomes, this research interrogates city activity itself to develop better understanding. Self-reported city case studies and questionnaire data were analysed to reveal patterns using an inductive approach. Findings indicate that some categories of intervention, such as whole city planning and transport, have a systemic impact across the wider determinants of health. Addressing transferability and stakeholder understanding helped cities create conditions for successful outcomes. Cities had varying urban development approaches for tackling climate change. Improvements to current practice are discussed, including; a distinction between supply side and demand side in healthy urban planning; valuing co-benefits and developing integrative approaches to the evidence-base. This evaluative article is important for cities wanting to learn how to maximize benefits to public health through urban development and for researchers exploring, with a systemic approach, the experiences of European cities acting at the interface of urban development and public health. This article also provides recommendations for future phases of the WHO European Healthy Cities programme, posing questions to better address governance and equity in spatial planning. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. European Conference on Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Pellegrini, Francesco; Caldarelli, Guido; Merelli, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    This work contains a stringent selection of extended contributions presented at the meeting of 2014 and its satellite meetings, reflecting scope, diversity and richness of research areas in the field, both fundamental and applied. The ECCS meeting, held under the patronage of the Complex Systems Society, is an annual event that has become the leading European conference devoted to complexity science. It offers cutting edge research and unique opportunities to study novel scientific approaches in a multitude of application areas. ECCS'14, its eleventh occurrence, took place in Lucca, Italy. It gathered some 650 scholars representing a wide range of topics relating to complex systems research, with emphasis on interdisciplinary approaches. The editors are among the best specialists in the area. The book is of great interest to scientists, researchers and graduate students in complexity, complex systems and networks.

  5. Cleanly: trashducation urban system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reif, Inbal; Alt, Florian; Ramos, Juan David Hincapie

    Half the world's population is expected to live in urban areas by 2020. The high human density and changes in peoples' consumption habits result in an ever-increasing amount of trash that must be handled by governing bodies. Problems created by inefficient or dysfunctional cleaning services...

  6. The regional and urban policy of the European Union : Cohesion, results-orientation and smart specialisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCann, Philip

    2015-01-01

    The regional and urban development policy of the European Union, or more precisely, EU Cohesion Policy, is undergoing change. This development is driven by the enormous transformations in European regions and by shifts in thinking and analysis. The issues raised by the changes to regional and urban

  7. Urban sprawl and growth management - drivers, impacts and responses in selected European and US cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Christian; Jørgensen, Gertrud; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick

    2016-01-01

    Urban growth management has become a common term to circumscribe strategies and tools to regulate urban land use in metropolitan areas. It is particularly used to counteract negative impacts of urban sprawl but also to frame future urban development. We discuss recent challenges of urban growth....... The cities have different success in dealing with urban growth pressure - some can accommodate most growth in existing urban areas and densify, others expand or sprawl. Urban growth management is no guarantee to contain urban growth, but the case studies offer some innovative ways how to deal with particular...... in 6 European and 2 US American city-regions. The paper compares the urban development focusing on a quantification of drivers and effects of urban growth and a qualitative analysis of the applied urban growth management tools. We build our analysis on findings from the EU-FP6 project PLUREL...

  8. A covenant of halflings? developing a roadmap for the european urban transport goal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Schippl, Jens; Anderton, Karen

    2015-01-01

    ; and to phase them out by 2050; and “To achieve ‘essentially CO2- free city logistics’ in major urban centres by 2030.” This paper describes how the EU FP7 project TRANSFORUM conducted a stakeholder-driven process to produce a roadmap for the urban transport goal. A main conclusion was that the implementation......In the 2011 Transport Policy White Paper, the European Commission introduced ten goals for a more competitive and resource efficient transport system. One of the goal concerns urban transport, with the dual targets: “To halve the use of ‘conventionally-fuelled’ cars in urban transport by 2030...... of a roadmap for urban transport needs to adopt a broad and open approach, given the diversity among member states and cities across Europe. Also it was found that replacing conventional vehicles and fuels is an important but not sufficient strategy to reach the goal. A roadmap to reach towards the ‘halving...

  9. European nuclear data studies for fast systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rullhusen, P.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Mondelaers, W.; Plompen, A.J.M.; Schillebeeckx, P.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear data needs for fast systems are highlighted and the following projects are described: Joint European research projects: MUSE Experiments for Sub-critical Neutronics Validation; High- and Intermediate Energy Nuclear Data for ADS (HINDAS); and the Time-Of-Flight facility for Nuclear Data Measurements for ADS (n T OF N D A DS); European Research Programme for the Transmutation of High Level Nuclear Waste in an Accelerator Driven System (EUROTRANS-NUDATRA); and CANDIDE; Programmes for transnational access to experimental facilities in Europe: European Facilities for Nuclear Data Measurements (EFNUDAT); Neutron Data Measurements at IRMM (NUDAME); European facility for innovative reactor and transmutation neutron data (EUFRAT) (P.A.)

  10. Benchmarking European Gas Transmission System Operators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrell, Per J.; Bogetoft, Peter; Trinkner, Urs

    This is the final report for the pan-European efficiency benchmarking of gas transmission system operations commissioned by the Netherlands Authority for Consumers and Markets (ACM), Den Haag, on behalf of the Council of European Energy Regulators (CEER) under the supervision of the authors....

  11. Cultivating nature-based solutions: The governance of communal urban gardens in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Jagt, Alexander P.N.; Szaraz, Luca R.; Delshammar, Tim; Cvejić, Rozalija; Santos, Artur; Goodness, Julie; Buijs, Arjen

    2017-01-01

    In many countries in the European Union (EU), the popularity of communal urban gardening (CUG) on allotments and community gardens is on the rise. Given the role of this practice in increasing urban resilience, most notably social resilience, municipalities in the Global North are promoting CUG as a

  12. European Vertical Reference System Influence in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celms, A.; Reķe, I.; Ratkevičs, A.

    2015-11-01

    Till 1 December, 2014, in Latvia the heights were determined in Baltic Normal Height System 1977. The national height system is determined by the Cabinet of Ministers and internal laws. Now for the change of the national height system to reconcile it with the European Vertical Reference System, amendments to the laws and regulations have been developed, but so far only the amendment to the Geospatial Information Law is in force, the amendment to the regulation of the Cabinet of Ministers is still not approved. This amendment declares the Latvia Height System based on the European Vertical Reference System in Latvia as the national height system. For height transformation, there is a transformation formula for each European country. After calculations it is seen that height difference between Baltic Normal Height System 1977 and European Vertical Reference System depends on point location in the territory (coordinates). This unequal height difference between both height systems will cause unequal height values on border connection points between Baltic countries. The aim of the research is to evaluate the European Vertical Reference System in Latvia. To reach the aim the following tasks are set: 1) to evaluate the components of transformation formulas; 2) using the transformation formulas to calculate height differences between Baltic Normal Height System 1977 and the European Vertical Reference System realization EVRF2007 for the territory of Latvia and also between Baltic Normal Height System 1977 and the Latvia Normal Height System; 3) to get height differences in the European Vertical Reference System on the borderlines of Latvia - Estonia and Latvia - Lithuania.

  13. Urban regeneration in European social housing areas, Chapter 11

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droste, C.; Lelevrier, C.; Wassenberg, F.

    2008-01-01

    Many European countries have policies to renew cities and neighbourhoods. This paper examines the policies of France, the Netherlands and Germany. In these, as in most Western European countries, the social housing sector forms an important part of regeneration schemes. Social housing is both actor

  14. The governance of the European patent system:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borras, Susana

    2006-01-01

    at the formal and informal dimensions of interactions in economic systems. This is further developed into an analytical framework which is then used in the assessment of the structural features of the current European patent system, one of the most advanced, complex, and contested economic systems in Europe....... The conclusions elaborate on the normative implications regarding the current weaknesses of the European patent system, and examine the general theoretical implications of the findings, particularly looking at the effectiveness and legitimacy of technically complex governance systems....

  15. Emerging Forms of Climate Protection Governance: Urban Initiatives in the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, J. K.; Brunner, E.

    2006-12-01

    Changes in climate patterns are expected to pose increasing challenges for cities in the following decades, with adverse impacts on urban populations currently stressed by poverty, health and economic inequities. Simultaneously, a strong global trend towards urbanization of poverty exists, with increased challenges for local governments to protect and sustain the well-being of growing cities. In the context of these two overarching trends, interdisciplinary research at the city scale is prioritized for understanding the social impacts of climate change and variability and for the evaluation of strategies in the built environment that might serve as adaptive and mitigative responses to climate change. Urban managers, and transnational networks of municipalities and non-state actors, have taken an increasingly active role in climate protection, through research, policies, programs and agreements on adaptation and mitigation strategies. Concerns for urban impacts of climate change include the potential increase in frequency and intensity of damaging extreme weather events, such as heat waves, hurricanes, heavy rainfall or drought, and coastal flooding and erosion, and potentially adverse impacts on infrastructure, energy systems, and public health. Higher average summertime temperatures in temperate zone cities are also associated with environmental and public health liabilities such as decreased air quality and increased peak electrical demand. We review municipal climate protection programs, generally categorized as approaches based on technological innovation (e.g., new materials); changes in behavior and public education (e.g., use of cooling centers); and improvements in urban design (e.g., zoning for mixed land-use; the use of water, vegetation and plazas to reduce the urban heat island effect). Climate protection initiatives in three European cities are assessed within the context of the global collective efforts enacted by the Kyoto Protocol and United Nations

  16. Understanding complex urban systems integrating multidisciplinary data in urban models

    CERN Document Server

    Gebetsroither-Geringer, Ernst; Atun, Funda; Werner, Liss

    2016-01-01

    This book is devoted to the modeling and understanding of complex urban systems. This second volume of Understanding Complex Urban Systems focuses on the challenges of the modeling tools, concerning, e.g., the quality and quantity of data and the selection of an appropriate modeling approach. It is meant to support urban decision-makers—including municipal politicians, spatial planners, and citizen groups—in choosing an appropriate modeling approach for their particular modeling requirements. The contributors to this volume are from different disciplines, but all share the same goal: optimizing the representation of complex urban systems. They present and discuss a variety of approaches for dealing with data-availability problems and finding appropriate modeling approaches—and not only in terms of computer modeling. The selection of articles featured in this volume reflect a broad variety of new and established modeling approaches such as: - An argument for using Big Data methods in conjunction with Age...

  17. Comparison of the impacts of urban development and climate change on exposing European cities to pluvial flooding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Skougaard Kaspersen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The economic and human consequences of extreme precipitation and the related flooding of urban areas have increased rapidly over the past decades. Some of the key factors that affect the risks to urban areas include climate change, the densification of assets within cities and the general expansion of urban areas. In this paper, we examine and compare quantitatively the impact of climate change and recent urban development patterns on the exposure of four European cities to pluvial flooding. In particular, we investigate the degree to which pluvial floods of varying severity and in different geographical locations are influenced to the same extent by changes in urban land cover and climate change. We have selected the European cities of Odense, Vienna, Strasbourg and Nice for analyses to represent different climatic conditions, trends in urban development and topographical characteristics. We develop and apply a combined remote-sensing and flood-modelling approach to simulate the extent of pluvial flooding for a range of extreme precipitation events for historical (1984 and present-day (2014 urban land cover and for two climate-change scenarios (i.e. representative concentration pathways, RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5. Changes in urban land cover are estimated using Landsat satellite imagery for the period 1984–2014. We combine the remote-sensing analyses with regionally downscaled estimates of precipitation extremes of current and expected future climate to enable 2-D overland flow simulations and flood-hazard assessments. The individual and combined impacts of urban development and climate change are quantified by examining the variations in flooding between the different simulations along with the corresponding uncertainties. In addition, two different assumptions are examined with regards to the development of the capacity of the urban drainage system in response to urban development and climate change. In the stationary approach, the capacity

  18. Comparison of the impacts of urban development and climate change on exposing European cities to pluvial flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skougaard Kaspersen, Per; Høegh Ravn, Nanna; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Madsen, Henrik; Drews, Martin

    2017-08-01

    The economic and human consequences of extreme precipitation and the related flooding of urban areas have increased rapidly over the past decades. Some of the key factors that affect the risks to urban areas include climate change, the densification of assets within cities and the general expansion of urban areas. In this paper, we examine and compare quantitatively the impact of climate change and recent urban development patterns on the exposure of four European cities to pluvial flooding. In particular, we investigate the degree to which pluvial floods of varying severity and in different geographical locations are influenced to the same extent by changes in urban land cover and climate change. We have selected the European cities of Odense, Vienna, Strasbourg and Nice for analyses to represent different climatic conditions, trends in urban development and topographical characteristics. We develop and apply a combined remote-sensing and flood-modelling approach to simulate the extent of pluvial flooding for a range of extreme precipitation events for historical (1984) and present-day (2014) urban land cover and for two climate-change scenarios (i.e. representative concentration pathways, RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5). Changes in urban land cover are estimated using Landsat satellite imagery for the period 1984-2014. We combine the remote-sensing analyses with regionally downscaled estimates of precipitation extremes of current and expected future climate to enable 2-D overland flow simulations and flood-hazard assessments. The individual and combined impacts of urban development and climate change are quantified by examining the variations in flooding between the different simulations along with the corresponding uncertainties. In addition, two different assumptions are examined with regards to the development of the capacity of the urban drainage system in response to urban development and climate change. In the stationary approach, the capacity resembles present

  19. European Flood Awareness System - now operational

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alionte Eklund, Cristina.; Hazlinger, Michal; Sprokkereef, Eric; Garcia Padilla, Mercedes; Garcia, Rafael J.; Thielen, Jutta; Salamon, Peter; Pappenberger, Florian

    2013-04-01

    The European Commission's Communication "Towards a Stronger European Union Disaster Response" adopted and endorsed by the Council in 2010, underpins the importance of strengthening concerted actions for natural disasters including floods, which are amongst the costliest natural disasters in the EU. The European Flood Awareness System (EFAS) contributes in the case of major flood events. to better protection of the European Citizen, the environment, property and cultural heritage. The disastrous floods in Elbe and Danube rivers in 2002 confronted the European Commission with non-coherent flood warning information from different sources and of variable quality, complicating planning and organisation of aid. Thus, the Commission initiated the development of a European Flood Awareness System (EFAS) which is now going operational. EFAS has been developed and tested at the Joint Research Centre, the Commission's in house science service, in close collaboration with the National hydrological and meteorological services, European Civil Protection through the Monitoring and Information Centre (MIC) and other research institutes. EFAS provides Pan-European overview maps of flood probabilities up to 10 days in advance as well as detailed forecasts at stations where the National services are providing real time data. More than 30 hydrological services and civil protection services in Europe are part of the EFAS network. Since 2011, EFAS is part of the COPERNICUS Emergency Management Service, (EMS) and is now an operational service since 2012. The Operational EFAS is being executed by several consortia dealing with different operational aspects: • EFAS Hydrological data collection centre —REDIAM and ELIMCO- will be collecting historic and realtime discharge and water levels data in support to EFAS • EFAS Meteorological data collection centre —outsourced but running onsite of JRC Ispra. Will be collecting historic and realtime meteorological data in support to EFAS

  20. Exploring the premises of European education systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moutsios, Stavros

    This paper (part of a project carried out under the EU’s Marie Curie programme of Intra-European Fellowships, FP7-People-2011-IEF, CETH, 298656) explores the emergence of the European education systems in Modernity. As the paper argues, the institution of education in Europe was associated......-determination. But, in addition to Greek Antiquity, on which Modernity drew, the European social imaginary included the central signification of rational control and domination, which is articulated mainly as instrumental rationality, techno-scientific supremacy, capitalism, national state and bureaucracy....... This fundamental antinomy, between autonomy and rational control, explicated by Castoriadis, constitutes the very particularity of the European imaginary, which has been incarnated, as the paper argues, in the institution of education since the Enlightenment – although its first traces appeared much earlier...

  1. Ethnocentricity, Post Modernity and European Curricular Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulby, David

    1995-01-01

    This paper addresses educational curricula and the European knowledge systems which they reflect based on social and cultural theories of modernity and postmodernity. Noting the Eurocentric nature of traditional and modernistic knowledge and school knowledge, an alternative postmodern and internationalist perspective on knowledge systems and…

  2. Urban Space Explorer: A Visual Analytics System for Urban Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karduni, Alireza; Cho, Isaac; Wessel, Ginette; Ribarsky, William; Sauda, Eric; Dou, Wenwen

    2017-01-01

    Understanding people's behavior is fundamental to many planning professions (including transportation, community development, economic development, and urban design) that rely on data about frequently traveled routes, places, and social and cultural practices. Based on the results of a practitioner survey, the authors designed Urban Space Explorer, a visual analytics system that utilizes mobile social media to enable interactive exploration of public-space-related activity along spatial, temporal, and semantic dimensions.

  3. Urban agriculture and the policies of the European Union: the need for renewal

    OpenAIRE

    Curry, Nigel R; Reed, Matt; Keech, Daniel; Maye, Damian; Kirwan, James

    2015-01-01

    To date, analyses of European policies as they pertain to urban\\ud agriculture and new modes of socio-technical innovation are rare,\\ud beyond general assessments that recognise relative degrees of\\ud influence. The purpose of this paper is thus to provide a targeted\\ud review of key European policies that impact and are likely to impact\\ud upon urban agriculture and sustainable modes of food provisioning,\\ud with a particular focus on the Bristol city-region, to provide\\ud contextualisation....

  4. Environmental assessment of 9 European public bus transportation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nanaki, Eva; Koroneos, Christophis; Roset, Jaume

    2017-01-01

    The transportation sector is one of the largest sources of EU’s greenhouse gas emissions. In 2011, transportation represented approximately 25 percent of total EU’s greenhouse gas emissions. Urban mobility accounts for 40% of all CO2 emissions of road transport and up to 70% of other pollutants...... that affect the production of carbon dioxide (CO2) as well as of air pollutants, in 9 major European cities, aiming to provide a comprehensive overview of the actual knowledge on the atmospheric pollution from public transportation systems. CO2 emissions as well as air pollutants, such as CO, HC, PM, NOx...... are calculated for the diesel and CNG bus fleets of the European cities under study. Finally the environmental benefits, in terms of CO2 and CO, HC, PM, NOx emissions reductions, from the penetration of different biodiesel blends (from B10 to B100) to the bus fleets are estimated....

  5. City seeds. Geography and the origins of the European city system

    OpenAIRE

    Bosker, Maarten; Buringh, Eltjo

    2010-01-01

    Geography is widely viewed as the important determinant of city location. This paper empirically disentangles the different roles of geography in shaping the European city system. We present a new database that covers all actual cities as well as potential city locations over the period when the foundations for the European city system were laid. We relate each location’s urban chances to its physical, first nature, geography characteristics, and develop a novel empirical strategy to assess h...

  6. European Conference on Complex Systems 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkilionis, Markus; Nicolis, Gregoire

    2013-01-01

    The European Conference on Complex Systems, held under the patronage of the Complex Systems Society, is an annual event that has become the leading European conference devoted to complexity science. ECCS'12, its ninth edition, took place in Brussels, during the first week of September 2012. It gathered about 650 scholars representing a wide range of topics relating to complex systems research, with emphasis on interdisciplinary approaches. More specifically, the following tracks were covered:  1. Foundations of Complex Systems 2. Complexity, Information and Computation 3. Prediction, Policy and Planning, Environment 4. Biological Complexity 5. Interacting Populations, Collective Behavior 6. Social Systems, Economics and Finance This book contains a selection of the contributions presented at the conference and its satellite meetings. Its contents reflect the extent, diversity and richness of research areas in the field, both fundamental and applied.  

  7. Urbanization-related changes in European aspen (Populus tremula L.): Leaf traits and litter decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikula, Suvi; Vapaavuori, Elina; Manninen, Sirkku

    2010-01-01

    We investigated foliar and litter responses of European aspen (Populus tremula L.) to urbanization, including factors such as increased temperature, moisture stress and nitrogen (N) deposition. Leaf samples were collected in 2006-2008 from three urban and three rural forest stands in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area, southern Finland, and reciprocal litter transplantations were established between urban and rural sites. Urban leaves exhibited a higher amount of epicuticular waxes and N concentration, and a lower C:N ratio than rural ones, but there was no difference in specific leaf area. Urban litter had a slightly higher N concentration, lower concentrations of lignin and total phenolics, and was more palatable to a macrofaunal decomposer. Moreover, litter decay was faster at the urban site and for urban litter. Urbanization thus resulted in foliar acclimatization in terms of increased amount of epicuticular waxes, as well as in accelerated decomposition of the N-richer leaf litter. - Urbanization can modify leaf traits of aspen and accelerate litter decomposition through changes in litter traits as well as in environmental conditions at the decomposition site.

  8. European Educational Systems and Assessment Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evans, Robert Harry; Cross, David; Grangeat, Michel

    2018-01-01

    Abstract This chapter surveys the status of educational systems and assessment practices across eight European countries that are part of the ASSIST-ME project. First, variations in country educational systems are examined to identify possible connections between systems and educational practices....... Such associations are useful both for understanding different existing assessment conditions as well as for providing possible pathways for change. Next, the chapter takes a closer look at teacher practices in these educational systems in order to identify the actual assessment practices of teachers in each country....... With these understandings of the systems and current uses of assessment, it is possible to identify affordances and challenges for improving assessment practices....

  9. Exploring the use of tools for urban sustainability in European cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole; Elle, Morten

    2007-01-01

    This paper outlines the main findings from case studies analysed within the Practical Evaluation Tools for Urban Sustainability (PETUS) project, about the practical use of tools for sustainable urban development in European cities. The paper looks across 60 case studies and identifies the main...... drivers for using tools, the benefits gained by using them and discusses why, in genera, there is limited use of available tools. The main question raised by the PETUS project was, ' why are so few tools for urban sustainability being used, when so many are available?' Recent years have shown a growing...... number of theoretical tools to assess and evaluate urban sustainability. However, experience also shows that only a few of such tools are being used in practice. The paper outlines the motivations for actors to use tools, the benefits achieved and the barriers for using tools. From this, different...

  10. Systems Approach to Urban Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sutherland, David W

    2003-01-01

    .... The battles of Aachen, Stalingrad, and Grozny (2000), reflect this rubble approach. However, several factors have driven military thinkers to look for a more efficient and effective manner to defeat an adversary within an urban environment...

  11. European Climate Change Programme. Working Group II. Impacts and Adaptation. Urban Planning and Construction. Sectoral Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-03-01

    Adaptation is a new policy area for the European Climate Change Policy. The Impacts and Adaptation Workgroup has been set up as part of European Climate Change Programme (ECCP II). The main objective of the workgroup is to explore options to improve Europe's resilience to climate change impacts, to encourage the integration of climate change adaptation into other policy areas at the European, national, regional and local level and to define the role of EU-wide policies complementing action by Member States. The aim of this initial programme of work is to identify good practice in the development of adaptation policy and foster learning from different sectoral experiences and explore a possible EU role in adaptation policies. The Commission has led a series of 10 sectoral meetings looking at adaptation issues for different sectors. One of these meetings looked at the impacts on urban planning and infrastructure in particular. This report summarises the state of play in the urban planning sector in relation to adaptation to climate change on the basis of the information gathered at the stakeholder meeting. Some of the other stakeholder meetings, such as the meeting on human health, have a strong connection with the urban planning agenda. Therefore, some actions in the sector report on adaptation and human health relate to urban planning and infrastructure considerations

  12. The Danish urban system pre-1800

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren Bitsch; Mikkelsen, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    , religious and military centres. From 1200 to 1350 Denmark, similar to the German area, underwent considerable urbanization; a large number of market towns were created, and in contrast to the older ones they were mercantile towns. Denmark thus clearly became the most urbanized country in Scandinavia....... As Copenhagen grew in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the urban system decisively changed its character in the direction of a primate system. The characteristics of the primate system are particularly distinct within the boundaries of the Kingdom of Denmark, but less pronounced if the entire monarchy...

  13. Importance of latrine communication in European rabbits shifts along a rural-to-urban gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziege, Madlen; Bierbach, David; Bischoff, Svenja; Brandt, Anna-Lena; Brix, Mareike; Greshake, Bastian; Merker, Stefan; Wenninger, Sandra; Wronski, Torsten; Plath, Martin

    2016-06-14

    Information transfer in mammalian communication networks is often based on the deposition of excreta in latrines. Depending on the intended receiver(s), latrines are either formed at territorial boundaries (between-group communication) or in core areas of home ranges (within-group communication). The relative importance of both types of marking behavior should depend, amongst other factors, on population densities and social group sizes, which tend to differ between urban and rural wildlife populations. Our study is the first to assess (direct and indirect) anthropogenic influences on mammalian latrine-based communication networks along a rural-to-urban gradient in European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) living in urban, suburban and rural areas in and around Frankfurt am Main (Germany). The proportion of latrines located in close proximity to the burrow was higher at rural study sites compared to urban and suburban ones. At rural sites, we found the largest latrines and highest latrine densities close to the burrow, suggesting that core marking prevailed. By contrast, latrine dimensions and densities increased with increasing distance from the burrow in urban and suburban populations, suggesting a higher importance of peripheral marking. Increased population densities, but smaller social group sizes in urban rabbit populations may lead to an increased importance of between-group communication and thus, favor peripheral over core marking. Our study provides novel insights into the manifold ways by which man-made habitat alterations along a rural-to-urban gradient directly and indirectly affect wildlife populations, including latrine-based communication networks.

  14. Towards an overarching European health information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschuuren, Marieke; van Bolhuis, Annemiek; Rosenkötter, Nicole; Tijhuis, Mariken; van Oers, Hans

    2017-10-01

    A European health information system (HIS) supports mutual learning between member states through international comparisons. In addition, it informs international policy agendas. Collaboration between the major stakeholders, most importantly the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe (WHO-Euro), the European Commission and OECD, is important for member states, as this will contribute to better and more efficiently produced health intelligence. This paper focuses on this 'supra-international' collaboration. Although progress has been made, most notably in relation to joint data collections on monetary and non-monetary healthcare statistics, there is still room for improvement, both in relation to the harmonization of indicators and their underlying data collections, and the better coordination of reporting and research and development work. The working environment is complex, and differences between the (scope of the) health information activities of the three international organizations must be accepted. Yet there is enough common ground to build on. In addition, important barriers hampering further progress are the current semantic confusion about what constitutes a(n international) HIS, and inadequate coordination of national positions across various technical and political platforms of the international organizations. A pragmatic, bottom-up approach, instead of technically and strategically complex and comprehensive solutions, seems the best way forward. The current momentum created by EU-level developments and networks like the European Health Information Initiative of WHO-Euro provide an opportunity for taking the overarching European HIS to a next level. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  15. Monitoring urban growth on the European side of the Istanbul metropolitan area: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, S.; Curran, P. J.

    2006-01-01

    Istanbul is the largest city in Turkey with an area of around 5750 km 2 and a population of around 10.8 M (2000). In 1980, the population was only around 4.7 M and so has more than doubled in only 2 decades. In 2000, around 65% of the population were living on the European side of the city with its large industrial/commercial and trade centres. The population is increasing as a result of both births exceeding deaths and mass immigration. Consequently, planned and unplanned housing are increasing while green areas are decreasing in area. Monitoring urban growth will enable the Municipality of Istanbul to better manage this complex urban area. The primary aim of this research was to quantify urban growth on the European side of Istanbul. Six land covers were identified using Landsat 5 TM images for 1987, 1992, 1997 and 2001 and differences in land cover area between these dates were used to determine the rate of change. The accuracy of land cover maps was determined using aerial photographs, topographic maps and field surveys. The overall accuracy of these classifications was between 80 and 86%; urban residential areas increased by around 1000 ha year -1 and forest, semi-natural vegetation, crop and bare soil areas decreased collectively at a similar rate. The paper ends with a discussion of the relationship between urban growth and population growth.

  16. Association between short-term exposure to ultrafine particles and mortality in eight European urban areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stafoggia, Massimo; Schneider, Alexandra; Cyrys, Josef

    2017-01-01

    urban areas of Finland, Sweden, Denmark, Germany, Italy, Spain, and Greece, between 1999 and 2013. We applied city-specific time-series Poisson regression models and pooled them with random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: We estimated a weak, delayed association between particle number concentration...... and particulate matter (PM) and daily mortality in eight European urban areas. METHODS: We collected daily data on non-accidental and cardio-respiratory mortality, particle number concentrations (as proxy for ultrafine particle number concentration), fine and coarse PM, gases and meteorologic parameters in eight...

  17. Systemic Resilience of Complex Urban Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Salat

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Two key paradigms emerge out of the variety of urban forms: certain cities resemble trees, others leaves. The structural difference between a tree and a leaf is huge: one is open, the other closed. Trees are entirely disconnected on a given scale: even if two twigs are spatially close, if they do not belong to the same branch, to go from one to the other implies moving down and then up all the hierarchy of branches.  Leaves on the contrary are entirely connected on intermediary scales. The veins of a leaf are disconnected on the two larger scales but entirely connected on the two or three following intermediary scales before presenting tiny tree-like structures on the finest capillary scales. Deltas are leaves not trees. Neither galaxies nor whirlpools are trees. We will see in this paper that historical cities, like leaves, deltas, galaxies, lungs, brains and vein systems are all fractal structures, multiply connected and complex on all scales. These structures display the same degree of complexity and connectivity, regardless of the magnification scale on which we observe them. We say that these structures are scale free. Mathematical fractal forms are often generated recursively by applying again and again the same generator to an initiator. The iteration creates an arborescence. But scale free structure is not synonymous with a recursive tree-like structure. The fractal structure of the leaf is much more complex than that of the tree by its multiconnectivity on three or more intermediary levels. In contrast, trees in the virgin forest, even when they seem to be entangled, horizontal, and rhizomic, have branches that are not interconnected to form a lattice. As we will see, the history of urban planning has evolved from leaf-like to tree-like patterns, with a consequent loss of efficiency and resilience. Indeed, in a closed foliar path structure, the formation of cycles enables internal complexification and flow fluctuations due to the

  18. Tuberculosis control in big cities and urban risk groups in the European Union: a consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hest, N A; Aldridge, R W; de Vries, G; Sandgren, A; Hauer, B; Hayward, A; Arrazola de Oñate, W; Haas, W; Codecasa, L R; Caylà, J A; Story, A; Antoine, D; Gori, A; Quabeck, L; Jonsson, J; Wanlin, M; Orcau, Å; Rodes, A; Dedicoat, M; Antoun, F; van Deutekom, H; Keizer, St; Abubakar, I

    2014-03-06

    In low-incidence countries in the European Union (EU), tuberculosis (TB) is concentrated in big cities, especially among certain urban high-risk groups including immigrants from TB high-incidence countries, homeless people, and those with a history of drug and alcohol misuse. Elimination of TB in European big cities requires control measures focused on multiple layers of the urban population. The particular complexities of major EU metropolises, for example high population density and social structure, create specific opportunities for transmission, but also enable targeted TB control interventions, not efficient in the general population, to be effective or cost effective. Lessons can be learnt from across the EU and this consensus statement on TB control in big cities and urban risk groups was prepared by a working group representing various EU big cities, brought together on the initiative of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. The consensus statement describes general and specific social, educational, operational, organisational, legal and monitoring TB control interventions in EU big cities, as well as providing recommendations for big city TB control, based upon a conceptual TB transmission and control model.

  19. Space-time Contraction and the Dynamics of Urban Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Pumain

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available An attempt is made to identify the dynamics of urban systems during the historical process of their evolution. An illustration is made with the case of European cities between 1200 and 1990, using harmonised historical data bases. Simple maps show first a general expansion in cities number and size over time, reflecting the ability of the system to continuously adapt its structure over time. A second trend is an increased hierarchisation in city size, which may be related to the continuous improvement in the speed and capacity of transportation means. Because of this space-time contraction, large cities short-circuit small towns, and inequalities in city size are widening. A third trend leading to a spatial reorganisation, emerges from maps of the urban population potentials. Among all possible mathematical equations and parameters values which could describe the intensity and the spatial range of interactions between cities, we choose those which give rather stable results and which are compatible with the analysis of urban historians, as De Vries, Braudel, Bairoch, Hohenberg and Lees, for the centuries preceding industrial revolution, by using evaluations of distances in terms of time and cost. Urban systems dynamics is better approached with reference to this relative space than on usual topographic maps.

  20. Rich and Poor Cities in Europe. An Urban Scaling Approach to Mapping the European Economic Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strano, Emanuele; Sood, Vishal

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in the urban science make broad use of the notion of scaling. We focus here on the important scaling relationship between the gross metropolitan product (GMP) of a city and its population (pop). It has been demonstrated that GMP ∝ Y Ypopβ with β always greater than 1 and close to 1.2. This fundamental finding highlights a universal rule that holds across countries and cultures and might explain the very nature of cities. However, in an increasingly connected world, the hypothesis that the economy of a city solely depends on its population might be questionable. Using data for 248 cities in the European Union between 2005 and 2010, we found a double GMP/pop scaling regime. For West EU cities, β = 1 over the whole the period, while for post-communist cities β > 1 and increases from ∼1.2 to ∼1.4. The evolution of the scaling exponent describes the convergence of post-communist European cities to open and liberal economies. We propose a simple model of economic convergence in which, under stable political conditions, a linear GMP/pop scaling is expected for all cities. The results suggest that the GMP/pop super-linear scaling represents a phase of economic growth rather than a steady, universal urban feature. The results also suggest that relationships between cities are embedded in their political and economic context and cannot be neglected in explanations of cities, urbanization and urban economics.

  1. Urban energy systems an integrated approach

    CERN Document Server

    Keirstead, James

    2013-01-01

    Energy demands of cities need to be met more sustainably. This book analyses the technical and social systems that satisfy these needs and asks how methods can be put into practice to achieve this.Drawing on analytical tools and case studies developed at Imperial College London, the book presents state-of-the-art techniques for examining urban energy systems as integrated systems of technologies, resources, and people.Case studies include:a history of the evolution of London's urban energy system, from pre-history to present daya history of the growth of d

  2. A decision-support system for sustainable urban metabolism in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Ainhoa, E-mail: ainhoag@yahoo.com [Trinity Centre for Biodiversity Research, School of Natural Sciences, Trinity College Dublin, College Green, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Donnelly, Alison, E-mail: donnelac@tcd.ie [Centre for the Environment, School of Natural Sciences, Trinity College Dublin (Ireland); Jones, Mike, E-mail: mike.jones@tcd.ie [Discipline of Botany, School of Natural Sciences, Trinity College Dublin (Ireland); Chrysoulakis, Nektarios, E-mail: zedd2@iacm.forth.gr [Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas, Institute of Applied and Computational Mathematics (Greece); Lopes, Myriam, E-mail: myr@ua.pt [Departamento de Ambiente e Ordenamento and CESAM, University of Aveiro (Portugal)

    2013-01-15

    Urban metabolism components define the energy and material exchanges within a city and, therefore, can provide valuable information on the environmental quality of urban areas. Assessing the potential impact of urban planning alternatives on urban metabolism components (such as energy, water, carbon and pollutants fluxes) can provide a quantitative estimation of their sustainability performance. Urban metabolism impact assessment can, therefore, contribute to the identification of sustainable urban structures with regards, for example, to building types, materials and layout, as well as to location and capacity of transportation and infrastructural developments. In this way, it enables the formulation of planning and policy recommendations to promote efficient use of resources and enhance environmental quality in urban areas. The European FP7 project BRIDGE (sustainaBle uRban plannIng Decision support accountinG for urban mEtabolism) has developed a decision-support system (DSS) that systematically integrates urban metabolism components into impact assessment processes with the aim of accurately quantifying the potential effects of proposed planning interventions. The DSS enables integration of multiple spatial and non-spatial datasets (e.g. physical flows of energy and material with variables of social and economic change) in a systematic manner to obtain spatially defined assessment results and to thus inform planners and decision-makers. This multi-criteria approach also enables incorporation of stakeholders' perceptions in order to prioritise decisive assessment criteria. This paper describes the methodological framework used to develop the DSS and critically examines the results of its practical application in five European cities. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Urban metabolism in sustainability assessment of planning alternatives. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer European FP7 project applied to 5 real life case studies across Europe. Black

  3. A decision-support system for sustainable urban metabolism in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González, Ainhoa; Donnelly, Alison; Jones, Mike; Chrysoulakis, Nektarios; Lopes, Myriam

    2013-01-01

    Urban metabolism components define the energy and material exchanges within a city and, therefore, can provide valuable information on the environmental quality of urban areas. Assessing the potential impact of urban planning alternatives on urban metabolism components (such as energy, water, carbon and pollutants fluxes) can provide a quantitative estimation of their sustainability performance. Urban metabolism impact assessment can, therefore, contribute to the identification of sustainable urban structures with regards, for example, to building types, materials and layout, as well as to location and capacity of transportation and infrastructural developments. In this way, it enables the formulation of planning and policy recommendations to promote efficient use of resources and enhance environmental quality in urban areas. The European FP7 project BRIDGE (sustainaBle uRban plannIng Decision support accountinG for urban mEtabolism) has developed a decision-support system (DSS) that systematically integrates urban metabolism components into impact assessment processes with the aim of accurately quantifying the potential effects of proposed planning interventions. The DSS enables integration of multiple spatial and non-spatial datasets (e.g. physical flows of energy and material with variables of social and economic change) in a systematic manner to obtain spatially defined assessment results and to thus inform planners and decision-makers. This multi-criteria approach also enables incorporation of stakeholders' perceptions in order to prioritise decisive assessment criteria. This paper describes the methodological framework used to develop the DSS and critically examines the results of its practical application in five European cities. - Highlights: ► Urban metabolism in sustainability assessment of planning alternatives. ► European FP7 project applied to 5 real life case studies across Europe. ► Decision support system enables incorporating scientific

  4. Cancer survival differences between European countries and an urban population from the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redaniel, Maria Theresa; Laudico, Adriano; Mirasol-Lumague, Maria Rica; Gondos, Adam; Brenner, Hermann

    2011-04-01

    The EUROCARE study has disclosed large variations of survival across Europe, with the magnitude varying, depending on cancer site. Comparisons of these rates with those from the developing countries are rare, but important in evaluating international cancer care discrepancies. This study aimed to provide up-to-date estimates of cancer survival in a Philippine urban population, and to compare these with those observed in the European countries. Using the results from the EUROCARE-4 study, the survival estimates of the European patients who were diagnosed in 1995-99 and followed till December 2003 were abstracted. From randomly selected samples drawn from the Manila and Rizal Cancer Registries, 5-year survival was estimated for nine common cancers. Age-adjusted survival estimates were then compared between the Philippine population and Europeans. In comparison to the European mean, survival estimates for the Philippine residents were lower for most cancers, with differences ranging from 2 to 40% units. Differences with European country-specific estimates were large for cancers of the breast and cervix, where early detection is possible, and for leukaemia, where treatment regimens are costly, highlighting the importance of health care. Smaller discrepancies were observed for stomach, liver and lung cancers, with the 5-year relative survival being similar to the Philippines and to many European countries. A survival advantage was seen though for the Philippine residents for ovarian cancer. Apart from efforts to prevent cancers, improvements in cancer control and making early diagnosis and treatment more accessible remain major challenges, both in the Philippines and in the European nations.

  5. IDIOSYNCRATIC RISK AND SYSTEMIC RISK IN THE EUROPEAN BANKING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trenca Ioan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the predictability of Conditional Value at Risk measure in estimating systemic risk and contagion effects. Using the OLS panel estimation technique applied for a sample of European banks we highlight the link between systemic risk and a range of balance sheet indicators over 2008-2011. The empirical results show that future contributions of banks to systemic risk can be reduced by adjusting countercyclical the banks’ asset and liability portfolios.

  6. Modelling transitions in urban water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, W; Urich, C; Bach, P M; Rogers, B C; de Haan, F J; Brown, R R; Mair, M; McCarthy, D T; Kleidorfer, M; Sitzenfrei, R; Deletic, A

    2017-12-01

    Long term planning of urban water infrastructure requires acknowledgement that transitions in the water system are driven by changes in the urban environment, as well as societal dynamics. Inherent to the complexity of these underlying processes is that the dynamics of a system's evolution cannot be explained by linear cause-effect relationships and cannot be predicted under narrow sets of assumptions. Planning therefore needs to consider the functional behaviour and performance of integrated flexible infrastructure systems under a wide range of future conditions. This paper presents the first step towards a new generation of integrated planning tools that take such an exploratory planning approach. The spatially explicit model, denoted DAnCE4Water, integrates urban development patterns, water infrastructure changes and the dynamics of socio-institutional changes. While the individual components of the DAnCE4Water model (i.e. modules for simulation of urban development, societal dynamics and evolution/performance of water infrastructure) have been developed elsewhere, this paper presents their integration into a single model. We explain the modelling framework of DAnCE4Water, its potential utility and its software implementation. The integrated model is validated for the case study of an urban catchment located in Melbourne, Australia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The European Activation System. EASY-2001 overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrest, R.A.

    2001-03-01

    This document gives an overview of the European Activation System (EASY) as released in 2001. EASY-2001 consists of a wide range of codes, data and documentation all aimed at satisfying the objective of calculating the response of materials irradiated in a neutron flux. It is designed to investigate fusion devices that will act as intense sources of high energy (14 MeV) neutrons and cause significant activation of the surrounding materials. However, the very general nature of the calculational method and the data libraries means that it is applicable (with some reservations) to all situations (e.g. fission reactors or neutron sources) where materials are exposed to neutrons below 20 MeV

  8. European quality system for tissue banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyalich, M; Navarro, A; Koller, J; Loty, B; de Guerra, A; Cornu, O; Vabels, G; Fornasari, P M; Costa, A N; Siska, I; Hirn, M; Franz, N; Miranda, B; Kaminski, A; Uhrynowska, I; Van Baare, J; Trias, E; Fernández, C; de By, T; Poniatowski, S; Carbonell, R

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this project were to analyze the factors that influence quality and safety of tissues for transplantation and to develop the method to ensure standards of quality and safety in relation to tissue banking as demanded by European Directive 2004/23/EC and its technical annexes. It is organized in 4 Working Groups, the objectives of each one being focused in a specific area. The Guide of Recommendations for Tissue Banking is structured into 4 parts: (1) quality systems that apply to tissue banking and general quality system requirements, (2) regulatory framework in Europe, (3) standards available, and (4) recommendations of the fundamental quality and safety keypoints. This Working Group handled design of a multinational musculoskeletal tissue registry prototype. This Working Group handled design and validation of a specialized training model structured into online and face-to-face courses. The model was improved with suggestions from students, and 100% certification was obtained. The Guide for Auditing Tissue Establishments provides guidance for auditors, a self-assessment questionnaire, and an audit report form. The effectiveness and sustainability of the outputs were assessed. Both guides are useful for experienced tissue establishments and auditors and also for professionals that are starting in the field. The registry prototype proves it is possible to exchange tissues between establishments throughout Europe. The training model has been effective in educating staff and means having professionals with excellent expertise. Member states could adapt/adopt it. The guides should be updated periodically and perhaps a European organization should take responsibility for this and even create a body of auditors.

  9. Development of urban bird indicators using data from monitoring schemes in two large European cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrando, S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bird monitoring projects have provided valuable data for developing biological indicators to evaluate the state of natural and agricultural habitats. However, fewer advances have been made in urban environments. In this study we used bird monitoring data from 2002 to 2012 in two cities with different climates (Brussels and Barcelona, to generate two multi–species urban indicators to evaluate temporal trends on abundance of urban avifauna. To do this we used two different conceptual approaches, one based on a list of widespread species in European cities (WSEC and another based exclusively on species widespread at city level (WCS regardless of the birds occurring in other cities. The two indicators gave a similar general pattern, although we found a 3% difference in the mean annual change in both cities, thus suggesting that the values provided by urban indicators may differ depending on the conceptual approach and, hence, by the species list used to generate them. However, both indicators may have their own value and could be treated as complementary indices.

  10. [European immigration and social mobility in urban centers of Latin America (1880-1920)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, B; Salinas Meza, R

    1987-04-01

    The authors provide a historical overview of the impact of European immigration on social structures in Latin America. The focus is on movements to Argentina and Brazil, with a lesser emphasis on Chile and Uruguay. Social mobility of foreigners is compared with that of natives. The relationship between migration and trends in urbanization and industrialization is analyzed, and factors such as economic conditions and political stability in the receiving countries, migrant access to land ownership, discrimination against migrants, length of stay, and reasons for leaving are examined.

  11. Environmental sustainability assessment of urban systems applying coupled urban metabolism and life cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkved, Morten; Goldstein, Benjamin Paul

    2013-01-01

    The necessity of assessing and addressing the environmental sustainability of urban systems is becoming increasingly relevant due to growing urbanization across the globe, higher consumption in urban systems and related competition for finite resource stocks. In this study we present how fused...... urban metabolism (UM) and life cycle assessment (LCA) can be applied to assess the sustainability of urban system, taking into account up- and downstream activities directly or indirectly linked to the metabolism of urban systems. Further we apply the fused UM-LCA approach to assess the absolute...... environmental sustainability of large urban systems by relating the environmental sustainability performance of urban systems with global environmental burden boundaries quantifying pollution thresholds beyond which performance of global ecosystems services may be detrimentally affected....

  12. Improving the profile of the European tourist destinations through the European tourism indicators system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura CISMARU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Within the most recent European Policy for Tourism, the competitiveness of the European tourism industry is directly linked to the image of Europe and to its perception, as a collection of sustainable and high-quality tourist destinations. In such context, improving the profile of the European tourist destinations has become a main target. During the last years, the European Commission focused on the sustainable development of tourist destinations. Several projects were developed, the most recent one introducing a practical tool - the European Tourism Indicators System (ETIS for the sustainable development of destinations. The present paper advances the idea that such tool can be successfully used in order to achieve the goal of improving the profile of the European tourist destinations.

  13. Performance evaluation of real time control in urban wastewater systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Daal-Rombouts, P.M.M.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis deals with real time control (RTC) in urban wastewater systems, where
    urban wastewater systems are defined as a combination of combined sewer systems and wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Urban wastewater systems discharge, through combined sewer over flows (CSOs) and WWTP

  14. Factors controlling air quality in different European subway systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Vânia; Moreno, Teresa; Mendes, Luís; Eleftheriadis, Konstantinos; Diapouli, Evangelia; Alves, Célia A; Duarte, Márcio; de Miguel, Eladio; Capdevila, Marta; Querol, Xavier; Minguillón, María Cruz

    2016-04-01

    Sampling campaigns using the same equipment and methodology were conducted to assess and compare the air quality at three South European subway systems (Barcelona, Athens and Oporto), focusing on concentrations and chemical composition of PM2.5 on subway platforms, as well as PM2.5 concentrations inside trains. Experimental results showed that the mean PM2.5 concentrations widely varied among the European subway systems, and even among different platforms within the same underground system, which might be associated to distinct station and tunnel designs and ventilation systems. In all cases PM2.5 concentrations on the platforms were higher than those in the urban ambient air, evidencing that there is generation of PM2.5 associated with the subway systems operation. Subway PM2.5 consisted of elemental iron, total carbon, crustal matter, secondary inorganic compounds, insoluble sulphate, halite and trace elements. Of all metals, Fe was the most abundant, accounting for 29-43% of the total PM2.5 mass (41-61% if Fe2O3 is considered), indicating the existence of an Fe source in the subway system, which could have its origin in mechanical friction and wear processes between rails, wheels and brakes. The trace elements with the highest enrichment in the subway PM2.5 were Ba, Cu, Mn, Zn, Cr, Sb, Sr, Ni, Sn, Co, Zr and Mo. Similar PM2.5 diurnal trends were observed on platforms from different subway systems, with higher concentrations during subway operating hours than during the transport service interruption, and lower levels on weekends than on weekdays. PM2.5 concentrations depended largely on the operation and frequency of the trains and the ventilation system, and were lower inside the trains, when air conditioning system was operating properly, than on the platforms. However, the PM2.5 concentrations increased considerably when the train windows were open. The PM2.5 levels inside the trains decreased with the trains passage in aboveground sections. Copyright © 2015

  15. Understanding complex urban systems multidisciplinary approaches to modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Gurr, Jens; Schmidt, J

    2014-01-01

    Understanding Complex Urban Systems takes as its point of departure the insight that the challenges of global urbanization and the complexity of urban systems cannot be understood – let alone ‘managed’ – by sectoral and disciplinary approaches alone. But while there has recently been significant progress in broadening and refining the methodologies for the quantitative modeling of complex urban systems, in deepening the theoretical understanding of cities as complex systems, or in illuminating the implications for urban planning, there is still a lack of well-founded conceptual thinking on the methodological foundations and the strategies of modeling urban complexity across the disciplines. Bringing together experts from the fields of urban and spatial planning, ecology, urban geography, real estate analysis, organizational cybernetics, stochastic optimization, and literary studies, as well as specialists in various systems approaches and in transdisciplinary methodologies of urban analysis, the volum...

  16. Envisioning a Common European Asylum System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Türk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A bolder approach is needed if the European Union is to overcome fragmentation and manage refugee movements effectively and in accordance with international obligations. Imaginative moves in this direction could also advance the global refugee protection regime.

  17. Restrained Integration of European Case Reports in Danish Information Systems and Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, Michael; Olsen, Henrik Palmer

    2011-01-01

    Danish Publication of European Case Law, EU Law, European Human Rights Law, Selective Danish Information Systems, Legal Knowledge......Danish Publication of European Case Law, EU Law, European Human Rights Law, Selective Danish Information Systems, Legal Knowledge...

  18. Towards a comprehensive and realistic risk evaluation of engineered nanomaterials in the urban water system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars eDuester

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The European COoperation in Science and Technology (COST Action ES1205 on the transfer of Engineered Nano materials from wastewater Treatment and stormwatEr to Rivers (ENTER aims to create and to maintain a trans European network among scientists. This perspective article delivers a brief overview on the status quo at the beginning of the project by addressing the following aspects on engineered nano materials (ENMs in the urban systems: i ENMs that need to be considered on a European level; ii uncertainties on production-volume estimations; iii fate of selected ENMs during waste water transport and treatment; iv analytical strategies for ENM analysis; v ecotoxicity of ENMs, and vi future needs. These six step stones deliver the derivation of the position of the ES1205 network at the beginning of the projects runtime, by defining six fundamental aspects that should be considered in future discussions on risk evaluation of ENMs in urban water systems.

  19. Urban stormwater – greywater management system for sustainable urban water management at sub-watershed level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arora Amarpreet Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban water management involves urban water supply (import, treatment and distribution of water, urban wastewater management (collection, treatment and disposal of urban sewage and urban storm water management. Declining groundwater tables, polluted and declining sources of water, water scarcity in urban areas, unsatisfactory urban water supply and sanitation situation, pollution of receiving water bodies (including the ground water, and urban floods have become the concerns and issues of sustainable urban water management. This paper proposes a model for urban stormwater and sewage management which addresses these concerns and issues of sustainable urban water management. This model proposes segregation of the sewage into black water and greywater, and urban sub-watershed level stormwater-greywater management systems. During dry weather this system will be handling only the greywater and making the latter available as reclaimed water for reuse in place of the fresh water supply. During wet weather, the system will be taking care of (collection and treatment both the storm water and the greywater, and the excess of the treated water will be disposed off through groundwater recharging. Application of this model in the Patiala city, Punjab, INDIA for selected urban sub-watersheds has been tried. Information and background data required for the conceptualization and design of the sub-watershed level urban stormwater-greywater management system was collected and the system has been designed for one of the sub-watersheds in the Patiala city. In this paper, the model for sustainable urban water management and the design of the Sub-watershed level Urban Stormwater-Greywater Management System are described.

  20. Urban stormwater - greywater management system for sustainable urban water management at sub-watershed level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh Arora, Amarpreet

    2017-11-01

    Urban water management involves urban water supply (import, treatment and distribution of water), urban wastewater management (collection, treatment and disposal of urban sewage) and urban storm water management. Declining groundwater tables, polluted and declining sources of water, water scarcity in urban areas, unsatisfactory urban water supply and sanitation situation, pollution of receiving water bodies (including the ground water), and urban floods have become the concerns and issues of sustainable urban water management. This paper proposes a model for urban stormwater and sewage management which addresses these concerns and issues of sustainable urban water management. This model proposes segregation of the sewage into black water and greywater, and urban sub-watershed level stormwater-greywater management systems. During dry weather this system will be handling only the greywater and making the latter available as reclaimed water for reuse in place of the fresh water supply. During wet weather, the system will be taking care of (collection and treatment) both the storm water and the greywater, and the excess of the treated water will be disposed off through groundwater recharging. Application of this model in the Patiala city, Punjab, INDIA for selected urban sub-watersheds has been tried. Information and background data required for the conceptualization and design of the sub-watershed level urban stormwater-greywater management system was collected and the system has been designed for one of the sub-watersheds in the Patiala city. In this paper, the model for sustainable urban water management and the design of the Sub-watershed level Urban Stormwater-Greywater Management System are described.

  1. A survey of urban and suburban methane hotspots across five European capitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panetta, Robert; Jacobson, Gloria; Xuref-Remy, Irène; Crosson, Eric

    2013-04-01

    A growing awareness that urban and suburban areas are greenhouse gas emissions hotspots has resulted in calls to quantify and study the primary sources from cities. Of especial focus is methane, which is 25 times more potent as a greenhouse gas than CO2. Early studies have hinted at obvious sources of methane, such as industrial sites, landfills and waste water treatment plants. However, the size, density and diversity of urban and suburban areas suggest that these cannot be the only significant sources of methane emissions. Recent work has revealed that leaks from natural gas distribution networks are a major source of methane emissions in Boston, the totality of which has the potential to swamp all other sources of urban methane in accounting schemes. Such a result also indicates that not all methane sources are obvious, and that in-depth on-site investigation across large swaths of urban areas will be needed to properly appreciate the full magnitude of methane emissions from urban and suburban areas across the globe. The challenge of measuring methane emissions from large urban areas is greatly reduced by employing the Investigator, which combines the high precision of cavity ring-down spectroscopy with geospatial and metorological data. In this presentation, we will show results of such Investigator runs conducted between November 2011 to December 2012 in and around Amsterdam, Geneva, Istanbul, London, and Paris. A number of significant sources were common to all locations including the obvious (landfills, industrial sites and waste water treatment plants), the disconcerting (natural gas leaks at street level) and unexpected (recreational marinas, "green" public transport). The overall view from the Investigator runs show that even though emissions sources in and around major European cities are highly diverse, they share much commonality, suggesting harmonized emissions reductions schemes across borders are possible. The results also clearly indicate that the

  2. Distributed intelligent urban environment monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jinsong; Wang, Wei; Gao, Jie; Cong, Rigang

    2018-02-01

    The current environmental pollution and destruction have developed into a world-wide major social problem that threatens human survival and development. Environmental monitoring is the prerequisite and basis of environmental governance, but overall, the current environmental monitoring system is facing a series of problems. Based on the electrochemical sensor, this paper designs a small, low-cost, easy to layout urban environmental quality monitoring terminal, and multi-terminal constitutes a distributed network. The system has been small-scale demonstration applications and has confirmed that the system is suitable for large-scale promotion

  3. Park system concept for environmental sustainabilityin urban spatial development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uniaty, Q.

    2018-01-01

    Urban Park System is an integrated concept between nature system and urban life. The problems caused by urban population activity resulted in the need to increase the balance between two systems. Establishment of urban park system is a response to the need for resilience of urban space structures. As an ideal requirement it needs to be built integration between the ecological, social, economic, aesthetic aspects of urban landscape architecture. The methodology was developed based on an approach to issues affecting the conditions due to urban issues and its relation to the development efforts of urban park system; Observation of Jakarta problem was obtained based on published studies and data, literature, characteristic and potential analyzes, local physical, from limited field observations. Both are simple methods aimed to describe the nature of a condition as well as form characteristics of problems in controlling the development of region, to examine the causes and symptoms. This method try to assess an object study compared between the conditions before and after. The benefits of urban park system development will not only improve the urban environment, but the value of urban pride, identity and control urban growth in line with efforts to improve the balance between conservation and development. Integrated urban park system will enhance the multifunctional role, connectivity, habitability, durability, identity and investment.

  4. Buildings Interaction with Urban Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred; Wyckmans, Annemie; Zucker, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    The goal towards a fossil free energy system is expressed in amongst others European and national targets, and puts pressure on the application of renewable energy sources combined with energy efficiency. Many cities are even more ambitious than their national targets and want to be among the first...... to demonstrate that they can become not only smart fossil-free energy cities but sustainable in a wider sense, including water, waste, transportation and more. In the current paper, the research agenda to support such goals through smart city efforts is presented for a few European cases as examples, focusing...... on the impacts that buildings play in the overall energy system. Here buildings are not only consumers but rather prosumers that are able to produce renewable energy themselves. Buildings moreover offer potential storage capacities that can be utilized in demand shifting, which is necessary to enable increased...

  5. Twenty Years of the European Information Systems Academy at ECIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, Mari-Klara; Galliers, Robert D.; Whitley, Edgar A.

    2016-01-01

    by further developing the profile of European IS research that was reported on in EJIS following the first 10 years of the European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS). On the basis of an analysis of all papers published in ECIS proceedings during the 10-year period 2003–2012, the paper highlights three...... key characteristics of the developing European IS research profile: (1) continuation of the traditional European IS research profile as developed in the first decade; (2) convergence with aspects of the North American tradition and (3) development of a distinct approach to design science. We place...... factors influencing the European IS academy in recent years as well as our interpretation of the developing research profile, thus informing future understanding of European IS research and the choices facing individual IS researchers....

  6. Disaster Risk Management of Urban Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Diana Ancaş

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating the risk of natural disasters is an intensely debated issue, both on national and international level. In the present paper, after a brief review of the international research in this field and an introduction in risk management, we insisted on risk analysis of an urban area, called urban system. More precisely, we investigated the evaluation of risk and the behavior of the pipelines infrastructure characteristic in an urban area during an earthquake.By taking into account a certain region in Jassy city area, we present a methodology of evaluating seismic risk of the utilities network of the region. The method consists in establishing the necessary steps to be taken in such an evaluation. These steps are also graphically displayed for the gas pipelines of the area, and emphasizing the critical points existent in that sector e.g. gas stations. Using the cellular automata technique, inspired from the artificial intelligence and complex system fields, based on the GIS map of the analysed region, we obtained a map with the risk areas in case of an earthquake, taking into account the gas pipelines network and the existing critical points.

  7. For Hunger-proof Cities: Sustainable Urban Food Systems | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    For Hunger-proof Cities: Sustainable Urban Food Systems. Book cover For Hunger-proof Cities: Sustainable Urban Food Systems. Editor(s): ... Luc J.A. Mougeot is Senior Program Specialist at the International Development Research Centre, Ottawa, Canada. Dr Mougeot leads IDRC 's program in urban agriculture: Cities ...

  8. Cultivating nature-based solutions: The governance of communal urban gardens in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Jagt, Alexander P N; Szaraz, Luca R; Delshammar, Tim; Cvejić, Rozalija; Santos, Artur; Goodness, Julie; Buijs, Arjen

    2017-11-01

    In many countries in the European Union (EU), the popularity of communal urban gardening (CUG) on allotments and community gardens is on the rise. Given the role of this practice in increasing urban resilience, most notably social resilience, municipalities in the Global North are promoting CUG as a nature-based solution (NbS). However, the mechanisms by which institutional actors can best support and facilitate CUG are understudied, which could create a gap between aspiration and reality. The aim of this study is therefore to identify what governance arrangements contribute to CUG delivering social resilience. Through the EU GREEN SURGE project, we studied six CUG initiatives from five EU-countries, representing different planning regimes and traditions. We selected cases taking a locally unique or innovative approach to dealing with urban challenges. A variety of actors associated with each of the cases were interviewed to achieve as complete a picture as possible regarding important governance arrangements. A cross-case comparison revealed a range of success factors, varying from clearly formulated objectives and regulations, municipal support, financial resources and social capital through to the availability of local food champions and facilitators engaging in community building. Municipalities can support CUG initiatives by moving beyond a rigid focus on top-down control, while involved citizens can increase the impact of CUG by pursuing political, in addition to hands-on, activities. We conclude that CUG has clear potential to act as a nature-based solution if managed with sensitivity to local dynamics and context. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Constructing a unitary title regime for the European Patent System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, V.F.

    2011-01-01

    The European Patent System without any unitary title allows Member States to retain institutional arrangements within their borders and to prevent any moves to delegate responsibility outside the national sphere. This intergovernmental patent regime suffers from fragmentation due to national

  10. The Hospital System and the Urban Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Pirlone

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The concept of resilience is critical when addressing the issue of natural hazards. The role of an urban planner is to analyze the territorial system, consisting of several functional sub-systems (housing, education, health, etc.. and its vulnerability. In order to have a specific knowledge of the territory in question, before the occurrence of a disaster it would be necessary, for each functional system, analyze various aspects and define risk simulations. In a city, in fact, there are strategic elements that should not lose functionality during or following a natural event; the definition of specific scenarios could put structures exposed to risk on safety in order not to compromise the system. In this paper I report a specific experience of research carried out within the hospital system that, in case of occurrence of a natural event, is often simultaneously exposed, and therefore need of rescue, and it is a dispenser of rescue. It’s considered strategic because it has to ensure the functionality of its service regardless of the occurrence of external events, such as natural ones; its functionality must be ensured in the continuum. In today is not very thorough the scientific literature about the analysis of the hospital system in respect of such events. Given the importance of the theme there are several initiatives, also promoted by The Italian Civil Protection, in particular the drafting of hospital emergency plans, which cover issues such as fire, road accidents, floods, ... Interesting was the collaboration between the Italian Civil Protection Department with Applied Technology Council for the planning of a background paper intended for the preparation of earthquake emergency plans, within which there are also aspects of prevention such as the evaluation of seismic vulnerability of hospitals themselves. The described methodology has allowed the definition of risk simulations for the hospital system, starting from the determination of

  11. Urban air quality measurements using a sensor-based system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ródenas, Mila; Hernández, Daniel; Gómez, Tatiana; López, Ramón; Muñoz, Amalia

    2017-04-01

    Air pollution levels in urban areas have increased the interest, not only of the scientific community but also of the general public, and both at the regional and at the European level. This interest has run in parallel to the development of miniaturized sensors, which only since very recently are suitable for air quality measurements. Certainly, their small size and price allows them to be used as a network of sensors capable of providing high temporal and spatial frequency measurements to characterize an area or city and with increasing potential, under certain considerations, as a complement of conventional methods. Within the frame of the LIFE PHOTOCITYTEX project (use of photocatalytic textiles to help reducing air pollution), CEAM has developed a system to measure gaseous compounds of importance for urban air quality characterization. This system, which allows an autonomous power supply, uses commercial NO, NO2, O3 and CO2 small sensors and incorporates measurements of temperature and humidity. A first version, using XBee boards (Radiofrequency) for communications has been installed in the urban locations defined by the project (tunnel and school), permitting the long-term air quality characterization of sites in the presence of the textiles. An improved second version of the system which also comprises a sensor for measuring particles and which uses GPRS for communications, has been developed and successfully installed in the city center of Valencia. Data are sent to a central server where they can be accessed by citizens in nearly real time and online and, in general, they can be utilized in the air quality characterization, for decision-making related to decontamination (traffic regulation, photocatalytic materials, etc.), in air quality models or in mobile applications of interest for the citizens. Within this work, temporal trends obtained with this system in different urban locations will be shown, discussing the impact of the characteristics of the

  12. Comparison of the impacts of urban development and climate change on exposing European cities to pluvial flooding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Per Skougaard; Høegh Ravn, Nanna; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    geographical locations are influenced to the same extent by changes in urban land cover and climate change. We have selected the European cities of Odense, Vienna, Strasbourg and Nice for analyses to represent different climatic conditions, trends in urban development and topographical characteristics. We...... develop and apply a combined remote-sensing and flood-modelling approach to simulate the extent of pluvial flooding for a range of extreme precipitation events for historical (1984) and present-day (2014) urban land cover and for two climate-change scenarios (i.e. representative concentration pathways......, RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5). Changes in urban land cover are estimated using Landsat satellite imagery for the period 1984-2014. We combine the remote-sensing analyses with regionally downscaled estimates of precipitation extremes of current and expected future climate to enable 2-D overland flow simulations...

  13. Comprehensive evaluation system of intelligent urban growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lian-Yan; Ren, Xiao-Bin

    2017-06-01

    With the rapid urbanization of the world, urban planning has become increasingly important and necessary to ensure people have access to equitable and sustainable homes, resources and jobs.This article is to talk about building an intelligent city evaluation system.First,using System Analysis Model(SAM) which concludes literature data analysis and stepwise regression analysis to describe intelligent growth scientifically and obtain the evaluation index. Then,using the improved entropy method to obtain the weight of the evaluation index.Afterwards, establishing a complete Smart Growth Comprehensive Evaluation Model(SGCEM).Finally,testing the correctness of the model.Choosing Otago(New Zealand )and Yumen(China) as research object by data mining and SGCEM model,then we get Yumen and Otago’s rational degree’s values are 0.3485 and 0.5376 respectively. It’s believed that the Otago’s smart level is higher,and it is found that the estimated value of rationality is consistent with the reality.

  14. Towards Signalling Maintenance Scheduling for European Railway Traffic Management System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    M. Pour, Shahrzad

    The European Railway Traffic Management System (ERTMS) is the newest signalling standard that has been introduced in the railway industry. The aim of ERTMS is to ensure better signalling communication amongst various train systems, and hence, to help in attaining improved connectivity and commuting...... between European countries. In various countries across the world, there is a gradual shift from the current signalling systems to ERTMS. Amongst the European countries, Denmark was the first country to commence a full upgrading of its signalling system to ERTMS. A variety of maintenance requirements...... arise when entirely different hardware is used in the new system, which is essentially new on-board signalling equipment. In addition, to achieve a rapid response in the event of breakdowns or failures, the new recovery systems define very stringent time restrictions, in contrast to the current...

  15. Mercury in urban soils: A comparison of local spatial variability in six European cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, S.; Pereira, M.E.; Duarte, A.C.; Ajmone-Marsan, F.; Davidson, C.M.; Grcman, H.; Hossack, I.; Hursthouse, A.S.; Ljung, K.; Martini, C.; Otabbong, E.; Reinoso, R.; Ruiz-Cortes, E.; Urquhart, G.J.; Vrscaj, B.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify and assess for the first time the variability of total mercury in urban soils at a European level, using a systematic sampling strategy and a common methodology. We report results from a comparison between soil samples from Aveiro (Portugal), Glasgow (Scotland), Ljubljana (Slovenia), Sevilla (Spain), Torino (Italy) and Uppsala (Sweden). At least 25 sampling points (in about 4-5 ha) from a park in each city were sampled at two depths (0-10 and 10-20 cm). Total mercury was determined by pyrolysis atomic absorption spectrometry with gold amalgamation. The quality of results was monitored using certified reference materials (BCR 142R and BCR 141R). Measured total mercury contents varied from 0.015 to 6.3 mg kg -1 . The lowest median values were found in Aveiro, for both surface (0-10 cm) and sub-surface (10-20 cm) samples (0.055 and 0.054 mg kg -1 , respectively). The highest median mercury contents in soil samples were found in samples from Glasgow (1.2 and 1.3 mg kg -1 , for surface and sub-surface samples, respectively). High variability of mercury concentrations was observed, both within each park and between cities. This variability reflecting contributions from natural background, previous anthropogenic activities and differences in the ages of cities and land use, local environmental conditions as well as the influence of their location within the urban area. Short-range variability of mercury concentrations was found to be up to an order of magnitude over the distance of only a few 10 m

  16. Energy Prediction in Urban Photovoltaic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Ramos-Paja

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available  This paper proposes a new method to accurately estimate the power and energy production in urban photovoltaic (PV systems, which are commonly covered by shades affecting its performance. The solution is based on an efficient algorithm designed to compute, in short time, an accurate model accounting for the shades impact. In such a way, the proposed approach improves classical solutions by significantly reducing the processing time to simulate long periods, e.g. months and years, but without introducing sensible errors. Therefore, this approach is suitable to estimate the production of PV systems for economical analyses such as the return-of-invested time calculation, but also to accurately design PV installations by selecting the right number of photovoltaic modules to supply the required load power. 

  17. European Vocational Education Systems. A Guide to Vocational Education and Training in the European Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Helen

    This book describes the 12 vocational education systems conducted by the members of the European Community. The 12 country chapters (Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, and the United Kingdom) follow the same model and are organized into the following six sections: key facts,…

  18. Future of European Financial Supervision, Towards a European System of Financial Supervisors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arons, T.M.C.

    The 2008 financial crisis made clear the shortcomings in the European structure of financial supervision. In the cur­rent system of financial supervision the financial supervi­sor of the home Member State is in principle the only autho­rity entitled to supervise financial institutions even in case

  19. Social cues are unlikely to be the single cause for early reproduction in urban European blackbirds (Turdus merula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominoni, Davide M; Van't Hof, Thomas J; Partecke, Jesko

    2015-04-01

    Despite urban ecology being an established field of research, there is still surprisingly little information about the relative contribution of specific environmental factors driving the observed changes in the behavior and physiology of city dwellers. One of the most reported effects of urbanization is the advanced phenology observed in birds. Many factors have been suggested to underline such effect, including warmer microclimate, anthropogenic food supply and light pollution. Since social stimuli are known to affect reproductive timing and breeding density is usually higher in urban populations compared to rural ones, we experimentally tested whether social interactions could advance the onset of reproduction in European blackbirds (Turdus merula). We housed male blackbirds of rural and urban origins with or without a conspecific female, and recorded their seasonal variation in gonadal size and production of luteinizing hormone (LH). Paired and unpaired males of both urban and rural origins did not significantly differ in their timing of gonadal growth. Moreover, rural and urban birds did not differ in their response to the social stimuli, rather they became reproductively active at the same time, a result that confirms previous studies that attributed the difference in reproductive timing observed in the field to phenotypic plasticity. We conclude that social stimuli do not contribute substantially to the observed early onset of reproductive physiology in urban bird species, rather other factors such as light pollution are likely to be stronger drivers of these physiological changes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. CITY MARKETING AND ITS IMPACT OVER URBAN TOURISM – SIBIU EUROPEAN CAPITAL OF CULTURE 2007 - A SUCCESS STORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELENA LIDIA ALEXA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the past years tourism has become the fastest-growing economic sector, both in terms of turnover and the opportunity to create jobs. In this context, it begun to be one of the activities with an important potential and, in the same time, a challenge for the development of urban centers which find themselves forced to redefine their identity, due to the decrease of other types of industries under the impact of the global economic crisis and the economic reset. After analyzing the main indicators of the touristic activity in the urban area, it is noticeable that cities have an important percentage in the overall touristic circulation. The future development of this form of tourism is, however, conditioned by the assimilation in the urban management process of marketing strategies meant to allow the development of touristic functions in the main urban localities and of touristic programs designed to bring added value to the cultural attractions for large and small cities alike. Urban marketing comes, in this case, as a natural response to the requirements of the city to better answer the market’s needs and to adjust to the dynamics of the tourist market. The present article aims to analyze the different urban marketing strategies used by urban centers interested in attracting important tourist flows and their impact over their future development, based on the Sibiu case after implementing the “Sibiu - European Capital of Culture” Programme in 2007.

  1. Impact of passenger car NOX emissions on urban NO2 pollution - Scenario analysis for 8 European cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degraeuwe, Bart; Thunis, Philippe; Clappier, Alain; Weiss, Martin; Lefebvre, Wouter; Janssen, Stijn; Vranckx, Stijn

    2017-12-01

    Residents of large European cities are exposed to NO2 concentrations that often exceed the established air quality standards. Diesel cars have been identified as a major contributor to this situation; yet, it remains unclear to which levels the NOX emissions of diesel cars have to decrease to effectively mitigate urban NO2 pollution across Europe. Here, we take a continental perspective and model urban NO2 pollution in a generic street canyon of 8 major European cities for various NOX emission scenarios. We find that a reduction in the on-road NOX emissions of diesel cars to the Euro 6 level can in general decrease the regional and urban NO2 concentrations and thereby the frequency of exceedances of the NO2 air quality standard. High NO2 fractions in the NOX emissions of diesel cars tend to increase the urban NO2 concentrations only in proximity of intense road traffic typically found on artery roads in large cities like Paris and London. In cities with a low share of diesel cars in the vehicle fleet such as Athens or a high contribution from the NO2 background to the urban NO2 pollution such as Krakow, measures addressing heavy-duty vehicles, and the manufacturing, energy, and mining industry are necessary to decrease urban air pollution. We regard our model results as robust albeit subject to uncertainty resulting from the application of a generic street layout. With small modifications in the input parameters, our model could be used to assess the impact of NOX emissions from road transport on NO2 air pollution in any European city.

  2. The European standard series in 9 European countries, 2002/2003 - First results of the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uter, W; Hegewald, J; Aberer, W; Ayala, F; Bircher, AJ; Brasch, J; Coenraads, PJ; Schuttelaar, Marielouise; Elsner, P; Fartasch, M; Mahler, V.; Fortina, AB; Frosch, PJ; Fuchs, T; Johansen, JD; Menne, T; Jolanki, R; Krecisz, B; Kiec-Swierczynska, M; Larese, F; Orton, D; Peserico, A; Rantanen, T; Schnuch, A

    Since January 2001, the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA), supported by European Union funding (contract QLK4-CT-2001-00343), has started to collect patch-test data. This comprises a standardized clinical history and the patch-test results using the European standard series,

  3. Experiences with Learning Management Systems in 113 European Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Flate Paulsen

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the major findings from six regional analyses conducted within the framework of the European Web-edu project (http://www.nettskolen.com/in_english/webedusite/index.html. It analyses the experiences of European institutions with the Learning Management Systems that they have purchased or developed themselves. Data was collected from in-depth interviews with 113 European experts, usually the systems managers in the institutions, in 17 countries. The analyses of the interviews revealed as many as 52 different commercial and 35 self-developed LMS systems. The article presents the data from these interviews and includes a series of important findings from the study. One conclusion is that there is a host of commercial and self-developed systems that seem to work satisfactorily in various educational institutions throughout Europe. The systems are not able to handle all the functions the institutions want, and they can be improved in many ways. But most systems encountered in the analyses seem to be good enough for handling online education successfully. Another conclusion is that the European market is not dominated by the American LMS systems. In countries that do not use English as the first language, locally developed LMS systems have successfully ousted the American products. Remarkably, a large number of the LMS systems used in Europe are commercial systems developed locally, or self-developed systems built by the institutions.

  4. An urban energy performance evaluation system and its computer implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Yuan, Guan; Long, Ruyin; Chen, Hong

    2017-12-15

    To improve the urban environment and effectively reflect and promote urban energy performance, an urban energy performance evaluation system was constructed, thereby strengthening urban environmental management capabilities. From the perspectives of internalization and externalization, a framework of evaluation indicators and key factors that determine urban energy performance and explore the reasons for differences in performance was proposed according to established theory and previous studies. Using the improved stochastic frontier analysis method, an urban energy performance evaluation and factor analysis model was built that brings performance evaluation and factor analysis into the same stage for study. According to data obtained for the Chinese provincial capitals from 2004 to 2013, the coefficients of the evaluation indicators and key factors were calculated by the urban energy performance evaluation and factor analysis model. These coefficients were then used to compile the program file. The urban energy performance evaluation system developed in this study was designed in three parts: a database, a distributed component server, and a human-machine interface. Its functions were designed as login, addition, edit, input, calculation, analysis, comparison, inquiry, and export. On the basis of these contents, an urban energy performance evaluation system was developed using Microsoft Visual Studio .NET 2015. The system can effectively reflect the status of and any changes in urban energy performance. Beijing was considered as an example to conduct an empirical study, which further verified the applicability and convenience of this evaluation system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Urban planning for healthy cities. A review of the progress of the European Healthy Cities Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Hugh; Grant, Marcus

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the progress made by European cities in relation to Healthy Urban Planning (HUP) during Phase IV of the World Health Organization's Healthy Cities programme (2003-2008). The introduction sets out the general principle of HUP, identifying three levels or phases of health and planning integration. This leads on to a more specific analysis of the processes and substance of HUP, which provide criteria for assessment of progress. The assessment itself relies on two sources of data provided by the municipalities: the Annual Review Templates (ARTs) 2008 and the response to the Phase IV General Evaluation Questionnaire. The findings indicate that the evidence from different sources and questions in different sections are encouragingly consistent. The number of cities achieving a good level of understanding and activity in HUP has risen very substantially over the period. In particular, those achieving effective strategic integration of health and planning have increased. A key challenge for the future will be to develop planning frameworks which advance public health concerns in a spatial policy context driven often by market forces. A health in all policies approach could be valuable.

  6. Breeding Bird Assemblage in a Mosaic of Urbanized Habitats in a Central European City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopij Grzegorz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of data on the population densities of birds breeding in a mosaic of typical urbanized habitats. This study was undertaken to partly fulfil this gap in our knowledge. Counts were conducted in 2008 by means of simplified territory mapping method in a fragment (1197 ha of a large Central European city (Wrocław, SW Poland. In total, 50 bird species were breeding in the study area in 2008. The House Sparrow Passer domesticus, Common Swift Apus apus and Rock Dove comprised about 3/5 of all breeding pairs. The other group of species, each one with a density between 6 and 13 pairs per 100 ha, included seven species, namely the Starling, Sturnus vulgaris, Greenfinch, Carduelis chloris, House Martin, Delichon urbica, Tree Sparrow, Passer montanus, Great Tit, Parus major, Blue Tit, Parus caeruleus, and Jackdaw, Corvus monedula. They comprised together about 1/5. The remaining 40 species nested in a density between 0.1 and 3.5 pairs per 100 ha. The most numerous feeding guild were granivores (53.8% and insectivores (37.9 %. Birds nesting on buildings comprised together 74 % of all breeding pairs. For a few species (Luscinia megarhynchos, Saxicola torquata, Corvus cornix and Turdus pilaris an increase in their numbers in the last three decades has been evidenced.

  7. DayWater: an Adaptive Decision Support System for Urban Stormwater Management

    OpenAIRE

    Thevenot, Daniel,

    2008-01-01

    International audience; The European DayWater project has developed a prototype of an Adaptive Decision Support System (ADSS) related to urban stormwater pollution source control. The DayWater ADSS greatly facilitates decision-making for stormwater source control, which is currently impeded by the large number of stakeholders involved and by the necessary multidisciplinary knowledge. This book presents the results of this project, providing new insights into both technical and management issu...

  8. Transformation of Wage Bargaining Systems in European Union. Some Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Bercu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In a global world, the industrial relations have become the strategical tool for economic development of the states. Our paper aim to emphasise the increasing role of wage bargaining systems in the industrial relations in European Union, going from the presumption that the labour market is changing every day and the European authorities must take the decisions with a high economic and social impact. Going from an extended literature review and using the data provided by Eurostat and Eurofound, reflecting the new European regulations concerning the employment relations, the findings of our paper reflect a dynamic transformation of wage bargaining systems at institutional level, labour market and collective bargaining. The results reflect the direct implications of wage bargaining systems on the labour productivity, on the political decisions considering the minimum wage and the real and nominal wage. Our findings are valuable for the academicians and practitioners interested in industrial relations and wage bargaining systems.

  9. European coding system for tissues and cells: a challenge unmet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Melvin; Warwick, Ruth M; Poniatowski, Stefan; Trias, Esteve

    2010-11-01

    The Comité Européen de Normalisation (European Committee for Standardization, CEN) Workshop on Coding of Information and Traceability of Human Tissues and Cells was established by the Expert Working Group of the Directorate General for Health and Consumer Affairs of the European Commission (DG SANCO) to identify requirements concerning the coding of information and the traceability of human tissues and cells, and propose guidelines and recommendations to permit the implementation of the European Coding system required by the European Tissues and Cells Directive 2004/23/EC (ED). The Workshop included over 70 voluntary participants from tissue, blood and eye banks, national ministries for healthcare, transplant organisations, universities and coding organisations; mainly from Europe with a small number of representatives from professionals in Canada, Australia, USA and Japan. The Workshop commenced in April 2007 and held its final meeting in February 2008. The draft Workshop Agreement went through a public comment phase from 15 December 2007 until 15 January 2008 and the endorsement period ran from 9 April 2008 until 2 May 2008. The endorsed CEN Workshop Agreement (CWA) set out the issues regarding a common coding system, qualitatively assessed what the industry felt was required of a coding system, reviewed coding systems that were put forward as potential European coding systems and established a basic specification for a proposed European coding system for human tissues and cells, based on ISBT 128, and which is compatible with existing systems of donation identification, traceability and nomenclatures, indicating how implementation of that system could be approached. The CWA, and the associated Workshop proposals with recommendations, were finally submitted to the European Commission and to the Committee of Member States that assists its management process under article 29 of the Directive 2004/23/EC on May 25 2008. In 2009 the European Commission initiated an

  10. Structural change in a system of urban places: the 20th-century evolution of Hungary's urban settlement network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zovanyi, G

    1986-02-01

    A review of urban change in Hungary in the twentieth century is presented. Both the traditional approach to studying urban change, involving changes in the percentage of those residing in urban areas, and the newly developed approach, focusing on regional aspects of urbanization, are used in the analysis. "In sharp contrast to most European countries Hungary is shown to evidence continued centralization of urban development, but the recent experience of Budapest and other indicators are said to portend future decentralization." (summary in FRE, GER) excerpt

  11. Modeling Urban Energy Savings Scenarios Using Earth System Microclimate and Urban Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M. R.; Rose, A.; New, J. R.; Yuan, J.; Omitaomu, O.; Sylvester, L.; Branstetter, M. L.; Carvalhaes, T. M.; Seals, M.; Berres, A.

    2017-12-01

    We analyze and quantify the relationships among climatic conditions, urban morphology, population, land cover, and energy use so that these relationships can be used to inform energy-efficient urban development and planning. We integrate different approaches across three research areas: earth system modeling; impacts, adaptation and vulnerability; and urban planning in order to address three major gaps in the existing capability in these areas: i) neighborhood resolution modeling and simulation of urban micrometeorological processes and their effect on and from regional climate; ii) projections for future energy use under urbanization and climate change scenarios identifying best strategies for urban morphological development and energy savings; iii) analysis and visualization tools to help planners optimally use these projections.

  12. Systems of innovation theory and the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borras, Susana

    2004-01-01

    This article asks whether it is possible to conceptualise the European Union (EU) as a system of innovation in accordance with the rich literature of institutional economics on these matters. By developing four further theoretical nodal points of the system of innovation concept, an analytical...

  13. Operationalizing sustainability in urban coastal systems: a system dynamics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrommati, Georgia; Bithas, Kostas; Panayiotidis, Panayiotis

    2013-12-15

    We propose a system dynamics approach for Ecologically Sustainable Development (ESD) in urban coastal systems. A systematic analysis based on theoretical considerations, policy analysis and experts' knowledge is followed in order to define the concept of ESD. The principles underlying ESD feed the development of a System Dynamics Model (SDM) that connects the pollutant loads produced by urban systems' socioeconomic activities with the ecological condition of the coastal ecosystem that it is delineated in operational terms through key biological elements defined by the EU Water Framework Directive. The receiving waters of the Athens Metropolitan area, which bears the elements of typical high population density Mediterranean coastal city but which currently has also new dynamics induced by the ongoing financial crisis, are used as an experimental system for testing a system dynamics approach to apply the concept of ESD. Systems' thinking is employed to represent the complex relationships among the components of the system. Interconnections and dependencies that determine the potentials for achieving ESD are revealed. The proposed system dynamics analysis can facilitate decision makers to define paths of development that comply with the principles of ESD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Urban Transportation Systems in Bogotá and Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pineda, Andres Felipe Valderrama; Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we explore the socio-technical dynamics of developing new urban transport systems. Based on the analysis of empirical material from the study of the Transmilenio in Bogotá and the Metro in Copenhagen, we propose that the design, construction and operation of urban transport systems...

  15. Societal Drivers of European Water Governance: A Comparison of Urban River Restoration Practices in France and Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aude Zingraff-Hamed

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The European water governance took a decisive turn with the formulation of the Water Framework Directive (WFD, which demands the restoration of all water bodies that did not achieve sufficient ecological status. Urban rivers are particularly impaired by human activities and their restorations are motivated by multiple ecological and societal drivers, such as requirements of laws and legislation, and citizen needs for a better quality of life. In this study we investigated the relative influence of socio-political and socio-cultural drivers on urban river restorations by comparing projects of different policy contexts and cultural norms to cross-fertilize knowledge. A database of 75 projects in French and German major cities was compiled to apply (a a comparative statistical analysis of main project features, i.e., motivation, goals, measures, morphological status, and project date; and (b a qualitative textual analysis on project descriptions and titles. The results showed that despite a powerful European directive, urban river restoration projects still keep national specificities. The WFD drives with more intensity German, rather than French, urban river restoration. This study showed the limits of macro-level governance and the influence of microlevel governance driven by societal aspects such as nature perception and relationships between humans and rivers.

  16. Urban drainage system planning and design--challenges with climate change and urbanization: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanfar, Zeinab; Sharma, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Urban drainage systems are in general failing in their functions mainly due to non-stationary climate and rapid urbanization. As these systems are becoming less efficient, issues such as sewer overflows and increase in urban flooding leading to surge in pollutant loads to receiving water bodies are becoming pervasive rapidly. A comprehensive investigation is required to understand these factors impacting the functioning of urban drainage, which vary spatially and temporally and are more complex when weaving together. It is necessary to establish a cost-effective, integrated planning and design framework for every local area by incorporating fit for purpose alternatives. Carefully selected adaptive measures are required for the provision of sustainable drainage systems to meet combined challenges of climate change and urbanization. This paper reviews challenges associated with urban drainage systems and explores limitations and potentials of different adaptation alternatives. It is hoped that the paper would provide drainage engineers, water planners, and decision makers with the state of the art information and technologies regarding adaptation options to increase drainage systems efficiency under changing climate and urbanization.

  17. Rural-Urban Differences in Escape Behavior of European Birds across a Latitudinal Gradient

    OpenAIRE

    Samia, Diogo S. M.; Blumstein, Daniel T.; Díaz, Mario; Grim, Tomas; Ibáñez-Álamo, Juan Diego; Jokimäki, Jukka; Tätte, Kunter; Markó, Gábor; Tryjanowski, Piotr; Møller, Anders Pape

    2017-01-01

    Behavioral adjustment is a key factor that facilitates species’ coexistence with humans in a rapidly urbanizing world. Because urban animals often experience reduced predation risk compared to their rural counterparts, and because escape behavior is energetically costly, we expect that urban environments will select for increased tolerance to humans. Many studies have supported this expectation by demonstrating that urban birds have reduced flight initiation distance (FID = pre...

  18. Moving Towards a New Urban Systems Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter M. Groffman; Mary L. Cadenasso; Jeannine Cavender-Bares; Daniel L. Childers; Nancy B. Grimm; Morgan Grove; Sarah E. Hobbie; Lucy R. Hutyra; G. Darrel Jenerette; Timon McPhearson; Diane E. Pataki; Steward T. A. Pickett; Richard V. Pouyat; Emma Rosi-Marshall; Benjamin L. Ruddell

    2016-01-01

    Research on urban ecosystems rapidly expanded in the 1990s and is now a central topic in ecosystem science. In this paper, we argue that there are two critical challenges for ecosystem science that are rooted in urban ecosystems: (1) predicting or explaining the assembly and function of novel communities and ecosystems under altered environmental conditions and (2)...

  19. Long term analysis of the columnar and surface aerosol relationship at an urban European coastal site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, S.; Estellés, V.; Utrillas, M. P.; Martínez-Lozano, J. A.

    2017-10-01

    Simultaneous PM2.5, PM10 and columnar (ground and satellite based) AOD measurements have been analyzed at Burjassot site in the metropolitan area of Valencia (Spain) during the period 2007-2016. The site is representative of a south European city in the Western Mediterranean coastal area, influenced by local urban pollution but also from frequent Saharan dust events. First, multiannual statistics were performed to characterize the main aerosol burden characteristics. The averages and standard deviations resulted 18 ± 9 μg m-3, 25 ± 19 μg m-3, 0.15 ± 0.11, 0.23 ± 0.17, 0.19 ± 0.15 and 1.2 ± 0.3 for PM2.5, PM10, AERONET AOD, MODIS Terra AOD, MODIS Aqua AOD, and AERONET Ångström exponent AE, respectively. The AOD is always referred to 550 nm. PM10 and AOD showed seasonal patterns with maxima in summer and minima in winter. However, PM2.5 and AE did not show such an evident seasonality. The relationship between surface and columnar measurements show a poor correlation (r down to 0.30) for daily values, although the correlation increases to r up to 0.90 for yearly averages. The relationship between PM and AOD becomes more consistent when the databases are binned in intervals of 0.05 AOD. Results for AERONET and MODIS AOD are very similar, although for daily averages is slightly worse for satellite than ground based measurements. In order to explain some seasonality effects found, the mixing layer height has been included in the analysis. Results show that the correlation is maximum when PM2.5 is used and the mixing layer height is greater than 1 000 m (r > 0.90).

  20. Plume Impingement Analysis for the European Service Module Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, John; Sibe, Fabien; Lerardo, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Plume impingement analyses were performed for the European Service Module (ESM) propulsion system Orbital Maneuvering System engine (OMS-E), auxiliary engines, and reaction control system (RCS) engines. The heat flux from plume impingement on the solar arrays and other surfaces are evaluated. This information is used to provide inputs for the ESM thermal analyses and help determine the optimal configuration for the RCS engines.

  1. The effect of urban geometry on mean radiant temperature under future climate change: a study of three European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Kevin Ka-Lun; Lindberg, Fredrik; Rayner, David; Thorsson, Sofia

    2015-07-01

    Future anthropogenic climate change is likely to increase the air temperature (T(a)) across Europe and increase the frequency, duration and magnitude of severe heat stress events. Heat stress events are generally associated with clear-sky conditions and high T(a), which give rise to high radiant heat load, i.e. mean radiant temperature (T(mrt)). In urban environments, T mrt is strongly influenced by urban geometry. The present study examines the effect of urban geometry on daytime heat stress in three European cities (Gothenburg in Sweden, Frankfurt in Germany and Porto in Portugal) under present and future climates, using T(mrt) as an indicator of heat stress. It is found that severe heat stress occurs in all three cities. Similar maximum daytime T(mrt) is found in open areas in all three cities despite of the latitudinal differences in average daytime T(mrt). In contrast, dense urban structures like narrow street canyons are able to mitigate heat stress in the summer, without causing substantial changes in T(mrt) in the winter. Although the T(mrt) averages are similar for the north-south and east-west street canyons in each city, the number of hours when T(mrt) exceeds the threshold values of 55.5 and 59.4 °C-used as indicators of moderate and severe heat stress-in the north-south canyons is much higher than that in the east-west canyons. Using statistically downscaled data from a regional climate model, it is found that the study sites were generally warmer in the future scenario, especially Porto, which would further exacerbate heat stress in urban areas. However, a decrease in solar radiation in Gothenburg and Frankfurt reduces T(mrt) in the spring, while the reduction in T(mrt) is somewhat offset by increasing T(a) in other seasons. It suggests that changes in the T(mrt) under the future scenario are dominated by variations in T(a). Nonetheless, the intra-urban differences remain relatively stable in the future. These findings suggest that dense urban

  2. A review of the European offshore wind innovation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieczorek, A.J.; Negro, S.O.; Harmsen, R.; Heimeriks, G.J.; Luo, L.; Hekkert, M.P.

    2013-01-01

    Offshore wind has the potential of becoming an important pillar of the future European energy system. It can contribute to policy objectives on climate change, energy security, green growth and social progress. However, the large potential of offshore wind does not automatically lead to a large

  3. The European Patent System: Dealing with emerging technologies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kica, Evisa; Groenendijk, Nico

    2011-01-01

    In light of recent controversial patent decisions in biotechnology, this article argues that the current European patent examination and opposition procedures do not suffice to balance the patent system These procedures do not provide sufficient guidance for patent examiners to deal effectively with

  4. EPUAP classification system for pressure ulcers: European reliability study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beeckman, D.; Schoonhoven, L.; Fletcher, J.; Furtado, K.; Gunningberg, L.; Heyman, H.; Lindholm, C.; Paquay, L.; Verdu, J.; Defloor, T.

    2007-01-01

    AIM: This paper is a report of a study of the inter-observer reliability of the European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel pressure ulcer classification system and of the differential diagnosis between moisture lesions and pressure ulcers. BACKGROUND: Pressure ulcer classification is a valuable tool to

  5. Climate benefits and environmental challenges related to urban food systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verzandvoort, S.J.E.; Mol, G.; Meulen, van der Suzanne; Oostrom, van Niels

    2014-01-01

    In a short literature review, we have collected available knowledge on the potential benefits of urban agriculture, as part of local food systems, on climate change mitigation and adaptation. The effects of urban agriculture on climate change mitigation and adaptation depend on the type of

  6. Assessment on Peri-Urban Dairy Production System and Evaluation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional survey and raw milk laboratory analysis were conducted with the objectives of determining peri-urban dairy production system and quality of cow's raw milk of Shambu, Fincha and Kombolcha towns of Horro Guduru Wollega zone. Ninty peri-urban householder dairy producers were selected randomly with ...

  7. Feasibility study for the European Reliability Data System (ERDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancini, G.

    1980-01-01

    In the framework of the Reactor Safety Programme of the Commission of the European Communities, the JRC - Ispra Establishment has performed a feasibility study for an integrated European Reliability Data System, the aim of which is the collection and organization of information related to the operation of LWRs with regard to component and systems behaviour, abnormal occurrences, outages, etc. Component Event Data Bank (CEGB), Abnormal Occurrences Reporting System, Generic Reliability Parameter Data Bank, Operating Unit Status Reports and the main activities carried out during the last two years are described. The most important achievements are briefly reported, such as: Reference Classification for Systems, Components and Failure Events, Informatic Structure of the Pilot Experiment of the CEDB, Information Retrieval System for Abnormal Occurrences Reports, Data Bank on Component Reliability Parameters, System on the Exchange of Operation Experience of LWRs, Statistical Data Treatment. Finally, the general conclusions of the feasibility study are summarized: the possibility and the usefulness for the creation of an integrated European Reliability Data System are outlined. (author)

  8. Public financing systems for radiology: experience in 12 European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesteloot, K.

    1999-01-01

    This paper illustrates the evolution in public health care financing systems in 12 European countries, in terms of the financing of radiology services. The financing systems for radiology used by public health care financing agencies are described in detail. The implications of these new financing conditions for health care delivery are briefly sketched. The paper concludes with some strategies to help radiologists cope with the tightening financing conditions for medical imaging. (orig.) (orig.)

  9. The 25th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Doležel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This short note reports on my experience from The 25th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS. The conference was titled “Information Systems for a smart, sustainable and inclusive world“, and took place in Guimarães, Portugal in June 2017. I discuss the thematic focus of the conference and its scope. Then I refer about two workshops I attended during the conference.

  10. A Multilayer perspective for the analysis of urban transportation systems

    OpenAIRE

    Aleta, Alberto; Meloni, Sandro; Moreno, Yamir

    2017-01-01

    Public urban mobility systems are composed by several transportation modes connected together. Most studies in urban mobility and planning often ignore the multi-layer nature of transportation systems considering only aggregated versions of this complex scenario. In this work we present a model for the representation of the transportation system of an entire city as a multiplex network. Using two different perspectives, one in which each line is a layer and one in which lines of the same tran...

  11. Towards a Sustainable Urban Metabolism: Algae-to-Energy Systems as Clean Cycles in the Urban Water Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Menger-Krug, Eve

    2013-01-01

    This study includes an analysis of the urban water chain in Germany (water supply, wastewater and sludge management); followed by an analysis of the integration of algae systems on the level of wastewater treatment plants. Then, the scope of the study is extended to put the results in context of the urban metabolism. The relevance of the urban water chain - with and without algae - for the urban energy balance and the urban flows of nutrients and anthropogenic micropollutants is assessed.

  12. Linkages between the Urban Environment and Earth's Climate System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, J. Marshall; Jin, Menglin

    2003-01-01

    Urbanization is one of the extreme cases of land use change. Although currently only 1.2% of the land is considered urban, the spatial coverage and density of cities are expected to rapidly increase in the near future. It is estimated that by the year 2025 60% of the world s population will live in cities (UNFP, 1999). Though urban areas are local in scale, human activity in urban environments has impacts at local, to global scale by changing atmospheric composition; impacting components of the water cycle; and modifying the carbon cycle 2nd ecosystems. For example, urban dwellers are undoubtedly familiar with "high" ozone pollution days, flash flooding in city streets, or heat stress on summer days. However, our understanding of urbanization on the total Earth-climate system is incomplete. Better understanding of how the Earth s weather, oceans, and land work together and the influence of the urban environment on this climate system is critical. This paper highlights some of the major and current issues involving interactions between urban environments and the Earth's climate system. It also captures some of the most current thinking and findings of the authors and key experts in the field.

  13. Rural-Urban Differences in Escape Behavior of European Birds across a Latitudinal Gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo S. M. Samia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral adjustment is a key factor that facilitates species' coexistence with humans in a rapidly urbanizing world. Because urban animals often experience reduced predation risk compared to their rural counterparts, and because escape behavior is energetically costly, we expect that urban environments will select for increased tolerance to humans. Many studies have supported this expectation by demonstrating that urban birds have reduced flight initiation distance (FID = predator-prey distance when escape by the prey begins than rural birds. Here, we advanced this approach and, for the first time, assessed how 32 species of birds, found in 92 paired urban-rural populations, along a 3,900 km latitudinal gradient across Europe, changed their predation risk assessment and escape strategy as a function of living in urban areas. We found that urban birds took longer than rural birds to be alerted to human approaches, and urban birds tolerated closer human approach than rural birds. While both rural and urban populations took longer to become aware of an approaching human as latitude increased, this behavioral change with latitude is more intense in urban birds (for a given unit of latitude, urban birds increased their pre-detection distance more than rural birds. We also found that as mean alert distance was shorter, urban birds escaped more quickly from approaching humans, but there was no such a relationship in rural populations. Although, both rural and urban populations tended to escape more quickly as latitude increased, urban birds delayed their escape more at low latitudes when compared with rural birds. These results suggest that urban birds in Europe live under lower predation risk than their rural counterparts. Furthermore, the patterns found in our study indicate that birds prioritize the reduction of on-going monitoring costs when predation risk is low. We conclude that splitting escape variables into constituent components may provide

  14. SOILS AS REPRESENTATIVE COMPONENT OF URBAN SYSTEM ECOLOGICAL MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yorkina N.V.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Some classifications of city soils together with possibilities of operative tracking of the ecological state of urban system soil cover were considered. Data analysis of complex ecological monitoring of the soil cover was performed towards structural-functional organization of urban system and soils of city principal basic industrial enterprises and territories adjacent to artillery base complex near Novobogdanovka.The use of modern classifications of urban soils allows us to monitor the ecological state of soil of urban system and take proper measures for its optimization. The most representative indicators of the ecological status of soils for urban system are pH and heavy metals. All components of urban system must be considered as integrated structural and functional formation, where the main structural components are the administrative and territorial units - regions, and functional - industrial, residential and recreational areas of the city.Environmental monitoring of the spatial distribution of heavy metals and pH in Melitopol proved their uneven distribution. Most disadvantaged areas were located near highways. The main role in the pollution of the urban Melitopol environment has shifted to the road transport industry due to its significant increase.

  15. Towards Signalling Maintenance Scheduling for European Railway Traffic Management System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    M. Pour, Shahrzad

    The European Railway Traffic Management System (ERTMS) is the newest signalling standard that has been introduced in the railway industry. The aim of ERTMS is to ensure better signalling communication amongst various train systems, and hence, to help in attaining improved connectivity and commuting...... plans for the Danish Railway system, which are useful for the current signalling system based on colour-light signalling and also useful for changing to ERTMS. Considering the maintenance structure of Denmark, which is a decentralised structure, this thesis first presents a pre-phase to the scheduling...

  16. Integrated Urban Wastewater System Data Network - Data network system : Diagnostic Report Cali, Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unesco-IHE

    2008-01-01

    The pressure on the Urban Wastewater Systems (UWwS) increases as urbanization continues relentlessly and climate change appears to lead to more extreme rainfall events. These pressures have a negative effect on the efficiency of UWwS to reduce the urban pollution reaching water-receiving systems.

  17. Influence of urban land cover changes and climate change for the exposure of European cities to flooding during extreme precipitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Per Skougaard; Høegh Ravn, N.; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    In this paper we present a methodology suitable for investigating the relative and combined influence of urban land cover changes and climate change for the exposure of cities to pluvial flooding. A combined hydrological-hydrodynamic modelling and remote sensing approach enables the quantification...... of the flood risk relative to changes in imperviousness and climate change. The methodology is evaluated for the Danish city of Odense, but is easily applicable for the majority of cities within Europe, as it relies on open source data for the European continent. Results from Odense show that urban development...... during the past 30 years caused an increase in flood exposure that is comparable to what is expected in the RCP4.5 (+2°C) climate scenario....

  18. Spatial justice and the translation of European strategic planning ideas in the urban sub-region of south Yorkshire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabinett, Gordon

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses urban planning practices in South Yorkshire to reveal how EU strategic spatial ideas and values are reproduced. Specifically, the paper examines how the notion of spatial justice was interpreted as the organising concepts within the European Spatial Development Perspective became situated within a territory severely affected by deindustrialisation in the 1980s, but subsequently a major beneficiary of EU Structural Fund programmes. The analysis reveals how policy-making at this scale used a construct of polycentric urban development that reasserted a model of economic growth based on the indigenous assets held in city centres at the expense of more redistributive measures targeted at the former coal-mining communities in the sub-region.

  19. Sustainable Urban Agriculture in Ghana: What Governance System Works?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen Bogweh Nchanji

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Urban farming takes advantage of its proximity to market, transport and other urban infrastructure to provide food for the city and sustain the livelihoods of urban and peri-urban dwellers. It is an agricultural activity which employs more than 50% of the local urban population with positive and negative impacts on local and national development. Urban agriculture is an informal activity not supported by law but in practice is regulated to a certain extent by state institutions, traditional rulers, farmers and national and international non-governmental organisations. Tamale’s rapid population growth, exacerbated by the unplanned development system and institutional conflicts, are factors contributing to the present bottlenecks in the urban agricultural system. In this paper, these bottlenecks are conceptualised as problems of governance. These issues will be illustrated using ethnographic data from land sales, crop-livestock competition, waste-water irrigation, and markets. I will explain how conflicts which arise from these different situations are resolved through the interactions of various governance systems. Informal governance arrangements are widespread, but neither they nor formal systems are always successful in resolving governance issues. A participatory governance does not seem possible due to actors’ divergent interests. A governance solution for this sector is not yet apparent, contributing to food and nutritional insecurity.

  20. The impact of climate change on the European energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowling, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Climate change can affect the economy via many different channels in many different sectors. The POLES global energy model has been modified to widen the coverage of climate change impacts on the European energy system. The impacts considered are changes in heating and cooling demand in the residential and services sector, changes in the efficiency of thermal power plants, and changes in hydro, wind (both on- and off-shore) and solar PV electricity output. Results of the impacts of six scenarios on the European energy system are presented, and the implications for European energy security and energy imports are presented. Main findings include: demand side impacts (heating and cooling in the residential and services sector) are larger than supply side impacts; power generation from fossil-fuel and nuclear sources decreases and renewable energy increases; and impacts are larger in Southern Europe than in Northern Europe. There remain many more climate change impacts on the energy sector that cannot currently be captured due to a variety of issues including: lack of climate data, difficulties translating climate data into energy-system-relevant data, lack of detail in energy system models where climate impacts act. This paper does not attempt to provide an exhaustive analysis of climate change impacts in the energy sector, it is rather another step towards an increasing coverage of possible impacts. - Highlights: • Expanded coverage of climate change impacts on European energy system. • Demand side impacts are larger than supply side impacts. • Power from fossil and nuclear sources decreases, renewable energy increases. • Impacts are larger in Southern Europe than in Northern Europe. • Synergies exist between climate change mitigation and climate change adaptation

  1. Geographical constraints are stronger than invasion patterns for European urban floras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricotta, Carlo; Celesti-Grapow, Laura; Kühn, Ingolf; Rapson, Gillian; Pyšek, Petr; La Sorte, Frank A; Thompson, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms that affect invasion success of alien species is an important prerequisite for the effective management of present and future aliens. To gain insight into this matter we asked the following questions: Are the geographical patterns of species distributions in urban floras different for native compared with alien plant species? Does the introduction of alien species contribute to the homogenization of urban floras? We used a Mantel test on Jaccard dissimilarity matrices of 30 urban floras across the British Isles, Italy and central Europe to compare the spatial distribution of native species with four classes of alien species: archaeophytes, all neophytes, non-invasive neophytes, and invasive neophytes. Archaeophytes and neophytes are species that were introduced into Europe before and after 1500 AD, respectively. To analyze the homogenizing effect of alien species on the native urban floras, we tested for differences in the average dissimilarity of individual cities from their group centroid in ordination space. Our results show that the compositional patterns of native and alien species seem to respond to the same environmental drivers, such that all four classes of alien species were significantly related to native species across urban floras. In this framework, alien species may have an impact on biogeographic patterns of urban floras in ways that reflect their history of introduction and expansion: archaeophytes and invasive neophytes tended to homogenize, while non-invasive neophytes tended to differentiate urban floras.

  2. Geographical constraints are stronger than invasion patterns for European urban floras.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Ricotta

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanisms that affect invasion success of alien species is an important prerequisite for the effective management of present and future aliens. To gain insight into this matter we asked the following questions: Are the geographical patterns of species distributions in urban floras different for native compared with alien plant species? Does the introduction of alien species contribute to the homogenization of urban floras? We used a Mantel test on Jaccard dissimilarity matrices of 30 urban floras across the British Isles, Italy and central Europe to compare the spatial distribution of native species with four classes of alien species: archaeophytes, all neophytes, non-invasive neophytes, and invasive neophytes. Archaeophytes and neophytes are species that were introduced into Europe before and after 1500 AD, respectively. To analyze the homogenizing effect of alien species on the native urban floras, we tested for differences in the average dissimilarity of individual cities from their group centroid in ordination space. Our results show that the compositional patterns of native and alien species seem to respond to the same environmental drivers, such that all four classes of alien species were significantly related to native species across urban floras. In this framework, alien species may have an impact on biogeographic patterns of urban floras in ways that reflect their history of introduction and expansion: archaeophytes and invasive neophytes tended to homogenize, while non-invasive neophytes tended to differentiate urban floras.

  3. Recommendations to harmonize European early warning dosimetry network systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowski, H.; Bleher, M.; De Cort, M.; Dabrowski, R.; Neumaier, S.; Stöhlker, U.

    2017-12-01

    After the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986, followed by the Fukushima Nuclear power plant accident 25 years later, it became obvious that real-time information is required to quickly gain radiological information. As a consequence, the European countries established early warning network systems with the aim to provide an immediate warning in case of a major radiological emergency, to supply reliable information on area dose rates, contamination levels, radioactivity concentrations in air and finally to assess public exposure. This is relevant for governmental decisions on intervention measures in an emergency situation. Since different methods are used by national environmental monitoring systems to measure area dose rate values and activity concentrations, there are significant differences in the results provided by different countries. Because European and neighboring countries report area dose rate data to a central data base operated on behalf of the European Commission, the comparability of the data is crucial for its meaningful interpretation, especially in the case of a nuclear accident with transboundary implications. Only by harmonizing measuring methods and data evaluation, is the comparability of the dose rate data ensured. This publication concentrates on technical requirements and methods with the goal to effectively harmonize area dose rate monitoring data provided by automatic early warning network systems. The requirements and procedures laid down in this publication are based on studies within the MetroERM project, taking into account realistic technical approaches and tested procedures.

  4. A systems approach to reduce urban rail energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González-Gil, A.; Palacin, R.; Batty, P.; Powell, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An insightful overview of energy usage in urban rail systems is given. • The principal measures to reduce urban rail energy consumption are appraised. • A methodology is proposed to help implement energy saving schemes in urban rail. • Regenerative braking is shown to offer the greatest energy saving potential. - Abstract: There is increasing interest in the potential of urban rail to reduce the impact of metropolitan transportation due to its high capacity, reliability and absence of local emissions. However, in a context characterised by increasing capacity demands and rising energy costs, and where other transport modes are considerably improving their environmental performance, urban rail must minimise its energy use without affecting its service quality. Urban rail energy consumption is defined by a wide range of interdependent factors; therefore, a system wide perspective is required, rather than focusing on energy savings at subsystem level. This paper contributes to the current literature by proposing an holistic approach to reduce the overall energy consumption of urban rail. Firstly, a general description of this transport mode is given, which includes an assessment of its typical energy breakdown. Secondly, a comprehensive appraisal of the main practices, strategies and technologies currently available to minimise its energy use is provided. These comprise: regenerative braking, energy-efficient driving, traction losses reduction, comfort functions optimisation, energy metering, smart power management and renewable energy micro-generation. Finally, a clear, logical methodology is described to optimally define and implement energy saving schemes in urban rail systems. This includes general guidelines for a qualitative assessment and comparison of measures alongside a discussion on the principal interdependences between them. As a hypothetical example of application, the paper concludes that the energy consumption in existing urban

  5. European Reliability Data System: main developments and use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amesz, J.; Capobianchi, S.; Kalfsbeek, H.W.; Mancini, G.

    1985-01-01

    The paper revises the aims and objectives of the European Reliability Data System (ERDS), a centralized system collecting and organizing information related to the operation of light water reactors. The paper first describes the recent developments of the four data banks constituting the system: Component Event Data Bank, Abnormal Occurrences Reporting System, Operating Unit Status Report and Reliability Parameters Data Bank. Then several issues are discussed referring mostly to the status of classification schemes and their use, to the operation of the banks (data input and transcoding) and to the retrieval and utilization of the information; in this latter case particularly the analysis potential of the data collection scheme of the AORS (Abnormal Occurrences Reporting System) is demonstrated. Finally, emphasis is given to the increasing role which artificial intelligence techniques such as natural language and expert systems and fuzzy logic may play in improving the future capabilities of the system

  6. Current research trend on urban sewerage system in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Yun-Fang; Dong, Wen-Yi; Lin, Lu-Sheng; Zhang, Qian

    2017-03-01

    The research emphasis has always been on sewerage treatment technology in China, though urban drainage system has gained little attention. In the context of urban drainage system and the problem associated with rain, the focus is still mainly toward the simple “emissions”. While the relationship between conservation and utilization of rainwater resources and urban ecology are popular, the relationship between rainwater discharge and non-point source pollution are often neglected. The reasonable choice of sewerage system is dependent on the collection and discharge of urban sewerage, the applicability and economic benefits, along with the ability to meet the water quality requirements and environmental protection. This paper analyzes and summarizes the development of urban drainage system in china, and introduces different drainage forms. The choice of drainage system should be based on the overall planning of the city, environmental protection requirements, the local natural conditions and water conditions, urban sewerage and water quality, the original drainage facilities, and local climatic conditions. It must be comprehensive to meet the environmental protection requirements, through technical and economic comparison.

  7. Improving the profile of the European tourist destinations through the European tourism indicators system

    OpenAIRE

    Laura CISMARU; Ana ISPAS

    2015-01-01

    Within the most recent European Policy for Tourism, the competitiveness of the European tourism industry is directly linked to the image of Europe and to its perception, as a collection of sustainable and high-quality tourist destinations. In such context, improving the profile of the European tourist destinations has become a main target. During the last years, the European Commission focused on the sustainable development of tourist destinations. Several projects were de...

  8. United States-European Commission Urban Freight Twinning Initiative: Compendium of Project Summaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    This compendium is comprised of 33 brief summaries of urban freight initiatives that include research projects, plans, pilot demonstrations, and other efforts. These initiatives were presented at a roundtable discussion that was part of the 2017 Annu...

  9. Geographical constraints are stronger than invasion patterns for European urban floras

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ricotta, C.; Celesti-Grapow, L.; Kühn, I.; Rapson, G.; Pyšek, Petr; La Sorte, F. A.; Thompson, K.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 1 (2014), s. 1-6, e85661 E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : urban floras * plant invasions * Europe Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2014

  10. Metro as an example of an urban rail system. Four case studies from Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna FRASZCZYK

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Underground, tube, subway or metro are common expressions used to describe a rapid transit system serving urban areas. Such a system uses dedicated rail corridors, can run underground or overground, and often includes tunnels and viaducts. Although there are 148 cities in the world with metro systems, each system is different, in terms of layout, length, capacity, etc., as it serves different geographical and socio-economical areas. In this context, the paper presents four European metro systems (Sofia, Warsaw, Lisbon, and Tyne and Wear, introduces the systems dimensions, rolling stock and ticketing strategies and compares similarities and differences between the systems. The analyses suggest a number of recommendations and improvements, which if implemented, could benefit other metro systems in Europe and beyond.

  11. Geographical Constraints Are Stronger than Invasion Patterns for European Urban Floras

    OpenAIRE

    Ricotta, Carlo; Celesti-Grapow, Laura; Kühn, Ingolf; Rapson, Gillian; Pyšek, Petr; La Sorte, Frank A.; Thompson, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms that affect invasion success of alien species is an important prerequisite for the effective management of present and future aliens. To gain insight into this matter we asked the following questions: Are the geographical patterns of species distributions in urban floras different for native compared with alien plant species? Does the introduction of alien species contribute to the homogenization of urban floras? We used a Mantel test on Jaccard dissimilarity matr...

  12. Urban Heat Island Versus Air Quality - a Numerical Modelling Study for a European City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallmann, J.; Forkel, R.; Emeis, S.

    2014-12-01

    In 2050 70% of the global population is expected to live in urban areas. Climate change will render these areas more vulnerable to heat waves, which often are accompanied by severe air pollution problems. The Urban Heat Island (UHI) is a feature that adds to the general temperature increase that is expected. Decreasing the UHI can impact air quality as well, because heat influences atmospheric dynamics and accelerates air chemical processes and often also increases the emission of primary pollutants due to increased demand of energy. The goal of this study is to investigate the effect of, e.g., high reflective surfaces and urban greening on mitigating the UHI and the related impact on air quality. A multi-layer urban canopy model is coupled to the mesoscale model WRF-Chem and the urban area of Stuttgart (South-West Germany) is taken as one example. Different scenario runs are executed for short time periods and are compared to a control run. The results show that the UHI effect can be substantially reduced when changing the albedo of roof surfaces, whereas the effect of urban greening is minor. Both scenarios have in common, that they evoke changes in secondary circulation patterns. The effects of these mitigation strategies on chemical composition of the urban atmosphere are complex, attributed to both chemical and dynamical features. Increasing the reflectivity of roof surfaces in the model results in a net decrease of the surface ozone concentration, because ozone formation is highly correlated to temperature. With regard to primary pollutants, e.g. NO, CO and PM10 concentrations are increased when increasing reflectivity. This effect primarily can be ascribed to a reduction of turbulent motion, convection and a decrease of the boundary layer height, coming along with lower temperatures in the urban canopy layer due to increased reflectivity. The table below shows the effect on grid cell mean concentrations for different chemical species and scenarios.

  13. Urban Fluxes Monitoring and Development of Planning Strategies to Reduce Ghg Emissions in AN European City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marras, S.; Sirca, C.; Bellucco, V.; Falk, M.; Pyles, R. D.; Snyder, R. L.; Paw U, K.; Duce, P.; Blecic, I.; Trunfio, G. A.; Cecchini, A.; Spano, D.

    2013-12-01

    Cities and human settlements in general are a primary source of emissions that contribute to human-induced climate change. To investigate the impact of an urbanized area on urban metabolism components, an eddy covariance (EC) tower will be set up in a city (Sassari) located in the center of the Mediterranean basin (Sardinia, Italy). The EC tower, as well as a meteorological station and radiometers, will be set up to monitor energy, water, and carbon fluxes in the city center. A GHG emissions inventory will be also compiled to identify the main emission sources. In addition, a modeling framework will be used to study the impact of different urban planning strategies on carbon emission rates. The modeling framework consists of four models to analyze fluxes both at local and municipality scale: (i) a land surface model ACASA (Advanced Canopy-Atmosphere-Soil Algorithm, ACASA) to simulate the urban metabolism components at local scale; (ii) a Cellular Automata model to simulate the urban land-use dynamics in the near future (20-30 years); (iii) a transportation model to estimate the variation of the transportation network load, and (iv) the coupled model WRF-ACASA will be finally used to simulate the urban metabolism components at municipality scale. The participation of local stakeholders will allow the definition of future planning strategies with the aim to identify low carbon emissions strategies. The projects activities, methodologies applied, as well as the preliminary results will be reported here.

  14. Ultrasonic Sensors in Urban Traffic Driving-Aid Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa de Pedro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, vehicles are often equipped with active safety systems to reduce the risk of accidents, most of which occur in urban environments. The most prominent include Antilock Braking Systems (ABS, Traction Control and Stability Control. All these systems use different kinds of sensors to constantly monitor the conditions of the vehicle, and act in an emergency. In this paper the use of ultrasonic sensors in active safety systems for urban traffic is proposed, and the advantages and disadvantages when compared to other sensors are discussed. Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC for urban traffic based on ultrasounds is presented as an application example. The proposed system has been implemented in a fully-automated prototype vehicle and has been tested under real traffic conditions. The results confirm the good performance of ultrasonic sensors in these systems.

  15. The National System for quality control and the European experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimov, A.; Vassileva, J.; Ingilizova, K.; Slavchev, A. and others

    2003-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the work is to present the structure and functions of the National System for quality control (NSQC) in the medical irradiation, created to guarantee the safety and the safe use of the radiological equipment. Material and method: The approaches are studies in the development of the NSQC, applied in Bulgaria and some European Union members - such as Germany and Great Britain - and the specifics of the way in which the Directive for medical irradiation EURATOM 97/43 is implemented in national legislations. Results: The advantages and disadvantages of Bulgarian NSQC are analysed and some ideas for tis improvement are suggested. Conclusions: The developed draft NSQC for medical irradiation is in compliance with the requirement of the European Directive. The real advantages and disadvantages of the NSQC will show after its implementation in the practical radiation protection and control in the country

  16. Urban Water Innovation Network (UWIN): Transitioning Toward Sustainbale Urban Water Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabi, M.

    2015-12-01

    City water systems are at risk of disruption from global social and environmental hazards, which could have deleterious effects on human health, property, and loss of critical infrastructure. The Urban Water Innovation Network (UWIN), a consortium of 14 academic institutions and other key partners across the U.S., is working to address challenges that threaten urban water systems across the nation. UWIN's mission is to create technological, institutional and management solutions to help communities increase the resilience of their water systems and enhance their preparedness for responding to water crisis. The network seeks solutions that achieve widespread adoption consistent with inclusive, equitable and sustainable urban development. The integrative and adaptive analysis framework of UWIN is presented. The framework identifies a toolbox of sustainable solutions by simultaneously minimizing pressures, enhancing resilience to extreme events, and maximizing cobenefits. The benefits of sustainable urban water solutions for linked urban ecosystems, economies, and arrangements for environmental justice and social equity, will be discussed. The network encompasses six U.S. regions with varying ecohydrologic and climatic regimes ranging from the coastal moist mid-latitude climates of the Mid-Atlantic to the subtropical semi-arid deserts of the Southwest. These regions also represent a wide spectrum of demographic, cultural, and policy settings. The opportunities for cross-site assessments that facilitate the exploration of locally appropriate solutions across regions undergoing various development trajectories will be discussed.

  17. Policy Options for the Improvement of the European Patent System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen; Cowin, Robin; Van de Eijck, Wim

    2007-01-01

    , the Working Group recognizes that the protection and enforcement of the rights of inventors through the patent system must be done in a manner to stimulate innovation and the diffusion of knowledge. In order to propose meaningful policy options that meet these objectives as much as possible, the evidence put...... these and the other challenges identified in the report. Instead, the Working Group believes a package of interrelated options is more suitable. This reflects the intricacy of the policy situation and mirrors the many connected and complex fields involved. For instance, the workings of the European patent system...

  18. The European Drought Observatory (EDO) - A European Contribution to a Global Drought Information System (GDIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, J.; Sepulcre, G.; De Jager, A.; Magni, D.; Valentini, L.; Russo, S.; Micale, F.; Barbosa, P.

    2013-12-01

    Europe has repeatedly been affected by droughts, resulting in considerable ecological and economic damage and climate change studies indicate a trend towards increasing climate variability most likely resulting in more frequent drought occurrences also in Europe. Against this background, the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC) is developing methods and tools for assessing, monitoring and forecasting droughts in Europe and develops a European Drought Observatory (EDO) to complement and integrate national activities with a European view. At the core of EDO is a portal, including a map viewer, a metadata catalogue, a media-monitor and analysis tools. Underlying data stem from ground and satellite observations as well as from distributed hydrological models and are stored in a relational database. Through the map viewer Europe-wide up-to-date information on the occurrence and severity of droughts is presented, complemented by more detailed information from regional, national and local observatories through OGC compliant web-mapping services. The continent-wide meteorological, soil moisture-related and vegetation-related indicators are then integrated into a combined indicator showing different alert levels targeted specifically to decision makers in water and land management. Finally, time series of historical maps as well as graphs of the temporal evolution of drought indices for individual grid cells in Europe can be retrieved and analysed. On-going work is focusing on developing reliable medium and long-range probabilistic as well as seasonal drought forecasts, the analysis of climate change impacts on drought occurrence, duration and severity and the assessment of current and future drought hazard and risk. In addition, remote sensing-based water-stress indicators from geostationary satellite data (e.g., MSG SEVIRI) are developed in order to complement the available information. The further development of EDO as part of a Global Drought Information

  19. Assessment of forest fire impacts and emissions in the European Union based on the European forest fire information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulo Barbosa; Andrea Camia; Jan Kucera; Giorgio Libertá; Ilaria Palumbo; Jesus San-Miguel-Ayanz; Guido Schmuck

    2009-01-01

    An analysis on the number of forest fires and burned area distribution as retrieved by the European Forest Fire Information System (EFFIS) database is presented. On average, from 2000 to 2005 about...

  20. Parametric urban design : An interactive sketching system for shaping neighborhoods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beirao, J.N.; Nourian Ghadi Kolaee, P.; Mashhoodi, B.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we show the structure of an urban design parametric system. The system is dynamic and builds an interactive relation with the designer updating the layout and related data at each input change. The responsiveness of the system allows the designer to gain awareness on the qualitative

  1. Social Justice and Capacity for Self-Development in Educational Systems in European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bo-Ruey

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores social justice and equity in educational policies and systems in the European Union, and analyzes the significance within. Equity indicators of the European educational systems, "Equity of the European Educational Systems: A set of indicators" declared in 2006, introduces the debates on educational justice issues on…

  2. A Review of Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems Considering the Climate Change and Urbanization Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianqian Zhou

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and urbanization are converging to challenge city drainage infrastructure due to their adverse impacts on precipitation extremes and the environment of urban areas. Sustainable drainage systems have gained growing public interest in recent years, as a result of its positive effects on water quality and quantity issues and additional recreational amenities perceived in the urban landscape. This paper reviews recent progress in sustainable drainage development based on literature across different disciplinary fields. After presenting the key elements and criteria of sustainable drainage design, various devices and examples of sustainable drainage systems are introduced. The state-of-the-art model approaches and decision-aid tools for assessing the sustainable alternatives are discussed and compared. The paper further explores some limitations and difficulties in the application of the innovative solutions and suggests an integrated and trans-disciplinary approach for sustainable drainage design.

  3. Information technology law and health systems in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossialos, Elias; Thomson, Sarah; Ter Linden, Annemarie

    2004-01-01

    This study aims to examine the impact of European Union (EU) law relating to information technology (IT) on health systems. The study identifies EU directives relating to IT, analyzes them in terms of their impact on the use of IT in health systems, and outlines their implications for health technology assessment (HTA). Analysis is based on a review of literature identified through relevant databases and Internet searches. Developments in IT have serious implications for EU health systems, presenting policy makers with new challenges. The European Commission has adopted a range of legal measures to protect consumers in the "information society" However, as few of them are health-specific, it is not evident that they have implications for health, health systems, or HTA, and they may not be effective in protecting consumers in the health sector. In light of the growing importance of IT in the health sector, legal and nonlegal measures need to be further developed at EU and international level. Where possible, future initiatives should pay attention to the particular characteristics of health goods and services and health systems. Although definitions of HTA usually recognize the importance of evaluating both the indirect, unintended consequences of health technologies and the legal aspects of their application, it seems that, in practice, HTA often overlooks or underestimates legislative matters. Those involved in HTA should be aware of the legal implications of using IT to provide health goods and services and compile, store, transfer, and disseminate health information electronically.

  4. Policy Options for the Improvement of the European Patent System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen; Cowin, Robin; Van de Eijck, Wim

    2007-01-01

    challenge identified is that new subject matter and science-based inventions are making it harder for examiners to accurately assess patentability requirements. And this may mean that undesirably broad rights are being granted in emerging technologies. No single all-embracing policy strategy is able to meet......The present report is based on an independent, policy-oriented investigation of the current European patent system. The central premise of the report is that the patent system has so far been a positive factor in promoting innovation and the diffusion of knowledge, and thus that the system...... is contributing in a constructive way to economic and social welfare objectives. In acknowledging the importance of the patent system in relation to many aspects of society, it is also essential to continually evaluate whether the system is working as effectively as it could be. In addition, because of some...

  5. Urban scaling in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettencourt, Luís M. A.; Lobo, José

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few decades, in disciplines as diverse as economics, geography and complex systems, a perspective has arisen proposing that many properties of cities are quantitatively predictable due to agglomeration or scaling effects. Using new harmonized definitions for functional urban areas, we examine to what extent these ideas apply to European cities. We show that while most large urban systems in Western Europe (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, UK) approximately agree with theoretical expectations, the small number of cities in each nation and their natural variability preclude drawing strong conclusions. We demonstrate how this problem can be overcome so that cities from different urban systems can be pooled together to construct larger datasets. This leads to a simple statistical procedure to identify urban scaling relations, which then clearly emerge as a property of European cities. We compare the predictions of urban scaling to Zipf's law for the size distribution of cities and show that while the former holds well the latter is a poor descriptor of European cities. We conclude with scenarios for the size and properties of future pan-European megacities and their implications for the economic productivity, technological sophistication and regional inequalities of an integrated European urban system. PMID:26984190

  6. Integrated management of water resources in urban water system: Water Sensitive Urban Development as a strategic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Joaquín Suárez López

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The urban environment has to be concerned with the integrated water resources management, which necessarily includes the concept of basin unity and governance.  The traditional urban water cycle framework, which includes water supply, sewerage and wastewater treatment services, is being replaced by a holistic and systemic concept, where water is associated with urbanism and sustainability policies. This global point of view cannot be ignored as new regulations demand systemic and environmental approaches to the administrations, for instance, in the management of urban drainage and sewerage systems. The practical expression of this whole cluster interactions is beginning to take shape in several countries, with the definition of Low Impact Development and Water Sensitivity Urban Design concepts. Intends to integrate this new strategic approach under the name: “Water Sensitive Urban Development” (WSUD. With WSUD approach, the current urban water systems (originally conceived under the traditional concept of urban water cycle can be transformed, conceptual and physically, for an integrated management of the urban water system in new models of sustainable urban development. A WSUD implementing new approach to the management of pollution associated with stormwater in the urban water system is also presented, including advances in environmental regulations and incorporation of several techniques in Spain.

  7. The European standard series in 9 European countries, 2002/2003 -- first results of the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uter, W; Hegewald, J; Aberer, W

    2005-01-01

    Since January 2001, the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA), supported by European Union funding (contract QLK4-CT-2001-00343), has started to collect patch-test data. This comprises a standardized clinical history and the patch-test results using the European standard series...... observed. The prevalence of contact allergy to Myroxylon pereirae resin (balsam of Peru) (5.8%) is coming close to the frequency found with the fragrance mix (6.4%). Regarding contact allergy to chromium compounds, different frequencies were noted in the 2 centres focused on occupational dermatitis (2...

  8. Evolution of traffic emissions in European urban areas: Milan case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giugliano, M.; Cemin, A.; Cernuschi, S.

    1992-01-01

    The worldwide increasing role of mobile sources on the air quality of urban areas requires a careful evaluation of all the potential intervention policies for the reduction of traffic related emissions. The accurate description of the evolution of the source, following the renewal of the fleet with vehicles regulated by stricter emission standards, represents the basic premise for this evaluation. This paper outlines a proposed methodology for the evaluation of the trend of mobile source emissions, implemented on the calculation program EMISMOB, and reports the results obtained with its application to predict the evolution of traffic emissions in the urban area of Milan (Italy) until the year 2010

  9. The farming system component of European agricultural landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Erling

    2017-01-01

    Agricultural landscapes are the outcome of combined natural and human factors over time. This paper explores the scope of perceiving the agricultural landscapes of the European Union (EU) as distinct patterns of farming systems and landscape elements in homogeneous biophysical and administrative...... endowments. The focus is on the farming systems component of the agricultural landscapes by applying a typology to the sample farms of the Farm Accountancy Data Network and scaling up the results to the landscape level for the territory of the EU. The farming system approach emphasises that agricultural...... landscapes evolve from the praxis of the farmers and takes into account the scale, intensity and specialisation of the agricultural production. From farming system design point of view, the approach can be used to integrate the landscape in the design process. From a policy point of view, the approach offers...

  10. Common cause failure investigations using the European Reliability Data System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Games, A.M.; Breewood, M.; Amendola, A.; Keller, A.Z.

    1984-01-01

    The European Reliability Data System (ERDS) has provided data for use in investigations into common cause failures (CCFs) in nuclear power plants. These investigations have been made on two levels, at a system and inter-system level. Data have been used from the Component Event Data Bank and from the Licensee Event Report Files, both part of the ERDS. The two studies required different methodologies although both commenced with a temporal sorting procedure for the failure events. The studies demonstrated that different types of common cause failure necessitate different search algorithms, and thus a data search must be closely related to an appropriate CCF classification system, which in the first instance would not be based on causes of failure. (author)

  11. Spatial inter-comparison of Top-down emission inventories in European urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombetti, Marco; Thunis, Philippe; Bessagnet, Bertrand; Clappier, Alain; Couvidat, Florian; Guevara, Marc; Kuenen, Jeroen; López-Aparicio, Susana

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents an inter-comparison of the main Top-down emission inventories currently used for air quality modelling studies at the European level. The comparison is developed for eleven European cities and compares the distribution of emissions of NOx, SO2, VOC and PPM2.5 from the road transport, residential combustion and industry sectors. The analysis shows that substantial differences in terms of total emissions, sectorial emission shares and spatial distribution exist between the datasets. The possible reasons in terms of downscaling approaches and choice of spatial proxies are analysed and recommendations are provided for each inventory in order to work towards the harmonisation of spatial downscaling and proxy calibration, in particular for policy purposes. The proposed methodology may be useful for the development of consistent and harmonised European-wide inventories with the aim of reducing the uncertainties in air quality modelling activities.

  12. Optimized Bunch Compression System for the European XFEL

    CERN Document Server

    Limberg, Torsten; Brinkmann, Reinhard; Decking, Winfried; Dohlus, Martin; Flöettmann, Klaus; Kim, Yujong; Schneidmiller, Evgeny

    2005-01-01

    The European XFEL bunch compressor system has been optimized for greater flexibility in parameter space. Operation beyond the XFEL design parameters is discussed in two directions: achieving the uppermost number of photons in a single pulse on one hand and reaching the necessary peak current for lasing with a pulse as short as possible on the other. Results of start-to-end calculations including 3D-CSR effects, space charge forces and the impact on wake fields demonstrate the potential of the XFEL for further improvement or, respectively, its safety margin for operation at design values.

  13. Airline emissions of carbon dioxide in the European trading system

    OpenAIRE

    John FitzGerald; Richard S. J. Tol

    2007-01-01

    A simulation model of international tourist flows is used to estimate the impact of including carbon dioxide emissions from aviation fuels in the European Trading System. The effect on global carbon dioxide emissions from international aviation is minimal: -0.01% at current permit prices, and ?0.13% for the aggressive climate policy advocated by the Stern Review. In the latter case, total CO2 emissions from fossil fuels would fall by 0.004%, and total greenhouse gas emissions by 0.002%. Touri...

  14. PHOTOCITYTEX - A LIFE project on the air pollution treatment in European urban environments by means of photocatalytic textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ródenas, Milagros; Fages, Eduardo; Fatarella, Enrico; Herrero, David; Castagnoli, Lidia; Borrás, Esther; Vera, Teresa; Gómez, Tatiana; Carreño, Javier; López, Ramón; Gimeno, Cristina; Catota, Marlon; Muñoz, Amalia

    2016-04-01

    In urban areas, air pollution from traffic is becoming a growing problem. In recent years the use of titanium dioxide (TiO2) based photocatalytic self-cleaning and de-polluting materials has been considered to remove these pollutants. TiO2 is now commercially available and used in construction material or paints for environmental purposes. Further work, however, is still required to clarify the potential impacts from wider TiO2 use. Specific test conditions are required to provide objective and accurate knowledge. Under the LIFE PHOTOCITYTEX project, the effectiveness of using TiO2-based photocatalytic nanomaterials in building textiles as a way of improving the air quality in urban areas will be assessed. Moreover, information on secondary products formed during the tests will be obtained, yielding a better overall understanding of the whole process and its implications. For this purpose, a series of demonstrations are foreseen, comprising 1. lab-test and development of textile prototypes at lab scale, 2. larger scale demonstration of the use of photocatalytic textiles in the depollution of urban environments employing the EUPHORE chambers to simulate a number of environmental conditions of various European cities and 3. field demonstrations installing the photocatalytic textiles in two urban locations in Quart de Poblet, a tunnel and a school. A one-year extensive passive dosimetric campaign has already being carried out to characterize the selected urban sites before the installation of the photocatalytic textile prototypes, and a similar campaign after their installation is ongoing. Also, more comprehensive intensive active measurement campaigns have been conducted to account for winter and summer conditions. In parallel, lab-tests have already been completed to determine optimal photocatalytic formulations on textiles, followed by experiments at EUPHORE. Information on the deployment of the campaigns is given together with laboratory conclusions and first

  15. Phylogenetic beta diversity of native and alien species in European urban floras

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ricotta, C.; La Sorte, F. A.; Pyšek, Petr; Rapson, G. L.; Celesti-Grapow, L.; Thompson, K.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 7 (2012), s. 751-759 ISSN 1466-822X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : phylogenetic beta diversity * urban floras * plant invasions Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 7.223, year: 2012

  16. Spatio-temporal variance and meteorological drivers of the urban heat island in a European city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnds, Daniela; Böhner, Jürgen; Bechtel, Benjamin

    2017-04-01

    Urban areas are especially vulnerable to high temperatures, which will intensify in the future due to climate change. Therefore, both good knowledge about the local urban climate as well as simple and robust methods for its projection are needed. This study has analysed the spatio-temporal variance of the mean nocturnal urban heat island (UHI) of Hamburg, with observations from 40 stations from different suppliers. The UHI showed a radial gradient with about 2 K in the centre mostly corresponding to the urban densities. Temporarily, it has a strong seasonal cycle with the highest values between April and September and an inter-annual variability of approximately 0.5 K. Further, synoptic meteorological drivers of the UHI were analysed, which generally is most pronounced under calm and cloud-free conditions. Considered were meteorological parameters such as relative humidity, wind speed, cloud cover and objective weather types. For the stations with the highest UHI intensities, up to 68.7 % of the variance could be explained by seasonal empirical models and even up to 76.6 % by monthly models.

  17. Distance decay of similarity among European urban floras: the impact of anthropogenic activities on beta diversity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    La Sorte, F. A.; McKinney, M. L.; Pyšek, Petr; Klotz, S.; Rapson, G. L.; Celesti-Grapow, L.; Thompson, K.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 3 (2008), s. 363-371 ISSN 1466-822X Grant - others:DAISIE(XE) SSPI-CT-2003-511202 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : urban floras * biotic homogenization * beta diversity Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 5.304, year: 2008

  18. Reuse and Upcycling of Municipal Waste for ZEB Envelope Design in European Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Pennacchia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Building energy efficiency and urban waste management are two focal issues for improving environmental status and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The main aim of this paper is to compare economic costs of new building envelope structures designed by authors reusing and upcycling municipal waste in order to decrease energy demand from the building sector and, at the same time, improve eco-friendly waste management at the local scale. The reuse of waste for building envelope structures is one of the main principles of the Earthship buildings model, based on the use of passive solar principles in autonomous earth-sheltered homes. This Earthship principle has been analyzed in order to optimize buildings’ energy performance and reuse municipal waste for new building envelope structures in urban areas. Indeed, the elaborated structures have been designed for urban contexts, with the aim of reuse waste coming from surrounding landfills. The methods include an analysis of thermal performance of urban waste for designing new building envelope structures realized by assembling waste and isolating materials not foreseen in Earthship buildings. The reused materials are: cardboard tubes, automobile tires, wood pallets, and plastic and glass bottles. Finally, comparing economic costs of these new building envelope structures, the obtained results highlight their economic feasibility compared to a traditional structure with similar thermal transmittance.

  19. CAPITALISM EMERGING ERA TAX SYSTEMS OF THE EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsokova Viktoria Aleksandrovna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Three phases should be distinguished in the development of tax systems: I. The Ancient World and Middle Ages (from the IV - III centuries. BC. till. XVII - XVIII centuries AD. II. The new time (from the XVII - XVIII centuries till the end of XIX century. - the era of the emerging capitalism. III. Modern History (from the XX century and up to the present time. The capitalism emerging era scientific ideas and tax systems research relevance (importance is caused by the emergence of the main distinct characteristics of any state, that is by the permanently increasing demand of that institution for money. This fact, in its turn, contributes to the formation of the state tax system, and, of course, the evolution of scientific views on taxation. Nowadays, some theoretical ideas in the field of taxation, clarifying the nature and the role of taxes in the European countries budget formation begin to appear in Europe, especially in the UK. The development of tax systems in England, France and Germany have been analyzed; and , basing on the dialectical, historical and logical approaches, and the method of scientific abstraction, the authors identify the following common features of the capitalism emerging era tax systems in the European countries: the taxation on a regular (permanent basis, the expansion of the tax-payers range – all citizens of the state are becoming tax payers, the introduction of the income tax and the abolishment of the revenue leasing – creation of government agencies system responsible for the administration of taxes, to establishing and collecting taxes only with the Parliament approval and permission. Classical theoretical and practical approaches to creation of tax systems of the states have been formulated in Europe in the era of nascent capitalism and they haven’t lost the relevance yet.

  20. Understanding regional metabolism for a sustainable development of urban systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccini, P

    1996-06-01

    Cities are the most complex forms of settlements which man has built in the course of his cultural development. Their "metabolism" is connected with the world economy and is run mainly by fossil energy carriers. Up to now there are no validated models for the evaluation of a sustainable development of urban regions.The guidelines for a "sustainable development" suggest the reduction of resource consumption. The article is concerned with the problem of how the "sustainable-development concept" can be transformed from a global to a regional scale. In urban settlements the strategy of final storage should be applied. By this, the subsystem waste management can be transformed within 10 to 15 years to a "sustainable status".With regard to the system "agronomy", the article concludes that agriculture in urban systems should focus on food production instead of promoting reduction of food production in favour of energy plants, which is not a suitable strategy.The main problems are the energy carriers. Transformation to a "sustainble status" is only possible by a reconstruction of the urban system, i.e. of buildings and the transportation network. The rate determining step in achieving such a status is the change in the fabric of buildings and in the type of transportation networks. The reconstruction of an urban system needs, mainly for economical reasons, a time period of two generations.

  1. Sustainable urban systems: Co-design and framing for transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Robert; Bai, Xuemei; Smith, Mark Stafford; Costanza, Robert; Griggs, David; Moglia, Magnus; Neuman, Michael; Newman, Peter; Newton, Peter; Norman, Barbara; Ryan, Chris; Schandl, Heinz; Steffen, Will; Tapper, Nigel; Thomson, Giles

    2018-02-01

    Rapid urbanisation generates risks and opportunities for sustainable development. Urban policy and decision makers are challenged by the complexity of cities as social-ecological-technical systems. Consequently there is an increasing need for collaborative knowledge development that supports a whole-of-system view, and transformational change at multiple scales. Such holistic urban approaches are rare in practice. A co-design process involving researchers, practitioners and other stakeholders, has progressed such an approach in the Australian context, aiming to also contribute to international knowledge development and sharing. This process has generated three outputs: (1) a shared framework to support more systematic knowledge development and use, (2) identification of barriers that create a gap between stated urban goals and actual practice, and (3) identification of strategic focal areas to address this gap. Developing integrated strategies at broader urban scales is seen as the most pressing need. The knowledge framework adopts a systems perspective that incorporates the many urban trade-offs and synergies revealed by a systems view. Broader implications are drawn for policy and decision makers, for researchers and for a shared forward agenda.

  2. Greenhouse gas emissions from integrated urban drainage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mannina, Giorgio; Butler, David; Benedetti, Lorenzo

    2018-01-01

    As sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, integrated urban drainage systems (IUDSs) (i.e., sewer systems, wastewater treatment plants and receiving water bodies) contribute to climate change. This paper, produced by the International Working Group on Data and Models, which works under the IWA...

  3. Urban Typologies: Towards an ORNL Urban Information System (UrbIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    KC, B.; King, A. W.; Sorokine, A.; Crow, M. C.; Devarakonda, R.; Hilbert, N. L.; Karthik, R.; Patlolla, D.; Surendran Nair, S.

    2016-12-01

    Urban environments differ in a large number of key attributes; these include infrastructure, morphology, demography, and economic and social variables, among others. These attributes determine many urban properties such as energy and water consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, air quality, public health, sustainability, and vulnerability and resilience to climate change. Characterization of urban environments by a single property such as population size does not sufficiently capture this complexity. In addressing this multivariate complexity one typically faces such problems as disparate and scattered data, challenges of big data management, spatial searching, insufficient computational capacity for data-driven analysis and modelling, and the lack of tools to quickly visualize the data and compare the analytical results across different cities and regions. We have begun the development of an Urban Information System (UrbIS) to address these issues, one that embraces the multivariate "big data" of urban areas and their environments across the United States utilizing the Big Data as a Service (BDaaS) concept. With technological roots in High-performance Computing (HPC), BDaaS is based on the idea of outsourcing computations to different computing paradigms, scalable to super-computers. UrbIS aims to incorporate federated metadata search, integrated modeling and analysis, and geovisualization into a single seamless workflow. The system includes web-based 2D/3D visualization with an iGlobe interface, fast cloud-based and server-side data processing and analysis, and a metadata search engine based on the Mercury data search system developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Results of analyses will be made available through web services. We are implementing UrbIS in ORNL's Compute and Data Environment for Science (CADES) and are leveraging ORNL experience in complex data and geospatial projects. The development of UrbIS is being guided by an investigation of

  4. Transfer of glyphosate and its degradate AMPA to surface waters through urban sewerage systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botta, Fabrizio; Lavison, Gwenaëlle; Couturier, Guillaume; Alliot, Fabrice; Moreau-Guigon, Elodie; Fauchon, Nils; Guery, Bénédicte; Chevreuil, Marc; Blanchoud, Hélène

    2009-09-01

    A study of glyphosate and aminomethyl phosphonic acid (AMPA) transfer in the Orge watershed (France) was carried out during 2007 and 2008. Water samples were collected in surface water, wastewater sewer, storm sewer and wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). These two molecules appeared to be the most frequently detected ones in the rivers and usually exceeded the European quality standard concentrations of 0.1microg L(-1) for drinking water. The annual glyphosate estimated load was 1.9 kg year(-1) upstream (agricultural zone) and 179.5 kg year(-1) at the catchment outlet (urban zone). This result suggests that the contamination of this basin by glyphosate is essentially from urban origin (road and railway applications). Glyphosate reached surface water prevalently through storm sewer during rainfall event. Maximum concentrations were detected in storm sewer just after a rainfall event (75-90 microg L(-1)). High concentrations of glyphosate in surface water during rainfall events reflected urban runoff impact. AMPA was always detected in the sewerage system. This molecule reached surface water mainly via WWTP effluent and also through storm sewer. Variations in concentrations of AMPA during hydrological episodes were minor compared to glyphosate variations. Our study highlights that AMPA and glyphosate origins in urban area are different. During dry period, detergent degradation seemed to be the major AMPA source in wastewater.

  5. Position of the European Union in the Global Trade System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovićević Mladen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Only a few decades ago, the main drivers of globalization were the exchange of goods and capital flows, while the global trading system of today, fuelled by rapid technological changes increasingly bases itself on knowledge. The Key events - such as the use of the Internet and the increasingly important role of the rising countries economies - have contributed to a faster global exchange, but to a new nature as well. In order to illustrate the scope of the increase, perhaps it would be the best to mention the fact that in the 1970’s the share of trade in the world GDP amounted to 20%, whereas today it makes about one half. On the other hand, modern products represent compounds of raw materials, components, technologies and services originating from different areas and different continents, which has globalized the products themselves. In such conditions of the market competition, imposed by globalization and liberalization, for the European Union to remain as a leader, it had to prepare a sound and well-founded foreign policy strategy. The aim of this paper is to analyse the current position of the European Union in the global trading system, instruments of foreign trade policy, goals, foreign trade and the main challenges placed before the Union.

  6. APPROACHES TO THE ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION OF URBAN TOURISM SYSTEM WITHIN URBAN DESTINATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia BĂDIŢĂ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The city is an area that has a complex functionality which is based on the utility of its zones that imprint a quality of life and a specificity to the place, but it is also based on the architectural aesthetics which determines a local lifestyle and a potential which can be exploited through tourist activities. The study aims to identify the characteristics of the urban tourism and the elements of an urban tourism system, which will be approached by identifying the city-breaker profile, the relation between turisticity and urbanity to determine the quality of places. These elements will be applied as a case study in Craiova, a mixed industrial and services economical profile city, with a low tourism function. This type of city has an urban tourism system which starts to take shape, and according to the theory of "overlapping cities" although there are many forms of tourism in a city (cultural, business, shopping, sports tourism, visiting relatives and friends and recreational tourism, Craiova focuses on the typology of the city for festivals, business, leisure and sport, as a strategy for the tourism sector development and for entering the tourism market of Romania.

  7. MUWS (Microbiology in Urban Water Systems – an interdisciplinary approach to study microbial communities in urban water systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Deines

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Microbiology in Urban Water Systems (MUWS is an integrated project, which aims to characterize the microorganisms found in both potable water distribution systems and sewer networks. These large infrastructure systems have a major impact on our quality of life, and despite the importance of these systems as major components of the water cycle, little is known about their microbial ecology. Potable water distribution systems and sewer networks are both large, highly interconnected, dynamic, subject to time and varying inputs and demands, and difficult to control. Their performance also faces increasing loading due to increasing urbanization and longer-term environmental changes. Therefore, understanding the link between microbial ecology and any potential impacts on short or long-term engineering performance within urban water infrastructure systems is important. By combining the strengths and research expertise of civil-, biochemical engineers and molecular microbial ecologists, we ultimately aim to link microbial community abundance, diversity and function to physical and engineering variables so that novel insights into the performance and management of both water distribution systems and sewer networks can be explored. By presenting the details and principals behind the molecular microbiological techniques that we use, this paper demonstrates the potential of an integrated approach to better understand how urban water system function, and so meet future challenges.

  8. Does the creative economy provide a sustainable urban form?: Some European experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajić-Brković Milica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Three urban redevelopment projects recently undertaken in Europe-Ria 2000 in Bilbao, Spain; Emscher Park in Germany; and Gasometer in Vienna, Austria, are presented and discussed in the paper. All three innovate on three independent levels culture, economy and urban organization, and provide high quality places to assist their cities and regions to cope with a global competitive environment. All three were also designed to represent the best of the sustainable practice in Europe at the time. In the same time, the basic philosophy of all three is deeply rooted in creative economies and elaborate their basis principles. The paper explores their design solution in order to identify the points where creative industries and sustainability meet, and investigates if, and to what extent, they comply with the principles of sustainability. Urban design and physical space are in focus, while other areas are considered as long as they contribute to the design, or reflect a credo that architecture and urban design are among those that play a central role in building cities' reputation and character. The author argues that all three materialized some of the basic principles of sustainability, by elaborating ideas of genius loci and the relationship between identity and locality. Emscher Park has been the most successful in demonstrating how the Brownfield site and devastated area could be transformed into the cultural landscape. Ria 2000 brought in a new interpretation of balance between the man made and natural environments. Gasometer has been least successful, and rather its solutions go after the traditional redevelopment paradigm.

  9. The Influence of Drivers and Barriers on Urban Adaptation and Mitigation Plans—An Empirical Analysis of European Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reckien, Diana; Flacke, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Cities are recognised as key players in global adaptation and mitigation efforts because the majority of people live in cities. However, in Europe, which is highly urbanized and one of the most advanced regions in terms of environmental policies, there is considerable diversity in the regional distribution, ambition and scope of climate change responses. This paper explores potential factors contributing to such diversity in 200 large and medium-sized cities across 11 European countries. We statistically investigate institutional, socio-economic, environmental and vulnerability characteristics of cities as potential drivers of or barriers to the development of urban climate change plans. Our results show that factors such as membership of climate networks, population size, GDP per capita and adaptive capacity act as drivers of mitigation and adaptation plans. By contrast, factors such as the unemployment rate, warmer summers, proximity to the coast and projected exposure to future climate impacts act as barriers. We see that, overall, it is predominantly large and prosperous cities that engage in climate planning, while vulnerable cities and those at risk of severe climate impacts in the future are less active. Our analysis suggests that climate change planning in European cities is not proactive, i.e. not significantly influenced by anticipated future impacts. Instead, we found that the current adaptive capacity of a city significantly relates to climate planning. Along with the need to further explore these relations, we see a need for more economic and institutional support for smaller and less resourceful cities and those at high risk from climate change impacts in the future. PMID:26317420

  10. The Influence of Drivers and Barriers on Urban Adaptation and Mitigation Plans-An Empirical Analysis of European Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reckien, Diana; Flacke, Johannes; Olazabal, Marta; Heidrich, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Cities are recognised as key players in global adaptation and mitigation efforts because the majority of people live in cities. However, in Europe, which is highly urbanized and one of the most advanced regions in terms of environmental policies, there is considerable diversity in the regional distribution, ambition and scope of climate change responses. This paper explores potential factors contributing to such diversity in 200 large and medium-sized cities across 11 European countries. We statistically investigate institutional, socio-economic, environmental and vulnerability characteristics of cities as potential drivers of or barriers to the development of urban climate change plans. Our results show that factors such as membership of climate networks, population size, GDP per capita and adaptive capacity act as drivers of mitigation and adaptation plans. By contrast, factors such as the unemployment rate, warmer summers, proximity to the coast and projected exposure to future climate impacts act as barriers. We see that, overall, it is predominantly large and prosperous cities that engage in climate planning, while vulnerable cities and those at risk of severe climate impacts in the future are less active. Our analysis suggests that climate change planning in European cities is not proactive, i.e. not significantly influenced by anticipated future impacts. Instead, we found that the current adaptive capacity of a city significantly relates to climate planning. Along with the need to further explore these relations, we see a need for more economic and institutional support for smaller and less resourceful cities and those at high risk from climate change impacts in the future.

  11. THE ARABIC ORIGINS OF ENGLISH AND INDO-EUROPEAN "URBAN TERMS": A RADICAL LINGUISTIC THEORY APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaidan Ali Jassem

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper traces the Arabic origins of English, German, French, Latin, Greek, and Sanskrit "urban terms" from a radical linguistic (or lexical root theory perspective. The data comprises 130 such terms like abide, building, city, construction, courtyard, hotel, house, live, mansion, mason, palace, metropolis, residence, road, rural, sedentary, sojourn, stay, structure, tent, town, urban, villa, village, zoo, and so on. The results clearly show that all such words have true Arabic cognates with the same or similar forms and meanings, whose differences are due to natural and plausible causes and different routes of linguistic change. Moreover, the results support the adequacy of the radical linguistic theory according to which, unlike the Comparative Method and/or Family Tree Model, Arabic, English, German, French, Latin, Greek, and Sanskrit are dialects of the same language or family, renamed Eurabian or Urban family, with Arabic being their origin all for sharing the whole cognates with them and for its huge phonetic, morphological, grammatical, and lexical variety and wealth. Also, they indicate that there is a radical language from which all human languages stemmed and which has been preserved almost intact in Arabic as the most conservative and productive language, without which it is impossible to interpret its linguistic richness and versatility on all levels.

  12. Public health research systems in the European union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCarthy Mark

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Strengthening health research is an important objective for international health organisations, but there has been less attention to support for health research in Europe. We describe the public-health (population and organisational level research systems in the 27 European Union countries. Methods We developed a typology for describing health research structures based on funding streams and strategies. We drew data from internet sources and asked country informants to review these for consistency and completeness. The structures were described as organograms and narratives in country profiles for each of the 27 EU member states. National public-health research structures included public and independent funding organisations, 'mixed' institutions (which receive funds, and both use and allocate them and provider institutions. Results Most health research is funded through ministries of science or science councils (and sometimes foundations, while parliaments and regions may also contribute. National institutes of public health are usually funded by ministries of health. Many national research organisations both determine research programmes and undertake health research, but there is a move towards public-health sciences within the universities, and a transition from internal grants to competitive funding. Of 27 national research strategies, 17 referred to health and 11 to public health themes. Although all countries had strategies for public health itself, we found little coherence in public-health research programmes. The European Commission has country contact points for both EU research and health programmes, but they do not coordinate with national health-research programmes. Conclusions Public-health research is broadly distributed across programmes in EU countries. Better understanding of research structures, programmes and results would improve recognition for public health in Europe, and contribute to practice. EU

  13. Policy Options for the Improvement of the European Patent System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen; Cowin, Robin; Van de Eijck, Wim

    2007-01-01

    been developed to improve the system as it is known today, since the Community patent is not guaranteed to be introduced in the near future. Should it be introduced, the Working Group considers that many of the policy options put forward would have an even better effect. When making its recommendations...... forward in the report includes an assessment of key patenting activity trends occurring at the moment. The analysis assesses what kind of impact these trends have on the ability of the European patent system to work well, and what are the specific challenges that arise as a result. The report identifies...... that worldwide, the most important patent trends happening now relate to the number of patent applications being made. Specifically, the fact that applications received by patent offices continue to grow steeply, resulting in high numbers of granted patent rights. One potentially undesirable consequence...

  14. Mapping urban agriculture in Portugal: Lessons from practice and their relevance for European post-crisis contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delgado Cecília

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A significant sample of twenty-nine Portuguese urban agriculture (UA initiatives is analysed in this article. It argues that emerging initiatives are relevant for shifting from a post-crisis approach to one that is more developmental. This multi-level analysis finds that UA in Portugal: embraces allotment gardens, urban farms and short food chains; deals primarily with vegetables and fruit; takes place predominantly on public and institutional land; and is championed by municipalities and to a lesser extent by civil society initiatives. UA is predominantly a metropolitan phenomenon. Furthermore, activities are organised around three pillars: production of food; simple processing and distribution; and a significant set of capacity building and training activities. UA is recent phenomena in Portugal, and it has expanded quickly since the 2008 economic crisis. The paper explores in-depth four innovative short food chains from the sample of initiatives. They are led by young entrepreneurs, make positive use of social networks, are committed to social and economic values, and expanded successfully in generating jobs at the time of the crisis. These examples strongly suggest that UA social economy enterprises are a driving force behind integrated sustainable development approaches in European cities, if and when supported by public policies.

  15. A Comprehensive System for Monitoring Urban Accessibility in Smart Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Higinio; Gilart-Iglesias, Virgilio; Pérez-Del Hoyo, Raquel; Andújar-Montoya, María Dolores

    2017-08-09

    The present work discusses the possibilities offered by the evolution of Information and Communication Technologies with the aim of designing a system to dynamically obtain knowledge of accessibility issues in urban environments. This system is facilitated by technology to analyse the urban user experience and movement accessibility, which enabling accurate identification of urban barriers and monitoring its effectiveness over time. Therefore, the main purpose of the system is to meet the real needs and requirements of people with movement disabilities. The information obtained can be provided as a support service for decision-making to be used by city government, institutions, researchers, professionals and other individuals of society in general to improve the liveability and quality of the lives of citizens. The proposed system is a means of social awareness that makes the most vulnerable groups of citizens visible by involving them as active participants. To perform and implement the system, the latest communication and positioning technologies for smart sensing have been used, as well as the cloud computing paradigm. Finally, to validate the proposal, a case study has been presented using the university environment as a pre-deployment step in urban environments.

  16. Valuing flexibilities in the design of urban water management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yinghan; Cardin, Michel-Alexandre; Babovic, Vladan; Santhanakrishnan, Deepak; Schmitter, Petra; Meshgi, Ali

    2013-12-15

    Climate change and rapid urbanization requires decision-makers to develop a long-term forward assessment on sustainable urban water management projects. This is further complicated by the difficulties of assessing sustainable designs and various design scenarios from an economic standpoint. A conventional valuation approach for urban water management projects, like Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) analysis, fails to incorporate uncertainties, such as amount of rainfall, unit cost of water, and other uncertainties associated with future changes in technological domains. Such approach also fails to include the value of flexibility, which enables managers to adapt and reconfigure systems over time as uncertainty unfolds. This work describes an integrated framework to value investments in urban water management systems under uncertainty. It also extends the conventional DCF analysis through explicit considerations of flexibility in systems design and management. The approach incorporates flexibility as intelligent decision-making mechanisms that enable systems to avoid future downside risks and increase opportunities for upside gains over a range of possible futures. A water catchment area in Singapore was chosen to assess the value of a flexible extension of standard drainage canals and a flexible deployment of a novel water catchment technology based on green roofs and porous pavements. Results show that integrating uncertainty and flexibility explicitly into the decision-making process can reduce initial capital expenditure, improve value for investment, and enable decision-makers to learn more about system requirements during the lifetime of the project. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Economic flows, spatial folds and intra-urban borders: Reflections on city centre redevelopment plans from a European border studies perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spierings, B.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of recent redevelopment plans and projects for European city centres is to remove intra-urban ‘borders’ and thereby to promote the profitability of cities. Consumer mobility within city centres is encouraged to facilitate flows of consumption capital and generate consumer spending.

  18. Similarities and differences between five European drug reimbursement systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franken, Margreet; le Polain, Maïté; Cleemput, Irina; Koopmanschap, Marc

    2012-10-01

    The aim of our study is to compare five European drug reimbursement systems, describe similarities and differences, and obtain insight into their strengths and weaknesses and formulate policy recommendations. We used the analytical Hutton Framework to assess in detail drug reimbursement systems in Austria, Belgium, France, the Netherlands, and Sweden. We investigated policy documents, explored literature, and conducted fifty-seven interviews with relevant stakeholders. All systems aim to balance three main objectives: system sustainability, equity and quality of care. System impact, however, is mainly assessed by drug expenditure. A national reimbursement agency evaluates reimbursement requests on a case-by-case basis. The minister has discretionary power to alter the reimbursement advice in Belgium, France, and the Netherlands. All systems make efforts to increase transparency in the decision-making process but none uses formal hierarchical reimbursement criteria nor applies a cost-effectiveness threshold value. Policies to deal with uncertainty vary: financial risk-sharing by price/volume contracts (France, Belgium) versus coverage with evidence development (Sweden, the Netherlands). Although case-by-case revisions are embedded in some systems for specific groups of drugs, systematic (group) revisions are limited. As shared strengths, all systems have clear objectives reflected in reimbursement criteria and all are prepared to pay for drugs with sufficient added value. However, all systems could improve the transparency of the decision-making process; especially appraisal lacks transparency. Systems could increase the use of (systematic) revisions and could make better use of HTA (among others cost-effectiveness) to obtain value for money and ensure system sustainability.

  19. Quantifying the impact of residential heating on the urban air quality in a typical European coal combustion region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junninen, Heikki; Mønster, Jacob; Rey, Maria; Cancelinha, Jose; Douglas, Kevin; Duane, Matthew; Forcina, Victtorio; Müller, Anne; Lagler, Fritz; Marelli, Luisa; Borowiak, Annette; Niedzialek, Joanna; Paradiz, Bostian; Mira-Salama, Daniel; Jimenez, Jose; Hansen, Ute; Astorga, Covadonga; Stanczyk, Krzysztof; Viana, Mar; Querol, Xavier; Duvall, Rachelle M; Norris, Gary A; Tsakovski, Stefan; Wåhlin, Peter; Horák, Jiri; Larsen, Bo R

    2009-10-15

    The present investigation, carried out as a case study in a typical major city situated in a European coal combustion region (Krakow, Poland), aims at quantifying the impact on the urban air quality of residential heating by coal combustion in comparison with other potential pollution sources such as power plants, industry, and traffic. Emissions were measured for 20 major sources, including small stoves and boilers, and the particulate matter (PM) was analyzed for 52 individual compounds together with outdoor and indoor PM10 collected during typical winter pollution episodes. The data were analyzed using chemical mass balance modeling (CMB) and constrained positive matrix factorization (CMF) yielding source apportionments for PM10, B(a)P, and other regulated air pollutants namely Cd, Ni, As, and Pb. The results are potentially very useful for planning abatement strategies in all areas of the world, where coal combustion in small appliances is significant. During the studied pollution episodes in Krakow, European air quality limits were exceeded with up to a factor 8 for PM10 and up to a factor 200 for B(a)P. The levels of these air pollutants were accompanied by high concentrations of azaarenes, known markers for inefficient coal combustion. The major culprit for the extreme pollution levels was demonstrated to be residential heating by coal combustion in small stoves and boilers (>50% for PM10 and >90% B(a)P), whereas road transport (industrial emission of the precursors SO2 and NOx.

  20. Assessment of light extinction at a European polluted urban area during wintertime: Impact of PM1 composition and sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchi, R; Bernardoni, V; Valentini, S; Piazzalunga, A; Fermo, P; Valli, G

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, results from receptor modelling performed on a well-characterised PM 1 dataset were combined to chemical light extinction data (b ext ) with the aim of assessing the impact of different PM 1 components and sources on light extinction and visibility at a European polluted urban area. It is noteworthy that, at the state of the art, there are still very few papers estimating the impact of different emission sources on light extinction as we present here, although being among the major environmental challenges at many polluted areas. Following the concept of the well-known IMPROVE algorithm, here a tailored site-specific approach (recently developed by our group) was applied to assess chemical light extinction due to PM 1 components and major sources. PM 1 samples collected separately during daytime and nighttime at the urban area of Milan (Italy) were chemically characterised for elements, major ions, elemental and organic carbon, and levoglucosan. Chemical light extinction was estimated and results showed that at the investigated urban site it is heavily impacted by ammonium nitrate and organic matter. Receptor modelling (i.e. Positive Matrix Factorization, EPA-PMF 5.0) was effective to obtain source apportionment; the most reliable solution was found with 7 factors which were tentatively assigned to nitrates, sulphates, wood burning, traffic, industry, fine dust, and a Pb-rich source. The apportionment of aerosol light extinction (b ext,aer ) according to resolved sources showed that considering all samples together nitrate contributed at most (on average 41.6%), followed by sulphate, traffic, and wood burning accounting for 18.3%, 17.8% and 12.4%, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. PM2006: a highly scalable urban planning management information system--Case study: Suzhou Urban Planning Bureau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Changfeng; Liang, Song; Ruan, Yong; Huang, Jie

    2008-10-01

    During the urbanization process, when facing complex requirements of city development, ever-growing urban data, rapid development of planning business and increasing planning complexity, a scalable, extensible urban planning management information system is needed urgently. PM2006 is such a system that can deal with these problems. In response to the status and problems in urban planning, the scalability and extensibility of PM2006 are introduced which can be seen as business-oriented workflow extensibility, scalability of DLL-based architecture, flexibility on platforms of GIS and database, scalability of data updating and maintenance and so on. It is verified that PM2006 system has good extensibility and scalability which can meet the requirements of all levels of administrative divisions and can adapt to ever-growing changes in urban planning business. At the end of this paper, the application of PM2006 in Urban Planning Bureau of Suzhou city is described.

  2. ETSON proposal on the European operational experience feedback system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maqua, Michael; Bertrand, Remy; Gelder, Pieter de

    2007-01-01

    The new IAEA Safety Fundamentals states regarding the operating experience feedback: The feedback of operating experience from facilities and activities - and, where relevant, from elsewhere - is a key means of enhancing safety. Processes must be put in place for the feedback and analysis of operating experience, including initiating events, accident precursors, near misses, accidents and unauthorized acts, so that lessons may be learned, shared and acted upon. This presentation deals with the proposal of the ETSON (European TSO Network) to optimize the European operating experiences feedback (OEF). It is generally recognized that the efficiency of nuclear safety supervision by public authorities is based on two key requirements: - the existence of a competent authority at national level, benefiting from an appropriate legislative and regulatory basis, from adequate (quantitatively and qualitatively) human resources, particularly for inspection purposes, - the availability of resources devoted to highly specialised independent technical expertise, in order to provide competent authorities with pertinent technical opinions on: -- the safety files provided by operators, for the purpose of licensing corresponding activities, -- the exploitation for regulatory purposes of the operating experience feed back from licensed nuclear installations. There are two worldwide systems intended to learn lessons from experience: the WANO (World Association of Nuclear Operators) system established by the licensees with access restricted to operating organizations and the IRS system jointly operated by IAEA and OECD/NEA accessible to regulators and to some other users nominated by the regulators in their countries. The IRS itself is dedicated to the analysis of safety significant operating events. NEA/CNRA runs a permanent working group on operating experience (WGOE). WGOE provides among other things also generic reports on safety concerns related to operating experiences and

  3. Urban Systems during Disasters: Factors for Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Wallace

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban neighborhoods form the basic functional unit of municipalities. Socioeconomically, they consist of social networks and interlocking layers of social networks. Old, stable neighborhoods are blessed with large social networks and dense interlocking layers. Both social control and social support depend on these complex structures of tight and loose ties. Public health and public order depend on these structures. They are the basis of resilience of both the neighborhood itself and of the municipality that is composed of neighborhoods. In New York City in the 1970s and later, domain shift occurred because of the disruption of the socioeconomic structure by the massive destruction of low-rental housing. A combined epidemic of building fires and landlord abandonment of buildings leveled a huge percentage of housing in poor neighborhoods and forced mass migration between neighborhoods. Social relationships that had existed between families and individuals for decades were destroyed. Community efficacy also greatly diminished. Drug use, violent crime, tuberculosis, and low-weight births were among the many public health and public order problems that soared in incidence consequent to the unraveling of the communities. These problems spilled out into the metropolitan region of dependent suburban counties. The ability of a municipality and its dependent suburban counties to weather a disaster such as an avian flu pandemic depends on the size of social networks in its neighborhoods and on the interconnection between the social networks. Diversity such as gained by social and economic integration influences the strength of the loose ties between social networks. Poor neighborhoods with extreme resilience conferred by a dense fabric of social networks must also maintain connections with mainstream political structure or they will fail to react to both good and bad impacts and communications.

  4. Sustainable development indicators for urban water systems: a case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the light of the increasing pressures on the world's freshwater resources, changes in the present and future urban water systems are called for in order to achieve sustainable development. The transformation from unsustainable practices demands tools that measure progress and can warn of future trends. Sustainable ...

  5. Urban street outreach: using clinical principles to steer the system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuistion, H L; D'Ercole, A; Kopelson, E

    1991-01-01

    A decade ago, urban street outreach was part of a rapid response to the epidemic of homelessness. Today it struggles to develop into a clinical craft that will define its own niche in the system of services to the homeless mentally ill.

  6. A performance indicators system for urban wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadros, Sílvia; João Rosa, Maria; Alegre, Helena; Silva, Catarina

    2010-01-01

    A performance assessment system (PAS) is an important instrument to provide a cost-effective and sustainable management of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Despite the fact that many PASs have been developed in recent years, important aspects of WWTP evaluation have not yet been considered. This paper presents the framework and the overall performance indicators of a PAS developed for urban WWTPs.

  7. SUSTAIN:Urban Modeling Systems Integrating Optimization and Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The System for Urban Stormwater Treatment and Analysis INtegration (SUSTAIN) was developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to support practitioners in developing cost-effective management plans for municipal storm water programs and evaluating and selecting Best Manag...

  8. Spatial power fluctuation correlations in urban rooftop photovoltaic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsinga, Boudewijn; van Sark, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the spatial dependence of variations in power output of small residential solar photovoltaic (PV) systems in a densely populated urban area (≈100km2) in and around Utrecht, the Netherlands. Research into the geo-statistical behavior of this kind of randomly spaced

  9. Environmental and natural resource implications of sustainable urban infrastructure systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergesen, Joseph D.; Suh, Sangwon; Baynes, Timothy M.; Kaviti Musango, Josephine

    2017-12-01

    As cities grow, their environmental and natural resource footprints also tend to grow to keep up with the increasing demand on essential urban services such as passenger transportation, commercial space, and thermal comfort. The urban infrastructure systems, or socio-technical systems providing these services are the major conduits through which natural resources are consumed and environmental impacts are generated. This paper aims to gauge the potential reductions in environmental and resources footprints through urban transformation, including the deployment of resource-efficient socio-technical systems and strategic densification. Using hybrid life cycle assessment approach combined with scenarios, we analyzed the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, water use, metal consumption and land use of selected socio-technical systems in 84 cities from the present to 2050. The socio-technical systems analyzed are: (1) bus rapid transit with electric buses, (2) green commercial buildings, and (3) district energy. We developed a baseline model for each city considering gross domestic product, population density, and climate conditions. Then, we overlaid three scenarios on top of the baseline model: (1) decarbonization of electricity, (2) aggressive deployment of resource-efficient socio-technical systems, and (3) strategic urban densification scenarios to each city and quantified their potentials in reducing the environmental and resource impacts of cities by 2050. The results show that, under the baseline scenario, the environmental and natural resource footprints of all 84 cities combined would increase 58%-116% by 2050. The resource-efficient scenario along with strategic densification, however, has the potential to curve down GHG emissions to 17% below the 2010 level in 2050. Such transformation can also limit the increase in all resource footprints to less than 23% relative to 2010. This analysis suggests that resource-efficient urban infrastructure and decarbonization of

  10. European Fundamental Rights and Private Law : The Dutch System in the Context of Different Legal Families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colombi Ciacchi, Aurelia; Heiderhoff, Bettina; Lohsse, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    The present chapter embeds the Dutch system of horizontal application of European fundamental rights in private law in the broader context of different groups (“families”) of European countries. Section 2 provides some definitions of “European fundamental rights”, “private law”, “vertical effect”,

  11. CAPITALISM EMERGING ERA TAX SYSTEMS OF THE EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Виктория Александровна Цокова

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Three phases should be distinguished in the development of tax systems:I. The Ancient World and Middle Ages (from the IV - III centuries. BC. till. XVII - XVIII centuries AD.II. The new time (from the XVII - XVIII centuries till the end of XIX century. - the era of the emerging capitalism.III. Modern History (from the XX century and up to the present time. The capitalism emerging era scientific ideas and tax systems research relevance (importance is caused by the emergence of the main distinct characteristics of any state, that is by the permanently increasing demand of that institution for money. This fact, in its turn, contributes to the formation of the state tax system, and, of course, the evolution of scientific views on taxation.Nowadays, some theoretical ideas in the field of taxation, clarifying the nature and the role of taxes in the European countries budget formation begin to appear in Europe, especially in theUK. The development of tax systems in England, France and Germany have  been analyzed;  and , basing on the  dialectical, historical and logical approaches, and the method of scientific abstraction, the authors identify the following common features of the  capitalism emerging era tax systems in the European countries: the taxation on a regular (permanent basis, the expansion of the tax-payers  range – all citizens of the state are becoming tax payers, the introduction of the income tax and the abolishment  of the revenue leasing – creation of government agencies system responsible for the administration of taxes, to establishing and collecting taxes only with the Parliament approval and permission.Classical theoretical and practical approaches to creation of tax systems of the states have been formulated in Europe in the era of nascent capitalism and they haven’t lost the relevance yet.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-4-55

  12. Socio-Environmental Resilience and Complex Urban Systems Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Brian; Petri, Aaron; Pan, Haozhi; Goldenberg, Romain; Kalantari, Zahra; Cvetkovic, Vladimir

    2017-04-01

    The increasing pressure of climate change has inspired two normative agendas; socio-technical transitions and socio-ecological resilience, both sharing a complex-systems epistemology (Gillard et al. 2016). Socio-technical solutions include a continuous, massive data gathering exercise now underway in urban places under the guise of developing a 'smart'(er) city. This has led to the creation of data-rich environments where large data sets have become central to monitoring and forming a response to anomalies. Some have argued that these kinds of data sets can help in planning for resilient cities (Norberg and Cumming 2008; Batty 2013). In this paper, we focus on a more nuanced, ecologically based, socio-environmental perspective of resilience planning that is often given less consideration. Here, we broadly discuss (and model) the tightly linked, mutually influenced, social and biophysical subsystems that are critical for understanding urban resilience. We argue for the need to incorporate these sub system linkages into the resilience planning lexicon through the integration of systems models and planning support systems. We make our case by first providing a context for urban resilience from a socio-ecological and planning perspective. We highlight the data needs for this type of resilient planning and compare it to currently collected data streams in various smart city efforts. This helps to define an approach for operationalizing socio-environmental resilience planning using robust systems models and planning support systems. For this, we draw from our experiences in coupling a spatio-temporal land use model (the Landuse Evolution and impact Assessment Model (LEAM)) with water quality and quantity models in Stockholm Sweden. We describe the coupling of these systems models using a robust Planning Support System (PSS) structural framework. We use the coupled model simulations and PSS to analyze the connection between urban land use transformation (social) and water

  13. Landslide hazards and systems analysis: A Central European perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klose, Martin; Damm, Bodo; Kreuzer, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Part of the problem with assessing landslide hazards is to understand the variable settings in which they occur. There is growing consensus that hazard assessments require integrated approaches that take account of the coupled human-environment system. Here we provide a synthesis of societal exposure and vulnerability to landslide hazards, review innovative approaches to hazard identification, and lay a focus on hazard assessment, while presenting the results of historical case studies and a landslide time series for Germany. The findings add to a growing body of literature that recognizes societal exposure and vulnerability as a complex system of hazard interactions that evolves over time as a function of social change and development. We therefore propose to expand hazard assessments by the framework and concepts of systems analysis (e.g., Liu et al., 2007) Results so far have been promising in ways that illustrate the importance of feedbacks, thresholds, surprises, and time lags in the evolution of landslide hazard and risk. In densely populated areas of Central Europe, landslides often occur in urbanized landscapes or on engineered slopes that had been transformed or created intentionally by human activity, sometimes even centuries ago. The example of Germany enables to correlate the causes and effects of recent landslides with the historical transition of urbanization to urban sprawl, ongoing demographic change, and some chronic problems of industrialized countries today, including ageing infrastructures or rising government debts. In large parts of rural Germany, the combination of ageing infrastructures, population loss, and increasing budget deficits starts to erode historical resilience gains, which brings especially small communities to a tipping point in their efforts to risk reduction. While struggling with budget deficits and demographic change, these communities are required to maintain ageing infrastructures that are particularly vulnerable to

  14. Environmental-benefit analysis of two urban waste collection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda Usón, Alfonso; Ferreira, Germán; Zambrana Vásquez, David; Zabalza Bribián, Ignacio; Llera Sastresa, Eva

    2013-10-01

    Sustainable transportation infrastructure and travel policies aim to optimise the use of transportation systems to achieve economic and related social and environmental goals. To this end, a novel methodology based on life cycle assessment (LCA) has been developed in this study, with the aim of quantifying, in terms of CO2 emissions equivalent, the impact associated with different alternatives of waste collection systems in different urban typologies. This new approach is focussed on saving energy and raw materials and reducing the environmental impact associated with the waste collection system in urban areas, as well as allowing the design and planning of the best available technologies and most environment-friendly management. The methodology considers a large variety of variables from the point of view of sustainable urban transport such as the location and size of the urban area, the amount of solid waste generated, the level of social awareness on waste separation procedures, the distance between houses and waste collection points and the distance from the latter to the possible recovery plants and/or landfills, taking into account the material and energy recovery ratio within an integrated waste management system. As a case study, two different waste collection systems have been evaluated with this methodology in the ecocity Valdespartera located in Zaragoza, Spain, consisting of approximately 10,000 homes: (i) a system based on traditional truck transportation and manual collection, and (ii) a stationary vacuum waste collection system. Results show that, when operating at loads close to 100%, the stationary collection system has the best environmental performance in comparison with the conventional system. In contrast, when operating at load factors around 13% the environmental benefits in terms of net CO2-eq. emissions for the stationary collection system are around 60% lower in comparison with the conventional one. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All

  15. Carbon price signal. Impact Analysis on the European Electricity System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-03-01

    The Paris Agreement signed by 195 countries late in December 2015, after COP 21, created a new basis for efficient cooperation between countries in the fight against climate change. The technologies being rolled out by the electricity sector will have very different impacts on climate change and, for the time being, investments other than public aid for renewable energies are being guided primarily by prices. To shed more slight on the issue of greenhouse gas emissions, which is closely related to the challenges addressed at COP21, RTE initiated a study in 2015 based on the models used in its Generation Adequacy Report. ADEME wanted to contribute to this effort and offer its support. The present document outlines the approach taken to assessing the impact of the carbon price signal on emissions from the European electric power system, its production costs and its structural evolution over the medium term. This approach was discussed with members of the 'Network Outlook Committee' of the Transmission System Users' Committee which includes environmental NGOs as well as the main economic actors from the power sector. Key findings resulting from the analysis developed in this report include: Simulations conducted with the current generation fleet show that the carbon price would have to be close to euro 30/tonne at the European level to drive a significant reduction in emissions (about 100 million tonnes a year, or 15 %) from the European power sector. A higher price of about euro 100/tonne would help drive an emissions reduction of close to 30%. Over the medium and long terms, beyond an impact on the number of hours fossil fuel power plants would be run, having a high carbon price would send a signal encouraging investment in renewable energies and could incentivise the development of flexible and storage capacity. It would notably guarantee the profitability of gas-fired plants and renewable power development. The following assumptions are factored

  16. THE PHENOMENON OF EUROPEAN MUSICAL ROMANTICISM IN SYSTEMIC RESEARCH VISION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLOREA AUGUSTINA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Romanticism – European cultural-artistic phenomenon of the 20th century, developed in various fields of philosophy, literature, arts, and in terms of its amplitude and universality marked the respective century as a Romantic Era – is promoted in the most pointed manner in musical art. The Research of musical Romanticism – in the conceptual, aesthetic, musical aspect – can be achieved only on the basis of a systemic vision, which inputs the necessity of a study of synthesis. The respective study will integrate in a single process the investigation of all the above – mentioned aspects and will take place at the intersection of different scientific domains: aesthetics and musical aesthetics, historical and theoretical musicology, history and theory of interpretative art.

  17. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF VAT EVOLUTION IN THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAELA ANDREEA STROE

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study a comparative analysis of VAT in different states of the world. I made some observation on this theme because I believe that VAT is very important in carrying out transactions and the increase or decrease of this tax has a major impact upon national economies and also on the quality of life in developing countries. The papers has to pourpose to make a comparison between the American and European system of taxation with its advantages and disadvantages and, in the end to render an economic model and its statistics components. VAT is a value added tax which appeared about 50 years, initially with two purposes: one to replace certain indirect taxes, and another to reduce the budget deficit according to the faith of that time. The first country that has adopted this model was France, calling it today as value-added tax.

  18. Geographical information systems (GIS), a great tool for urban silviculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otaya Burbano, Leodan Andres; Sanchez Zapata, Robinson de Jesus; Morales Soto, Leon; Botero Fernandez, Veronica

    2006-01-01

    As a pilot phase, to acquire experience, define methodologies and determine the advantages of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) for applying to urban silviculture and inventory, diagnosis, management plan and economic appraisal were made for the urban forest in the Magnolia neighborhood of the Envigado municipality, department of Antioquia, Colombia. for the management and analysis of the data collected in field, a database was designed using the software microsoft Access. The species inventoried were mapped digitally and the conditions there were analyzed using some tools and extensions of technological architecture ArcGIS 8.3 such as: characteristics, silviculture practices required, and environmental conflicts. It was determined that the GIS analysis of the urban forest conducted for a specific neighborhood can be a tool that permits environmental authorities and interested researchers to have agile and easy access to the information stored in it; it permits programming of required silviculture activities; it also permits having a general vision of the urban forest according to the infrastructure of the neighborhood, complemented by photographs of the area for improved illustration; it permits the inclusion or elimination of information in a rapid and simple manner, thus facilitating decision making with relation to management of the urban woodland and for comparison with other similar studies

  19. An Information System for European culture collections: the way forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casaregola, Serge; Vasilenko, Alexander; Romano, Paolo; Robert, Vincent; Ozerskaya, Svetlana; Kopf, Anna; Glöckner, Frank O; Smith, David

    2016-01-01

    Culture collections contain indispensable information about the microorganisms preserved in their repositories, such as taxonomical descriptions, origins, physiological and biochemical characteristics, bibliographic references, etc. However, information currently accessible in databases rarely adheres to common standard protocols. The resultant heterogeneity between culture collections, in terms of both content and format, notably hampers microorganism-based research and development (R&D). The optimized exploitation of these resources thus requires standardized, and simplified, access to the associated information. To this end, and in the interest of supporting R&D in the fields of agriculture, health and biotechnology, a pan-European distributed research infrastructure, MIRRI, including over 40 public culture collections and research institutes from 19 European countries, was established. A prime objective of MIRRI is to unite and provide universal access to the fragmented, and untapped, resources, information and expertise available in European public collections of microorganisms; a key component of which is to develop a dynamic Information System. For the first time, both culture collection curators as well as their users have been consulted and their feedback, concerning the needs and requirements for collection databases and data accessibility, utilised. Users primarily noted that databases were not interoperable, thus rendering a global search of multiple databases impossible. Unreliable or out-of-date and, in particular, non-homogenous, taxonomic information was also considered to be a major obstacle to searching microbial data efficiently. Moreover, complex searches are rarely possible in online databases thus limiting the extent of search queries. Curators also consider that overall harmonization-including Standard Operating Procedures, data structure, and software tools-is necessary to facilitate their work and to make high-quality data easily accessible

  20. URBAN DATA COLLECTION USING A BIKE MOBILE SYSTEM WITH A FOSS ARCHITECTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Abdul Jabbar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available European community is working to improve the quality of the life in each European country, in particular to increase the quality air condition and safety in each city. The quality air is daily monitored, using several ground station, which do not consider the variation of the quality during the day, evaluating only the average level. In this case, it could be interesting to have a “smart” system to acquire distributed data in continuous, even involving the citizens. On the other hand, to improve the safety level in urban area along cycle lane, road and pedestrian path, exist a lot of algorithms for visibility and safety analysis; the crucial aspect is the 3D model considered as “input” in these algorithms, which always needs to be updated. A bike has been instrumented with two digital camera as Raspberry PI-cam. Image acquisition has been realized with a dedicated python tool, which has been implemented in the Raspberry PI system. Images have been georeferenced using a u-blox 8T, connected to Raspberry system. GNSS data has been acquired using a specific tool developed in Python, which was based on RTKLIB library. Time synchronization has been obtained with GNSS receiver. Additionally, a portable laser scanner, an air quality system and a small Inertial platform have been installed and connected with the Raspberry system. The system has been implemented and tested to acquire data (image and air quality parameter in a district in Turin. Also a 3D model of the investigated site has been carried. In this contribute, the assembling of the system is described, in particular the dataset acquired and the results carried out will be described. different low cost sensors, in particular digital camera and laser scanner to collect easily geospatial data in urban area.

  1. Spaceflight studies of tropisms in the European Modular Cultivation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, J. Z.; Correll, M. J.; Edelmann, R. E.

    Phototropism and gravitropism play key roles in the oriented growth of roots in flowering plants. In blue or white light, roots exhibit negative phototropism, but red light induces positive phototropism in Arabidopsis roots. The blue-light response is controlled by the phototropins while the red-light response is mediated by the phytochrome family of photoreceptors. In order to better characterize root phototropism, we plan to perform experiments in microgravity so that this tropism can be more effectively studied without the interactions with the gravity response. Our experiments are to be performed on the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS), which provides an incubator, lighting system, and high resolution video that are on a centrifuge palette. These experiments will be performed at μ g, 1g (control) and fractional g-levels. In order to ensure success of this mission on the International Space Station (ISS), we have been performing ground-based studies on growth, phototropism, and gravitropism in experimental unique equipment (EUE) that was designed for our experiments that will use Arabidopsis seedlings. Currently, the EMCS and our EUE are scheduled for launch on space shuttle mission STS-121. This project should provide insight into how the blue-light and red-light signaling systems interact with each other, and also with the gravisensing system.

  2. Exploring Relationships between North American Urban Form and Rates of Urban CO2 Emissions: A System Dynamics Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmi, P. C.; Forster, C. B.; Mills, J. I.; Call, B. D.; Sabula, J.; Klewicki, J. C.; Pataki, D. E.; Peterson, T. R.

    2004-12-01

    risks associated with declining air quality. The dynamic simulation of urban systems demonstrates that a suite of policies can be found to diminish sprawl and defeat traffic congestion thereby safeguarding the vitality a city. A systems thinking approach, facilitated by a community engagement process, has further enabled community opinion leaders and policy makers to map the key features, linkages and feedbacks of a complex, CO2-emitting urban ecosystem. A corresponding lumped-parameter, simulation model provides a framework for decision makers and stakeholders to explore the consequences of alternative options for managing urban growth, sprawl and congestion while also reducing CO2 emissions.

  3. Conceptual study of superconducting urban area power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noe, Mathias; Gold-acker, Wilfried; Bach, Robert; Prusseit, Werner; Willen, Dag; Poelchau, Juri; Linke, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Efficient transmission, distribution and usage of electricity are fundamental requirements for providing citizens, societies and economies with essential energy resources. It will be a major future challenge to integrate more sustainable generation resources, to meet growing electricity demand and to renew electricity networks. Research and development on superconducting equipment and components have an important role to play in addressing these challenges. Up to now, most studies on superconducting applications in power systems have been concentrated on the application of specific devices like for example cables and current limiters. In contrast to this, the main focus of our study is to show the consequence of a large scale integration of superconducting power equipment in distribution level urban power systems. Specific objectives are to summarize the state-of-the-art of superconducting power equipment including cooling systems and to compare the superconducting power system with respect to energy and economic efficiency with conventional solutions. Several scenarios were considered starting from the replacement of an existing distribution level sub-grid up to a full superconducting urban area distribution level power system. One major result is that a full superconducting urban area distribution level power system could be cost competitive with existing solutions in the future. In addition to that, superconducting power systems offer higher energy efficiency as well as a number of technical advantages like lower voltage drops and improved stability.

  4. Energy saving and recovery measures in integrated urban water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freni, Gabriele; Sambito, Mariacrocetta

    2017-11-01

    The present paper describes different energy production, recovery and saving measures which can be applied in an integrated urban water system. Production measures are often based on the installation of photovoltaic systems; the recovery measures are commonly based on hydraulic turbines, exploiting the available pressure potential to produce energy; saving measures are based on substitution of old pumps with higher efficiency ones. The possibility of substituting some of the pipes of the water supply system can be also considered in a recovery scenario in order to reduce leakages and recovery part of the energy needed for water transport and treatment. The reduction of water losses can be obtained through the Active Leakage Control (ALC) strategies resulting in a reduction in energy consumption and in environmental impact. Measures were applied to a real case study to tested it the efficiency, i.e., the integrated urban water system of the Palermo metropolitan area in Sicily (Italy).

  5. Urban Security Initiative: Earthquake impacts on the urban ``system of systems``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheshwari, S.; Jones, E.; Rasmussen, S.

    1999-06-01

    This paper is a discussion of how to address the problems of disasters in a large city, a project titled Urban Security Initiative undertaken by the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The paper first discusses the need to address the problems of disasters in large cities and ten provides a framework that is suitable to address this problem. The paper then provides an overview of the module of the project that deals with assessment of earthquake damage on urban infrastructure in large cities and an internet-based approach for consensus building leading to better coordination in the post-disaster period. Finally, the paper discusses the future direction of the project.

  6. Adaptive traffic control systems for urban networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radivojević Danilo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive traffic control systems represent complex, but powerful tool for improvement of traffic flow conditions in locations or zones where applied. Many traffic agencies, especially those that have a large number of signalized intersections with high variability of the traffic demand, choose to apply some of the adaptive traffic control systems. However, those systems are manufactured and offered by multiple vendors (companies that are competing for the market share. Due to that fact, besides the information available from the vendors themselves, or the information from different studies conducted on different continents, very limited amount of information is available about the details how those systems are operating. The reason for that is the protecting of the intellectual property from plagiarism. The primary goal of this paper is to make a brief analysis of the functionalities, characteristics, abilities and results of the most recognized, but also less known adaptive traffic control systems to the professional public and other persons with interest in this subject.

  7. Integrating emergency services in an urban health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radloff, D; Blouin, A S; Larsen, L; Kripp, M E

    2000-03-01

    When planning for growth and management efficiency across urban health systems, economic and market factors present significant service line challenges and opportunities. This article describes the evolutionary integration of emergency services in St John Health System, a large, religious-sponsored health care system located in Detroit, Michigan. Critical business elements, including the System's vision, mission, and economic context, are defined as the framework for site-specific and System-wide planning. The impact of managed care and market changes prompted St John's clinicians and executives to explore how integrating emergency services could create a competitive market advantage.

  8. Institutional Framework for Collaborative Urban Planning in Afghanistan in view of the Transferring Process of International Urban Planning Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Habib Ahmad Javid; Tetsuo Kidokoro

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of Afghanistan’s urban planning institutional change in certain historical periods, particular dilemmas within the current urban planning system and its gradual shift from totalitarian urban planning approaches practiced during 1960s - 1980s to a different form of planning being practiced by the current government. In addition, it will seek to analyze the ease and tension caused by the three recent phenomena that have emerged after the establishment of a new ...

  9. Sprawl and sustainable urban development in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksin-Mićić Marija

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Over 50 years urban development in Europe has been affected by extensive urban sprawl. Environmental, economic and social impacts of long lasting sprawl are threatening urban identity, urban culture and cultural identity of European territory. Last two decades the main concept in European planning and governance system has been the sustainable development, namely sustainable urban development and its implementation. We ought to be realistic about the possibilities to counter sprawl. Realistic seams to steer sprawling tendencies in more suitable and sustainable manner, so called smart urban sprawl. This paper analyses the planning concepts and gives the brief review of current policies for steering the urban sprawl in EU, which are considered to be of importance in achieving more sustainable urban development and efficient urban management in Serbia.

  10. Comparison of phosphodiesterase type V inhibitors use in eight European cities through analysis of urban wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Causanilles, Ana; Rojas Cantillano, Daniela; Emke, Erik

    2018-01-01

    In this work a step forward in investigating the use of prescription drugs, namely erectile dysfunction products, at European level was taken by applying the wastewater-based epidemiology approach. 24-h composite samples of untreated wastewater were collected at the entrance of eight wastewater....... The concentrations were transformed into normalized measured loads and the estimated actual consumption of sildenafil was back-calculated from these loads. In addition, national prescription data from five countries was gathered in the form of the number of prescribed daily doses and transformed into predicted loads...... in wastewater than expected from the prescription data. This study illustrates the potential of wastewater-based epidemiology to investigate the use of counterfeit medication and rogue online pharmacy sales....

  11. The Consolidation on Banking Supervision in the Context of a Pan European Banking System

    OpenAIRE

    Teodora Barbu; Georgeta Vintila

    2007-01-01

    The diversity of national banking systems in the European banking system and the absence of consolidated supervision creates the premises for a series of interrogations whose essence is the same: Is it possible to discuss about a Pan European Banking System? The starting point in answering this question was the efforts to create a single banking market, which took place in 1973-1999, and the impact of integration on the European Banking Industry. Among the most representative aspects, it must...

  12. Lessons from a European study[Financing Renewable Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langniss, Ole [German Aerospace Center, Stuttgart (Germany); Helby, Peter [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental and Energy System Studies

    2000-10-01

    A large number of proven technical solutions exists for the use of renewable energies (RE). However, their dissemination is still too slow to meet the political goal of substituting 12 % of the primary energy demand in the European Union by the year 2010. Even renewable energy systems (RES) with economic potential are only partly exploited. There is a long literature concerning the barriers to RE use. In particular it has become clear that the availability of finance and the forms and conditions upon which it is lent have a major impact on RE deployment. An area of importance is the deficiency of appropriate ownership forms and properly adapted financing instruments in certain countries. Moreover, different regulations and institutional barriers in the European countries hinder the free flow of capital for RES within the European common market. On the other hand, solutions have been developed very successfully in individual countries. Differences in cultures and institutions have promoted growth of several approaches to RE investment. These differences can be understood as a European source of experience that constitutes a rich basis for transnational emulation. The research project FIRE analysed and compared the means of financing RES in Austria, Denmark, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom to put forward best practise recommendations so that RE deployments will occur at a faster rate. Main tasks of this study were to analyse the means of financing RES in a number of countries; to provide an analysis of best practise; and to provide an analysis of the barriers to the implementation in the investigated countries. Different means of financing RES were analysed in relation to the country-specific environment. This included exogenous conditions such as tax aspects, legal restrictions and subsidies, as well as individually defined risk management strategies and collateral requirements. Eight in-depth-case studies were undertaken for

  13. THE EUROPEAN BANKING SYSTEM. TRACK RECORD AND ACHIEVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADELA IONESCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The banking system of Europe has experienced two decades of turbulence. Through the 1990’s a wave of mergers, liquidations and bankruptcies has swept the sector. This wave was at its peak the last years of the 1990’s and the 2000-2004 period. Since then the number of exits from the sector has been relatively stable. It is notable that the cooperative banks suffered more than the commercials. This fact can be attributed to their smaller size, ownership structure, management efficiency etc.During the last decade a great number of events have forced the banking system in Europe to transform, to adapt to a new financial, economic, political and social environment. Two financial crisis (2001-2002 and 2008-2009, two voluntary attempts to regulate the financial system (Basel II and III, the introduction of the Euro and the establishment of the European Central Bank, several regulation attempts to create an isomorphic legal environment, financial scandals of 2001-2002, 2008 and the globalization of the financial sector are some of the events that created a new environment for the financial sector.

  14. The next generation of urban MACCs. Reassessing the cost-effectiveness of urban mitigation options by integrating a systemic approach and social costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saujot, Mathieu; Lefèvre, Benoit

    2016-01-01

    Many cities are implementing policies and climate action plans. Yet local climate policies suffer from a lack of scientific understanding and evaluation methods able to support the definition of efficient mitigation strategies. The purpose of this paper is to build on classical approaches in the energy policy field that exist at the national and international level to propose an urban MACCs methodology able to fulfill this lack and inform local debates. The methodology is an extension of static “expert-based” MACCs; it combines a land use transport integrated model and an abatement cost methodology that integrates co-benefits, and takes into account the spatial and systemic dimensions of cities. The methodology is implemented for the transportation sector of a mid-sized European city (Grenoble, France). Our results present the cost-effectiveness and political feasibility of several proposed measures. We find that the inclusion of co-benefits can profoundly change the cost-benefit assessment of transport mitigation options. Moreover we underline the key parameters determining the cost-effectiveness ranking of mitigation options. These urban MACCs aim to serve as a bridge between urban planning and mitigation policies and can thus contribute to strengthen and align sustainable and climate change agendas at the local level. - Highlights: •Local climate policies lack scientific understanding for prioritizing mitigation actions. •We develop a method to evaluate cost-effectiveness of urban transportation actions. •This method combines urban modeling and MACCs to inform urban planning. •Abatement costs from its application to a mid-sized city are presented. •The impact of the inclusion of co-benefits is analyzed.

  15. THE ROLE OF THE EUROPEAN EXTERNAL ACTION SERVICE IN THE EU’S INSTITUTIONAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAN VATAMAN

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available European External Action Service (EEAS is a new institution of the European Union, whose foundation was laid by the Treaty of Lisbon with the role to support the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy in fulfilling his mandate and, also to assist the President of the European Council, European Commission, President and other Commissioners to exercise their powers in international relations. Since the establishment of the European External Action Service (EEAS is relatively recent, this article tries to highlight the crucial role of the European External Action Service (EEAS in the European Union's institutional system and its contribution to strengthening the coherence and increasing impact and visibility of European Union action at international level and thus the one of the Member States.

  16. Modeling carbon emissions from urban traffic system using mobile monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Daniel Jian; Zhang, Ying; Xue, Rui; Zhang, Yi

    2017-12-01

    Comprehensive analyses of urban traffic carbon emissions are critical in achieving low-carbon transportation. This paper started from the architecture design of a carbon emission mobile monitoring system using multiple sets of equipment and collected the corresponding data about traffic flow, meteorological conditions, vehicular carbon emissions and driving characteristics on typical roads in Shanghai and Wuxi, Jiangsu province. Based on these data, the emission model MOVES was calibrated and used with various sensitivity and correlation evaluation indices to analyze the traffic carbon emissions at microscopic, mesoscopic and macroscopic levels, respectively. The major factors that influence urban traffic carbon emissions were investigated, so that emission factors of CO, CO 2 and HC were calculated by taking representative passenger cars as a case study. As a result, the urban traffic carbon emissions were assessed quantitatively, and the total amounts of CO, CO 2 and HC emission from passenger cars in Shanghai were estimated as 76.95kt, 8271.91kt, and 2.13kt, respectively. Arterial roads were found as the primary line source, accounting for 50.49% carbon emissions. In additional to the overall major factors identified, the mobile monitoring system and carbon emission quantification method proposed in this study are of rather guiding significance for the further urban low-carbon transportation development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Joining of Ukraine to the European scientific and metric systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.M. Sazonets

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available At the present stage of development it is necessary to form the knowledge which structures knowledge as the object of management. In conditions of technological globalism there are structural changes in the information environment of countries. Scientific metrics is sufficiently developed in other countries, especially in the EU. The article contains the description of the first index calculation system of scientific references called Science Citation Index (SCI. The main advantage of this project was searching for information not only by the author and thematic categories, but also by the list of cited literature. The authors define the scientific and metric base in the following way: scientific and metric database (SMBD is the bibliographic and abstract database with the tools for tracking citations of articles published in scientific journals. The most prominent European scientific and metric bases are examined. The authors show that the bases have the performance assessment tools which track down the impact of scientific papers and publications of individual scientists and research institutions. The state of crisis in scientific and technological activities in Ukraine as well as the economy as a whole, needs immediate organization of national scientific and metric system.

  18. Tritium systems concepts for the next European torus (NET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sood, S.K.; Bagli, K.S.; Busigin, A.; Kveton, O.K.; Dombra, A.H.; Miller, A.I.

    1986-09-01

    The study deals with the design of the various tritium processing facilities that will be required for the Next European Torus (NET) design. The reference data for the design of the NET Tritium Systems was provided by the NET team. Significant achievements of this study were: (a) Identification of new ways of handling some problems for example: 1) Recovery of tritium from the helium purge of the lithium-ceramic blanket using a novel Adsoprtion and Catalytic Exchange Process, 2) A new way of combining fuel component separation and coolant water detritiation using cryogenic distillation, 3) The use of parasitic refrigeration for the cryogenic isotope separation, 4) Tritium extraction from effluent gas streams at their respective sources, 5) Attempt to eliminate the need for Air Cleanup Systems. (b) Identification of uncertainties, for example: composition of plasma exhaust, required helium purge rate of Li-Pb for tritium recovery, uncertainty in requirements for decontaminating blanket sectors, etc. (c) Review of ways to limit tritium permeation into steam by swamping with hydrogen and to provide quantitative estimates for this permeation

  19. The implementation of biofiltration systems, rainwater tanks and urban irrigation in a single-layer urban canopy model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuzere, Matthias; Coutts, Andrew; Goehler, Maren; Broadbent, Ashley; Wouters, Hendrik; van Lipzig, Nicole; Gebert, Luke

    2015-04-01

    Urban vegetation is generally considered as a key tool to modify the urban energy balance through enhanced evapotranspiration (ET). Given that vegetation is most effective when it is healthy, stormwater harvesting and retention strategies (such as water sensitive urban design) could be used to support vegetation and promote ET. This study presents the implementation of a vegetated lined bio-filtration system (BFS) combined with a rainwater tank (RWT) and urban irrigation system in the single-layer urban canopy model Community Land Model-Urban. Runoff from roof and impervious road surface fractions is harvested and used to support an adequate soil moisture level for vegetation in the BFS. In a first stage, modelled soil moisture dynamics are evaluated and found reliable compared to observed soil moisture levels from biofiltration pits in Smith Street, Melbourne (Australia). Secondly, the impact of BFS, RWT and urban irrigation on ET is illustrated for a two-month period in 2012 using varying characteristics for all components. Results indicate that (i) a large amount of stormwater is potentially available for indoor and outdoor water demands, including irrigation of urban vegetation, (ii) ET from the BFS is an order of magnitude larger compared to the contributions from the impervious surfaces, even though the former only covers 10% of the surface fraction and (iii) attention should be paid to the cover fraction and soil texture of the BFS, size of the RWT and the surface fractions contributing to the collection of water in the RWT. Overall, this study reveals that this model development can effectuate future research with state-of-the-art urban climate models to further explore the benefits of vegetated biofiltration systems as a water sensitive urban design tool optimised with an urban irrigation system to maintain healthy vegetation.

  20. European Sugar Market – Impact of Quota System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Benešová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The European agricultural market has been criticized for its heavy regulations and subsidization. The sugar market is one of the most regulated ones; however, this will change radically in 2017 when the current system of production quotas will end. The aim of this paper is to present the basic characteristics of the EU quota sugar market. The analysis identifies the main drivers of EU sugar market and their position within the EU sugar market. The paper identifies especially those drivers/companies/alliances which take control over the EU sugar production realized under the quota production system. The paper also highlights the level of EU sugar market concentration and also identifies those countries and companies which are the main leaders in the sugar production area realized under the quota system. Based on the results deriving from the paper, it is possible to characterize the EU sugar market as a heavily concentrated one – nearly 75% (10 mil. tonnes of the quota is controlled by five multinational companies only; these companies are operating more than 50% of all the available sugar plants located in the EU. These multinational alliances are also in control of the production capacities of their subsidiaries. In most countries, this causes serious problems as the given quota is controlled by one or two producers only. The EU sugar market is extremely concentrated especially if we take into consideration the location of each alliance’s headquarters. The majority of production capacities are under (the control of especially German and French companies. These two countries are also the main beneficiaries in relation to the EU sugar production quota system.

  1. Understanding Resilient Urban Futures: A Systemic Modelling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Chapman

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The resilience of cities in response to natural disasters and long-term climate change has emerged as a focus of academic and policy attention. In particular, how to understand the interconnectedness of urban and natural systems is a key issue. This paper introduces an urban model that can be used to evaluate city resilience outcomes under different policy scenarios. The model is the Wellington Integrated Land Use-Transport-Environment Model (WILUTE. It considers the city (i.e., Wellington as a complex system characterized by interactions between a variety of internal urban processes (social, economic and physical and the natural environment. It is focused on exploring the dynamic relations between human activities (the geographic distribution of housing and employment, infrastructure layout, traffic flows and energy consumption, environmental effects (carbon emissions, influences on local natural and ecological systems and potential natural disasters (e.g., inundation due to sea level rise and storm events faced under different policy scenarios. The model gives insights that are potentially useful for policy to enhance the city’s resilience, by modelling outcomes, such as the potential for reduction in transportation energy use, and changes in the vulnerability of the city’s housing stock and transport system to sea level rise.

  2. Design and Operation of Decentralized Reservoirs in Urban Drainage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eui Hoon Lee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Poor drainage of urban storm water can lead to urban inundation which presents a risk to people and property. Previous research has presented various measures to prevent and reduce urban flooding and these measures can be classified into costly but effective structural measures, and economical but less effective non-structural measures. This study suggests a new approach to reduce urban flooding by combining structural and non-structural measures in a target watershed in Seoul, South Korea. Inlet design modification in a detention reservoir (Decentralized Reservoir, DR is examined in conjunction with combined inlet/outlet management for the DR. Monitoring nodes used to control DR inlet/outlet operations are selected by locating the first flooding node, maximum flooding node and DR inlet node. This new approach demonstrates outstanding flood volume reduction for historical flooding events that occurred in Seoul during 2010 and 2011. Flood volumes during the 2010 event using the combined inlet/outlet operation in the DR were between 1656 m3 and 1815 m3 compared to a flood volume of 6617 m3 using current DR operation. Finally, the suggested operating level for the DR based on the best hydraulic section, system resilience index, and local regulations is 1.2 m.

  3. EUROPEAN INTEGRATION AND ITS IMPACT ON DOMESTIC SYSTEMS: INFERENCES FOR TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SÜLEYMAN YAMAN KOÇAK

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the European Integration concept, its mechanisms and its effect on domestic systems are investigated. Moreover, to explain the concept in depth, the features of the Integration concept and the policy transfer systems in the European Union are assessed. It is shown that the European Integration has a great effect over the domestic systems in both forming and implementing policies. By determining inferences for Turkey it is clarified that, although Turkey has not started the negotiation talks, the European Integration process is very dominant and significant over its dimensions of domestic change.

  4. A performance indicators system for urban wastewater treatment plants

    OpenAIRE

    Quadros, S.; Rosa, M. J.; Alegre, H.; Silva, C.

    2009-01-01

    The use of performance assessment systems (PAS) is an important tool to provide a cost-effective and sustainable management of wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). Despite many PAS have been developed in recent years, important aspects of WWTP evaluation are not yet considered. This paper presents the framework and the overall performance indicators of a PAS developed for urban WWTP. 8 8p DHA/NES 2009 11-13 Março 2009

  5. For Hunger-proof Cities: Sustainable Urban Food Systems | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    As well, hunger and malnutrition are on the increase worldwide, as the global food system fails to satisfy the growing demand of the urban consumer. ... Le 11 août 2017, des chercheurs et des praticiens se sont réunis à Montréal dans le cadre de la conférence d'une journée intitulée The Global Need for Formal Child Care.

  6. Open architecture for health care systems: the European RICHE experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frandji, B

    1997-01-01

    Groupe RICHE is bringing to the market of health IT the Open Systems approach allowing a new generation of health information systems to arise with benefit for patients, health care professionals, hospital managers, agencies and citizens. Groupe RICHE is a forum for exchanging information, expertise around open systems in health care. It is open to any organisation interested by open systems in health care and wanting to participate and influence the work done by its user, marketing and technical committees. The Technical Committee is in charge of the maintenance of the architecture and impact the results of industrial experiences on new releases. Any Groupe RICHE member is entitled to participate to this process. This unique approach in Europe allows health care professionals to benefit from applications supporting their business processes, including providing a cooperative working environment, a shared electronic record, in an integrated system where the information is entered only once, customised according to the user needs and available to the administrative applications. This allows Hospital managers to satisfy their health care professionals, to smoothly migrate from their existing environment (protecting their investment), to choose products in a competitive environment, being able to mix and match system components and services from different suppliers, being free to change suppliers without having to replace their existing system (minimising risk), in line with national and regional strategies. For suppliers, this means being able to commercialise products well fitted to their field of competence in a large market, reducing investments and increasing returns. The RICHE approach also allows agencies to define a strategy, allowing to create a supporting infrastructure, organising the market leaving enough freedom to health care organisations and suppliers. Such an approach is based on the definition of an open standard architecture. The RICHE esprit project

  7. Environmental-benefit analysis of two urban waste collection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aranda Usón, Alfonso; Ferreira, Germán; Zambrana Vásquez, David; Zabalza Bribián, Ignacio; Llera Sastresa, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable transportation infrastructure and travel policies aim to optimise the use of transportation systems to achieve economic and related social and environmental goals. To this end, a novel methodology based on life cycle assessment (LCA) has been developed in this study, with the aim of quantifying, in terms of CO 2 emissions equivalent, the impact associated with different alternatives of waste collection systems in different urban typologies. This new approach is focussed on saving energy and raw materials and reducing the environmental impact associated with the waste collection system in urban areas, as well as allowing the design and planning of the best available technologies and most environment-friendly management. The methodology considers a large variety of variables from the point of view of sustainable urban transport such as the location and size of the urban area, the amount of solid waste generated, the level of social awareness on waste separation procedures, the distance between houses and waste collection points and the distance from the latter to the possible recovery plants and/or landfills, taking into account the material and energy recovery ratio within an integrated waste management system. As a case study, two different waste collection systems have been evaluated with this methodology in the ecocity Valdespartera located in Zaragoza, Spain, consisting of approximately 10,000 homes: (i) a system based on traditional truck transportation and manual collection, and (ii) a stationary vacuum waste collection system. Results show that, when operating at loads close to 100%, the stationary collection system has the best environmental performance in comparison with the conventional system. In contrast, when operating at load factors around 13% the environmental benefits in terms of net CO 2 -eq. emissions for the stationary collection system are around 60% lower in comparison with the conventional one. - Highlights: • A comprehensive

  8. Environmental-benefit analysis of two urban waste collection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aranda Usón, Alfonso, E-mail: alaranda@unizar.es; Ferreira, Germán; Zambrana Vásquez, David; Zabalza Bribián, Ignacio; Llera Sastresa, Eva

    2013-10-01

    Sustainable transportation infrastructure and travel policies aim to optimise the use of transportation systems to achieve economic and related social and environmental goals. To this end, a novel methodology based on life cycle assessment (LCA) has been developed in this study, with the aim of quantifying, in terms of CO{sub 2} emissions equivalent, the impact associated with different alternatives of waste collection systems in different urban typologies. This new approach is focussed on saving energy and raw materials and reducing the environmental impact associated with the waste collection system in urban areas, as well as allowing the design and planning of the best available technologies and most environment-friendly management. The methodology considers a large variety of variables from the point of view of sustainable urban transport such as the location and size of the urban area, the amount of solid waste generated, the level of social awareness on waste separation procedures, the distance between houses and waste collection points and the distance from the latter to the possible recovery plants and/or landfills, taking into account the material and energy recovery ratio within an integrated waste management system. As a case study, two different waste collection systems have been evaluated with this methodology in the ecocity Valdespartera located in Zaragoza, Spain, consisting of approximately 10,000 homes: (i) a system based on traditional truck transportation and manual collection, and (ii) a stationary vacuum waste collection system. Results show that, when operating at loads close to 100%, the stationary collection system has the best environmental performance in comparison with the conventional system. In contrast, when operating at load factors around 13% the environmental benefits in terms of net CO{sub 2}-eq. emissions for the stationary collection system are around 60% lower in comparison with the conventional one. - Highlights: • A

  9. Fractionation of potentially toxic elements in urban soils from five European cities by means of a harmonised sequential extraction procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, Christine M.; Urquhart, Graham J.; Ajmone-Marsan, Franco; Biasioli, Mattia; Costa Duarte, Armando da; Diaz-Barrientos, Encarnacion; Grcman, Helena; Hossack, Iain; Hursthouse, Andrew S.; Madrid, Luis; Rodrigues, Sonia; Zupan, Marko

    2006-01-01

    The revised (four-step) BCR sequential extraction procedure has been applied to fractionate the chromium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, lead and zinc contents in urban soil samples from public-access areas in five European cities. A preliminary inter-laboratory comparison was conducted and showed that data obtained by different laboratories participating in the study were sufficiently harmonious for comparisons to be made between cities and land types (e.g. parks, roadside, riverbanks, etc.). Analyte recoveries by sequential extraction, with respect to direct aqua regia digestion, were generally acceptable (100 ± 15%). Iron, nickel and, at most sites, chromium were found mainly in association with the residual phase of the soil matrix. Copper was present in the reducible, oxidisable and residual fractions, whilst zinc was found in all four sequential extracts. Manganese was strongly associated with reducible material as, in some cities, was lead. This is of concern because high lead concentrations were present in some soils (>500 mg kg -1 ) and the potential exists for remobilisation under reducing conditions. As would be expected, extractable metal contents were generally highest in older, more heavily industrialised cities. Copper, lead and zinc showed marked (and often correlated) variations in concentrations between sites within the same city whereas manganese and, especially, iron, did not. No overall relationships were, however, found between analyte concentrations and land use, nor between analyte partitioning and land use

  10. Toward a shared urban transport system passengers & Goods Cohabitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Trentini

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents radical new urban transportation system concepts, potentially allowing changing the economic and environmental costs of passenger and freight transportation. The driver focuses on the concept of sharing, which means to make a joint use of transport resources, between passengers and goods flows. From a field observation of several existing solutions, an inductive reasoning enables us to move from a set of specific facts to establish an archetype for a radical new urban transportation system. Once the archetype defined, it is translated in real life through the example of the On Route proposal for London.The research frame of this paper is the ANR ( French National Research Agency C-Goods (City Goods Operation Optimization using Decision support System project. Started in February 2009 the project involves four partners, (The multi-disciplinary French engineer school EIGSI (Ecole d’Ingénieurs en Génie des Systèmes Industriels, the French university ENMP (Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Paris, the Poitiers Urban Community (CAP, and the consulting service Interface Transport, specialized in transport economy and will end on 2012.

  11. L’integrazione tra governo della mobilità e governo delle trasformazioni urbane The integration of urban transformation government and mobility management in European experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ceudech

    2007-12-01

    trasformazione.Starting from Nineties, many experiences, focused on the integration between urban and territorial transformation government and mobility management and aimed at achieving objectives of sustainability, have been carried out in different European cities. In these experiences, the integration between urban transformation government and mobility management has been tested at different scales and with different approaches. In detail, such an integration is pursued both through the definition of the dimension, localization and spatial and functional features of new settlements, both through the requalification of the existing ones by the improvement of transport infrastructures, the public space design, the location of activities connected to the public transport network, the traffic flows regulation. With reference to such experiences, the paper outlines a synthetic view of different case-studies focused on the most recent integrated policies referred to the territorial transformation government and to the mobility management. Then, the most significant weaknesses and the more innovative aspects of some case-studies are highlighted both for the new settlements and for the existing ones.

  12. Ozone pollution and ozone biomonitoring in European cities. Part I: Ozone concentrations and cumulative exposure indices at urban and suburban sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpp, A.; Ansel, W.; Klumpp, G.

    2006-01-01

    In the frame of a European research project on air quality in urban agglomerations, data on ozone concentrations from 23 automated urban and suburban monitoring stations in 11 cities from seven countries were analysed and evaluated. Daily and summer mean and maximum concentrations were computed...... based on hourly mean values, and cumulative ozone exposure indices (Accumulated exposure Over a Threshold of 40 ppb (AOT40), AOT20) were calculated. The diurnal profiles showed a characteristic pattern in most city centres, with minimum values in the early morning hours, a strong rise during the morning......, by contrast, maximum values were lower and diurnal variation was much smaller. Based on ozone concentrations as well as on cumulative exposure indices, a clear north-south gradient in ozone pollution, with increasing levels from northern and northwestern sites to central and southern European sites...

  13. ADVANCED DRIVER SAFETY SUPPORT SYSTEMS FOR THE URBAN TYPE VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna JEZIERSKA-KRUPA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Smart Power Team is currently working on the design of an urban electric vehicle designed to compete in the Shell Eco-marathon. One important aspect of this type of vehicle characteristics is it safety. The project of advanced driver assistance systems has included some proposals of such systems and the concept of their execution. The first concept, BLIS (Blind Spot Information System, is to build a system of informing a driver about vehicles appearing in the blind spot. The system constitutes a second concept, CDIS (Collision Detection and Information System, and it is designed to detect a vehicle collision and inform the team. Further systems are: DPMS (Dew Point Measurement System - a system which does not allow a situation, where the windows are fogged, OHRS (Overtaking Horn Reminder System - a system which checks overtaking and MSS (main supervision system - a supervisory system. These concepts are based on the assumption of the use of laser sensors, photoelectric, humidity and temperature, and other commercially available systems. The article presents a detailed description of driver assistance systems and virtual prototyping methodology for these systems, as well as the numerical results of the verification of one of the systems.

  14. An integrated urban drainage system model for assessing renovation scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, X; Zeng, S; Chen, J; Zhao, D

    2012-01-01

    Due to sustained economic growth in China over the last three decades, urbanization has been on a rapidly expanding track. In recent years, regional industrial relocations were also accelerated across the country from the east coast to the west inland. These changes have led to a large-scale redesign of urban infrastructures, including the drainage system. To help the reconstructed infrastructures towards a better sustainability, a tool is required for assessing the efficiency and environmental performance of different renovation schemes. This paper developed an integrated dynamic modeling tool, which consisted of three models for describing the sewer, the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and the receiving water body respectively. Three auxiliary modules were also incorporated to conceptualize the model, calibrate the simulations, and analyze the results. The developed integrated modeling tool was applied to a case study in Shenzhen City, which is one of the most dynamic cities and facing considerable challenges for environmental degradation. The renovation scheme proposed to improve the environmental performance of Shenzhen City's urban drainage system was modeled and evaluated. The simulation results supplied some suggestions for the further improvement of the renovation scheme.

  15. The European Marine Observing Network and the development of an Integrated European Ocean Observing System. An EuroGOOS perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Vicente; Gorringe, Patrick; Nolan, Glenn

    2016-04-01

    The ocean benefits many sectors of society, being the biggest reservoir of heat, water, carbon and oxygen and playing a fundamental role regulating the earth's climate. We rely on the oceans for food, transport, energy and recreation. Therefore, a sustained marine observation network is crucial to further our understanding of the oceanic environment and to supply scientific data to meet society's need. Marine data and observations in Europe, collected primarily by state governmental agencies, is offered via five Regional Operational Oceanographic Systems (ROOS) within the context of EuroGOOS (http://www.eurogos.eu), an International Non-Profit Association of national governmental agencies and research organizations (40 members from 19 member states) committed to European-scale operational oceanography within the context of the Intergovernmental Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS). Strong cooperation within these regions, enabling the involvement of additional partners and countries, forms the basis of EuroGOOS work. Ocean data collected from different type of sensors (e.g. moored buoys, tide gauges, Ferrybox systems, High Frequency radars, gliders and profiling floats) is accessible to scientist and other end users through data portals and initiatives such as the European Marine Observations and Data Network (EMODnet) (www.emodnet.eu) and the Copernicus Marine Service Copernicus (www.copernicus.eu). Although a relatively mature European ocean observing capability already exists and its well-coordinated at European level, some gaps have been identified, for example the demand for ecosystem products and services, or the case that biogeochemical observations are still relatively sparse particularly in coastal and shelf seas. Assessing gaps based on the capacity of the observing system to answer key societal challenges e.g. site suitability for aquaculture and ocean energy, oil spill response and contextual oceanographic products for fisheries and ecosystems is still

  16. Effects of rainwater harvesting on centralized urban water supply systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandet, C.; Binning, Philip John; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2010-01-01

    , Northern France, yielded supply reliabilities close to 100% for reasonable tank sizes (0.065 m3/m2 of roof area in Dinard compared with 0.262 m3/m2 in Nice with a RWSO of 30% for a detached house). However, the collection and use of rainfall results in a permanent decrease in mains water demand leading...... to an increase in water age in the distribution network. Investigations carried on a real network showed that water age is greatly affected when rainwater supplies more than 30% of the overall water demand. In urban water utilities planning, rainwater supply systems may however be profitable for the community......The potential effect of widespread rainwater harvesting practices on mains water demand and quality management are investigated for three different types of urban areas characterized by different roof area to water demand ratios. Two rainfall patterns are considered with similar average annual...

  17. The European reliability data system - ERDS: a state of the art and future developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancini, G.; Amesz, J.; Bastianini, P.; Capobianchi, S.

    1982-01-01

    In the frame of the Multiannual Nuclear Safety Programme of the Joint Research Centre of the Commisson of the European Communities, a project is being carried out aiming at the creation of a centralized data system collecting and organizing, at European level, information related to the operation of LWRs. The European Reliability Data System ERDS will exploit information already collected in national data systems and information deriving from single reactor sources. The paper describes the development of the four data systems constituting the ERDS: Component Event Data Bank; Abnormal Occurrences Reporting System; Operating Unit Status Report; Generic Reliability Parameter Data Bank

  18. Influence of urban land cover changes and climate change for the exposure of European cities to flooding during high-intensity precipitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Per Skougaard; Høegh Ravn, Nanna; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    owing to recent changes in urban land cover, under present and future climatic conditions. Estimated changes in impervious urban surfaces based on Landsat satellite imagery covering the period 1984–2014 are combined with regionally downscaled estimates of current and expected future rainfall extremes......The extent and location of impervious surfaces within urban areas due to past and present city development strongly affects the amount and velocity of run-off during high-intensity rainfall and consequently influences the exposure of cities towards flooding. The frequency and intensity of extreme...... rainfall are expected to increase in many places due to climate change and thus further exacerbate the risk of pluvial flooding. This paper presents a combined hydrological-hydrodynamic modelling and remote sensing approach suitable for examining the susceptibility of European cities to pluvial flooding...

  19. URBAN REGENERATION AND CULTURAL DIVERSITY: AN ASSESSEMENT OF EUROPEAN BEST PRACTICES

    OpenAIRE

    Patrizia Riganti

    2013-01-01

    Cultural diversity is one of the main challenges of our globalised world. Contemporary cities face increasing flows of migrants settling in new countries moved by economic and at times political reasons. This creates competitions for jobs and services. Diversity in beliefs and traditions can cause cultural conflicts and may end up in various forms of segregations of immigrants' communities. The hosting communities have been forced to develop new systems of governance to deal with conflicts an...

  20. The Demonstrator for the European Plate Observing System (EPOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, T. L.; Euteneuer, F.; Ulbricht, D.; Lauterjung, J.; Bailo, D.; Jeffery, K. G.

    2014-12-01

    An important outcome of the 4-year Preparatory Phase of the ESFRI project European Plate Observing System (EPOS) was the development and first implementation of the EPOS Demonstrator by the project's ICT Working Group 7. The Demonstrator implements the vertical integration of the three-layer architectural scheme for EPOS, connecting the Integrated Core Services (ICS), Thematic Core Services (TCS) and the National Research Infrastructures (NRI). The demonstrator provides a single GUI with central key discovery and query functionalities, based on already existing services by the seismic, geologic and geodetic communities. More specifically the seismic services of the Demonstrator utilize webservices and APIs for data and discovery of raw seismic data (FDSN webservices by the EIDA Network), events (Geoportal by EMSC) and analytical data products (e.g., hazard maps by EFEHR via OGC WMS). For geologic services, the EPOS Demonstrator accesses OneGeology Europe which serves the community with geologic maps and point information via OGC webservices. The Demonstrator also provides access to raw geodetic data via a newly developed universal tool called GSAC. The Demonstrator itself resembles the future Integrated Core Service (ICS) and provides direct access to the end user. Its core functionality lies in a metadata catalogue, which serves as the central information hub and stores information about all RIs, related persons, projects, financial background and technical access information. The database schema of the catalogue is based on CERIF, which has been slightly adapted. Currently, the portal provides basic query functions as well as cross domain search. [www.epos.cineca.it

  1. RF system modeling and controller design for the European XFEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Christian

    2011-06-01

    The European XFEL is being constructed at the Deutsche Elektronen Synchrotron DESY to generate intense, ultrashort pulses of highly coherent and monochromatic X-Rays for material science research. X-ray flashes are generated by accelerating electron bunches within superconducting cavities with radio frequency (RF) fields to energies up to 17.5 GeV. The digital control of these fields requires extremely high quality in order to achieve the physical processes of photon generation. DESY offers with FLASH a pilot test facility, allowing to test and develop most necessary components, even before the XFEL is conducted. Current field control is based on a proportional feedback controller in addition to a constant feedforward drive, which do not meet the high requirements of the XFEL. This thesis shows that a model based controller design can achieve the necessary field regulation requirements. A linear, time invariant ''black box model'' is estimated, which characterizes the essential dynamic behavior. This model is not based on physical assumptions, but describes exclusively the transfer behavior of the plant. The acceleration modules are operated in a pulsed mode, in which the RF field must be kept constant for a finite period. The character of the disturbances and variations from pulse-to-pulse, together with the properties of the system, require a combination of controlled feedforward drive and feedback. Generally unpredictable, low frequency pulse-to-pulse variations are suppressed by the feedback controller. The structural design of the complex multivariable feedback controller is given, which constrains the model based design approach to assign the controller parameters only. Estimation of the parameters, which can not be tuned manually, is done by the method of H loop shaping which is often applied in modern control theory. However, disturbances within a pulse are in a high frequency range concerning the short pulse duration. They are not sufficiently suppressed

  2. RF system modeling and controller design for the European XFEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Christian

    2011-06-15

    The European XFEL is being constructed at the Deutsche Elektronen Synchrotron DESY to generate intense, ultrashort pulses of highly coherent and monochromatic X-Rays for material science research. X-ray flashes are generated by accelerating electron bunches within superconducting cavities with radio frequency (RF) fields to energies up to 17.5 GeV. The digital control of these fields requires extremely high quality in order to achieve the physical processes of photon generation. DESY offers with FLASH a pilot test facility, allowing to test and develop most necessary components, even before the XFEL is conducted. Current field control is based on a proportional feedback controller in addition to a constant feedforward drive, which do not meet the high requirements of the XFEL. This thesis shows that a model based controller design can achieve the necessary field regulation requirements. A linear, time invariant ''black box model'' is estimated, which characterizes the essential dynamic behavior. This model is not based on physical assumptions, but describes exclusively the transfer behavior of the plant. The acceleration modules are operated in a pulsed mode, in which the RF field must be kept constant for a finite period. The character of the disturbances and variations from pulse-to-pulse, together with the properties of the system, require a combination of controlled feedforward drive and feedback. Generally unpredictable, low frequency pulse-to-pulse variations are suppressed by the feedback controller. The structural design of the complex multivariable feedback controller is given, which constrains the model based design approach to assign the controller parameters only. Estimation of the parameters, which can not be tuned manually, is done by the method of H{sub {infinity}} loop shaping which is often applied in modern control theory. However, disturbances within a pulse are in a high frequency range concerning the short pulse duration

  3. The Consolidation on Banking Supervision in the Context of a Pan European Banking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora Barbu

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of national banking systems in the European banking system and the absence of consolidated supervision creates the premises for a series of interrogations whose essence is the same: Is it possible to discuss about a Pan European Banking System? The starting point in answering this question was the efforts to create a single banking market, which took place in 1973-1999, and the impact of integration on the European Banking Industry. Among the most representative aspects, it must be emphasized the necessity of consolidating banking supervision at an European level, considering that the International Banking Community studies the problematic of banking regulations at a global level. The two dimensions of the prudential and European bank supervision device – the geographic and the institutional – demand the creation of a structural reform in order to ensure the functioning of a Pan European system of banking supervision and regulations. The considerations on the Consolidation of European Banking Supervision draws into discussion the Financial Supervision Authority which has generalized as an applicable model in numerous European countries and has been mentioned as an alternative of Pan European banking supervision. In the process of the integration of the banking sector, the Basel II Accord represents an opportunity in reaching a convergence of national regulations and practices in matters of risk management, considering that these actions are in line with the preoccupations of realizing a Pan European banking system. Thus, the creation of Pan European banking system involves actions in more directions: legal, institutional, operational meant to ensure the consolidation of banking supervision.

  4. Environmental assessment of 9 European public bus transportation systems

    OpenAIRE

    Nanaki, Evanthia; Koroneos, Christopher; Roset Calzada, Jaime; Tiziana, Susca; Christensen, T.H.; De Gregorio Hurtado, Sonia; Rybka, Adam; Kopitovic, J.; Heidrich, Oliver; López Jiménez, P.Amparo

    2016-01-01

    The transportation sector is one of the largest sources of EU’s greenhouse gas emissions. In 2011, transportation represented approximately 25 percent of total EU’s greenhouse gas emissions. Urban mobility accounts for 40% of all CO2 emissions of road transport and up to 70% of other pollutants from transport. As, transportation and mobility play a crucial part both in urban economics and the quality of life, it is of great significance to ensure a low carbon transportation sector, so as to d...

  5. Sustainable Water Management in Urban, Agricultural, and Natural Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tess Russo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable water management (SWM requires allocating between competing water sector demands, and balancing the financial and social resources required to support necessary water systems. The objective of this review is to assess SWM in three sectors: urban, agricultural, and natural systems. This review explores the following questions: (1 How is SWM defined and evaluated? (2 What are the challenges associated with sustainable development in each sector? (3 What are the areas of greatest potential improvement in urban and agricultural water management systems? And (4 What role does country development status have in SWM practices? The methods for evaluating water management practices range from relatively simple indicator methods to integration of multiple models, depending on the complexity of the problem and resources of the investigators. The two key findings and recommendations for meeting SWM objectives are: (1 all forms of water must be considered usable, and reusable, water resources; and (2 increasing agricultural crop water production represents the largest opportunity for reducing total water consumption, and will be required to meet global food security needs. The level of regional development should not dictate sustainability objectives, however local infrastructure conditions and financial capabilities should inform the details of water system design and evaluation.

  6. Urban Environmental Education for Global Transformation Initiatives - Integrating Information and Communication Systems for Urban Sustainability in 2050.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, K.

    2017-12-01

    The Urban population of developing countries is predicted to rise from one third in 1990 to over 50% by 2025. In 1950 the world's total urban population was 734 million, of whom 448 million were living in developed countries and remaining 286 were in developing region. The total population on earth is predicted to increase by more than one billion people within the next 15 years, reaching 8.5 billion in 2030, and to increase further to 9.7 billion in 2050 and 11.2 billion by 2100. Looking at the ever increasing urbanization.In 2016, an estimated 54.5 per cent of the world's populations inhabited in urban region. By 2030, urban areas are projected to shelter 60 per cent of people worldwide and one in every three people will live in cities with at least half a million inhabitants.On the basis of these figures and other global trends, it would appear that Africa and Asia will have the highest share of world's urban growth in next 25 years, resulting consideration rise of large number of metropolitan cities and towns. Therefore issues related to urban climate change will be important for socio economic development for urban transformation through environmental sustainability.The information and communication systems plays an important role in achieving the social sustainability through environmental sustainability for urban transformation. This presentation aims to start the Global initiatives on the problem identifications in environment education for global transformation, education for socio-economic and environmental sustainability due to urbanization in 2050 to investigate problems related to social-economic risks and management issues resulting from urbanization to aid mitigation planning in globalized world and to educate scientists and local populations to form a basis for sustainable solutions in environment learning.The presentation aims to assess the potential of information and communication technology for environment education,both within different

  7. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE EUROPEAN BANKING INDUSTRY THROUGH THE TARGET PAYMENTS SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCIAN-ION MEDAR

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The creation of the Single Euro Payments Area is in full swing and the completion of the Economic and Monetary Union is the moment of consolidation, of preparing the conditions in all Member States to enable them to cope with the global financial challenges and prosper. The markets for small value payments in euro within the European Union have been very fragmented. There was a need for a project (SEPA with a major impact on national payment markets in order to unify and standardize them in a single domestic market. Trans-European Automated Realtime Gross Settlement Express Transfer System (TARGET is a trans-European automated real-time gross settlement system - which meets the needs of consumers by offering services at a harmonized level in the European Union. Now, however, the banking clientele needs some education about banking operations taking place at the level of the European banking system. The initial project was proposed and promoted by the European Central Bank together with the European Commission and supported by the central banks of the European Union. However, the implementation and continued development of the SEPA-Single Euro Payments Area process is the responsibility of the financial institutions, and the final beneficiaries are indisputably the individuals and legal entities that represent their "clientele". The Eurosystem has cooperated with national central banks to implement standards that facilitate the rapid automation of payment systems by offering TAREGET 2-Securities (T2S banking clients.

  8. A multimedia streaming system for urban rail environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poderys, Justas; Farooq, Jahanzeb; Soler, José

    2017-01-01

    Due to a large number of mostly stationary users inside a train and the availability of a radio connection to the outside world, urban rail environments serve as promising candidates for multimedia distribution systems deployment. This work proposes to offload the individual per-passenger cellular...... network connections by using the excessive Communications-Based Train Control (CBTC) radio link bandwidth to deliver multimedia streams to a train, where it is subsequently distributed to the passengers using peer-to-peer based data distribution. Connections among the train passengers are implemented...

  9. Welfare of ducks in European duck husbandry systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, T.B.; Bracke, M.B.M.; Berk, J.; Cooper, J.; Faure, J.M.; Guemene, D.; Harlander, A.; Jones, T.; Knierim, U.; Kuhnt, K.; Pingel, H.; Reiter, K.; Serviere, J.; Ruis, M.A.W.

    2005-01-01

    European duck meat production is based on the use of Pekin, Muscovy and Mule duck genotypes that vary in their behavioural and physiological characteristics. Furthermore, large differences exist in their housing and management conditions. The aim of this review is to discuss the welfare of these

  10. On the system of mood in European and Brazilian Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Marques

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with mood distribution in European and Brazilian Portuguese. Although, in many cases, these two varieties do not differ as regards the selected mood, there are exceptions in some contexts. The variations involve rather different constructions, at first sight suggesting a chaotic picture. However, if one assumes that mood is associated with the expression of an attitude towards a proposition (in other words, that mood is an expression of modality, it becomes clear that European and Brazilian Portuguese are diverging in respect to the relevant factors for mood selection. In particular, while in European Portuguese the selection of mood is sensitive to both veridicality and epistemic modality, Brazilian Portuguese is becoming a language where the truth-value of the proposition is the main factor responsible for mood selection. Hence, a tendency appears to be developing for Brazilian Portuguese to approach the pattern found in languages like Rumanian, (Modern Greek or Hungarian, while European Portuguese follows the pattern found in most other Romance languages.

  11. The European computer model for optronic system performance prediction (ECOMOS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessler, S.; Bijl, P.; Labarre, L.; Repasi, E.; Wittenstein, W.; Bürsing, H.

    2017-01-01

    ECOMOS is a multinational effort within the framework of an EDA Project Arrangement. Its aim is to provide a generally accepted and harmonized European computer model for computing nominal Target Acquisition (TA) ranges of optronic imagers operating in the Visible or thermal Infrared (IR). The

  12. Urban

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo José Lisboa Nobre

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Natal is a city with environment singularities. The urban legislation tried to preserve the features of the local landscape delimiting “Areas for Controlling Building High”, destined to protect the scenic value of some parts of the city. In 1979 was created a “NonÆdificandi” area to protect the scenery of Ponta Negra beach, one of the most famous view of the city. Since this time, the real state market, the building constructers and the land owners of this area have exerted constant pressure in sense to abolish or to modify this legal instrument.Nowadays, the public administration presented a new project which try to answer public and private interests.This paper is the result of an inclusion of the University in this polemic issue. Architecture and Urban Planning and Statistic students of two universities of the city (UFRN and UNP, helped the process collecting data and producing information. The proposed of the investigation was to know the users of this area and their opinion about the subject. It was done together with the Public agency, Secretaria Especial de Meio Ambiente e Urbanismo. At the end, the students presented their particular solutions for the problem, inside the disciplines of Landscaping and Urban Planning.

  13. COST Action TU1206 "SUB-URBAN - A European network to improve understanding and use of the ground beneath our cities"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Diarmad; de Beer, Johannes; Lawrence, David; van der Meulen, Michiel; Mielby, Susie; Hay, David; Scanlon, Ray; Campenhout, Ignace; Taugs, Renate; Eriksson, Ingelov

    2014-05-01

    Sustainable urbanisation is the focus of SUB-URBAN, a European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) Action TU1206 - A European network to improve understanding and use of the ground beneath our cities. This aims to transform relationships between experts who develop urban subsurface geoscience knowledge - principally national Geological Survey Organisations (GSOs), and those who can most benefit from it - urban decision makers, planners, practitioners and the wider research community. Under COST's Transport and Urban Development Domain, SUB-URBAN has established a network of GSOs and other researchers in over 20 countries, to draw together and evaluate collective urban geoscience research in 3D/4D characterisation, prediction and visualisation. Knowledge exchange between researchers and City-partners within 'SUB-URBAN' is already facilitating new city-scale subsurface projects, and is developing a tool-box of good-practice guidance, decision-support tools, and cost-effective methodologies that are appropriate to local needs and circumstances. These are intended to act as catalysts in the transformation of relationships between geoscientists and urban decision-makers more generally. As a result, the importance of the urban sub-surface in the sustainable development of our cities will be better appreciated, and the conflicting demands currently placed on it will be acknowledged, and resolved appropriately. Existing city-scale 3D/4D model exemplars are being developed by partners in the UK (Glasgow, London), Germany (Hamburg) and France (Paris). These draw on extensive ground investigation (10s-100s of thousands of boreholes) and other data. Model linkage enables prediction of groundwater, heat, SuDS, and engineering properties. Combined subsurface and above-ground (CityGML, BIMs) models are in preparation. These models will provide valuable tools for more holistic urban planning; identifying subsurface opportunities and saving costs by reducing uncertainty in

  14. Concept of holonic energy systems in future urban life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirata, Masaru

    1987-11-20

    In order to build a holonic energy supply system in urban areas in the 21th century, electric power generated in nuclear power plants or coal fired power plants will be used to meet the base load demands, while power generated in small-sized cogeneration plants distributed over an urban area will be used for peak load demands. Such cogeneration plants should burn imported oil and LNG, and should serve to supply heat as well. Large-scale centralized systems such as clear power plants and small-scale distributed systems such as cogeneration plants have their specific disadvantages each other. It is expected that people in the next century will hope for diversified forms of energy supply, such as varying voltages and frequencies to meet specific purposes, in order to secure comfortable life. Demands for various forms of D.C. power will also increase. Cogeneration seems to be a promising means for energy supply in such an area. (7 figs, 2 refs)

  15. A dispersion modelling system for urban air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karppinen, A.; Kukkonen, J.; Nordlund, G.; Rantakrans, E.; Valkama, I.

    1998-10-01

    An Urban Dispersion Modelling system UDM-FMI, developed at the Finnish Meteorological Institute is described in the report. The modelling system includes a multiple source Gaussian plume model and a meteorological pre-processing model. The dispersion model is an integrated urban scale model, taking into account of all source categories (point, line, area and volume sources). It includes a treatment of chemical transformation (for NO{sub 2}) wet and dry deposition (for SO{sub 2}) plume rise, downwash phenomena and dispersion of inert particles. The model allows also for the influence of a finite mixing height. The model structure is mainly based on the state-of-the-art methodology. The system also computes statistical parameters from the time series, which can be compared to air quality guidelines. The relevant meteorological parameters for the dispersion model are evaluated using data produced by a meteorological pre-processor. The model is based mainly on the energy budget method. Results of national investigations have been used for evaluating climate-dependent parameters. The model utilises the synoptic meteorological observations, radiation records and aerological sounding observations. The model results include the hourly time series of the relevant atmospheric turbulence 51 refs.

  16. Managing urban energy system: A case of Suzhou in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Sai; Zhang Tianzhu

    2011-01-01

    Managing urban energy system is vital for energy conservation and CO 2 reduction. Integrating energy input-output model with carbon emission pinch analysis, we propose a framework for managing urban energy system. This framework could analyze current energy demands and CO 2 emissions, predict their future possibilities and optimize energy mix of key sectors under CO 2 emission constraints. Key sectors are identified by the energy input-output table from both direct and accumulative perspectives. Moreover, taking Suzhou, a typical manufacturing center and export-oriented city in China, as a case example, energy metabolism of Suzhou in 2020 is predicted using energy input-output model. And three sectors named Coking, Smelting and pressing of metals and Production and supply of electric power are identified to have big effects on CO 2 emissions. Subsequently, energy mix of three identified key sectors is optimized under CO 2 emission constraints by the carbon emission pinch analysis. According to the results, clean energy sources will occupy a great position in Suzhou's future energy demands. And the reuse of wastes as energy sources should be limited to achieve CO 2 mitigation targets. Finally, policy implications of results and future work are discussed. - Research highlights: → We construct a framework for sustainable energy system management. → We apply the framework in a typical manufacturing center named Suzhou in China. → Key sectors for CO 2 emissions are identified, and energy mix is optimized. → Policy implications of results and future work are discussed.

  17. European civil procedure: current status within the legal system of the European Union and its member states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Terekhov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 347.9The purpose of the article is to provide a critical analysis of different approaches towards the notion of “European Civil Procedure”, to substantiate by means of legal and judicial practice, research papers a true essence and legal nature of the European Civil Procedure.The methodological basis for the study: general scientific methods (analysis, synthesis, comparison; private and academic (interpretation, comparison, formal-legal.Problems and basic scientific results: the notion of “European Civil Procedure”, which describes the process of EU Member States judicial cooperation, bears largely a conventional character. It is not used officially by the organs and institutions of the EU, or its Member States. Moreover, it assumes an unjustified monopolization of the European discourse on the side of EU’s initiatives, although Europe is not limited to that association neither in geographical, nor in a legal sense. However, the given notion has become quite colloquial and does not cause any difficulties to the beneficiaries, and thus we may use the terms “European Civil Procedure” (ECP and “Civil Procedure of the EU” (CP EU as synonyms.Different approaches towards the nature of the European Civil Procedure claim that it may be regarded as: (1 a separate (communitary regime of Private International Law (or, otherwise, International Civil Procedure; (2 means to approximate national rules of Civil Pro-cedure; 3 a particular system of judicial decisions recognition; (4 an independent area of supranational law; 5 an aggregate of all or part of the qualities mentioned above.The system of EU Civil Procedure constitutes “federal” procedural law of the Union that functions side-by-side national procedural rules. It governs those relations that go beyond the borders of one Member State, but not the EU itself. Relations between Member States and third nations are still generally out of the federal competence.We need not to

  18. Urban fuel demand in Ethiopia: an almost‐ideal demand system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigates the opportunities for reducing the pressure of urban centers on rural forest areas, using a dataset of 350 urban households in Tigrai in northern Ethiopia. We applied an almost‐ideal demand system to fuels. The results suggest that reducing the pressure of urban centers on local forests cannot be ...

  19. Applications of geographic information system and expert system for urban runoff and water quality management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Beum-Hee [Pai Chai University, Taejeon(Korea)

    2001-06-30

    It is very important to select appropriate methods of collecting, predicting, and analyzing information for the development of urban water resources and the prevention of disasters. Thus, in this study an accurate data generation method is developed using Geographic Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS). The methods of development and application of an expert system are suggested to solve more efficiently the problems of water resources and quality induced by the rapid urbanization. The time-varying data in a large region, the An-Yang Cheon watershed, were reasonably obtained by the application of the GIS using ARC/INFO and RS data. The ESPE (Expert System for Parameter Estimation), an expert system is developed using the CLIPS 6.0. The simulated results showed agreement with the measured data globally. These methods are expected to efficiently simulate the runoff and water quality in the rapidly varying urban area. (author). 10 refs., 4 tabs., 10 figs.

  20. European Transportation in the Greenhouse — System and Policy Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    The transport sector in Europe is growing in both absolute and relative terms. Not only because the number of European Union states have increased – 10 new members, including Cyprus welcomed in 2004 - but also because transport is a highly expansive sector in both old and new Member Countries....... Current transport growth does not help the EU in meeting its Kyoto protocol obligation to reduce GHG emission by 8% from base year to 2008-2012, and the predicted future mobility trends will pose substantial challenges for achieving possible further reduction objectives beyond the Kyoto framework....... The purpose of this paper is to give a brief overall account of the present situation and outlook in terms of transport energy use and GHG emissions in the context of European Union transport policy. The present assessment is based on a personal selection of some indicators that the author belives are key...

  1. On the system of mood in European and Brazilian Portuguese

    OpenAIRE

    Rui Marques

    2004-01-01

    This paper is concerned with mood distribution in European and Brazilian Portuguese. Although, in many cases, these two varieties do not differ as regards the selected mood, there are exceptions in some contexts. The variations involve rather different constructions, at first sight suggesting a chaotic picture. However, if one assumes that mood is associated with the expression of an attitude towards a proposition (in other words, that mood is an expression of modality), it becomes clear that...

  2. Phosphorus cycling in Montreal's food and urban agriculture systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève S Metson

    Full Text Available Cities are a key system in anthropogenic phosphorus (P cycling because they concentrate both P demand and waste production. Urban agriculture (UA has been proposed as a means to improve P management by recycling cities' P-rich waste back into local food production. However, we have a limited understanding of the role UA currently plays in the P cycle of cities or its potential to recycle local P waste. Using existing data combined with surveys of local UA practitioners, we quantified the role of UA in the P cycle of Montreal, Canada to explore the potential for UA to recycle local P waste. We also used existing data to complete a substance flow analysis of P flows in the overall food system of Montreal. In 2012, Montreal imported 3.5 Gg of P in food, of which 2.63 Gg ultimately accumulated in landfills, 0.36 Gg were discharged to local waters, and only 0.09 Gg were recycled through composting. We found that UA is only a small sub-system in the overall P cycle of the city, contributing just 0.44% of the P consumed as food in the city. However, within the UA system, the rate of recycling is high: 73% of inputs applied to soil were from recycled sources. While a Quebec mandate to recycle 100% of all organic waste by 2020 might increase the role of UA in P recycling, the area of land in UA is too small to accommodate all P waste produced on the island. UA may, however, be a valuable pathway to improve urban P sustainability by acting as an activity that changes residents' relationship to, and understanding of, the food system and increases their acceptance of composting.

  3. Phosphorus cycling in Montreal's food and urban agriculture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metson, Geneviève S; Bennett, Elena M

    2015-01-01

    Cities are a key system in anthropogenic phosphorus (P) cycling because they concentrate both P demand and waste production. Urban agriculture (UA) has been proposed as a means to improve P management by recycling cities' P-rich waste back into local food production. However, we have a limited understanding of the role UA currently plays in the P cycle of cities or its potential to recycle local P waste. Using existing data combined with surveys of local UA practitioners, we quantified the role of UA in the P cycle of Montreal, Canada to explore the potential for UA to recycle local P waste. We also used existing data to complete a substance flow analysis of P flows in the overall food system of Montreal. In 2012, Montreal imported 3.5 Gg of P in food, of which 2.63 Gg ultimately accumulated in landfills, 0.36 Gg were discharged to local waters, and only 0.09 Gg were recycled through composting. We found that UA is only a small sub-system in the overall P cycle of the city, contributing just 0.44% of the P consumed as food in the city. However, within the UA system, the rate of recycling is high: 73% of inputs applied to soil were from recycled sources. While a Quebec mandate to recycle 100% of all organic waste by 2020 might increase the role of UA in P recycling, the area of land in UA is too small to accommodate all P waste produced on the island. UA may, however, be a valuable pathway to improve urban P sustainability by acting as an activity that changes residents' relationship to, and understanding of, the food system and increases their acceptance of composting.

  4. Capturing the complexity of European primary care systems in a European monitoring instrument.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kringos, D.; Boerma, W.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: The investment in PC reforms to improve the overall performance of health care systems has been substantial in Europe. There is however a lack of up to date comparable information to evaluate the development of primary care (PC) systems. This EU-funded PHAMEU (Primary Health Care Activity

  5. Urbanism, climate change and health: systems approaches to governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capon, Anthony G; Synnott, Emma S; Holliday, Sue

    2009-01-01

    Effective action on climate change health impacts and vulnerability will require systems approaches and integrated policy and planning responses from a range of government agencies. Similar responses are needed to address other complex problems, such as the obesity epidemic. Local government, with its focus on the governance of place, will have a key role in responding to these convergent agendas. Industry can also be part of the solution - indeed it must be, because it has a lead role in relevant sectors. Understanding the co-benefits for health of climate mitigation actions will strengthen the case for early action. There is a need for improved decision support tools to inform urban governance. These tools should be based on a systems approach and should incorporate a spatial perspective.

  6. Constructing an Efficient and Balanced European Patent System: “Muddling through”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2011-01-01

    The paper discusses ways to construct a more efficient and balanced European patent system. It identifies and describes challenges relating to innovation, to non-economic issues and to governance. In order to improve the patent system, a cautious approach of “Muddling through” is recommended. More...... concretely, the paper puts forward some of the solutions proposed in the STOA Report to the European Parliament on “Policy options for the improvement of the European patent system” and suggest initiatives such as the insertion of a mission statement in the EPC, improvement of patent quality, increasing...... access to patented inventions and enhancement of governance....

  7. Latvia in the System of European Territorial Security: a View from the Inside and Outside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanko Dmitry

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on Latvian contribution to European security, which, for the purposes of this study, is understood as a territorial system of regional security. Such system is a combination of interconnected institutions with Latvian participation operating in the field of security, Latvian cooperation with other European countries in the field of security, and the European perception of major security challenges and threats (that Latvia may or may not agree with. A systemic approach to studying the role of Latvia in the territorial system of European security requires a solid theoretical framework. The theories of international relations discussed in this article fall into two categories: those where territorial security systems are viewed as a product of external factors, and those that focus on internal regional factors. In this article, the authors rely on a variety of methods, including those that are characteristic of classical theories of international relations (such as realism and liberalism, and those employed in social constructivism studies. It is concluded that Latvian cooperation with institutions and countries of the territorial system of European security is rather limited, which indicates either a lack of the country’s integration into the system or a crisis of the system itself. An important result of the study is the validation of a systemic approach to studying regional security systems. This angle proves particularly useful in identifying crises of territorial systems of regional security in various regions of the world.

  8. An exploration of social systems as informative for urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The future of cities undoubtedly spells change on many levels due to urban growth. One of the mechanisms used in cities to cope with change is urban regeneration. Urban regeneration has mainly been addressed through economic and planning policies geared towards physical renewal, with hardly any understanding or ...

  9. Exploring relationships of an urban system : The case of Beyoglu

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sokmenoglu, A.; Cagdas, G.; Sariyildiz, I.S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces an ongoing research project addressing multi-dimensional and relational complexity of urban features by applying data mining as a methodology of knowledge discovery in urban feature analysis. A methodology is developed for formulation and analysis of an urban database by the

  10. The Consolidation on Banking Supervision in the Context of a Pan European Banking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora Barbu

    2007-03-01

    In the process of the integration of the banking sector, the Basel II Accord represents an opportunity in reaching a convergence of national regulations and practices in matters of risk management, considering that these actions are in line with the preoccupations of realizing a Pan European banking system. Thus, the creation of Pan European banking system involves actions in more directions: legal, institutional, operational meant to ensure the consolidation of banking supervision.

  11. Potential of combined Water Sensitive Urban Design systems for salinity treatment in urban environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Fatemeh; Golzarian, Mahmood Reza; Myers, Baden

    2018-03-01

    Water sensitive urban design and similar concepts often recommend a 'treatment train' is employed to improve stormwater quality. In this study, the capability of a combined permeable pavement and bioretention basin was examined with a view to developing a permeable pavement reservoir that can supplement the irrigation needs of a bioretention system in semi-arid climates. Salinity was a key study parameter due to published data on salinity in permeable pavement storage, and the potential to harvest water contaminated with de-icing salts. To conduct experiments, roofwater was collected from a roof in Adelaide, South Australia. Water was amended with NaCl to produce a control runoff (no added salt), a medium (500 mg/l) and a high (1500 mg/l) salinity runoff. Water was then run through the pavement into the storage reservoir and used to irrigate the bioretention system. Samples were collected from the roof, the pavement reservoir and the bioretention system outflow to determine whether significant water quality impacts occurred. Results show that while salinity levels increased significantly as water passed through the pavement and through the bioretention system, the increase was beneficial for irrigation purposes as it was from Ca and Mg ions thus reducing the sodium absorption ratio to levels considered 'good' for irrigation in accordance with several guidelines. Permeable paving increased pH of water and this effect was prominent when the initial salt concentration increased. The study shows that permeable pavements with underlying storage can be used to provide supplementary irrigation for bioretention systems, but high initial salt concentrations may present constraints on beneficial use of stormwater. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Synergetic Development Assessment of Urban River System Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingya Qiao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents Synergetic Development Assessment (SDA as a methodology to evaluate the environmental, economic, and social performance of an urban river system landscape from the perspective of sustainability. SDA is based on synergetics and its “order parameters” theory, proposed as a science to study the self-organization of complex systems. A case study of river system landscapes in China was carried out by, first, simplifying the composite system into three subsystems: environmental, economic, and social; then, going on to construct a hierarchical structure to explore the order parameters as the evaluation index. The Analytic Hierarchy Process was used to get the weight of the evaluation index to complete the assessment index system. At the same time, a Sequential Synergy Degree Model was built to accomplish the SDA. We find that from 2005 to 2015, the order degree of the environmental subsystem developed slowly, with fluctuations, and that river pattern is the key factor. Meanwhile, the order degree of the economic subsystem fluctuated widely, which significantly depended on the changing value of water resources, and the order degree of social subsystem improved continuously, with social culture lagging far behind. As a whole, the synergy degree of the composite system developed orderly at a corresponding low level, which was in low synergy from 2005 to 2009 and then in general synergy up to 2015.

  13. Holistic Analysis of the Urban Water Systems in Greater Cincinnati Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban water and wastewater systems with two utilities in Greater Cincinnati region were evaluated as a case study to elucidates a bigger picture of a typical centralized urban water system. Two different integrated assessment metrics were used to analyze the same system. LCA an...

  14. INSTITUTIONAL EVOLUTION OF EUROPEAN UNION TOWARD THE ENLARGEMENT. REFORMING ASPECTS OF THE INSTITUTIONAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TESCAŞIU BIANCA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the major challenge of the European Community is to adapt an initial institutional system to a newsituation. European Union’s enlargement created a new context in its architecture and, also, in solving new andspecific problems requested by this enlargement. The institutions became over-numbered and not enough optimal intheir decisions. Also, different new members of the Community had different visions about the future of EuropeanUnion, about the institutional system, about the major objectives of the Union, etc. This article focuses on some ofthese preoccupations and some solutions that should be able to find to these challenges. The most important EU’sinstitutions were reorganized and improved by the most important European Treaties, and new directions weredrawn in the way of creating the most representative and efficient institutional system.

  15. Influence of urban land cover changes and climate change for the exposure of European cities to flooding during high-intensity precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Skougaard Kaspersen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The extent and location of impervious surfaces within urban areas due to past and present city development strongly affects the amount and velocity of run-off during high-intensity rainfall and consequently influences the exposure of cities towards flooding. The frequency and intensity of extreme rainfall are expected to increase in many places due to climate change and thus further exacerbate the risk of pluvial flooding. This paper presents a combined hydrological-hydrodynamic modelling and remote sensing approach suitable for examining the susceptibility of European cities to pluvial flooding owing to recent changes in urban land cover, under present and future climatic conditions. Estimated changes in impervious urban surfaces based on Landsat satellite imagery covering the period 1984–2014 are combined with regionally downscaled estimates of current and expected future rainfall extremes to enable 2-D overland flow simulations and flood hazard assessments. The methodology is evaluated for the Danish city of Odense. Results suggest that the past 30 years of urban development alone has increased the city's exposure to pluvial flooding by 6% for 10-year rainfall up to 26% for 100-year rainfall. Corresponding estimates for RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 climate change scenarios (2071–2100 are in the order of 40 and 100%, indicating that land cover changes within cities can play a central role for the cities' exposure to flooding and conversely also for their adaptation to a changed climate.

  16. A spatial multi-objective optimization model for sustainable urban wastewater system layout planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, X; Zeng, S; Chen, J

    2012-01-01

    Design of a sustainable city has changed the traditional centralized urban wastewater system towards a decentralized or clustering one. Note that there is considerable spatial variability of the factors that affect urban drainage performance including urban catchment characteristics. The potential options are numerous for planning the layout of an urban wastewater system, which are associated with different costs and local environmental impacts. There is thus a need to develop an approach to find the optimal spatial layout for collecting, treating, reusing and discharging the municipal wastewater of a city. In this study, a spatial multi-objective optimization model, called Urban wastewateR system Layout model (URL), was developed. It is solved by a genetic algorithm embedding Monte Carlo sampling and a series of graph algorithms. This model was illustrated by a case study in a newly developing urban area in Beijing, China. Five optimized system layouts were recommended to the local municipality for further detailed design.

  17. An Integrated Model Based on a Hierarchical Indices System for Monitoring and Evaluating Urban Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xulin Guo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Over 50% of world’s population presently resides in cities, and this number is expected to rise to ~70% by 2050. Increasing urbanization problems including population growth, urban sprawl, land use change, unemployment, and environmental degradation, have markedly impacted urban residents’ Quality of Life (QOL. Therefore, urban sustainability and its measurement have gained increasing attention from administrators, urban planners, and scientific communities throughout the world with respect to improving urban development and human well-being. The widely accepted definition of urban sustainability emphasizes the balancing development of three primary domains (urban economy, society, and environment. This article attempts to improve the aforementioned definition of urban sustainability by incorporating a human well-being dimension. Major problems identified in existing urban sustainability indicator (USI models include a weak integration of potential indicators, poor measurement and quantification, and insufficient spatial-temporal analysis. To tackle these challenges an integrated USI model based on a hierarchical indices system was established for monitoring and evaluating urban sustainability. This model can be performed by quantifying indicators using both traditional statistical approaches and advanced geomatic techniques based on satellite imagery and census data, which aims to provide a theoretical basis for a comprehensive assessment of urban sustainability from a spatial-temporal perspective.

  18. Urban Integrated Industrial Cogeneration Systems Analysis. Phase II final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    Through the Urban Integrated Industrial Cogeneration Systems Analysis (UIICSA), the City of Chicago embarked upon an ambitious effort to identify the measure the overall industrial cogeneration market in the city and to evaluate in detail the most promising market opportunities. This report discusses the background of the work completed during Phase II of the UIICSA and presents the results of economic feasibility studies conducted for three potential cogeneration sites in Chicago. Phase II focused on the feasibility of cogeneration at the three most promising sites: the Stockyards and Calumet industrial areas, and the Ford City commercial/industrial complex. Each feasibility case study considered the energy load requirements of the existing facilities at the site and the potential for attracting and serving new growth in the area. Alternative fuels and technologies, and ownership and financing options were also incorporated into the case studies. Finally, site specific considerations such as development incentives, zoning and building code restrictions and environmental requirements were investigated.

  19. Water Sensitive Urban Design: An Investigation of Current Systems, Implementation Drivers, Community Perceptions and Potential to Supplement Urban Water Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok K. Sharma

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Large scale centralised water, wastewater and stormwater systems have been implemented for over 100 years. These systems have provided a safe drinking water supply, efficient collection and disposal of wastewater to protect human health, and the mitigation of urban flood risk. The sustainability of current urban water systems is under pressure from a range of challenges which include: rapid population growth and resulting urbanisation, climate change impacts, and infrastructure that is ageing and reaching capacity constraints. To address these issues, urban water services are now being implemented with Integrated Urban Water Management (IUWM and Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD approaches. WSUD systems can deliver multiple benefits including water conservation, stormwater quality improvement, flood control, landscape amenity and a healthy living environment. These systems can be provided as stand-alone systems or in combination with centralised systems. These systems are still novel and thus face knowledge gaps that are impeding their mainstream uptake. Knowledge gaps cover technical, economic, social, and institutional aspects of their implementation. This paper is based on the outcomes of a comprehensive study conducted in South Australia which investigated impediments for mainstream uptake of WSUD, community perceptions of WSUD and potential of WSUD to achieve water conservation through the application of alternative resources, and in flood management. The outcomes are discussed in this paper for the benefit of water professionals engaged with WSUD planning, implementation, community consultation and regulation. Although the paper is based on a study conducted in South Australia, the comprehensive framework developed to conduct this detailed study and investigation can be adopted in any part of the world.

  20. Improving the urban green system and green network through the rehabilitation of railway rust areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutter Dóra

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Industrial Revolution had a negative impact on both the city and the environment. By the second half of the 19th century, the urban erosion of industrial cities cried for direct intervention and curing. The methods developed either along an urban or an anti-urban philosophy: they resulted in the new models of green belt systems aimed at solving all the main urban problems with restructuring the urban fabric, controlling the urban spread into the rural landscape, the lack of green areas and open spaces for recreation and social life, and the lack of green spaces for ventilation. Nowadays, the major cities and capitals around the globe are competing for titles such as healthier, more liveable or even greener city. Given the unfortunate attributes of the urban structure in the historical cities, the development of new transportation sites or green areas is an extremely difficult issue. On the other hand, in the big cities, the brownfield sites are considered as reserve areas for sustainable urban development. Reusing the brownfields and rust areas is already a land saving urban development approach and in case of a complex and ecological urban rehabilitation it can underlie the development of an efficient urban green system and green network.

  1. Analysis of Spatial Pattern of Urban System along the Overland Silk Road Economic Belt Using DMSP-OLS Nighttime Light Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jianzhong; Bai, Linyan; wang, Kui; Zhang, Xuefu; Xie, Nengfu; Ran, Qiyun; Guo, Mingqiu; Xu, Lijun

    2017-02-01

    As China promotes the Belt and Road (BAR) initiative, the overland SREB development is widely concerned. The cities (including towns), population centers, of urban system are the cores of the economy along the SREB. Therefore, it is necessary to monitoring the urbanization of the belt so that the new growing points of urban development and the valid coupling mechanism between human and nature will be explored to promote the regional socio-economic sustainable development and effectively implement the BAR initiative. Using the DMSP-OLS stable nighttime lights (NTL) data in 1992, 2003, and 2014, in this paper we studied the urbanized spatial patterns of and the urbanized characteristics and trends of the main city system along the SREB in the view of the whole regionalized economic zone and typical cities and settlements (towns). The results showed that in general the NTL intensities in the SREB’s city system had the obvious geographical differentiation characteristics where there was maximum brightness of NTLs over the western European countries as well as being gradually decreasing from west to east. There were obvious increases of the NTL digital number (DN) values and NTL covering areas in 2003 and 2013 comparatively with that of 1992, which indicates the great urbanization development during this period. As for the four types of urban development process, there was an apparent consistency in a certain local area but a large heterogeneity among different areas. By analyzing the 273 pivot cities and the most pivot 26 cities, we found the number of the relatively small cities being decreasing but that of the large and medium-sized cities increasing. This study would provide the scientific support for the related researches and decision making of urbanization and urban economic development to promote the socio-economic comprehensive development of the overland SREB.

  2. Designing and implementing a regional urban modeling system using the SLEUTH cellular urban model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantz, Claire A.; Goetz, Scott J.; Donato, David I.; Claggett, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a fine-scale (30 meter resolution) regional land cover modeling system, based on the SLEUTH cellular automata model, that was developed for a 257000 km2 area comprising the Chesapeake Bay drainage basin in the eastern United States. As part of this effort, we developed a new version of the SLEUTH model (SLEUTH-3r), which introduces new functionality and fit metrics that substantially increase the performance and applicability of the model. In addition, we developed methods that expand the capability of SLEUTH to incorporate economic, cultural and policy information, opening up new avenues for the integration of SLEUTH with other land-change models. SLEUTH-3r is also more computationally efficient (by a factor of 5) and uses less memory (reduced 65%) than the original software. With the new version of SLEUTH, we were able to achieve high accuracies at both the aggregate level of 15 sub-regional modeling units and at finer scales. We present forecasts to 2030 of urban development under a current trends scenario across the entire Chesapeake Bay drainage basin, and three alternative scenarios for a sub-region within the Chesapeake Bay watershed to illustrate the new ability of SLEUTH-3r to generate forecasts across a broad range of conditions.

  3. Geographic Information System and Geoportal «River basins of the European Russia»

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yermolaev, O. P.; Mukharamova, S. S.; Maltsev, K. A.; Ivanov, M. A.; Ermolaeva, P. O.; Gayazov, A. I.; Mozzherin, V. V.; Kharchenko, S. V.; Marinina, O. A.; Lisetskii, F. N.

    2018-01-01

    Geographic Information System (GIS) and Geoportal with open access «River basins of the European Russia» were implemented. GIS and Geoportal are based on the map of basins of small rivers of the European Russia with information about natural and anthropogenic characteristics, namely geomorphometry of basins relief; climatic parameters, representing averages, variation, seasonal variation, extreme values of temperature and precipitation; land cover types; soil characteristics; type and subtype of landscape; population density. The GIS includes results of spatial analysis and modelling, in particular, assessment of anthropogenic impact on river basins; evaluation of water runoff and sediment runoff; climatic, geomorphological and landscape zoning for the European part of Russia.

  4. Ideology, Party Systems and Corruption Voting in European Democracies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charron, Nicholas; Bågenholm, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    What is the impact of corruption on citizens' voting behavior? There is a growing literature on an increasingly ubiquitous puzzle in many democratic countries: that corrupt officials continue to be re-elected by voters. In this study we address this issue with a novel theory and newly collected...... original survey data for 24 European countries. The crux of the argument is that voters' ideology is a salient factor in explaining why citizens would continue voting for their preferred party despite the fact that it has been involved in a corruption scandal. Developing a theory of supply (number...... of effective parties) and demand (voters must have acceptable ideological alternatives to their preferred party), we posit that there is a U-shaped relationship between the likelihood of corruption voting and where voters place themselves on the left/right spectrum. The further to the fringes, the more likely...

  5. Adding value to figures: a web-based European public health information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wilk, Eveline A; Verschuuren, Marieke

    2010-01-01

    In 2008 a prototype, web-based system was launched which provided information for different user groups interested in European public health topics. The EUPHIX system contained scientifically sound data, with presentations as well as textual information. The information was structured according to the European Community Health Indicators (ECHI) shortlist. The information included different types of data presentations (tables, interactive graphs and maps), explanatory texts and overviews of the data sources and the literature used. The content was produced by a network of European experts according to a structured, peer-reviewed editorial process. Thus EUPHIX provided an easily accessible, comprehensive, state-of-the-art information source. To ensure that it will continue, financial support will be needed. Co-ownership by the European Commission and the Member States seems an appropriate solution.

  6. Technical and economic analysis of the European electricity system with 60% RES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtin, Alain; Silva, Vera

    2015-01-01

    This document examines the impacts of the integration of a large share of variable renewable generation into the generation mix of the European interconnected electricity system. The analysis, which is based on the results of long term studies performed by EDF R and D, aims at improving the current understanding of the technical and economic feasibility of a massive deployment of wind and PV across the European system. The document addresses several aspects of the system integration of variable generation in particular, including the characterization of variable RES generation, the need for generation and interconnection infrastructure, the impacts on short-term system operation and market profitability. (authors)

  7. Combining multimedia models with integrated urban water system models for micropollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Keyser, W.; Gevaert, V.; Verdonck, F.

    2010-01-01

    Integrated urban water system (IUWS) modeling aims at assessing the quality of the surface water receiving the urban emissions through sewage treatment plants, combined sewer overflows (CSOS) and stormwater drainage systems However, some micropollutants tend to appear in more than one environment...

  8. Characterization of peri-urban dairy production system in Ghana. 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of peri-urban dairy production system in Ghana. 1. Social attributes and ... A survey was carried out in five districts on the Accra plains to characterize the peri-urban dairy system. Results of the survey ... Utility services, namely electricity, water and telephone, were non-existent. There were little or no farm ...

  9. Public Transportation Based Dynamic Urban Pollution Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando LOPEZ-PEÑA

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development and results of a mobile sensor based opportunistic urban pollution monitoring network that uses public transportation buses as platforms for its deployment. This work is an extended and improved version of the paper presented to the IDAACS’09 conference. It reports some aspects of the implementation of a single pollution sensor based sensing node prototype which was used for testing an opportunistic communications network and which was reported in depth elsewhere. More emphasis is given to the description of the basic sensing unit and its modular conversion into a sensing system able to acquire data on several pollutants as well as temperature, humidity and geo-location information. The software architecture developed around it in order to process the huge amounts of data the system produces is also described. The different prototypes were tested on the public transportation system of the city of Vigo and on multiple test runs around the city of A Coruña in the north-west of Spain producing very promising results.

  10. Urban solid waste collection system using mathematical modelling and tools of geographic information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arribas, Claudia Andrea; Blazquez, Carola Alejandra; Lamas, Alejandro

    2010-04-01

    A poorly designed urban solid waste collection system has an enormous impact on labour, operational and transport costs, and on society in general due to road contamination and negative effects on public health and the environment. This study proposes a methodology for designing an urban solid waste collection system. This methodology uses combinatorial optimisation and integer programing, and GIS tools to minimise collection time, and operational and transport costs while enhancing the current solid waste collection system. This methodology establishes feasible collection routes, determines an adequate vehicle fleet size and presents a comparative cost and sensitivity analysis of the results. The implementation of this methodology in a study case of a zone in Santiago yields significant cost savings in the total collection system.

  11. Emissions of maritime transport: a European reference system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrooten, Liesbeth; De Vlieger, Ina; Panis, Luc Int; Chiffi, Cosimo; Pastori, Enrico

    2009-12-20

    Emissions from ships have recently received more attention since they have become a significant concern for air quality in harbours and port cities. This paper presents the methodology for a comprehensive maritime transport database of activity data, specific energy consumption, emission factors, and total emissions that have been developed within the European EX-TREMIS project. The model is built upon 3 modules: the fleet module, the transport activity module, and the emission module. The fleet module defines the ship categories, the loading capacities, and the engine characteristics of the different vessels by using EUROSTAT data, Sea Web Lloyd's database, and international literature. The transport activity module transforms total cargo handled (mainly based on EUROSTAT data and CEMT statistics) into ship-equivalents. These ship-equivalents are further transformed into ship-hours. The emission module calculates energy uses and CO(2), NO(X), SO(2), CO, HC, CH(4), NMHC, PM emissions from the resulting maritime activities. We have used technology based emission factors to take into account the technological evolution of vessels. To illustrate this new methodology, we present some results (emissions, fuel consumption and emission factors) for different countries. The overall methodology as well as the results and the country specific energy consumption and emission factors per ship type and size class can be extracted from the EX-TREMIS website (www.ex-tremis.eu). Our results contribute to more accurate estimates of emissions and air quality assessments in coastal cities and ports.

  12. Mobile satellite business networks: A part of the European mobile system

    Science.gov (United States)

    deMateo, M. L.; Jongejans, A.; Loisy, C.; VanHimbeeck, C.; Marchal, J. P.; Borella, A.; Sartori, M.

    1995-01-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) is presently procuring an L-band payload EMS, to be embarked on the ITALSAT-2 satellite due for launch in early 1996, in order to promote a regional European mobile system. One of the Land Mobile Communication systems supported by EMS is the MSBN (Mobile Satellite Business Network) voice and data system which will offer the services of a business network on a seamless European coverage. This paper will first recall the characteristics of the MSBN system, which is based on quasi-synchronized CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) techniques in both directions, and then describe the CDMA receivers implementation. Main validation test results will also be reported confirming predicted performances.

  13. The Conceptual Guidelines for Integration of Croatia into the European Air Traffic Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Steiner

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Full implementation of the final phase of EATCHIP isplanned for the beginning of the 21" century. It will re-define theEuropean system of air traffic regulation and control. The integrationof a great number of ATC systems into a unique operativenetwork is supported by the technical modernisation andstandardisation of the communication, navigation and radardevices. Integration of Croatia into the European air trafficcontrol system assumes its active participation in the cun·entprojects, implementation of relevant technical standards andthe national air traffic development strategy within the contextof Euro-atlantic integration.

  14. MIGRATION PROCESSES "EAST-WEST" IN THE CONTEXT OF THE EUROPEAN SYSTEM OF ECONOMIC SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Ryazantsev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article refl ects the infl uence of the migration processes to the economic security of European Union. The article underlines most common economical risks in case if there is an increase of the volume of migration and describes the ways how to reduce those risks.The main conclusions obtained from the results of the study, can be structured as follows: trends and consequences of the migration crisis in the European Union are defi ned by the set of reasons that are due on the one hand the policy of transparency being implemented by individual countries, making the whole European Union is the center of attraction of immigrants (primarily from the MENA countries and other hand, the intense and growing fl ow of migrants creates regional threats, including the European Union's economic security; the problem of ensuring the economic security of the European Union in the context of the impact of the migration crisis is most actual issue at the moment and the main reason is that the accumulation of the fl ow of migrants to the strongest European economy – Germany. In this case, not only Germany, but also France (and until recently UK had to improve the economic and social consequences of migration and also to implement measures aimed to recover from fi nancial crisis of the last few years, the consequences of which to date are shown in the many social and economic areas of the European Union; addressing the problem with migration crisis in the European Union seems to use a special system of measures, in which on the one hand realized containment of migration fl ows and on the other hand held solutions aimed at the assimilation of migrants in multicultural environment with full adoption of the latest socio-economic, democratic and moral values specifi c to European societies.

  15. Characteristics of selected elements of the air quality management system in urban areas in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sówka, Izabela; Kobus, Dominik; Chlebowska Styś, Anna; Zathey, Maciej

    2017-11-01

    Most of Europeans living in cities are exposed to concentrations of air pollutants in excess of the thresholds given in the WHO guidelines and EU legislation. Due to this fact, for the urban air quality systems, the mechanisms of proper information and warning of the inhabitants as well as legal, economic and spatial planning instruments should be improved. The analysis of Polish air quality management system and its' selected components (exemplary measures, information-spreading methods, spatial planning instruments) in four selected Polish cities (Wroclaw, Warsaw, Poznan and Cracow) indicated the need to develop effective solutions, among others, in terms of: emission requirements for combustion of fuels of power of up to 1 MW; admission of high emission fuels on the market; legal and coordination issues at the level of implementation of the area development policy and coordination of activities covering issues within the scope of the structure of planning documents including mainly: ambient air protection programs, spatial developments plans in communes and voivodeships, low emission economy plans, plans of sustainable development of public transport, plans of providing heat, electric power and gas fuels to communes, acts of regional parliaments, introducing limitations based on the Environmental Protection Act and strategies of voivodeship.

  16. Rural-Urban Interdependence in Food Systems in Nsukka Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    by influencing the decision to migrate, remain in the rural area, or provide urban services in rural areas. The interdependence revolves around five key aspects namely; the urban supply of food and raw materials, migration, labour supply, remittance, and socio-cultural obligations which facilitate the extent of flow of money ...

  17. An exploration of social systems as informative for urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Miss Karen Puren, Senior Lecturer, Urban and Regional Planning, School for Geo and Spatial Sciences, North-West University, Private bag X6001, ...... Environment, University of New South. Wales, Sydney. RAUCH, J. 2002. Thinking big: The national urban renewal programme and crime prevention in South Africa's.

  18. Methodology for measuring environmental health within Europe. Health Risk from Environmental Pollution Levels in Urban Systems (HEREPLUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Zscheppang

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The European Commission funds a European research project titled “Health Risk from Environmental Pollution Levels in Urban Systems” (HEREPLUS that focuses on environmental health within Europe. The HEREPLUS project was presented at the 16th EUPHA conference in Lisbon in November 2008 within a workshop named “The assessment of the effect of air pollution on population and environmental health: the integration of epidemiology and geographical information system (GIS”.

    Methods: The HEREPLUS project aims to measure the correlation between air pollution (especially ozone and particulate matter, meteorology, vegetation and human health in four European cities (Rome, Madrid, Athens and Dresden by using a Geoinformation System to develop risk maps and subsequently guidelines to reduce air pollution and number of diseases.

    Results: The project started in September 2008 and a large, structured, relational database has been developed and completed. A literature review including national as well as international scientific literature goes on and will be completed in April 2009. Final results will be presented and published in 2011.

    Conclusions: Detailed scientific knowledge is important and needed to implement environmental programmes with the overall aim to protect human population against environmental related diseases.

  19. The Reform of the Copyright System of the European Union. Status quaestionis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelio López-Tarruella Martínez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to explain the process to amend the copyright system that has been initiated by the European Union with the purpose of creating a Digital Single Market. The mechanisms that the European Commission proposes to achieve this objective are exclusive of an economic integration organization such as the European Union. They include the binomial country of origin-mutual recognition principles, the mechanisms to fight against the fragmentation of the Internal Market and the proposal to increase the harmonization in the Member States copyright legislations. Through the text, a review of the recent case law of the Court of Justice of European Union is also provided.

  20. Ancient Chinese capital models - Measurement system in urban planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funo, Shuji

    2017-01-01

    Measurement systems are very important in urban design. This article reviews the theories of grid plans, particularly with respect to the spatial formations of ancient capital cities in Asia, and clarifies three Chinese Capital Models. The "Zhōu lǐ" Capital Model (Z) is based on the ancient text "Zhōu lǐ" that makes mention of the ideal city. However, because the description of the physical plan of the city is very brief and includes contradictory elements, conclusions regarding the specifics of the city design are extremely difficult to reach. This article proposes the most appropriate Model (Z) as an architype of the ideal Chinese city. Interestingly, there are no excavated examples of Model (Z). The two existing models, the Chang'an Capital Model (C), which is well known as the model for ancient Japanese capitals like Heiankyo (the present Kyoto) and the Dà Yuán (Dadu) Capital Model (D), the model for the city that is today Beijing, are described as Variants I and II, with a focus on the land division system of bo (street blocks).

  1. Melting pot of tick-borne zoonoses: the European hedgehog contributes to the maintenance of various tick-borne diseases in natural cycles urban and suburban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahfari, Setareh; Ruyts, Sanne C; Frazer-Mendelewska, Ewa; Jaarsma, Ryanne; Verheyen, Kris; Sprong, Hein

    2017-03-07

    European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) are urban dwellers and host both Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes hexagonus. These ticks transmit several zoonotic pathogens like Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato), Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia helvetica, Borrelia miyamotoi and "Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis". It is unclear to what extent hedgehogs in (sub) urban areas contribute to the presence of infected ticks in these areas, which subsequently pose a risk for acquiring a tick-borne disease. Therefore, it is important to investigate to what extent hedgehogs contribute to the enzootic cycle of these tick-borne pathogens, and to shed more light at the mechanisms of the transmission cycles involving hedgehogs and both ixodid tick species. Engorged ticks from hedgehogs were collected from (sub) urban areas via rehabilitating centres in Belgium. Ticks were screened individually for presence of Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato), Borrelia miyamotoi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia helvetica and "Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis" using PCR-based methods. Infection rates of the different pathogens in ticks were calculated and compared to infection rates in questing ticks. Both Ixodes hexagonus (n = 1132) and Ixodes ricinus (n = 73) of all life stages were found on the 54 investigated hedgehogs. Only a few hedgehogs carried most of the ticks, with 6 of the 54 hedgehogs carrying more than half of all ticks (624/1205). Borrelia miyamotoi, A. phagocytophilum, R. helvetica and B. burgdorferi genospecies (Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia bavariensis and Borrelia spielmanii) were detected in both I. hexagonus and I. ricinus. Anaplasma phagocytophilum, R. helvetica, B. afzelii, B. bavariensis and B. spielmanii were found significantly more in engorged ticks in comparison to questing I. ricinus. European hedgehogs seem to contribute to the spread and transmission of tick-borne pathogens in urban areas. The relatively high prevalence of B. bavariensis, B. spielmanii, B

  2. The impact of a rural or urban context in eating awareness and self-regulation strategies in children and adolescents from eight European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Tania; de Matos, Margarida Gaspar; Luszczynska, Aleksandra; Baban, Adriana; Wit, John

    2014-06-01

    Complex relationships exist between eating behaviour and personal and environmental factors. Rural and urban geographic contexts seem to play a role in eating behaviour, and therefore deserve a deeper study. A healthy eating behaviour and the conditions that promote it are a major issue in the promotion of adolescent health. The study aims to investigate the associations between the area of residence (urban vs. rural), self-regulation strategies (TESQ-E) and eating behaviours among children and adolescents. A total of 11,820 adolescents (50.6% girls) participated in the study, with a mean age of 13.30 years (SD= 2.13). Nine countries (The Netherlands, United Kingdom, Poland, Portugal, Denmark, Romania, Germany, Finland and Belgium) completed a questionnaire in the school context, asking about the use of self-regulation strategies, eating behaviour awareness/care and sociodemographic questions such as age, gender and residential area. Both areas of residence (urban vs. rural) are associated with eating awareness/care in Romania and Portugal, controlling for age, gender and self-regulation strategies. In some European countries at least, and most probably around the world, health promotion should focus on an ecological approach that includes the understanding of the effect of both environmental factors and personal skills on eating behaviour/awareness. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  3. Research on Impact Mechanism and Power System of Urbanization in West China

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Xiao; Zhang, Pei

    2011-01-01

    Based on the current situation of urbanization development in West China, this paper analyses main factors responsible for sluggish urbanization in West China as follows: impact of environment factor, impact of population quality and quantity, lagging of public product service, stagnancy of technological development, backwardness of slow growth, and rigidity of system building. And then this paper analyses the restriction mechanism of urbanization in West China: at the superficial level, the ...

  4. The Diplomatic System of the European Union: Evolution, Change and Challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, M.; Keukeleire, S.; Vanhoonacker, S.M.R.L.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past five years, the EU has established a new system of diplomacy centred on the European External Action Service (EEAS) and the High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy. This new system reflects a process of evolution in a changing context, and has been faced by major

  5. Eastern European financial systems : the creation of inside money

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.C.

    1993-01-01

    This paper offers a classification of credit markets in transition economies. It describes a continuum of systems by identifying its polar cases: countries where the entire financial system still relies on outside money, mostly republics of the former Soviet Union; and those where a more

  6. AVRUPA BİRLİĞİ SÜRECİNDE TAŞINMAZ DEĞERLEME BİLGİ SİSTEMİ (A REAL ESTATE APPRAISAL INFORMATION SYSTEM IN THE PROCESS OF EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uluç ÇAĞATAY

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a real estate appraisal system which provides the production and presentation of real estate value maps according to the priorities of the policies of European Union and Turkey’s Geographic Information Systems was proposed. By means of the project, called as TADEBIS, there would be a contribution to the generation of a reliable urbanization policy. Besides accurate and current geographic value data will be provided to whom needs the real estate appraisal.

  7. Aspects of Implementation of European Law in the Legal System of the Republic of Moldova within the European Integration Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilie Mamaliga

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The author researches in this paper the political, economic and legal trends, concerning the integration of Moldova into the European Union. The greet The researcher pays attention to the principles of freedom and pluralistic democracy, supremacy of national European law over the law, in the non-discrimination and equality before the law, reflected in the European and national acts, as well as the principles of the market economy.

  8. Impacts of Urbanization on River Systems in the Taihu Region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Deng

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available River systems are valuable to human beings; meanwhile, they are intensively influenced by human activities, especially urbanization. In this study, based on the data derived from topographic maps and remote sensing images, the temporal and spatial change of river system geomorphology in the Taihu Region over the past 50 years was investigated in conjunction with urbanization. Results demonstrated that the number of river systems decreased drastically, that the morphology of river channels changed into wider and straighter and that the structure of river network tended to simplify in the Taihu Region in recent 50 years. Meanwhile, the changes in river density, the water surface ratio, the river development coefficient, the main river area length ratio and the box dimension in the rapid urbanization period were much greater than those in the slow urbanization period, but the decrease of river sinuosity in the slow urbanization period was more intense. Moreover, the spatial differences of the changes in the river development coefficient were the largest, and the changes in the river indicators in the low-urbanized regions were the most intense. In addition, the changes in the water surface ratio had the closest correlation with urbanization, and the relational degrees between population urbanization and the changes in river systems were the largest. The results can provide a reliable basis to determine reasonable management and conservation strategies of river systems in the Taihu Region.

  9. Proposal for Holistic Assessment of Urban System Resilience to Natural Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, David; Kilar, Vojko; Rus, Katarina

    2017-10-01

    Urban system is a complex mix of interdependent components and dynamic interactions between them that enable it to function effectively. Resilience of urban system indicates the ability of a system to resist, absorb, accommodate to and recover from the effects of a hazard in a timely and efficient manner. In the relevant literature, most studies consider individual components separately. On the other hand, the purpose of this paper is to assess the urban system as a whole, considering all relevant components and their interactions. The goal is a study of possibilities for holistic evaluation of urban system resilience to natural disasters. Findings from the preliminary study are presented: (i) the definition of urban system and categorization of its components, (ii) a set of attributes of individual components with impact on disaster resilience of the entire system and (iii) review of different methods and approaches for resilience assessment. Based on literature review and extensive preliminary studies a new conceptual framework for urban resilience assessment is proposed. In the presented paper, a conceptual model of urban system by abstraction of its components as nodes (buildings), patches - specific nodes with spatial properties (open space), links (infrastructures) and base layer (community) is created. In the suggested model, each component is defined by its own quantitative attributes, which have been identified to have an important impact on the urban system resilience to natural disasters. System is presented as a mathematical graph model. Natural disaster is considered an external factor that affects the existing system and leads to some system distortion. In further analyses, mathematical simulation of various natural disasters scenarios is going to be carried out, followed by comparison of the system functionality before and after the accident. Various properties of the system (accessibility, transition, complexity etc.) are going to be analysed with

  10. The Appreciative System of Urban ICT Policies: An Analysis of Perceptions of Urban Policy Makers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen-Blankshtain, G.; Nijkamp, P.

    2004-01-01

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has become an important tool to promote a variety of public goals and policies. In the past years much attention has been given to the expected social benefits from deploying ICTs in different urban fields (transportation, education, public

  11. Impacts of Climate Change on Rainfall Extremes and Urban Drainage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willems, P.; Olsson, J.; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    Impacts of Climate Change on Rainfall Extremes and Urban Drainage Systems provides a state-of-the-art overview of existing methodologies and relevant results related to the assessment of the climate change impacts on urban rainfall extremes as well as on urban hydrology and hydraulics....... This overview focuses mainly on several difficulties and limitations regarding the current methods and discusses various issues and challenges facing the research community in dealing with the climate change impact assessment and adaptation for urban drainage infrastructure design and management....

  12. Quality and quantity: Can we have both within the European patent system?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsmore, Matthew J.

    2009-01-01

    Scrutiny of patent systems is never far away. The European Patent Office has long faced rising levels of 'inventive activity'. Fast, fluid technologies and strategic firm behavior add to the difficulties faced in trying to reward inventions with commensurate rights. Analysis suggests stronger...... patent protection does not necessarily equate with more innovation and greater diffusion of knowledge; nor do more patents lead to or reflect more innovation. This article focuses on improving the fundamental workings of the European system as is stands, and proposes a focus on quality and patent...

  13. Urban stormwater runoff nitrogen composition and fate in bioretention systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liqing; Davis, Allen P

    2014-03-18

    Multiple chemical forms of nitrogen in urban stormwater make its management challenging. Sixteen storm events were monitored and analyzed for total nitrogen (TN), particulate organic nitrogen (PON), nitrate (NO3-N), nitrite (NO2-N), ammonium (NH3-N), and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) in stormwater runoff and in treated discharge through a conventional bioretention cell. Influent PON can be effectively removed via bioretention sedimentation/filtration, NH3-N by ion exchange/sorption, and NO2-N by oxidation. However, significant DON and NO3-N leached from the bioretention cell, resulting in only 9% net overall TN concentration reduction. Captured PON and vegetation detritus in the bioretention cell can be leached as DON or mineralized into NO3-N. The effluent N is dominated by NO3-N (46%) and DON (42%). Therefore, in addition to creating denitrification conditions for NO3-N, preventing DON leaching is also critical for effective nitrogen removal though bioretention systems. The bioretention cell exhibited a moderate mass load reduction for TN (41%), which mainly results from runoff volume reduction.

  14. Multicriteria Decisions in Urban Energy System Planning: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Cajot

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Urban energy system planning (UESP is a topic of growing concern for cities in deregulated energy markets, which plan to decrease energy demand, reduce their dependency on fossil fuels, and increase the share of renewable energy sources. UESP being a highly multisectoral and multi-actor task, multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA methods are frequently used in the decision processes. These methods may provide support in organizing and identifying solutions to problems with conflicting objectives. However, knowing which method to use is generally not straightforward, as the appropriateness of a method or combination of methods depends on the decision problem’s context. Therefore, this article reviewed scientific papers to characterize and analyze MCDA problems and methods in the context of UESP. The review systematically explores issues such as the scope of the problems, the alternatives and criteria considered, the expected decision outcomes, the decision analysis methods and the rationales for selecting and combining them, and the role of values in driving the decision problems. The final outcome is a synthesis of the data and insights obtained, which may help potential users identify appropriate decision analysis methods based on given problem characteristics.

  15. Closing the life cycle of phosphorus in an urban food system: the case Almere (NL)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van W.; Jansma, J.E.; Sukkel, W.; Reuler, van H.; Vermeulen, T.; Visser, A.J.

    2017-01-01

    In order to explore the possibilities of a local food system and its effects on the nutrient cycle, a desk study was executed for the urban region Almere, a Dutch city located in the Flevo Polder with about 200,000 inhabitants. This desk study takes this urban perspective as starting point in the

  16. Demystifying governance and its role for transitions in urban social–ecological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.A. Muñoz-Erickson; L.K. Campbell; D.L. Childers; J.M. Grove; D.M. Iwaniec; S.T.A. Pickett; Michelle Romolini; Erika S. Svendsen

    2016-01-01

    Governance is key to sustainable urban transitions. Governance is a system of social, power, and decision-making processes that acts as a key driver of resource allocation and use, yet ecologists even urban ecologists–seldom consider governance concepts in their work. Transitions to more sustainable futures are becoming increasingly important to the management of many...

  17. Alien plants as mediators of ecosystem services and disservices in urban systems: a global review

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Potgieter, LJ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available , vol. 19(12): 3571-3588 Alien plants as mediators of ecosystem services and disservices in urban systems: a global review Potgieter LJ Gaertner M Kueffer C Livingstone SW O’Farrell PJ Richardson DM ABSTRACT: Urban areas have unique...

  18. Profitability and sustainability of peri-urban vegetable productions systems in Vietnam.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, H.G.P.; Midmore, D.J.; Binh, P.T.; Valasayya, S.; Tru, L.C.

    1996-01-01

    Results are reported of a study of the income and cropping systems of peri-urban vegetable farmers around Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, as well as the constraints and opportunities for vegetable production and marketing. Urban population growth is fuelling the demand for timely supplies of fresh

  19. Urban-like night illumination reduces melatonin release in European blackbirds (Turdus merula): implications of city life for biological time-keeping of songbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Artificial light-at-night is known to affect a broad array of behaviours and physiological processes. In urbanized bird species, light-at-night advances important biological rhythms such as daily cycles of activity/rest and timing of reproduction, but our knowledge of the underlying physiological mechanisms is limited. Given its role as chronobiological signal, melatonin is a strong candidate for mediating the effects of light-at-night. Results We exposed urban and rural European blackbirds (Turdus merula) to two light treatments equal in photoperiod but with different light intensities at night. The control group was exposed to 0.0001 lux (almost darkness), while the experimental group was exposed to 0.3 lux at night, simulating conditions recorded previously on free-living urban blackbirds. We obtained diel profiles of plasma melatonin for all birds in summer (July) and winter (January), while simultaneously recording locomotor activity. Daily patterns of melatonin concentrations were clearly affected by light-at-night in both seasons. In winter, melatonin concentrations of light-at-night birds were lower in the early and late night than in those of birds kept in darkness. In summer, melatonin concentrations of the light-at-night birds were lower through all night compared to birds kept in darkness. Locomotor activity in light-at-night birds was overall higher than in control individuals, both during the day and at night, and it increased sharply before dawn. In winter, the amount of activity before dawn in the light-at-night group correlated with changes in melatonin from midnight to late night: the greater the decrease in melatonin, the greater the amount of pre-dawn activity. Urban and rural birds responded similarly to light-at-night with respect to melatonin, but differed in their behaviour, with rural birds showing more locomotor activity than urban counterparts. Conclusions This study points to reduced melatonin release at night as a potential

  20. Dealing with Sustainability Trade-Offs of the Compact City in Peri-Urban Planning Across European City Regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerink - Petersen, J.; Haase, D.; Bauer, A.; Ravetz, J.; Jarrige, F.; Aalbers, C.B.E.M.

    2013-01-01

    The compact city has become a leading concept in the planning of peri-urban areas. The compact city concept is often advocated as “sustainable” because of claims that include lower emissions and conservation of the countryside. The literature shows, however, that there are certain trade-offs in

  1. Integration of Indoor Ski Slopes into the Urban Recreation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Urbonaitė

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Indoor ski slope is an innovative type of active indoor recreation. This new urban character is simulating the concept of mountain ski resort and is considered to be a strong attraction point all year-round. Due to a big scale and complexity, sustainable integration into an urban context should be very carefully considered. Economical, social, environmental and aesthetic impact on surrounding territories is an important factor to be evaluated. International practice shows that the appropriate integration of the above mentioned typology into urban parks increase their popularity and use of the recreation zone. On the other hand, the alien architecture and egocentric dominance of complexes can cause conflict with the existing urban territories and natural environment. Having indoor ski slopes in mind at the stages of regional and town territorial planning is an important point. Only complex development can bring positive results for sustainable town development, town economy, tourism and social life. Article in Lithuanian

  2. Urban metabolism and climate change: A planning support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blečić, Ivan; Cecchini, Arnaldo; Falk, Matthias; Marras, Serena; Pyles, David R.; Spano, Donatella; Trunfio, Giuseppe A.

    2014-02-01

    Patterns of urban development influence flows of material and energy within urban settlements and exchanges with its surrounding. In recent years the quantitative estimation of the components of the so-called urban metabolism has increasingly attracted the attention of researchers from different fields. To contribute to this effort we developed a modelling framework for estimating the carbon exchanges together with sensible and latent heat fluxes and air temperature in relation to alternative land-use scenarios. The framework bundles three components: (i) a Cellular Automata model for the simulation of the urban land-use dynamics; (ii) a transportation model for estimating the variation of the transportation network load and (iii) the Advanced Canopy-Atmosphere-Soil Algorithm (ACASA) model tightly coupled with the mesoscale weather forecasting model WRF. We present and discuss the results of an example application on the City of Florence.

  3. A Green Urban Mobility System Solution from the EU Ingrid project

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Errico, Fabrizio; Screnci, Adamo; Romeo, Marco

    With a mandate to reach 20/20/20 targets, new strategies are now focusing on the increased use of electricity to power transportation. Particularly in major urban areas of the EU, capillary use of electric vehicles are being encouraged, however, as these vehicles will be powered by the grid, there is always the risk that load peaks will occur. This work is just one of several being developed as part of the 23.9 MLN Euros INGRID European project started in July 2012, which combines solid-state high-density hydrogen storage systems with advanced ICT technologies for distribution grids. One possible solution which has been designed, is an off-grid utility to store renewable electricity captured from wind/solar sources and a re-charging point for full battery electric cars. This work shows the preliminary financial assessment of two business models for the Park-for-Recharging concept to promote green e-mobility as a more convenient and economical means of by-car transport.

  4. A dynamic motion simulator for future European docking systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brondino, G.; Marchal, PH.; Grimbert, D.; Noirault, P.

    1990-01-01

    Europe's first confrontation with docking in space will require extensive testing to verify design and performance and to qualify hardware. For this purpose, a Docking Dynamics Test Facility (DDTF) was developed. It allows reproduction on the ground of the same impact loads and relative motion dynamics which would occur in space during docking. It uses a 9 degree of freedom, servo-motion system, controlled by a real time computer, which simulates the docking spacecraft in a zero-g environment. The test technique involves and active loop based on six axis force and torque detection, a mathematical simulation of individual spacecraft dynamics, and a 9 degree of freedom servomotion of which 3 DOFs allow extension of the kinematic range to 5 m. The configuration was checked out by closed loop tests involving spacecraft control models and real sensor hardware. The test facility at present has an extensive configuration that allows evaluation of both proximity control and docking systems. It provides a versatile tool to verify system design, hardware items and performance capabilities in the ongoing HERMES and COLUMBUS programs. The test system is described and its capabilities are summarized.

  5. Revisiting the dose calculation methodologies in European decision support systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Kasper Grann; Roos, Per; Hou, Xiaolin

    2012-01-01

    in connection with management of the consequences of other types of contaminating incidents, including ‘dirty bomb’ explosions. This would require a number of new modelling features and parametric changes. Also for nuclear power plant preparedness a number of revisions of the decision support systems are called...

  6. Collaborative autonomous systems in models of urban logistics

    OpenAIRE

    Arango Serna, Martín Darío; Serna Uran, Conrado Augusto; Alvarez Uribe, Karla Cristina; Arango Serna, Martín Darío

    2012-01-01

    Cities growth and along with them the exchange and distribution of goods and services has led in recent years to a greater increasing interest for the optimization of logistic processes carried out in urban areas. In this article, the main approaches and solutions which have been proposed from academic research will be described, focusing mainly on collaborative autonomic logistics, which is offered as an attractive solution to the urban goods distribution problems in complex cities.

  7. European Capitals of Culture and the limits of the urban effects in Luxembourg and Sibiu 2007 Capitais europeias da cultura e os limites dos efeitos urbanos em Luxemburgo e Sibiu 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Palonen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A mega-event is a replicant: local copy of a global model. The European Capitals of Culture (ECC is an annual mega-event, currently usually held in two European cities. This paper argues it has three particular dimensions, recognisable from the European Union’s policy. First designed to articulate a European identity, it has been a mover for local urban transformation and city-branding, and later participation. The policy projects Europe as “family of cultures”, which suggests attention for a particular ECC year, when the old Saxon fortress town of Luxembourg hosted the title together with the former Saxon fortress town Sibiu of Romania, which joined the European Union only the same year: 2007. The article asks, what are the limits of the urban effects of the three dimensions of the European Capitals of Culture, using as a method urban art interventions for investigating the limits and potential spatial effects of the ECCs and the extent of the diffusion of institutional elements.

  8. Stable isotopes of water as a natural tracer for infiltration into urban sewer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kracht, O.; Gresch, M.; de Bénédittis, J.; Prigiobbe, V.; Gujer, W.

    2003-04-01

    An adequate understanding of the hydraulic interaction between leaky sewers and groundwater is essential for the sustainable management of both sewer systems and aquifers in urbanized areas. Undesirable infiltration of groundwater into sewers can contribute over 50% of the total discharge and is detrimental to treatment plant efficiency. On the other hand, in many European cities groundwater surface levels seem to be particularly controlled by the drainage effect of permeable sewer systems. However, nowadays methods for the quantification of these exchange processes are still subject to considerable uncertainties due to their underlying assumptions. The frequently used assumption that the night time minimum in the diurnal wastewater hydrograph is equal to the "parasitic discharge" has to be reconsidered to today's patterns of human life as well as to the long residence time of wastewater in the sewer networks of modern cities. The suitability of stable water isotopes as a natural tracer to differentiate the origin of water in the sewer ("real" wastewater or infiltrating groundwater) is currently investigated in three different catchment areas. The studies are carried out within the framework of the European research project APUSS (Assessing Infiltration and Exfiltration on the Performance of Urban Sewer Systems): 1) The village of Rümlang (Zürich, Switzerland) is predominantly served with drinking water from the Lake Zürich. A large fraction of the lakes water is derived from precipitation in the Alps. This drinking water represents the intrinsic provenience of the wastewater with an δ18O value around -11,5 per mill and δ^2H value around -82 per mill vs. SMOW. In contrast, the local groundwater is originating from precipitation in a moderate altitude of about 450 m above sea level and shows comparatively enriched mean δ18O values of -9,7 per mill and δ^2H values of -70 per mill with only small natural variations. The isotopic separation between these

  9. Cost benefit risk - a concept for management of integrated urban wastewater systems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauger, Mikkel B.; Rauch, W.; Linde, Jens Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    the most feasible improvement alternative for an urban wastewater system. The most feasible alternative in this context is the alternative that has the best performance, meaning that the alternative has the lowest sum of costs, benefits and risks. The sum is expressed as the Net Present Cost (NPC). To use......Urban wastewater systems should be evaluated and analysed from an integrated point of view, taking all parts of the system, that is sewer system, wastewater treatment plant and receiving waters into consideration. Risk and parameter uncertainties are aspects that hardly ever have been addressed...... in the evaluation and design of urban wastewater systems. In this paper we present and discuss a probabilistic approach for evaluation of the performance of urban wastewater systems. Risk analysis together with the traditional cost-benefit analysis is a special variant of multi-criteria analysis that seeks to find...

  10. THE REFORM OF NATIONAL SOCIAL-ECONOMIC SYSTEMS AND EUROPEAN REFORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen RADU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes to analyze from a national and European perspective the reform possibilities of public policies which regard the social-economic sphere. We thus take into consideration the analysis of the public policies’ evolution regarding the health system, pensions system, demographic stimulation and the undertaking of key-structural reforms for economy and administration. Resources marked as necessary for a reform are burdened by new challenges emerged on the international agenda: a new economic crisis with starting point in China, managing evolutions on fuel markets, managing the refugees exodus situation which forces the European Union’s frontiers, etc. Establishing social-economic security at national level as well as in the European Union depends on the pragmatism of economic and social policies as well as on the courage to start a reform.

  11. The European debate on rate systems in the interwar period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madureira, Nuno Luis

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a particular branch that evolved in the diffusion of electrical rate systems in twentieth-century Europe and the debate that ensued between the competitive, promotional and cost based approaches. Three major questions are addressed: What factors and historical circumstances favoured the emergence of more or less efficient pricing schemes? Why did some enterprises opt for promotional rates while others defended the cost based alternative? What is the historical origin of marginal cost pricing? It is shown how the volatility of the costs that characterize hydro-electric production made this particular technology very sensitive to a cost approach towards pricing and to a seasonal and time-of-day perspective on rate systems.

  12. Combining multimedia models with integrated urban water system models for micropollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Keyser, W.; Gevaert, V.; Verdonck, F.

    2009-01-01

    and a stormwater infiltration pond scenario, as an example of a sustainable urban drainage system (SUDS). A case for Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was simulated and resulted in a reduced surface water concentration for the latter scenario. However, the model also showed that this was at the expense......Integrated urban water system (IUWS) modelling aims at assessing the quality of the surface water receiving the urban emissions through sewage treatment plants, combined sewer overflows (CSOs) and stormwater drainage systems. However, some micropollutants have the tendency to occur in more than one...

  13. Energy system modelling – interactions and synergies in a highly renewable Pan-European power system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weitemeyer Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is very likely that the European power supply system will be transformed in the next decades to a low carbon system based almost entirely on Renewable Energy Sources (RES. However, due to the natural fluctuations of the most powerful RES (wind and solar energy, it is also very likely that a significant amount of balancing and controllable backup power capacities will be required to ensure a stable grid operation. This implies high additional investments and operating costs. Therefore this work provides an overview of potential options and possibly more cost-effective alternatives to the installation of costly storage capacities, namely grid expansion, demand side management, an optimised mix between different RES as well as the use of overcapacities. Furthermore, the paper provides an approximation of the maximum RES penetration of the German electricity system in the absence of significant storage capacities. Our calculations show that from a numerical perspective on average approximately half of the load can be met by RES if flexible conventional power stations would provide the remaining electricity demand. However, in a 100% RES scenario a significant amount of storage capacities as well as limited overcapacities are required to ensure a reliable electricity supply.

  14. SUMIRAD: a near real-time MMW radiometer imaging system for threat detection in an urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, Stephan; Peichl, Markus; Rudolf, Daniel

    2012-10-01

    The armed forces are nowadays confronted with a wide variety of types of operations. During peace keeping missions in an urban environment, where small units patrol the streets with armored vehicles, the team leader is confronted with a very complex threat situation. The asymmetric imminence arises in most cases from so called IEDs (Improvised explosive devices) which are found in a multitude of versions. In order to avoid risky situations the early detection of possible threats due to advanced reconnaissance and surveillance sensors will provide an important advantage. A European consortium consisting of GMV S.A. (Spain, "Grupo Tecnològico e Industrial"), RMA (Belgium, "Royal Military Academy"), TUM ("Technische Universität München") and DLR (Germany, "Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt") developed in the SUM project (Surveillance in an urban environment using mobile sensors) a low-cost multi-sensor vehicle based surveillance system in order to enhance situational awareness for moving security and military patrols as well as for static checkpoints. The project was funded by the European Defense Agency (EDA) in the Joint Investment Program on Force Protection (JIP-FP). The SUMIRAD (SUM imaging radiometer) system, developed by DLR, is a fast radiometric imager and part of the SUM sensor suite. This paper will present the principle of the SUMIRAD system and its key components. Furthermore the image processing will be described. Imaging results from several measurement campaigns will be presented. The overall SUM system and the individual subsystems are presented in more detail in separate papers during this conference.

  15. Combined Production and Conversion of Energy in an Urban Integrated System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Borelli

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of the European Combined Efficient Large Scale Integrated Urban Systems (CELSIUS project, the Genoa demonstrator involves the insertion of a turbo expander (TE to substitute the standard throttling process in a natural gas expansion station. In this way, the currently wasted mechanical energy will be recovered, while an internal combustion combined heat and power (CHP unit will be used to meet the heating requirements of the gas before the expansion and to serve a small district heating network (DHN. Both TE and CHP are capable of delivering electric power (EP up to 1 MW. In order to match the EP production vs demand is highly desirable to use the EP extra capacity for local EP final users, such as a nearby public school and a gas refueling station (RS. For limiting the school’s consumption of fossil fuel, it is possible to use the EP surplus generated by the demonstrator to feed a heat pump in parallel to the heating conventional system. With regard to the RS, the compressors are currently driven by electric motors, with a high-energy consumption. The integrated system gives the possibility of exploiting the surplus of electricity production and of recovering heat, which would be otherwise wasted, from the intercooling of compressed gas, thus powering the DHN through a preheating system. The result expected from this strategy is a relevant energy and emissions saving due to an integrated use of the electricity generated by the Genoese demonstrator for feeding the nearby school and RS.

  16. European Workshop Industrical Computer Science Systems approach to design for safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewski, Janusz

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents guidelines on designing systems for safety, developed by the Technical Committee 7 on Reliability and Safety of the European Workshop on Industrial Computer Systems. The focus is on complementing the traditional development process by adding the following four steps: (1) overall safety analysis; (2) analysis of the functional specifications; (3) designing for safety; (4) validation of design. Quantitative assessment of safety is possible by means of a modular questionnaire covering various aspects of the major stages of system development.

  17. Observing Human-induced Linkages between Urbanization and Earth's Climate System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, J. Marshall; Jin, Menglin

    2004-01-01

    Urbanization is one of the extreme cases of land use change. Most of world s population has moved to urban areas. Although currently only 1.2% of the land is considered urban, the spatial coverage and density of cities are expected to rapidly increase in the near future. It is estimated that by the year 2025, 60% of the world s population will live in cities. Human activity in urban environments also alters atmospheric composition; impacts components of the water cycle; and modifies the carbon cycle and ecosystems. However, our understanding of urbanization on the total Earth-climate system is incomplete. Better understanding of how the Earth s atmosphere-ocean-land-biosphere components interact as a coupled system and the influence of the urban environment on this climate system is critical. The goal of the 2003 AGU Union session Human-induced climate variations on urban areas: From observations to modeling was to bring together scientists from interdisciplinary backgrounds to discuss the data, scientific approaches and recent results on observing and modeling components of the urban environment with the intent of sampling our current stand and discussing future direction on this topic. Herein, a summary and discussion of the observations component of the session are presented.

  18. EU Country Specific Recommendations for health systems in the European Semester process: trends, discourse and predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzopardi-Muscat, Natasha; Clemens, Timo; Stoner, Deborah; Brand, Helmut

    2015-03-01

    In the framework of "Europe 2020", European Union Member States are subject to a new system of economic monitoring and governance known as the European Semester. This paper seeks to analyse the way in which national health systems are being influenced by EU institutions through the European Semester. A content analysis of the Country Specific Recommendations (CSRs) for the years 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014 was carried out. This confirmed an increasing trend for health systems to feature in CSRs which tend to be framed in the discourse on sustainability of public finances rather than that of social inclusion with a predominant focus on the policy objective of sustainability. The likelihood of obtaining a health CSRs was tested against a series of financial health system performance indicators and general government finance indicators. The odds ratio of obtaining a health CSR increased slightly with the increase in level of general Government debt, with an OR 1.02 (CI: 1.01, 1.03; p=0.007) and decreased with an increased public health expenditure/total health expenditure ratio, with an OR 0.89 (CI: 0.84, 0.96; p=0.001). The European Semester process is a relatively new process that is influencing health systems in the European Union. The effect of this process on health systems merits further attention. Health stakeholders should seek to engage more closely with this process which if steered appropriately could also present opportunities for health system reform. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Do European agroforestry systems enhance biodiversity and ecosystem services?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torralba Viorreta, Mario; Fagerholm, Nora; Burgess, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    Agroforestry has been proposed as a sustainable agricultural system over conventional agriculture and forestry, conserving biodiversity and enhancing ecosystem service provision while not compromising productivity. However, the available evidence for the societal benefits of agroforestry...... a total of 365 comparisons that were selected for the meta-analysis. Results revealed an overall positive effect of agroforestry (effect size = 0.454, p conventional agriculture and forestry. However, results were heterogeneous, with differences among the types of agroforestry practices...... and ecosystem services assessed. Erosion control, biodiversity, and soil fertility are enhanced by agroforestry while there is no clear effect on provisioning services. The effect of agroforestry on biomass production is negative. Comparisons between agroforestry types and reference land-uses showed that both...

  20. Bank guarantee in Serbian and European legal systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajtić Bojan L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses a bank guarantee as an institute derived from a surety contract. By issuing a bank guarantee the bank commits to the creditor that it will fulfill valid and due liabilities of a debtor, in the event of default by the debtor. This collateral demonstrates significant advantages as compared to other personal assets, particularly with regards to a higher level of protection to creditors in contractual relations. Due to the aforementioned benefit the institute has been increasingly applied in legal dealings, both in our and other legal systems. In the paper, I will point out normative solutions in terms of regulation of a bank guarantee as a specific legal activity in which there is no accessoriness, which is not the case with security. This research particularly focuses on the comparative legal analysis of this collateral.

  1. Emergence and Outlook of Competence-Based Education in European Education Systems: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchibozo, Guy

    2011-01-01

    This contribution takes stock on the emergence of competence-based education in European Union (EU) countries. The article explains how economic constraints but also educational motives led educational policies and systems in the EU to shift to competence-based education. The related instructional frame and concepts are presented, as are the major…

  2. Parametric improvement for the ingestion dose module of the European ARGOS and RODOS decision support systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Kasper Grann; Nielsen, Sven Poul; Thørring, H.

    2011-01-01

    The European decision support systems ARGOS and RODOS rely on the ECOSYS model for prognoses of ingestion doses. ECOSYS needs an update of various parameter values to provide reliable estimates. This paper reports on some results of a Nordic initiative to derive parameter values that are specific...

  3. The Redistribution of Responsibilities in Five European Educational Systems: From Global Trends to National Arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Susana

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a comparative analysis on the evolution of the distribution of responsibilities--the authority of deciding over a particular domain--at the national, regional, and local levels in the European Union educational systems. After explaining common trends in the institutional arrangements through the role of evaluation, the…

  4. Teaching Applied Genetics and Molecular Biology to Agriculture Engineers. Application of the European Credit Transfer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, J.; Egea-Cortines, M.

    2008-01-01

    We have been teaching applied molecular genetics to engineers and adapted the teaching methodology to the European Credit Transfer System. We teach core principles of genetics that are universal and form the conceptual basis of most molecular technologies. The course then teaches widely used techniques and finally shows how different techniques…

  5. Association of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Clinical Features with European Population Genetic Substructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alonso-Perez, Elisa; Suarez-Gestal, Marian; Calaza, Manuel; Witte, Torsten; Papasteriades, Chryssa; Marchini, Maurizio; Migliaresi, Sergio; Kovacs, Attila; Ordi-Ros, Josep; Bijl, Marc; Santos, Maria Jose; Ruzickova, Sarka; Pullmann, Rudolf; Carreira, Patricia; Skopouli, Fotini N.; D'Alfonso, Sandra; Sebastiani, Gian Domenico; Suarez, Ana; Blanco, Francisco J.; Gomez-Reino, Juan J.; Gonzalez, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease with a very varied spectrum of clinical manifestations that could be partly determined by genetic factors. We aimed to determine the relationship between prevalence of 11 clinical features and age of disease onset with European population

  6. Gynecologic oncology training systems in europe: a report from the European network of young gynaecological oncologists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gultekin, Murat; Dursun, Polat; Vranes, Boris

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to highlight some of the differences in training systems and opportunities for training in gynecologic oncology across Europe and to draw attention to steps that can be taken to improve training prospects and experiences of European trainees in gynecologic oncology....

  7. Influence of urban land cover changes and climate change for the exposure of European cities to flooding during extreme precipitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Per Skougaard; Høegh Ravn, N.; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    In this paper we present a methodology suitable for investigating the relative and combined influence of urban land cover changes and climate change for the exposure of cities to pluvial flooding. A combined hydrological-hydrodynamic modelling and remote sensing approach enables the quantificatio...... during the past 30 years caused an increase in flood exposure that is comparable to what is expected in the RCP4.5 (+2°C) climate scenario....

  8. The Urban Nexus: Contradictions and Dilemmas of (PostCommunist (SubUrbanization in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Dumitrache

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The process of urbanization in Romania was a very tumultuous and slightly different one compared to other Central and Eastern European countries, being marked by the constant willingness to increase the degree of urbanization. The communist period was the most significant from this point of view, by considering both the number of newly declared towns and urban population growth. The urbanization of communist era corroborated with the excessive and forced industrialization has generated imbalances in the urban system and created distortions in the urban hierarchy. However, the legislative inconsistency and the lack of urban regulations during the post – communist period have lead to the increasing number of new (quasi urban units (many of which without urban amenities to the chaotic sub-urbanization of cities and urban decline. In many cases, the ability of local authorities to manage the urban development in the early years of transition has been hampered by inadequate legislation that regulates the urban growth in a completely different socio-economic system. Thus, the lacks of specific urban policies and urban regeneration plans have determined indirectly a hypertrophic evolution and an uncontrolled suburban expansion. Bucharest, the capital of the country has been most affected by these processes determining multilayered space transformation within the city and open space conversion to commercial and residential use, both affecting the urban environment and quality of life of urban-rural communities. The paper focuses on the patterns, the driving forces and the consequences of two opposing processes: socialist forced urbanization vs. post-socialist chaotic urbanization unfolding across the national urban landscape.

  9. Solid waste management in European countries: a review of systems analysis techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Ana; Martinho, Graça; Chang, Ni-Bin

    2011-04-01

    In the past few decades, solid waste management systems in Europe have involved complex and multi-faceted trade-offs among a plethora of technological alternatives, economic instruments, and regulatory frameworks. These changes resulted in various environmental, economic, social, and regulatory impacts in waste management practices which not only complicate regional policy analysis, but also reshape the paradigm of global sustainable development. Systems analysis, a discipline that harmonizes these integrated solid waste management strategies, has been uniquely providing interdisciplinary support for decision making in this area. Systems engineering models and system assessment tools, both of which enrich the analytical framework of waste management, were designed specifically to handle particular types of problems. Though how to smooth out the barriers toward achieving appropriate systems synthesis and integration of these models and tools to aid in the solid waste management schemes prevalent in European countries still remains somewhat uncertain. This paper conducts a thorough literature review of models and tools illuminating possible overlapped boundaries in waste management practices in European countries and encompassing the pros and cons of waste management practices in each member state of the European Union. Whereas the Southern European Union (EU) countries need to develop further measures to implement more integrated solid waste management and reach EU directives, the Central EU countries need models and tools with which to rationalize their technological choices and management strategies. Nevertheless, considering systems analysis models and tools in a synergistic way would certainly provide opportunities to develop better solid waste management strategies leading to conformity with current standards and foster future perspectives for both the waste management industry and government agencies in European Union. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All

  10. Policies for the setting up of alternative energy systems in European SMEs: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarpellini, S.; Romeo, L.M.

    1999-01-01

    SMEs--which provide two-thirds of all jobs in the european Union--have proven to be particularly dynamic vehicles for innovation so they must be given easy access to available advanced energy systems. In this scenario, renewable energies represent the most adequate resource to supply SMEs, included in rural areas, assuring continuity and without dependence to the fluctuations of energy market. SMEnergy project results have to be taken into account because the project, specially designed for the Spanish Region of Aragon, can be implemented to specific European Areas needs and integrated at a wider key synergy's project. (Author)

  11. Vaccine adverse event monitoring systems across the European Union countries: time for unifying efforts.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Zanoni, Giovanna

    2009-05-26

    A survey conducted among 26 European Countries within the Vaccine European New Integrated Collaboration Effort (VENICE) project assessed the status of organization in prevention and management of adverse events following immunization (AEFI) and level of interconnection, with the aim at individuating points of strength and weakness. The emerging picture is for a strong political commitment to control AEFIs in Member States (MS), but with consistent heterogeneity in procedures, regulations and capacity of systems to collect, analyze and use data, although with great potentialities. Suggestions are posed by authors to promote actions for unifying strategies and policies among MS.

  12. Student Mentors' system in the Higher European Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saa-Requejo, Antonio; Medina-Rojas, Silvia; Sanchez, Maria Elena; Gascó, Gabriel; Moratiel, Ruben; Antón, Jose Manuel; Durán-Altisent, Jose Maria; Tarquis, Ana Maria

    2013-04-01

    For several years the Spanish University has been experiencing changes that affect not only the educational area but also innovation and investigation in the classroom. Even the use of so-called New Technologies has been focus of much attention in the Higher Educational System, student mentoring has been revealed as an important factor in the first university courses. In this sense, we carried out a first step in a senior student mentor project in order to facilitate adaptation of the new students, providing information, advice and guidance on different academic and social aspects. Here, we understand mentoring as a relationship between a more senior student (mentor) and a few junior lesser experienced students (mentees). Mentoring is intended to develop and grow the skills, knowledge, confidence, and cultural understanding of the mentees aiming to help them succeed. Consequently, this work arises from our concern about students need. A test has been designed to assess students interest in the three fundamental aspects of mentoring: academic, social and administrative orientation. The test involved 16 questions related to these three different aspects on mentoring, evaluating each question from 1 (none) to 4 (totally). Surveys have been conducted on this topic at the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM) with students on different levels and modules of degrees in Agricultural Engineering. The same activity has been applied to the new degrees that have started at 2010-11 course in the Bologna Plan's requirements and are replacing the precedents progressively. We have analysed the answers performing a multifactor analysis of variance for each question. It constructs various tests and graphs to determine which questions have statistically significant interactions, given sufficient data. The F-tests in the ANOVA table allowed identifying the significant ones. For each significant factor, the Multiple Range Tests (MRT) tells which means are significantly different

  13. Food systems: New-Ruralism versus New-Urbanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadi, Hossein; Van Acker, Veronique; Zarafshani, Kiumars; Witlox, Frank

    2012-08-30

    There is a growing debate on whether agricultural land in urban fringes should be maintained or converted to other uses. While 'pro-ruralists' believe agricultural land conversion can threaten food security and cause rural-urban migration, 'pro-urbanists' find it a necessary change for transition from a primitive agricultural-based community to an advanced industrial-based society which has the capacity to create mass productions. New-Ruralists follow an agricultural-based development approach that promotes small-medium farming and acknowledges rural lifestyle while New-Urbanists give a priority to large industrial-based sectors and encourage urban lifestyle. Given the unlike concerns of different societies, the paper concludes that the approaches might have different priorities in the less developed, developing, and developed world. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Overview of the European project FUMAPEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baklanov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality of the urban air pollution forecast critically depends on the mapping of emissions, the urban air pollution models, and the meteorological data. The quality of the meteorological data should be largely enhanced by using downscaled data from advanced numerical weather prediction models. These different topics, as well as the application of population exposure models, have traditionally been treated in distinct scientific communities whose expertise needs to be combined to enhance the possibilities of forecasting air pollution episodes in European cities. For this purpose the EU project 'Integrated Systems for Forecasting Urban Meteorology, Air Pollution and Population Exposure'' (FUMAPEX (http://fumapex.dmi.dk, involving 22 organizations from 10 European countries, was initiated. The main objectives of the project are the improvement of meteorological forecasts for urban areas, the connection of numerical weather prediction models to urban air pollution and population exposure models, the building of improved Urban Air Quality Information and Forecasting Systems, and their application in cities in various European climates. This paper overviews the project items and first two-years results, it is an introduction to the whole ACP issue.

  15. Ecological relationship analysis of the urban metabolic system of Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shengsheng; Zhang Yan; Yang Zhifeng; Liu Hong; Zhang Jinyun

    2012-01-01

    Cities can be modelled as giant organisms, with their own metabolic processes, and can therefore be studied using the same tools used for biological metabolic systems. The complicated distribution of compartments within these systems and the functional relationships among them define the system's network structure. Taking Beijing as an example, we divided the city's internal system into metabolic compartments, then used ecological network analysis to calculate a comprehensive utility matrix for the flows between compartments within Beijing's metabolic system from 1998 to 2007 and to identify the corresponding functional relationships among the system's compartments. Our results show how ecological network analysis, utility analysis, and relationship analysis can be used to discover the implied ecological relationships within a metabolic system, thereby providing insights into the system's internal metabolic processes. Such analyses provide scientific support for urban ecological management. - Highlights: ► Urban metabolic processes can be analyzed by treating cities as superorganisms. ► We developed an ecological network model for an urban system. ► We studied the system's network relationships using ecological network analysis. ► We developed indices for judging the system's synergism and degree of stability. - Using Beijing as an example of an urban superorganism, we used ecological network analysis to describe the ecological relationships among the urban metabolic system's compartments.

  16. Melissa: The European project of a closed life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasseur, Christophe

    The MELISSA (Micro-Ecological Life Support Alternative) project was initiated in 1989. It is intended as a tool to gain understanding of closed life support, as well as the development of the technology for a future life support system for long term manned space missions, e.g. a lunar base or a mission to Mars. The collaboration was established through a Memorandum of Understanding and is managed by ESA. It involves several independent organisations: Ghent University, EPAS, SCK, VITO (B), University of Clermont-Ferrand, SHERPA (F), University Autonoma of Barcelona (E), University of Guelph (CND). It is co-funded by ESA, the MELISSA partners, the Belgian, the Spanish and the Canadian authorities. The driving element of MELISSA is the production of food, water and oxygen from organic waste (inedible biomass, CO2, faeces, urea). Inspired by the principle of an "aquatic" ecosystem, MELISSA process comprises several sub-processes, called compartments, from the anoxygenic fermentor up to the photosynthetic units (i.e. algae and higher plants). The choice of this compartmentalised structure is required by the very high level of safety requirements and justified by the need of an engineering approach and to build deterministic control strategy. During the past 19 years of research and development, a very progressive approach has been developed to understand and control the MELISSA loop. This approach starts from the selection of processes, their characterisation and mathematical modelling, the validation of the control strategy, up to the demonstration on Earth, at pilot scale. The project is organised in 5 phases: Basic Research and Development, Preliminary flight experiment, Ground and space demonstration, Terrestrial transfer, Education and communication.

  17. Urban residence, victimhood and the appraisal of personal safety in people with schizophrenia: results from the European Schizophrenia Cohort (EuroSC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomerus, G; Heider, D; Angermeyer, M C; Bebbington, P E; Azorin, J-M; Brugha, T; Toumi, M

    2008-04-01

    Patients with schizophrenia are at increased risk of being victims of violent and non-violent crimes. We have determined how the experience of crime and subjective feelings of safety differ between urban and rural residential areas. We analysed data from the European Schizophrenia Cohort (EuroSC), a 2-year follow-up study of 1208 patients in the UK, France and Germany. Subjective safety and a history of victimhood were elicited with Lehman's Quality of Life Inventory. Regression models adjusted the effects of living environment for country, education, employment, financial situation, drug and alcohol abuse, criminal arrests and the level of schizophrenic symptoms. Ten per cent of patients were victims of violent and 19% of non-violent crimes. There was no significant relationship between victim status and residential area. However, subjective safety was clearly worse in cities than in rural areas. Aspects of objective and subjective safety were related to different factors: being the victim of violence was most strongly associated with alcohol and drug abuse and with criminal arrests of the patients themselves, whereas impaired subjective safety was most strongly associated with poverty and victimhood experience. Although urban living was not associated with increased objective threats to their security, patients did feel more threatened. Such stress and anxiety can be related to concepts of social capital, and may contribute unfavourably to the course of the illness, reflecting the putative role of appraisal in cognitive models of psychosis. Securing patients' material needs may provide a way to improve subjective safety.

  18. San Francisco urban partnership agreement, national evaluation : transit system data test plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    This report presents the test plan for collecting and analyzing the transit system data for the San Francisco Urban : Partnership Agreement (UPA) under the United States Department of Transportation (U.S. DOT) UPA Program. : The San Francisco UPA pro...

  19. Minnesota urban partnership agreement national evaluation : transit system data test plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-17

    This report presents the test plan for collecting and analyzing transit system data for the Minnesota Urban Partnership Agreement (UPA) National Evaluation under the United States Department of Transportation (U.S. DOT) UPA Program. The Minnesota UPA...

  20. Minnesota urban partnership agreement national evaluation : traffic system data test plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-17

    This report presents the traffic system data test plan for the Minnesota Urban Partnership Agreement (UPA) under the United States Department of Transportation (U.S. DOT) UPA Program. The Minnesota UPA projects focus on reducing congestion by employi...

  1. San Francisco urban partnership agreement, national evaluation : traffic system data test plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    This report presents the test plan for collecting and analyzing traffic system data for the San Francisco Urban : Partnership Agreement (UPA) under the United States Department of Transportation (U.S. DOT) UPA Program. : The San Francisco UPA project...

  2. Integrated approaches to long-term studies of urban ecological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy B. Grimm; J. Morgan Grove; Steward T.A. Pickett; Charles L. Redman

    2000-01-01

    Urban ecological systems present multiple challenges to ecologists—pervasive human impact and extreme heterogeneity of cities, and the need to integrate social and ecological approaches, concepts, and theory.

  3. Texas Urban Triangle : pilot study to implement a spatial decision support system (SDSS) for sustainable mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    This project addressed sustainable transportation in the Texas Urban Triangle (TUT) by conducting a pilot : project at the county scale. The project tested and developed the multi-attribute Spatial Decision Support : System (SDSS) developed in 2009 u...

  4. Education and Leisure in North European Urban Spaces, with Emphasis on Less Privileged Areas, Particularly in the United Kingdom. A Seminar (London, England, United Kingdom, April 13, 1989). Educational Buildings and Equipment 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Union of Architects, Paris (France).

    This collection was gathered from a seminar entitled "Education and Leisure in North European Urban Spaces," which was the result of cooperation between the Sports, Leisure, and Tourism Work Group of the International Union of Architects and the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). Papers were given…

  5. Evaluation design of Urban Health Centres Europe (UHCE): preventive integrated health and social care for community-dwelling older persons in five European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franse, Carmen B; Voorham, Antonius J J; van Staveren, Rob; Koppelaar, Elin; Martijn, Rens; Valía-Cotanda, Elisa; Alhambra-Borrás, Tamara; Rentoumis, Tasos; Bilajac, Lovorka; Marchesi, Vanja Vasiljev; Rukavina, Tomislav; Verma, Arpana; Williams, Greg; Clough, Gary; Garcés-Ferrer, Jorge; Mattace Raso, Francesco; Raat, Hein

    2017-09-11

    Older persons often have interacting physical and social problems and complex care needs. An integrated care approach in the local context with collaborations between community-, social-, and health-focused organisations can contribute to the promotion of independent living and quality of life. In the Urban Health Centres Europe (UHCE) project, five European cities (Greater Manchester, United Kingdom; Pallini (in Greater Athens Area), Greece; Rijeka, Croatia; Rotterdam, the Netherlands; and Valencia, Spain) develop and implement a care template that integrates health and social care and includes a preventive approach. The UHCE project includes an effect and process evaluation. In a one-year pre-post controlled trial, in each city 250 participants aged 75+ years are recruited to receive the UHCE approach and are compared with 250 participants who receive 'care as usual'. Benefits of UHCE approach in terms of healthy life styles, fall risk, appropriate medication use, loneliness level and frailty, and in terms of level of independence and health-related quality of life and health care use are assessed. A multilevel modeling approach is used for the analyses. The process evaluation is used to provide insight into the reach of the target population, the extent to which elements of the UHCE approach are executed as planned and the satisfaction of the participants. The UHCE project will provide new insight into the feasibility and effectiveness of an integrated care approach for older persons in different European settings. ISRCTN registry number is ISRCTN52788952 . Date of registration is 13/03/2017.

  6. A multi-layered software architecture model for building software solutions in an urbanized information system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana Guetat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of Information Systems urbanization has been proposed since the late 1990’s in order to help organizations building agile information systems. Nevertheless, despite the advantages of this concept, it remains too descriptive and presents many weaknesses. In particular, there is a lack of useful architecture models dedicated to defining software solutions compliant with information systems urbanization principles and rules. Moreover, well-known software architecture models do not provide sufficient resources to address the requirements and constraints of urbanized information systems. In this paper, we draw on the “information city” framework to propose a model of software architecture - called the 5+1 Software Architecture Model - which is compliant with information systems urbanization principles and helps organizations building urbanized software solutions. This framework improves the well-established software architecture models and allows the integration of new architectural paradigms. Furthermore, the proposed model contributes to the implementation of information systems urbanization in several ways. On the one hand, this model devotes a specific layer to applications integration and software reuse. On the other hand, it contributes to the information system agility and scalability due to its conformity to the separation of concerns principle.

  7. CEDRIC: a computerized chronic disease management system for urban, safety net clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunyemi, Omolola; Mukherjee, Sukrit; Ani, Chizobam; Hindman, David; George, Sheba; Ilapakurthi, Ramarao; Verma, Mary; Dayrit, Melvin

    2010-01-01

    To meet the challenge of improving health care quality in urban, medically underserved areas of the US that have a predominance of chronic diseases such as diabetes, we have developed a new information system called CEDRIC for managing chronic diseases. CEDRIC was developed in collaboration with clinicians at an urban safety net clinic, using a community-participatory partnered research approach, with a view to addressing the particular needs of urban clinics with a high physician turnover and large uninsured/underinsured patient population. The pilot implementation focuses on diabetes management. In this paper, we describe the system's architecture and features.

  8. National critical incident reporting systems relevant to anaesthesia: a European survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, S; Arnal, D; Frank, O; Gomez-Arnau, J I; Hansen, J; Lester, O; Mikkelsen, K L; Rhaiem, T; Rosenberg, P H; St Pierre, M; Schleppers, A; Staender, S; Smith, A F

    2014-03-01

    Critical incident reporting is a key tool in the promotion of patient safety in anaesthesia. We surveyed representatives of national incident reporting systems in six European countries, inviting information on scope and organization, and intelligence on factors determining success and failure. Some systems are government-run and nationally conceived; others started out as small, specialty-focused initiatives, which have since acquired a national reach. However, both national co-ordination and specialty enthusiasts seem to be necessary for an optimally functioning system. The role of reporting culture, definitional issues, and dissemination is discussed. We make recommendations for others intending to start new systems and speculate on the prospects for sharing patient safety lessons relevant to anaesthesia at European level.

  9. Adequacy of operating reserves for power systems in future european wind power scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Kaushik; Litong-Palima, Marisciel; Maule, Petr

    2015-01-01

    operating reserves. To study the effects of these imbalances, anticipated wind scenarios for European power systems are modelled for 2020 and 2030. Wind power forecasts for different time scales and real-time available wind power are modelled. Based on these studies, this paper qualitatively analyzes......Wind power generation is expected to increase in Europe by large extent in future. This will increase variability and uncertainty in power systems. Imbalances caused due to uncertainty in wind power forecast can trigger frequency instability in the system. These imbalances are handled using...... the adequacy of primary and secondary reserves requirements for future European power systems. This paper also discusses the challenges due to the uncertainty in wind power forecasts and their possible solutions for wind installation scenarios for 2020 and 2030....

  10. Discrimination against Rural-to-Urban Migrants: The Role of the Hukou System in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Lei; Liu, Li

    2012-01-01

    China's rural-urban dual society system is instituted by its unique hukou system. This system causes inequalities in social status between permanent urban and rural residents, and discrimination against rural-to-urban migrants is thus prevalent. A series of studies, based on system justification theory, sought to address the impact of the hukou system on the discrimination against rural-to-urban migrants. Study 1 showed that the justification of the hukou system could predict discrimination operationalized using a social distance measure. Study 2 found that priming of the proposed abolishment of the current hukou system led to reduced social distance. Study 3, using a recruiting scenario, further demonstrated that priming of the proposed abolishment of the system led to reduced discrimination in salary decision. Consistent with our predictions, discrimination against rural-to-urban migrants could be triggered by justifying the current hukou system, while priming of the abolishment of the system serves to decrease discrimination. The present research thereby sheds light on China's reform of its hukou system to achieve social justice and equality from a psychological perspective. PMID:23144794

  11. Using ensemble weather forecast in a risk based real time optimization of urban drainage systems

    OpenAIRE

    Courdent, Vianney Augustin Thomas; Vezzaro, Luca; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Loft Mollerup, Ane; Grum, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Global Real Time Control (RTC) of urban drainage system is increasingly seen as cost-effective solution in order to respond to increasing performance demand (e.g. reduction of Combined Sewer Overflow, protection of sensitive areas as bathing water etc.). The Dynamic Overflow Risk Assessment (DORA) strategy was developed to operate Urban Drainage Systems (UDS) in order to minimize the expected overflow risk by considering the water volume presently stored in the drainage network, the expected ...

  12. European Multicenter Study on Analytical Performance of DxN Veris System HCV Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Braun, Patrick; Delgado, Rafael; Drago, Monica; Fanti, Diana; Fleury, Hervé; Gismondo, Maria Rita; Hofmann, Jörg; Izopet, Jacques; Kühn, Sebastian; Lombardi, Alessandra; Marcos, Maria Angeles; Sauné, Karine; O'Shea, Siobhan; Pérez-Rivilla, Alfredo; Ramble, John

    2017-01-01

    The analytical performance of the Veris HCV Assay for use on the new and fully automated Beckman Coulter DxN Veris Molecular Diagnostics System (DxN Veris System) was evaluated at 10 European virology laboratories. Precision, analytical sensitivity, specificity, and performance with negative samples, linearity, and performance with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes were evaluated. Precision for all sites showed a standard deviation (SD) of 0.22 log10 IU/ml or lower for each level tested. Anal...

  13. Is the European Court of Human Rights satisfied with the Russian criminal justice system?

    OpenAIRE

    Voskobitova, Maria R.

    2007-01-01

    This article considers the extent to which the Russian criminal justice system complies with human rights standards. About a third of the complaints against Russia that are filed at the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) relate to violations of rights, both of the accused and the victims in the context of the criminal procedural system. One can identify several categories of the most typical complaints: protracted court proceedings; unjustified and unlawful confinement in custody; the use...

  14. The European Power System. Decarbonization and Cost Reduction: Lost in Transmissions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaureguy-Naudin, Maite

    2012-01-01

    constraints. Wind energy is expected to provide most of the extra renewable energy required in electricity generation to meet this objective. Even though photovoltaic electricity production is less mature than wind energy, this technology is also strongly supported by new energy policies. Overall, the variability of these intermittent technologies can be dealt with by interconnection capacities, to a certain extent. Strong interconnections between neighboring countries are crucial for greater wind-power and solar penetration in the European system

  15. Economic analysis of the cross-border coordination of operation in the European power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssen, Tanguy

    2014-01-01

    The electricity high voltage transmission networks are interconnected over most of the continents but this is not the case of the power system organizations. Indeed, as described with the concept of integrated power system, the organization over these large networks is divided by several kinds of internal borders. In this context, the research object, the cross-border coordination of operation, is a set of coordination arrangements over internal borders between differing regulatory, technical and market designs. These arrangements can include for instance the famous market couplings, some cost-sharing agreements or common security assessments among several other solutions. The existence and improvement of the cross-border coordination of operation can be beneficial to the whole integrated power system. This statement is verified in the European case as in 2012 where several regional and continental coordination arrangements are successfully implemented.In order to benefit from the European experience and contribute to support the European improvement process, this thesis investigates the cross-border coordination of operation in the European case with four angles of study. First, a modular framework is built to describe the existing solutions and the implementation choices from a regulatory point of view. Second, the thesis analyses the tools available to assess the impact of an evolution of the cross-border coordination. Third, the role of the European Union (EU) is described as critical both for the existing arrangements and to support the improvement process. The last angle of study focuses on two dimensions of the economic modes of coordination between transmission system operators. (author)

  16. Impacts of climate change on rainfall extremes and urban drainage systems: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Willems, P.; Olsson, J.

    2013-01-01

    A review is made of current methods for assessing future changes in urban rainfall extremes and their effects on urban drainage systems, due to anthropogenic-induced climate change. The review concludes that in spite of significant advances there are still many limitations in our understanding...... of how to describe precipitation patterns in a changing climate in order to design and operate urban drainage infrastructure. Climate change may well be the driver that ensures that changes in urban drainage paradigms are identified and suitable solutions implemented. Design and optimization of urban...... drainage infrastructure considering climate change impacts and co-optimizing these with other objectives will become ever more important to keep our cities habitable into the future. © IWA Publishing 2013....

  17. Impacts of climate change on rainfall extremes and urban drainage systems: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnbjerg-Nielsen, K; Willems, P; Olsson, J; Beecham, S; Pathirana, A; Bülow Gregersen, I; Madsen, H; Nguyen, V-T-V

    2013-01-01

    A review is made of current methods for assessing future changes in urban rainfall extremes and their effects on urban drainage systems, due to anthropogenic-induced climate change. The review concludes that in spite of significant advances there are still many limitations in our understanding of how to describe precipitation patterns in a changing climate in order to design and operate urban drainage infrastructure. Climate change may well be the driver that ensures that changes in urban drainage paradigms are identified and suitable solutions implemented. Design and optimization of urban drainage infrastructure considering climate change impacts and co-optimizing these with other objectives will become ever more important to keep our cities habitable into the future.

  18. Enhancing future resilience in urban drainage system: Green versus grey infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xin; Guo, Hao; Zeng, Siyu

    2017-11-01

    In recent years, the concept transition from fail-safe to safe-to-fail makes the application of resilience analysis popular in urban drainage systems (UDSs) with various implications and quantifications. However, most existing definitions of UDSs resilience are confined to the severity of flooding, while uncertainties from climate change and urbanization are not considered. In this research, we take into account the functional variety, topological complexity, and disturbance randomness of UDSs and define a new formula of resilience based on three parts of system severity, i.e. social severity affected by urban flooding, environmental severity caused by sewer overflow, and technological severity considering the safe operation of downstream facilities. A case study in Kunming, China is designed to compare the effect of green and grey infrastructure strategies on the enhancement of system resilience together with their costs. Different system configurations with green roofs, permeable pavement and storage tanks are compared by scenario analysis with full consideration of future uncertainties induced by urbanization and climate change. The research contributes to the development of sustainability assessment of urban drainage system with consideration of the resilience of green and grey infrastructure under future change. Finding the response measures with high adaptation across a variety of future scenarios is crucial to establish sustainable urban drainage system in a long term. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Urban food systems governance for NCD prevention in Africa | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The main activities of this research project include conducting an assessment of consumption trends, food choices, and experiences with NCDs to understand the complex drivers of urban household food practices; mapping the local formal and informal food retail environment in order to understand the interactions between ...

  20. Deconstructing Systems of Segregation: Leadership Challenges in an Urban School

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMatthews, David

    2014-01-01

    Special education policies can create structures of segregation and inequality. School leaders are often tasked with dismantling these structures while meeting expectations related to accountability policies. This case study involves a new principal at an urban school in a district with a long history of segregation reassigned to work at one of…

  1. THE CONCEPT OF IC IN REGIONAL AND URBAN SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA NOWICKA-SKOWRON

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The human capital and structural capital constitute the primary assets of every organisation and more and more every territory: on urban, local, regional, national and global levels. Business practice confirms the need of developing basic organisational features that would result in creating a unique corporate image. It turns out that an individual character of a company facilitates its winning competitive advantage.

  2. Transforming Food Systems through Food Sovereignty: An Australian Urban Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, Federico; Dyball, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This article draws on La Via Campesina's definition of food sovereignty and its potential for reconceptualising food as a basic human right within the dominant Australian food discourse. We argue that the educative value that emerges from urban food production in Australia stems from the action of growing food and its capacity to transform…

  3. Applying a Resilience Systems Framework to Urban Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasny, Marianne E.; Tidball, Keith G.

    2009-01-01

    A growing body of literature on community gardening, watershed restoration, and similar "civic ecology" practices suggests avenues for integrating social and ecological outcomes in urban natural resources management. In this paper, we argue that an environmental education programme in which learning is situated in civic ecology practices…

  4. Detection of changes in hydrologic system memory associated with urbanization in the Great Lakes region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, G.; Bowling, L. C.

    2010-12-01

    The Great Lakes region has experienced large land-cover / land-use change (LCLUC) in the last century, especially the growth of urban areas accompanied with increased human activities. Many hydrologic impacts of urbanization have been documented due to the reduction of the perviousness of urban landscapes, e.g. the reduced infiltration rate and runoff response time, the increased flashiness of daily streamflow and the magnitude of flood peaks. Such changes might be equivalently interpreted as a decrease in hydrologic system memory with urbanization, i.e. the current discharge in a flow time series has less correlation with its prior flows. Based on observed streamflow at several USGS gauge stations in the Great Lakes region, appropriate fractional autoregressive integrated moving average (FARIMA) models are introduced for daily and monthly streamflow respectively. The recently improved Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model with urban representation is applied to simulate the water and energy response in many basins in the region with various degrees of urbanization. The VIC model is driven by different years’ land use/cover maps, including a 1992 base map and a 2030 map predicted by the Land Transformation Model (LTM). A no-urban scenario was also created by removing urban and rescaling other vegetations’ fraction based on the 1992 map. The simulated daily and monthly streamflow from some gauged basins is validated using the above fitted FARIMA models. The difference in the fitted FARIMA model parameters, e.g. AR(1) and Hurst exponent representing short and long memory respectively, between different land use/cover scenarios is mainly induced by differences in urban area. In order to further explore the relationship among urban growth, hydrologic system memory and other hydrologic change, metrics relating to the flow distribution, daily variation in streamflow and frequency of high-flow events are also calculated for selected basins.

  5. The urban transition and the evolution of the medical care delivery system in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, P L; Bohland, J; Shumsky, N L

    1983-01-01

    This essay traces the evolution of the American urban medical care delivery system and examines the implications in terms of social and spatial variations in accessibility to medical care. It is suggested that the foundations of the present medical care delivery system were laid during the urban transformation which took place in the latter part of the nineteenth century, when changes in the division of labor, specialization, the role of the family, urban transportation technology and attitudes to social protectionism interacted with changes in science, medical technology and professional organization to produce radical changes in both the settings used to provide medical care and their relative accessibility to different sub-groups of the population. The medical care delivery system is thus interpreted largely as a product of the overall dynamic of urbanization rather than of scientific discovery, medical technology and the influence of key medical practitioners and professional organizations.

  6. The Administrative System of the European Union - From Concept to Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucica MATEI

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of the 21st century, the European Union (EU governance and administration are undergoing some significant transformations, not without obstacles, from concept to reality, revealing characteristics that aim both the European and national elements in a permanent interpenetration, whose complexity is superior to other processes and phenomena specific for the construction of a United Europe. The major objective of the current paper is to substantiate and describe systemically the process of affirmation and transformation of the EU administration as a core pillar of European governance. A doctrinal overview on the debated topic reveals an atypical concept in terms of the traditional approach in administrative sciences, thus leading in the specialized studies to controversies going to the conceptual negation of the EU administration. This time, the reality of EU construction anticipates traditional theories and doctrines, imposing even a change of vision, getting closer to the modern theories of public management and administration. The EU administration has developed simultaneously with the construction of the United Europe on a distinct area that overlaps with the EU area in its various enlargement stages. In a regulatory perspective, the EU administration has benefited due to the constitutive treaties, from a contextual ground containing relatively few direct and explicit assertions, but which valorize the European traditions and culture, mainly in the Member States, integrating creatively the international developments of public management. In a developing relation, we witness a permanent adaptation of the EU administration to the needs arising from the achievement of the EU objectives. The attempt to institute an ‘EU Constitution’ got the doctrinal approach of the EU administration closer to the traditional approach specific for the European legal systems. The failure of that activity has created a new impetus to a different

  7. The Great Recession And Increased Cost Sharing In European Health Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palladino, Raffaele; Lee, John Tayu; Hone, Thomas; Filippidis, Filippos T; Millett, Christopher

    2016-07-01

    European health systems are increasingly adopting cost-sharing models, potentially increasing out-of-pocket expenditures for patients who use health care services or buy medications. Government policies that increase patient cost sharing are responding to incremental growth in cost pressures from aging populations and the need to invest in new health technologies, as well as to general constraints on public expenditures resulting from the Great Recession (2007-09). We used data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe to examine changes from 2006-07 to 2013 in out-of-pocket expenditures among people ages fifty and older in eleven European countries. Our results identify increases both in the proportion of older European citizens who incurred out-of-pocket expenditures and in mean out-of-pocket expenditures over this period. We also identified a significant increase over time in the percentage of people who incurred catastrophic health expenditures (greater than 30 percent of the household income) in the Czech Republic, Italy, and Spain. Poorer populations were less likely than those in the highest income quintile to incur an out-of-pocket expenditure and reported lower mean out-of-pocket expenditures, which suggests that measures are in place to provide poorer groups with some financial protection. These findings indicate the substantial weakening of financial protection for people ages fifty and older in European health systems after the Great Recession. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  8. System-wide Benchmark Simulation Model for integrated analysis of urban wastewater systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saagi, R.; Flores-Alsina, X.; Gernaey, K. V.

    Interactions between different components (sewer, wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and river) of an urban wastewater system (UWS) are widely recognized (Benedetti et al., 2013). This has resulted in an increasing interest in the modelling of the UWS. System-wide models take into account the inte......Interactions between different components (sewer, wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and river) of an urban wastewater system (UWS) are widely recognized (Benedetti et al., 2013). This has resulted in an increasing interest in the modelling of the UWS. System-wide models take into account...... the interactions between the different subsystems and allow us to operate the UWS in a holistic manner. Such an integrated approach makes it feasible to evaluate control strategies at an UWS scale with the aim of improving receiving water quality. Currently, benchmark simulation models are widely used to evaluate......) measures. We demonstrate the need of using a holistic approach due to the strong interactions between the elements of the UWS (catchment, WWTP and sewer)....

  9. An efficient rapid warning system for earthquakes in the European - Mediterranean region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazet-Roux, G.; Bossu, R; Tome, M.; Giovambattista, R. Di

    2002-01-01

    Every year a few damaging earthquakes occur in the European-Mediterranean region. It is therefore indispensable to operate a real-time warning system in order to provide rapidly reliable estimates of the location, depth and magnitude of these seismic events. In order to provide this information in a timely manner both to the scientific community and to the European and national authorities dealing with natural hazards and relief organisation, the European-Mediterranean Seismological Centre (EMSC) has federated a network of seismic networks exchanging their data in quasi real-time. Today, thanks to the Internet, the EMSC receives real-time information about earthquakes from about thirty seismological institutes. As soon as data reach the EMSC, they are displayed on the EMSC Web pages (www.emsc-csem.org). A seismic alert is generated for any potentially damaging earthquake in the European-Mediterranean region and disseminated within one hour following its occurrence. Potentially damaging earthquakes are defined as seismic events of magnitude 5 or above in the European-Mediterranean region. The utility of this EMSC service is clearly demonstrated by its following among the public: EMSC e-mail dissemination list has been subscribed by about 300 institutions (ECHO, NGO, civil defence services, seismological institutes) or individuals and the rate of internet connections to EMSC web site dramatically increase following an alert. The aim of this presentation is to give a complete technical description of the EMSC warning system. We will also take this opportunity to thank each of the contributing institutions for their support and efforts to enhance the system performances. (authors)

  10. Exploring the diversity of urban and peri-urban agricultural systems in Sudano-Sahelian West Africa: An attempt towards a regional typology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dossa, L.C.; Abdulkadir, A.; Amadou, H.; Sangare, S.; Schlecht, E.

    2011-01-01

    Developing appropriate and innovative technologies and policies to respond to the challenges that urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA) faces in West Africa requires a better understanding of the existing production systems. Although there is an increasing recognition of the importance of UPA in

  11. Vision of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems: a European Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollier, G.; Craglia, M.; Nativi, S.

    2013-12-01

    The possibility of involving citizens in measuring and providing data is becoming a reality through the concept of "Citizen Observatories". This takes advantage of everybody's capacity to use mobile phone/tablet/laptop to monitor the environment and by trying to find cheap solutions to strengthen the in-situ network of observatories needed for a Global Earth Observation System. Further to the Citizen Observatories approach, the development of cheap sensors based on disposable technologies, nanotech and the piggy-back approach could also be applied to several Societal Challenges and contribute to the GEOSS. The involvement of citizens in the domain of Earth Observation implies dealing with many diverse communities that need to be fully connected into the overall GEOSS architecture. With the introduction of a brokering capability this becomesnow possible. The value of the brokering approach has been demonstrated within the European Union funded EuroGEOSS research project. The EuroGEOSS brokering capability has now been incorporated into the GEOSS information system, (known as the GEOSS Common Infrastructure, or GCI) and renamed the GEOSS Discovery and Access Broker. In a matter of a few months the GEOSS DAB has enabled the GEOSS to extend the data resources available from a few hundred to over 28 million The vison which is discussed here is that with a more active participation of the Citizens one could imagine a world with instant information flow about the state and future evolution of the environment available, similar to what has been achieved in weather forecasting but covering fields such as climate, agriculture, water etc. and covering larger forecast time spans from months to years. Failure on crops for instance could be forecasted and measures to mitigate potential upcoming problems could be put in place well in advance. Obviously, the societal and economic benefits would be manifold and large

  12. The Financing Mechanism of the Social Health Insurance System in Romania and in other European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin AFANASE

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The social insurance system is part of the social security system and it works based on the payment of a contribution through which risks and services defined by the law are insured. The social security system, independent of the structure or political and economical order of a state, has the attribution of giving help to those in conditions of social helplessness, as well as preventing such circumstances. In this paper we made a comparative analysis of the financing mechanism of the social health insurance system in Romania with other European countries.

  13. The European Flood Alert System – Part 1: Concept and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Thielen

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of the European Flood Alert System (EFAS, which aims at increasing preparedness for floods in trans-national European river basins by providing local water authorities with medium-range and probabilistic flood forecasting information 3 to 10 days in advance. The EFAS research project started in 2003 with the development of a prototype at the European Commission Joint Research Centre (JRC, in close collaboration with the national hydrological and meteorological services. The prototype covers the whole of Europe on a 5 km grid. In parallel, different high-resolution data sets have been collected for the Elbe and Danube river basins, allowing the potential of the system under optimum conditions and on a higher resolution to be assessed. Flood warning lead-times of 3–10 days are achieved through the incorporation of medium-range weather forecasts from the German Weather Service (DWD and the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF, comprising a full set of 51 probabilistic forecasts from the Ensemble Prediction System (EPS provided by ECMWF. The ensemble of different hydrographs is analysed and combined to produce early flood warning information, which is disseminated to the hydrological services that have agreed to participate in the development of the system. In Part 1 of this paper, the scientific approach adopted in the development of the system is presented. The rational of the project, the system�s set-up, its underlying components, basic principles and products are described. In Part 2, results of a detailed statistical analysis of the performance of the system are shown, with regard to both probabilistic and deterministic forecasts.

  14. A healthy turn in urban climate change policies; European city workshop proposes health indicators as policy integrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keune, Hans; Ludlow, David; van den Hazel, Peter; Randall, Scott; Bartonova, Alena

    2012-06-28

    The EU FP6 HENVINET project reviewed the potential relevance of a focus on climate change related health effects for climate change policies at the city region level. This was undertaken by means of a workshop with both scientists, city representatives from several EU-countries, representatives of EU city networks and EU-experts. In this paper we introduce some important health related climate change issues, and discuss the current city policies of the participating cities. The workshop used a backcasting format to analyse the future relevance of a health perspective, and the main benefits and challenges this would bring to urban policy making. It was concluded that health issues have an important function as indicators of success for urban climate change policies, given the extent to which climate change policies contribute to public health and as such to quality of life. Simultaneously the health perspective may function as a policy integrator in that it can combine several related policy objectives, such as environmental policies, health policies, urban planning and economic development policies, in one framework for action. Furthermore, the participants to the workshop considered public health to be of strategic importance in organizing public support for climate change policies. One important conclusion of the workshop was the view that the connection of science and policy at the city level is inadequate, and that the integration of scientific knowledge on climate change related health effects and local policy practice is in need of more attention. In conclusion, the workshop was viewed as a constructive advance in the process of integration which hopefully will lead to ongoing cooperation. The workshop had the ambition to bring together a diversity of actor perspectives for exchange of knowledge and experiences, and joint understanding as a basis for future cooperation. Next to the complementarities in experience and knowledge, the mutual critical reflection

  15. A healthy turn in urban climate change policies; European city workshop proposes health indicators as policy integrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The EU FP6 HENVINET project reviewed the potential relevance of a focus on climate change related health effects for climate change policies at the city region level. This was undertaken by means of a workshop with both scientists, city representatives from several EU-countries, representatives of EU city networks and EU-experts. In this paper we introduce some important health related climate change issues, and discuss the current city policies of the participating cities. Methods The workshop used a backcasting format to analyse the future relevance of a health perspective, and the main benefits and challenges this would bring to urban policy making. Results It was concluded that health issues have an important function as indicators of success for urban climate change policies, given the extent to which climate change policies contribute to public health and as such to quality of life. Simultaneously the health perspective may function as a policy integrator in that it can combine several related policy objectives, such as environmental policies, health policies, urban planning and economic development policies, in one framework for action. Furthermore, the participants to the workshop considered public health to be of strategic importance in organizing public support for climate change policies. One important conclusion of the workshop was the view that the connection of science and policy at the city level is inadequate, and that the integration of scientific knowledge on climate change related health effects and local policy practice is in need of more attention. In conclusion, the workshop was viewed as a constructive advance in the process of integration which hopefully will lead to ongoing cooperation. Conclusions The workshop had the ambition to bring together a diversity of actor perspectives for exchange of knowledge and experiences, and joint understanding as a basis for future cooperation. Next to the complementarities in experience and

  16. Current and past smoking patterns in a Central European urban population: a cross-sectional study in a high-burden country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narine K. Movsisyan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies have examined the socioeconomic variations in smoking and quitting rates across the European region; however, data from Central and East European countries, where the tobacco burden is especially high, are sparse. This study aimed to assess the patterns in current and past smoking prevalence based on cross-sectional data from a Central European urban population sample. Methods Data from 2160 respondents aged 25–64 years in Brno, Czech Republic were collected in 2013–2014 using the Czech post-MONICA survey questionnaire to assess the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, including smoking status. The age- and sex-stratified randomized sample was drawn using health insurance registries. Descriptive statistics and quit ratios were calculated, and chi-square and multivariate logistic analyses conducted to examine relationships between current and past smoking and demographic (age, gender, marital status and socioeconomic variables (education, income, occupation. Results The prevalence of current and past smoking was 23.6 and 31.3 % among men and 20.5 and 23.2 % among women, respectively. Education reliably predicted smoking and quitting rates in both genders. Among men, being unemployed was associated with greater odds of smoking (OR 3.6; 1.6–8.1 and lower likelihood of quitting (OR 0.2: 0.1–0.6; the likelihood of quitting also increased with age (OR 1.8; 1.2–2.8. Among women, marital status (being married decreased the odds of current smoking (OR 0.6; 0.4–0.9 and increased the odds of quitting (OR 2.2; 1.2–3.9. Quit ratios were the lowest in the youngest age group (25–34 years where quitting was more strongly associated with middle income (OR 2.7; 95 % CI 1.2–5.9 than with higher education (OR 2.9; 95 % CI 0.9–8.2. Conclusions Interventions to increase cessation rates and reduce smoking prevalence need to be gender-specific and carefully tailored to the needs of the disadvantaged groups

  17. Vegetated Treatment Systems for Removing Contaminants Associated with Surface Water Toxicity in Agriculture and Urban Runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brian S; Phillips, Bryn M; Voorhees, Jennifer P; Cahn, Michael

    2017-05-15

    Urban stormwater and agriculture irrigation runoff contain a complex mixture of contaminants that are often toxic to adjacent receiving waters. Runoff may be treated with simple systems designed to promote sorption of contaminants to vegetation and soils and promote infiltration. Two example systems are described: a bioswale treatment system for urban stormwater treatment, and a vegetated drainage ditch for treating agriculture irrigation runoff. Both have similar attributes that reduce contaminant loading in runoff: vegetation that results in sorption of the contaminants to the soil and plant surfaces, and water infiltration. These systems may also include the integration of granulated activated carbon as a polishing step to remove residual contaminants. Implementation of these systems in agriculture and urban watersheds requires system monitoring to verify treatment efficacy. This includes chemical monitoring for specific contaminants responsible for toxicity. The current paper emphasizes monitoring of current use pesticides since these are responsible for surface water toxicity to aquatic invertebrates.

  18. Characterisation of urban inhalation exposures to benzene, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in the European Union: comparison of measured and modelled exposure data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruinen de Bruin, Yuri; Koistinen, Kimmo; Kephalopoulos, Stylianos; Geiss, Otmar; Tirendi, Salvatore; Kotzias, Dimitrios

    2008-07-01

    All across Europe, people live and work in indoor environments. On average, people spend around 90% of their time indoors (homes, workplaces, cars and public transport means, etc.) and are exposed to a complex mixture of pollutants at concentration levels that are often several times higher than outdoors. These pollutants are emitted by different sources indoors and outdoors and include volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbonyls (aldehydes and ketones) and other chemical substances often adsorbed on particles. Moreover, legal obligations opposed by legislations, such as the European Union's General Product Safety Directive (GPSD) and Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH), increasingly require detailed understanding of where and how chemical substances are used throughout their life-cycle and require better characterisation of their emissions and exposure. This information is essential to be able to control emissions from sources aiming at a reduction of adverse health effects. Scientifically sound human risk assessment procedures based on qualitative and quantitative human exposure information allows a better characterisation of population exposures to chemical substances. In this context, the current paper compares inhalation exposures to three health-based EU priority substances, i.e. benzene, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Distributions of urban population inhalation exposures, indoor and outdoor concentrations were created on the basis of measured AIRMEX data in 12 European cities and compared to results from existing European population exposure studies published within the scientific literature. By pooling all EU city personal exposure, indoor and outdoor concentration means, representative EU city cumulative frequency distributions were created. Population exposures were modelled with a microenvironment model using the time spent and concentrations in four microenvironments, i.e. indoors at home and at work, outdoors

  19. The institutional structure and political economy of food distribution systems: A comparative analysis of six Eastern European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Skytte, Hans

    This paper discusses the food distribution systems of six Eastern European countries. It considers the macro and task environments of distribution systems, discussing the constraints and opportunities the environments present to companies. The institutional structure of retailing and wholesaling...

  20. Advancing the Vision of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems: a European Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, A. W.; Craglia, M.; Nativi, S.

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), a network of Earth observation and information systems, contributed on a voluntary basis by Members and Participating Organisations of the intergovernmental Group on Earth Observations (GEO), is to achieve comprehensive, coordinated and sustained observations of the Earth system, in order to improve monitoring of the state of the Earth, increase understanding of Earth processes, and enhance prediction of the behaviour of the Earth system. Such a global research effort requires an integrated multi-disciplinary effort that is underpinned by a cyber-infrastructure which is able to discover and access vast quantities of data across heterogeneous information systems and many disciplines. As GEO develops and the implementation of the GEOSS gathers pace, it is becoming common practice for groups to be organised at national, regional and international level to address critical issues. In many cases these groups evolve to become "communities", organising themselves to carry out tasks of interest to that community. In most cases, communities develop their own "community portal" to provide a focal point on the web for their activities. The data and information held by the members of a specific community can normally be discovered via their particular "community portal". There is now a clear recognition that the many thematic community initiatives, each with their own information system and portal, need to be fully connected into the overall GEOSS architecture. With the introduction of a brokering capability this becomes possible. The value of the brokering approach has been demonstrated within the European Union funded EuroGEOSS research project. The EuroGEOSS brokering capability has now been incorporated into the GEOSS information system, (known as the GEOSS Common Infrastructure, or GCI) and renamed the GEOSS Discovery and Access Broker. In a matter of a few months the GEOSS DAB has enabled the GEOSS to

  1. Promoting and Protecting Public Health: How the European Union Pharmacovigilance System Works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Aniello; Genov, Georgy; Spooner, Almath; Raine, June; Arlett, Peter

    2017-10-01

    This article provides an overview of the European Union pharmacovigilance system resulting from the rationalisation and strengthening delivered through the implementation of the revised pharmacovigilance legislation. It outlines the system aims, underlying principles, components and drivers for future change. At its core, the Pharmacovigilance Risk Assessment Committee is responsible for assessing all aspects of the risk management of medicinal products, thus ensuring that medicines approved for the European Union market are optimally used by maximising their benefits and minimising risks. The main objectives of the system are to promote and protect public health by supporting the availability of medicines including those that fulfil previously unmet medical needs, and reducing the burden of adverse drug reactions. These are achieved through a proactive, risk proportionate and patient-centred approach, with high levels of transparency and engagement of civil society. In the European Union, pharmacovigilance is now fully integrated into the life cycle of medicinal products, with the planning of pharmacovigilance activities commencing before a medicine is placed on the market, and companies encouraged to start planning very early in development for high-innovation products. After authorisation, information on the safety of medicines continues to be obtained through a variety of sources, including spontaneous reports of adverse drug reactions or monitoring real-world data. Finally, the measurement of the impact of pharmacovigilance activities, auditing and inspections, as well as capacity building ensure that the system undergoes continuous improvement and can always rely on the best methodologies to safeguard public health.

  2. An early warning and control system for urban, drinking water quality protection: China's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Dibo; Song, Xiaoxuan; Zhang, Guangxin; Zhang, Hongjian; Loaiciga, Hugo

    2013-07-01

    An event-driven, urban, drinking water quality early warning and control system (DEWS) is proposed to cope with China's urgent need for protecting its urban drinking water. The DEWS has a web service structure and provides users with water quality monitoring functions, water quality early warning functions, and water quality accident decision-making functions. The DEWS functionality is guided by the principles of control theory and risk assessment as applied to the feedback control of urban water supply systems. The DEWS has been deployed in several large Chinese cities and found to perform well insofar as water quality early warning and emergency decision-making is concerned. This paper describes a DEWS for urban water quality protection that has been developed in China.

  3. A brief history and the possible future of urban energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutter, Paul; Keirstead, James

    2012-01-01

    Modern cities depend on energy systems to deliver a range of services such as heating, cooling, lighting, mobility, communications, and so on. This article examines how these urban energy systems came to be, tracing the major transitions from the earliest settlements through to today's fossil-fuelled cities. The underlying theme is “increasing efficiency under constraints” with each transition marked by increasing energy efficiency in service provision, increasing per capita energy use, increasing complexity in the energy system's structure, with innovations driven by a strategic view of the overall system, and accompanied by wider changes in technology and society. In developed countries, the future of urban energy systems is likely to continue many of these trends, with increased efficiency being driven by the constraints of climate change and rising fuel prices. Both supply and demand side technologies are discussed as potential solutions to these issues, with different impacts on the urban environment and its citizens. However in developing countries, rising urban populations and access to basic energy services will drive the next transition. - Highlights: ► Urban energy system transitions in history are reviewed. ► Common features include increased per capita energy use, growing system complexity, and technological innovation. ► Future transitions will be shaped by the constraints of climate change, rising fuel prices, and urbanisation. ► Long-term sustainability depends on ability to innovate rapidly; opportunities exist on supply and demand sides.

  4. A global analysis approach for investigating structural resilience in urban drainage systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugume, Seith N; Gomez, Diego E; Fu, Guangtao; Farmani, Raziyeh; Butler, David

    2015-09-15

    Building resilience in urban drainage systems requires consideration of a wide range of threats that contribute to urban flooding. Existing hydraulic reliability based approaches have focused on quantifying functional failure caused by extreme rainfall or increase in dry weather flows that lead to hydraulic overloading of the system. Such approaches however, do not fully explore the full system failure scenario space due to exclusion of crucial threats such as equipment malfunction, pipe collapse and blockage that can also lead to urban flooding. In this research, a new analytical approach based on global resilience analysis is investigated and applied to systematically evaluate the performance of an urban drainage system when subjected to a wide range of structural failure scenarios resulting from random cumulative link failure. Link failure envelopes, which represent the resulting loss of system functionality (impacts) are determined by computing the upper and lower limits of the simulation results for total flood volume (failure magnitude) and average flood duration (failure duration) at each link failure level. A new resilience index that combines the failure magnitude and duration into a single metric is applied to quantify system residual functionality at each considered link failure level. With this approach, resilience has been tested and characterised for an existing urban drainage system in Kampala city, Uganda. In addition, the effectiveness of potential adaptation strategies in enhancing its resilience to cumulative link failure has been tested. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Adapting the European tourism indicators system to Braşov – tourist destination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel BRĂTUCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The industry of tourism contributes mainly to the social and economic development of a destination. However this development has to be made in a sustainable manner, with an emphasis on preserving the area where it is practiced. In order to evaluate the sustainable development of a destination, the European Commission developed an Indicators System that measures and monitors, at a local level, the processes of sustainable development and communicates to the interested parties its progress and its future performances. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to identify the set of indicators from European Tourism Indicators System that are relevant in evaluating the sustainable development of tourism in Braşov. In order to achieve this objective 3 focus Groups were conducted among 30 specialists in this field. The results can serve as a guid

  6. Reforming the court management system of Romania in the European Union integration process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Elvis Cioabă

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Superior Council of Magistracy represent a cornerstone of the Romanian court management system. This responsibility is partly shared with the Ministry of Justice. The reform of the court management system in Romania has been and still is disputable, the main actors being on one hand the magistrates and on the other the Ministry of Justice. While observing this „dispute“ we may discover a third actor, namely the European Union, who has entered scene in the context of Romania’s European integration. This research is looking to plausibly explain which was the part played by the EU and how did it influence the above mentioned reform, with special emphasis on the Superior Council of Magistracy.

  7. A New Cogeneration Residential System Based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells for a Northern European Climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vialetto, Giulio; Rokni, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    Energy saving is an open point in most European countries where energy policies are oriented to reduce the use of fossil fuels, greenhouses emissions and energy independence and to increase the use of renewable energies. In the last several years, new technologies have been developed, and some...... of them received subsidies to increase installation and reduce cost. This article presents an innovative cogeneration system based on a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system and heat pump for household applications with a focus on primary energy and economic savings using electric equivalent load parameter...... are performed under different strategies at a resort located in a northern European climate (Denmark) to cover electricity, space heating and domestic hot water (DHW) demands. The results of these simulations are analyzed with thermodynamic and techno-economic benchmarks, considering different economic...

  8. Implementation of the Orbital Maneuvering Systems Engine and Thrust Vector Control for the European Service Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, Jon

    2014-01-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) has entered into a partnership with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to develop and provide the Service Module (SM) for the Orion Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Program. The European Service Module (ESM) will provide main engine thrust by utilizing the Space Shuttle Program Orbital Maneuvering System Engine (OMS-E). Thrust Vector Control (TVC) of the OMS-E will be provided by the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) TVC, also used during the Space Shuttle Program. NASA will be providing the OMS-E and OMS TVC to ESA as Government Furnished Equipment (GFE) to integrate into the ESM. This presentation will describe the OMS-E and OMS TVC and discuss the implementation of the hardware for the ESM.

  9. A model library for simulation and benchmarking of integrated urban wastewater systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saagi, R.; Flores Alsina, Xavier; Kroll, J. S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a freely distributed, open-source toolbox to predict the behaviour of urban wastewater systems (UWS). The proposed library is used to develop a system-wide Benchmark Simulation Model (BSM-UWS) for evaluating (local/global) control strategies in urban wastewater systems (UWS......). The set of models describe the dynamics of flow rates and major pollutants (COD, TSS, N and P) within the catchment (CT), sewer network (SN), wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and river water system (RW) for a hypothetical, though realistic, UWS. Evaluation criteria are developed to allow for direct...

  10. Shared Urban Greywater Recycling Systems: Water Resource Savings and Economic Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Zadeh, Sara; Hunt, Dexter; Lombardi, D.; Rogers, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    The water industry is becoming increasingly aware of the risks associated with urban supplies not meeting demands by 2050. Greywater (GW) recycling for non-potable uses (e.g., urinal and toilet flushing) provides an urban water management strategy to help alleviate this risk by reducing main water demands. This paper proposes an innovative cross connected system that collects GW from residential buildings and recycles it for toilet/urinal flushing in both residential and office buildings. The...

  11. Product-Service System Innovation in Urban Mining-A case study with Volvo CE

    OpenAIRE

    Chai, Yi; Gao, Zhenqing

    2014-01-01

    Volvo Construction Equipment (Volvo CE) is one of the world's largest manufacturers of construction machines. Now they want to access a sustainability-focused mining field – urban mining. This study is to find a solution helping Volvo CE quickly access to urban mining with a Product-Service System (PSS) development concept. To do this, the authors completed surveys and several interviews with construction companies, to understand the user and customer needs. The authors also go through a...

  12. Autonomous docking based on infrared system for electric vehicle charging in urban areas

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Rastelli, Joshué; Nashashibi, Fawzi; Lefaudeux, Benjamin; Resende, Paulo; Pollard, Evangeline

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Electric vehicles are progressively introduced in urban areas because of their ability to reduce air pollution, fuel consumption and noise nuisance. Nowadays, some big cities are launching first electric car-sharing projects to clear traffic jams and enhance urban mobility, as an alternative of the classic public transportation systems. However, there are still some problems to be solved related to energy storage, electric charging and autonomy. In this paper, we prese...

  13. Efficient integrated model predictive control of urban drainage systems using simplified conceptual quality models

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Congcong; Joseph Duran, Bernat; Maruejouls, Thibaud; Cembrano Gennari, Gabriela; Muñoz, eduard; Messeguer Amela, Jordi; Montserrat, Albert; Sampe, Sara; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç; Litrico, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Integrated control of urban drainage systems considering urban drainage networks (UDN), wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) and the receiving environment seeks to minimize the impact of combined sewer overflow (CSO) to the receiving environment during wet weather. This paper will show first results of the integrated control of UDN and WWTP, obtained by LIFE-EFFIDRAIN, which is a collaborative project between academia and industry in Barcelona (Spain) and Bordeaux (France). Model predictive con...

  14. Improvement of the Pension System in Uzbekistan: Through the Experience of the European Union Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilshodjon Alidjonovich Rakhmonov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Government’s policy in financing social sphere is becoming more and more topical. In this regard, managing pension system effectively, conducting research basing on “income distribution through the time” principle in its financing is of particular significance. In this article the possibility of applying the experience of European Union countries in the level of coverage of population by the pension plan and its development in Uzbekistan.

  15. The Preventive Signaling Maintenance Crew Scheduling Problem for European Railway Traffic Management system (ERTMS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    M. Pour, Shahrzad; Stidsen, Thomas Jacob Riis; Rasmussen, Kourosh Marjani

    , the western part of Denmark. This case is particularly interesting, since the entire railway signalling system is currently being upgraded to the new European Railway Traffic Management System (ERTMS) standard. The new signals need continuous maintenance and in this article we plan the distribution of crew......A railway system is a large and complex infrastructure, which requires continuous maintenance in order to function correctly. Proper maintenance is critical but can also be costly. In this paper we consider the practical case of planning the preventive maintenance of railway signals in Jutland...

  16. EDUCATION SYSTEMS AND ACADEMIC SATISFACTION: A Study on Rural and Urban Students of Traditional Vs Open Education System in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi SINGH,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A satisfaction and dissatisfaction level within an individual influences the motivation level and his/her performance throughout the life. When an individual is satisfied with his/her work, he/she gets pleasure and feels motivated. Obtaining satisfaction from their education system is very important for students as this will lead to better learning possibilities. This paper aims to compare the level of academic satisfaction among the students of Traditional Education System and Open Education System. This paper also investigates academic satisfaction of urban and rural based students and comparing them over traditional (Urban: 110; Rural: 90, and open (Urban: 80; Rural: 71 education system. Statistical tests demonstrate that there is significant difference in the level of academic satisfaction among the students of Open Education System (OES and Traditional Education System (TES.

  17. Storage and balancing synergies in a fully or highly renewable pan-European power system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten Grud; Bruun Andresen, Gorm; Greiner, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Through a parametric time-series analysis of eight years of hourly data, we quantify the storage size and balancing energy needs for highly and fully renewable European power systems for different levels and mixes of wind and solar energy. By applying a dispatch strategy that minimizes the balanc......Through a parametric time-series analysis of eight years of hourly data, we quantify the storage size and balancing energy needs for highly and fully renewable European power systems for different levels and mixes of wind and solar energy. By applying a dispatch strategy that minimizes...... the balancing energy needs for a given storage size, the interplay between storage and balancing is quantified, providing a hard upper limit on their synergy. An efficient but relatively small storage reduces balancing energy needs significantly due to its influence on intra-day mismatches. Furthermore, we show...... that combined with a low-efficiency hydrogen storage and a level of balancing equal to what is today provided by storage lakes, it is sufficient to meet the European electricity demand in a fully renewable power system where the average power generation from combined wind and solar exceeds the demand by only...

  18. European tendencies and co-operation in the field of ITS systems - national achievements and challenges in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenbach, Ágnes

    2016-06-01

    The article presents the role of intelligent transport systems/services related to the implementation of the essential European and Hungarian transport policy objectives. The `ITS Directive' will provide a framework for the tasks/works to be performed in the forthcoming years within the priority areas of ITS. The European Commission published regulations / specifications for the priority actions in the form of delegated acts defining the tasks/responsibilities of Member States. Regional/European co-operation for Hungary started after the EU-accession of the country. Hungary was an active partner within the European CONNECT and EasyWay projects, currently Hungary is a member of the CROCODILE consortium.

  19. Multicriteria Spatial Decision Support Systems for Future Urban Energy Retrofitting Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Lombardi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there is an increasing concern about sustainable urban energy development taking into account national priorities of each city. Many cities have started to define future strategies and plans to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Urban energy scenarios involve the consideration of a wide range of conflicting criteria, both socio-economic and environmental ones. Moreover, decision-makers (DMs require proper tools that can support their choices in a context of multiple stakeholders and a long-term perspective. In this context, Multicriteria Spatial Decision Support Systems (MC-SDSS are often used in order to define and analyze urban scenarios since they support the comparison of different solutions, based on a combination of multiple factors. The main problem, in relation to urban energy retrofitting scenarios, is the lack of appropriate knowledge and evaluation criteria. The latter are crucial for delivering and assessing urban energy scenarios through a MC-SDSS tool. The main goal of this paper is to analyze and test two different methods for the definition and ranking of the evaluation criteria. More specifically, the paper presents an on-going research study related to the development of a MC-SDSS tool able to identify and evaluate alternative energy urban scenarios in a long-term period perspective. This study refers to two Smart City and Communities research projects, namely: DIMMER (District Information Modeling and Management for Energy Reduction and EEB (Zero Energy Buildings in Smart Urban Districts.

  20. ‘Smart food city’: conceptual relations between smart city planning, urban food systems and innovation theory

    OpenAIRE

    Maye, Damian

    2018-01-01

    This paper develops a conceptual link between smart city planning and urban food systems research in terms of governance and innovation. The ‘smart city’ concept is linked to an urban research agenda which seeks to embed advances in technology and data collection into the infrastructures of urban environments. Through this neoliberal framework, market-led and technological solutions to city governance and development are prioritised. The urban food movement has a different trajectory compared...

  1. Doctor–patient communication in different European health care systems: Relevance and performance from the patients’ perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink-Muinen, A. van den; Verhaak, P.F.M.; Bensing, J.; Bahrs, O.; Deveugele, M.; Gask, L.; Leiva, F.; Mead, N.; Messerli, V.; Oppizzi, L.; Peltenburg, M.; Perez, A.

    2000-01-01

    Our aim is to investigate differences between European health care systems in the importance attached by patients to different aspects of doctor–patient communication and the GPs’ performance of these aspects, both being from the patients’ perspective. 3658 patients of 190 GPs in six European

  2. Doctor-patient communication in different European health care systems: relevance and performance from the patients' perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink-Muinen, A. van den; Verhaak, P.F.M.; Bensing, J.M.; Bahrs, O.; Deveugele, M.; Gask, L.; Leiva, F.; Mead, N.; Messerli, V.; Oppizzi, L.; Peltenburg, M.; Perez, A.

    2000-01-01

    Our aim is to investigate differences between European health care systems in the importance attached by patients to different aspects of doctor-patient communication and the GPs' performance of these aspects, both being from the patients' perspective. 3658 patients of 190 GPs in six European

  3. The State of Ethical Learning of Students in the Spanish University System: Considerations for the European Higher Education Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxarrais, Maria Rosa; Esteban, Francisco; Mellen, Teodor

    2015-01-01

    With the establishment of the European higher education area (EHEA), the ethical learning of students is a matter of central importance in European universities. This paper examines the current state of ethical learning of students in the Spanish university system. We present the results of a descriptive survey, which used a training model for…

  4. Urbanism Prehispanic in The Andes

    OpenAIRE

    Valdez, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    For a long time experts of the subject's origin and evolution of urban life and urban planning, especially Europeans, believed that in pre-Hispanic America there was no real urban life and urban planning itself until after the European conquest. The pre-Hispanic urbanism is one of the most contentious issues in South America, with differing positions regarding the concept, a chronology of the process, the role of supposedly sophisticated city, and the characteristics of social and economic co...

  5. Gynecologic oncology training systems in Europe: a report from the European network of young gynaecological oncologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gultekin, Murat; Dursun, Polat; Vranes, Boris; Laky, Rene; Bossart, Michaela; Grabowski, Jacek P; Piek, Jurgen M J; Manchanda, Ranjit; Grimm, Christoph; Dallaku, Kastriot; Babloyan, Syuzanna; Moisei, Anna; Van Gorp, Toon; Cadron, Isabelle; Markov, Peter; Micevska, Ana; Halaska, Michael; Steffensen, Karina Dahl; Gristsenko, Liidia; Nissi, Ritva; Lambaudie, Eric; Tsitsishvili, Zaza; Haidopoulos, Dimitrios; Tsolakidis, Dimitrios; Novak, Zoltan; Peiretti, Michele; Dunenova, Gauhar; Macuks, Ronalds; Hetland, Thea E; Michelsen, Trond M; Martins, Filipe C; Achimas-Cadariu, Patriciu; Ulrikh, Elena A; Uharcek, Peter; Malic, Sladjana; Ognjenovic, Dejan; Zapardiel, Ignacio; Johann, Silke; Sukhin, Vladyslav S; Manchanda, Ranjit

    2011-11-01

    The objectives of the study were to highlight some of the differences in training systems and opportunities for training in gynecologic oncology across Europe and to draw attention to steps that can be taken to improve training prospects and experiences of European trainees in gynecologic oncology. The European Network of Young Gynaecological Oncologists national representatives from 34 countries were asked to review and summarize the training system in their countries of origin and fulfill a mini-questionnaire evaluating different aspects of training. We report analysis of outcomes of the mini-questionnaire and subsequent discussion at the European Network of Young Gynaecological Oncologists national representatives Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevention meeting in Istanbul (April 2010). Training fellowships in gynecologic oncology are offered by 18 countries (53%). The median duration of training is 2.5 years (interquartile range, 2.0-3.0 years). Chemotherapy administration is part of training in 70.5% (24/34) countries. Most of the countries (26/34) do not have a dedicated national gynecologic-oncology journal. All trainees reported some or good access to training in advanced laparoscopic surgical techniques, whereas 41% indicated no access, and 59% some access to training opportunities in robotic surgery. European countries were grouped into 3 different categories on the basis of available training opportunities in gynecologic oncology: well-structured, moderately structured, and loosely structured training systems. There is a need for further harmonization and standardization of training programs and structures in gynecologic oncology across Europe. This is of particular relevance for loosely structured countries that lag behind the moderately structured and well-structured ones.

  6. Application of a new Terrestrial Telecommunications System in the European Air Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Draško Marin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Aeronautical Public Correspondence (APC is a telecommtmicationsse!Vice, which enables passengers onboard aircraftto make telecommunication calls to people on the ground.This article describes the terrestrial communications seiVicewhich is based on cellular network for the European CEPTmember countries (CEPT- European Conference of Postaland Telecommunications Administrations named TerrestrialFlight Telecommunications System (TFTS.This system is a Pan-European System, which means theusage of hannonised frequencies in Europe with hannonisedstandards for the TFTS equipment, which have been issued bythe European Telecommunications Standard Institute (ETSI.Frequencies allocated for TFTS have been designated bythe World Administrative Radio Conference, WARC-92 withfrequency bandwidth of 2x5 MHz:1670- 1675 MHz, for ground to air1800- 1805 MHz, for air to ground.TFTS planning is perfonned by the application of frequencyblocks (42 blocks with 164 channels in total. Bandwidthof each radio channel, which contains 4 speech channels,is equal to 30.3 kHz.Due to the very high flight of the aircraft (about 13,000 m,it needs a long distance between the centres of cells (radio stationon the ground to avoid the eo-channel or adjacent channelinteJference.The article presents the planning process with typical cellradius of240km or 350km. In the viewofthatfact, the need ispointed out for finding a compromise solution with regard toemitting power and the influence of interference.Final(v, it is noted that TFTS ground radio stations inCroatia, which are located in Zagreb and Split, may cover theterritory of some neighbouring countries other than Croatia,which is important from the commercial point of view.

  7. Research on public participant urban infrastructure safety monitoring system using smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xuefeng; Wang, Niannian; Ou, Jinping; Yu, Yan; Li, Mingchu

    2017-04-01

    Currently more and more people concerned about the safety of major public security. Public participant urban infrastructure safety monitoring and investigation has become a trend in the era of big data. In this paper, public participant urban infrastructure safety protection system based on smart phones is proposed. The system makes it possible to public participant disaster data collection, monitoring and emergency evaluation in the field of disaster prevention and mitigation. Function of the system is to monitor the structural acceleration, angle and other vibration information, and extract structural deformation and implement disaster emergency communications based on smartphone without network. The monitoring data is uploaded to the website to create urban safety information database. Then the system supports big data analysis processing, the structure safety assessment and city safety early warning.

  8. Dynamic Coupling Analysis of Urbanization and Water Resource Utilization Systems in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailiang Ma

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available While urbanization brings economic and social benefits, it also causes water pollution and other environmental ecological problems. This paper provides a theoretical framework to quantitatively analyze the dynamic relationship between water resource utilization and the process of urbanization. Using data from Jiangsu province, we first construct indices to evaluate urbanization and water resource utilization. We then adopt an entropy model to examine the correlation between urbanization and water resource utilization. In addition, we introduce a dynamic coupling model to analyze and predict the coupling degree between urbanization and water resource utilization. Our analyses show that pairing with rising urbanization during 2002–2014, the overall index of water resource utilization in Jiangsu province has experienced a “decline -rise-decline” trend. Specifically, after the index of water resource utilization reached its lowest point in 2004, it gradually began to rise. Water resource utilization reached its highest value in 2010. The coupling degree between urbanization and water resource utilization was relatively low in 2002 and 2003 varying between −90° and 0°. It has been rising since then. Out-of-sample forecasts indicate that the coupling degree will reach its highest value of 74.799° in 2016, then will start to gradually decline. Jiangsu province was chosen as our studied area because it is one of the selected pilot provinces for China’s economic reform and social development. The analysis of the relationship between provincial water resource utilization and urbanization is essential to the understanding of the dynamic relationship between these two systems. It also serves as an important input for developing national policies for sustainable urbanization and water resource management.

  9. Innovative approach for achieving of sustainable urban water supply system by using of solar photovoltaic energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jure Margeta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper describes and analyses new and innovative concept for possible integration of solar photovoltaic (PV energy in urban water supply system (UWSS. Proposed system consists of PV generator and invertor, pump station and water reservoir. System is sized in such a manner that every his part is sized separately and after this integrated into a whole. This integration is desirable for several reasons, where the most important is the achievement of the objectives of sustainable living in urban areas i.e. achieving of sustainable urban water supply system. The biggest technological challenge associated with the use of solar, wind and other intermittent renewable energy sources RES is the realization of economically and environmentally friendly electric energy storage (EES. The paper elaborates the use of water reservoires in UWSS as EES. The proposed solution is still more expensive than the traditional and is economically acceptable today in the cases of isolated urban water system and special situations. Wider application will depend on the future trends of energy prices, construction costs of PV generators and needs for CO2 reduction by urban water infrastructure.

  10. Quantitative analysis on the urban flood mitigation effect by the extensive green roof system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.Y.; Moon, H.J.; Kim, T.I.; Kim, H.W.; Han, M.Y.

    2013-01-01

    Extensive green-roof systems are expected to have a synergetic effect in mitigating urban runoff, decreasing temperature and supplying water to a building. Mitigation of runoff through rainwater retention requires the effective design of a green-roof catchment. This study identified how to improve building runoff mitigation through quantitative analysis of an extensive green-roof system. Quantitative analysis of green-roof runoff characteristics indicated that the extensive green roof has a high water-retaining capacity response to rainfall of less than 20 mm/h. As the rainfall intensity increased, the water-retaining capacity decreased. The catchment efficiency of an extensive green roof ranged from 0.44 to 0.52, indicating reduced runoff comparing with efficiency of 0.9 for a concrete roof. Therefore, extensive green roofs are an effective storm water best-management practice and the proposed parameters can be applied to an algorithm for rainwater-harvesting tank design. -- Highlights: •Urban extensive green roof systems have a synergetic effect in mitigating urban runoff. •These systems are improve runoff mitigation and decentralized urban water management. •These systems have a high water-retaining capacity response to rainfall of less than 20 mm/h. •The catchment efficiency of an extensive green roof ranged from 0.44 to 0.52. -- Extensive green-roofs are an effective storm water best-management practice and the proposed parameters can be applied to mitigate urban runoff

  11. The Application of Urban System Analysis To The Seismic Risk Assessment of Barcelona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irizarry, J.; Marturia, J.; Mena, U.

    The Urban System Analysis methodology developed by an international team directed by the BRGM (France) within the GEMITIS research program (1996-1999) consists of a global and integrated risk reduction strategy in order to improve the risk assessment effectiveness through the use of a geographical information system (GIS). A typical seismic risk analysis evaluates only the direct impacts of the earthquake, but gives few information about how to improve preventive effectiveness because it does not provide any data about the indirect consequences of an earthquake. This new methodology proposes to complete the scenario generation process by focusing physical vulnerability assessment on the essential elements for urban functioning. Besides it gives rational bases for the definition of appropriate risk management and preventive action plans. This study presents a first stage of the application of the Urban System Analysis method to the city of Barcelona. The elements at risk in the city like the residential, commercial, administrative, and industrials areas are identified and analyzed to define the weak points within its urban system. Then the most critical elements within the city's urban system will be identified to establish priorities for risk managements plans in the city.

  12. A Two-Stage Queue Model to Optimize Layout of Urban Drainage System considering Extreme Rainstorms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhua He

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Extreme rainstorm is a main factor to cause urban floods when urban drainage system cannot discharge stormwater successfully. This paper investigates distribution feature of rainstorms and draining process of urban drainage systems and uses a two-stage single-counter queue method M/M/1→M/D/1 to model urban drainage system. The model emphasizes randomness of extreme rainstorms, fuzziness of draining process, and construction and operation cost of drainage system. Its two objectives are total cost of construction and operation and overall sojourn time of stormwater. An improved genetic algorithm is redesigned to solve this complex nondeterministic problem, which incorporates with stochastic and fuzzy characteristics in whole drainage process. A numerical example in Shanghai illustrates how to implement the model, and comparisons with alternative algorithms show its performance in computational flexibility and efficiency. Discussions on sensitivity of four main parameters, that is, quantity of pump stations, drainage pipe diameter, rainstorm precipitation intensity, and confidence levels, are also presented to provide guidance for designing urban drainage system.

  13. Zero Emission Mobility Systems in Cities. Inductive Recharge System Planning in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Maternini

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, “Sustainable” and “Smart” mobility became concepts of fundamental importance and led national government to adopt programmes and measures aimed at reducing the carbon emissions of private and commercial vehicles. The final goal is to pursue the EU objectives of reducing the greenhouse gases emission in transportation sector. The progressive electrification of the circulating vehicles represents a possible solution to the air pollution relating problems. A recent innovative research field, which could significantly contribute to the diffusion of the electric vehicles, consists of the inductive recharge systems for electric vehicles. This technology could also bring to considerably environmental and logistic advantages, especially in urban areas. Starting from the analysis of the main ongoing experimentations of these innovative systems in the world, the present paper proposes a possible application of the inductive recharge technology to the public transport vehicles, through the presentation of the case study of Brescia.

  14. Fine-resolution Modeling of Urban-Energy Systems' Water Footprint in River Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManamay, R.; Surendran Nair, S.; Morton, A.; DeRolph, C.; Stewart, R.

    2015-12-01

    Characterizing the interplay between urbanization, energy production, and water resources is essential for ensuring sustainable population growth. In order to balance limited water supplies, competing users must account for their realized and virtual water footprint, i.e. the total direct and indirect amount of water used, respectively. Unfortunately, publicly reported US water use estimates are spatially coarse, temporally static, and completely ignore returns of water to rivers after use. These estimates are insufficient to account for the high spatial and temporal heterogeneity of water budgets in urbanizing systems. Likewise, urbanizing areas are supported by competing sources of energy production, which also have heterogeneous water footprints. Hence, a fundamental challenge of planning for sustainable urban growth and decision-making across disparate policy sectors lies in characterizing inter-dependencies among urban systems, energy producers, and water resources. A modeling framework is presented that provides a novel approach to integrate urban-energy infrastructure into a spatial accounting network that accurately measures water footprints as changes in the quantity and quality of river flows. River networks (RNs), i.e. networks of branching tributaries nested within larger rivers, provide a spatial structure to measure water budgets by modeling hydrology and accounting for use and returns from urbanizing areas and energy producers. We quantify urban-energy water footprints for Atlanta, GA and Knoxville, TN (USA) based on changes in hydrology in RNs. Although water intakes providing supply to metropolitan areas were proximate to metropolitan areas, power plants contributing to energy demand in Knoxville and Atlanta, occurred 30 and 90km outside the metropolitan boundary, respectively. Direct water footprints from urban landcover primarily comprised smaller streams whereas indirect footprints from water supply reservoirs and energy producers included

  15. Closing the nutrient loops in (peri) urban farming systems through composting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nigatu, Abebe Nigussie

    waste management practices in developing countries and ensure sustainable crop production via the biotransformation of urban waste into a high-quality soil amendment. First, I aimed at determining the causes for the limited use of organic amendments in small-scale urban farming systems. I interviewed...... 220 urban farmers in Ethiopia and found that competition for agricultural waste between fuel, feed and soil amendment is a major cause for the limited use of organic amendments. I demonstrated that allocation of agricultural waste for soil amendment is linked with farmers’ livelihood strategies. I...... also studied variation in compost demand among different farmer groups, and the socio-economic variables which explained these variations. Gaseous losses of ammonia and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions occur during composting of nitrogen-rich urban waste. Several technologies could reduce these losses...

  16. Inequalities in European cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musterd, S.; Ostendorf, W.; Smith, S.J.; Elsinga, M.; Eng, O.S.; Fox O’Mahony, L.; Wachter, S.

    2012-01-01

    The consequences of inequalities in European cities are a big fear for many governments at the state and urban levels. Journalists, as well as many scholars who are dealing with urban issues, express their fears about the development of social, ethnic, and spatial divisions. Population categories

  17. Access to urban transportation system for individuals with disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.N. Sze

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization and aging population has become a significant issue in many global cities. It is necessary that the design of built environment to be supportive and provide adequate access to essential urban and social resources, e.g. employment, education, medical, social welfare and recreation etc., for all, including individuals with disabilities. Safe, efficient and accessible transportation is a key component of community integration. This study attempts to review the current practices and guidelines for accessible design of transportation, both access to and within transport facilities, based on the information from the United States, United Kingdom, and Hong Kong. Besides, the effects of accessible design of transportation on perceived level of service, accessibility, safety and travel behavior would be examined. Therefore, good practices of accessible design that could address the needs for all, especially the elderly and individuals with different types of disability including visual impairment, hearing difficulty and reduced mobility, could be recommended. Hence, quality of life of vulnerable group can be enhanced, and community integration will be achieved in the long run.

  18. European Perspectives on the Adoption of Nonchemical Weed Management in Reduced -Tillage Systems for Arable Crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melander, Bo; Munier-Jolain, Nicolas; Charles, Raphaël

    2013-01-01

    Non-inversion tillage with tine or disc based cultivations prior to crop establishment is the most common way of reducing tillage for arable cropping systems with small grain cereals, oilseed rape and maize in Europe. However, new regulations on pesticide use may hinder further expansion of reduced...... tillage systems. European agriculture is asked to become less dependent on pesticides and promote crop protection programmes based on integrated pest management (IPM) principles. Conventional non-inversion tillage systems rely entirely on the availability of glyphosate products, and herbicide consumption...... is mostly higher as compared to plough-based cropping systems. Annual grass weeds and catchweed bedstraw often constitute the principal weed problems in non-inversion tillage systems and crop rotations concurrently have very high proportions of winter cereals. There is a need to redesign cropping systems...

  19. The control system for the multiple-pellet injector on the Joint European Torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baylor, L.R.; Jernigan, T.C.; Stewart, K.A.

    1989-01-01

    A stand-alone control and data acquisition system for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) multiple-pellet injector installed on the Joint European Torus (JET) has been designed and installed with the injector. This system, which is based on a MicroVAX II computer and a programmable logic controller (PLC), is an upgrade of previous systems designed for ORNL pellet injectors installed on other fusion experiments. The primary control system upgrades are in the user interface, in the automation of sequential injector operation, and in the analysis of the transient data acquired for each pellet fired. The system is integrated into the JET CODAS environment through CAMAC communications modules with customized communications software. Routine operation of the injector is automated and requires no operator intervention. Details of the hardware and software design and the operation of the system are presented in this paper. 4 refs., 3 figs

  20. Virucidal efficacy of a sonicated hydrogen peroxide system (trophon EPR following European and German test methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becker, Britta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The virucidal efficacy of an automated ultrasound probe disinfector (trophon EPR was evaluated in a three step procedure according to European and German test methods. This system uses sonicated hydrogen peroxide mist (35% at elevated temperature (50°C in a closed chamber with control of all parameters within a 7 minute cycle. Methods: In the first step of examination, the peroxide solution was tested in a quantitative suspension assay according to the Guideline of Deutsche Vereinigung zur Bekämpfung der Viruskrankheiten (DVV e.V. and Robert Koch-Institute (RKI and in parallel with the European Norm EN 14476 with all test viruses creating a virucidal claim. In the second step, the virucidal efficacy of the hydrogen peroxide solution was evaluated in a hard surface carrier test according to the Guideline of DVV with adenovirus, murine norovirus and parvovirus simulating practical conditions. Finally, the efficacy was evaluated by the automated system using stainless steel carriers inoculated with test virus and positioned at different levels inside the chamber. Results: A ≥4 log reduction of virus titre was demonstrated with all methods including carrier tests with murine norovirus, adenovirus, and parvovirus using the automated device. Conclusion: The automated device is able to inactivate test viruses of German and European norms and can therefore claim efficacy against human pathogenic enveloped and non-enveloped viruses. This includes human papillomaviruses which form part of the complete virucidal claim.

  1. European Slave Trading, Abolitionism, and “New Systems Of Slavery” in the Indian Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard B Allen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent scholarship on British, Dutch, French, and Portuguese slave trading in the Indian Ocean highlights the need to explore structural connections between pre- and post-emancipation migrant labour systems in the colonial world. Europeans purchased and transported a minimum of 431,000-547,000 slaves of African, Indian, Malagasy, and Southeast Asian origin to destinations in the Indian Ocean world between 1500 and 1850. These data, coupled with recent research on European abolitionist activity in the region and the movement of convict and indentured labourers throughout and beyond this oceanic basin, point to the development of an increasingly integrated global movement of migrant labour during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.

  2. Innovative Household Systems Based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells for a Northern European climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud; Vialetto, Giulio

    2015-01-01

    Energy saving is an open point in most European countries where energy policies are oriented to reduce the use of fossil fuels, greenhouses emissions and energy independence and to increase the use of renewable energies. In the last several years, new technologies have been developed, and some...... of them received subsidies to increase installation and reduce cost.This article presents an innovative cogeneration system based on a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systemand heat pump for household applications with a focus on primary energy and economic savings using electric equivalent load parameter...... are performed under different strategies at a resort located in a northern European climate (Denmark) to cover electricity, space heating and domestic hot water (DHW) demands.The results of these simulations are analyzed with thermodynamic and techno-economic benchmarks,considering different economic scenarios...

  3. Legal analysis of systemic investment protection regulation in the European Union’s financial sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bocs L.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available After the Treaty of Lisbon the European Union has an exclusive and uniform competence regarding investment agreements within its common commercial policy. Yet the political events in 2016 showed that there are still many regional differences politically and economically, especially after the so-called Brexit and negotiations with the United States of America in relation to transatlantic trade and investment. Therefore, the aim of the research is to determine the legal framework and related problems for unified investment protection within the European Union. Using descriptive, logical and deductive methodology the paper establishes a juristic base consensus for trade and investment policies, concludes that so far those policies have been systemically neglected due to regional differences in economic development and accordingly suggests to unify and protect the common investment policies by using already existing regional judicial mechanisms of member states within a unified code of conduct.

  4. Multi-agent simulation of competitive electricity markets: Autonomous systems cooperation for European market modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Gabriel; Pinto, Tiago; Morais, Hugo; Sousa, Tiago M.; Pereira, Ivo F.; Fernandes, Ricardo; Praça, Isabel; Vale, Zita

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Definition of an ontology allowing the communication between multi-agents systems. • Social welfare evaluation in different electricity markets. • Demonstration of the use of the proposed ontology between two multi-agents systems. • Strategic biding in electricity markets. • European electricity markets comparison. - Abstract: The electricity market restructuring, and its worldwide evolution into regional and even continental scales, along with the increasing necessity for an adequate integration of renewable energy sources, is resulting in a rising complexity in power systems operation. Several power system simulators have been developed in recent years with the purpose of helping operators, regulators, and involved players to understand and deal with this complex and constantly changing environment. The main contribution of this paper is given by the integration of several electricity market and power system models, respecting to the reality of different countries. This integration is done through the development of an upper ontology which integrates the essential concepts necessary to interpret all the available information. The continuous development of Multi-Agent System for Competitive Electricity Markets platform provides the means for the exemplification of the usefulness of this ontology. A case study using the proposed multi-agent platform is presented, considering a scenario based on real data that simulates the European Electricity Market environment, and comparing its performance using different market mechanisms. The main goal is to demonstrate the advantages that the integration of various market models and simulation platforms have for the study of the electricity markets’ evolution

  5. Emergent nested systems a theory of understanding and influencing complex systems as well as case studies in urban systems

    CERN Document Server

    Walloth, Christian

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a theory as well as methods to understand and to purposively influence complex systems. It suggests a theory of complex systems as nested systems, i. e. systems that enclose other systems and that are simultaneously enclosed by even other systems. According to the theory presented, each enclosing system emerges through time from the generative activities of the systems they enclose. Systems are nested and often emerge unplanned, and every system of high dynamics is enclosed by a system of slower dynamics. An understanding of systems with faster dynamics, which are always guided by systems of slower dynamics, opens up not only new ways to understanding systems, but also to effectively influence them. The aim and subject of this book is to lay out these thoughts and explain their relevance to the purposive development of complex systems, which are exemplified in case studies from an urban system. The interested reader, who is not required to be familiar with system-theoretical concepts or wit...

  6. Evaluation of the WRF-Urban Modeling System Coupled to Noah and Noah-MP Land Surface Models Over a Semiarid Urban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamanca, Francisco; Zhang, Yizhou; Barlage, Michael; Chen, Fei; Mahalov, Alex; Miao, Shiguang

    2018-03-01

    We have augmented the existing capabilities of the integrated Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)-urban modeling system by coupling three urban canopy models (UCMs) available in the WRF model with the new community Noah with multiparameterization options (Noah-MP) land surface model (LSM). The WRF-urban modeling system's performance has been evaluated by conducting six numerical experiments at high spatial resolution (1 km horizontal grid spacing) during a 15 day clear-sky summertime period for a semiarid urban environment. To assess the relative importance of representing urban surfaces, three different urban parameterizations are used with the Noah and Noah-MP LSMs, respectively, over the two major cities of Arizona: Phoenix and Tucson metropolitan areas. Our results demonstrate that Noah-MP reproduces somewhat better than Noah the daily evolution of surface skin temperature and near-surface air temperature (especially nighttime temperature) and wind speed. Concerning the urban areas, bulk urban parameterization overestimates nighttime 2 m air temperature compared to the single-layer and multilayer UCMs that reproduce more accurately the daily evolution of near-surface air temperature. Regarding near-surface wind speed, only the multilayer UCM was able to reproduce realistically the daily evolution of wind speed, although maximum winds were slightly overestimated, while both the single-layer and bulk urban parameterizations overestimated wind speed considerably. Based on these results, this paper demonstrates that the new community Noah-MP LSM coupled to an UCM is a promising physics-based predictive modeling tool for urban applications.

  7. Changes in physical-thermal properties of soil related to very shallow geothermal systems in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Sipio, Eloisa; Psyk, Mario; Popp, Thomas; Bertermann, David

    2016-04-01

    In the near future the population living in urban areas is expected to increase. This worldwide trend will lead to a high concentrations of infrastructures in confined areas, whose impact on land use and shallow subsurface must be well evaluated. Since shallow geothermal energy resource is becoming increasingly important as renewable energy resource, due to its huge potential in providing thermal energy for residential and tertiary buildings and in contributing to reduce greenhouse gas emission, the number of installed geothermal systems is expected to continue to rise in the near future. However, a leading question concerns the short and long-term effect of an intensive thermal use of the shallow subsurface for heat generation, cooling and thermal energy storage. From an environmental and technical point of view, changes on ground temperatures can influence the physical-thermal properties of soil and groundwater as well as their chemical and biological features. In this study the preliminary results of ITER Project are presented. This project, funded by European Union, focuses on improving heat transfer efficiency of very shallow geothermal systems, as horizontal collector systems or special forms (i.e. helix system), interesting the first 2 m of depth from ground level. Given the heterogeneity of sedimentary deposits in alluvial plain and the uncertainties related to the estimation of thermal parameters for unconsolidated material affected by thermal use, physical-thermal parameters (i.e. moisture content, bulk density, thermal conductivity...) where determined in laboratory for sand, clay and loamy sand samples. In addition, preliminary results from a field test site located within an urban area will be also shown. The main aim is to improve our knowledge of heat transfer process in the soil body in order (i) to create a reference database to compare subsequently the impact of temperature variations on the same properties and (ii) to provide reliable data for

  8. Application of remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems to ecosystem-based urban natural resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaohui Zhang; George Ball; Eve Halper

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated system to support urban natural resource management. With the application of remote sensing (RS) and geographic information systems (GIS), the paper emphasizes the methodology of integrating information technology and a scientific basis to support ecosystem-based management. First, a systematic integration framework is developed and...

  9. Green-blue multifunctional infrastructure : An urban landscape system design new approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuzniecow Bacchin, T.; Ashley, R.; Sijmons, D.F.; Zevenbergen, C.; Van Timmeren, A.

    2014-01-01

    Cities exhibit unique and ever-changing spatial layouts formed by nested natural and socio-economic systems, sub-systems and components resulting from exchange, interaction, and interdependency processes. In this context, managing surface water in urban areas requires new approaches that integrate

  10. The New Epistemic and Theoretical Rationality Governing the Spatial Organization of Urban Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Dadashpoor

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available By reviewing the literature of spatial organization and analyzing urban systems as an interdisciplinary field, two different paradigms have been recognized: size-based and network-based paradigms. The first one relies on the definition of urban system as a collection of nodes (urban settlements organized based on their internal attributes. This paradigm, while ignoring interaction among them, focuses on the concentration of activities or functions in nodes. In the last few decades and with the emergence of the system approach, defined as “an interdependent national or regional set of cities” as a system, considerable attention has been paid to investigating reciprocal interurban relationships. In this period, the element of interaction became more important in the description of urban systems. Following this, since the position of a given city in the urban system is a function of interurban flows, it is affected by the relationship with others. This approach considers the interurban relationship as horizontal and non-local interactions, which are features of service economies versus industrial economies. Thus, to understand and apply these approaches, first, the theoretical literature on space organization in urban systems and its evolution were reviewed; then, the new dominant theoretical and epistemological rationality, with its attributes and components, was explained, compared and categorized in order to develop new insights for operational research. This article is fundamental in its objective, and has employed descriptive methodology based on contextual data to do a comparative study of theoretical content and ontological basics of traditional approaches versus new ones.

  11. Effects of invasive European bird cherry (Prunus padus) on leaf litter processing by aquatic invertebrate shredder communities in urban Alaskan streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roon, David A.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Wurtz, Tricia L.

    2014-01-01

    European bird cherry (Prunus padus) (EBC) is an invasive ornamental tree that is spreading rapidly in riparian forests of urban Alaska. To determine how the spread of EBC affects leaf litter processing by aquatic invertebrate shredders, we conducted complementary leaf pack experiments in two streams located in Anchorage, Alaska. The first experiment contrasted invasive EBC with three native tree species—thin-leaf alder (Alnus tenuifolia), paper birch (Betula neoalaskana), and black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa)—in one reach of Chester Creek; finding that EBC leaf litter broke down significantly faster than birch and cottonwood, but at a similar rate to alder. The second experiment contrasted EBC with alder in four reaches of Campbell and Chester creeks; finding that while EBC leaf litter broke down significantly faster than alder in Chester Creek, EBC broke down at a similar rate to alder in Campbell Creek. Although EBC sometimes supported fewer shredders by both count and mass, shredder communities did not differ significantly between EBC and native plants. Collectively, these data suggest that invasive EBC is not currently exhibiting strong negative impacts on leaf litter processing in these streams, but could if it continues to spread and further displaces native species over time.

  12. EUGRIS: ''European Substainable Land and Groundwater Management Information System''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frauenstein, J. [Federal Environmental Agency (UBA), Berlin (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    The presentation outlines and Accompanying Measure with the FP 5 to develop an web based EUropean Sustainable Land and GRoundwater Management Information System information system (EUGRIS). The management of contaminated land and groundwater requires an interdisciplinary approach and a considerable amount of supporting technical information and knowledge. EUGRIS will provide a generally available comprehensive and overarching information and innovation resource, to support both research and practical contaminated land and groundwater management. EUGRI is a gateway to provide a 'one stop shop' for information provided by research projects, legislation, standards, best practice and other technical guidance and policy/regulatory publications from the EC, participating Member and Accession States and from various international networks dealing with groundwater and land management issues. Different types of user can access information through different windows according to their needs. EUGRIS will provide its visitors with summary information (digests) and links to sources of more detailed and/or original information in a scaleable holistic and contexturally meaningful way. EUGRIS is being built in three stages: the design of the information system, the development of its software implementation, and the population of the system with information. The presentation is focussed on the concept of the development of the information system with the individual work packages. In the second part of the lecture in particular the work procedures are presented for the content wise replenishment by EUGRIS. The data collation for the proven pilot countries and the production of a European research data base, which opens contents and results of European-wide locked and current projects, form the emphasis thereby. (orig.)

  13. Development of geoinformation zoning model of urban territories for use in urban cadaster systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Денис Вікторович Горковчук

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The structure and composition of zoning spatial resources is explored. Geoinformation mode of geospatial zoning data on the basis of object-relational database management system is developed. Developed zoning model is tested in the environment of open-source database management system PostgreSQL. Applied SQL-function for automatic creation of build conditions and restrictions of land development is implemented

  14. Urbanization, Extreme Events, and Health: The Case for Systems Approaches in Mitigation, Management, and Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siri, José Gabriel; Newell, Barry; Proust, Katrina; Capon, Anthony

    2016-03-01

    Extreme events, both natural and anthropogenic, increasingly affect cities in terms of economic losses and impacts on health and well-being. Most people now live in cities, and Asian cities, in particular, are experiencing growth on unprecedented scales. Meanwhile, the economic and health consequences of climate-related events are worsening, a trend projected to continue. Urbanization, climate change and other geophysical and social forces interact with urban systems in ways that give rise to complex and in many cases synergistic relationships. Such effects may be mediated by location, scale, density, or connectivity, and also involve feedbacks and cascading outcomes. In this context, traditional, siloed, reductionist approaches to understanding and dealing with extreme events are unlikely to be adequate. Systems approaches to mitigation, management and response for extreme events offer a more effective way forward. Well-managed urban systems can decrease risk and increase resilience in the face of such events. © 2015 APJPH.

  15. A generalised Dynamic Overflow Risk Assessment (DORA) for Real Time Control of urban drainage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vezzaro, Luca; Grum, Morten

    2014-01-01

    An innovative and generalised approach to the integrated Real Time Control of urban drainage systems is presented. The Dynamic Overflow Risk Assessment (DORA) strategy aims to minimise the expected Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) risk by considering (i) the water volume presently stored in the drai......An innovative and generalised approach to the integrated Real Time Control of urban drainage systems is presented. The Dynamic Overflow Risk Assessment (DORA) strategy aims to minimise the expected Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) risk by considering (i) the water volume presently stored...... and their uncertainty contributed to further improving the performance of drainage systems. The results of this paper will contribute to the wider usage of global RTC methods in the management of urban drainage networks....

  16. Cost benefit risk - a concept for management of integrated urban wastewater systems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauger, Mikkel B.; Rauch, W.; Linde, Jens Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    NPC as a decision variable has the problematic effect, that two alternatives performing completely differently when focusing on environmental cost can have the same NPC. The extreme example is one alternative with high risk and low cost and another with low risk and high cost. In this example it is up...... in the evaluation and design of urban wastewater systems. In this paper we present and discuss a probabilistic approach for evaluation of the performance of urban wastewater systems. Risk analysis together with the traditional cost-benefit analysis is a special variant of multi-criteria analysis that seeks to find...... the most feasible improvement alternative for an urban wastewater system. The most feasible alternative in this context is the alternative that has the best performance, meaning that the alternative has the lowest sum of costs, benefits and risks. The sum is expressed as the Net Present Cost (NPC). To use...

  17. Improving urban district heating systems and assessing the efficiency of the energy usage therein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, M. E.; Sharapov, V. I.

    2017-11-01

    The report describes issues in connection with improving urban district heating systems from combined heat power plants (CHPs), to propose the ways for improving the reliability and the efficiency of the energy usage (often referred to as “energy efficiency”) in such systems. The main direction of such urban district heating systems improvement suggests transition to combined heating systems that include structural elements of both centralized and decentralized systems. Such systems provide the basic part of thermal power via highly efficient methods for extracting thermal power plants turbines steam, while peak loads are covered by decentralized peak thermal power sources to be mounted at consumers’ locations, with the peak sources being also reserve thermal power sources. The methodology was developed for assessing energy efficiency of the combined district heating systems, implemented as a computer software product capable of comparatively calculating saving on reference fuel for the system.

  18. RE-Europe, a large-scale dataset for modeling a highly renewable European electricity system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Tue V; Pinson, Pierre

    2017-11-28

    Future highly renewable energy systems will couple to complex weather and climate dynamics. This coupling is generally not captured in detail by the open models developed in the power and energy system communities, where such open models exist. To enable modeling such a future energy system, we describe a dedicated large-scale dataset for a renewable electric power system. The dataset combines a transmission network model, as well as information for generation and demand. Generation includes conventional generators with their technical and economic characteristics, as well as weather-driven forecasts and corresponding realizations for renewable energy generation for a period of 3 years. These may be scaled according to the envisioned degrees of renewable penetration in a future European energy system. The spatial coverage, completeness and resolution of this dataset, open the door to the evaluation, scaling analysis and replicability check of a wealth of proposals in, e.g., market design, network actor coordination and forecasting of renewable power generation.

  19. RE-Europe, a large-scale dataset for modeling a highly renewable European electricity system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Tue V.; Pinson, Pierre

    2017-11-01

    Future highly renewable energy systems will couple to complex weather and climate dynamics. This coupling is generally not captured in detail by the open models developed in the power and energy system communities, where such open models exist. To enable modeling such a future energy system, we describe a dedicated large-scale dataset for a renewable electric power system. The dataset combines a transmission network model, as well as information for generation and demand. Generation includes conventional generators with their technical and economic characteristics, as well as weather-driven forecasts and corresponding realizations for renewable energy generation for a period of 3 years. These may be scaled according to the envisioned degrees of renewable penetration in a future European energy system. The spatial coverage, completeness and resolution of this dataset, open the door to the evaluation, scaling analysis and replicability check of a wealth of proposals in, e.g., market design, network actor coordination and forecasting of renewable power generation.

  20. RE-Europe, a large-scale dataset for modeling a highly renewable European electricity system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tue Vissing; Pinson, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Future highly renewable energy systems will couple to complex weather and climate dynamics. This coupling is generally not captured(R2.8) in detailby the open models developed in the power and energy system communities, where such open models exist. To enable modeling such a future energy system......, we describe a dedicated large-scale dataset for a renewable electric power system. The dataset combines a transmission network model, as well as information for generation and demand. Generation includes conventional generators with their technical and economic characteristics, as well as weather......-driven forecasts and corresponding realizations for renewable energy generation for a period of 3 years.(R2.9) These may be scaled according to the envisioned degrees of renewable penetration in a future European energy system.(R2.10) The spatial coverage, completeness and resolution of this dataset, open the door...

  1. Financial Burdens and Economic Costs in Expanding Urban Water Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, David H.; Snyder, Thomas P.

    1987-07-01

    Rates of growth of demand, lengths of financing periods, real interest rates, and the types of facilities are shown to be important variables in evaluating the equity (or inequity) between established residents and new-development residents when urban water and sewer facilities are expanded with public financing. Established residents pay less than the economic cost of facilities when facilities that can be efficiently expanded in an incremental manner are subject to demands that are growing at rates that are less than the real interest rate. They pay more than the economic cost when growth occurs at higher rates. When facilities are expanded at multiyear intervals with excess capacity, payments are equated to costs at lower growth rates. Similarly, increasing real costs of facilities shift that breakpoint to lower growth rates. Modest one-time changes can be used to offset burdens on established residents when inequities do occur. Inflation has little effect on these results.

  2. Urban Floods in Lowlands—Levee Systems, Unplanned Urban Growth and River Restoration Alternative: A Case Study in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Gomes Miguez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of cities has always had a very close relation with water. However, cities directly impact land use patterns and greatly change natural landscapes, aggravating floods. Considering this situation, this paper intends to discuss lowland occupation and city sustainability in what regards urban stormwater management, fluvial space, and river restoration, aiming at minimizing flood risks and improving natural and built environment conditions. River plains tend to be attractive places for a city to grow. From ancient times, levees have been used to protect lowland areas along major watercourses to allow their occupation. However, urban rivers demand space for temporary flood storage. From a systemic point of view, levees along extensive river reaches act as canalization works, limiting river connectivity with flood plains, rising water levels, increasing overtopping risks and transferring floods downstream. Departing from this discussion, four case studies in the Iguaçu-Sarapuí River Basin, a lowland area of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, are used to compose a perspective in which the central point refers to the need of respecting watershed limits and giving space to rivers. Different aspects of low-lying city planning are discussed and analyzed concerning the integration of the built and natural environments.

  3. An integrated material metabolism model for stocks of urban road system in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhen; Hu, Dan; Zhang, Fuhua; Huang, Guolong; Xiao, Qiang

    2014-02-01

    Rapid urbanization has greatly altered the urban metabolism of material and energy. As a significant part of the infrastructure, urban roads are being rapidly developed worldwide. Quantitative analysis of metabolic processes on urban road systems, especially the scale, composition and spatial distribution of their stocks, could help to assess the resource appropriation and potential environmental impacts, as well as improve urban metabolism models. In this paper, an integrated model, which covered all types of roads, intersection structures and ancillary facilities, was built for calculating the material stocks of urban road systems. Based on a bottom-up method, the total stocks were disassembled into a number of stock parts rather than obtained by input-output data, which provided an approach promoting data availability and inner structure understanding. The combination with GIS enabled the model to tackle the complex structures of road networks and avoid double counting. In the case study of Beijing, the following results are shown: 1) The total stocks for the entire road system reached 159 million tons, of which nearly 80% was stored in roads, and 20% in ancillary facilities. 2) Macadam was the largest stock (111 million tons), while stone mastic asphalt, polyurethane plastics, and atactic polypropylene accounted for smaller components of the overall system. 3) The stock per unit area of pedestrian overcrossing was higher than that of the other stock units in the entire system, and its steel stocks reached 0.49 t/m(2), which was 10 times as high as that in interchanges. 4) The high stock areas were mainly distributed in ring-shaped and radial expressways, as well as in major interchanges. 5) Expressways and arterials were excessively emphasized, while minor roads were relatively ignored. However, the variation of cross-sectional thickness in branches and neighborhood roads will have a significant impact on the scale of material stocks in the entire road system

  4. Evaluation of alternative public transportation systems in Izmit urban transportation via axiomatic design method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülşen AKMAN

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the world and in our country, most of urban transportation is performed by public transportation. Public transportation is a system which provides transportation easiness and opportunity to people, not to vehicles. Therefore, giving priority to public transportation system is necessary in organizing urban transportation. In this study, in order to reduce traffic intensity and to facilitate passenger transportation in Izmit urban transportation, It is tried to determine appropriate public transportation system. For this, firstly, alternatives which could be used for public transportation were determined. These alternatives are metro, metrobus, tram, light rail system and monorail. Afterwards, the variables affecting decision making about public transportation were determined. These variables are cost, transportation line features, vehicle characteristics, sensitivity to environment and customer satisfaction. Lastly, most appropriate public transportation system is proposed by using the axiomatic design method. As a result, light trail system and metrobus are determined as the most appropriate alternatives for Izmit public transportation system.Keywords: Urban transportation, Multi criteria decision making, Axiomatic design

  5. Creating European guidelines for Chiropractic Incident Reporting and Learning Systems (CIRLS: relevance and structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wangler Martin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2009, the heads of the Executive Council of the European Chiropractors' Union (ECU and the European Academy of Chiropractic (EAC involved in the European Committee for Standardization (CEN process for the chiropractic profession, set out to establish European guidelines for the reporting of adverse reactions to chiropractic treatment. There were a number of reasons for this: first, to improve the overall quality of patient care by aiming to reduce the application of potentially harmful interventions and to facilitate the treatment of patients within the context of achieving maximum benefit with a minimum risk of harm; second, to inform the training objectives for the Graduate Education and Continuing Professional Development programmes of all 19 ECU member nations, regarding knowledge and skills to be acquired for maximising patient safety; and third, to develop a guideline on patient safety incident reporting as it is likely to be part of future CEN standards for ECU member nations. Objective To introduce patient safety incident reporting within the context of chiropractic practice in Europe and to help individual countries and their national professional associations to develop or improve reporting and learning systems. Discussion Providing health care of any kind, including the provision of chiropractic treatment, can be a complex and, at times, a risky activity. Safety in healthcare cannot be guaranteed, it can only be improved. One of the most important aspects of any learning and reporting system lies in the appropriate use of the data and information it gathers. Reporting should not just be seen as a vehicle for obtaining information on patient safety issues, but also be utilised as a tool to facilitate learning, advance quality improvement and to ultimately minimise the rate of the occurrence of errors linked to patient care. Conclusions Before a reporting and learning system can be established it has to be clear

  6. A Comparison of Education and Child-Rearing Practices in British Colonial Africa and Urban America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongiri, Daniel O.

    1976-01-01

    Describes the practices and ideologies held in common by the African Colonial System of education and the Urban American Educational System. Africans' resistance to the internalization of European values and solutions to the educational dilemmas of urban black families are described. (Author/AM)

  7. Importance of anthropogenic climate impact, sampling error and urban development in sewer system design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, C; Maurer, M

    2015-04-15

    Urban drainage design relying on observed precipitation series neglects the uncertainties associated with current and indeed future climate variability. Urban drainage design is further affected by the large stochastic variability of precipitation extremes and sampling errors arising from the short observation periods of extreme precipitation. Stochastic downscaling addresses anthropogenic climate impact by allowing relevant precipitation characteristics to be derived from local observations and an ensemble of climate models. This multi-climate model approach seeks to reflect the uncertainties in the data due to structural errors of the climate models. An ensemble of outcomes from stochastic downscaling allows for addressing the sampling uncertainty. These uncertainties are clearly reflected in the precipitation-runoff predictions of three urban drainage systems. They were mostly due to the sampling uncertainty. The contribution of climate model uncertainty was found to be of minor importance. Under the applied greenhouse gas emission scenario (A1B) and within the period 2036-2065, the potential for urban flooding in our Swiss case study is slightly reduced on average compared to the reference period 1981-2010. Scenario planning was applied to consider urban development associated with future socio-economic factors affecting urban drainage. The impact of scenario uncertainty was to a large extent found to be case-specific, thus emphasizing the need for scenario planning in every individual case. The results represent a valuable basis for discussions of new drainage design standards aiming specifically to include considerations of uncertainty. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Threat from European Missile Defence System to Russian National Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey I. Podberezkin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the political and military aspects of progress in the dialogue between Russia and the U.S./NATO on cooperation in missile defense; investigates the past experiences and current state of cooperation between Russia and the Alliance on missile defense issues; examines the technical features of American missile defence systems today; finds a solution to question whether or not the European Missile Defence Program actually threatens Russia's nuclear deterrent and strategic stability in general; identifies both potential benefits and possible losses for Russia stemming from the development of cooperation with the United States and NATO in countering ballistic missile threats, or from refusal to have such cooperation. Evidently, the initiative of creation of a missile defense in Europe surely belongs to the USA. Washington has enormous technological, financial, economic, military and institutional capabilities in the field of a missile defense, exceeding by far other NATO member-states. In February 2010, the President of the United States B. Obama adopted a project "European Phased Adaptive Approach" (EPAA as an alternative to G. Bush's global strategic missile defense plan. The first two stages of the Phased Adaptive Approach are focused on creating a system capable of intercepting small, medium and intermediate-range ballistic missiles. The possibility of intercepting long-range missiles is postponed to the third (2018 and forth phases (2020. Moscow finds especially troublesome the third and the fourth phases of Washington's project of creating a European segment of the global antiballistic missile system, considering prospective capabilities of the U.S. interceptor missiles 61 and the envisioned areas of their deployment. The U.S. counter-evidence is that phase four interceptors do not exist yet. Russia insists on getting the political and legal guarantees from the U.S. and NATO that their missile defense systems will not slash

  9. Toward an integrated theory of spatial morphology and resilient urban systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Marcus

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We take the first step in the development of a new field of research with the aim of merging spatial morphology and resilience science. This involves a revisiting and reunderstanding of the meaning of sustainable urban form. We briefly describe the fields of resilience science and spatial morphology. Drawing on a selected set of propositions in both fields, we put urban form in the context of the adaptive renewal cycle, a dynamic framework model used in resilience science to capture the dynamics of complex adaptive systems, of which urban systems are prime examples. We discuss the insights generated in this endeavor, dealing with some key morphological aspects in relation to four key attributes of resilience, i.e., "change," "diversity," "self-organization," and "learning." We discuss and relate these to urban form and other social variables, with special attention paid to the "backloop phase" of the adaptive renewal cycle. We conclude by postulating ways in which resilience thinking could contribute to the development of a new research frontier for addressing designs for resilient urban social-ecological systems, and end by proposing three strategic areas of research in such a field.

  10. Association of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Clinical Features with European Population Genetic Substructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calaza, Manuel; Witte, Torsten; Papasteriades, Chryssa; Marchini, Maurizio; Migliaresi, Sergio; Kovacs, Attila; Ordi-Ros, Josep; Bijl, Marc; Santos, Maria Jose; Ruzickova, Sarka; Pullmann, Rudolf; Carreira, Patricia; Skopouli, Fotini N.; D'Alfonso, Sandra; Sebastiani, Gian Domenico; Suarez, Ana; Blanco, Francisco J.; Gomez-Reino, Juan J.; Gonzalez, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease with a very varied spectrum of clinical manifestations that could be partly determined by genetic factors. We aimed to determine the relationship between prevalence of 11 clinical features and age of disease onset with European population genetic substructure. Data from 1413 patients of European ancestry recruited in nine countries was tested for association with genotypes of top ancestry informative markers. This analysis was done with logistic regression between phenotypes and genotypes or principal components extracted from them. We used a genetic additive model and adjusted for gender and disease duration. Three clinical features showed association with ancestry informative markers: autoantibody production defined as immunologic disorder (P = 6.8×10−4), oral ulcers (P = 6.9×10−4) and photosensitivity (P = 0.002). Immunologic disorder was associated with genotypes more common in Southern European ancestries, whereas the opposite trend was observed for photosensitivity. Oral ulcers were specifically more common in patients of Spanish and Portuguese self-reported ancestry. These results should be taken into account in future research and suggest new hypotheses and possible underlying mechanisms to be investigated. A first hypothesis linking photosensitivity with variation in skin pigmentation is suggested. PMID:22194982

  11. Is the Turkish health care system ready to be a part of the European Union?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisa, Adnan; Kavuncubasi, Sahin; Ersoy, Korkut

    2002-04-01

    Lately, Turkey is struggling to recover from the economic effects of the economic crisis so that the government officials are trying to impose budget cuts in health and education sectors. After the United States, the country's national defense expenditures are the highest among the NATO countries. Therefore, Turkey allocates only 3-4% of the gross domestic product for health care expenses. Overall, the health status in Turkey is the lowest among the European Union countries; infant mortality rate is about 45 per 1000 live births, which is the highest on the European continent, and per capita health care expenditure is $120. Although 75% of the people are covered by some type of public insurance, 25% of the Turkish people do not have any insurance coverage. The national system is funded by taxes (43%), out of pocket payments (32%), and social and private insurance premiums (25%). This study examines whether Turkey is ready to be a part of the European Union in terms of the health sector of its economy and health status of its people.

  12. Mauritania and the European regional system of post-colonialism to Euro-Mediterranean Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Uruburu Colsa

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available During the five decades that have elapsed since it gained independence, Mauritania – a country that is lacking in natural resources and highly dependent on exterior aid – has prioritised its relations with the European regional system. These relations have been a reflection of the evolution of the principles of EU external action. Thus, during the period prior to the Maastricht Treaty, relations with Mauritania were framed within a collection of agreements based on development cooperation and fishing licences. However, with the introduction (in the 1990s of a European Common Foreign and Security Policy, provided with new principles, a new political dimension was introduced into these relations; a dimension that would demonstrate its importance in Mauritania’s recent political evolution. In this context, the aim of this article is: to analyse the main elements that have determined the evolution of this process of relations between the European Union and Mauritania; to examine the effects of the introduction of political criteria into this cooperation, and its impact on Mauritania’s increasing closeness to the Euro-Mediterranean space; and to highlight, particularly, Spain’s role with respect to designing EU strategies in areas of particular importance for our country’s interests, such as political dialogue, controlling migration flows and fishing.

  13. The role of healthcare system in dental check-ups in 27 European countries: multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kino, Shiho; Bernabé, Eduardo; Sabbah, Wael

    2017-06-01

    To examine whether public expenditure on health and Euro Health Consumer Index (EHCI) are associated with dental check-ups in European countries. Individual data were from Eurobarometer 72.3, 2009 a cross-national survey of 27 European countries. Eligible participants were those aged 18 years and older in 27 European countries. Dental check-ups reflected dental visits for oral examination and getting advice on oral health in the last 12 months. Individual factors included age, gender, marital status, urbanisation, education, subjective social status, and difficulty in paying bills. Public expenditure on health as a percentage of gross domestic product (GDP) and EHCI were used as contextual factors. A set of multilevel logistic regression models was used to examine the relationship between dental check-ups and each of healthcare expenditure and EHCI adjusting for demographic factors, GDP per capita and socioeconomic indicators. Total number included in the analysis was 23,842. Participants in countries with greater healthcare expenditure and higher score of EHCI were significantly 1.17 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.32) and 1.30 times (95% CI: 1.04, 1.64) more likely to report dental check-ups within the past 12 months after accounting for demographic characteristics, GDP per capita, and all socioeconomic indicators. The findings suggest that greater governmental support for the healthcare and better characteristics of healthcare system are positively associated with routine dental attendance. © 2017 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  14. Contribution of anadromous fish to the diet of European catfish in a large river system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syväranta, Jari; Cucherousset, Julien; Kopp, Dorothée; Martino, Aurélia; Céréghino, Régis; Santoul, Frédéric

    2009-05-01

    Many anadromous fish species, when migrating from the sea to spawn in fresh waters, can potentially be a valuable prey for larger predatory fish, thereby efficiently linking these two ecosystems. Here, we assess the contribution of anadromous fish to the diet of European catfish ( Silurus glanis) in a large river system (Garonne, southwestern France) using stable isotope analysis and allis shad ( Alosa alosa) as an example of anadromous fish. Allis shad caught in the Garonne had a very distinct marine δ13C value, over 8‰ higher after lipid extraction compared to the mean δ13C value of all other potential freshwater prey fish. The δ13C values of European catfish varied considerably between these two extremes and some individuals were clearly specializing on freshwater prey, whereas others specialized on anadromous fish. The mean contribution of anadromous fish to the entire European catfish population was estimated to be between 53% and 65%, depending on the fractionation factor used for δ13C.

  15. Association of systemic lupus erythematosus clinical features with European population genetic substructure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Alonso-Perez

    Full Text Available Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE is an autoimmune disease with a very varied spectrum of clinical manifestations that could be partly determined by genetic factors. We aimed to determine the relationship between prevalence of 11 clinical features and age of disease onset with European population genetic substructure. Data from 1413 patients of European ancestry recruited in nine countries was tested for association with genotypes of top ancestry informative markers. This analysis was done with logistic regression between phenotypes and genotypes or principal components extracted from them. We used a genetic additive model and adjusted for gender and disease duration. Three clinical features showed association with ancestry informative markers: autoantibody production defined as immunologic disorder (P = 6.8×10(-4, oral ulcers (P = 6.9×10(-4 and photosensitivity (P = 0.002. Immunologic disorder was associated with genotypes more common in Southern European ancestries, whereas the opposite trend was observed for photosensitivity. Oral ulcers were specifically more common in patients of Spanish and Portuguese self-reported ancestry. These results should be taken into account in future research and suggest new hypotheses and possible underlying mechanisms to be investigated. A first hypothesis linking photosensitivity with variation in skin pigmentation is suggested.

  16. Association of systemic lupus erythematosus clinical features with European population genetic substructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Perez, Elisa; Suarez-Gestal, Marian; Calaza, Manuel; Witte, Torsten; Papasteriades, Chryssa; Marchini, Maurizio; Migliaresi, Sergio; Kovacs, Attila; Ordi-Ros, Josep; Bijl, Marc; Santos, Maria Jose; Ruzickova, Sarka; Pullmann, Rudolf; Carreira, Patricia; Skopouli, Fotini N; D'Alfonso, Sandra; Sebastiani, Gian Domenico; Suarez, Ana; Blanco, Francisco J; Gomez-Reino, Juan J; Gonzalez, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease with a very varied spectrum of clinical manifestations that could be partly determined by genetic factors. We aimed to determine the relationship between prevalence of 11 clinical features and age of disease onset with European population genetic substructure. Data from 1413 patients of European ancestry recruited in nine countries was tested for association with genotypes of top ancestry informative markers. This analysis was done with logistic regression between phenotypes and genotypes or principal components extracted from them. We used a genetic additive model and adjusted for gender and disease duration. Three clinical features showed association with ancestry informative markers: autoantibody production defined as immunologic disorder (P = 6.8×10(-4)), oral ulcers (P = 6.9×10(-4)) and photosensitivity (P = 0.002). Immunologic disorder was associated with genotypes more common in Southern European ancestries, whereas the opposite trend was observed for photosensitivity. Oral ulcers were specifically more common in patients of Spanish and Portuguese self-reported ancestry. These results should be taken into account in future research and suggest new hypotheses and possible underlying mechanisms to be investigated. A first hypothesis linking photosensitivity with variation in skin pigmentation is suggested.

  17. Past, present, and future design of urban drainage systems with focus on Danish experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    Climate change will influence the water cycle substantially, and extreme precipitation will become more frequent in many regions in the years to come. How should this fact be incorporated into design of urban drainage systems, if at all? And how important is climate change compared to other changes...... over time? Based on an analysis of the underlying key drivers of changes that are expected to affect urban drainage systems the current problems and their predicted development over time are presented. One key issue is management of risk and uncertainties and therefore a framework for design...

  18. Greenhouse gas emissions from integrated urban drainage systems: Where do we stand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannina, Giorgio; Butler, David; Benedetti, Lorenzo; Deletic, Ana; Fowdar, Harsha; Fu, Guangtao; Kleidorfer, Manfred; McCarthy, David; Steen Mikkelsen, Peter; Rauch, Wolfgang; Sweetapple, Chris; Vezzaro, Luca; Yuan, Zhiguo; Willems, Patrick

    2018-04-01

    As sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, integrated urban drainage systems (IUDSs) (i.e., sewer systems, wastewater treatment plants and receiving water bodies) contribute to climate change. This paper, produced by the International Working Group on Data and Models, which works under the IWA/IAHR Joint Committee on Urban Drainage, reviews the state-of-the-art and modelling tools developed recently to understand and manage GHG emissions from IUDS. Further, open problems and research gaps are discussed and a framework for handling GHG emissions from IUDSs is presented. The literature review reveals that there is a need to strengthen already available mathematical models for IUDS to take GHG into account.

  19. Catchment & sewer network simulation model to benchmark control strategies within urban wastewater systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saagi, Ramesh; Flores Alsina, Xavier; Fu, Guangtao

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims at developing a benchmark simulation model to evaluate control strategies for the urban catchment and sewer network. Various modules describing wastewater generation in the catchment, its subsequent transport and storage in the sewer system are presented. Global/local overflow based....../standard wastewater treatment models (Activated Sludge Models) to finally promote integrated assessment of urban wastewater systems....... evaluation criteria describing the cumulative and acute effects are presented. Simulation results show that the proposed set of models is capable of generating daily, weekly and seasonal variations as well as describing the effect of rain events on wastewater characteristics. Two sets of case studies...

  20. Expert System Development for Urban Fire Hazard Assessment. Study Case: Kendari City, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taridala, S.; Yudono, A.; Ramli, M. I.; Akil, A.

    2017-08-01

    Kendari City is a coastal urban region with the smallest area as well as the largest population in Southeast Sulawesi. Fires in Kendari City had rather frequently occurred and caused numerous material losses. This study aims to develop a model of urban fire risk and fire station site assessment. The model is developed using Expert Systems with the Geographic Information System (GIS). The high risk of fire area is the area which of high building density with combustible material, not crossed by arterial nor collector road. The fire station site should be appropriately close by high risk of fire area, located on arterial road and near with potential water resource.