WorldWideScience

Sample records for european union membership

  1. Turkey’s Road to European Union Membership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Mărgărit

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of Turkey to become member of the European Union has raised numerousdebates and concerns. Even the founding principle of unity in diversity seems to be challenged by thepossibility of Turkish accession as this country possesses several features that are different from therest of EU member states. Opinions related to Turkey EU membership are often divergent, each siderelying on their own arguments. Proponents argue that Turkey is a regional power with a largeeconomy and a strong military force that will enhance EU's position as a global geostrategic player.On the other hand, opponents emphasize the demographic projections which indicate that, in aroundten years, Turkey will become EU’s most populous state. They also draw attention upon Turkey’sdifferent cultural and religious background. Objectives: This paper is focused on revealing keyaspectsof EU-Turkey relations in the context of accession negotiations. Furthermore, the paperpresents the image of Turkey as a candidate country, emphasizing the opinion of officials but also theview of citizens, both from the European Union and Turkey. Approach: The paper is based onreviewing and analysis of existing research on the topic, including web-based documentation,statistics, press reports, EU reports.

  2. Firm productivity in the Western Balkans: the impact of European Union membership and access to finance

    OpenAIRE

    Howard-Jones, Peter; Hölscher, Jens; Radicic, Dragana

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the productivity performance of Balkan firms within and outside the European Union (EU), including the influence of loans. A multiple treatment model is used to compare the effects on productivity of membership and loans both separately and collectively, which in the case of loans allows a separate analysis of their influence on firms in non-member states. The use of conditional quantile regressions measures the effect on productivity of membership and loans separately as ...

  3. Firm productivity in the Western Balkans: the impact of European Union membership and access to finance.

    OpenAIRE

    Howard-Jones, P.; Holscher, Jens; Radicic, D.

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the productivity performance of Balkan firms within and outside the European Union (EU), including the influence of loans. A multiple treatment model is used to compare the effects on productivity of membership and loans both separately and collectively, which in the case of loans allows a separate analysis of their influence on firms in non-member states. The use of conditional quantile regressions measures the effect on productivity of membership and loans separately as ...

  4. Firm productivity in the western Balkans: The impact of European Union membership and access to finance

    OpenAIRE

    Howard-Jones P.; Hцlscher J.; Radicic D.

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the productivity performance of Balkan firms within and outside the European Union (EU), including the influence of loans. A multiple treatment model is used to compare the effects on productivity of membership and loans both separately and collectively, which in the case of loans allows a separate analysis of their influence on firms in non-member states. The use of conditional quantile regressions measures the effect on productivity of...

  5. Firm productivity in the western Balkans: The impact of European Union membership and access to finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard-Jones P.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the productivity performance of Balkan firms within and outside the European Union (EU, including the influence of loans. A multiple treatment model is used to compare the effects on productivity of membership and loans both separately and collectively, which in the case of loans allows a separate analysis of their influence on firms in non-member states. The use of conditional quantile regressions measures the effect on productivity of membership and loans separately as treatment variables. This provides an analysis of where the treatment influence is greatest across the distribution curve and identifies the significance of selected control variables on the outcome. In the full sample, the findings indicate that EU membership and loans have a positive effect on productivity, with membership being more important than loans. Outside the EU, firms in receipt of loans are more productive than those without. However, the significance of both membership and loans is restricted to the lower end of the productivity distribution curve. The manufacturing sample shows that EU membership has a significant positive effect across 70% of the deciles measured, whilst the influence of loans is restricted to the lower deciles, with rental capital (leasing also positively significant in the lower four deciles. In the services sector, however, membership is significant up to 90% of the distribution, with loans at 60%.

  6. Membership of Eastern European countries of the European Union -environmental perspectives. Main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    Ten central and eastern European countries have made association agreements with the EU and submitted applications for EU membership. The countries are: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Slovenia, Romania and Bulgaria. Accession to the EU by the central and eastern European countries requires that the countries accept the acquis communautaire (the rules of the EU) as well as the acquis politique (the political aims of the EU), including environmental issues. Accession to the EU is expected to result in substantial environmental improvements both in the central and eastern European countries and in the countries which are exposed to pollution originating from these countries. The extent of the environmental improvements when the 10 countries implement and use the rules laid down by the EU is an important issue. Another important approximation related problem is how the countries will secure the human and financial resources to meet the EU requirements. The purpose of this publication is to provide a first analysis of the tasks ahead in the environmental field during the current approximation process, including the environmental consequences/gains and the costs of accession of the 10 associated countries to the EU. This analysis deals both with general and sectoral problems, focusing on sectors with special adaptation problems which thus need targeted assistance. The analysed sectors are: air pollution, ozone depleting substances, waste, water pollution, agriculture, chemical substances, biodiversity, energy - including nuclear energy. (LN) 119 refs

  7. Brexit : Eurosceptic Victory In British Referendum In Term Of Britain Membership Of European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairul Munzilin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available On June 23, 2016, eurosceptic group won a British referendum on Britain's motion of leaving the European Union. This paper will explore the factors related to the victory of  eurosceptic group  in the historic referendum. This paper uses theory of voting behaviour and strategy of campaign to answer the research of this paper. Eurosceptic group victory in this referendum couldn’t be separated from eurosceptic's success in influencing the mindset of Britishsociety as the voter in this referendum. By using the concept of the campaign strategy, the writer will examine various forms of brexit campaign strategy that used to influence voters behaviour.

  8. Job insecurity, union support and the intention to resign membership. A psychological contract perspective tested among union members in four European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Witte, Hans; Sverke, Magnus; Van Ruysseveldt, Joris; Goslinga, Sjoerd; Chirumbolo, Antonio; Hellgren, Johnny; Näswall, Katharina

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the consequences of job insecurity among union members. Starting from the dominance of the instrumental motive for union membership, and using psychological contract theory, we hypothesize that the perception of job insecurity will correlate with a lower level of perceived union

  9. Union membership variation in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, Steen

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates covariates of union density in ten West European countries. It adds to previous research by showing that collective bargaining coverage plays a substantial role. Hence future analyses of union density should emphasize the collective bargaining coverage variable, since...... trade unions may influence both the extent of coverage and the content of agreements. Of course, the question of the direction of the causality remains...

  10. The Impact of Union Corruption on Union Membership

    OpenAIRE

    Coombs, Christopher; Cebula, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between union corruption actions and union membership. State-level data from the Office of Labor-Management Standards, and other sources, are utilized over two study periods (1974-2000 and 2001- 2008) to test three hypotheses, including the union corruption hypothesis, as pos­sible explanations for the decline in union membership in the United States over time. Although our initial findings suggest a negative relationship exists between union corruption...

  11. Political attitude and trade union membership in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Carsten Strøby

    2017-01-01

    . The results show that left-wing political attitudes have the most impact on the likelihood of trade union membership in Sweden and to a lesser extent in Denmark. In Norway and Finland, there is no statistically significant impact. I argue that the impact of left-wing political attitudes on unionization......Do political attitudes influence the likelihood of employees being members of a trade union, and to what extent is this the case in the Nordic countries with their high aggregate levels of membership? In this article, I address these questions using European Social Survey data from 2012...

  12. Redrawing the Boundaries of Membership: Labor Migrants in the UN Convention on Migrant Workers, NAFTA, and the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Joseph Trawicki

    2013-01-01

    Labor migrants occupy an indeterminate place in the rights regimes of nation-states. Even when engaged in documented movements, labor migrants enjoy a set of rights more limited than those of citizens. This dissertation reviews three international legal agreements, the UN Convention on Migrant Workers, the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), and the European Union (EU) in order to understand how they influence where this boundary between sets of rights is drawn. In examining this...

  13. To Brexit or not to Brexit: The roles of Islamophobia, conspiracist beliefs, and integrated threat in voting intentions for the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Barron, David; Weis, Laura; Furnham, Adrian

    2018-02-01

    We used an identities approach to examine voting intentions in the June 2016 UK referendum on membership of the European Union (EU). In April 2016, 303 British adults (58.7% women, age M = 34.73) indicated their voting intentions for the referendum and completed measures of identification with the national in-group, perceived threat from Muslim immigrants, belief in Islamophobic conspiracy narratives, Islamophobia, general conspiracist beliefs, ambiguity tolerance, and belief in a clash of civilizations. Path and mediation analyses indicated that greater belief in Islamophobic conspiracy theories mediated the link between Islamophobia and intention to vote to leave. Islamophobia and Islamophobic conspiracist beliefs also mediated the effects of perceived threat from Muslims on voting intentions. Other variables acted as antecedents of perceived threat or Islamophobic conspiracy narratives. These findings highlight the role that identity-based cognitions may have played in shaping voting intentions for the UK EU referendum. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  14. Social Customs and Trade Union Membership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Christian Lyhne; Toubøl, Jonas; Jensen, Daniel Sparwath

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the effect of social customs on one of the most important instances of collective action, namely, workers uniting in trade unions. Although many studies have used social custom theory to explain unionization, existing studies have not adequately analysed social...... customs at the workplace. Using workplace union density as a proxy for social custom, this analysis improves existing studies in a number of ways. First, multi-level analyses of a large panel data set from Denmark reveal that there is a significant positive effect of workplace union density...... in unionization are required to create self-sustaining social customs for union membership. Thirdly, we test the acceleration using segmented regression analysis and find a significant acceleration around 45–65 per cent workplace union density. In the conclusion, we discuss the implications of our study...

  15. The Analysis of Trends in Socio-Economic Development of Poland and its Regions in the Period of the Country’s Membership in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semigulina Irina B. –

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The regional policy of the European Union aims to address issues of regional development associated with the decreasing of existing regional imbalances, preventing the emergence of regional imbalances, reducing the gap between the socio-economic indicators of development of various countries and regions, solving problems of territorial development, which are of priority for the development of modern Ukraine. The integration of Ukraine into the European community makes the matters of a detailed study of the EU experience and analysis of the key elements of its regional policy urgent. It also provides for the need to create Ukraine’s own regional policy taking into account the best European principles for the organization of management of regional and local development as well as the modernization of the local self-government system. Most appropriate for Ukraine is to use the best practices of regional policy of the EU member countries, which have successfully passed the transitional stage in their economic development and demonstrate stable positive transformations. Modern socio-political changes in Ukraine, which are accompanied by reforming the principles of local self-government and territorial organization of government at the local level, raise considerable interest on the part of state bodies and public organizations of our country to successfully carried changes in administrative-territorial system in combination with other structural reforms in Poland. Ukraine’s desire to integrate into the modern European Community makes it relevant to study the results of development of Poland and its regions, dynamics of changes in socio-economic indicators for the period of the country’s membership in the European Union

  16. From the Stereotypification of the Non-European Other to the Prototypification of the European Self: A Case Study of Turkey’s Membership to the European Union from the French Perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Bogain

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In an era of increased globalisation, the need for a sense of belonging and an identity is becoming more pressing. The way nations form images of others and, conversely, conscious or unconscious images of themselves is becoming increasingly important as these images impact on public opinion and on political and decision-making discourse. With the development of supranationalism in Europe, the age-old notion of European identity has come more and more to the fore. Conflicting interpretations and a general disinclination to consider the matter leave the notion of European identity as polysemic as ever. Furthermore, the expansion of the EU has contributed to blurring this notion, so much so that in the collective psyche, it has become closely linked to the membership of the European Union and it is proving sometimes difficult to dissociate one from the other. In this context, the debate surrounding Turkey’s membership of the EU gives an insight into prototypical and stereotypical representations of Europe. As the controversy has been particularly salient in France, the aim of this study is to explore the European self-conceptions and images of the other through the example of France’s opposition to Turkey’s membership of the EU. For this purpose, opinion polls and the Press will be used as forms of narrative in order to highlight these representations and how they have evolved in time. The first part of the study will concentrate on the arguments put forward to justify the opposition to Turkey joining the EU. The second part will then evaluate how the image of the other contributes to the prototypical representation French citizens have of Europe.

  17. The European Union's Eastward Enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanns-D. Jacobsen

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available In July 1997 the Commission of the European Union presented its Agenda 2000. This document not only suggested to start accession talks with some East and Central European countries (CEEC in early 1998 but it also provided proposals for a restructuring of EU expenditures. On this background this contribution discusses the state of readiness of the Central and East European countries to become EU members over the next few years and the Union's capacity to absorb up to ten CEEC over the next decade or so. This study concludes that the European Union has become an anchor of stability to the CEEC that guarantees both democracy and economic security--much more than could be expected only a couple of years ago. The Union's readiness to accept the membership of CEEC has, in a decisive way, contributed to their societal, political and economic stabilization. There is almost a contest among the CEEC on which one is going to meet the accession criteria first and best. The enlargement process, however, is connected to problems the resolution of which realistically postpone its successful conclusion at least into the year 2005. The main reasons are (1 the welfare gap between the EU area and the CEEC, (2 the need for more institutional and economic changes in the CEEC to make them ready for acces-sion, and, most importantly, (3 the necessity for the European Union to prepare herself for accession by a comprehensive financial reform and fundamental institutional changes.

  18. Pattern persistence in European trade Union density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Checchi, D.; Visser, J.

    2002-01-01

    Using annual data on aggregate union membership and density in fourteen European countries, the authors examine the short-term and long-term determinants of the postwar pattern of union growth and decline in Western Europe since 1950. In an attempt to explain the observed convergence in trends and

  19. Membership of Eastern European countries of the European Union -environmental perspectives. Main report; EU`s udvidelse mod Oest - miljoemaessige perspektiver. Hovedrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    Ten central and eastern European countries have made association agreements with the EU and submitted applications for EU membership. The countries are: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Slovenia, Romania and Bulgaria. Accession to the EU by the central and eastern European countries requires that the countries accept the acquis communautaire (the rules of the EU) as well as the acquis politique (the political aims of the EU), including environmental issues. Accession to the EU is expected to result in substantial environmental improvements both in the central and eastern European countries and in the countries which are exposed to pollution originating from these countries. The extent of the environmental improvements when the 10 countries implement and use the rules laid down by the EU is an important issue. Another important approximation related problem is how the countries will secure the human and financial resources to meet the EU requirements. The purpose of this publication is to provide a first analysis of the tasks ahead in the environmental field during the current approximation process, including the environmental consequences/gains and the costs of accession of the 10 associated countries to the EU. This analysis deals both with general and sectoral problems, focusing on sectors with special adaptation problems which thus need targeted assistance. The analysed sectors are: air pollution, ozone depleting substances, waste, water pollution, agriculture, chemical substances, biodiversity, energy - including nuclear energy. (LN) 119 refs.

  20. Union Membership and Political Participation in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerrissey, Jasmine; Schofer, Evan

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the effect of union membership on civic and political participation in the late 20th century in the United States. We discuss why and how unions seek to mobilize their members and where mobilization is channeled. We argue that union membership affects electoral and collective action outcomes and will be larger for low…

  1. European [Security] Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2013-01-01

    The past 20 years, since the 1992 Treaty on European Union, have seen the gradual creation of both an “Area of Freedom, Security and Justice” and a “Common Foreign and Security Policy”. More recent is the development of a “European Neighbourhood Policy” over the past 10 years. All three of these ......The past 20 years, since the 1992 Treaty on European Union, have seen the gradual creation of both an “Area of Freedom, Security and Justice” and a “Common Foreign and Security Policy”. More recent is the development of a “European Neighbourhood Policy” over the past 10 years. All three...... of these policies involved the navigation and negotiation of security, borders and governance in and by the European Union (EU). This article analyses these practices of bordering and governance through a five-fold security framework. The article argues that a richer understanding of EU security discourses can...

  2. Trade union membership and works councils in West Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Goerke, Laszlo; Pannenberg, Markus

    2007-01-01

    The fraction of works councillors belonging to a trade union in Germany is much higher than union density among employees. If works councils represent the face of unions, union membership of employees should be related positively to the existence of works councils and their proximity to unions. Using data from the German Socio-Economic-Panel SOEP we find that (a) works councillors exhibit a higher probability of being a union member, (b) the mere existence of a works council within an establi...

  3. Inequality and union membership: the influence of relative earnings and inequality attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Checchi, D.; Visser, J.; van de Werfhorst, H.G.

    2010-01-01

    Using surveys from the International Social Survey Programme covering the period 1985-2002 for seven European countries (West and East Germany, Sweden, Norway, Italy, the Netherlands and Great Britain), we examine the effect of relative earnings on union membership and show that union density is

  4. Education for the Rights and Responsibilities of Trade Union Membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Confederation of Organizations of the Teaching Profession, Morges (Switzerland).

    It is vitally important for workers in all regions of the world to form unions and to exercise the rights and discharge the responsibilities which membership involves. The right to organize or join a union is essential not only for the welfare of the individual worker, or for all of those belonging to the union, but also for the welfare of society…

  5. Membership of Eastern European countries of the European Union -environmental perspectives. Appendix; EU`s udvidelse mod Oest - miljoemaessige perspektiver. Bilagsrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The appendix presents detailed information about the sectors air pollution, ozone depleting substances, waste water and energy in the East European countries. European regulations within these areas are presented together with data about emissions of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}, use of ozone depleting substances, amount of different waste types and their management, water quality control, and energy consumption for individual energy sources. (LN).

  6. European Union Budget Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele

    2015-01-01

    The marginal involvement of the European Union (EU) in redistributive policies and its limited fiscal resources have led to a notable lack of attention by EU scholars towards the EU budget and its dynamics. Yet the nature of the budgetary data and their high usability for statistical analysis make...... to form winning coalitions in the Council, the ideological positioning of the co-legislators and the inclusion of the cohesion countries have played a significant role in driving budget change....

  7. European Union Energy Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdalbero, D.R.; Schmitz, B.; Raldow, W.; Poireau, M.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an extensive state of the art of the energy research conducted at European Union level between 1984 and 2006, i.e. from the first to the sixth European Community Framework Programmes (FP1-FP6) for Research, Technological Development and Demonstration (RTD and D). The FP is the main legal tool and financial instrument of EU RTD and D policy. It sets the objectives, priorities and budgets for a period of several years. It has been complemented over time with a number of policy oriented initiatives and notably with the launch of the European Research Area. FP7 will cover the period 2007-2013 and will have a total budget of more than euros 50 billion. Energy has been a main research area in Europe since the founding Treaties (European Coal and Steel Community, European Atomic Energy Community-Euratom and European Economic Community), and energy RTD and D has always been a substantial part of common EU research. Nevertheless, when inflation and successive European enlargements are taken into account, over time the RTD and D effort in the field of energy has decreased significantly in relative terms. In nominal terms it has remained relatively stable at about euros 500 million per year. For the next years (FP7), it is expected that energy will still represent about 10 % of total EU research effort but with an annual budget of more than euros 800 million per year. This article presents a detailed review of the thematic areas and budget in both European nuclear energy research (fusion and fission) and non-nuclear energy research (energy efficiency/rational use of energy, fossil fuels, CO 2 capture and storage, fuel cells and hydrogen, renewable energy sources, strategic energy research/socio-economy). (authors)

  8. European Union, 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malone Margaret Mary

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The year 2017 was eventful for the EU and its member states. Given the widespread Euroscepticism and populism which appeared to be on the rise last year, election results in the Netherlands, France and Germany were greeted with relief and hope for the future. The EU was in an optimistic mood. European Commission President Jean- Claude Juncker used his State of the European Union speech in September to note that the EU had the ‘wind in its sails’ (Juncker, 2017. At the same time, he cautioned that the fair weather conditions would not last long - there was no room for complacency. The EU had to act to protect, empower and defend its citizens. The EU moved forward on a number of policy fronts in the wake of the Brexit vote and also concluded high-profile international trade deals in an effort to fill the vacuum left by the protectionist policies of the Trump administration.

  9. The new architecture of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radivojević Zoran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Lisbon Treaty has brought significant changes into the architecture of the European Union. The most important novelty, however, is the establishment of a full unity of the Union structure achieved by creating new and strengthening the existing elements. The new elements of this unity are the disappearance of the European Community, the 'independence' of the European Atomic Energy Community, constituting the European Union as a single entity and the introduction of EU values. At the same time, the Lisbon Treaty has strengthened the existing elements of the common institutional mechanisms, rules on amending the founding treaties and EU membership. However, constituting the Union as a single entity which has replaced and succeeded the European Communities has not abolished the EU elements of diversity. In the areas that differed, even before the adoption of the Lisbon Treaty, from the community pillar, there remain significant differences in the nature and the scope of competences of the Union institutions. This mainly regards the common foreign and security policy, which now includes the defense policy, where the existing model of inter-state cooperation has been only slightly interfered with. In contrast, in the field of police and judicial cooperation in criminal matters, which has become part of a larger Area of Freedom, Security and Justice, the inter-state model of cooperation has been abandoned in some of its most important elements. However, the implementation of some of the important elements of the supranational model has been postponed.

  10. Explaining Leaving Union Membership by the Degree of Labour Market Attachment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leschke, Janine; Vandaele, Kurt

    2018-01-01

    By particularly stressing the weaker labour market attachment of workers with non-standard contracts, this article contributes to the rather unexplored issue of mainly non-union-related reasons for leaving trade unions. Germany has been selected as a case study because German unions experienced...... a steady decline in membership, while at the same time non-standard employment arrangements increased considerably and more so than the European average. Using the German Socio-Economic Panel data, the authors construct a labour market attachment variable capturing different degrees of attachment...

  11. European Union: US Hegemonic Competitor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kellar, Ronald

    2001-01-01

    .... Intergovernmentalism in the European Community has evolved into an economic form of supranationalism with the persona change form Community to Union after ratification of the Treaty of Maastricht in 1993...

  12. The European Union and its Neighbours:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Chilosi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the status of the European Neighbourhood Policy in the light of the new Financial Perspective 2007-2013 and of the present internal state of the European Union. Even if in theory the ENP could have been a valid substitute for enlargement, it does not seem to have reached its aim of providing an adequate surrogate for full membership. Considering the figures of the new Financial Perspective 2007-2013, the issue of market access, and the internal power dynamics of the EU, we see that it is hardly conceivable that the ENP could ever give to its neighbours the same economic advantages that membership gives to the poorer members of the EU. Another controversial aspect is the clear asymmetric nature of the ENP, whereby the payoff for neighbours is conditioned on their “good behaviour”, thus amounting to a form of soft imperialism. While ENP tries to establish a comprehensive and coherent framework of the EU’s relations with its neighbourhood, the actual behaviour of EU towards its neighbours is shown to present some inconsistences due to political expedience and pragmatic concerns. The consideration of some related basic issues of EU institutional reform, such as the weakening of the powers of the member states, or the introduction of some intermediate forms of partial membership, concludes the paper.

  13. European Union and oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paillard, Christophe Alexandre

    2004-01-01

    In a context of oil price increase, problems about a Russian oil company (Loukos), and uncertainties in the Middle-East, the possibility of a new oil shock is a threat for Europe, and raises the issue of a true European energy policy which would encompass, not only grid development, environmental issues or market regulation issues, but also strategic issues related to energy supply security. This article proposes an overview of the European policy: first steps for a future European energy and oil policy in the green paper of the European Commission published in November 2000, issues of pollution and safety for hydrocarbon maritime transport. The article then examines the possibility of a third oil shock due to a crisis in the Middle East, and discusses whether European must have strategic stocks to face an outage of oil supplies

  14. The European Union's Normative Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2011-01-01

    What is the international identity of the European Union? The end of the cold war, the Treaty on European Union, and wars in Kuwait and the former Yugoslavia all raised methodological, theoretical and empirical questions over the study of the European Union's (EU) ‘international identity'. During...... this period it became increasingly clear that the study of the EU in world politics needed to engage with both critical social theory and normative international theory. This chapter represents a return to critical social theory - a holistic research programme that works within a cosmopolitical understanding...... of normative theory; that seeks to work ‘within categories of existing thought' regarding EU external actions, radicalise them and show ‘in varying degrees both their problems and their unrecognised possibilities' (Calhoun 1995: 23)....

  15. Society as a victim of corruption: Political corruption in Serbia as an obstacle on the road to membership in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanjević Nataša

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the problem of corruption in Serbia, as a dangerous phenomenon that is usually classified as a victimless crime, although the damage it causes is enormous and its consequences affect an indefinite and large number of victims. Corruption leads to the expansion of economic inequalities, it slows down and hinders economic growth and development, destroys the legitimacy of institutions, endangers the protection of basic human rights and freedoms and undermines the fundamental values on which the society is based. Particular attention is devoted to the issue od political corruption because it is the most dangerous form of corruption and this problem has been marked by the European Commission as the biggest obstacle on the way of our country towards European integrations. It has been pointed out that the most dangerous crimes of corruption are under-detected and rarely prosecuted, which is influenced by the very fact that corruption is an essential link between the world of politics and economics and that the perpetrators of these acts are persons that are holding prominent positions in the government or an exceptional power in society, and on the other hand, the victims of these acts are all citizens of Serbia.

  16. 29 CFR 452.42 - Membership in particular branch or segment of the union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Membership in particular branch or segment of the union... § 452.42 Membership in particular branch or segment of the union. A labor organization may not limit eligibility for office to particular branches or segments of the union where such restriction has the effect...

  17. Rawls and the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamminga, Menno R.

    2014-01-01

    Renowned political philosopher John Rawls once expressed skepticism about the moral status of the European Union (EU). Yet generally EU scholars have either ignored Rawls or rather uncritically established positive links between his theory of domestic and international justice and the EU. This

  18. The integration of Poland into the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    FAUCOMPRET, Erik; KONINGS, Jozef

    2001-01-01

    Poland was among the first Eastern European countries to apply for membership of the European Union. In view of Poland’s tragic history and the economic liberalisation that has taken place since 1989, we believe that the EU should adopt a generous approach toward its application. Unfortunately it looks as if the EU wants Poland to conform with all its laws before it can join. Our research suggests that the EU should pursue an open trade, labour and investment policy. Poland’s membership will ...

  19. Legal Framework of Renewable Energy Sources in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Milto, Yuliya

    2017-01-01

    The thesis analyses the following issues: historical development of energy and renewable energy sources legislation in the European Economic Community (EEC): the role of energy crisis of 1973 – 1974 in development of renewable energy legislation; international cooperation in the field of energy and renewable energy between EEC and third countries and membership of the EEC in international energy organizations dealing with energy; the European Union renewable energy policy and legal fra...

  20. Turkey and the European Union (EU): Kemalism's Effects on the Road to the EU

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karakus, Hakan

    2005-01-01

    ..., modernization, and its more specific goal, membership in the European Union. The thesis assesses Kemalism's original effect on the state-building process before and after the War of Independence...

  1. Analysis of Logistics Differences within the European Union with Recommendations for Turkey as a Candidate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Skalak, Petr; Turk, Mehmet

    2006-01-01

    With the recent accession of new states to the European Union, the organization has become a membership of great variability despite regulations that have been implemented to standardize the systems...

  2. European Union: fears and hopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles ROUET

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This contribution analyses some data from Eurobarometer 83, spring 2015, especially to draw a map of Fears. The European Union is a divided space and one of the main consequences of the budget (financial crisis of Greece, followed by the crisis caused by the arrival of thousands of immigrants is an enhanced communication difficulty between the Western and Eastern parts of the EU But all citizens have some new rights with the European Citizenship, which are additional. One of the main issues for the future could be to change the fundamental basis of the Union, thus trying to organize a new articulation between local and supranational, with another role for States, for example to change the organisation of European elections, and to pursue the connection of public spaces with mobility.

  3. ROMANIA, THE EUROPEAN UNION AND RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion MUSCHEI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Throughout history, international relationships have always witnessed the forming of alliances, bilateral agreements, mutual treaties, conventions, partnerships or founding organizations. All these agreements have lasted as long as all the actors involved have shared a common interest, but during conflictual periods they have been reduced to simple sheets of paper. Certainly, the very same states have, again and again, been both ‘friends’ and ‘enemies’ because in international relations “nations have no permanent friends or allies, they only have permanent interests.”1 Thus, in a world of growing interdependence and continuous change, globalization will not turn this world into a flat one, nor will it bring history to an end. On the contrary, it will generate new threats and will make differences more obvious and more striking. Moreover, the events that have taken place during the last few years clearly point this out. Starting with the 2013 Summit in Vilnius, the European Neighbourhood Policy and the Eastern Partnership, in particular, have brought about major direct changes in Eastern Europe and indirect ones in Bruxelles, culminating in territorial changes in the immediate proximity of Romania. Taking into account both its significant geopolitical and geostrategic location and its membership to the European Union, Romania finds itself, as always, at a crossroads. In this context, the present paper aims at determining the role the European Union plays in Romania’s relationship with Russia.

  4. Denmark and the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Over the past two decades Morten Kelstrup’s work has been at the centre of three important intellectual innovations in political science – the study of the EU as a regional political system; European security studies; and small states in European integration. Kelstrup’s best known books (Buzan, K...... of this book, two of Kelstrup’s most important intellectual contributions come from his work on Denmark’s relations with the European Union, and his use of systems theory to understand the EU.......Over the past two decades Morten Kelstrup’s work has been at the centre of three important intellectual innovations in political science – the study of the EU as a regional political system; European security studies; and small states in European integration. Kelstrup’s best known books (Buzan...

  5. ETUDE - European Trade Union Distance Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creanor, Linda; Walker, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Describes transnational distance learning activities among European trade union educators carried out as part of the European Trade Union Distance Education (ETUDE) project, supported by the European Commission. Highlights include the context of international trade union distance education; tutor training course; tutors' experiences; and…

  6. Europeanness: A Path To Unity Within The European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piasecki Ryszard

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The postwar experience has shown that the implanting of European consciousness, or Europeanness, calls for coordinated efforts among the European institutions, national states, and NGOs. Such consciousness, a key pillar of the European integration, is necessary for the EU to effectively function and motivate member states’ − also the EU’s − citizens. And yet European institutions and EU governments show little interest in promoting the formation of this European consciousness. Pro-European social movements are weak, while anti- European ones gain strength. This désintéressement of the EU countries probably results from the conviction that the goal has been reached and that there is no more need for a widespread pro-European education of their societies. However analysis of the problem, and in particular of the interaction between European and national identities, shows that this is not the case. We fear that this lack of proactive measures mobilizing EU citizens to keep on struggling for a common Europe will lead to the erosion of existing achievements of integration within the EU, and undermine European values. It may threaten the future of the EU, which is not an ordinary integration grouping but a great peaceful, civilizational, social and economic project. Our hypothesis − positively verified in this article − is that the promotion of Europeanness in the EU societies is urgently needed to maintain the unity (and even membership of the Union, and to avert trends unfavorable for all of Europe and therefore for the West as a whole.

  7. Osteoporosis in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svedbom, A; Hernlund, E; Ivergård, M

    2013-01-01

    UNLABELLED: This report describes epidemiology, burden, and treatment of osteoporosis in each of the 27 countries of the European Union (EU27). INTRODUCTION: In 2010, 22 million women and 5.5 million men were estimated to have osteoporosis in the EU; and 3.5 million new fragility fractures were...... years lost during 2010. The costs are expected to increase by 25 % in 2025. The majority of individuals who have sustained an osteoporosis-related fracture or who are at high risk of fracture are untreated and the number of patients on treatment is declining. The aim of this report was to characterize...... the burden of osteoporosis in each of the EU27 countries in 2010 and beyond. METHODS: The data on fracture incidence and costs of fractures in the EU27 were taken from a concurrent publication in this journal (Osteoporosis in the European Union: Medical Management, Epidemiology and Economic Burden...

  8. Trade Union Channels for Influencing European Union Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengt Larsson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes what channels trade unions in Europe use when trying to influence European Union (EU policies. It compares and contrasts trade unions in different industrial relations regimes with regard to the degree to which they cooperate with different actors to influence EU policies, while also touching on the importance of sector differences and organizational resources. The study is based on survey data collected in 2010–2011 from unions affiliated with the European Trade Union Confederation and from below peak unions in 14 European countries. Results of the survey show that the ‘national route’ is generally the most important for trade unions in influencing EU policies in the sense that this channel is, on average, used to the highest degree. In addition, the survey delineates some important differences between trade unions in different industrial relations regimes with regard to the balance between the national route and different access points in the ‘Brussels route’.

  9. The European Union Clearinghouse on Operating Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escrig, D.

    2015-07-01

    In the European Union, a regional network has been established to enhance nuclear safety through improvement of the use of lessons learned from Operating Experience. This network’s hub is located at the European Commission Joint Research Centre (JRC) in Petten, the Netherlands. This organisation is known as the European Clearinghouse on Operating Experience Feedback for Nuclear Power Plants. The ‘Clearinghouse’ is comprised of dedicated staff from JRC and member states that have joined the organisation. Membership is mainly composed of nuclear safety regulatory authorities and their Technical Support Organizations within the EU region. Its Centralised Office gathers nuclear safety experts performing the following technical tasks in support to the EU Member States: “Topical Studies” providing in-depth assessment of either articularly significant events or either families of events. Trend analysis of events in order to identify priority areas.Improvement of the quality of event reports submitted by the EU Member States to the International Reporting System jointly operated by the OECD-NEA and the IAEA.Reporting every three months the main events having occurred in NPPs. Database: a European central OE repository being developed in order to ensure long term storage of OE and to facilitate information retrieval. (Author.

  10. 12 CFR 701.1 - Federal credit union chartering, field of membership modifications, and conversions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Federal credit union chartering, field of membership modifications, and conversions. 701.1 Section 701.1 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS ORGANIZATION AND OPERATION OF FEDERAL CREDIT UNIONS § 701.1...

  11. 77 FR 59137 - Chartering and Field of Membership Manual for Federal Credit Unions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ...; ] NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 701 RIN 3133-AE02 Chartering and Field of Membership Manual for Federal Credit Unions AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration (NCUA). ACTION: Proposed... Board, National Credit Union Administration, 1775 Duke Street, Alexandria, Virginia 22314-3428. Hand...

  12. Environment in the European Union 1995

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The update to the 1992 report on the state of the environment in the European Union requested by the European Commission......The update to the 1992 report on the state of the environment in the European Union requested by the European Commission...

  13. The European Union's Africa Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Gorm Rye

    2013-01-01

    -brokers. The paper puts forward the hypothesis that the Nordic countries as small states have had a considerable influence on the EU's policies towards Africa in the current century. The ‘Nordicization' is the result of the fact that the Nordics traditionally have had a high moral profile in international affairs...... including North–South and specifically Africa policies. Five separate analyses are carried out addressing the question of Nordicization and Europeanization. Based on the empirical analyses, it is not possible to confirm the hypothesis that a Nordicization of the European Union's Africa policy has taken...... place. Rather, it appears adequate to talk about convergence of policies between the Nordics and the EU and therefore, the Africa policies of both actors are basically the result of Europeanization....

  14. The European Union: Challenges and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botescu Ion

    2017-01-01

    If to all these we add the protectionist measures that the new president of the United States wishes to implement, as well as some deterioration in the European Union credibility generated by Brexit, the bureaucratic aspects that characterize the European institutions, etc., we can outline the context of the European Union, which requires a series of measures to ensure the progress of the European Union as a whole and, in particular, the effective integration of each Community country.

  15. European Union-Chinese Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Pou Serradell

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper situates the relations between the European Union (EU and China in a double framework: the general framework of UE-Asian relations, on the one hand, and the ASEM (Asia-Europe Meeting process initiated in 1996, on the other hand. Likewise, it examines EU-Chinese relations in a specific way –including the relations of the most relevant member states of the EU with China–, the latest events that have occurred in EU-Chinese relations in the new international scenario following the 2001 terrorist attacks in the United States, and the future perspectives for EU-Chinese relations.

  16. Intersectionality in European Union policymaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lombardo, Emanuela; Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    2016-01-01

    Inclusiveness of different social groups and responsiveness to the needs of increasingly diverse societies are key criteria for policy analysts to assess the quality of public policies. We argue that an intersectional approach attentive to the interaction of gender with other inequalities...... is particularly apt to deal with equality and diversity in policymaking. By analysing a selection of European Union policy documents on gender-based violence in the period 2000–2014, we attend to the question of what intersectionality can bring to policymaking in terms of strengthening inclusiveness and address...

  17. Review Article.n European Identity and Turkey’s Quest for the EU Membership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem Engin I.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the post-Single European Act period, debates around European identity have intensified, particularly in the context of EU enlargement. The EU’s move to being a supranational political entity in the past two decades has caused serious concerns in some sections of the elite and people across the EU member states. While French and Dutch rejections of the constitutional treaty set an important milestone, Turkey’s quest for the EU membership has complicated to a great extent controversies on European identity. The reviewed books here contribute to efforts to understand the extent to which European identity and Turkey’s bid for the EU membership has entangled. It is more likely to witness debates around both European identity and Turkey’s candidacy for the Union for many years to come; therefore, these books will more likely remain relevant for the academic and policy circles.

  18. Intellectual capital of the European Union 2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. Daan Andriessen; Christiaan Stam

    2009-01-01

    In 2004 the report Intellectual capital of the European Union was published (Andriessen and Stam, 2004). This report provided insight in the value of the intellectual capital of the 15 countries of the European Union, in relationship to the goals set by the European Council in March 2000. Since this

  19. 75 FR 6151 - Chartering and Field of Membership for Federal Credit Unions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 701 RIN 3133-AD65 Chartering and Field of Membership for Federal Credit Unions AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration (NCUA). ACTION: Notice of extension of comment period. SUMMARY: On...

  20. 78 FR 13460 - Chartering and Field of Membership Manual for Federal Credit Unions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 701 RIN 3133-AE02 Chartering and Field of Membership Manual for Federal Credit Unions AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration (NCUA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The NCUA Board (Board...

  1. European Union Energy Saving Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Y. Kaveshnikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses methods of energy efficiency stimulation in the European Union. The author investigates basic areas of the EU activity; in particular, the author estimates results of implementation of the Energy Star program, new provisions of labeling of energy-using products, measures to increase energy efficiency in buildings. The paper also analyzes the provisions of the Directive 2012/27 that is the first EU document, providing for a comprehensive approach to energy saving at all stages: production, transformation and consumption. Today EU policy includes: 7 a general political and regulatory framework laid down by the European action plan on energy efficiency and Directive 2012/27; 2 national action plans on energy efficiency, which should be in line with indicative targets set at the EU level; 3 special EU documents in key areas of energy efficiency (buildings, energy-consuming equipment etc.; 4 accompanying instruments, such as target funding, information dissemination, support of specialized networks. The paper gives a comprehensive analysis of the key methods of implementation of EU policy in the area of energy saving. The author concludes that EU operates within the framework of the open method of coordination. The system of mandatory/voluntary technical standards has allowed to achieve significant success, but indicative planning and monitoring of national actions are not completely effective. In the long term EU policy in the area of energy efficiency is restrained by member states unwillingness to delegate to the European Union a more detailed powers in this field and to give the EU bodies facilities to execute more strict control. In the short term - in conditions of economic crisis, the EU countries are not ready to invest significant budget funds in projects with long payback period.

  2. Pattern Persistence in European Trade Union Density: A longitudinal analysis 1950-97

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Checchi, D.; Visser, J.

    2001-01-01

    Using annual data on aggregate union membership and density in fourteen European countries, the authors examine the short-term and long-term determinants of the post-war pattern of union growth and decline in Western Europe since 1950. In an attempt to explain the observed convergence in trends and

  3. The European Union in International Financial Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niamh Moloney

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the role of the European Union in international financial governance after the institutional reforms it undertook in connection with the global financial crisis. It suggests that the new administrative actors that support the governance of the European Union's single financial market, notably the European Supervisory Authorities, have the potential to reshape how the European Union engages with international financial governance. It finds that the European Union’s effectiveness in influencing international financial governance—and the effectiveness of international financial governance more generally—is likely to strengthen as a result.

  4. Union Membership and Perceived Job Insecurity: Thirty Years of Evidence from the American General Social Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre Brochu; Louis-Philippe Morin

    2012-01-01

    Using the American General Social Survey covering the period 1978-2008, the authors investigate the link between union membership and perceived job insecurity. They find that overall, union members are 3.5 percentage points more likely than non-union members to feel insecure about their current jobs as well as future job prospects, especially during recessionary periods. This result is twice that in the manufacturing sector. By contrast, there is virtually no union effect on job insecurity in...

  5. CFC legislation in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvjetković Cvjetana M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author considers CFC legislation in the Member States of the European Union, and points to the official attitude of the institutions of the European Union toward CFC legislation. Special attention in this paper is focused on Judgment of the Court of Justice of the European Union in the case Cadbury Schweppes. The aim of the paper is to analyze CFC legislation in the Member States in order to determine its basic characteristics, as well as to determine its compatibility with freedoms guaranteed by the primary law of the European Union, i.e. with Judgment of the Court of Justice of the European Union in the Cadbury Schweppes case.

  6. The european union as subjects of law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fila R.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available At the international level it is recognized that development and progress of the new and unique international organization – European Union – is one of the appropriate form of the international organization’s integration. Although European Union was establish as international economic organization, it has gradually integrated the various “best practices” ideas from different governmental systems. Encouragement and motives for cooperation of Member states indicate that member states give more competences of government to the international organization’s institutes. Wherewith, it is observed that the economic and political internationalization has led to disappearance of integrity of territory of member states. The above mentioned opinion is not based on research of the European Union as international organization from standpoint of international law, but from standpoint of theory law – could give juridical estimate regarding executive power in European Union and who could define particular source and entity of administrative law of European Union.

  7. Vocational Training in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet BALCI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available European Union requires some standards in all areas. Today, the importance of training qualified individuals which holds an important place in the development of countries increases and certain standards are adopted creating common European Union tools in the field of vocational and technical education. In this study, vocational education and training policies system and the standards adopted by the European Union are discussed. Furthermore, this study was accepted as a European Union project in 2010 and the results obtained from the Leonardo Da Vinci Life Learning European Union project called “Web Based Basic Vocational Training” between the years 2010-2012 were presented. Since the partners of these projects are Turkey, Spain and Germany, the structure of vocational education, institutions of public and private vocational education and the diplomas and certificates entitled after these educations are included. As Turkey is on its way to become a European Union member, a number of advices are presented for Turkey to reach its destination about vocational education standards that European Union has aimed. The purpose of the study is not only to be a guide for the young who want to get professional training in the countries that are European Union members or candidates about how and where to have education opportunities but also to give a chance for trainers and training managers, participating in vocational training, so as to glimpse different practices from different countries and compare these practices between the countries of European Union and their countries. The study is also very important as it has the opportunities for training managers to see if their countries' vocational education is close enough to vocational education in European Union.

  8. International Institutions and Domestic Reform: Equal Pay and British Membership in the European Economic Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frader, Laura Levine

    2018-03-01

    Despite having been overlooked in the standard histories of the UK and the European Community, gender politics and gender policies played a significant role in Britain's applications for membership in the EEC in the 1960s. Joining the European Community required that Britain comply with Article 119 on equal pay for equal work. A combination of domestic feminist and labour movement activism, the commitment of unions and parties, and the internationalization of formal commitments to women's rights constituted internal and external pressures for the passage of an Equal Pay Act in 1970. The article argues that the formal legislative commitment to gender pay equality, changing public attitudes towards women's employment, and European membership impacted further domestic social policy reform and slowly began to shift government attitudes towards gender equality.

  9. Trade Union Membership and Earnings in Kenyan Manufacturing Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Manda , Damiano Kulundu; Bigsten, Arne; Mwabu , Germano

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyses the effect of trade unions on earnings in Kenyan manufacturing using a switching regression model, which takes into account endogeneity of union status of workers. In contrast to earlier studies of the Kenyan labour market, which indicate that the union effect on wages is negative, our results show a strong positive trade union effect. We also show that it is workers with relatively weak position in the labour market that joins the union.

  10. European Union Financial Crisis: A Marxist Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrus Kanisius Farneubun, P.

    European financial crisis poses a serious challenge to the fundamental structure of the European Union, political and financial institutions, as well as the values that bind European together. Different factors have been suggested as the causes of the crisis notably the failure of national

  11. European Union: Gender and politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žunić Natalija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Political representation is the central issue in contemporary debates on the level of democracy in political institutions and processes in the European Union. Underrepresentation of particular groups in political institutions, decision-making and policy-making processes is perceived as the problem of justice, legitimacy and effectiveness in democratic societies. In this paper, the author analyzes the gender aspects of democratic decision-making processes and political representation of women in the EU member states. The social, historical and political dimension of women's efforts to obtain and promote their civil status and political rights have been the framework for developing the principle of gender equality as one of the founding EU principles. In the past hundred years, one of the most significant trends in politics has been the expansion of formal political representation of women. Yet, even though it has been more than a hundered years since women won their political rights in the 19th and the 20th century (the right to vote and the right to be voted, gender differences in political rights are still a substantial part of debate. Today, women's political representation is still inadequate and their political capacity and power have not been exercised to a sufficient extent (or proportionally through their actual representation in parliament. In March 2012, the European Commisision published a report on gender equality in different areas of social life; the Eurobarometer survey shows that women are generally underrepresented in politics. In national parliaments, only one out of four MPs is a woman. In the European Parliament, three out of ten parliamentarians are women. The statistics shows a huge discrepancy among the EU Member States in terms of women's representation in parliament (44.7% in Sweden as contrasted to 13.3% in Romania. The prevailing view in many studies is that post-industrial democracies are deficient as they have failed

  12. European Worldviews: Ideas and the European Union in World Politics

    OpenAIRE

    VENNESSON, Pascal

    2007-01-01

    In international politics, what do the leaders of the European Union (EU) want? How do they understand international relations and how do they see the EU in world politics? The goal of this paper is to provide an introduction to the collective research on ‘European Worldviews’. This research applies first-image thinking, in particular Nathan Leites’ operational code analysis, to five key figures and office holders of the European Union: Javier Solana, Robert Cooper, Benita Ferrero-Waldner, Pe...

  13. Transgovernmental networks in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hobolth, Mogens; Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg

    2013-01-01

    The application of European Union (EU) rules is, in general, the responsibility of national executives. This key intergovernmental aspect of the EU's administrative order makes compliance with supranational law vulnerable to distortion. However, the European executive has added important fire-alarm...

  14. Sustainability Begets Unsustainability?: The European Union's Drive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mandatory target for the European Union (EU) for the use of renewable energy in transport by the year 2020 has created a situation where the African continent has witnessed a number of European agricultural firms gaining access to large tracts of land in order to grow crops for the production of agrofuels. This article ...

  15. European union. identity, diversity and integration

    OpenAIRE

    Brie, Mircea; Polgar, Istvan; Chirodea, Florentina

    2012-01-01

    This publication also contains the papers of the PhD Candidates, National School of Political and Administrative Studies, Bucharest, Romania, beneficiaries of the “Doctoral Scholarships for a Sustainable Society”, project co-financed by the European Union through the European Social Fund, Sectoral Operational Programme Human Resources Development 2007-2013. CONTENTS Mircea BRIE, István POLGÁR, Florentina CHIRODEA, Cultural Identity, Diversity and European Integration. Introductory Stu...

  16. European Union Financial Crisis: A Marxist Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Petrus Kanisius Farneubun, P.

    2016-01-01

    European financial crisis poses a serious challenge to the fundamental structure of the European Union, political and financial institutions, as well as the values that bind European together. Different factors have been suggested as the causes of the crisis notably the failure of national government and economic policies. Responding to the crisis, numerous attemps have been proposed to accelerate the recovery, but the crisis still hit Eurozone and brought serious consequences politically and...

  17. Turkey in de European Union : Implications for Agriculture, Food and Structural Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burrell, A.M.; Oskam, A.J.

    2005-01-01

    The European Union will begin accession negotiations with Turkey in October 2005. Agriculture, food and rural issues will play a major role in the negotiations, raising questions about the consequences of EU membership for Turkey's agricultural sector and rural population. This book presents a

  18. Nuclear power and European Union enlargement challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirica, T.; Bilegan, C.; Pall, S.; Sandru, P.

    2000-01-01

    In the nuclear power sector, the main concern for the candidate countries entering the European Union, remains the nuclear safety. New standards and regulation will be issued for improving the general quality of life in a sound environment. For the candidate countries entering the European Union, this situation represents a real challenge. Their national legislation must be improved to meet the European standards. The conditions are different from country to country, and more difficult for those, which operate ''non west European reactor type''. The paper also present the actual status of the Romanian legislation related to nuclear power and environment. There are presented the principles, terms and responsibilities contained in this legislation. The authors discuss some aspects related to the possibilities to improve the national legislation to meet the actual European Commission or EURATOM standards. (author)

  19. Judicial Labor Relations in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta MODIGA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The European social law represents the branch of the international labor law consisting of the regulations in this matter adopted by the Council of Europe, respectively the European Union. If the instruments elaborated within the Council of Europe are, in virtue of its objectives, limited as number, the law elaborated within the European Union, known as „community social law" knew full expansion in the latest years. In the current language, we are witnessing a confusion of terms, the collocation „European social law” being attributed either to the law created through the conventions and agreements of the Council of Europe, as „European” in title, or the law consisting of the regulations and directives of the European Union. In reality, in our opinion, both sets of regional norms, together, represent a new branch of international law, maybe insufficient grounded theoretically, the social European law. The work relations related to the European social law are not established only in the sector of production of material goods, but also in the section of nonproductive activities such as those units (economic agents, private and judicial entities, state or private, institutions, administrative authorities etc. which hire personnel for management or execution positions, in productive or nonproductive sectors (hold and exert administrative, sanitary etc. positions. The social work relations stemming from the individual labor contract have a leading position from the other typical or atypical forms, judicial work relations in the European social law and the law of the EU member states.

  20. [European Union and blood transfusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouger, P

    2003-06-01

    Blood transfusion is progressing, Europe is growing, European blood transfusion organisations are developing rapidly. The first step was the publication of a new directive (2002/98/CE). The directive is the result of a compromise between technocracy, lobbying and blood transfusion professionals. European blood transfusion must be based on medical, scientific and social criteria. Two imperatives must be considered: the respect of ethics and; independence from the commercial system. The primary objective is to give satisfaction to patients while respecting blood donors.

  1. Innovation Policy in European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta-Christina Suciu

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The innovation policies aim to analyze priority factors shaping innovative performance and to reflect the increasing appreciation of the economic and social importance of innovation. This paper is commissioned to examine topics of current interest or concern to innovation policy-makers in Europe. Based on literature and the framework of the European Action Plan for Innovation, this paper investigates different levels and fields of European innovational systems and practices.

  2. Transfer Pricing in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe MATEI

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The transfer pricing mechanism is a tool commonly used to transfer the tax base from countries with high taxation in countries with low taxation. In the European Union, this financial operations generate significant tax revenue losses. In an attempt to limit the handling of corporate tax systems, many public authorities have introduced regulations on transfer pricing, but the effectiveness of these rules has proved limited, and they contributed to the increasing complexity of tax laws and to the appearance of additional costs for companies. A solution to the solving of the transfer pricing problem in the European Union is represented by the introduction of the common consolidated corporate tax base.

  3. Old 'foundations' and new 'rules' - For an enlarged European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe C. Schmitter

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel arrangement for the distribution of votes and the rules of decision-making in an enlarged European Union (EU. We make two assumptions: (1 that the EU is condemned to enlarge its membership in the near future; and (2 if it does this without changing the existing rules for voting in the Council of Ministers and distributing seats in the European Parliament, such an expanded EU would suffer severe distortions and disequilibria. However, if it were to adopt a new, simplified system that would combine arrangements for proportional proportionality in representation and concurrent majorities in decision-making, this impending dilemma could be avoided. Moreover, if these reforms were introduced sooner rather than later, they would be easier to agree upon, their impact would be phased in gradually, and their legitimacy could be stabilized in the face of far greater challenges in the future.

  4. Federal and European Union Policy Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dosenrode, Søren

    making in European style federations in relation with the Anglo-Saxon ones. b) that the policy-process in the EU resembles that of the European style federations, and c) the Constitutional Treaty (CT) or a possible CT-light would strengthen the federal policy-making characteristics already present......By using the policy cycle approach, this paper compares the policy-process in a number of Anglo-Saxon type federations with the policy-process in continental-European style federations from within the European Union (EU) area.  The comparison would reveal: a) distinct different styles of policy...

  5. The European Union: Stability Despite Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolle Michael

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The European Union has remained stable despite all its past and current challenges. This essay explores the reasons for that. We argue that the secret behind its stability lies in its system of negotiation. Against this backdrop, we analyse two recent challenges of the European Union. First, we show how domestically bound European governments were able to bring about a stable internationally negotiated solution for what became known as euro crisis. By means of game theory we boil down why the European Union remained stable even after havoc struck. Second, we analyze the dynamics behind the failed negotiations with Ukraine that have led to the current conflict. Thereby, the role of vested interest in negotiations for stability is emphasized. We prognosticate that due to the very same vested interests that led to the failure of the negotiations, Ukraine will remain united and return to stability in the mid-term. Finally, we conclude that, despite challenges like these, the European Union never experienced a crisis in terms of system theory since it never fell short to fulfil its purpose which is to allow for peaceful cooperative solutions.

  6. Humanities in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Lasse Gøhler; Vikman, Jutta Maria; Liljenstrøm, Andreas Jan

    2017-01-01

    In the present paper, we analyze the publication strategies of researchers in the humanities, including their choices of language, publication type and co-authorship. Based on data from Denmark, we compare the publication profile of the humanities with the other major fields of science in 2012 an...... conjuncture of the European Union’s internationalization policies in the 1990s and 2000s and a change in the international scientific hierarchy during the 20th century has contributed to the universalization of English in the Danish (and European) scientific field....

  7. Past and Current Paths to European Union Accession: Romania and Turkey a Comparative Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana-Camelia Dogaru

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Several decades ago, leaders of six European countries with an inclusive vision of Europe and strong courage started a construction without precedent, the European Union. The remarkable construction evolved not only concerning the number of the Member States, but also in terms of institutional and functional development. Nowadays, the European Union is one of the most important changing factor concerning the governance and the policy-making process at European level and not only, and there is no doubt that the EU will continue to grow as an increasing number of countries express interest in membership. This paper reveals in a comparative perspective the path to European Union Accession, and is based on documentary analysis, using strategy-level documents of the countries and the Progress Reports the European Commission provided during the past enlargement.

  8. The European Union and the energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melquiot, P.

    2003-01-01

    The transportation sector is increasing continuously in Europe. As they generate about the third of the greenhouse gases emissions, the European Union decided to encourage the diesel and gasoline substitution by biofuels. Meanwhile, if the biofuels utilization reduces the greenhouse gases emissions, it is not the case of their production. The European Commission proposes then to implement some incitation measures and to promote the biofuels of second generation. (A.L.B.)

  9. The making of a European healthcare union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollaard, Hans; van de Bovenkamp, Hester M.; Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg

    2016-01-01

    that federalism offers the most fruitful way to do so because of its sensitivity to the EU’s institutional settings and to the territorial dimension of politics. The division of competences and national diversity of healthcare systems have been major obstacles for the formation of a healthcare union. However......, the EU obtained a role in healthcare through the impact of non-healthcare legislation, voluntary co-operation, court rulings, governments’ joint-decision traps, and fiscal stress of member states. The emerging European healthcare union is a system of cooperative federalism without much cost......EU involvement in healthcare policies is growing, despite the fact that national governments prefer to keep an almost exclusive say in these policies. This article explains how this shift of authority could happen and explores whether it will lead to a European healthcare union. It argues...

  10. A virtual capital for the European Union?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mamadouh, V.

    2000-01-01

    This article explores the websites of the key institutions of the European Union to consider whether these applications of the new information and communication technologies may become a functional equivalent of the national capital city in the emerging supranational political arena. Three functions

  11. Fiscal convergence in the European Union

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kočenda, Evžen; Kutan, A. M.; Yigit, T. M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 3 (2008), s. 319-330 ISSN 1062-9408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542; GA ČR(CZ) GA402/08/1376 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : fiscal convergence * European Union * fiscal discipline Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  12. The European Union: a strategic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieve Fransen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Union has developed policies and instruments that address – both directly and indirectly – sexual violence in conflict and beyond. Policy areas that are important in this respect include human rights, gender equality, development cooperation, humanitarian aid and conflict prevention.

  13. MANAGING RENEWABLE ENERGY IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZAMFIR Andreea-Ileana

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the instruments used by governments in order to support renewable energy sources in the European Union. The findings of this study reveal that policy goals could be achieved by using a large variety of instruments. The study was ca

  14. Multiple inequalities, intersectionality and the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verloo, M.M.T.

    2006-01-01

    The European Union (EU), a pioneer in gender equality policies, is moving from predominantly attending to gender inequality, towards policies that address multiple inequalities. This article argues that there are tendencies at EU level to assume an unquestioned similarity of inequalities, to fail to

  15. Taxing Tobacco in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Cnossen (Sijbren)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractTobacco taxes in the European Union are the highest in the world. These taxes are mainly rationalized as a quid pro quo for the social costs of smoking. This paper argues that the arguments are not as persuasive as is often believed. A more likely reason is that governments are addicted

  16. GOVERNING EUROPEAN UNION TO FINANCIAL STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion-Lucian CATRINA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the last four years, a significant part of the European Union members has recorded a real decline in the sustainability of their public debt. The failure of Greece, Italy, Belgium or Spain to easily find funding at previous interest rates has induced the fear that the European Monetary Union would disintegrate. Such as scenario is not realistic because does not take into account the economic interdependencies that have been created between the countries participating at the monetary zone. Nevertheless, we can say that the Stability and Growth Pact which aimed towards the coordination of national fiscal policies for ensuring the stability and prudence of the budgetary climate, has failed. This failure was primarily due to the lack of specific sanctions for those members that have not fought against the fiscal imbalances and secondly to the stopping the steps forward towards a common fiscal policy. Thus, we can say that the European Monetary Union is driven now by the wrong rule of “no taxation with representation”. For these reasons, this paper aims at showing that the European fiscal federalism is still far away from becoming reality and that the new instruments chosen for the new stability of the European Monetary Union will be the task of the Member States themselves. This paper will also review the main rules that are projected to be the source for the future European financial stability and growth: the balanced budgets and the deficits built only on the “Golden Rule” premises, for which other amendments on European Treaties are expected.

  17. LABOUR TAXATION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabau-Popa Liviu Mihai

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes an analysis, which we consider extremely useful in the current economic context, of the evolution of labour income fiscality, more precisely, the effect of the public debt growth on the tax wedge for the labour income. The share of fiscal revenues from direct taxes, indirect taxes and social contributions is relatively close in the old member states of the European Union in comparison with the new member states, which register a lower level of income from direct taxes. The low level of income from direct taxes is compensated by more significant shares of the social contributions or indirect taxes. The main motivations of cross-border migration are: a successful career in a multinational corporation, high variations of the tax rate, of the salary income between states and, last but not least, the level of the net salary. To this day, there are no plans to harmonize across the European Union the legislation regarding the taxes wages and the social security contributions. Still, the European Union had in view the coordination of the national tax systems to make sure that the employees and the employers do not pay several times the social contributions in their movement across the community space. Despite the fact that some states tax the labour income at a low level, the labour fiscality remains high in the European Union in comparison with other industrialized economies, probably also due to the fact that the majority of the member states have social market economies. The increase of the fiscality level for the labour income determines the decrease of the employment rate and the raise of the unemployement rate. The solution to guarantee a higher employment rate, which is a target of the European Union Strategy Europe 2020 could be the relaxation of the labour income fiscality by transferring the tax wedge on the labour income towards property or energy taxation.

  18. FACTORING PERSPECTIVE: CROATIA VS EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Ivanovic

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper points out the problems of liquidity, disposal and obtaining funds, inability to collect receivables, delayed payments in times of economic and financial instability and dynamic business upheavals and uncertainty. As a contribution to resolve these issues new alternative methods of financing for business are imposing, one of them is factoring. Although most countries don’t have adequate legal framework, factoring has emerged as the dominant form of financing, whose current status and development points to the prospects of development in the future. In terms of measures and actions which are taken to combat these issues, as well as legislation, many efforts are made at international level in European Union and in Croatia. Overview and description of the factoring development, and indications for further development are presented in relation to the world, the European Union and the Republic of Croatia. This paper also describes factoring comparison among European countries.

  19. RENEWABLE ENERGY STRATEGIES: WHERE EUROPEAN UNION HEADED?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADULESCU IRINA GABRIELA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The states from European Union must take advantage from renewable energy sources in order to revive the economy. Climate change creates new jobs and could reduce energy imports which would stimulate the economy of those states. The European Union should support research in the field, apply more efficient policies in energy, and create economies of scale to get an integrated European energy market in which the main actors can reduce the cost of production of renewable energy. In addition, it is possible to use the comparative advantages of the Member States and not only, like Greece, through solar energy, Southern Mediterranean, through distribution networks interconnections with EU, Russia and Ukraine, through biomass and the North Sea, through wind energy. This paper refers to the evolution and trends of the renewable energy sources and presents some scenarios of it.

  20. EUROPEAN UNION AND THE PROCESS OF GLOBALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihail CARADAICĂ

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available What is the relation between globalization and the process of European integration? Does the European integration have its own way, or is it deeply dependent on globalization? Those are the main questions I will try to answer in this paper by using an alternative critical approach: neo-gramscianism. Neo-gramscianism is a historical materialist view on the European integration process and international political economy which offers a better understanding of the social changes in terms of social forces agency and super structural influence (the neoliberal ideology of globalization and European integration. My aim is to analyze the globalization process through a neo-gramscian theoretical framework and to observe how its main components affect European Integration. I will do this by assuming the definition of globalization provided by Andreas Bieler, who understands this process through three main pillars: transnationalization of finance, transnationalization of production and ideological shift from Keynesianism to neoliberalism. Finally I will try to formulate some conclusions regarding the emergence of European Round Table of Industrialists – the first lobby group of big capital at the European Union level – and Economic and Monetary Union – the internal market program that symbolizes the shift to neo-liberalism.

  1. BANKING SUPERVISION IN EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Mihaela GUȚU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The need for prudential supervision imposed to banks by law arises from the action that banking market’s basic factors have. Therefore, it is about banks’ role in economy. The normal functioning of banks in all their important duties maintains the stability of banking system. Further, the stability of the entire economy depends on the stability of the banking system. Under conditions of imbalance regarding treasury or liquidity, banks are faced with unmanageable crisis and the consequences can be fatal. To ensure long-term stability of the banking system, supervisory regulations were constituted in order to prevent banks focusing on achieving rapidly high profits and protect the interests of depositors. Starting from this point, this paper will carry out a study on existing models of supervision in the European Union’s Member States. A comparison between them will support identifying the advantages and disadvantages of each of them.

  2. Reindustrialization Process in European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre Prisecaru

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to support the economic growth and empolyment in EU European institutions have launches ambitious initiatives for a reindustrialization process based on new technologies and green energies. The aim is to increase the share of processing industry in GDP from 15.1% in 2013 to 20% in 2020 according to the objectives of Europe 2020 Strategy and also with those of other EU strategies and common policies. The focus will be laid on innovation and research activites, on supporting/financing SMEs and their internationalization, on the integration of EU firms into global value chains, on developing green energies, bio and key enabling technologies, on smart networks and on free trade and sustainable development.

  3. A Demographic Analysis of American Geophysical Union Membership with Implications for Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, D. D.

    2006-12-01

    Demographers use population pyramids to characterize the age/gender structure of societal groups. Diagrams of the population of age cohorts for both sexes assume the shape of a pyramid in rapidly expanding groups, having many more young people than older adults. Stable populations have similar numbers of people in age cohorts from infants through middle-age adults. Shrinking populations have fewer children and relatively larger numbers of adults. Demographic analysis of the American Geophysical Union's (AGU) membership reveals significant differences among the numerous specialties and the membership as a whole. The population structure diagram of the total AGU membership is highly asymmetrical with 77.5% male and 22.5% female. Males outnumber females in every age cohort. This is most noticeable among members born prior to 1945. Males belonging to these cohorts make up 16.5% of the total membership, while female members of equivalent age include 0.8% of the total. The largest membership cohort (29% of the total) is comprised of males born between 1950 and 1964, a group that includes both the "baby boom" generation and post-war petroleum exploration expansion. In contrast, the female cohort with birth years from 1970 to 1979 is the largest grouping of women members (8.4% of AGU's membership). Furthermore, women comprise 36% of the members born since 1965, and only 14.5% of those born before 1965. Considered separately, the female membership's age structure is characteristic of a growing population, while the male side is in relative decline. The population structure of the entire membership is mirrored in some specialties, but there are remarkable differences in others. The largest specialty group (hydrology) includes 16.9% of the total AGU membership and has a population structure that differs little from that of the whole organization. Four specialties, Atmospheric Chemistry, Biogeosciences, and Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology, and Marine Geochemistry differ

  4. Who wants full membership? Characteristics of Turkish public support for EU membership

    OpenAIRE

    Çarkoğlu, Ali; Carkoglu, Ali

    2003-01-01

    Examines the basis of support and resistance to European Union (EU) membership among voters in Turkey. Issues concerning Turkey's candidacy for EU membership; Description of EU support across different constituencies of public opinion; Implications of EU membership support for EU-Turkey relations; Factors that influenced the expressed support for EU membership.

  5. Kazakh Initiatives on Cooperation with European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustem S. Kurmanguzhin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The author of this article presents initiatives of the Republic of Kazakhstan to develop cooperation with the European Union that was initiated through 2000 - 2009. In 2000 the Republic of Kazakhstan proposed to EU Comment cooperation doctrine in Central Asia. The purpose of the doctrine lied in expanding cooperation in the areas of trade, economy and investment; in granting access to commodities and services from European markets; in developing collaboration in the areas of energy, transport, communication, finance and banking. In 2006 Kazakhstan introduced a new set of prepossess to the new European Union Strategy for Central Asian 2007-2013 that was developed under the chairmanship of Germany of the EU in the first half of 2007. The Strategy covered areas of cooperation such as regional integration, economic development, democratization, energy and security. In 2008 under the instructions of the President of Kazakhstan Ministry of Foreign Affairs in cooperation with other ministries developed a state programme "Path to Europe" for 2009 - 2011, which aided the priorities of cooperation between Kazakhstan and the European Union. "Path to Europe" has become a key initiative of the Kazakh foreign policy that was successfully implemented, as well as the most important document aimed at modernization of the national economy and the Kazakh society. In the beginning of2009 using the accumulated positive experience of cooperation with the EU and experience of a number of countries in Europe and Asia, Kazakhstan devised and submitted a concept of a new treaty which was supposed to replace the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement of 1995. The Republic of Kazakhstan's influence eventually persuaded the European Union to agree on the necessity of devising the Enhanced Partnership and Cooperation Agreement.

  6. Plant varieties protection in the European Union: legal aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н. Б. Якубенко

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Reviewing the EU legislation on plant varie­ties protection including documents of the International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV that related to the national laws of its member states. Results. Based on the sources processed, the authors give a brief analysis of the basic EU Council Regulation № 2100/94 of 27 July 1994 on Community plant variety rights and regulations of the European Commission adopted to implement it. Basic copyright concepts, features of plant varieties protection in the EU, including those under the UPOV Convention, are also considered. Conclusions. For Ukraine, obtaining full membership in the EU, on the one hand, requires harmonization of its laws with the re­levant EU legislation, on the other – improvement of the present system of plant varieties protection taking into account national interests of Ukraine.

  7. Policy-making in the European Union

    CERN Document Server

    Pollack, Mark A; Young, Alasadair R

    2015-01-01

    Constantly evolving, and with far-reaching implications, European Union policy-making is of central importance to the politics of the European Union. From defining the processes, institutions and modes through which policy-making operates, the text moves on to situate individual policies within these modes, detail their content, and analyse how they are implemented, navigating policy in all its complexities. The first part of the text examines processes, institutions, and the theoretical and analytical underpinnings of policy-making, while the second part considers a wide range of policy areas, from economics to the environment, and security to the single market. Throughout the text, theoretical approaches sit side by side with the reality of key events in the EU, including enlargement, the ratification of the Lisbon Treaty, and the financial crisis and resulting euro area crisis, exploring what determines how policies are made and implemented. In the final part, the editors consider trends in EU policy-makin...

  8. Political Budget Cycles in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Gregor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides research on the theme of the political budget cycles. The goal is to find out whether or not the government tries to manipulate the state budget and its components for the purpose of re-election across the countries of the European Union. In order to verify this theory a dynamic panel data model was used. The results were significant, but only if predetermined elections were not counted into the estimations. In that case, the theory of the political budget cycles could be accepted as valid for the EU countries. The main driving force of the political budget cycles across the countries of the European Union is fluctuation of the government expenditures. During the election year, the government expenditures are higher, and a year after the election, government expenditures are lower. This is reflected into the state budget balance.

  9. Opting Out of the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    European integration continues to deepen despite major crises and attempts to take back sovereignty. A growing number of member states are reacting to a more constraining EU by negotiating opt-outs. This book provides the first in-depth account of how opt-outs work in practice. It examines the most...... controversial cases of differentiated integration: the British and Danish opt-outs from Economic and Monetary Union and European policies on borders, asylum, migration, internal security and justice. Drawing on over one hundred interviews with national representatives and EU officials, the author demonstrates...

  10. Internal Border Controls in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Carsten Willemoes; Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2012-01-01

    Recent events, involving inter alia France and Denmark, have stimulated renewed interest in the introduction of different forms of border controls at the internal borders within the European Union. These border control measures are aimed at checking either persons or goods or both. Against...... the background of these events, this article analyses the existing rules regulating controls of persons and goods, and explores how these rules may or may not stand in the way of introducing border controls at the European Union’s internal borders. These events have resulted in a call for reforms of the current...

  11. 2009 energy prices in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, the natural gas price fell down in the European Union (EU). This drop was of about -5% (excluding taxes) as an average for companies, and of about -3% for households (including taxes). On the other hand, the electricity prices raised by 3% for companies and by 5% for households. In France, only the gas price for companies has dropped between 2008 and 2009. The electricity prices remain significantly lower than the EU average: -29% for companies and -30% for households. The gas price in France remains close to the European average but is significantly lower than the average price in the euro area. (J.S.)

  12. Food and Health Inequalities in European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robertson, Aileen

    Food and Inequalities in European Union Dr. Aileen Robertson, Public Health Nutritionist at the Metropolitan University College, Copenhagen. Dr. Robertson focused on food and inequality in light of the increased prevalence of overweight and obesity in Europe. On average over 50% of Europeans......, leading to inequalities being transferred from generation to generation. Therefore “we can’t just tax “junk” food, high in fats, sugars and salt. Taxes alone just make products more expensive, whereas taxation in combination with removal of VAT e.g. on vegetables, fruits and fish will support healthier...

  13. CHANGING PERCEPTIONS OF IDENTITY IN EUROPE AND ITS EFFECTS ON TURKEY'S ACCESSION PROCESS TO THE EUROPEAN UNION

    OpenAIRE

    Özoğuz, Selin

    2015-01-01

    The current enlargement process of the European Union (EU) brought discussions on the European identity into the attention. The progression of unification has recreated perceptions of others and thus also altered the perception of the European identity itself Concerning Turkey-EU relations, the European identity shift in its self-perception changed also the outlook on Turkey and its membership procedures as a consequence. The important point of discussion that these developments lead us is, w...

  14. INDUSTRIAL POLICY IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petronela Nica

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The differences registered in the early 90s between the economy of the European Union as compared to the economies of the United States and Japan, in regards of growth rates, investment rates, R&D and innovation, international trade, etc., as well as the fast changes of the world economy determined the European Commission to issue the white paper on “Growth, Competitiveness and Employment”, underlining the meaning of the European economy’s competitiveness in the new conditions, and the legal frame for EU’s industrial policy was settled through the Treaty of Maastricht. The document was setting theobjectives, priorities and the six basic principles of the European industrial policy, in a unitary concept. In the spring of 2000, the European Council from Lisbon sets the objective of transforming the European Union in the most dynamic and competitive economy of the world, and, therefore, foresees a working agenda with specific actions going until the horizon of 2009. In December 2002, after EUs enlargement, the Commission forwards to the Council the document titled “Industrial Policy in an Enlarged Europe”, in which theindustrial development at the moment of new member states integration is analyzed, as well as the effects of EU’s enlargement over the industry, and it suggests actions for the future development of the sector. The industrial policy of the EU must offer solutions for industrial development, by answering the challenges concerning globalization, the technological and organizational changes, the increasing role of innovation and entrepreneurship, and the sustainable development taking into consideration the new socialrequirements. The development objectives set at European level cannot be reached without a tight interconnection of the industrial policy measures with those of some complementary policies, such as thecommercial policy, the single market policy, transport and energy policies, research and development policies

  15. THE COMPETITION POLICY IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitriţa Florea (Ionescu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The idea of European unity dates back to antiquity, the time when the Roman Empire alsopursued such a goal. Attempts to unify European countries have appeared constantly in history, but theirsuccessful culmination crystallized only after the Second World War.Basically, the two wars have led to the downfall of Europe and the loss of its centenary political andmilitary position. The experience of these wars has led the states to initiate a defense mechanism of peace,security and international cooperation - resulted in creating an organization of universal jurisdiction -TheLeague of Nations. However, the successor of this organization, The United Nations - was one thatmanaged thorough its collective security system represented by the Security Council, to ensure andmaintain universal / global peace until now (Stelian Scăunaş, 2005.The creation of the European Union is based on four founding treaties: The Treaty establishingThe European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC - adopted in Paris on April 18, 1951, entered into forcein 1952 - treaty concluded for a period of 50 years and that has terminated in 2002, The Treatyestablishing the European Economic Community (EEC, The Treaty establishing the European AtomicEnergy Community (EAEC or EURATOM, both signed in Rome on March 25, 1947 and entered into forcein 1958 as the Treaties of Rome, and The Treaty on the European Union, which was adopted at Maastrichton 7th of February 1992 and entered into force in 1993. To these institution treaties we can add themodifying treaties of the founding treaties, including: The Merger Treaty - adopted in Brussels on 8 April1965, entered into force in 1967; The Single European Act - signed in Luxembourg and Hague in 1986,entered into force in 1987; The Amsterdam Treaty - signed on October 2, 1997, entered into force in 1999,The Treaty of Nice - signed on February 26, 2001, entered into force in 2003, The Lisbon Treaty signed in2007 and entered into force on December 1st

  16. FOREIGN POLICY OF EUROPEAN UNION: EURASIAN AGENDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksiy KANDYUK

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available EU’s influence at so-called post-Soviet space gradually increases and becomes a significant factor of regional policy. Today we can already speak of the European Union as a full participant in the political processes occurring in the post-Soviet and broader – Eurasian area. Foreign policy of EU is evolving under impact of reasons stemming from both structural and political context and from external geopolitical trends. At the same time, challenges in the geopolitical environment in Europe today require the EU to develop new conceptual approaches helping to deal with the problems of relations with its eastern neighbours and the Russian impact. Only the development of a new Eurasian agenda could help to improve European eastern policy, consolidate the position of EU as a geopolitical actor in this region and foster Europeanization and integration of neighbour countries.

  17. The effects of membership in church-related associations and labor unions on age differences in voluntary association affiliations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, J; Cutler, S J

    2001-04-01

    When compositional differences between age groups are controlled, the bivariate, curvilinear pattern of age differences in voluntary association memberships is replaced by one in which peak membership levels occur in late middle age and remain relatively stable thereafter. We sought to determine if this adjusted pattern persists when widespread memberships in two types of associations are removed: (1) church-related organizations, in which membership increases with age but may be confounded with church membership per se; and (2) labor unions, in which membership is also widespread but may not be "voluntary." Total memberships in 14 types of associations were examined using aggregated data from 12 national surveys conducted between 1974 and 1994. The familiar curvilinear relationship at the bivariate level appears, but in the multivariate analysis, membership levels rise from ages 18-24 through 55-59 and persist close to that level through ages 85 and older. The results reaffirm that age differences in voluntary association affiliations are due to age-based compositional differences; they also show, however, that the pattern observed with controls is neither driven by membership in church-related "associations" nor altered when membership in labor unions is excluded.

  18. TURKEY’S ACCESSION TO THE EUROPEAN UNION – PRESENT OR PERSPECTIVES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Voica

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The enlargement of the European Union is a sui generis process, which involves internal preparation of the candidate countries, the European Union and accession negotiations as well. The EU enlargement process is based on the desire to create a close relationschip between the European countries in a common economic and political project. Guided by tha values of the European Union and subject to strict conditions, the enlargement proved to be one of the most effective tools for promoting political, economic and social reforms and to strengthen pceace, stability and democracy across the continent. A controversial topic in the last period is Turkey’s accession to the European Union. Turkey’s European ambitions date back to the 1963 Ankara Agreements, although it has formally submitted the membership application in 1987. Following the Helsinki European Council of 10 – 11 December 1999, accession negotiations between the EU and Romania, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovakia, Malta and Bulgaria started on 15 February 2000. Regarding the accession negotiations with Turkey, il was considered that this country does not meet, at this stage, the criteria set by the Copenhagen European Council on the rule of law, democracy and human rights. For Turkey, an Accession Partnership was adopted on 8 March 2001. Currently, Turkey is far from concluding the process of joining the European Union. However, Turkey is a state that can no longer be ignored by anyone in the world politics, being remarked by the infrastructure projects, the developed tourism, the steady economic growth and, last but not least, by the impressive military power, being the second NATO army. Given that, in the framework of the enlargement process, both the candidate states and the old members must be prepared for integration and cohabitation as well as the negative opinion on the Turkish membership of the influential states, such as Germany and France, it remains to be seen whether Turkey will

  19. SPECIALIZED COURTS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Nely Militaru

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Treaty of Lisbon entered into force on 1 December 2009, improved functioning judicial system European Union ( EU. Court of Justice of the EU has been reformed, said Treaty changing the EU courts so very name : Court of Justice of the EU, the Court referred to above, the Court of First Instance, and specialized courts, known previously, judicial panels. The paper shows the first part of his creation, composition and competence of the specialized courts, and as a manifestation of them in the second part examines the Civil Service Tribunal, the same point of view. EU specialized courts may be set up in specific areas, specializing in some technical disputes. These specialized courts have jurisdiction to hear and decide the cases in the first instance with the possibility that their decision subject to appeal to the General Court . In this context, to resolve disputes between the Union and its officials was established Tribunal.

  20. A Federal Constitution for the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sweeney, Richard J.

    2003-01-01

    that the federal government loses legitimacy. It appears vital tohave trade policy at the European Union level; for euro countries, monetary policy is alreadyfederalized. It is not clear that common foreign and defense policies are needed; insisting oncommon foreign and defense policies may lead to conflicts...... within and across member statesthat severely weaken the Union, conceivably contributing to eventual collapse. Insisting onharmonization of commercial codes does not have the destructive potential of attemptingcompletely to harmonize defense and foreign policies; it may, however, lead to needlessconflict......A constitution is more likely to be accepted if it federalizes those issues that arewidely seen as needing complete harmonization. A constitution is more likely to endure if thefederal government does not have powers that are not vital to it but which may alienate somemember states to the point...

  1. Emerging Administrations under European Union Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Berceanu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The idea of emergence is generally used to indicate the appearance of patterns, structures, orproperties that cannot be adequately explained by referring only to the system’s pre-existing componentsand their interactions. The term “emergence” has an interdisciplinary approach specific to administrativesciences, too. In this article, the concept of “emergence” signifies lato sensu a kind of change and it will beused to refer to countries that have a high volatility and that are in transition and to define the changes thatsuffer the public administrations of the countries which are part of the European construction. EuropeanUnion through its policies and legislation has a great impact on economic and social conditions in MemberStates. The aim of the paper is to present a theoretical approach on the dimension of emergingadministrations understood as changes and reforms that suffer the institutions from the EU member statesunder the pressure of the European Union rules. The study is using the concept of emergence to researchand to analyze the nature of the changes in the public administration starting from the approach of thesystems theory.

  2. Political public relations in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the state of political public relations in the European Union by specifically focusing on reputation management and relationship management. Its arguments are based on a theoretical review of the literature of political public relations, reputation and relationship management......, and EU communication. The article suggests an in-depth examination of the nature of some of the EU’s major problems in political public relations, and contributes to a more nuanced understanding of the possibilities and limitations of applying reputation and relationship management constructs...

  3. The projections of the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Allocco, Vittorino

    1997-01-01

    El representante de la Unión Europea en nuestro país nos describe la estructura y el funcionamiento de las instituciones comunitarias y la proyección de la Unión Europea hacia el exterior. Haciendo especial referencia a los nuevos desafíos que se le presentan a los países latinoamericanos, en particular a las relaciones entre la U.E y el Mercosur. Finalmente se detallan, en un anexo, las relaciones institucionales con Argentina. The European Union delegate in our countr...

  4. Energy corridors European Union and Neighbouring countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Oostvoorn, F.; Hafner, Manfred; Vailati, Ricardo; Wietschel, Martin

    2007-08-01

    The ENCOURAGED (Energy corridor optimisation for European markets of gas, electricity and hydrogen) project has been launched in beginning 2005 to identify and assess the economically optimal energy corridors between European Union (EU) and neighbouring countries. The objectives of the project are to: Assess the economic optimal energy (electricity, gas and hydrogen) corridors and related network infrastructure for connecting the EU with its neighbouring countries and regions; Identify, quantify and evaluate the barriers to and potential benefits of building optimal energy corridors connecting the EU with its neighbours; Propose necessary policy measures to implement the recommended energy corridors with a focus on investment and the geopolitical framework; Organise stakeholder workshops and seminars to discuss the results and findings and reach consensus among scientists, stakeholders and non-governmental organizations and validate project results

  5. Energy Sector trends in European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayral, M.

    1995-01-01

    The future of the economic and social development of the European Community depends to a great extent on the decisions taken from now on as regards energy. Its influence in current life, at all levels, justifies the general interest. Although there is still a lack of concertation between Member States in the decision making process on energy policy, three common objectives have been defined whose realisation affects everyone and needs thus a close cooperation between all parties involved. These objectives are: the global competitiveness of the Community economy, the security of supply and the protection of the environment. These objectives should be achieved within the context of the European Union single market, for which it is necessary to finalize the realisation of the internal energy market essentially in the gas and electricity sectors, considering that a greater openness exists already in the oil and coal sectors. (Author)

  6. European Union's environmental strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitoussi, Jean-Paul; Laurent, Eloi; Le Cacheux, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    Environmental policy is an art of execution. Hence the fact that European Union member states have recently managed to agree on targets of emissions to fight climate change leaves open the question of how they will meet them. Economics cannot but embrace the scientific consensus on climate change and cannot say much about the efficiency of alternative technologies. Yet, its expertise is valuable to calculate economic effects and fairness of policies and to assess the relevance of incentives structures and effectiveness of institutions put into place to convert scientific consensus into action. This article is concerned with this latter point: does the EU have the right institutions to fight climate change? We claim that such is not the case, and offer to institute a 'European Community of Environment, Energy and Research' to go forward. Initially published in 'Revue de l'OFCE' No. 102

  7. Research Methods in European Union Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Kennet; Manners, Ian; Löfgren, Karl

    Research on the European Union over the past few years has been strongly implicated in the crises that currently grip Europe with a failure to ask the pertinent questions as well as a perceived weakness in the methods and evidence used by researchers providing the basis for these allegations...... of the importance of research strategies, designs and methods. The 20 chapters in this collection range from micro-level analyses of identities, single policy studies and European discourse, through meso-level analysis of agenda setting, bargaining, implementation and Europeanisation, to macro-level analyses....... This volume moves the study of EU research strategies beyond the dichotomies of the past towards a new agenda for research on Europe through a rich diversity of problem-solving based research. This new agenda acknowledges the weaknesses of the past and moves beyond them towards greater openness and awareness...

  8. Politics and Policies of Promoting Multilingualism in the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaine, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the politics of policies promoting multilingualism in the European Union (EU), specifically in light of the recently released European Union Civil Society Platform on Multilingualism. As the most far-reaching and ambitious policy document issued by the European Commission, the Platform warrants close scrutiny at a significant…

  9. Organization and regulation of energy markets in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, J.

    2002-01-01

    The energy regulation policy and the organization of power matters in the European Union as well as the energy markets are discussed in this Keynote Paper. The Council of European Energy Regulators is introduced. The goal of the European Union regarding energy generation and consumption in the future are analyzed. (R.P.)

  10. Changes in the Demographic Characteristics of the American Geophysical Union Membership, 2006-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, D. D.

    2010-12-01

    Significant change occurred in the demographic properties of the American Geophysical Union membership during the period April 2006- January 2010. During this period AGU membership decreased from 48,332 to 38,847, a drop of 19.6%. Most of the change appears to have been driven by the aging membership of the Union, especially in the United States, and the effects of the global economic crisis on employment in all sectors of economy. Of the 38,847 members in January 2010, data on the birth year and gender were available for 33,610 members including 21,567 who reside in the United States. These data were compared to a similar data set captured in April 2006. The following observations are based on this subset of the total AGU membership for who country of residence and both age and gender are known. The number of AGU members residing in the United States decreased by 18.6% during the study period. As should be expected, the changes were not spread evenly between the genders or across birth-year cohorts. Membership among males decreased by 19%, while there were 17% fewer female members. The female cohorts that experienced the greatest losses were those including women from 30-40 years old (born 1970-1979). These data appear to echo multiple studies that show women leaving the sciences for gender-specific reasons. For the purposes of this analysis, the birth-year cohorts are divided into three groups. Members born prior to 1945 compose the oldest cohort. The Baby-Boom generation includes members born between 1945 and 1964. The youngest group includes members born from 1965 onward. Because of the very small number of women in the oldest group (only 4.7%) most of the change occurred among males. The total membership loss from this group was 1,140 members, 23% of the total. The largest change occurred among Baby Boomers. The group decreased by 2,760 members, accounting for 56% of the total decline in membership among US residents. Males accounted for most of the change (2

  11. Making public offers in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Florentina Vasile (Epure

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available If a couple of decades ago, the external capital of the European corporations was obtained almost entirely by bank loans, in the present, the situation changed and the finance obtained by issuance of securities is more important. The most significant increase took place on the stock exchange where, in the last few years, the average annual increase of the volume of transactions was major. In these conditions, the problem of creating a standard framework and, consequently, more efficient at the level of the European Union became more stringent because it facilitates for the European corporations the access to the capital with lower costs. The European Commission regulated through some Directives the access to the capital markets and through the MiFiD Directive, major changes were brought with regards to the whole image of the financial markets. It is difficult to estimate accurately the impact that it will be brought by these changes. Maybe the "Bing Bang" notion, used already by part of the analysts, it is not the most suited, but surely the MiFiD Directive will form the catalytic agent of the significant changes of the markets.

  12. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. The European Union aims to achieve a 20% share (with legally binding national targets) of its final energy consumption from RES by 2020, and at least a 27% share (not broken down into nationally binding targets) by 2030. Key instruments at EU level to promote RES include directives, such as the 2009 Renewable Energy Directive. The EU Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) is also intended to support RES. The European Commission has also adopted state aid guidelines to ensure that support schemes to promote RES at national level are compatible with EU competition law and internal market rules. Further instruments are research, development and innovation funding programmes, such as Horizon2020, the Innovation Fund, and the NER300 programme. RES are also supported through regional development funds as well as through grants and loans for RES projects and related infrastructure from the European Investment Bank (EIB) and the European Fund for Strategic Investments (EFSI). A recast directive on the promotion of RES in the period 2020- 2030 is to be adopted along with governance rules to ensure that the EU-wide RES target for 2030 is met

  13. Membership

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Join the Staff Association now for 2017, the remaining quarter of 2016 is free! The membership fee of the Staff Association is free for everyone joining during the last quarter of 2016. Take this opportunity to become a member of the SA. You can also enjoy our offers and partnerships, especially as we approach the holiday season. As a reminder, the membership fee is: 0.2 % of the annual basic salary for staff members with an indefinite contract (IC); the amount will be automatically charged on the salary of January; 50.00 CHF for staff members with a limited duration contract (LD), fellows and associated members of personnel.   Don’t wait any longer, join the Staff Association. We represent and defend all of you! More information on http://staff-association.web.cern.ch/

  14. Membership

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Join the Staff Association now for 2017, the remaining quarter of 2016 is free! The membership fee of the Staff Association is free for everyone joining during the last quarter of 2016. Take this opportunity to become a member of the SA. You can also enjoy our offers and partnerships, especially as we approach the holiday season. As a reminder, the membership fee is: 0.2 % of the annual basic salary for staff members with an indefinite contract (IC); the amount will be automatically; 50.00 CHF for staff members with a limited duration contract (LD), fellows and associated members of personnel.   Don’t wait any longer, join the Staff Association that represents all of you! More information on http://staff-association.web.cern.ch/

  15. Democracy and Governance in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Jachtenfuchs

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available It is generally believed that internationalization undermines governance and democracy. This phenomenon has two dimensions. On the one hand, it is a real process which has to be understood. On the other hand, it constitutes a challenge for a number of concepts and theories in the social sciences as well as in law. These concepts and theories are often implicitly based on the idea of a sovereign nation-state. In consequence, it is difficult to conceptualize even the possibility of the transformation of the state as a result of internationalization. This general problematique is most strongly visible in the European Union which over time has developed into a political system of a new type. This system has enormous consequences on democracy and governance in its member states. The first part of the paper presents a view on the EU's political system which does not preclude the possibility of a fundamental transformation of governance and democracy in the EU by the choice of its basic concepts. The second part presents those features of the EU's political system which are most important for the future of democracy and governance. They are uneven Europeanization, permanent institutional change and new patterns of legitimation. The third part discusses two models of the European Union which might be the result of these processes. They represent two different mixtures of the institutionalization of governance and democracy. Both seem to be at least potentially stable forms of political organization but none of them can be reduced to the traditional forms of'state' and 'international organization'. The final part contains an assessment of the prospective development of the EU in the light of the central features of the EU and the system models discussed in the two previous section.

  16. THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT’S ROLE IN THE EUROPEAN UNION. IS THERE A REAL PARLIAMENTARY DEMOCRACY IN THE EUROPEAN UNION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TESCAŞIU BIANCA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available During its evolution, European Union had been trying to be representative for all its citizens. That is whyit tried to create an institutional system capable of responding to all the European Union’s objectives. One of themajor problem of the European governance is to assure that the Europe’s population is well represented in thissystem, knowing the fact that European Union is a democratic structure, created on the democraticalsystems’principles. How this objectives fulfield in its evolution? How important is the European Parliament in theeuropean decisional system? Is the population „powerful” enough to be involved in this system? These are someideas concerning the Community’s debates themes during our days. This article tries to point the stages that theEuropean Parliament had passed on its way of increasing its importance in the decisional system, concluding at theend how the parliamentary democracy should work in Europe.

  17. Winston Churchill And The European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troitiño David Ramiro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Given Winston Churchill’s influence and achievement as a writer, historian, adventurer, soldier, artist, and politician, his participation in the European integration process is crucial to understanding the entire scope of the project in its origins. Churchill was a fundamental voice promoting the Franco-British Union, a promoter of the European Communities, and an active participant of the Congress of Europe, embryo of the Council of Europe. This article analyzes Churchill’s view of European integration through his political speeches, in particular those delivered in Zurich and in The Hague, his ideas about the League of Nations and the United Nations, his understanding of the British Empire, and the special relations between the UK and the USA. His participation in the process of uniting Europe in its early stages provides us with essential information about the original plans for the creation of a united Europe and understanding the traditional British approach to the EU, including the current position of the conservative government led by Cameron.

  18. Turkey Entering the European Union Through the Balkan Doors: in the Style of a Great Power?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedrudin Brljavac

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Confronting an increasing EU opposition from a number of influential member states to its membership the AKP government adopted a multilateral approach to its foreign policy making resulting in dynamic economic and diplomatic policies with the countries from Asia, Africa, Latin America, and the Balkans region. In this article we analyzed the effects and consequences of a paradigmatic shift in Turkish foreign policy in the Western Balkans in relation to the country's EU membership prospects. Through its pro-active economic and diplomatic initiatives in the region Turkey has been proving itself as indispensable country for the European Union membership. Thus, if the Turkish government concentrates more on solving its internal problems and continues its pro-active diplomacy in Western Balkans, among other regions, it could become not only a regional but also a global power.

  19. DEBATE ON ROMANIA INTEGRATION IN EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana M. SÎRBU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the current state of Romanian integration into the European Union through the analysis of statistical data related to the absorption way of structural and cohesion funds available in 2007-2013 (absorption indicators and economic competitiveness indicators: Gross Domestic Product, employment rate, unemployment, population. In addition there are analyzed the structural and cohesion funds available for Romania in 2014-2020, for each category of available operational program and also the measures that must be implemented for Romania to adapt in a performance way to Europe 2020. The analysis results are considered as prerequisites for the development of an underlying model of investment decisions in the integrated sustainable development of Romania.

  20. DIRECT TAXATION IN ROMANIA AND EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela DOBROTĂ

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Taxation is a historical result of the social, political and economic environment in a state. At the same time, the development of a state depends a lot on the history of its own tax system, on the way it is conceived and operates. The establishment of budgetary incomes has to be made in accordance with the requirements related to yield, efficacy, equity. The plurality of these tasks as well as political, economical, administrative constraints have materialized in the application of a gradual reform in Romania after passing to market economy. Its application has not always had the foreseen effects, repeated legislative alterations leading to investors’ discouraging and to difficult enforcement of the legislation at the level of economic agents and fiscal bodies. The paper presents aspects of direct taxation on the economic environment from Romania as well as comparisons with the state of the European Union.

  1. DIRECT TAXATION IN ROMANIA AND EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela DOBROTĂ

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Taxation is a historical result of the social, political and economic environment in a state. At the same time, the development of a state depends a lot on the history of its own tax system, on the way it is conceived and operates. The establishment of budgetary incomes has to be made in accordance with the requirements related to yield, efficacy, equity. The plurality of these tasks as well as political, economical, administrative constraints have materialized in the application of a gradual reform in Romania after passing to market economy. Its application has not always had the foreseen effects, repeated legislative alterations leading to investors’ discouraging and to difficult enforcement of the legislation at the level of economic agents and fiscal bodies. The paper presents aspects of direct taxation on the economic environment from Romania as well as comparisons with the state of the European Union.

  2. Framing Gender Intersections in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lombardo, Emanuela; Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the extent to which the emergence of an antidiscrimination policy in the European Union (EU) implies a shift in EU gender equality policies towards an intersectional approach. The frame analysis of EU gender equality policy documents shows that intersectional dimensions...... are increasingly present but they are treated implicitly and from a separate perspective, and the inclusion of a wide range of inequalities often implies a degendering of the policy content. We assess the implications of the identified intersectionality trends for the quality of intersectionality in gender...... equality policies, and we suggest the practice of an “intersectionality impact assessment” as a way to improve the quality of EU policy-making....

  3. Introduction: health technology assessment and the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta, D; Oortwijn, W

    2000-01-01

    Health technology assessment (HTA) has become increasingly important in the European Union as an aid to decision making. As agencies and programs have been established, there is increasing attention to coordination of HTA at the European level, especially considering the growing role of the European Union in public health in Europe. This series of papers describes and analyzes the situation with regard to HTA in the 15 members of the European Union, plus Switzerland. The final paper draws some conclusions, especially concerning the future involvement of the European Commission in HTA.

  4. THE INTERFERENCE OF EUROPEAN UNION LAW WITH PUBLIC INTERNATIONAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROXANA-MARIANA POPESCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The European Union Law is an unique legal phenomenon developed in the process of European integration within the framework of the European Communities and the European Union; a result of the implementation of the supranational authority of the European institutions. The European Union law is a specific legal system having independent sources and principles that developed at the border-line of international law and domestic law of the EU’s Member States. The authonomy of the European Union law is affirmed by a case-law of the Court of Justice of the European Union.The European Union has its own legal order which is separate from international law and forms an integral part of the legal systems of the Member States. The legal order of the Union is founded on various different sources of law. The different nature of these sources has imposed a hierarchy among them. At the pinnacle of this hierarchy we find primary law, represented by the Treaties and general legal principles, followed by international treaties concluded by the Union and secondary law founded on the Treaties.

  5. Laboratory medicine in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterhuis, Wytze P; Zerah, Simone

    2015-01-01

    The profession of laboratory medicine differs between countries within the European Union (EU) in many respects. The objective of professional organizations of the promotion of mutual recognition of specialists within the EU is closely related to the free movement of people. This policy translates to equivalence of standards and harmonization of the training curriculum. The aim of the present study is the description of the organization and practice of laboratory medicine within the countries that constitute the EU. A questionnaire covering many aspects of the profession was sent to delegates of the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM) and Union Européenne de Médecins Spécialistes (UEMS) of the 28 EU countries. Results were sent to the delegates for confirmation. Many differences between countries were identified: predominantly medical or scientific professionals; a broad or limited professional field of interest; inclusion of patient treatment; formal or absent recognition; a regulated or absent formal training program; general or minor application of a quality system based on ISO Norms. The harmonization of the postgraduate training of both clinical chemists and of laboratory physicians has been a goal for many years. Differences in the organization of the laboratory professions still exist in the respective countries which all have a long historical development with their own rationality. It is an important challenge to harmonize our profession, and difficult choices will need to be made. Recent developments with respect to the directive on Recognition of Professional Qualifications call for new initiatives to harmonize laboratory medicine both across national borders, and across the borders of scientific and medical professions.

  6. European Union Legal Methods - Moving Away From Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eckes, C.; Neergaard, U.; Nielsen, R.

    2013-01-01

    Notwithstanding the permanent state of crises of the European Union (EU or Union) in the past seven years, EU law continues to govern the legal relationships of individuals and Member States in ever more areas. Union law is self-reinforcing in the sense that it is constructed to increase in scope

  7. Un-National Normative Justification for European Union Foreign Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2011-01-01

    The European Union's foreign policy has traditionally been described in terms of national, supranational or transnational interests rather than being justified in terms of normative political theory. As European Commissioner Bonino declared over a decade ago, such differentiation between descript......The European Union's foreign policy has traditionally been described in terms of national, supranational or transnational interests rather than being justified in terms of normative political theory. As European Commissioner Bonino declared over a decade ago, such differentiation between...

  8. Getting to grips with European Union Foreign Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Blair, Alasdair

    2003-01-01

    What exactly is European Union foreign policy? For much of the last decade, EU foreign policy has often been regarded as being synonymous with the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) that was set out in the 1993 Maastricht Treaty on European Union. This policy was shaped by three dominant factors: first, the ending of the Cold War; second, the parallel reassessment of European security structures; and third, a realisation that despite the relative successes of European Political Coope...

  9. Regulatory Regionalism and Education: The European Union in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the purchase which Jayasuriya's regulatory regionalism approach offers for an analysis of the European Union's engagement in Central Asia. The European Union has a clearly articulated strategy through which to pursue what it sees as its interests in Central Asia and the development of a range of EU-Central Asia education…

  10. Information Guide: regionalism and separatism in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    EDC, Cardiff

    2013-01-01

    A brief bibliography of information sources about current issues of regionalism and separatism in the European Union with a particular focus on Catalonia, Flanders and Scotland. This guide was compiled in connection with the event Regionalism and Separatism in the European Union held in the Cardiff EDC on 21 February 2013.

  11. Photovoltaic remuneration policies in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarasa-Maestro, Carlos J.; Dufo-López, Rodolfo; Bernal-Agustín, José L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the development of photovoltaic (PV) systems in some countries of the European Union (EU). We establish the stage of development of each country, their short- and long-term degree of compliance and the trends of international investors favouring one market or another. EU countries employ four major types of programs to encourage PV use: (1) feed in tariffs (FIT), (2) green certificates with a quota system, (3) investment and tax incentives, and (4) bids on the quota system. The FIT is the most widely used program to create incentives for the use of PV systems. During the past two years, PV tariffs have been reduced in many European countries. Investments in PV are still attractive, in some cases even overly generous with respect to the financial landscape in the world. This paper shows, for each country, the type of incentive and the trends in and forecast for installed capacity and calculates the internal rate of return (IRR) for investment in grid-connected PV systems. - Highlights: ► This work shows the EU positioning on development of photovoltaic (PV) systems. ► The installed power and the internal rate of return have been used as reference. ► The existing programs in relation to pay and incentives have been reviewed

  12. POSSIBLE TRADE EFFECTS OF THE NEXT EUROPEAN UNION ENLARGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedelescu-Ionescu Daniela

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The European Union next enlargement will constitute a significant qualitative change in the structure of the current Union, as the accession of the Western Balkan countries and of Turkey in particular will bring a brand new set of economic problems. It is expected that this enlargement to have a considerable effect for the new entrants, as well as for the European Union as a whole.\\r\

  13. Affordability of medicines in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaprutko, Tomasz; Kopciuch, Dorota; Kus, Krzysztof; Merks, Piotr; Nowicka, Monika; Augustyniak, Izabela; Nowakowska, Elżbieta

    2017-01-01

    Medications and their prices are key issues for healthcare. Although access to medicines at affordable prices had been specified as a key objective of the European Health Policy, it seems that these goals have not been achieved. Therefore, we attempted an evaluation of affordability of selected medicines at full prices. The analysis concerned 2012 and was conducted between 2013 and 2015 in all the European Union (EU) countries divided into 3 groups depending on the date of their accession to the EU. Finally, we considered 9 originators used in the treatment of schizophrenia and multiple sclerosis. Information on drug prices were collected from pharmacies. Participation in the study was voluntary and anonymous in order to avoid accusations of advertising. To evaluate affordability, several factors were used (e.g. minimum earnings and Gini coefficient). Due to unavailability in some countries, the exact number of analyzed medicines varies. Drug prices vary significantly between EU Member States. Almost eleven fold difference was observed between Germany (EUR 1451.17) and Croatia (EUR 132.77) in relation to Interferone beta-1a 22 μg. Generally, prices were the highest in Germany. The cheapest drugs were found in various countries but never in the poorest ones like Bulgaria or Romania. Discrepancies in wages were observed too (the smallest minimum wage was EUR 138.00 in Bulgaria and the highest EUR 1801.00 in Luxembourg). Full price of olanzapine 5mg, however, was higher in Bulgaria (EUR 64.53) than, for instance, in Belgium (EUR 37.26). Analyzed medications are still unaffordable for many citizens of the EU. Besides, access to medicines is also impaired e.g. due to parallel trade. Unaffordability of medications may lead to the patients' non-compliance and therefore to increased direct and indirect costs of treatment. Common European solutions are needed to achieve a real affordability and accessibility of medications.

  14. Aspects concerning counterfeiting and piracy in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabor, S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The global problem of counterfeiting and piracy has increased in European Union though there are special laws defending Intellectual Properties Rights. The aim of this paper is to point out the aspects on the topic of counterfeiting and piracy inside the European Union Single Market. Analysing the information gathered, we can conclude that there are evident facts of growing and increasingly dangerous phenomena in the European Union, with significant impact on the economic and social sectors. European Commission is the one that identifies strategies and effective practices to help rightful owners protect their Intellectual Property Rights.

  15. Western Balkan States and the European Union Enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelina Maliqi (Ramolli

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available For half a century, European Union-(EU has pursued ever-deeper integration while taking in new members. It’s marked as an important step in relationship deepening between EU and Western Balkans-(WBs where Albania is part of. In 2003, EU declared that the future of WBs is within EU. Initially it adopted a generous strategy that linked the timetable for accession to the pace of reform in WBs. The declaration contained a conditional promise; EU would consider WBs for membership only if they reached EU standards. The EU was motivated by usual economic considerations connected to enlargement and a desire to increase regional stability. The enlargement process regarding Albania will bring several reforms on different fields. Our country will benefit from a share of multibeneficiary funds for competitiveness, SMEs, energy efficiency and banking sector regulation. This presentation handles out these main issues: EU policy and the enlargement process regarding Albania inspecting the way and progress done up to now by our country, the main features of our national EUcoordination system, concluding in a SWOT Analysis of EU-coordination system in Albania. Eventually, I believe that Albania being part of WBs is at one time an opportunity and a challenge for the future of EU.

  16. Too Few Indians and Too Many Chiefs. Is This One Reason for Declining Trade Union Membership in Denmark?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Voxted

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The decline in trade union membership in many countries since the 1970s and the consequent weakening of the trade unions is due to a number of reasons, including occupational changes, welfare state and social regulation, liberalism and individualization, and in Denmark (and Sweden and Finland changes in unemployment insurance legislation and the institutional settings of the unemployment insurance system. All these factors are well known and have been analyzed in the literature. This article sums up all these facts and reasons for trade union decline in Denmark, but the main analysis focuses on a supplementary reason for membership decline among LO (the Danish Confederation of Trade Unions-affiliated unions: many trade union members leave their unions to become members of unions that organize managers. When workers become managers, some prefer to join an organization expert in servicing managerial staff, while others leave their trade unions because they define themselves as managers without being formally appointed as such and without having formal managerial responsibilities. Reasons for this behavior will be discussed in the article.

  17. ROMANIA’S ECONOMY AFTER THE EUROPEAN UNION ACCESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VADASAN Ioana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available If, during the communism, Romania had an unusual position at the European level, after 1989 it had a different path, in comparison with other former communist states: the country had the harshest difficulties finding its European path, then it had the most important economic growth rate; in the same time, it has been the candidate state facing many economic and social issues, which have worsened during the crisis. In this paper, the authors present the evolution of the Romanian economy, by analyzing representative economic indicators, the dynamics of the national economy, after its accession to the European Union (EU. It is obvious that the country’s evolution has been influenced by the decisions taken and implemented during the pre-accession period. At first sight, it is very difficult to economically separate the two periods of time. However, one can notice that, after the beginning of negotiations (February 2000, Romania’s economic policies have been implemented in a more sustained rhythm, due to the surveillance coming from the European authorities. After seven years of economic growth, which contributed to a partial catching-up with the European average, Romania became member of the EU, having a precarious economic and social situation. Under those circumstances, it would have been normal to continue to implement economic reform policies. Unfortunately, the determination of national authorities has sharply diminished after 2007. The first years of Romania’s membership have been characterized by important rates of economic growth, due, among other factors, to favourable international circumstances. This contributed to an increased trust on the part of Romania’s population and government in the national economy (even too optimistic. This, together with the fact that Romania had an unhealthy economic growth, contributed, after the outbreak of the crisis, to some powerful shocks for the population and for the economy as a whole (a

  18. European Monetary Union: Institutional Structure and Economic Performance.

    OpenAIRE

    Currie, David

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines what economics can say about a regime shift from the exchange rate mechanism to European monetary union. The primary issues concern the credibility of monetary and fiscal policy; the institutional structures that best underpin that credibility; and how agents will learn to adopt to these new structures. The consequences of European monetary union are shown to depend on the decision-making structure and degree of independence of a European central bank, and the precise inst...

  19. European Citizenship and European Union Expansion: Perspectives on Europeanness and Citizenship Education from Britain and Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Chris; Busher, Hugh; Lawson, Tony; Acun, Ismail; Goz, Nur Leman

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses some perspectives on citizenship education in Turkey and Britain in the context of current contested discourses on the nature of European identity and of the European Union (EU). It is based on data collected during an EU-funded student teacher exchange programme between three universities in Turkey and Leicester University…

  20. The Impact of European Economic Integration on Migration in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simionescu Mihaela

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The recent enlargement of the EU (since 2004 and the United Kingdom's decision to leave the European Union have prompted a growing research interest in the political and academic environment because of the causes and consequences of migration between the CEE countries and those in the Western Europe. In this study, the effects of European economic integration on the number of EU-15 immigrants from the newly integrated EU countries were assessed by econometric techniques. According to panel data models, in the period 2000-2015, the number of migrants from the new member states of the EU has increased, in average, with more than 2200 people only due to their EU membership. This result reflects the positive impact of European economic integration on the number of emigrants from the CEE countries that chose the EU-15 states as destination countries. Moreover, according to some ridge Bayesian regressions, during the period 2004-2015, the EU-15 immigrants coming from the EU-13 states did not negatively affect the economic growth of the EU-15 countries.

  1. IEA energy policies review: the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-09-04

    For the first time, the IEA has reviewed the energy policies of the European Union which shape the energy use of almost 500 million citizens in 27 EU member countries. A unique entity governed under complex and almost constantly evolving structures, the EU constitutes a challenge for energy policy makers. Its energy policy has a global impact, not only because of its 16% share of world energy demand, but also because of the EU leadership in addressing climate change. Strong policy drives are underway in the EU to achieve the completion of the internal energy market, increase renewable energy supply, reduce CO2 emissions and make the EU more energy-efficient. Concerns about security of supply have also led to a greater focus on improved energy relations with supplier countries, and new institutional structures are being put in place. How much progress has been made in the field of security, internal market and external energy policies? And in which of these areas has the EU already implemented a fully integrated policy? This publication addresses these questions and also analyses the impact of the most recent major EU policy measures, in particular the Energy and Climate Package of January 2008 and the 3rd Liberalisation Package of September 2007. This book finds that both of these proposals are highly ambitious. But implementing them and reviewing both volume and allocation of energy R and D will be necessary to achieve a sustainable energy future in a fully competitive integrated EU energy market.

  2. THE IMPACTOF THEMAFIAINITALIANECONOMYIN CRISISOF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Mancini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the extent of the financial activity of the Italian Mafia in the economy following the 2008 financial crisis. And pointed out as very relevant in support of the financial flows of the country and its trade relations with Europe.The expansion of financial activity mafia accompanies the integration of markets, with the possibilities of creating companies in sectors with high profitability enough to justify moving the capital. The paper presents empirical evidence of the impact of the mafia in economic variables. The results will be compared and in dialogue with the literature on organized crime and its economic effects. In the European Union, Member States are faced with the additional challenge of analyzing the issue from the perspective of which core values are being put at risk by crime, and if these values are the sum of the values of the members, or the EU represents a set unique values. Themes, from which are questioned failures of public institutions that contribute to the support and expansion of organized crime.

  3. Transitional Democracy, Legitimacy and the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Kaplánová

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the ongoing global crisis has triggered an issue how to set up a theoretical framework of global governance. The integration to a supranational level of governance has been a contemporary process of democratization in recent decades. To analyze the institutionalization of global governance means to recognize a normative idea of democracy. The theory of international relations demonstrates that there are four normative models of democracy at the supranational level of governance. In my opinion, a crucial difference of the institutionalization is a concept of legitimacy of global democratic regime. Because of a divided understanding of legitimacy at the transnational level of governance is difficult to find a consensus in which way should be a transnational democracy framed. A dual legitimacy in a supranational organization like the European Union also triggers a specific democratic deficit. My point of view corresponds with the division of transnational orders in normative way and its correspondence to legitimacy. Cla rifying the duality of legitimacy can help us not only to solve all globalizing problems but of course to decide in which way we want to make the supranational organizations work.

  4. Bringing You More than the Weekend: Union Membership and Self-Rated Health in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Megan M.; Brady, David

    2012-01-01

    Previous research suggests that higher incomes, safe workplaces, job security and healthcare access all contribute to favorable health. Reflecting the interest of economic and political sociologists in power relations and institutions, union membership has been linked with many such influences on health. Nevertheless, the potential relationship…

  5. WAYS OF COMBAT TAX EVASION IN ROMANIA AND EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Mihaela Corîci

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tax evasion is a complex phenomenon faced by all member economies, regardless of geographic position. Economic transparency of each of the Member States of the European Union helps to have a compact European economic market. This can take place inter alia through exchange of information between tax authorities and a common database for European countries

  6. REASSESSING EUROPEAN UNION LIMITS: WHAT ROLE FOR THE NEW REGIONAL PARTNERSHIPS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Berbec

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available As every enlargement brings new neighbours to the European Union, the European Neighbourhood Policy is facing new challenges regarding its policy towards the countries in its proximity. Although the ENP does not offer perspectives for accession, nor does it preclude it, new forms of cooperation between the EU and its neighbours are taken into consideration as an alternative to full membership. This essay will analyze how the latest enlargements have brought new opportunities and challenges to the EU in relation to its new neighbours, the role of the "Eastern Partnership" and the "Union for Mediterranean" initiatives in fostering cooperation with the contiguous countries and whether these community projects, together with the ENP, can have a contribution to the understanding of what the EU limits are.

  7. A decade of African Union and European Union trans-national ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The first decade of the new millennium saw the European Union deploy nine security missions to the African continent, quoting the European Security and. Defence Policy. Unlike the numerous United Nations security missions that. European states had previously contributed to, these were part of a grand strategy designed ...

  8. Terminations of pregnancy in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gissler, M; Fronteira, I; Jahn, A; Karro, H; Moreau, C; Oliveira da Silva, M; Olsen, J; Savona-Ventura, C; Temmerman, M; Hemminki, E

    2012-02-01

    To study the current legislation and trends in terminations of pregnancy in the European Union (EU). Data were collected on legislation and statistics for terminations of pregnancy. Population-based statistics from the EU member states. Women in reproductive age in the 27 EU member states. Information on legislation was collected for all 27 EU member states. Statistical information until 2008 was compiled from international (n = 24) and national sources (n = 17). Statistical data were not available for Austria, Cyprus and Luxembourg. Terminations of pregnancy per 1000 women aged 15-49 years. Ireland, Malta and Poland have restrictive legislation. Luxembourg permits termination of pregnancy on physical and mental health indications; Cyprus, Finland, and the UK further include socio-economic indications. In all other EU member states termination of pregnancy can be performed in early pregnancy on a women's request. In general, the rates of termination of pregnancy have declined in recent years. In total, 10.3 terminations were reported per 1000 women aged 15-49 years in the EU in 2008. The rate was 12.3/1000 for countries requiring a legal indication for termination, and 11.0/1000 for countries allowing termination on request. Northern Europe (10.9/1000) and Central and Eastern Europe (10.8/1000) had higher rates than Southern Europe (8.9/1000). Northern Europe, however, had substantially higher rates of termination of pregnancy among teenagers. A more consistent and coherent reporting of terminations of pregnancy is needed in the EU. The large variation of termination rates between countries suggests that termination of pregnancy rates may be reduced in some countries without restricting women's access to termination. Sexual education and provision of access to reliable and affordable contraception are essential to achieve low rates of termination of pregnancy. © 2011 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2011 RCOG.

  9. COURT OF JUSTICE OF THE EUROPEAN UNION - INTERNATIONAL COURT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Nely Militaru

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU performs according to its competence, the position of International Justice in solving disputes between two or more subjects of international law. International jurisdiction of the Court of Justice of the EU is - mandatory that each Member State has the opportunity to seize this court if it considers that another state violated an obligation incumbent upon it under Union Treaties; - optional in disputes between Member States in connection with the subject Union Treaties.

  10. The Effects of Great Britain's Exit from the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarița Adrian

    2017-01-01

    The withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union directly influences the economicdevelopment of Romania, which will force our country to take all the necessary measures in thecurrent economic conjuncture in order to anchor in the international trade relations.

  11. POSTWAR INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS PREDECESSOR OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoș-Adrian BANTAȘ

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The European Union, as its existence that we can meet in the present moment, is not a creation which came out of nothing or arising of the history’s hazard, but is rather an evolutionary process that began after the end of the Second World War. In this respect, in their continuing search for security, cooperation and common prosperity, European countries have made, in turn, organizations with different profiles (economic, political, security, such as the Treaty of Dunkirk, Western Union, Organization Economic Cooperation in Europe, Council of Europe, Western European Union, all of which are creations precursor Union and, before being dissolved as obsolete or being embedded in Cleaned have served the aims of their times, representing evolutionary steps in defining project European.

  12. IMPORTANCE OF THE EUROPEAN BANKING UNION NEW DIRECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEDAR LUCIAN-ION

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available European Banking Union has set new rules on monetary market especially for credit institutions and for financial banking groups in general. Economic and monetary union requires accomplishment of political and monetary union and democratic control of the European institutions on a single financial market. In this respect through its management organisms, EU has designed a series of unique mechanisms of financial union and called for a fiscal union. Union of European financial market is possible through a new regulation of the markets. In this project, monetary union of the EU member countries is possible by implementing single mechanism of supervision (Single Supervisory Mechanism and single mechanism of resolution (Single Resolution Mechanism. European Banking Union may be made by monitoring of a single banking supervisor based on a common system for managing and resolving banking crises and a uniform system of protecting people's savings. Romania opted for these unique mechanisms of macro-prudential supervision of the financial system. And by performing the real convergence criteria of integration, Romania will have all conditions of integration in the ,,euro area,,.

  13. Human Rights promotion in Serbia: a difficult task for the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Maria Cierco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the role of the European Union in the human rights protection, implementation and promotion in Serbia. It is clear that the EU demands on democratisation in the region of Western Balkans are crucial to achieve the respect for human rights. The human rights standards as part of the conditionality criteria of the EU is a clear message towards the countries aspiring membership. However, Serbia progress in the field has been difficult due to several internal constraints. This paper aims to uncover the democratisation process of Serbia on its path towards the EU, and its progress (or not regarding human rights protection and implementation.

  14. European Union Reference Laboratory for Alternatives to Animal Testing

    OpenAIRE

    HOLLEY TRACEY; BOWE GERARD; CAMPIA IVANA; BELZ SUSANNE; BERGGREN ELISABET; JANUSCH ROI ANNETT; WITTWEHR CLEMENS; WHELAN MAURICE

    2017-01-01

    The European Union is strongly committed to the Replacement, Reduction and Refinement of testing on animals (the 'Three Rs') as reflected in Directive 2010/63/EU on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes. As mandated by the Directive, the Joint Research Centre (JRC) runs the European Union Reference Laboratory for Alternatives to Animal Testing (EURL ECVAM) which has the following duties: coordination and promotion of the development and use of alternative methods, including ...

  15. Security policy of the European Union and refuge crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevović Marko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is chronologicaly analizing the process of the establishing of the European Union Security policy. In a row of intergovernmental agreements, which were verified wit their own constitutions, the key points of creating the Security policy are given, but the internal policies of the memebr states of the European Union remained a little bit dissyncronised. The paper is chronologically analizing the process of the establishing of common foreign and security policy of the European Union. A series of agreements reached, which were verified by mutual agreement states (Treaty of Mastriht, the Treaty of Lisbon, established the guidelines of the common foreign and security policy of the European Union (EU CFSP. There is still incomplete harmonization of national security policy of the EU countries to a level that could completely uniquely to perform on the world stage. This deficiency a cause of this is that the majority of European Union countries unprepared for the huge number of refugees from war-affected areas from the Middle East. Large refugee crisis in the foreground released a security aspect of the common policy of the European Union, but is also revealed the differences between the external policies of the member states in the approaches to the solution of the current problems. Were analyzed security aspects of the newly established factual condition, caused by the refugee crisis and discussed potential solutions to overcome it, as well as issues that the current crisis immigrants open for further research.

  16. The determinants of capital structure: the evidence from the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Mokhova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to indicate the influence of several internal determinants on capital structure in different European countries and retrace its tendency taking into consideration the membership of the European Union. Nowadays there are a lot of debates according the future of the European Union. The recent global financial crisis and the following European debt crisis show the significance of the country financial stability and its impact on the private sector. The paper investigates 32 countries of European Union dividing them into three groups as (1 old EU members (15 countries, (2 new EU members (12 countries and (3 EU candidates (4 candidate countries and 1 acceding country.The managers make their financial decisions according to the source of financing and capital structure based on the macroeconomic conditions and country specifics and obviously on company’s advantages and disadvantages, i.e. its internal characteristics. Based on the analysis of previous studies we have chosen several significant internal determinants of capital structure as profitability, tangibility, growth opportunities, non-debt tax shields and firm’s size.The findings show that the country’s specifics, EU membership and corporate debt structure influence the relation between capital structure and its internal characteristics. The capital structure in all countries has tendency to increase, furthermore the old members rely more on debt then candidates or new members.There is no doubt that the majority of countries support Pecking Order Theory then Trade off Theory regarding investigated relations. In most countries the profitability and size have negative and significant influence on corporate capital structure. At the same time tangibility, growth opportunities and non-debt tax shields split up: selected countries experience positive impact, another part negative, supporting different theories.

  17. European Union definitely introduces common taxes on energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenweisner, R.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper taxes of the European Union on energy are reviewed. European Union Ministers of environment Council definitely ratified new common system of minimal energy taxes in last week. Council introduces par excellence minimal all-European size of an electricity, coal and natural gas consumption tax. New directive according to European Commission will improve operation of internal market and eliminate deformation of competitive environment among individual members as well as among mineral oils and the other energy sources. Slovak Republic taxes all motor fuel types by higher charge as is minimal level demanded by EU according to new directive after rising of consumable tax from mineral oils in August 2003. According to Minister of Finances Slovak Republic demanded European Union for a temporary 10-year period for utilizing electricity, coal, coke, and natural gas consumption tax. According to Ministry, Utilizing new taxes and rising of tax load is not in interest of started tax reform in Slovak Republic

  18. Fiscal Revenues in the European Union. A Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Hurduzeu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to analyze fiscal revenues registered by the European Union member states in order to determine groups with similar fiscal structures, their composition and to identify the similarities that characterize European countries in this respect. The research conducted in this paper is relevant especially for countries as Romania, which is in the process of adopting the European single currency, as is allows us to determine which countries are similar in terms of fiscal structure so that the comparison is carried out mainly with those countries. The analysis of European fiscal structures allows a better identification of tax preferences within the European Union and highlights the types of taxation that would allow leeway in implementing long term fiscal strategies, which could lead to improvements in macroeconomic dynamics registered by each member state and also at Union level.

  19. THE NEW ARCHITECTURE OF ECONOMIC GOVERNANCE IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coroiu Sorina Ioana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The economic crisis that began in 2007-2008 has highlighted the need for a stronger economic coordination at EU level, to ensure financial stability. The new architecture of economic governance in the European Union is based on Fiscal Pact, on Macroeconomic Imbalances Identification Mechanism, on European Stability Mechanism and on Banking Union. Since the banking system is the most significant component of the financial system, we will give more importance to the analysis of Banking Union, which is based on three pillars: The Single Supervisory Mechanism, The Single Resolution Mechanism and The Deposit Guarantee Schemes.

  20. Budget perspective in Croatia after accession to the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Sopek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Upon accession to the European Union, the New Member State’s budget undergoes significant structural changes due to the appearance of new categories of revenues and expenditures. The aim of this paper is to estimate the possible effects of Croatian membership in the EU on changes in the structure and size of budget revenues and expenditures upon the country’s accession to the EU in the second half of 2013, as well as to indicate the possibilities for utilization of EU funds in the new financial perspective up to 2020. It is shown that in 2013 Croatia might realize a positive net financial position in transactions with the EU budget in the amount of approximately 0.28% of GDP, i.e. EUR 136 m. The total net financial position of Croatia due to EU accession, which includes some additional costs and benefits like different harmonization and the need for project co-financing at state and local levels, is also positive in 2013 and amounts to approximately 0.15% of GDP or equivalently EUR 72 m. Total amount of all funds that Croatia might receive in the new EU financial perspective covering the period from 2014 to 2020 amounts to EUR 6.34 bn, whereby annual amounts increase from EUR 0.7 bn in 2014 up to EUR 1.2 bn in 2020. By using exponential regression analysis it is estimated that in 2020 Croatia should be a net recipient of funds from the EU budget in total amount of 1.72% of GDP, i.e. EUR 1.13 bn.

  1. Union banking a step towards achieving fiscal Union in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionuţ Marius Croitoru

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Union policy needs in addition to the official language of four major components: a monetary union, a fiscal union, a union diplomatic and military union A stage in the Union is the Union banking tax. Materials and Methods: Union Bank has three pillars: a single banking supervisor (single supervisory mechanism, the only mechanism of bank resolution and a single scheme of bank guarantees. Results and conclusions: Union Bank, strengthen supervision is an inevitable process, and Romania will have to enroll in it. Option Romania is to be part of Romania deaorece bank Union can not remain outside the structures of decision as long as banks operating in Romania are predominantly Eurozone.

  2. Regulation of Genetically Modified Organisms in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grossman, M.R.; Bryan Endres, A.

    2000-01-01

    To be successful, laws that regulate genetically modified organisms (GMOs) must help society decide rationally when to pause and when to proceed in adopting new biotechnological developments. In the context of European Union (EU) institutions and lawmaking procedures, this article examines European

  3. Designing fiscal and monetary institutions for a European Monetary Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.M.W.J.; Bovenberg, A.L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper explores under what conditions a European Monetary Union (EMU) is an optimum currency area. The scope for an EMU increases with convergence of structural and fiscal policies, small money holdings, a conservative European Central Bank, and dependent national central banks. How national

  4. Myths and Realities of European Union Language Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillipson, Robert

    2017-01-01

    The article focuses on the need for calibration in the language rights and language use in law and in practice related to the European Union language policy. It mentions the impact of Brexit on linguistic imperialism and European Commission language policies and mentions use of English in higher...

  5. Agricultural Policy and Enlargement of the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burrell, A.; Oskam, A.J.

    2000-01-01

    The European Union could soon have up to ten new members from Central and Eastern Europe. Harmonisation of agricultural policies will be one of the most difficult chapters in the accession negotiations. The outcome will have an important influence on the adjustment of Central and Eastern European

  6. BUILDING A BANKING UNION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION – A SOLUTION TO THE FINANCIAL CRISIS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica (ŞAGUNA FIGHIROAE

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The financial crisis of 2008 highlighted the need for a deeper integration of the banking system, as a warranty to support long-term financial stability. It was argued that the grounds of the crisis lie also in an uncoordinated national response to the failure of banks, in a fragmentation of the Single Market in lending and funding and, therefore, a better regulation and supervision of the financial sector can ensure financial stability and growth in the European Union. In order to restore the proper functioning of the internal market and to avoid future crisis, the European Commission launched a set of initiatives, in order to assure a safer and sounder financial sector for the single market; are included here: stronger prudential requirements for banks, improved depositor protection and rules for managing failing banks and a single rulebook for all the 28 Member States of the European Union. The single rule book is the step towards the Banking Union sits. The banking union consists of three pillars: a Single Supervisory Mechanism, a Single Resolution Mechanism and a joint deposit-insurance scheme. As on 4 November 2014 the European Central Bank assumed responsibility for euro area banking supervision, the Banking Union is still under construction. In this framework, the purpose of my paper is to analyse the process of building a Banking Union in Europe. Therefore, the objectives of my paper are to explore the steps to fulfilling a real integration of the European banking system, as a solution to the financial crisis.

  7. The Virtual Enterprise – Citizen of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Davidescu (Vasile

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Virtual Enterprise is a rather young and unclear concept in the business world. A virtual enterprise is a temporary network of companies that share their different resources in order to reach a given goal (the creation of a new product, or the entry on a new market and is a powerful tool in the hands of the business community. The question this article raises is whether European Union's businesses are able to take advantage of this opportunity within the European Union. We discuss several obstacles towards the creation of virtual enterprises: regulatory uncertainties, operational management that dismisses the advantage of an excellent infrastructure, the orientation of innovation creators towards theoretical research and the European business culture. The article also looks at research on the virtual enterprise in the European Union, the legal framework and technologies for virtualization.

  8. National responsibility in an enlarged European Union?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, Per; Stendahl, Sara; Erhag, Thomas

    2007-04-01

    -proliferation aspects. The political decision to take part in such international cooperation lies however without any doubt within the national competence. In the European Union the question about responsibility for spent nuclear fuel is not directly regulated. Common legislation initiatives from the commission concerning methods for disposal and storage of spent nuclear fuel has been blocked by member states. The EURATOM-treaty and the EU treaty have a potential reach to national regulation about handling of nuclear wastes and spent nuclear fuel. It should also be noted that there is no binding community legislation where the principle of national responsibility comes to expressions, although the the national legislation competence in the area is expressed in miscellaneous political documents. There exists a hypothetical possibility that the question about the member states' right to maintain a principle of national responsibility can be examined of the EU Court of Justice

  9. Zoonoses in the European Union: origin, distribution and dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahuerta, A.; Westrell, T.; Takkinen, J.

    2011-01-01

    We present a summary of the main findings of the latest report of the European Food Safety Authority and European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control on zoonoses, zoonotic agents and food-borne outbreaks in the European Union (EU), based on data from 2009. Zoonoses are prevalent and widely...... distributed across several countries in the EU. The most important highlight of this report was the continuous decrease of human salmonellosis since 2005, probably due to effective control programmes in livestock....

  10. The status of Bosnia and Herzegovina in the process of accession to the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakić Danijela

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the level that Bosnia and Herzegovina has reached in the process of accession to the European union. Since year 2000, it has been included in Stabilization and Accession process, politico-legal framework of the European union for the integration in the Western Balkans. Among the countries in this region, Bosnia and Herzegovina has the slowest advancement on its way to the EU. It has not yet submitted the application for EU membership nor has the Stabilization and Accession Agreement come into force. The EU requires that Bosnia and Herzegovina meet two conditions in order to move forward. The first condition is the implementation of the Sejdić and Finci ruling of The European Court of Human Rights, from 2009, and the second is to create an efficient coordination mechanism on EU issues ( with one voice on EU issues. until the second condition is met, the EU has postponed making the decision on pre-accession assistance to Bosnia and Herzegovina until further notice. According to the assessment of the European Commission, the main cause of this stagnation of Bosnia and Herzegovina is the lack of political will, and its specific constitution that does not present the obstacle to succession in the process of European integration.

  11. The Harmonization of Public Sector Accounting in European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam; Alijarde, Isabel Brusca; Chow, Danny

    accounting standards in Member States. The suitability of IPSAS for the Member States” (European Commission, 2013b). This report takes into account the Public Consultation on the suitability of the IPSAS for EU Member States. The European Commission (2013b, p. 8) considers that IPSASs cannot easily......The European Commission is working on several fronts to achieve the implementation of uniform and comparable accruals-based accounting practices for the European Union Member States and for all the sectors of General Government, that is, Central Government, State Government, Local Government...... be implemented in EU Member States as they stand currently and that it is preferable to develop European Union Standards adapted to IPSAS (renaming them EPSAS). The objective of this paper is to carry out a historical analysis, identifying where and how the idea of EPSAS versus IPSAS has emerged. To this end, we...

  12. The prospect of Kosovo in the European Union: Optimism and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safet Beqiri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article explains the prospect of Kosovo in the EU, and the challenges that Kosovo is facing during this process. Kosovo is the last country in the Western Balkans, which is in the early stage of the accession process, respectively Stabilization and Association Process. This process was not an easy one for Kosovo. The optimism of Kosovo in being part of the EU brought many challenges, which initially were related to the unresolved political status of the country. Kosovo was deprived for a long period from the Stabilization and Association Process and its agreement. With the declaration of independence, on February 17th, 2008, and the refusal of five EU member states to recognize the independence, Kosovo continues to hamper the normal development of Kosovo in the European integration process. This paper analyzes the challenges that Kosovo has faced in the past related to this process, and its future challenges in the process of EU membership. This article also treats the issue of the footnote, used as a reference to Kosovo by the European Union. This fact is evidence that EU member states have an irreplaceable role within the Union, regarding the recognition of new states and their acceptance in the accession process. The EU as a “supranational organization” since its creation is being developed and changed, and the events, which have occurred recently, such as the failure to adopt the EU constitution, the referendum held for the exit of the UK from the European Union, are signals for the need for necessary changes in the reformation of the EU. The signing of the SAA with specific conditions, does not guarantee that the process of obtaining the status of candidate for EU membership will pass without difficulties, due to the refusal of the recognition of the independence of Kosovo by five member states. Main challenges are the internal reforms and their implementation.

  13. ANALYSIS OF LABOUR MARKET IN ROMANIA AND THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanase Diana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at analysing the labour market, one of the most complex forms of market in economy. The present work forwards a comparative survey regarding the labour market in Romania and in the other European Union member states. The paper starts by highlighting general aspects related to labour market and continues by the presentation of the European Union countries’ ranking according to the labour market efficiency, top elaborated on the basis of the World Economic Forum data. Furthermore, the paper analyses labour productiveness, employment rate and unemployment rate both in Romania and in the other countries of the European Union. In the end the authors forward conclusions regarding the possibilities of increasing competitiveness on Romania’s labour market.

  14. Economic Cooperation Between The European Union And Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drzymała Agnieszka

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to show the history of economic relations between the European Union and Japan. This economy is very important to the EU and the countries of the EU are interested in further deepening areas of cooperation. Therefore it seems important to indicate the political will to continue mutual economic relations through the signing of contracts and bilateral agreements, as well as meetings at various levels, including SPA and EPA negotiations and summits. The course of the current economic cooperation will be shown through trade volume and foreign direct investment outflows from the European Union to Japan.

  15. TOWARDS THE EUROPEAN BANKING UNION-Literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragos G. TURLIUC

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The financial crisis has made the need for a more integrated regulatory and supervisory framework for the financial services sector evident. An important step towards this aim is the establishment of the Single Supervisory Mechanism. European leaders have committed to moving toward a banking union, in which bank regulation and supervision, deposit guarantees, and the handling of troubled banks will be integrated across at least the euro area and possibly across the wider European Union. This paper provides an overview of research on this topic. We also identify important future research questions that emerge from both the literature and the current debate.

  16. Gentle giants : petroleum industry lobbying in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Refsdal, Nils Olav

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to chart the petroleum lobby in the EU, and how oil and gas companies organise themselves in Brussels in order to influence EU policy. I also investigate how the relationship between the industry and the European Union has changed in recent years. The research question is as follows: Who are the actors representing the oil and gas industry in the European Union, how do they work and how has the introduction of the internal energy market affected them? I have ...

  17. Unity in Diversity. The Language Policy of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the connections between the law and language in the European Union. The paper concerns the language policy of the European Union (EU and English language priority. The EU faces challenges of finding a common ground for respecting the diversity of its members. So many different states are gathered in one organisation which establishes the law for diversified legal orders. The research question is - which language(s is or should be used in the EU? Does English become lingua franca of the EU?

  18. A Federal Constitution for the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sweeney, Richard J.

    2003-01-01

    A constitution is more likely to be accepted if it federalizes those issues that arewidely seen as needing complete harmonization. A constitution is more likely to endure if thefederal government does not have powers that are not vital to it but which may alienate somemember states to the point...... within and across member statesthat severely weaken the Union, conceivably contributing to eventual collapse. Insisting onharmonization of commercial codes does not have the destructive potential of attemptingcompletely to harmonize defense and foreign policies; it may, however, lead to needlessconflict...

  19. A Structural Analysis of European Union Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana DUGULEANĂ

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on the input-output analysis, the paper characterizes the structure of European economy in 2010 and 2011, on six main economic sectors. The sectoral structures of backward and forward linkages, and their absolute effects starting from the final demand, were compared with the real structures of sectors output, sectoral imports, sectoral value added, in 2011 face to 2010. The changes in final demand and in sectoral output can be analyzed in the propagation processes of the inter-sectoral economic flows, and allow us to know the behavior at macroeconomic level of European economy. The common economic policies at European level can be undertaken to keep the equilibrium between different sectors, to stimulate the sectors with high levels of productivity, to ensure the efficiency of using the resources, and the sustainability of economic development, which are the purposes of a smart development.

  20. Nuclear security in the European Union context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    At the end of 2002, the European Commission tabled a proposal for the definition of a genuinely Community approach to nuclear security and to advance toward sustainable solutions for the management of radioactive waste, all within the commitments taken on in the monitoring of the Green Paper Towards a European strategy of energy storage security. In this sense, the Commission has worked on a collection of measures with a view to adopting a framework directive on security in nuclear installations, another on radioactive waste and a Council Decision authorizing the Commission to negotiate an agreement between Euratom and the Russian Federation on trade in nuclear materials: all are at the commentary stage. The Commission's Communication to the Council and European Parliament, whose full text is presented, argues the fundamental reasons for the adoption of these measures. (Author)

  1. The beef market in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Asger; Jeppesen, Lisbeth Fruensgaard

    characteristics determining the consumers' value perception of a piece of meat appear to be fat, tenderness, taste and freshness. 7. The primary production of beef is fragmented in most European countries and the average number of cattle at a European cattle farm is only slowly rising. Two thirds of the cows...... of cattle going through markets is declining. 10. Product quality has been very difficult to control in the beef sector. The cattle supplied for slaughtering is of a very varying quality with regard to important consumer-oriented quality characteristics like tenderness and taste, and the lack...

  2. Particularities of the European Union enlargement process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Bucur

    2009-12-01

    its ability to create unity in the context of diversity. Irreversible process, and currently ongoing, and designed to produce positive results in perspective, the enlargement is one of the most significant factors of European construction success, always accompanying its history, marking the development, institutional structure, mode of cooperation and its policies. For these reasons, the present paper aims to approach the European integration model by the factors that influenced the enlargement and also by the course of events that are reflected in so-called “waves” of EU enlargement.

  3. The Rise of a European Healthcare Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollaard, Hans; Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg

    2017-01-01

    -being of all people; (b) the application of the free movement principle to national healthcare systems in particular by the EU’s Court of Justice (CJEU); and (c) the austerity packages and the stricter EU surveillance of national budgets since the debt crises. The key questions of this special issue......’s budgetary surveillance deeply intrudes into healthcare policies, but here the involvement of health actors has remained limited. The European Commission and the CJEU have played an important role in the European integration of healthcare policies, but reluctance towards EU intrusion into national healthcare...

  4. From Representation to Participation: A More Democratic European Union?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Monica Stoica

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper analyzes the evolution and characteristics of the democratic process in theEuropean Union from the perspective of political science using the recent theories in this field. Following theentry into force, the Treaty of Lisbon establishes the principle of participatory democracy that puts the focusof the European citizen, a citizen who is actively involved in European Union life, strengthening EU - citizenrelationship. The essence of participatory democracy is the destruction of political apathy and the maximizingof active participation of citizens in the democratic tasks. So, the basic principle of the participatorydemocracy is solidarity. The results of this analysis show that although participatory democracy is establishedin the European law, citizens are less involved in the decision-making in EU and are more and moreindividual, contradicting thus the very foundations of this type of democracy.

  5. SCENARIOS REGARDING THE FUTURE OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAUL-IULIAN NEDELCU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This work has as purpose to argumentatively identify the future evolution of the European construction, identifying a potential scenario which would settle the current contradiction within the European Union, namely the existence of a true “economic federation” and of only a “political quasi-confederation” , being notorious the fact that in Europe, federalism is mainly known as a specific solution of power assignment between the institutions of a central power and those of the member states (for federal states or as a potential model of transnational integration (for the European Union and even for regionalism within certain states (Spain, Italy, France. It shall be tried the decryption of the philosophical and legal base of federalism as a doctrine able to provide a solution of state’s organisation in the conditions of the European integration.

  6. The European Union and Military Conflict Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen

    This book provides the first comprehensive review of the European Union’s role in military conflict management beyond its borders and makes an important contribution to debates on the EU’s role in global security governance. The EU has launched five military operations within the framework of its...

  7. The future of energy in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robles, C.

    1997-01-01

    Two of the three European Union founding treaties have a marked energy nature but, however, at the present time, the EU lacks a Common Energy Policy, Starting with this paradox, the European Parliament Member Robles Piquer uses this article, which reproduces the lecture he gave at the CSN, to proffer his view of the future of energy which the EU will have and that which it should have, in this opinion. (Author)

  8. Exploring central governments' coordination of European Union affairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Christian Dagnis

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the coordination mechanisms managed by the central governments of the European Union (EU) in order to develop negotiation positions for their plenipotentiaries in the Council. Utilizing novel data from an expert survey, the first part examines the relationships within......' EU coordination mechanisms into different clusters, including unicentric, pluricentric, decentric, proactive, reactive, politicized, depoliticized, high efficacy and low efficacy. Intriguing differences are identified, such as the fact that the Central and Eastern European member states' mechanisms...

  9. Financial integration in the European Union. Measurement and determination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmen, J.J.G.

    1996-01-01

    The first part of this study addresses the measurement of financial integration in the European Union (EU). First, we present empirical evidence on the degree of financial integration as measured with interest parity conditions. Second, the study applies an error-correction model of

  10. The analysis of food products retailing in European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapaić Stevan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Author is analyzing a share of food products in the structural profile of retail trade in European Union by presenting areas of retailing in which food, beverages, and tobacco products are predominant. The main task of retailing is to overcome gaps in time and space between production and consumption, in order to meet the needs of consumers. This main task of retailing becomes more difficult considering the fact that the European Union consists of demanding consumers that expect all products, especially food, to be served to them at the most accessible places, in most suitable time, and with prices that coincide with the worth of products. In the structure of retail trade of the European Union, food products can be found in sector of non-specialised in-store retailing (hypermarkets, supermarkets, Cash&Carry stores as well as in sector of specialised in-store food retailing (butcher shops, bakeries, fish markets, etc.. Restructure of retailing, internationalization, and concentration of total retail trade network are only some of the basic trends in contemporary retail sale of food products in the European Union, that are being explored in this text.

  11. Organization and financing of home nursing in the European Union.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkstra, A.; Hutten, J.B.F.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the organization and financing of home nursing in the 15 member states in the European Union. Home nursing was defined as the nursing care provided at the patients' home by professional home nursing organizations. Data were gathered by means of

  12. Tough love : the European Union's relations with the Western Balkans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blockmans, Steven

    2007-01-01

    As part of the international presence in the Western Balkans, the European Union has adopted sanctions, brokered political agreements, launched its first-ever police and military missions and directed economic, legal and administrative reforms to eradicate the root causes of instability. Yet,

  13. International Environmental Problems, Issue Linkage and the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroeze-Gil, J.

    2003-01-01

    This thesis explores the circumstances under which issue linkage can be applied to achieve cooperation on international environmental problems in general and on environmental problems in the European Union in particular. A major topic in this thesis is the development and analysis of cooperative and

  14. Voting in European Union referendums: A Neighbour’s Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham

    2016-01-01

    Referendums on European Union (EU)-related issues have occurred in a number of Member States since the foundation of the project, and may be considered highly salient in value in the eyes of voters. While political events such as referendums on EU questions have not featured prominently for the U...

  15. Managing Transboundary Crises : The Emergence of European Union Capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boin, Arjen|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/161938876; Rhinard, Mark; Ekengren, Magnus

    The European Union (EU) has modest but promising capacities to assist member states overwhelmed by disaster through its Civil Protection Mechanism. The EU also routinely sends civil and military missions to hotspots outside EU territory. But these capacities do not suffice in the face of

  16. Inflation convergence within the European Union: a panel data analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kočenda, Evžen; Papell, D. H.

    1997-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 3 (1997), s. 189-198 ISSN 1076-9307 Keywords : inflation convergence * European Union * panel data Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=16616418&site=ehost-live

  17. The European Union and Turkey: Who Defines Environmental Progress?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Adaman (Fikret); M. Arsel (Murat)

    2008-01-01

    textabstract[European Union] EU environment policy aims to promote sustainable development and to protect the environment for present and future generations. It is based on preventive action, the polluter pays principle, fighting environmental damage at source, shared responsibility and the

  18. Legal analysis of the European Union sustainability criteria for biofuels

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper provides a legal analysis and review of the European Union (EU) sustainability criteria for biofuels, presented in Directive 2009/28/EC. The paper discusses the EU sustainability criteria as a tool that could be efficiently utilized to operationalize and implement the concepts of sustainable development and ...

  19. Parametrization of the Richardson weather generator within the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voet, van der P.; Kramer, K.; Diepen, van C.A.

    1996-01-01

    The Richardson model for mathematically generating daily weather data was parametrized. Thirty years' time-series of the 355 main meteorological stations in the European Union formed the database. Model parameters were derived from both observed weather station data and interpolated weather data on

  20. IT in the European Union : driving productivity divergence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, Marcel P.; Ypma, Gerard; Ark, Bart van der

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyses the contributions of IT-capital deepening and total factor productivity growth (TFP) in IT-production on aggregate labour productivity growth patterns within the European Union in comparison with the US. We find that differences in the direct effects of IT almost fully explain

  1. The energy price in the European Union in 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This document presents and briefly comments data and figures on the prices of natural gas and of electricity for industries and for households, of their evolution in comparison with what they were in 2009 in the different countries of the European Union. These prices are given with VAT included or not

  2. The effect of the European union (MPP6) infrastructural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the effect of the European Union infrastructural development on the productivity of food crop farmers and development of rural areas in Imo State. The specific objectives were to describe the socioeconomic characteristics of respondents, determine the extent of infrastructural development in the area ...

  3. Systems of innovation theory and the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borras, Susana

    2004-01-01

    This article asks whether it is possible to conceptualise the European Union (EU) as a system of innovation in accordance with the rich literature of institutional economics on these matters. By developing four further theoretical nodal points of the system of innovation concept, an analytical...

  4. The European Union and the tradition of normative prudence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamminga, Menno R.

    2017-01-01

    While the European Union (EU) is not beyond dispute, political theorists have ignored or unsatisfactorily dealt with the question of whether a moral justification exists for the EU. The present article aims to address this lacuna by proposing a moral-political standard for EU assessment rooted in

  5. Species Protection in the European Union : How Strict is Strict?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoukens, Hendrik; Bastmeijer, Kees; Born et al., Charles-Hubert

    2015-01-01

    European Union law to protect wild species of plants and animals is generally considered as ‘strict’. Opponents of nature conservation law often pick the species protection components of the EU Bird Directive and Habitat Directive as a prime example of an unnecessary strict regulatory scheme that

  6. Enlargement of the European Union and agricultural policy reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Maria Skovager; Lind, Kim Martin Hjorth; Zobbe, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    A connection exists between enlargement of the European Union and reforms of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). Based upon rational choice theory, we examine whether the member states’ CAP positions are related to structures in their agricultural sectors. The overall hypothesis...

  7. Underlying Paradox in the European Union's Multilingualism Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Fern L.

    2013-01-01

    The European Union (EU) has developed comprehensive policies in recent years to promote multilingualism. In this article, major EU policy statements on multilingualism are analyzed to demonstrate how their underlying language ideology produces paradox by both encouraging multilingualism and regulating its definition within the EU. The first…

  8. Economic Burden of Bladder Cancer Across the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leal, J.; Luengo-Fernandez, R.; Sullivan, R.; Witjes, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: More than 120000 people are diagnosed annually with bladder cancer in the 28 countries of the European Union (EU). With >40000 people dying of it each year, it is the sixth leading cause of cancer. However, to date, no systematic cost-of-illness study has assessed the economic impact of

  9. What energy policy for the European Union?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The energy question is becoming ever more important. Proper management of energy resources is a strategic challenge that will determine our economic development and even the preservation of our way of life. Looking further into the future, failure to grasp energy-related problems could be seriously prejudicial to the future of our planet (global warming). Because of the rise in prices of fossil fuels resulting from the gradual exhaustion of resources and the political instability reigning in the principal production zones, the disputes over gas between Russia and certain former Soviet republics, massive electricity blackouts, etc, public opinion is now particularly sensitive to these new threats and is looking to decision-makers, at both national and European level, to draw up policies capable of responding to these concerns. Over the past two years, European institutions have in fact taken an increasing number of initiatives in the energy field. This work has, in particular, identified the following three major objectives: - combating global warming, which implies the definition of an energy mix compatible with environmental constraints (reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases), - ensuring security of supply, an ever-growing concern, given the growing dependency of EU Member States on imports of energy, and - safeguarding the competitiveness of the European economy. Despite this work, the only tangible achievement in the energy field in Europe, and one that is still incomplete, concerns the liberalisation of the gas and electricity markets. Apart from the fact that this policy is sometimes badly perceived by European populations, being regarded as responsible for the current rise in prices, Europe cannot be satisfied with tackling just this aspect of affairs. In this respect, energy provides an opportunity to re-launch the construction of Europe both internally (drawing up of a joint agreement regarding energy options, R and D programmes, energy saving, etc

  10. NEW OFFSHORE LOCATIONS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADULESCU IRINA GABRIELA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The offshore activity provides benefits for the host market and has positive effects on services, and on producers that use intermediate services. FDI in services has an important impact on the offshore activity, especially through transfer of technology. Many transnational companies have recognized the advantages of offshoring and the fact that it becomes a key globalization force. Recently, the Central European countries have become popular destinations among offshoring

  11. Delegation and accountability in European integration the Nordic parliamentary democracies and the European Union

    CERN Document Server

    Bergman, Torbjorn

    2013-01-01

    Analyzing the effects of the European Union on national decision-making and the chain of delegation and accountability, the authors look at Denmark, Finland, Sweden, Iceland and Norway. The analyses are based on principal-agent perspective.

  12. The EIROforum Collaboration Agreement with the European Union

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    Collaboration between CERN and the European Union has extended over many years, and the European Commission were granted Observer Status in the CERN Council in 1985 already. In 1994, an Administrative Arrangement was signed between CERN's Director-General, Professor C.H. Llewellyn Smith, and the Commissioner of the European Communities, Professor Antonio Ruberti, "to promote co-operation between the Commission of the European Communities and CERN in research and technological development". (See Annex I). In 2000, the EIROforum was set up composed of the Directors-General of the seven organisations - CERN, EFDA, EMBL, ESA, ESO, ESRF and ILL - whom now meet regularly twice per year. More information is available at the Web site www.eiroforum.org. On 27 October 2003, the EIROforum members signed a joint "Statement of Intent" with the European Commission, represented by Commissioner Philippe Busquin, confirming their common commitment to developing the European Research Area. The goal is to work together to estab...

  13. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE COMMITTEES IN EUROPEAN UNION EMERGING ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Dumitrascu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to analyze the support committees of European Union emerging economies. The importance of good corporate governance is vital for an organization, especially in the emerging markets, fact that leads to a several perceived improvements of the entity, while being more trustable, open and transparent in relationship with all its stakeholders. In our demarche we started by choosing the emerging economies from European Union, which lead us to a sample consisting of the companies listed on Bucharest Stock Exchange, Sofia Stock Exchange, Warsaw Stock Exchange, Prague Stock Exchange, Budapest Stock Exchange, without taking into consideration a specific tier. In order to have a heterogeneous sample, we did eliminate the financial institutions from our research. This study is developed at European Union level and takes into consideration the following indices: BET® BUCHAREST EXCHANGE TRADING (Romania, SOFIX (Bulgaria, WIG 20 (Poland, PX (Czech Republic, BUX The Share Index of the Budapest Stock Exchange Co. Ltd. (Hungary. The data are extracted from the Annual Reports, Corporate Governance Codes, Comply or Explain Statement or the websites of the listed companies, from period 2007 - 2011. We choose this period, because we wanted to see the evolution of the corporate governance committees’ implementation from the period when the last countries from our sample joined the European Union since nowadays. Our conclusion is that we can not discuss about good corporate governance practices. Even so, we can observe from our investigation that the trend in this regard is encouraging. Like future research, we thought at developing our study by comparing the emerging economies from European Union with those outside this area. It is an interesting field of investigation, as every country has different regulations.

  14. Main Developments and Perspectives of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Constantin ANGHELACHE PhD

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors have analyzed the main economic-financial evolutions of the European Union member countries. First, we have performed the study regarding the evolution of the Gross Domestic Product growth in the European Union, by total and by comparison with other countries that play an important role in the global evolution of the economy. There are emphasized comparative data regarding the economic growth of China, which is the highest in the world. The growth rate of China is net superior to the rates recorded by USA, Japan and European Union (28 members. There can be observed a significant decrease of economic growth during the period 2008-2010, with a negative peak in 2009 (-2%-6% in the case of the United States, EU-28 and Japan. Even if China itself has felt the effects of the economic-financial crisis, the growth rate has reduced from 14% in 2007 to 9% in 2008, the decrease continued in the subsequent period, reaching some 8.5% in 2014. Then, we have analyzed the financial evolution, the exchange rate of the main currencies, the evolution of the inflation and the balance of foreign payments and international commercial exchanges. Particular attention was granted to direct foreign investments in and out the EU member states. The study is focused on the comparison of the foreign investments’ evolution during 2009-2014 for the main 10 partners of the European Union. Through this study, the results achieved by the EU during the specified periods were outlined, at each specific item within the internal, but also external relationships with other states in Europe or on wider global plan. The authors have put additional emphasis on the analysis of the period after 2007, since Romania has become member of the European Union.

  15. EUROPEAN DEVELOPMENT OF ECO‐MANAGEMENT AND AUDIT SCHEME (EMAS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna SŁONIMIEC

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the implementation of the Environmental Management and Audit Scheme System (EMAS in Poland and the European Union. It analyzes the existing rules on the implementation and the process of its implementation. It also defines the benefits and costs arising from the registration of organizations in the system. The paper presents the current status of implementation of EMAS in the European Union.

  16. The European Union – Caribbean Relation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Morten

    2016-01-01

    EU diplomats consider the Caribbean countries to be allies and therefore expect these countries to support the EU in international affairs – but they find that this support has been waning in recent years. Caribbean diplomats and politicians do not share the European viewpoint. Rather, they take ...... the view that the EU has forgotten its Caribbean allies and instead channels its attention and funding towards Sub-Saharan Africa. This article examines to what extent this asserted ‘rift’ really signals a profound change in the EU-Caribbean relations....

  17. The European Union and Military Conflict Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen

    This book provides the first comprehensive review of the European Union’s role in military conflict management beyond its borders and makes an important contribution to debates on the EU’s role in global security governance. The EU has launched five military operations within the framework of its...... Common Security and Defence Policy with the explicit purpose to help manage violent conflicts beyond its borders. This book develops a definition and a set of criteria for success in military conflict management and applies this new analytical framework in a comparative case study of the five EU military...

  18. Legislative Co-decision in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume takes stock of twenty years of practising and studying codecision in the European Union (EU) and examines the procedure’s long-term implications for the EU’s institutions, politics and policies. The introduction of co-legislation between the Council of Ministers and the European......’ insights and a review of the procedure’s democratic legitimacy the contributions offer a holistic assessment of the effect of co-decision on the political system of the EU. This book was published as a special issue of the Journal of European Public Policy....

  19. The Role of European Union Funds in Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian PĂUN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The European Union project initially started as a peaceful solution for war reconstruction in Europe. European countries decided to cooperate rather than compete in an aggressive way. At the beginning, this project supposed (involved market liberalization, trade barriers removals, market access improvement (initially for coal, steel, energy and, later, for all goods, services, workforce and capital. Unfortunately, in the last decades, all these Single Market facilities have been backed by redistributive schemes, protectionist mechanisms, social engineering, subsidies and facilities packed in so-called ”EU policies”. New ”European” institutions have been created, more and more funds have been involved to financially support this very complex redistributive intervention. The political dimension of the European Union project enhanced the economic dimension and constantly suffocated private markets and the economy. The “incomes” of the European Union that fuel its financial support are coming from taxes and/or inflation (better administered after the introduction of a Single Currency – the Euro. This paper will discuss the relevance of European Funds for economic development, especially for new members in this project.

  20. The European Union Training Mission in Mali: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dicke Rachel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available For several years, the European Union (EU has been increasing its international presence and moving into the role of a global security actor. To support the goal of greater crisis management capabilities, European security integration (ESI has been deepening. This article therefore examines an Ell operation - the European Union Training Mission in Mali (EUTM Mali - with the aim of gauging the success of the EU's efforts at ESI. To determine the success of EUTM Mali and thus of ESI, three propositions are examined: if EUTM Mali is a security operation showing successful security integration, there will be evidence of (i broad participation, (ii financial burden-sharing and (iii the successful incorporation of troops and equipment. The first and third propositions are supported whereas the second does not receive as much support. Overall, EUTM Mali shows considerable success and bodes well for further ESI.

  1. Sustainable development and energy in the european union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, A.

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable development represents a core objective of the European Union, being embodied through out its major polices. In the field of energy, the EU objectives, commonly known as ä20-20-20ö initiative, aim at ensuring a competitive, secure and sustainable energy for European households and industries by reducing the emissions of green house gases, an efficient use on energy and increasing the use of renewable energy. The present paper draws a review on the most important aspects of EU energy policy, its measures, results and costs from the perspective of security of supply, competitiveness of price and green house gases emissions. The aim is to highlight the trade offs which are involved in the orientation towards a sustainable path of the energetic sector of the European Union. (authors)

  2. EQUITY AS THE MISSING LINK: THE VALUES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Freyberg-Inan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The European Union (EU is a singularly successful example of economic integration. To what extent it has also been a force for democracy- and how it can more clearly become one- are the key questions addressed in this article. Below, I first lay out how the values of prosperity, democracy, and equity are theoretically linked. Second, I show that the values of democracy and equity have been subordinate to aggregate prosperity in the process of both European integration and European Union enlargement. Not only do the EU's institutional structure and policy priorities reveal an imbalance in favor or the common market and in disfavor of a common fiscal and social policy as well as democratic accountability, EU strategy vis-à-vis candidate and accession countries reveals a disregard for the socio-economic implications of transition and for EU-fostered technocratic threats to democratic consolidation. While formal democracy of course remains a criterion for membership, EU conditionality on the whole conflicts with the development of democracy beyond minimal formal criteria. The institutional design and key policies of the enlarging EU thus clearly aim more at creating aggregate wealth than at ensuring social justice or popular empowerment. Greater awareness of the relevant choices among values should precede any further attempts at regional integration.

  3. BREXIT: THE ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL IMPACT OF A POSSIBLE WITHDRAWAL OF GREAT BRITAIN’S FROM THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIMONA MOAGĂR - POLADIAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Great Britain’s withdrawal from the European Union would not only change the internal political climate, but it could have important political repercussions within the EU and also on its relations with other European Community’s countries. Also, it could stimulate the other EU Member States to re-evaluate the terms and conditions of their membership. The same applies if Great Britain fails to renegotiate these terms and conditions while keeping the status of EU member. A priority for the UK is to maintain close trade relations with the EU, even if politically it would opt for withdrawal. In the event of possible withdrawal from the EU, Great Britain could conclude an agreement with the EU following the example of a customs union (after Turkey’s model. In this case, it would not be obliged to contribute to the EU budget or accept immigration from the EU member states. Last but not least, from a geopolitical point of view, Great Britain's exit from the EU could be seen externally as a sign of decline, EU losing its financial, economic, political and military powerhouse. From this point of view, the European Union itself have a significant political and economic interest to conclude a mutually beneficial agreement with Great Britain considering that it could terminate its EU membership.

  4. Liability of the European Union for acts of its Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaescu, Bucura Catalina

    2011-01-01

    The following article will assess the real extent of the potential liability of the European Union. It will fi rstly focus on the recognition and the development by the EU Courts of the conditions which must be fulfi lled in order for the EU to incur liability for the acts of its institutions. It will be emphasised in this regard that, as the EU Courts’ case-law currently stand, the criteria for Union liability can differ, depending on a number of variables including whether the c...

  5. Unions in small and medium-sized enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten, Ann-Louise; Crouch, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Trade unions are commonly weak in small- and medium-sized enterprises, which constitute a majority of European firms and are often family-owned. We investigate the influence of family ownership on employee membership, perceptions and experience with unions in Danish and Italian firms in the textile...... and clothing sector. Family ownership reduces union membership; and within family firms, the number of family members employed is negatively associated with unionization rates and employee perceptions of unions....

  6. Linking Public Administration and Law Studies within European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela V. Cărăuşan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The year 1987 represented for us, scholars, the turning point for the Europeanization of highdegree studies. The European Region Action Scheme for the Mobility of University Students (ERASMUS isa European Union student exchange program which has proved its utility in the last two decade. The publicadministration and law studies are two of the fields of studies which have benefited from the ERASMUSProgramme. In this respect we will try to learn the lesson of internationalization from the European contactthrough ERASMUS programme. The ‘win win’ for students is not just in the increase of knowledge in thearea of administrative sciences and law, but also in the share of cultures. The ERASMUS gives students abetter sense of what it means to be a European citizen. In addition, many employers highly value such aperiod abroad, which increases the students’ employability and job prospects.

  7. Protecting animals and enabling research in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I. Anna S.; Pinto da Silva, Sandra; Townend, David

    2016-01-01

    objectives of the directive, particularly with a focus on securing the same high standards of animal protection across member countries. The analysis focuses on three separate issues: (1) minimum standards for laboratory animal housing and care, (2) restrictions on the use of certain animal species, and (3......In 1986, European Directive 86/609/EEC, regulating the use of animals in research, was one of the first examples of common legislation to set standards for animal protection across the Member States of the former European Economic Community, now the European Union, with the aim of securing a level...... European playing field. Starting in 2002, a process of revising European animal experimentation legislation was undertaken, with one of its key aims being to ensure high standards of welfare for laboratory animals across Europe. This resulted in Directive 2010/63/EU, which has regulated this activity...

  8. The potential of solar power in the European Union; Das Potential der Sonnenenergie in der EU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-11-01

    In the framework of this research programme, reports are presented on: Wind power in the European Union; The potential of photovoltaic power generation in the European Union; The potential of thermal solar power in buildings owned by the European Union; The potential of renewable biomass in the European Union. (HW) [Deutsch] Im Rahmen des vorgelegten Forschungsprogramms wird berichtet ueber: - Windenergienutzung der EU - Potential der photovoltaischen Stromerzeugung der EU - Potential thermischer Solarenergie im Gebaeudebereich der EU - Potential erneuerbarer Biomasse in der EU. (HW)

  9. The European Union as a Global Economic Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mucha-Leszko Bogumiła

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the EU economic position in 1995–2014 as well as the prospective growth potential in the global dimension up to 2025. The subject of the research is real and projected data including: GDP growth rate, main growth factors (labour, labour productivity and Total Factor Productivity, and their input to GDP growth, as well as data showing public debts and budget deficits. The analysis was conducted for the years 1995–2014 and 2015–2025. The authors' basic conclusions are: 1 the technological and economic gap between the European Union and the United States has been deepening; 2 the increasing polarisation of world economic powers and low GDP growth in the European Union limit the EU’s chances of maintaining the position as the second centre in the world economy; 3 improving the situation in public finances in the European Union as compared to the US is a factor which could raise GDP growth rates in European countries, however, there are countries whose future is in doubt due to the dramatically poor state of public finances, such as Greece, Italy, Portugal or Ireland; 4 economic growth forecasts indicate a deepening of the economic gap between the largest EU countries and the US.

  10. Abatement of CO2 emissions in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesourne, J.; Keppler, J.H.; Jaureguy-Naudin, Maite; Smeers, Yves; Bouttes, Jean-Paul; Trochet, Jean-Michel; Dassa, Francois; Neuhoff, Karsten

    2008-01-01

    This first monograph of the Ifri program on European Governance and Geopolitics of Energy is devoted to the control of carbon dioxide emissions within the European Union. Since it is almost unanimously accepted that Greenhouse Gas emissions constitute the main cause of the observed increase of the world average temperature, the system implemented by the European Union to limit and decrease the CO 2 emissions is a significant pillar of the EU energy policy, the two others being the acceptance by the Member States of long-term commitments (for instance on the future share of renewable energy sources in their energy balance sheet) and the establishment of an internal market for electricity and gas. Though simple in principle, the European Union Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) is in fact rather complex, and only experts really understand its merits and its deficiencies. These deficiencies are real and will have to be corrected in the future for the system to be effective. At this moment, when the 2005-2007 trial phase of the EU ETS is ending, the monograph has the purpose to stimulate the discussion between experts and to enable all those interested in the topic to understand the issues and to take part in the public debates on the subject. The monograph contains five papers: - 'An Overview of the CO 2 Emission Control System in the European Union' by Jacques Lesourne and Maite Jaureguy-Naudin. - 'Description and Assessment of EU CO 2 Regulations' by Yves Smeers. - 'Assessment of EU CO 2 Regulations' by Jean-Paul Bouttes, Jean-Michel Trochet and Francois Dassa. - 'Investment in Low Carbon Technologies, Policies for the Power Sector' by Karsten Neuhoff. - 'Lessons Learned from the 2005-2007 Trial Phase of the EU Emission Trading System' by Jan Horst Keppler

  11. Demographic Change in the American Geophysical Union's United States Membership, 2006-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, D. D.

    2014-12-01

    AGU's demographic characteristics changed during the period 2006-2014 in response to the aging of the Baby Boom generation and an increase in the number of women geoscientists. This analysis deals only with the portion of AGU's membership with mailing addresses within the US, a group that comprised 65% of the worldwide total in 2006 and 61% of the total membership in 2014. Using the US membership data that include both the members' birthdate and gender, a comparison of the population structures in 2006 and 2014 reveals characteristics of the changing US workforce. Since 2006, the percent of the US membership represented by the Baby Boom has decreased 5.2%, from 37.2% to 32.0%. That trend will continue for the next 20 years and the rate will accelerate before slowing again. At the same time the Boomers are decreasing in number, the percentage of the membership represented by the more recent age-cohorts (born 1965-1989) has grown. For example, in 2006, the 1985-1989 cohort was barely represented (0.14%). By February 2014, the cohort had become 8.25% of the U.S. membership. The four cohorts covering birth years 1965 through 1984, each increased slightly in size. In addition, each had a larger number of women, reflecting AGU's increased female membership from 22.5% to 25.3%. The 1985-1989 cohort is somewhat smaller than the previous four cohorts. If the smaller size of this represents a reversal of the growth trend over the last 25 years, the implications for the size of the US workforce are important. Perhaps the most significant change in the demographic structure of AGU's US membership is that the general shape of the age-gender diagram, while still asymmetrical because of the larger number of men, is becoming more straight sided due to the similar size of recent cohorts. This shape is characteristic of stable populations when dealing with self-reproducing groups. The implications for the future of a scientific society are less clear, but the cause reflects a period

  12. Relatedness and diversification in the European Union (EU-27) and European Neighbourhood Policy countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschma, Ron; Capone, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the process of industrial diversification in the countries that were part of the European Union (EU-27) and those that were the target of the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) in the period 1995–2010 by means of world trade data derived from the BACI database (elaborated UN

  13. MEASURING THE STRUCTURAL BUDGET DEFICIT IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARJOCU ANA-MARIA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Changes to the institutional framework of the Treaty on Stability, Coordination and Governance put great emphasis on fiscal discipline in the European Union, especially for countries belonging to the Eurozone, but also for the accession countries. Surveillance of budgetary policies and the excessive deficit procedure are directions, which have to be followed, to meet debt limit and public deficit of gross domestic product, so as to fulfil fiscal and financial stability and economic integration. The objectives of this paper are to analyze, using the method of estimating the structural budget deficit, the EU Member State’s ability to fulfill the requirements of fiscal and financial stability. The findings of the scientific research and the methodology used shows the potential of the 28 member states of the European Union to fulfil the requirements for fiscal and financial stability

  14. Fiscal policies in the European Union during the crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreiro Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the fiscal policies implemented in the European Union countries since the beginning of the current crisis. With this aim in mind we have analyzed separately the expansionary fiscal policies implemented at the first stage of the crisis and the fiscal consolidation policies that became widespread at the beginning of the current decade. Studying the content of the national fiscal policies (discretionary measures versus built-in stabilizers, revenue-based versus expenditure-based fiscal policies, the relationship existing between the size of the fiscal impulses-adjustments and the composition of these measures shows the significant differences between the fiscal policies implemented in the European Union countries.

  15. Why withdrawal from the European Union is undemocratic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tore Vincents; Rostbøll, Christian F.

    2017-01-01

    The Lisbon Treaty from 2009 introduced the possibility for individual member states to withdraw from the European Union (EU) on the basis of a unilateral decision. In June 2016 the UK decided to leave the EU invoking article 50 of the treaty. But is withdrawal democratically legitimate? In fact...... argue that it is the effect of withdrawal on the status of citizens as free and equal that is decisive and that explains why unilateral withdrawal of subunits from larger units is democratically illegitimate. Moreover, on the ‘all affected status principle’ that we develop, even multilaterally agreed...... withdrawal is undemocratic because the latter diminishes the future ability of citizens to make decisions together regarding issues that affect their status as free and equal. On this basis, we conclude that it is undemocratic for a member state such as the UK to withdraw from the European Union....

  16. Dangerous Goods Transport Problems in the European Union and Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Nowacki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper refers to threat assessment of dangerous goods (DG in transportation of the European Union and the Republic of Poland. Dangerous goods in the European Union are carried by inland waterways, rail and road. In Poland 87.5% of DG have been carried by road and 12.5% by rail in 2014. DG can cause an accident and lead to fires, explosions and chemical poisoning or burning with considerable harm to people and the environment. There is not monitoring system in Poland to control in real time road transportation of dangerous goods. Proposition of National System of Monitoring Dangerous Goods in Poland was presented. Realization of mentioned kind of system may significantly contribute to improving safety of people and environment.

  17. A Monetary Union in Asia? Some European Lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wyplosz Charles

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Monetary Union in Europe has been the natural response to the combined desire of stabilizing intra-European exchange rates and of lifting permanently all capital controls. The commitment to stable exchange rate has long been rooted in policymakers’ conviction that trade integration requires precise rules which eliminate the risk of misalignments, whether imposed by the markets or arranged by the authorities. The success in maintaining fixed-but-adjustable exchange rates within the EMS and next in adopting a single currency is largely due to the patient and progressive building institutions that became the uneasy repository of those parts of national sovereignty that have been abandoned. This experience suggests three lessons for current discussions about a monetary union in Asia. First, multilateral regional exchange rate arrangements are more conducive to an effective defense than indirect approaches like basket pegs. They probably require some limits to capital mobility. Second, adopting a single currency necessitates elaborate preparations that can only be underpinned by the gradual build up of collective institutions. Third, a monetary union requires some reasonable degree of real convergence. This implies starting with a core of sufficiently homogeneous countries. At this stage, starting with a monetary union in Asia would imply reversing the European sequencing, which started with a common market, moved on to the EMS, and liberalization of capital movements.

  18. The Imprimatur of Europe: Turkey, Europeanization, and the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-01

    Turkish demands for revision of the Montreaux conventions on navigation through the Black Sea Straits and remilitarization of the Dardanelles in 1936 can be...the perception of good Turkish-Russian relations as leverage against the British in the Montreaux negotiations. As a result of the general...Turkey, the cultural factor is in a sense Europe and the EU’s test . The cultural factor takes Europe full circle, back to the point 9 The European

  19. Swedish European Union Battle Group in Urban Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-17

    urbanization that follows population growth is not the only factor that increases the likelihood of UO in the future. Another important factor is...C. 2004. Urban Battle Fields of South Asia: lessons learned from Sri Lanka, India, and Pakistan . Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation. www.rand.org...SWEDISH EUROPEAN UNION BATTLE GROUP IN URBAN OPERATIONS A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and General

  20. Lobbying in the European Union: Practices and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastian Soimu; Adriana Margarit; Daniel Stefan Andrisan; Ionut Stefan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the concept of lobby activities and its regulatory methods in the European Union with a main focus on Belgium. Lobbying is a worldwide practice that can provide policy makers with invaluable insight and data for more informed decision making. However, lobbying is often perceived negatively, as giving special advantages to vocal vested interests. Concerns that negotiations carried out behind closed doors could override the interests of the whole community ...

  1. Italy, the European Union, and Mediterranean migrants: opportunity from crisis?

    OpenAIRE

    Fillmore, Matthew L. R.

    2016-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Since 2013, civil and interstate wars have roiled North Africa and the Middle East. These conflicts, along with poverty in both regions, have led to the largest migration to Europe since the end of World War II. This thesis considers the effects of mass migration on Italy and the European Union (EU). It examines Italian and EU military responses to the migrant crisis, as well as possible means to dedicate greater resources to aid in se...

  2. Entering the Union : European Accession and Capacity-Building Priorities

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, John S.; Luo, Xubei; Broadman, Harry G.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examine the impact of trade facilitation on bilateral trade flows. They examine trade facilitation and capacity-building priorities in 12 countries in the Europe and Central Asia region-eight of the current members of the European Union: Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia, and Slovenia, and three candidate members: Bulgaria, Romania, and Turkey. The results suggest that behind-the-border factors play an important role in determining bilateral tra...

  3. Financial Supervision and Banking Competition in European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Ovidiu Stoica; Roxana Scantee

    2012-01-01

    An increasing number of countries are reviewing their financial supervisory structures and show a trend of consolidation in financial supervision. Using a sample of 27 countries from European Union, we find that the dependent variables taken into consideration (Herfindahl-Hirschman index and share of the five largest credit institutions in total assets) have no significant effects on different types of supervisory integration. In addition, there aren’t any differences in the impact of distinc...

  4. Minimum wage in the Czech Republic and European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Šmíd, Marek

    2013-01-01

    The Master's thesis deals with analysis of the minimum wage in the Czech Republic and European Union. The first three chapters describe the function and development of the minimum wage, as well as the theoretical approaches of the minimum wage. Furthermore the arguments for and against the minimum wage are summarized. In the practical part the development of the minimum wage in the Czech Republic from 1991 is analyzed and the minimum wage across the EU countries is compared. The last analysis...

  5. TWHY CCCTB DISADVANTAGES LESS DEVELOPED COUNTRIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela PÎRVU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available From its appearance, the Common Consolidated Corporate Tax Base generated numerous de-bates and controversies since its effects cannot be precisely measured. Two of the factors in the formula for allocating common consolidated corporate tax base are susceptible to disadvantage some Member States. This paper demonstrates, by a case study in Romania, that the tax sharing mechanism, through the payroll factor, disadvantages less developed countries of the European Union. These countries will record losses of corporate income tax revenues.

  6. Possible Outcomes of Brexit for European Union Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Y. Kaveshnikov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses some implications of the Brexit referendum for institutional and political development of the European Union and for relations between the EU and the UK. The most obvious consequence of the referendum is the collapse of ideology of continuous and progressing development of integration. Instead of endless, irreversible, a priori beneficial for everyone integration process, the European Union has become an organization that does not have a Messianic goal and obliged to prove its usefulness in everyday life. EU systemic crisis will inevitably lead to a profound transformation of its institutional and political structure. After the British referendum, only two options are possible. First of all, partial deconstruction of the European Union. The idea that European integration has gone too far lies in the basis of this strategy. According to this logic, the single market is the main EU achievement. Return to the basics - this is a pragmatic approach to integration, which should replace attempts to fix rotten projects (like Euro or to achieve the unattainable (political Union. This option is hardly probable. Second option is transformation of the EU into the "core and periphery" system having the basis flexible integration. Over the past 20 years, flexibility transformed from temporary phenomenon into a permanent and formalized mechanism; its elements exist in many EU politics. Brexit would be able to accelerate significantly the formation of a cohesive core within the Eu. The core will not be homogeneous; it will include as governing structures: the German-French axis and a group of EU founding countries.

  7. Families and the European Union : law, politics and pluralism.

    OpenAIRE

    McGlynn, C.M.S.

    2006-01-01

    In the first book to offer a comprehensive analysis of family law in the European Union, McGlynn argues that a traditional concept of 'family' which has many adverse effects - on individuals, on families (in all their diverse forms), and indeed on the economic ambitions of the EU is forming the basis for the little-recognised and under-researched field of EU family law. This book examines three different aspects of family life - childhood, parenthood and partnerships - and critically analyses...

  8. The Welfare (Social) State, European Union and Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Blahož, J. (Josef)

    2014-01-01

    The relation of power, state, law and poverty. State according to law (Rule of Law) and social policy. The origin, definition and development of the welfare state. Welfare state in the framework of the European Union. The relation of the welfare state and social state. Constitutional, legal and socio-economical targets of the welfare (social) state. The welfare state typologies. The three worlds of the welfare state. Global processes and the welfare state reforms and transformations. Welf...

  9. Nuclear power. A key contributor to a decarbonised European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-12-15

    The European energy sector is currently facing a new set of challenges in the light of the COP21 Paris agreement, the Energy Union initiative and new market design projections. Nuclear energy sector understands the post COP21 constellation as a unique opportunity for all low carbon technologies which will be basic for transition towards COP21 commitments. A new policy outlook for Europe is needed in order to provide low carbon capacity, lead to the modernisation of technical processes and contribute to the prosperity of Europeans. The benefits of nuclear are highlighted for a low carbon future and for the security of supply and recommend actions for supporting new investments.

  10. PRICE DEVELOPMENTS OF BEEF CARCASSES IN ROMANIA AND EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOANA BĂLAN

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of the classification of cattle carcasses (beef and veal are represented by the correct payment to cattle breeders, according to carcass weight and quality, and standardization, the common language in the international meat trade. The European Union set uniform procedures for quality assessment (the EUROP system, defined by the same parameters in the whole continent. Romania is at the beginning of cattle carcass classification; it is in the third year of reporting on the classification results to the European Commission. In this context, we consider it is very important to analyze these results, for a continuous improvement of carcass quality.

  11. Controlling Delegated Powers in the Post-Lisbon European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandsma, Gijs Jan; Blom-Hansen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Most European Union rules are made by the Commission, not the Council of Ministers or the European Parliament. But although the Commission is an important rule-maker, it is not autonomous. The member states have always taken care to install committees to control the Commission (comitology). However......, the Lisbon Treaty introduced alternative control mechanisms (delegated acts) and a reform of the comitology system (implementing acts). This article investigates how the post-Lisbon control system works in daily legislative practice. It represents the first investigation of the institutional preferences...

  12. The Second Look in European Union Competition Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jakob B; Torp, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    Under European Union (EU) law, arbitrators and national courts are obligated to apply, ex officio, EU competition law. Also according to EU law, any failure by an arbitral tribunal to apply such rules, or any erroneous interpretation or application hereof, constitute grounds for setting aside......’ the European arbitration landscape. Even so, we have attempted to include and contribute to a few of the main discussions concerning the landscape in which the decisions were rendered in the introductory section. In the last section, we build on the reasoning of the two Supreme Courts in order to propose...

  13. Economic Growth and CO2 Emissions in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengochea-Morancho, A.; Martinez-Zarzoso, I.; Higon-Tamarit, F.

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between economic growth and CO 2 emissions in the European Union. A panel data analysis for the period 1981 to 1995 is applied in order to estimate the relationship between Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth and CO 2 emissions in ten selected European countries. The analysis shows important disparities between the most industrialised countries and the rest. The results do not seem to support a uniform policy to control emissions; they rather indicate that a reduction in emissions should be achieved by taking into account the specific economic situation and the industrial structure of each EU member state. 20 refs

  14. The Relations Between Romania and European Union (1993-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian IVAN

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available With the collapse of the communism regimes in central and eastern Europe, the states from this area, among which Romania, expressed their aspiration to integrate in the big European family represented by the European Union. In this respect the European Union proposed “association agreements” to these countries, agreements to which Romania adhered in February 1993 (in 1995 Romania presented its request for admission in the EU. Further on, in 1997 Romania launched “The national program for the adoption of the acquis comunautaire”. An important moment for Romania has arrived at Helsinki during the meeting of the European Council (10-11 December 1999, which decided to organize bilateral intergovernmental conferences for all the 13 candidate states in order to begin the accession negotiations, which were opened by Romania on the 16th of February 2000. The Helsinki decision regarding the beginning of the admission negotiations with Romania was a political one; Romania having acute economical, juridical and administrative problems. In the European Commission 2003 country report regarding Romania, there are positive appreciations with regard to the fulfillment of the political criteria and for the progress made in the adoption of the acquis comunautaire as well as for the economical progress but Romania still did not receive the statute of functional market economy. On the other hand the malfunctions still persist in the domains of public administration, agriculture, justice and the fight against corruption.

  15. The external energy policy of the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesourne, J.; Keppler, Jan Horst; Goetz, Roland; Van der Linde, Coby

    2008-01-01

    This third monograph of the Ifri program on European Governance and Geopolitics of Energy is devoted to the program's first annual conference on the 'External Energy Policy of the European Union'. The conference took place from January 31 to February 1, 2008, at the Palais Egmont, in Brussels, Belgium. Representatives of the European Commission, national governments, academia, and industry examined the European perspectives on the highly topical issue of external energy policy and assessed their relative prospects. The purpose of the conference was to take stock of current policies and to develop perspectives for the future. This monograph comprises five chapters: - A background paper prepared by Jacques Lesourne. A version of this document was given to the speakers prior the conference. It provided a set of questions that were designed to orient their reflection. - Three background papers that introduced some of the questions to be addressed during the three sessions. These papers were written by Jan Horst Keppler, professor at Universite Paris-Dauphine and Senior Research Associate at the Ifri Energy Program; Roland Goetz, Senior Research Fellow at the Institute for International and Security Affairs (SWP), Berlin; and Coby van der Linde, Senior Research Fellow and Director of the Clingendael International Energy Programme (CIEP). - An assessment of the main points raised during the exchanges among the conference participants and an evaluation of the European Union's external energy policy written by J. Lesourne

  16. THE FINANCIAL SETTLEMENT IN THE ENLARGEMENT OF THE EUROPEAN UNION: LESSONS FOR ROMANIA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Mayhew

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available At the end of every European Union accession negotiation, there is a fight about finance. Yet finance is by no means the most important element of the negotiations. Matters affecting the vital interests of new and old members like the free movement of labour or the representation of the new member state in the institutions of the Union are usually far more important in the longer term. But it is easier for politicians to talk to voters about money than about policy. The budgetary negotiations in this first enlargement to the countries of Central and Eastern Europe were perhaps more important in that these are relatively poor countries compared to the Union average per capita gross domestic product. They all will have to invest heavily in transport and environmental infrastructure in the coming decades in order to catch up with the standards of the EU-15 and support higher economic growth and development. Assuming responsible macro-economic policy in the new member states, EU budgetary transfers can speed up this investment process considerably, allowing these countries to catch up with the old member states in terms of per capita income more quickly. Higher transfers to the new member states means of course larger net budgetary contributions for the old member states (EU-15. This comes at a time when budget deficits are high and rising throughout the EURO-zone and when member states are making politically controversial cuts in social spending. The fiscal discipline involved in membership of the monetary union and implementation of the Broad Economic Policy Guidelines therefore means that the existing member states of the Union are not keen to see their net budgetary position with Brussels deteriorate or even their gross contributions to the budget rise. This paper investigates the background to the budget negotiations and the political economy behind them.

  17. Energy[Relations between Norway and the European Union]; Energi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claes, Dag Harald

    2003-07-01

    The booklet describes the Norwegian relationship to the European Union in the energy area and is an appendix to the project ''Tenketank Europa'' (''Think-tank Europe''). The basis for the study is several European directives that are a collective effort to liberalize the European energy sector. The main emphasis is on the gas sector as the conflicts between Norway and the Union have been largest in this area. The study show how the Norwegian organization of the sector gradually has changed from strongly nationalized to a more open organization. There is little doubt that the main reason for the alterations may be contributed to the Union gas market directives and the legal competitive process towards the Norwegian company role in the Gas Negotiation Committee (GFU). The electricity sector and license policy have also been regulated in the EU through directives valid for Norway through the EEA agreement. In these areas have the EU policies been more in harmony with the Norwegian policies. In the electricity sector because Norway liberalized much earlier and more strongly than the EU and in the licensing area mainly because Norway influenced the so called license directive and thus shaped the EU policies towards Norwegian interests.

  18. European Union regional policy in Asia-Europe’s meeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel de Jesús Rocha Pino

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available During 1996 the Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM was created with the purpose of constituting a mechanism of nonexistent interregional dialogue until that moment and that united the both extremes of the eurasian territorial mass: East Asia (represented by group ANSEA 3 and Europe (represented by the European Union. The expectations erected at the moment of ASEM's creation were many, but with the years it has demonstrated a set of limits that has diminished its effectiveness, at least in the area of the political dialogue. In this paper is described the particular experience of the diplomacy of the European Union in the mechanism of the ASEM, the kind of interregional policy that this one has implemented and the contradictions that it has had to tolerate with respect to his own legal and institutional exigencies. In the paper it is argued that, despite its limits, the ASEM can be a referential case on the reaction of the European Union forehead to the transformation that in historical terms means the political and economic emergency of Asia in the international system.

  19. The European Union stakes on biofuels; L'Union europeenne mise sur les biocarburants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laffon, M

    2008-07-01

    The European Union has just published the environmental side of its action in the fight against climatic change. Like the third 'energy batch', these new legislative proposals are the continuation of the January 2007 communication of the commission which aimed at fixing the trends of the energy policy of the European Communities. Some measures of these last legislative proposals, in particular those treating of biofuels, are sometimes considered as too ambitious and even unrealistic. The overall proposals are waiting for the final adoption during the French presidency. (J.S.)

  20. European Union's public fishing access agreements in developing countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Le Manach

    Full Text Available The imperative to increase seafood supply while dealing with its overfished local stocks has pushed the European Union (EU and its Member States to fish in the Exclusive Economic Zones of other countries through various types of fishing agreements for decades. Although European public fishing agreements are commented on regularly and considered to be transparent, this is the first global and historical study on the fee regime that governs them. We find that the EU has subsidized these agreements at an average of 75% of their cost (financial contribution agreed upon in the agreements, while private European business interests paid the equivalent of 1.5% of the value of the fish that was eventually landed. This raises questions of fisheries benefit-sharing and resource-use equity that the EU has the potential to address during the nearly completed reform of its Common Fisheries Policy.

  1. GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF LAFFER'S THEORY FOR EUROPEAN UNION MEMBER STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LILIANA BUNESCU

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Most times the current situation of one or another country depends on the historical development of own tax system. A practical question of any governance is to determine the optimal taxation rate level, bringing to the state the highest tax revenues. A good place to start is with what is popularly known as the Laffer curve. This paper aims to determine in graphical terms the level where European economies ranks by using Laffer curve based on the data series provided by the European Commission and the World Bank. Graphical analysis of Laffer's theory can emphasize only the positioning on one or another side of point for maximum tax revenues, a position that can influence fiscal policy decisions. Conclusions at European Union level are simple. Value of taxation rate for fiscal optimal point varies from one Member State to another, from 48.9% in Denmark to 28% in Romania, with an average of 37.1% for the EU-27.

  2. Transformation of Wage Bargaining Systems in European Union. Some Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Bercu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In a global world, the industrial relations have become the strategical tool for economic development of the states. Our paper aim to emphasise the increasing role of wage bargaining systems in the industrial relations in European Union, going from the presumption that the labour market is changing every day and the European authorities must take the decisions with a high economic and social impact. Going from an extended literature review and using the data provided by Eurostat and Eurofound, reflecting the new European regulations concerning the employment relations, the findings of our paper reflect a dynamic transformation of wage bargaining systems at institutional level, labour market and collective bargaining. The results reflect the direct implications of wage bargaining systems on the labour productivity, on the political decisions considering the minimum wage and the real and nominal wage. Our findings are valuable for the academicians and practitioners interested in industrial relations and wage bargaining systems.

  3. Legislative Co-decision in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume takes stock of twenty years of practising and studying codecision in the European Union (EU) and examines the procedure’s long-term implications for the EU’s institutions, politics and policies. The introduction of co-legislation between the Council of Ministers and the European...... the extent to which codecision has delivered the expected gains and to review the unexpected effects that have followed from its introduction, such as the growing informalisation of EU decision-making. Using a combination of in-depth qualitative case studies, wider quantitative analyses, practitioners......’ insights and a review of the procedure’s democratic legitimacy the contributions offer a holistic assessment of the effect of co-decision on the political system of the EU. This book was published as a special issue of the Journal of European Public Policy....

  4. Position of the European Union in the Global Trade System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovićević Mladen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Only a few decades ago, the main drivers of globalization were the exchange of goods and capital flows, while the global trading system of today, fuelled by rapid technological changes increasingly bases itself on knowledge. The Key events - such as the use of the Internet and the increasingly important role of the rising countries economies - have contributed to a faster global exchange, but to a new nature as well. In order to illustrate the scope of the increase, perhaps it would be the best to mention the fact that in the 1970’s the share of trade in the world GDP amounted to 20%, whereas today it makes about one half. On the other hand, modern products represent compounds of raw materials, components, technologies and services originating from different areas and different continents, which has globalized the products themselves. In such conditions of the market competition, imposed by globalization and liberalization, for the European Union to remain as a leader, it had to prepare a sound and well-founded foreign policy strategy. The aim of this paper is to analyse the current position of the European Union in the global trading system, instruments of foreign trade policy, goals, foreign trade and the main challenges placed before the Union.

  5. THE FOREIGN AND SECURITY POLICIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

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    Anand Menon

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available In only a decade the European Union has moved from being a new kid on the block in terms of foreign and security policies to being a high profile and surprisingly effective international actor. Certainly, it has failed to match the ambitions of some of its most enthusiastic proponents. Certainly, too, European publics know next to nothing about what the Union does in the international realm. It is because of this that, despite their potential and their effectiveness to date, EU policies in this sphere were widely derided as failures following the moment when the attacks of 11 September 2001 shook the western world to its core. The Convention on the Future of Europe and subsequent intergovernmental conference look set to make significant institutional changes to the Union’s foreign and security policy systems. In undertaking these reforms, Convention members, and national governments are doubtless motivated by the laudable objective of enabling the Union to do more on the international stage. One can only hope that these motives notwithstanding, they do not simply propose reforms for their own sake and, in the process, undermine a system that, to the surprise of many, has continued to function respectably in an ever more complex and ever more dangerous world.

  6. IS TURKEY READY TO JOINT THE EUROPEAN FISCAL UNION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Friedrich SIMET

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Since Turkey was officially recognized as a candidate for full membership in 1999 and negotiations were started in 2005 its membership bid has become and still is a major controversy in the ongoing enlargement process. This controversy contributes not only to the valuation of modern Turkey’s social, cultural, political but also its economic situation. Most statements are based on scenarios derived from the perspective on how Turkey’s membership would influence the EU as a whole and/or some of its member states. The development of Turkey as EU member was rarely researched. In particular it was not studied how Turkey’s membership would change Turkey and how these changes would re-influence the development of the EU in a longer run. The present financial, debt crisis in the EU led to intensified short-term oriented analyses on just financial aspects. In order to define and discuss pros and cons of Turkey’s accession it is not sufficient anymore to focus almost exclusively on the effects of Turkey’s accession to the EU. Turkey is to be analyzed from three further perspectives and scenarios: 1 How will Turkey develop as non-member state? 2 How would Turkey develop as a member-state? And 3 How would Turkey as a member state re-influence the EU? As the present economic crisis of the EU (for instance about 46 % of young people in Spain are jobless is aggravated by a major financial crisis in the Euro zone, the economic and financial perspectives of development have to be moved into focus. The “Europe 2020 Strategy” points the way, as it provides indicators to measure the EU’s development from a long-termed perspective. Growth “at EU and national levels” has to be “smart”, “sustainable” and “inclusive”. Accordingly, “five targets were identified: (1 75 % of the population aged 20-64 should be employed, (2 3% of the EU's GDP should be invested in R&D, (3 The "20/20/20" climate/energy targets should be met, (4 The share of

  7. Priority for import capacity. The fear of the European Union for a free European energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roggen, M.

    2002-01-01

    Brussels (the seat of the European Union in Belgium) is worried about the performance of the liberalized European energy market. The natural gas and electricity networks are suffering from chronic congestion. Some areas are largely or even entirely cut off from the European energy infrastructure. Those problems must be addressed to realize the internal market. A package of reforms has been put forward by the European Commission the end of 2001 and 12 priority projects are identified and briefly discussed in this article [nl

  8. The Future of the European Union: A Critical Trade Union View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Medhurst

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a radical critique of the current framework of economic policy within the European Union and its negative effect on social cohesion. It defends the aspirations of the “Social Europe” model but suggests this model is now withering on the vine, not least because employers and governments no longer support it and have withdrawn from genuine social partnership. The paper asserts that the undemocratic nature of European policy making institutions is a fundamental bloc to progressive reform of the EU, and criticises the economic philosophy inherent in the Lisbon Agenda and recent controversial European Court of Justice decisions that have expanded that agenda. Lastly, it sketches some alternatives to this direction of travel, drawn from successful models within and outside Europe.

  9. Labour market segmentation and mobility as determinants of trade union membership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Carsten Strøby

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses if and to what extent labour market segmentation and labour market mobility influence trade union density. Some industries and sectors have stable employment domains and employees stay to a high degree within the industry even if they change jobs. Other industries and sectors...... have more unstable employments domains and employees to a higher degree shift to employment in other industries and sectors when they move to another job. In this article, it is analysed how differences in segmentation and employee mobility out of an industry influence union density. The analysis...... is based on a statistical analysis of registry data from Denmark and contains almost 2 million employees employed in 111 different industries (NACE-coded). The analysis shows that trade union density especially in the private sector industries is significantly influenced by level of segmentation and level...

  10. Food Safety in the Context of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Food safety is a component of food security. According to Codex Alimentarius, food safety is “assurance that food will not cause harm to the consumer when it is prepared and/or eaten according to its intended use”. Food products ‒ processed or fresh ‒ sold to final consumers must not affect their health as a result of direct consumption or processing, depending on the intended purpose of each. In order for a food product ‒ unprocessed, partially or totally processed or newly created ‒ to be safe, it must necessarily fulfil three conditions: to have innocuousness, to be salubrious, not to endanger the human body, that is the normal and healthy consumer; to have nutritional and energy value; food nutrients to be available for the body. Both the European and the national general regulatory frameworks on food safety set the consumer’s right to a safe diet. The normative acts adopted by the European Union (EU are aimed at harmonizing national food safety standards so that the free movement of food products can be achieved as efficiently as possible. In this respect, the European Union has developed a rich legislative body on food safety, animal health and welfare, and plant health, which is binding in all EU countries.

  11. Growth effects of EU and EZ memberships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, Johannes Kabderian; Schmid, Peter A.

    2017-01-01

    One of the major economic reasons for the creation of the European Union (EU) and of the Euro-zone (EZ) was an expected bonus of economic growth for member countries. Whilst several studies exist on the growth bonus of EU membership, there are none for the EZ, the latest and deepest step of econo......One of the major economic reasons for the creation of the European Union (EU) and of the Euro-zone (EZ) was an expected bonus of economic growth for member countries. Whilst several studies exist on the growth bonus of EU membership, there are none for the EZ, the latest and deepest step...

  12. Labour market segmentation and mobility as determinants of trade union membership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Carsten Strøby

    2018-01-01

    This article analyses if and to what extent labour market segmentation and labour market mobility influence trade union density. Some industries and sectors have stable employment domains and employees stay to a high degree within the industry even if they change jobs. Other industries and sectors...... have more unstable employments domains and employees to a higher degree shift to employment in other industries and sectors when they move to another job. In this article, it is analysed how differences in segmentation and employee mobility out of an industry influence union density. The analysis...... of mobility....

  13. EUROPEAN UNION IN GLOBAL CLIMATE GOVERNANCE: TO PARIS AND BEYOND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Savorskaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s, the European Union is aspiring global leadership in the area of climate change, which is refl ected in its active participation in the negotiations on the international climate change regime. However, those ambitions have not always turned out to be appropriate or justifi ed. Despite the fact that the European Union was able to achieve certain results during the Kyoto Protocol negotiations and even more signifi cant results in the process of its ratifi cation, for the most part EU negotiation strategy based on normative considerations, had not been successful, it was especially evident during the 2009 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen. Partly the disappointing results of EU performance during the Copenhagen negotiations are to be blamed on some of the key features of EU functioning logic, for example, the overall tendency to rely on scientifi c evidence in policy-making, which did not allow the EU to assess other parties’ interests adequately. As the results of the negotiations of parties to the UNFCCC in December 2015 in Paris have shown, the European Union did manage to work out its previous mistakes and build a broad informal international coalition. Contrary to the pessimistic expectations, the agreement was adopted and it took into account quite a few of the EU proposals. However, the Paris Treaty has a number of fl aws and inaccuracies, so the ability to eliminate them in a timely manner by the international community and the EU in particular, will determine the future of the new international climate change regime.

  14. The dilemmas of tax coordination in the enlarged European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøchner, Jens; Jensen, Jesper; Svensson, Patrik

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluates the economic effects of corporate tax coordination in the enlarged European Union (EU) using a computable general equilibrium model. Our main findings are as follows: (i) Corporate tax coordination can yield modest aggregate welfare gains. The 2004 enlargement of the EU has...... increased the potential gains from tax harmonization, provided corporate tax rates and tax bases are harmonized at their unweighted averages. (ii) All scenarios for coordination leave some EU Member States as winners and others as losers. An agreement on tax coordination is therefore likely to require...

  15. Theorizing European Union Trade Politics: Contending or Complementary Paradigms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Orbie

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This special issue aims to take the first step towards an inter-paradigmatic debate in the study of European Union trade politics. In this introduction we highlight the importance of trade as an EU policy domain that is currently undergoing radical changes. We also give a brief overview of the literature on EU trade politics, pointing to the fragmentation of different theoretical approaches. Furthermore, we suggest that more dialogue between different paradigms may be fruitful. We conclude by situating the contributions to this special issue in terms of their theoretical and ontological perspectives.

  16. Transparency in the Council of the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Bo

    2013-01-01

    The Council of the European Union is often described as the least transparent of the three big EU institutions although steps have been taken to improve the transparency of its activities during the last couple of decades. This article focuses on the Council’s press officers who provide journalists...... with information and thereby act as day-to-day facilitators of transparency of the Council’s activities. Although these communicators see themselves as contributing substantially to the transparency of the Council’s work and thereby as enabling the media to provide EU citizens with information about one...

  17. Gas and electricity price in the European Union in 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Jean-Philippe

    2012-11-01

    This document indicates and comments the evolution of gas and electricity prices in the different countries of the European Union. As far as natural gas is concerned, it outlines that taxes on gas are higher in Nordic countries, and that prices are increasing everywhere (for industry as well as for households). As far as electricity is concerned, price is rather cheap in France compared to the other countries. Graphs indicate the evolution of electricity prices between 2010 and 2011 in the different countries for industry and households. Even if a decrease has been noticed in some countries, the general trend is to an increase (between 5 and 10% in average)

  18. The European Union's Normative Power in a more Global Era

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2013-01-01

    The globalising, multilateralising and multipolarising era requires a reconsideration of the nature of European Union (EU) power and actorness in a more global era. The article does this by first looking at the study of the EU in a more global era. Second, the normative power approach...... will be examined, focussing on engagement, internationalisation and comparison. Third, the approach to conceptualising normative power in a more global era will be set out. Finally, the article will conclude by examining six mechanisms of the EU's normative justification in action....

  19. The dilemmas of tax coordination in the enlarged European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøchner, Jens; Jensen, Jesper; Svensson, Patrik

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluates the economic effects of corporate tax coordination in the enlarged European Union (EU) using a computable general equilibrium model. Our main findings are as follows: (i) Corporate tax coordination can yield modest aggregate welfare gains. The 2004 enlargement of the EU has...... elaborate compensation mechanisms. (iii) The large and diverse country effects suggest that Enhanced Cooperation for a subset of the Member States may be the most likely route towards tax coordination. (iv) Identifying winners and losers from coordination for the purpose of a compensation mechanism may...

  20. The World Trade Organization and the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jens Ladefoged

    2008-01-01

    Analysing the way in which the EU engages in some of the most important international organizations, this book outlines a framework for analysis within this thriving subject of study. By demonstrating how the EU supports ‘effective multilateralism' and global governance, as well as furthering...... developments within foreign policy, this volume adopts a novel perspective on the EU as an international player. Seeking to move the focus of study beyond the European Union as itself an international organization, contributors set out to demonstrate EU aspirations to act within international organizations....

  1. Towards a standardised surveillance for Trichinella in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alban, L.; Pozio, E.; Boes, J.

    2011-01-01

    Each year, more than 167 million pigs in the European Union (EU) are tested for Trichinella spp. under the current meat hygiene regulations. This imposes large economic costs on countries, yet the vast majority of these pigs test negative and the public health risk in many countries is therefore...... considered very low. This work reviewed the current Trichinella status across the EU as well as the national level of monitoring and reporting. It also reviewed which animal species were affected by Trichinella and in which species it should be surveyed. This information was used to design a cost-effective...

  2. In-Depth Study Of European Union Fiscal Approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Roxana TOMI

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The current study presents a viewpoint on the EU fiscal policy contents, advocating the need for an in-depth understanding and acceleration of the 27 national fiscal system components and the creation of the EU Tax System that would enable the Single Market operation and the enforcement of the four fundamental liberties within the European Union. In the author’s opinion, the extant common fiscal policy elements are only marginal, while the actions aimed at an in-depth understanding of a broad fiscal policy are essential to the extent they point at both direct and indirect taxation aspects whose approximation is a priority.

  3. Tax competition and tax harmonization in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuše Nerudová

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problems of tax competition and harmonization within the European Union. It reveals the single difficulties connected with harmonization, identifies the problems arising from tax competition and points out the harmful tax competition as well. Single compulsory harmonized tax base in connection with prevailing tax competition in the area of tax rates is the suggested solution in the scope of direct taxation. As the solution in the area of indirect taxation could serve the introduction of “principle of origin”. This would cause remarkable administrative costs decrease not only for economic subjects but for tax authorities as well.

  4. Management of migration flows in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Larisa Drugă

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available International migration can contribute to the economic growth of the European Union (EU as a whole, as well as provide resources for migrants and their home countries, and thus contribute to their development. It can be an opportunity, because it is a factor of human and economic exchange and enables people to achieve what they aspire to. However, there is a need to manage migration in a manner that takes account of Europe's reception capacity in terms of its labour market, housing and health, education and social services, while protecting migrants against possible exploitation by criminal networks.

  5. Analysis of Lithuanian Direct Investment into European Union Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelina Zigmantavičiūtė

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the valuation of macroeconomic factors influencing the Lithuanian direct investment into European Union was conducted. The problem of this paper is the different chosen macroeconomic factors influencing foreign direct investment. The object of this paper is Lithuanian direct investment. The methods of this paper include: comparative literature analysis, correlation regression analysis, paired regression analysis. After conducting a research of dependency of Lithuanian direct investment to EU countries from price changes, government sector income, gross domestic product, inflation, jobless rate results, it is found that gross domestic product and government sector income have the most influence on the changes of Lithuanian direct investment.

  6. Education, employment, and sustainable development in the European union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaballah, I.; Dufourg, A.; Tondeur, D.

    2002-11-01

    This paper examines the current and prospective status of education, employment, and sustainable development in the European Union (EU). Due to the decrease of the birth rate and the increase of life expectation, the size of the labor force is decreasing and its average age is increasing. Moreover, rapid technological evolution will necessitate “long-life learning” for the old workers and young people. It will be a challenge to supply the EU’s labor market with an adequate number of workers with the appropriate skill ad tempus. This will change profoundly the classical education system that will become the largest economic sector in the next decade.

  7. The solidarity economy: a possible revival of the European Union?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel GOUJON

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Union is in crisis. Economic crisis, but also political crisis and symbolic crisis: the citizens distrust Europe which does not have clear project anymore Our hypothesis is that the solidarity economy can contribute to the emergence of a new European, clear and mobilizing project. A project offering new socioeconomic perspectives to the European citizens and an attractive utopia. This text will take place in four phases. In a first part, we shall describe the exhaustion of paradigm liberal and the limits of paradigm keynesian. Secondly, we shall try hard to demonstrate the theoretical possibility of establishing new one paradigm. In the third time, we shall illustrate this possibility by revisiting, in the light of the European solidarity initiatives, three economic notions keys. Finally, in a last time, we shall try hard to show in what the solidarity economy , which makes some deliberation between equals the best means assign all resources, can contribute to bringout the European construction of the current impasse.

  8. Safeguarding values in the European Union: : The European Parliament, Article 7 and Hungary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonelli, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    The recent constitutional crisis in Hungary and other political developments in several EU member states have raised concerns over the capacity of the European Union to safeguard its fundamental values: democracy, the rule of law and human rights. Mechanisms in the hands of the institutions are

  9. HARMONISATION AND FISCAL COMPETITION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danut, CHILAREZ

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite all efforts to harmonize the economic and political systems, the economic globalization and the intensification of capital mobility also created the conditions of a fiscal competition between the EU member states. Currently, in the European Union there is not a fully integrated European tax system, which has an impact on how the same decision of fiscal policy is transmitted at the level of each member state. The present paper summarizes some pros/cons regarding the orientation of the fiscal harmonisation efforts in a manner allowing governments to use the fiscal policy as an instrument of public policy in their efforts to cope with the asymmetric macroeconomic shocks and the adjustment of the macroeconomic indicators.

  10. Motor fuel demand analysis - applied modelling in the European union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chorazewiez, S.

    1998-01-01

    Motor fuel demand in Europe amounts to almost half of petroleum products consumption and to thirty percent of total final energy consumption. This study considers, Firstly, the energy policies of different European countries and the ways in which the consumption of motor gasoline and automotive gas oil has developed. Secondly it provides an abstract of demand models in the energy sector, illustrating their specific characteristics. Then it proposes an economic model of automotive fuel consumption, showing motor gasoline and automotive gas oil separately over a period of thirty years (1960-1993) for five main countries in the European Union. Finally, forecasts of consumption of gasoline and diesel up to the year 2020 are given for different scenarios. (author)

  11. Has the European union achieved a single pharmaceutical market?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timur, Aysegul; Picone, Gabriel; DeSimone, Jeffrey

    2011-12-01

    This paper explores price differences in the European Union (EU) pharmaceutical market, the EU's fifth largest industry. With the aim of enhancing quality of life along with industry competitiveness and R&D capability, many EU directives have been adopted to achieve a single EU-wide pharmaceutical market. Using annual 1994-2003 data on prices of molecules that treat cardiovascular disease, we examine whether drug price dispersion has indeed decreased across five EU countries. Hedonic regressions show that over time, cross-country price differences between Germany and three of the four other EU sample countries, France, Italy and Spain, have declined, with relative prices in all three as well as the fourth country, UK, rising during the period. We interpret this as evidence that the EU has come closer to achieving a single pharmaceutical market in response to increasing European Commission coordination efforts.

  12. European Union: the role of Rural Development Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Melozzi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The conservation of ecosystems and their services is fundamental for a sustainable economy and social development within the European Union. Incentives for the continuous on-farm use of biodiversity have become an integral part of EU support for regional and rural development in recent years. Furthermore, as a signatory of the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, the EU Commission set itself the objective of stemming the decline of agricultural biodiversity not only in Europe but internationally. At European level, the measures aimed at achieving these objectives pass through the Common Agricultural Policy and are contained within the Rural Development Plans. This article provides a general framework of the implementation of these policies for the 2007-13 plan with particular reference to the situation in Italy, and dwells the extent to which they correspond to the objectives of the Treaty.

  13. LABOR MOBILITY – EUROPEAN UNION AND NATIONAL RULES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Catană

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the four fundamental freedoms guaranteed by the Treaty establishing the European Community is the free movement of persons, whose Foundation lies in the Elimination of discrimination between citizens of the Member State in whose territory they reside and operate and citizens of other countries who are working in the territory of the same State. Mobility of labor in terms of the concept of free movement of workers, the term worker referring both to persons carrying on an activity in the wage and the notion of the worker, as these concepts have been determined by the Court of Justice or by the Council (through the provisions of Regulation 1612/68, became his new in the context of Romania's integration in the European Union. Although the movement of workers is free, legal regime of these is different from one Member State to another, which leads to inequities that the Community rules have failed to cover.

  14. The role of union support in coping with job insecurity: A study among union members from three European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Sjoerd Goslinga; Johnny Hellgren; Antonio Chirumbolo; Hans De Witte; Katharina Näswall; Magnus Sverke

    2005-01-01

    The present study examines the potential moderating role of union support in the relationship between job insecurity and work-related attitudes and well-being of unionised employees. Survey data collected among union members from three European countries (The Netherlands, Italy and Sweden) indicate that job insecurity is associated with reduced levels of job satisfaction, well-being and organisational commitment. Contrary to expectations, union support moderated neither the effect of job inse...

  15. Unsustainable Public Debt in a European Fiscal Union?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Kutasi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Some EU members faced years of crisis in the first half of the 2010s with an excessive initial public debt, but several others had broad room for fiscal timulus. However, the prolonged duration of the European economic depression expended public budgets, while exhausting stimulus policies and sovereign solvency. Meanwhile, one of the ways out of depression is a proposed centralization of the EU through fiscal union. Are the eurozone countries readyto participate in a risk pool in public finances? The study seeks to answer this question. The article presents the hypothesis that the sustainability of public finances deteriorated during the global and euro crisis in the majority of the eurozone member countries and in the EU, and this phenomenon is discouragingthe core countries from seeking the fiscal union. The analysis uses the Blanchard indicators of fiscal sustainability and the sovereign risk rating of the EURO-18 and EU-28 countries. The analysis presents as results a theoretical summary of fiscal sustainability, the development of fiscal sustainability in the EU member states, indicators of convergence or divergence of fiscal sustainability in the Community, and conclusions based on the indicators of the likelihood of a fiscal union.

  16. CATHOLIC SOCIAL TEACHING AND THE ORIGINS OF EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiberiu Brailean

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Many papal encyclicals were not directly concerned about the appearance of European Union due to many historical, political and social contexts. The fundamental principles developed through several encyclicals from early 19th century to the present day reaffirmed the neutrality of the Church regarding to many forms of government. But the most important idea has its root in the restoration of the Christian principles in society. In a time of de-Christianization and secularism, the role of Church as the foundation of peace is also important to notice. It was considered that every modern democracy is the image of the revealed heart of the universal law of charity (Jacques Maritain. That is why between a supranational entity like the European Union and the Catholic Church should be a friendly and close relationship. A unite Europe has its roots in Christianity, especially in Catholicism. The soul of Europe is animated by religious principles. Whether we talk about Schuman or Adenauer, their Christian faith is the engine for their political success. After the Second World War, in Western Europe, the Christian democratic parties had a huge impact for the democratic governance. The socio-economic policies of these parties were anchored in Catholic social teaching.

  17. Energy Policies of IEA Countries: European Union 2008 Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    For the first time, the IEA has reviewed the energy policies of the European Union which shape the energy use of almost 500 million citizens in 27 EU member countries. A unique entity governed under complex and almost constantly evolving structures, the EU constitutes a challenge for energy policy makers. Its energy policy has a global impact, not only because of its 16% share of world energy demand, but also because of the EU leadership in addressing climate change. Strong policy drives are underway in the EU to achieve the completion of the internal energy market, increase renewable energy supply, reduce CO2 emissions and make the EU more energy-efficient. Concerns about security of supply have also led to a greater focus on improved energy relations with supplier countries, and new institutional structures are being put in place. How much progress has been made in the field of security, internal market and external energy policies? And in which of these areas has the EU already implemented a fully integrated policy? IEA Energy Policies Review: The European Union - 2008 addresses these questions and also analyses the impact of the most recent major EU policy measures, in particular the Energy & Climate Package of January 2008 and the 3rd Liberalisation Package of September 2007. This book finds that both of these proposals are highly ambitious. But implementing them and reviewing both volume and allocation of energy R&D will be necessary to achieve a sustainable energy future in a fully competitive integrated EU energy market.

  18. Biopesticides--towards increased consumer safety in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaja, Katarzyna; Góralczyk, Katarzyna; Struciński, Paweł; Hernik, Agnieszka; Korcz, Wojciech; Minorczyk, Maria; Łyczewska, Monika; Ludwicki, Jan K

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of new food safety regulations in the European Union has resulted in the withdrawal of many synthetic active substances used in plant protection products, in light of their potential or actual harmful effect on human and animal health, as well as on the environment. Alternatives to these compounds are being developed - naturally occurring pesticides, also referred to as biopesticides. The use of biopesticides in crop protection leads to decreased levels of pesticide residues in foods, and as a result to lower risk levels for the consumer. Biologically active agents defined as biopesticides are varied, and therefore application of the same environmental and consumer safety criteria to all of them is impossible. This presents serious complications in the approval of these pesticides as active plant protection products and in their registration. It needs to be stressed that, in the registration procedure of the European Union, biopesticides are subject to the same regulations as synthetic active substances. This situation has resulted in the need to introduce numerous new provisions in the legislation, as well as the preparation of new guidelines facilitating the registration of biopesticides. These activities aim to promote naturally originating pesticides. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Corporate Negative Equity: The Evidence from the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Mokhova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available After the Global Financial Crisis the frequency of reported losses of companies has increased significantly in countries of the European Union. Moreover, the financial leverage of companies have increased and even exceeded 100% in several countries. The reason of this development is negative equity that companies find themselves to report. At first sight negative equities are caused by accumulated losses from prior periods. However, there are some other reasons that can result in increasing negative equities in companies. They remain adequate as long as a company is able to pay its bills. Nevertheless, a company with negative equity is exposed to risks. This paper investigates whether the corporate negative equity is a sign of the future failure of a company. We examine non-financial manufactured companies from selected countries of the European Union within the period 2005–2012 from database Amadeus (Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Poland and Germany. By the means of comparison between negative and positive equities we applied descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation analysis. We find that in all surveyed countries the size positively influences the equity of companies. Other factors as profitability and growth opportunities do not influence the corporate equity. In addition the binary logistic regression analysis has been conducted based on the evidence from Czech companies. Our results indicate that negative equities are not a sign of bankruptcy or insolvency of a company. But the low profitability or low business activities (that are predictors of bankruptcy might lead to negative equities in the balance sheet.

  20. A GEOPOLITICAL STAKE: REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA BETWEEN THE EUROPEAN UNION AND THE EURASIAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea-Cristian Ghenghea

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Following the initialling of the Vilnius Agreement from 28-29 November 2013, the Republic of Moldova seemed to have entered the path towards the European integration. The great failure for the Brussels’ leaders was, by far, the Ukraine’s refuse to sign the Association Agreement, a decision placed on the account of Moscow’s influence and which proved once more the fact that the relations between the European Union and the Russian Federation have grown increasingly confrontational over the Eastern Partnership’s countries. In the context of the unrests in Kiev at the beginning of 2014 and subsequently of the pro-Russian movements in the South and East of the Ukrainian state, the Republic of Moldova has acquired a special significance within the geopolitical situation of the region, being regarded as an outpost of what certain analysts already consider to be the “New Cold War”.

  1. Vaccination in newly arrived immigrants to the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prymula, Roman; Shaw, Jana; Chlibek, Roman; Urbancikova, Ingrid; Prymulova, Karolina

    2017-06-08

    The challenge of assimilating millions of immigrants in the European region each year presents significant socioeconomic issues. Among them is the threat of vaccine preventable diseases (VPDs) disease transmission within immigrant groups and the broader population given the permeability of nation state borders. A total of 3.8 million people immigrated to the European Union (EU) in 2014, among those were 1.6 million non-EU nationals. While vaccines have markedly reduced the transmission of disease, clusters of under-vaccinated individuals potentiate the rapid transmission of once-eradicated or controlled diseases. Immigrants pose a special challenge to host country public health vaccination programmes. Wars in their native countries may have interrupted vaccination programmes, documentation may be unavailable or unreliable, and refugees may present with health issues due to poor sanitation and food during transit. Further, immigrants are often reticent to access health care in the destination country, or may face financial or language barriers. Thus, preventive health care needs may go unaddressed and the first contact with a clinician is for an emergency. Equitable access to acute and preventive health care and services, including immunizations irrespective of individual's immigration status, should be a priority for European region countries. Ensuring appropriate and timely vaccination for immigrants could be accomplished with a universal European region immunization schedule. Priority should be given to highly communicable VPDs such as measles, mumps, rubella, pertussis, diphtheria, varicella and polio. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Promotion of Renewable Energy Sources in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Menges

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the important goals of European energy policy is to increase the share of renewable energy resources in the energy supply. The instruments used in the member states are not fully compatible with the rules of the European internal market. In a theoretical section, this paper analyses possible different instruments for promoting renewable energy. Some countries use feed in tariffs - using fixed prices to increase incentives for producers to invest into renewable energy, other countries use quantity-based systems like quotas that lead to a premium above the market price. In an institutional analysis we show that on the basis of effectiveness and efficiency considerations for the European Union, in the long-term quantity oriented systems of promotion are preferable if combined with elements of a capacity market. The main reason for this conclusion is that price-based systems cannot give enough incentives for backup capacities necessary to cope with intermittent production of renewable sources. In addition price-based systems violate the basic rules of the open internal European market because feed in tariffs are a considerable barrier for trade of renewable energy products.

  3. Nuclear energy in Europe: union or confusion? (Information report, in the name of the delegation for the European union, on the adequation of the Euratom treaty to the situation and perspectives of nuclear energy in Europe)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montesquiou, A. de

    2000-05-01

    Following the last expansion of the European Union and the recent nuclear renouncement decision of Germany, the member states frankly favourable to nuclear energy are now a minority among the fifteen states. The French government also has some doubts with respect to this energy source, even if France is the first producer of electric power of nuclear origin. Starting from this statement, the French Senate delegation for the European Union has wondered about the present day situation and the future perspectives of nuclear energy in Europe. This topic is analyzed in its political, diplomatic, economical and legal dimensions threw several questions: what is the situation of this debate in the different member states and in the European public opinion? Are the alternative energy solutions realistic with respect to the European energy needs? What is the competitiveness of nuclear power in the new context of deregulation of the European power market? Is it possible for the European Union to meet its international obligations of CO 2 reduction without the use of nuclear energy? What is the efficiency of the European Community action for the improvement of the safety of nuclear reactors in Eastern Europe? Which importance is given to the nuclear problem in the membership negotiations with central and eastern European countries? Is the legal framework of the Euratom treaty still adapted to the present day situation? (J.S.)

  4. Diffusing EU Law Beyond the Borders of the Union: The Judicialization of the European Trading Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan F. Tatham

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The European Union (EU lies at the heart of a network of free trade agreements (FTAs, negotiated with partner countries in Europe and beyond. Within such a context, this paper focuses on the extent to which the judicialization of trade policy in the Union and its diffusion externally have impacted on states which are members of the European Free Trade Association (EFTA, reflecting the process of Europeanization as a manifestation of the Union external governance.

  5. Tre proposte per rivitalizzare l’Unione Europea (Three proposals for revitalising the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Tonveronachi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the EU, the perception that the convergence on the current set of rules is not capable of producing convergence on results, or generally better results, has increased socio-political fragmentation. The result has been an increasing demand for re-nationalisation of sovereign powers. Focusing on the euro area, the paper proposes to revise the monetary operations of the European Central Bank, current fiscal rules and the financial regulatory approach in order to tackle some of the main inconsistencies, rigidities and fragilities in the current design. The new design is thought out to require no changes in the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, but at least a minimum political convergence. If successfully implemented, it would contribute to give a viable perspective to the design of the Economic and Monetary Union, capable of attracting those EU non-euro area countries that consider the mismanagement of the recent crisis and of its after-effects reason enough for resisting further losses of sovereignty.JEL codes: E52, E62, F33, F36, F45, G28

  6. Nuclear revival, nuclear safety: challenges for the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Claude; Lacoste, Andre-Claude; Stellfox, David; Hajjani, Abdellaziz; Jamet, Philippe; Kaluzny, Yves; Lallier, Michel; Lescoeur, Bruno; Naredo, Fernando; Palm, Martina; Vincent, Cyrille; Faross, Peter; Gillet, Guillaume; Lemaitre, Philippe; Barcelo, Julio; Decobert, Veronique; Doumont, Pierre; Gouze, Jean-Remi; Hohlefelder, Walter; Herczog, Edit; Pouleur, Yvan; Teule, Rianne; Zidi, Latifa; Herzog, Philippe; Ristori, Dominique; Coniam, Jon; Kopp, Gudrun; Lambert de Diesbach, Patrice; Le Roux, Jean-Pierre; Mestrallet, Gerard; Paparizov, Atanas; Rosier, Philippe; Tamburi, Carlo; Lauvergeon, Anne; San Antonio, Santiago; Linkohr, Rolf; Auer, Josef; Bresson, Thierry de; Hohlefelder, Walter; Janouch, Frantisek; MacNaughton, Joan; Onyszkiewicz, Janusz; Reul, Herbert; Dolinsek, Urska; Komarov, Kirill; Boshkov, Aleksander; Bartuska, Vaclav; Gonnot, Francois-Michel; Grimston, Malcolm; Jesien, Leszek; Keussen, Urban; Schmitt von Sydow, Helmut; Sotura, Jean-Pierre; Jouyet, Jean-Pierre

    2008-01-01

    The nuclear revival is a fact, in Europe and the rest of the world. We are delighted at this. Today, all eyes are on the United Kingdom where the Government intends to do more than merely replace twenty-three aging power plants. The challenge facing them is considerable - Mr. Hutton, Britain's Minister for Trade and Industry, estimates that the work will generate 100,000 jobs. It is to be hoped that the soon-to-end Franco-British summit meeting will have strengthened understanding between the two countries. This would augur well for the French Presidency of the European Union which hopes to launch debate on a common energy policy within the European Council. Since the United Kingdom took the decision to re-launch the construction of nuclear reactors, France is no longer alone; it has a new ally in the nuclear debate. The British decision is also seen as encouraging by all the companies that wish to develop nuclear technology. This development is not only manifest in the United Kingdom; in Germany and a number of countries in Central and Eastern Europe, there is an obvious, if latent, desire to enter this sector. This document gathers the Proceedings of two symposiums: - the March 2008 conference on 'The Revival of Nuclear Energy, a challenge for the European Union' - and the November 2008 Conference on 'Nuclear safety: a worldwide Public Good'. Contents: Foreword by Claude Fischer; Introduction by Philippe Herzog. Part A: The revival of nuclear energy, a challenge for Europe: Partnerships, Speakers list, Synthesis for decision-makers by Andre Ferron and Michel Cruciani, 1 Address and 3 sessions, Opening Address by Dominique Ristori, First round table: Conditions to re-launch the nuclear industry in Europe, role of companies, banks and public institutions, Second round table: The need for a European energy mix and the necessity to improve the European common Market Model Last round table: The conditions for a European foreign energy policy, Speech of Anne Lauvergeon

  7. The European Banking Union: Will It Be a True Union without Risk Sharing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Sarcinelli

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The recent developments of the Euro crisis reveal the lack of clear or coherent thinking on the part of both the Eurozone finance ministers and the European Commission. The crisis in Cyprus is partly the consequence of decisions made on private sector involvement in the previous Greek bailout, and other such examples may be made. It is time, therefore, to look reality in the face and strengthen the structures of the EMU. The article is devoted to what has been done and what must still be done to make the European banking system more robust and less permeable to crises, and to preserve the single financial market. It looks at the initiatives of both the European Commission and the European Council to complete the EMU by creating a banking union, the doubts on the wisdom of entrusting banking oversight to the ECB, the organization of the ECB’s new tasks, the continuing absence of facilities for the recovery or liquidation of banks, as well as for a Euro-wide deposit insurance, the need for some form of risk-sharing in order to stabilise the economy, and thus the recourse to a common budget and the possibility of joint debt for the Eurozone.

  8. Tobacco smoking in countries of the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatoński, Witold; Przewoźniak, Krzysztof; Sulkowska, Urszula; West, Robert; Wojtyła, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Existing smoking prevalence comparisons between the 'old' and 'new' members of the European Union (EU) give a misleading picture because of differences in methodology. A major EU project designed to find ways of closing the health gap between the member states, included the first ever comparison of smoking prevalence between these countries using a methodology that minimises potential biases. A detailed analysis of methods and data from the most recent nationwide studies was conducted in the adult population of 27 countries of the European Union and Russia as an external comparator. To maximise comparability, daily smoking in the age range 20-64 was used. Prevalence of current daily smoking, former smoking and never smoking were age-standardised and calculated separately for males and females. The European map of smoking prevalence shows that male smoking prevalence is much higher in the new than the old members of the EU, whereas in females the reverse is true, but there are also very large differences in smoking rates between particular countries within the same region. Sweden clearly has the lowest prevalence, and the prevalence in the United Kingdom (UK) at the time of the surveys emerges as near the average for old-Europe but higher than, for example, Ireland. Restricting the analysis to daily smokers aged 20-64 produces a map of Europe in which variation in prevalence between individual countries within regions is as important as variation across regions. Survey methods need to be harmonised across countries to enable comparisons involving all ages and non-daily as well as daily smokers.

  9. Public health research systems in the European union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCarthy Mark

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Strengthening health research is an important objective for international health organisations, but there has been less attention to support for health research in Europe. We describe the public-health (population and organisational level research systems in the 27 European Union countries. Methods We developed a typology for describing health research structures based on funding streams and strategies. We drew data from internet sources and asked country informants to review these for consistency and completeness. The structures were described as organograms and narratives in country profiles for each of the 27 EU member states. National public-health research structures included public and independent funding organisations, 'mixed' institutions (which receive funds, and both use and allocate them and provider institutions. Results Most health research is funded through ministries of science or science councils (and sometimes foundations, while parliaments and regions may also contribute. National institutes of public health are usually funded by ministries of health. Many national research organisations both determine research programmes and undertake health research, but there is a move towards public-health sciences within the universities, and a transition from internal grants to competitive funding. Of 27 national research strategies, 17 referred to health and 11 to public health themes. Although all countries had strategies for public health itself, we found little coherence in public-health research programmes. The European Commission has country contact points for both EU research and health programmes, but they do not coordinate with national health-research programmes. Conclusions Public-health research is broadly distributed across programmes in EU countries. Better understanding of research structures, programmes and results would improve recognition for public health in Europe, and contribute to practice. EU

  10. On Law and Policy in a European and European Union Patent Court (EEUPC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen; Petersen, Clement Salung

    requires legal institutions, which support the purposes and policies underlying the substantive law in question, and that legal institutions affect the law. The first observation leads to a discussion of the requirements which a common judiciary in the European patent system should satisfy and different......On 4 December 2009, the European Council unanimously adopted conclusions on an enhanced patent system in Europe, which inter alia intends to establish a new EU patent as well as a new common patent judiciary - the European and European Union Patent Court (EEUPC). The EEUPC will constitute a new sui...... generis, transnational court system with exclusive jurisdiction in respect of civil litigation related to the infringement and validity of European patents and EU patent. This paper considers this proposal for the establishment of the EEUPC under two basic observations, namely that substantive law...

  11. On Law and Policy in a European and European Union Patent Court (EEUPC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Clement Salung; Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2010-01-01

    requires legal institutions, which support the purposes and policies underlying the substantive law in question, and that legal institutions affect the law. The first observation leads to a discussion of the requirements which a common judiciary in the European patent system should satisfy and different......On 4 December 2009, the European Council unanimously adopted conclusions on an enhanced patent system in Europe, which inter alia intends to establish a new EU patent as well as a new common patent judiciary – the European and European Union Patent Court (EEUPC). The EEUPC will constitute a new sui...... generis, transnational court system with exclusive jurisdiction in respect of civil litigation related to the infringement and validity of European patents and EU patent. This paper considers this proposal for the establishment of the EEUPC under two basic observations, namely that substantive law...

  12. European Integration of Ukraine: Tool for Internal Reform, Source of Problems or Pass Ticket to EU Membership?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleh Poshedin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the signing of the EU-Ukraine Association Agreement, there would seem to be no alternative to the European choice for Ukraine, given the current Russian aggression; there are different views on the objectives and results of the European integration of Ukraine. This article examines three of the most common points of view related to this process: European integration as a tool for internal transformation in Ukraine; European integration as a pass ticket to the EU membership; European integration as a source of problems in Ukraine.

  13. Addressing the Foreign Terrorist Fighters Phenomenon From a European Union Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Singleton

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available With the outbreak of civil war and sectarian violence in Syria, Iraq, and Libya, over 15,000 men and women from more than 80 countries around the world have left their homes to become foreign fighters. The security challenge they pose is immense and there are concerns about radicalised fighters returning to their countries of origin or residence, hardened by experience and with the possible intent – and the know-how – to engage in terrorist activities. On 24 September, the UN Security Council unanimously adopted Resolution 2178 (2014 with the support of over 120 states representing a broad cross-section of the UN membership. Resolution 2178 called on all UN member states to ensure increased border security and to screen for or arrest so-called “foreign terrorist fighters” (FTFs travelling to or returning from conflict areas. Rightly so, it also urges states to counter violent extremism by taking preventive measures, such as engaging with communities at the local level to stop the spread of extremist ideologies. On 23 October 2014, the Global Center on Cooperative Security, the Human Security Collective, and ICCT convened an expert meeting at the European Union (EU in Brussels to discuss the implications of the resolution and to explore appropriate and effective responses to the threat of FTFs, both within the EU and as part of the Union’s foreign security and development programming. Building upon the discussion in Brussels, this policy brief is a compilation of essays from all three organisations on the challenges and opportunities for addressing the FTF threat from a European Union perspective. It also examines the implementation of Resolution 2178 as an integral part of national and multilateral foreign security and development policies and initiatives.

  14. The electro-nuclear option in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charrault, J.C.; Brands, B.

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear energy has become one of the essential factors of the overall energy policy of the European Union (EU). The Euratom Treaty, which is one of the constituting treaties of the EU, provides an appropriate instrument to maximize the advantages of nuclear power and to minimize its risks. Electricity consumption in the Member States of the EU is likely to continue to grow over the next 15 years, but this growth should not be dramatic. The most likely scenario for electricity generation in the EU for the rest of this decade and for the first half of the next decade is one of limited new capacity. Efforts have to continue to save energy, to diversify sources of supply and to preserve autonomy. Nuclear energy can and has to play an important role in the realization of these objectives. For Europe it is of the utmost importance to make an optional use of the available resources. An optimal use of the nuclear power option should be an important element in realizing that objective. It is pointed out that nuclear installations in the EU are particularly well monitored for their impact on the environment. It is the task of the European Commission to ensure that the conditions allowing nuclear industries to carry on their business continue to exist. Actions at a European level are necessary to allow the nuclear industries established in the Member States of the EU to maintain their leading position in the field of technological and economic development of the nuclear industry. (author)

  15. Trafficking in Human Beings in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna M. Hughes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the intersection of gender, trafficking for sexual exploitation, and use of digital communication technologies are analyzed based on data from the European Union (EU. Over the past two decades, an increase in trafficking in human beings in the EU has been accompanied by an increase in the development and availability of digital communication technologies. The first statistical analysis of trafficking in human beings (2008-2010 carried out by the European Commission found 23,632 victims of human trafficking in the reporting member states. Eighty percent of victims were women and girls; 20% were men and boys. The majority of the victims (62% were trafficked for sexual exploitation. Digital communication technologies are widely used for trafficking for sexual exploitation, and more rarely for trafficking for forced labor. This article concludes that the combination of gender, trafficking for sexual exploitation, and use of digital communication technologies has created a nexus of victimization for women and girls. Based on this analysis and other sources of information, the European region is the world’s leading region for trafficking for sexual exploitation.

  16. European Union response to Fukushima. European stress tests and peer review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamet, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Following the severe accidents which started in the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP on 11 March 2011, the European Council requested that a comprehensive safety and risk assessment, in light of preliminary lessons learned, be performed on all EU nuclear plants. Therefore, stress tests and peer review assessing natural initiating events, the loss of safety systems and severe accident management have been performed in the 15 European Union countries with nuclear power plants as well as Switzerland and Ukraine. The final peer review report of the European Nuclear Safety Regulators Group (ENSREG) highlights four main areas for improvement to be explored across Europe: 1. Development by the Western European Nuclear Regulators' Association (WENRA), with the contribution of the best available EU expertise, of a European guidance on assessment of natural hazards and margins; 2. Importance of Periodic Safety Review to be underlined by ENSREG; 3. Expeditious implementation of the recognised measures to protect containment integrity; 4. Prevention of accidents resulting from natural hazards and limitation of their consequences. The peer review of the European stress tests was completed in April 2012. In their conclusive statement issued 26 April 2012, the national European regulators and the European Commission as European Nuclear Safety Regulators Group (ENSREG) required that follow-up would occur by way of an ENSREG action plan. Country specific action plans will be developed and peer review workshop will be organised to share lessons learned on the implementation of post-Fukushima safety improvements.

  17. Reforms to the European Union Financial Supervisory and Regulatory Architecture and Their Implications for Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z. Darvas (Zsolt); D. Schoenmaker (Dirk); N. Véron (Nicolas)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractEuropean Union (EU) countries offer a unique experience of financial regulatory and supervisory integration, complementing various other European integration efforts following the Second World War. Financial regulatory and supervisory integration was a very slow process before 2008,

  18. European Union. Court of Justice of the European Union: EU Law and Fundamental Rights Preclude Requested Filtering Injunction against Hosting Provider

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breemen, K.

    2012-01-01

    On 16 February 2012, the Court of Justice of the European Union delivered its preliminary ruling in the case of SABAM v. Netlog NV. The judgment was issued on a request made by the Court of First Instance of Brussels.

  19. Strategies of Environmental Policy in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Modiga

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Strategies for achieving environmental policy reinforce the principle of subsidiary ( delegation ofresponsibilities of Member States, while European Union outlines only the general objectives to be taken intoaccount and try replacing the traditional vertical approach, command and control type, by promoting analternative model for achieving the EU average. One can say that these strategies are a kind of “aids”, whichcomplement standard tools and acting as incentives for the adoption of measures for environmental protectionthat emphasizes the trend towards an approach based on the principle of volunteering. In the early '70s, wasrecognized the need and legitimacy of a common environment. In time, will develop a progressiveenvironmental Community law, which includes over 200 directives and regulations. They concern mainlywater protection, air quality, protection of flora and fauna, noise, waste disposal. Environmental legislationhas a particular characteristic; it takes into account economic aspects.

  20. AN OVERVIEW OF FISCAL CONSOLIDATION PROCESS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia Andreea Bucur

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to explore, based on theoretical and empirical research in the field and on data available on Eurostat and European Commission, in the context of financial significant imbalances and thus of the financial stress in the EU countries and especially in the Euro area, the main developments in the fiscal consolidation process given the fiscal effort of each country towards fiscal union. Since the financial crisis started in 2008, many EU Member States demonstrates an obvious macroeconomic imbalance which requires increased responsibility regarding fiscal developments. The impact of the crisis and the causes of sovereign debt high levels trends varied between EU countries as well as the budget deficit levels. Thus, the main priority for EU members must be the continuation of differentiated fiscal consolidation, given the specificities of each economy, favoring growth. The medium-term fiscal policy needs to focus on consolidating public finances along with restoring long-term sustainability.

  1. Polish Accession to the European Union: Participating Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaszewski Waldemar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In May 2014 it was aready ten years since Poland’s accession to the European Union. The accession was preceded by a long period of political action and negotiations between the Polish and the EU institutions. The process of integration was extremely complex. It covered almost all areas of economic, legal and civil aspects of the aspiring country’s economy, in which all necessary requirements had to be met. The aim of the article was to present the institutional framework created for efficient implementation of the process of accession. The considerations involved especially an institutional method. The research resulted in poining out both the actually efficient and less efficient bodies participating in the process of integration.

  2. Energy Relations between the European Union and North Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Kilpeläinen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses European Union (EU-North Africa energy relations with a special focus on renewables in North Africa, arguing that the research so far has not taken due account of North African perceptions of EU external energy policy. It is argued that current research on EU-North African relations has not taken sufficient note of the multidimensionality of energy or addressed the inconsistent nature of EU policy making. However, addressing these issues is vital in approaching EU-North Africa energy relations and EU policy towards North Africa in general. The study of perceptions is introduced as one way to develop research further, to give further impetus on understanding how EU-North African energy relations develop and to understand energy relations in their complexity.

  3. Enlargement of the European Union and agricultural policy reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Maria Skovager; Lind, Kim Martin Hjorth; Zobbe, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    A connection exists between enlargement of the European Union and reforms of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). Based upon rational choice theory, we examine whether the member states’ CAP positions are related to structures in their agricultural sectors. The overall hypothesis...... is that intensiveness of agricultural production corresponds to the willingness to reform the CAP. Political CAP positions, together with the development of member states’ structural fundamentals, are analysed using cluster analysis. The results show that EU enlargements have extensified agricultural production...... at the EU level, and that extensive agricultural production in a member state is often an indicator of reduced willingness to reform. However, the intensiveness of agricultural production is only part of the explanation. Moreover, negotiation tactics play an important role for the positions on the CAP....

  4. International Benchmark Renewable Energy. European Union and Norway. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Beek, A.; Benner, J.H.B.; Brogtrop, A.C.G.M.; Van Alphen, M.

    2001-12-01

    The main aim of the survey was to generate an actual, realistic and accepted overview of potentials and cost prices for all relevant renewable energy options in the different countries of the European Union. The survey covered electrical options, heat options and combined heat and power options for renewable energy. Survey data were obtained directly from the responsible governments and their energy agencies, not from theoretical model studies. The intention was to improve insight for future decisions and create a useful basis (in the form of definitions, guidelines, etc.) for future perfection. Survey results also help to assess the relative ambition of the different national targets, especially in the EU Member States. The survey thus primarily sought answers to the following questions: (1) What renewable energy potential is available, and to what extent can the potential be exploited and what would be the related costs; and (2) What observations can be made, considering the survey results

  5. TOWARDS A COMMON ENERGY POLICY IN THE EUROPEAN UNION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Inotai

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Energy policy issues have got increasing relevance in the strategic orientation of the European Union (EU in general, and in identifying specific economic policy tasks, in particular. Steadily high energy (oil and gas prices in the last years constitute one factor. However, global political and security issues of growing degree of uncertainty, the level of dependence on imported energy and, not less importantly, the forecasts of growing external dependence of the EU in this field have substantially contributed to the upgrading of the energy question. Finally, the liberalization of the single market, not least in the crucial area of energy supply and the enlargement of the EU by 12 new members, with specific composition of production and not less specific pattern of imports of energy, enhanced the importance of energy in the enlarged EU, with a view to shape and implement a common energy policy.

  6. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT, ENERGY AND CLIMATE CHANGE IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei ROTH

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Through sustainable development the needs of the current generation are fulfilled without jeopardizing the opportunities of future generations. The concept takes into account economic, social and environmental considerations. It has a wide range of applications from natural resources to population growth and biodiversity. One of its most important themes is energy. In this area, sustainable development relates with resource availability and green house gases emissions. Also it takes into account the needs of people without access to energy, and their legitimate quest for development. For the European Union, sustainable development represents an overarching objective. The present article analyzes the concept from a theoretical perspective, contrasting its strong points and weaknesses. It highlights the relation between sustainable development, energetic resources and climate change. The EU policies results in the field of energy are analyzed from the perspective of resources, energetic dependency and climate change efforts.

  7. THE ORGANIZATION OF JURISDICTION IN EUROPEAN UNION PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Agheniţei

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, universal jurisdiction is the favorite technique used to prevent impunity for international crimes and it is one of the most effective methods to deter and prevent international crimes by increasing the like hood of prosecution and punishment of its propagators. In regard to the defendants’ rights, the European Union states consider applicable all the rights that are necessary to assure that the trial is equitable and expeditious. There is no exception to the right to a fair trial. So, a defendant who is being prosecuted on the basis of the universality principle can rely on all the procedural rights provided for the Convention on Human Rights and the domestic code of criminal procedure without any restrictions. In Germany, the Federal Constitutional Court, in a case concerning genocide committed abroad, declared expressly that no special criminal proceedings must be provided for specific crimes.

  8. European Union and diaspora engagement policy within changing realities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violina MARDARI

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of the European Union and diaspora engagement policy within changing realities. The author focuses on the main research question concerning how the new, uncontrolled migration flows may influence the approach on diaspora engagement policy within member states. This process could have positive as well as negative implications for the Community space even if the EU attempts to develop a new legal framework on migration. The interdisciplinary approach and methods as empirical analysis, comparison and observation on some good practices and new issues gave the possibility to estimate the results of how changing diaspora role perception reduces the gap between different migrants in the EU and improves the diaspora engagement dialogue on institutional and civil society level.

  9. Meat export competitiveness of European Union countries on global markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štefan Bojnec

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to provide insight into the export competitiveness of meat products of the European Union (EU-27 member states on global markets. The revealed comparative advantage index is used to analyze the levels, compositions, and evolutions in patterns of development in the export competitiveness of meat products and their levels of stability at the product level. Except for some niche meat products, a larger number of the EU-27 member states have experienced comparative disadvantages on global markets over the analysed years of 2000 to 2011. The revealed comparative advantages on the global markets are the most robust for Ireland, Spain, the Netherlands, France, Belgium, Denmark, Poland, Cyprus and Hungary. The revealed comparative advantage indices and their survival rates differ across the meat product groups. The heterogeneity in export competitiveness of the EU-27 member states suggests the importance of the differentiation of meat products in competitive export specialization on global markets.

  10. The European Union Rule of Law Mission in Kosovo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zupancic, Rok; Pejič, Nina; Grilj, Blaž

    2017-01-01

    This article appraises effectiveness in operational conflict prevention. By focusing on the European Union Rule of Law Mission (EULEX) in Kosovo, it assesses the most extensive civilian Common Security and Defence Policy mission so far. Contrary to prevailing assessments, it posits that EULEX......, despite its challenges and deficiencies, presents positive contributions to operational conflict prevention, and peace-building. This is uncovered through structured focused analysis according to effectiveness criteria and success indicators that allow for identification of and distinction between...... different types and levels of effectiveness, considering both means applied and ends achieved. In so doing, the article contributes to the general literature on operational conflict prevention and on the specific case of Kosovo. The empirical analysis is based on fieldwork and semi-structured interviews...

  11. THE EUROPEAN UNION IN THE LIGHT OF COMPARATIVE POLITICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Kabat-Rudnicka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In the academic literature the European Union (EU is analysed from different theoretical perspectives. Taking the perspective of international relations, the EU emerges as an international organization or a confederation; on the other hand, looking from the perspective of comparative politics, the EU presents itself as a more integrated entity, a federation, a quasi-state or a state in the making. The recent perspective, i.e. the governance school, sees the EU as an original structure, a sui generis entity, a new, emerging system of governance without government. However, at the present stage of development, the EU reveals features that are characteristic for the federal structure, i.e. the federal political system characterised by two leading models of dual and cooperative federalism, hence the comparative method seems to be the most appropriate as a research tool.

  12. Challenges for monetary policy in the enlarged European monetary Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radović Irena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The eastward enlargement of the Euro area entails significant implications for the accession candidates in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE, the existing Euro system and the monetary policy of the European Central Bank (ECB. The present analysis assesses the challenges and critical aspects in monetary policy modeling with special emphasis to enlargement. The focus is on the difficulty of implementing a unique currency policy in view or growing heterogeneity within the enlarged monetary union, and secondly - the issue of the voting mechanism within the ECB. When analyzing those two issues, it is conclusive that the difficulties for the ECB and the current Euro zone members will increase. For the enlarged Euro zone, which is becoming more divergent, it will be very hard to find adequate recipes to meet the needs and requirements of all. The big question is: whether centralization of monetary policy is a sustainable and superior solution?.

  13. PAPER AND PAPERBOARD INDUSTRY IN EUROPEAN UNION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadri Cemil Akyüz

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Turkey should benefit from its own resources by realizing their value in the period that it turned its face to Europe. Therefore, the economical potential of the country should be analyzed thoroughly. Knowing its own strength and taking the necessary steps to this effect in order to take the fullest advantage of the strength are of vital importance for the countries in attaining the development level. Within the existing potential, the necessary importance and support should be given to small and medium enterprises that are forming the most effective part of the economic life and to the forest products industry which has a significant position among these enterprises. In this study, certain product groups belonging to paper and paperboard industry situated in forest products industry were discussed what situation they are in Turkey and European Union countries and competition position. In this context, hierarchical cluster analysis and discriminant analysis being of multidimensional statistical methods were used.

  14. THE BUSINESS RISK AND ENVIRONMENT SPECIFIC OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOBRIN IONEL GABRIEL

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The international economy is marked by a multitude of base mutations, which re-shape the intricacy of interdependencies based on which it functions. The development of the informational society and the continuous adaptation of economic structure to the rapid changes that happen globally virtually place all nations in a continuous restructuring and transition process. Two main dynamic and interdependent forces lead this process, that is: the strengthening of the world economy globalisation process and the appearance and development of regional economic arrangements. The treaty regarding the constitution of the European Union comprises a series of regulations which refer directly to ensure of the Community industry's competitively - related conditions. This is achieved through a complex system of open and competitive markets.

  15. THE ORGANIZATION OF JURISDICTION FROM A EUROPEAN UNION PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAELA AGHENITEI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, universal jurisdiction is the favorite technique used to prevent impunity for international crimes and it is one of the most effective methods to deter and prevent international crimes by increasing the like hood of prosecution and punishment of its preparators. In regard to the defendant’s rights, the European Union states consider applicable all the rights that are necessary to assure that the trial is equitable and expeditious. There is no exception to the right to a fair trial. So, a defendant who is being prosecuted on the basis of the universality principle can rely on all the procedural rights provided for the Convention on Human Rights and the domestic code of criminal procedure without any restrictions. In Germany, the Federal Constitutional Court, in a case concerning genocide committed abroad, declared expressly that no special criminal proceedings must be provided for specific crimes.

  16. Coalition Within a Coalition: The Baltics in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina M. Busygina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article gives an overview of small power problem focusing on the behav­iour of small power states within coalitions and their proneness to free riding. To pursue an independent agenda and increase their significance within large associa­tions, the authors argue, small powers tend to create ‘coalitions within coalitions’, essentially acting as free riders and transferring costs and political responsibility for decision-making to larger players. Such an asymmetric strategy makes it possi­ble for small powers to advance their interests within alliances and save resources. The authors test this hypothesis on the behaviour of the Baltics in the European Union. It is demonstrated that Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia have created a stable small coalition within the EU and actively form ad hoc alliances with the leading states to push union-level decisions, as it was the case with settling the migrant issue. In other areas, these states tend to benefit from the free rider behaviour.

  17. A Possible Answer of the European Union to Hybrid Threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cîrdei Ionuţ Alin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The international security environment is marked by a certain state of anomy, which in reality does not conceal a state of chaos, but an attempt to restore and redesign spheres of influence, creating a new world order involving both state actors: the US, Russia, China India, supra-states actors: EU, NATO, etc or non-state actors. The European Union is confronted with a series of internal and external challenges that affect the state of security. Challenges are very diverse, difficult to anticipate and counteract, and can be attributed, on the one hand, to the cyclical evolution of society and, on the other hand, to intentional interventions using unconventional methods and means of hybrid type, which are aimed at destabilizing one of the most powerful supra-state structures, enjoying significant economic and political strength, which has a large population and can influence the evolution of events globally. Lately, EU countries have begun to tackle the most diverse issues, such as migration, terrorist threat, radicalization of a part of the population, supporting direct or indirect jihadist organizations, organizing attacks within the union, developing nationalism, separatism, ethnic or religious intolerance, etc.

  18. CSR and Social Entrepreneurship: The Role of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano AMELIO

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to analyze the status of non-financial information disclosure in the European Union in order to evaluate the level of acceptance of social responsibility practices. The research is divided into two sections and the approach used is mainly theoretical and qualitative. In the first part the UE financial and non-financial information regulations are analyzed; the European Union launched a process of harmonization then subsequently it moved to the standardization process: the Regulation (EC No. 1606/2002 is part of the standardization process (It must be applied in its entirety across the EU while the Directive 2014/95/EU is part of the harmonization process (it sets out a goal that all EU countries must achieve. The Directive 2014/95/EU states that “large undertakings […] shall include in the management report a non-financial statement […]” thus making mandatory the preparation of non-financial statements. In the second part of the research, not considering the firm only as a system for the production of financial/economic value but also as an economic social actor which operates in a social environment to which it belongs and with which it interacts, the concept of social entrepreneurship is explained. Social entrepreneurship belongs to the entrepreneurs who draw up the social balance, required or permitted by the UE legislation. For this reason, the introduction of obligations in disclosing non-financial information could lead to the increase of entrepreneurship, with positive consequences in the creation of tangible benefits to both the business community and the global community.

  19. THE EUROPEAN UNION AS A GLOBAL PLAYER: PROSPECTS AND CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazar Comanescu

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Strengthening the external action of the Union has emerged as a powerful expectation shared both by a large majority of members of the Convention on the future of Europe, and more significantly by public opinion when it has been consulted on this issue. Although there is a consensual desire for Europe to speak with a stronger voice in global affairs, the ways and means to achieve this objective still divide those called to clarify the path to be followed. The European Union is already a significant presence in world politics by its considerable share in the international trade, or its dominant contribution to development aid. Many criticise on the other hand the lack of consistency in the more classical dimensions of foreign policy, or the lack of credibility in the capacity to act attributed to the absence of defence capabilities. Such concerns are currently addressed in the larger debate on the future of Europe, either within the dedicated framework, the European Convention convened to design the future of the EU, or outside the Convention, both among politicians and academics. It is generally considered and accepted that Europe will gain in political influence once the unification of the continent is completed, i.e. the current enlargement objectives are achieved. It goes without saying that devising and making operational appropriate instruments and capacities to act coherently outside its borders are a necessity as well. Institutional guarantees that Europe could in the future continue to influence the course of events in world affairs are becoming imperative. This article will explore some of the proposals in that sense. It will also address the place for Romania as a future EU member state in the new architecture of Europe and its possible contribution to the Common Foreign and Security Policy.

  20. ‘Slow change may pull us apart’: debating a British exit from the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham; Jensen, Mads Dagnis; Snaith, Holly

    2016-01-01

    With a referendum set to take place on 23 June 2016 in a large and important European Union (EU) member state on whether it should remain within the Union or leave altogether, this year will prove crucial for all Europeanists. Brexit is a real possibility that both the Union and other member stat...

  1. CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES IN EUROPEAN UNION IMPACT OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Apolzan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic integration refers to trade unification between different states , and one of its most important aspects is liberalisation of capital movement. In this paper is presented a brief evolution of economic integration cases focusing on one of the most integrated economies European Union. We concentrate on the participation of foreign investors in different economies and their impact, taking the example of Central and Eastern European Countries and their markets. Also , the level of influence that direct investments in capital markets entails on the Stock Exchange evolution is presented for the case of Romania .

  2. The European Union and the Search for an International Data Protection Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuner, Christopher Barth

    2014-01-01

    The European Union (EU) has supported the growing calls for the creation of an international legal framework to safeguard data protection rights. At the same time, it has worked to spread its data protection law to other regions, and recent judgments of the Court of Justice of the European Union...

  3. Pakistan's textile and clothing sector and its future in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.A. Siegmann (Karin Astrid)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractA large number of the European community use bed-linen supplied by Pakistan. In 2005, the South Asian economy was the largest supplier of bed-linen to the union (Aziz, 2006). The European Union (EU) is Pakistan's largest trading partner, with textiles and clothing (T&C) accounting for

  4. Key Competences for the Development of Lifelong Learning in the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hozjan, Dejan

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses certain developments in education policy in the European Union since the implementation of the Lisbon strategy. Greater focus on lifelong learning as a means of increasing the competitiveness of the European Union, and establishment of several new, efficient policy tools (above all the "open method of coordination")…

  5. New challenges for the modern migration policy of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malykha Mariia Igorivna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the migration policy of the European Union in the context of contemporary global development and the existing European migration crisis. The article explains factors and principles of migration policy. The researcher pays attention to the measures aimed to overcome the crisis of migrants in the Union members.

  6. [Interpretation of Guidelines on Good Pharmacovigilance Practices for European Union].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yan-Ming; Tian, Feng

    2013-09-01

    Due to the limitations of pre-authorization clinical trials, the safety information obtained from them is relatively limited. Therefore, it is very necessary to carry out pharmacovigilance activities on drugs post-marketing. In order to promote the specific implementation of the new pharmacovigilance regulations, the European medicines agency (EMA) developed the Guideline on Good Pharmacovigilance Practices (GVP), as the new criteria for pharmacovigilance in the European Union (EU). Compared with the previously published, Guidelines on Pharmacovigilance for Medicinal Products for Human Use (2007), the GVP proposed more comprehensive and systematic provisions of pharmacovigilance systems, quality control systems, judgements, pharmacovigilance inspections and audits. In addition, it set more specific and comprehensive requirements on risk management systems, the management and reporting of adverse reactions to medicinal products, periodic safety update reports, post-authorization safety studies, signal management, and so on. Interpreting the basic principles, working mechanisms, key technologies and methods of the GVP provides a useful reference for us to carry out pharmacovigilance (especially regarding safety monitoring of parenterally administered Chinese medicine).

  7. Analysis of European Union Economy in Terms of GDP Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona VINEREAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the crises on national economies represented a subject of analysis and interest for a wide variety of research studies. Thus, starting from the GDP composition, the present research exhibits an analysis of the impact of European economies, at an EU level, of the events that followed the crisis of 2007 – 2008. Firstly, the research highlighted the existence of two groups of countries in 2012 in European Union, namely segments that were compiled in relation to the structure of the GDP’s components. In the second stage of the research, a factor analysis was performed on the resulted segments, that showed that the economies of cluster A are based more on personal consumption compared to the economies of cluster B, and in terms of government consumption, the situation is reversed. Thus, between the two groups of countries, a different approach regarding the role of fiscal policy in the economy can be noted, with a greater emphasis on savings in cluster B. Moreover, besides the two groups of countries resulted, Ireland and Luxembourg stood out because these two countries did not fit in either of the resulted segments and their economies are based, to a large extent, on the positive balance of the external balance.

  8. Future Trajectories of Renewable Energy Consumption in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Cucchiella

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy sources (RESs are able to reduce the European Union (EU’s dependence on foreign energy imports, also meeting sustainable objectives to tackle climate change and to enhance economic opportunities. Energy management requires a quantitative analysis and the European Commission follows the performance of each Member State (MS in order to define the corrective measures towards 2020 targets. Starting from historical data reported in the Eurostat database and through a mathematical model, this work proposes future trajectories towards 2020 of the share of energy from renewables (REs in terms of gross final energy consumption (GFEC. Furthermore, a quantitative analysis based on two indices—(i the share of REs in GFEC, and (ii gross final renewable energy consumption (GFREC per capita—permits a comparison among 28 MSs. The share of REs in GFEC in EU 28 varies from 19.4% to 21.8% in future trajectories towards 2020. Sweden and Finland occupy the top part of the ranking, while six MSs (Belgium, France, Ireland, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, and the United Kingdom are not able to reach the 2020 targets.

  9. Introduction and Affirmation of Car Trains in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Kamnik Zebec

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available We live in a time of continuous technical and technologicaldevelopment. It is the time of globalization which is the maindriver of the technological procedures in the process of executingtransport services. Railway transport in Europe requiresspecial attention, since it has a number of attributes which arenot being effectively used. Measures to reduce the use of roadnetwork have been prepared, which would consequently increaserailway transport. Individuals in personal vehicles couldreduce transport costs with the increasing use of railway transport.The introduction of car trains in Europe is also supportedby the European Union, but there has been very little done inthe European car train system. The first goal of the Europeanunion seems to be understandable : using piggyback transportto redirect as much road freight transport as possible to the Europeanrailway system. Car trains in the integrated Europeanrail system are one of numerous possibilities of how to offer auser of personal vehicle and his fellow passengers a safe, comfortable,economical and ecologically acceptable way of travelon a specific distance in the local or global sense of combinedtransport of vehicles and passengers.

  10. Relevant Market in Commercial Aviation of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Kociubiński

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief overview of the issue of definition of relevant market in civil aviation within the European Union. The liberalization of the market since the early 1990s has led to a rapid increase in the number of airlines operating in the EU. The increase in the competitiveness of the market has brought many positive changes for passengers, such as lower fares and a better network of connections. At the same time it has created a risk that the airlines, in order to gain a competitive edge, would infringe the rules of competition. This is especially important in the context of the phenomenon that is the development of the airline alliances, which could lead to an abuse of a dominant position. A clear definition of the relevant market is a first step in an assessment of whether such an abuse occurred. This paper focus on the elements that Internal Market regulator, the European Commission, takes into consideration when defining relevant market in the airline industry.

  11. Information technology law and health systems in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossialos, Elias; Thomson, Sarah; Ter Linden, Annemarie

    2004-01-01

    This study aims to examine the impact of European Union (EU) law relating to information technology (IT) on health systems. The study identifies EU directives relating to IT, analyzes them in terms of their impact on the use of IT in health systems, and outlines their implications for health technology assessment (HTA). Analysis is based on a review of literature identified through relevant databases and Internet searches. Developments in IT have serious implications for EU health systems, presenting policy makers with new challenges. The European Commission has adopted a range of legal measures to protect consumers in the "information society" However, as few of them are health-specific, it is not evident that they have implications for health, health systems, or HTA, and they may not be effective in protecting consumers in the health sector. In light of the growing importance of IT in the health sector, legal and nonlegal measures need to be further developed at EU and international level. Where possible, future initiatives should pay attention to the particular characteristics of health goods and services and health systems. Although definitions of HTA usually recognize the importance of evaluating both the indirect, unintended consequences of health technologies and the legal aspects of their application, it seems that, in practice, HTA often overlooks or underestimates legislative matters. Those involved in HTA should be aware of the legal implications of using IT to provide health goods and services and compile, store, transfer, and disseminate health information electronically.

  12. European union mission for the rule of law in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Bejtush Gashi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Here we have studied the international circumstances that have affected the deployment of the EULEX Mission in Kosovo. The EULEX mission is the European Union Mission for the Rule of Law in Kosovo. Its main goal is to advise, assist and support the Kosovo authorities in issues of the rule of law, especially in the field of police, judiciary and customs performance. Also this mission has the responsibility to develop and further strengthen the independent multi-ethnic justice system in Kosovo, by ensuring that the rule of law institutions are not politically influenced and that they meet the known international standards and best European practices. This mission was foreseen to be deployed to Kosovo, based on the Ahtissari Comprehensive Status Proposal for Kosovo, but due to its non-approval by the UN Security Council, its full implementation was delayed until December 2008. EULEX acts within the framework of Resolution 1244 of the UN Security Council and under a single chain of command in Brussels. EULEX officials have supported Kosovo Police, the Judiciary system and Kosovo Customs, through MMA actions for achieving objectives and goals that are foreseen by the program strategy of EULEX. But in terms of efficiency, EULEX has only achieved modest results. In the northern part of Kosovo, EULEX has failed, as a result of its ambivalent mandate and incoherence of EU Foreign and Security Policy.

  13. Economic Burden of Bladder Cancer Across the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Jose; Luengo-Fernandez, Ramon; Sullivan, Richard; Witjes, J Alfred

    2016-03-01

    More than 120,000 people are diagnosed annually with bladder cancer in the 28 countries of the European Union (EU). With >40,000 people dying of it each year, it is the sixth leading cause of cancer. However, to date, no systematic cost-of-illness study has assessed the economic impact of bladder cancer in the EU. To estimate the annual economic costs of bladder cancer in the EU for 2012. Country-specific cancer cost data were estimated using aggregate data on morbidity, mortality, and health care resource use, obtained from numerous international and national sources. Health care costs were estimated from expenditures on primary, outpatient, emergency, and inpatient care, as well as medications. Costs of unpaid care and lost earnings due to morbidity and early death were estimated. Bladder cancer cost the EU €4.9 billion in 2012, with health care accounting for €2.9 billion (59%) and representing 5% of total health care cancer costs. Bladder cancer accounted for 3% of all cancer costs in the EU (€143 billion) in 2012 and represented an annual health care cost of €57 per 10 EU citizens, with costs varying >10 times between the country with the lowest cost, Bulgaria (€8 for every 10 citizens), and highest cost, Luxembourg (€93). Productivity losses and informal care represented 23% and 18% of bladder cancer costs, respectively. The quality and availability of comparable cancer-related data across the EU need further improvement. Our results add to essential public health and policy intelligence for delivering affordable bladder cancer care systems and prioritising the allocation of public research funds. We looked at the economic costs of bladder cancer across the European Union (EU). We found bladder cancer to cost €4.9 billion in 2012, with health care accounting for €2.9 billion. Our study provides data that can be used to inform affordable cancer care in the EU. Copyright © 2015 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All

  14. Strengthening the European Union Climate and Energy Package to build a low carbon, competitive and energy secure european union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerin, Emmanuel; Spencer, Thomas

    2011-10-11

    Immediate action to strengthen the European Union Climate and Energy Package (EU CEP) is needed to ensure Europe's sustained growth, competitiveness and energy security. Indeed, the current 20% emissions reduction target is too low to reach the European long-term goal of reducing emissions by at least 80% by 2050 at acceptable costs. But the EU CEP is also inefficient to address sustainable potential competitiveness losses and carbon leakages in some carbon intensive industries, and most importantly to boost fully the competitiveness of firms producing low-carbon products and services. Moving to 30% by 2020 could induce significant long-term GDP gains and only marginal GDP short-term costs, increase the competitiveness of European firms producing innovative low-carbon technologies, and reduce both final energy consumption and EU energy dependency. But for these objectives to be met, the contents of policies to reach this 30% target is as important as the target itself. There are three main areas in which the EU CEP needs strengthening: (1) Improvement of the energy efficiency of the existing building stocks, and limitation of the absolute level of energy consumption in the transport sector are needed to reach the 20% energy efficiency target. Binding targets should only be used when absolutely necessary and when helpful. (2) From an economic, environmental and political perspective, setting a stringent European Union Emission Trading System (EU ETS) 2030 cap between -45 and -50% from 2005 levels is probably the most relevant, efficient, and realistic option in the short term. It would increase the predictability of the carbon price signal, and therefore the credibility of the regulator. Banking would ensure that this stringent mid-term target translates into a short-term increase of the carbon price. (3) In some cases, direct public financial support is justified and efficient: to overcome market failures and non-market barriers; to support innovation in low

  15. Strengthening the European Union Climate and Energy Package to build a low carbon, competitive and energy secure european union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerin, Emmanuel; Spencer, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Immediate action to strengthen the European Union Climate and Energy Package (EU CEP) is needed to ensure Europe's sustained growth, competitiveness and energy security. Indeed, the current 20% emissions reduction target is too low to reach the European long-term goal of reducing emissions by at least 80% by 2050 at acceptable costs. But the EU CEP is also inefficient to address sustainable potential competitiveness losses and carbon leakages in some carbon intensive industries, and most importantly to boost fully the competitiveness of firms producing low-carbon products and services. Moving to 30% by 2020 could induce significant long-term GDP gains and only marginal GDP short-term costs, increase the competitiveness of European firms producing innovative low-carbon technologies, and reduce both final energy consumption and EU energy dependency. But for these objectives to be met, the contents of policies to reach this 30% target is as important as the target itself. There are three main areas in which the EU CEP needs strengthening: (1) Improvement of the energy efficiency of the existing building stocks, and limitation of the absolute level of energy consumption in the transport sector are needed to reach the 20% energy efficiency target. Binding targets should only be used when absolutely necessary and when helpful. (2) From an economic, environmental and political perspective, setting a stringent European Union Emission Trading System (EU ETS) 2030 cap between -45 and -50% from 2005 levels is probably the most relevant, efficient, and realistic option in the short term. It would increase the predictability of the carbon price signal, and therefore the credibility of the regulator. Banking would ensure that this stringent mid-term target translates into a short-term increase of the carbon price. (3) In some cases, direct public financial support is justified and efficient: to overcome market failures and non-market barriers; to support innovation in low

  16. European Union gas market liberalization: a windfall effect for Russia?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riviere, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Natural gas has a growing importance in the European Union energy. However, because of the lack of resources in its territory, the EU is highly dependent on imports to meet its gas needs. In parallel, since 1998 the EU seeks the creation of a single and liberalized natural gas market. The aim of this thesis is to investigate whether the gas market liberalization can create a risk for importers' bargaining power and more widely to the gas security of supply of the EU. The first chapter provides an overview of the European gas market. It deals with the implementation of the process of gas market liberalization, the external dependency of the EU and the weakness of gas supply diversity. Using findings from the previous chapter, the second one proposes a model from the cooperative game theory to analyze the effects of the EU natural gas market liberalization on importers' bargaining power. It shows that the liberalization weakens importers' bargaining power vis-a-vis external suppliers, where Russia is the leader. It also shows that the implementation of a European gas purchasing agency offers a counter-power to the EU that balances bargaining power. The third chapter focuses on the development of LNG in the world and more specifically in the EU market. The development of LNG in Europe allows the entry of new operators on the upstream and, thus, increases competition among the EU's suppliers for the benefit of importers' bargaining power. The last chapter analyzes the impact of US shale gas development on the EU gas market. Thus, it shows that development is accompanied by an uncertainty about the future gas demand in the EU and by a reconsideration of the EU's long-term contracts. (author)

  17. Uranium mine and mill tailings - Liabilities in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilden, Wolfgang; Murphy, Simon; Vrijen, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Uranium mining and milling has taken place on large scale in the Member States of the European Union (EU) for some 60 years. Although, compared to mining, milling activities are normally concentrated in fewer locations, this can still result in a relatively large number of disposal sites for the tailings, compared to other radioactive wastes. In addition these sites are also quite large, in terms of both volume and surface area. Coupled with the residual uranium in the tailings together with other radionuclides, heavy metals, chemicals etc this results in an environmental legacy continuing far into the future. Often during production no or little provision has been made for the closure, remediation and future supervision of such sites. In 1996 the European Commission funded an inventory of uranium mining and milling liabilities in nine Central and Eastern European Countries. Additionally, pilot projects were funded to carry out remediation activities at several sites. Almost ten years later the Commission has identified the need to address the situation of these large liabilities in all EU Member States and to assess the progress made in remediation of the sites, especially in view of the closure of almost all mining activities in Europe. The Commission study has identified the current tailings liabilities in Europe, their status, the future plans for these sites and the hazards that continue to be associated with them. It is clear that although considerable progress has been made in recent years, much work remains to be carried out in the areas of remediation, and ensuring the long-term safety of many of the identified objects. The paper presents the main findings of the study, as well as the challenges identified to ensure long-term safety of these wastes. (authors)

  18. ANALYSING THE LEVEL OF CORRELATION AMONG TURKEY AND EUROPEAN UNION MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAKAN SARITAŞ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available International portfolio investments are growing rapidly as a result of the relaxation of capital controls in national markets. The most attractive aspect of international portfolio investments for investors is that investors are able to decrease the volatility of their investments through diversification. Although international portfolio investments provide tremendous diversification benefits, the level of correlation among the equity markets around the world has an important impact on diversification. If cross-country correlations are small, international diversification can provide investors with an attractive risk-return profile. However, investors may not be able to diversify away much domestic risk if the cross-country correlations are large. In this study, I analyzed the correlation between the Turkish equity market and equity markets of European Union (EU countries. The aim was to figure out the effects of developments emerged in the way of Turkey’s membership to EU on the level of correlation between the Turkish equity market and EU markets. The findings of the study indicate that mentioned developments increased the level of correlation between the Turkish equity market and EU markets.

  19. Economic and environmental implications of Turkish accession to the European Union: A CGE analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydin, Levent; Acar, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the economic and environmental implications of Turkey's possible accession to the European Union (EU). The paper focuses on the impacts of three main components of Turkey's possible EU membership: (i) the free movement of labor between the EU and Turkey, (ii) the free movement of capital, and (iii) the burden-sharing of Turkey in terms of the EU's environmental objectives in the horizon of 2020, that is, the reduction of carbon emissions. Among these, a particular focus is placed on the influence of the CO 2 emission reduction targets in both regions and their consequences on the carbon price in 2020. We estimate the resource allocation effects of EU climate change policies on both regions by taking into account the likely labor movement from Turkey to the EU and capital movement in the reverse direction. The results show that different emission targets for the two regions bring about a change in comparative advantages and thus a change in interregional competitiveness.

  20. THE IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNICATION IN THE PROCESS OF INTEGRATION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION: CASE STUDY OF THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Dzamtovska - Zdravkovska

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Facing the challenges of the new changes and reforms on the way towards accessing the European Union, the Republic of Macedonia is also facing the challenge to strengthen the capacities of the administration, which inevitably means informing it about European values and systems of operation, but also informing the public about innovations and changes the future membership brings. The paper focuses on the manner in which the Macedonian public is being informed regarding Macedonia’s process of advancement towards the European family, with emphasis on the importance of internal communication in the public administration in terms of the exchange and dissemination of information on activities related to the pre-access process. Through analysis of the relevant strategic documents and the results of the implemented projects, it can be concluded that it is necessary to continuously inform the public about the process of entering the Union. At the same time, it is also necessary to include the public administration in the process of shaping the policy for informing the public.

  1. The challenges facing the European Union Centres of Excellence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupre, Bruno; )

    2012-10-01

    On 19 April 2012, the United Nation Security Council congratulated the European Union for its initiative on centres of excellence in the nuclear, radiological, biological, and chemical fields. The time for glowing reports is over. Three years after its creation, the support of EU Member Sates, the Security Council, the G8, the IEAE, the WHO, the USA, Interpol, the ICRC, has been obtained. Other diplomatic, organisational, and communicative challenges have now arisen regarding implementation. The manifest challenges include: 1/Political exploitation of the centres. Following a recent round table in Algiers, the Algerian press ran headlines such as 'terrorism, the Malian crisis arrives in Algiers' CBRN centres of excellence' and 'Bouteflika, the centres of excellence slight'. 2/Communication errors. A unanimously approved expert in South East Asia became a persona non grata over the last six months despite not making any fundamental mistake, aside from his inability to evaluate the degree of a country's sensitivity and pride. The countries in the region went so far as to threaten to pull out of the Manila centre as a result of this ultimately minor error in communication. 3/The scope of the centres' role complicates the grasp of its objectives. To date, the focus has essentially been on non-proliferation and the fight against CBRN terrorism, under the well-established theme of Resolution 1540. The shift of CBRN focus, at the behest of certain regions, on to real natural risks (pandemics) or industrial risks (protection of crucial infrastructure following an earthquake, flooding, or a tsunami) fundamentally changes the teams' make-up and the mobilization of resources. The emergency services culture is different to that of nonproliferation. However, they both very much address CBRN risks and threats. 4/The limits of the 'bottom-up' approach. To date, the centres' success has been due to the lack of restrictive

  2. ENERGY IMPORT DEPENDENCY AND SEEKING FOR NEW ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES EUROPEAN UNION CASE

    OpenAIRE

    Özkan Nesimioglu, Serife

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, energy poverty and as a result of this energy import dependency and its possible negative results have been examined by taking European Union (EU) into consideration. This analysis has two aims: the first one is questioning the European Unions’ energy security from supply perspective and the second one is investigating the solutions produced by European Union to get away or at least to reduce its energy import dependency. To guarantee its energy supply security at affordable pr...

  3. International Workshops for Teachers at the European Geosciences Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laj, C.

    2005-12-01

    The 2005 edition of the EGU Geophysical Information for Teachers (GIFT) workshoptook place in April 2005 during the General Assembly of the European Gesciences Union. It reunited 70 teachers from 16 European Countries and 3 teachers from the USA. The general theme of this 2-days workshop was 'The history of the Earth' and it focussed on important, but somewhat ill-known aspects of the evolution of our planet. GIFT-2005 was preceeded by a one-day workshop on Natural Risk Assessment (NaRAs) which included aspects of seismology in the schools and two talks on the 2004 Sumatra tsunami. Both were organized by the Committee on Education of EGU. Both workshops comprised seminal talks by leading scientists in the field, but also presentations by science educators and presentations by the teachers themselved of some off-track activities in their schools. This combitation stimulated discussions between the teachers, scientists and science educators and among the teachers where the different languages did not appear to create major difficulties (the official language of the workshops was English). Some of the contacts between teachers are already evolving in long term collaborations between them and their respective schools. It clearly appears that reuniting teachers formed and teaching within different educational systems, leads to stimulating creative discussions and collaborations, each teacher benefitting from the different background of his/her colleagues. The great output of this kind of international workshop is to show that while there is no educational system 'better than all others', the interactions between teachers, scientists and sciences educators during a major scientific conference, create new stimulus and enthousiasm among the teachers and this will invariably lead to up-to-date and alive teaching of geo-sciences (and scicnes in general) in primary and secondary schools, i.e. where future geoscientist are formed.

  4. Estimation of European Union residential sector space cooling potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakubcionis, Mindaugas; Carlsson, Johan

    2017-01-01

    Data on European residential space cooling demands are scarce and often of poor quality. This can be concluded from a review of the Comprehensive Assessments on the energy efficiency potential in the heating and cooling sector performed by European Union Member States under Art. 14 of the Energy Efficiency Directive. This article estimates the potential space cooling demands in the residential sector of the EU and the resulting impact on electricity generation and supply systems using the United States as a proxy. A georeferenced approach was used to establish the potential residential space cooling demand in NUTS-3 regions of EU. The total potential space cooling demand of the EU was estimated to be 292 TW h for the residential sector in an average year. The additional electrical capacity needed was estimated to 79 GW. With proper energy system development strategies, e.g. matching capacity of solar PV with cooling demand, or introduction of district cooling, the stresses on electricity system from increasing cooling demand can be mitigated. The estimated potential of space cooling demand, identified in this paper for all EU Members States, could be used while preparing the next iteration of EU MS Comprehensive Assessments or other energy related studies. - Highlights: • An estimation of EU space cooling demand potential in residential sector is presented. • An estimate of space cooling demand potential is based on using USA data as a proxy. • Significant cooling demand increase can be expected. • Cooling demand increase would lead to increased stress in energy supply systems. • Proper policies and strategies might measurably decrease the impact on energy systems.

  5. Neonicotinoid residues in UK honey despite European Union moratorium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, Ben A; Ridding, Lucy; Freeman, Stephen N; Pereira, M Gloria; Sleep, Darren; Redhead, John; Aston, David; Carreck, Norman L; Shore, Richard F; Bullock, James M; Heard, Matthew S; Pywell, Richard F

    2018-01-01

    Due to concerns over negative impacts on insect pollinators, the European Union has implemented a moratorium on the use of three neonicotinoid pesticide seed dressings for mass-flowering crops. We assessed the effectiveness of this policy in reducing the exposure risk to honeybees by collecting 130 samples of honey from bee keepers across the UK before (2014: N = 21) and after the moratorium was in effect (2015: N = 109). Neonicotinoids were present in about half of the honey samples taken before the moratorium, and they were present in over a fifth of honey samples following the moratorium. Clothianidin was the most frequently detected neonicotinoid. Neonicotinoid concentrations declined from May to September in the year following the ban. However, the majority of post-moratorium neonicotinoid residues were from honey harvested early in the year, coinciding with oilseed rape flowering. Neonicotinoid concentrations were correlated with the area of oilseed rape surrounding the hive location. These results suggest mass flowering crops may contain neonicotinoid residues where they have been grown on soils contaminated by previously seed treated crops. This may include winter seed treatments applied to cereals that are currently exempt from EU restrictions. Although concentrations of neonicotinoids were low (<2.0 ng g-1), and posed no risk to human health, they may represent a continued risk to honeybees through long-term chronic exposure.

  6. Usage of Online European Union Information Resources 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Joyce

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been an explosion of online European Union information resources available to researchers. However, little research into how researchers are accessing and using these resources has been carried out.. The aim of the research which informs this report was to take the first step to begin to rectify this issue. An online survey was conducted, using University of Bristol’s BOS software to which 145 people replied. The survey found that researchers considered themselves proficient at using online services. Surprisingly only 46.4% used them every day though. The Europa website was the most used but also paradoxically the most criticised for problems with search, navigation and transparency. Journals were the next most popular type of resource. Other top services included search engines, news sites and email lists. Web 2.0 has yet to be taken up widely by our sample of researchers, with few individuals having or using blogs or social networking software. The report also highlights that while some researchers are happy with EU online services, many are concerned about poor navigation and the design of websites, bias of information and the increasing abundance of passwords necessary to access multiple information resources.

  7. Legal frameworks for emissions trading in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upston-Hooper, K.; Perrells, A.; Anttonen, K.; Mehling, M.

    2007-01-01

    The Project is based on a comparative and pragmatic review of the legal frameworks for implementing the EU Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) in four EU jurisdictions (Finland, Sweden, United Kingdom and Germany). The Project does not seek to examine the rationale of utilizing tradable mechanisms nor assess the costs and benefits of doing so. Its primary focus is to undertake a detailed study of the legal realities involved in implementing the EU ETS, particularly those issues of commercial importance such as taxation and accounting rules. The methodology adopted has been to formulate a comprehensive questionnaire (of approximately 70 questions) to be used as the basis of national reports together with a stand alone analysis by VATT, and in turn use the national reports and VATT study as the building blocks of a comparative overview report. The questionnaire seeks to highlight those significant legal and regulatory issues that impact on the establishment of emission allowance trading arrangements within the respective jurisdictions. The comparative analysis of these issues will focus on 'golden threads' of similarity and difference that impact on the establishment of an internal market within the European Union for the trading of emissions allowances. (orig.)

  8. IMPROVING YOUTHS' SOCIAL SITUATION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rtmbu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The European Union's social policies of the last years aimed at improving the social conditions of youths across Europe. The goal of this paper is to comparatively analyse the characteristics of youths and their social conditions in the EU-27, during 2006- 2016, using the following indicators associated to the young population: youth education and training, employment and unemployment rates, health, social inclusion, culture and creativity, participation and youth in the digital world. The paper also reviews the impact and efficiency of the EU's social policies in the current economic background, trying to catch the improvements in young people's social conditions. For this purpose, there were used Employment and Social Conditions Indicators and "Europe 2020" Strategy Indicators. Our analysis reveals that over time the youths' aspirations and needs have changed along with their social conditions. The EU is obviously making progress in improving the social policies addressed to young people, but there are still visible differences between the member states and new, innovative approaches are required to respond to youths' needs in the fast-changing economic and political context of Europe.

  9. Lobbying in the European Union: Practices and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Soimu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the concept of lobby activities and its regulatory methods in the European Union with a main focus on Belgium. Lobbying is a worldwide practice that can provide policy makers with invaluable insight and data for more informed decision making. However, lobbying is often perceived negatively, as giving special advantages to vocal vested interests. Concerns that negotiations carried out behind closed doors could override the interests of the whole community push lobbying to the political agenda in many societies. To maintain trust in government and in public decision making, many EU countries are considering developing or updating regulations to shed more public light on lobbying. Lobby activities represent a democratic mechanism for those actors who are involved and participate in the decision making process. The main objective of this paper is to analyze the reasons why civil society, institutions and companies have a special interest for developing lobby activities. The paper also presents the case of the largest lobbying association in Brussels which emphasize several reasons confirming the necessity and the efficiency of lobby activities. Based on lessons learned from EU lobby practices, the paper highlights the reasons why in Romania the legislative framework concerning lobby activities is absent.

  10. The role of the European Union in environmental taxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, S.

    1995-01-01

    The role of the European Union (EU) in environmental taxation is examined in this chapter. As is well-known, the EU has proposed a carbon/energy tax to contribute to the stabilization of CO 2 emissions at 1990 levels by the year 2000. The discussion is organized around the 'subsidiarity principle', which involves a presumption in favor of decentralizing policy functions to the member states. Exceptions are allowed only if economies of scale or cross-country spillover effects warrant EU involvement. The author persuasively argues that environmental policy is such an exception. In particular, in a single market such as the EU, the enforcement of taxes and regulations gives rise to important international externalities. Independent policy and administration would either interfere with free trade or lead to widespread evasion. Hence, the EU should have a substantial and legitimate interest in not only environmental targets and objectives, but also in the form of environmental policy (e.g. in the choice between environmental taxes and regulation). Furthermore, it is argued that environmental tax policies should be coordinated both with other environmental tax policies and with other fiscal policies. This implies that the decisions about environmental tax rates should be taken by the level of government responsible for other, related, environmental policies, whilst the revenues from environmental taxes should accrue in general to member states, in preference to the EU. 16 refs

  11. The price of cigarettes in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, A; Villalbí, J R

    2001-06-01

    A major factor influencing tobacco use is its price. Fiscal policies on tobacco are a key ingredient of any comprehensive control strategy, as they can be used to raise prices. The European Union (EU) developed directives to ensure some harmonisation of the fiscal pressure on tobacco across its member states. To provide a simple comparison of tobacco prices in the EU, adjusting for the purchasing power of each currency. For price comparisons, a 20 units pack of Marlboro was the reference product, and data refer to April 2000. Purchasing power parities (PPP) for each member state currency have been compiled. These are currency conversion rates, which convert to a common currency and equalise the purchasing power of different currencies. Nominal prices of a Marlboro pack for each member state, and a price index, estimated taking as reference the EU mean. Adjusted prices and an adjusted price index have been estimated using PPP. Nominal prices show wide variation, with the cheapest pack in Portugal (59) and the most expensive in the UK (196); the range of variation is three-fold. However, PPP adjusted prices reveal a different distribution. In three countries adjusted prices are outliers, but all other countries make two clusters, one around the average EU index of 100, the other around a lower value of 85. These results suggest that fiscal harmonisation policies in the EU do not have an even effect at reducing availability by its impact in price.

  12. Neonicotinoid residues in UK honey despite European Union moratorium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridding, Lucy; Freeman, Stephen N.; Pereira, M. Gloria; Sleep, Darren; Redhead, John; Aston, David; Carreck, Norman L.; Shore, Richard F.; Bullock, James M.; Heard, Matthew S.; Pywell, Richard F.

    2018-01-01

    Due to concerns over negative impacts on insect pollinators, the European Union has implemented a moratorium on the use of three neonicotinoid pesticide seed dressings for mass-flowering crops. We assessed the effectiveness of this policy in reducing the exposure risk to honeybees by collecting 130 samples of honey from bee keepers across the UK before (2014: N = 21) and after the moratorium was in effect (2015: N = 109). Neonicotinoids were present in about half of the honey samples taken before the moratorium, and they were present in over a fifth of honey samples following the moratorium. Clothianidin was the most frequently detected neonicotinoid. Neonicotinoid concentrations declined from May to September in the year following the ban. However, the majority of post-moratorium neonicotinoid residues were from honey harvested early in the year, coinciding with oilseed rape flowering. Neonicotinoid concentrations were correlated with the area of oilseed rape surrounding the hive location. These results suggest mass flowering crops may contain neonicotinoid residues where they have been grown on soils contaminated by previously seed treated crops. This may include winter seed treatments applied to cereals that are currently exempt from EU restrictions. Although concentrations of neonicotinoids were low (<2.0 ng g-1), and posed no risk to human health, they may represent a continued risk to honeybees through long-term chronic exposure. PMID:29298300

  13. The specificity and scope of European Union finance law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Tyniewicki

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Basically, Polish science of financial law quite broadly takes the problems concerning public finance of the European Union (EU. However, it should be noticed that the considerations largely refer to the detailed issues within the confines of individual branches of EU financial law, eg. in areas of tax harmonization or single financial market. At the same time there is an insufficiency or even minuteness publications with doctrinal and theoretical nature referring to the general and fundamental issues of financial law of the EU. There may be numbered such issues among others as definitions, scope and internal structure of this law, its legal sources etc. Generally two areas should be object of the basic scientific researches in reference to the issues mentioned above. First one is financial law of the EU and the second one – its influence and effect of this influence on Polish financial law. In this article there will be undertaken considerations referring to the first area aimed at defining the specifity and scope of EU financial law.

  14. The instability of the European Union? A quantitative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu Petru GRECU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available 2012 was the year when the European Union (EU has received the Nobel Peace Prize, an honored and prestigious distinction. The aim of this article is not to analyze the reason which led the Norwegian Parliament to award it, but its possible influence on the future evolution of the EU. This statement is understood as the starting point of our hypothesis that the EU has developed at such a level that nothing could undermine it. Our research consists in confirming this hypothesis from a quantitative approach that will measure the twenty-seven EU member-states, from 2007 until 2012, and their representation according to six variables (indices. Peace represents the dependent variable, while global partnership, human development, rule of law, civil rights, and democracy play the role of independent variables. Because the fact that determined us to write this paper was the Nobel Prize distinction awarded to the EU, the main point of our research is peace and its correlation with the other five elements. The results prove that the most relevant connection is found between peace and human development, even though the other ones are not to be neglected either. The interpretation of the results therefore focuses on peace and human development, democracy and civil rights from a theoretical point of view. In the end, peace in the EU is the result of twenty-seven members’ efforts and its efficiency is real only to those states that are under its umbrella

  15. Neonicotinoid residues in UK honey despite European Union moratorium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben A Woodcock

    Full Text Available Due to concerns over negative impacts on insect pollinators, the European Union has implemented a moratorium on the use of three neonicotinoid pesticide seed dressings for mass-flowering crops. We assessed the effectiveness of this policy in reducing the exposure risk to honeybees by collecting 130 samples of honey from bee keepers across the UK before (2014: N = 21 and after the moratorium was in effect (2015: N = 109. Neonicotinoids were present in about half of the honey samples taken before the moratorium, and they were present in over a fifth of honey samples following the moratorium. Clothianidin was the most frequently detected neonicotinoid. Neonicotinoid concentrations declined from May to September in the year following the ban. However, the majority of post-moratorium neonicotinoid residues were from honey harvested early in the year, coinciding with oilseed rape flowering. Neonicotinoid concentrations were correlated with the area of oilseed rape surrounding the hive location. These results suggest mass flowering crops may contain neonicotinoid residues where they have been grown on soils contaminated by previously seed treated crops. This may include winter seed treatments applied to cereals that are currently exempt from EU restrictions. Although concentrations of neonicotinoids were low (<2.0 ng g-1, and posed no risk to human health, they may represent a continued risk to honeybees through long-term chronic exposure.

  16. What are European Union Public Attitudes towards Robots? (Invited Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Loffredo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a very brief overview of public attitudes towards robots from different geographical regions of the world but focuses on one such study in one particular geographic area, the European Union (EU of 27 countries. By far, the Eurobarameter Survey on Public Attitudes towards Robots, released online in 2012, is the largest study of public attitudes towards robots. It focused exclusively on descriptive statistics which are mathematical procedures used to organize, summarize and simplify data. The statistical procedures used in this paper to perform a secondary data analysis of the data from the Eurobarameter Survey on Attitudes towards robots focused on inferential statistics which focus on inference and statistical comparisons. Secondary data analyses are often used when large data sets are posted online for public, professional, and educational use. A one-way repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA, and separate two-way independent-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA were used to analyze participant responses on relevant survey questions. The results supported our hypotheses that there are significant differences in EU public attitudes by gender and age group.

  17. The origins of the bioeconomy in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patermann, Christian; Aguilar, Alfredo

    2018-01-25

    This article outlines the context and circumstances that favoured the development of a Bioeconomy Strategy in the European Union (EU) and the role played by the different Framework programmes for Research, Technological Development and Demonstration. Particular attention is given to the biotechnology related programmes and more specifically to the "Cell Factory" Key Action in the 5th Framework Programme (1998-2002). This, together with the parallel development of a Strategy on Biotechnology in 2002, served as a solid foundation for the creation of the, at the time, so-called Knowledge-Based Bio-Economy (KBBE). The KBBE concept emerged in 2005, a couple of years before the launch of the 7th Framework Programme (2007-2013). The experience accumulated over the years and the new societal expectations triggered the EU to launch a Strategy on Bioeconomy in 2012. This article concludes with a brief analysis of the two most important impacts of the EU Strategy on Bioeconomy. One is the Bioeconomy dedicated activity within the Programme Horizon 2020 (2014-2020), and the other the creation of a public-private partnership of bio-based industries. Both the impact of Horizon 2020 on the EU Bioeconomy Strategy and the bio-based industries public-private partnership are analysed in depth in two articles elsewhere in this volume. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Book Review: Michael Baun and Dan Marek (eds. The New Member States and the European Union. Foreign Policy and Europeanization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelin Dumitru

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A radical decision at the time, the 2004 enlargement constituted a critical juncture for the Central and Eastern European Countries. Although a great deal of literature has been written in regard to other aspects of Europeanization, the effects of EU membership on the foreign policy of the new member states have been rarely discussed. This is what the volume coordinated by Michael Baun and Dan Marek seeks to accomplish, namely to fill a gap in the European Studies with a series of articles explaining the more or less significant institutional and behavioural changes which occurred at the level of the new member states’ political elites. Focusing on three main domains in which Europeanization purportedly occurred, namely national preferences and interests, institutions and procedures, foreign policy strategies and actions, the studies gathered in this volume provide a useful overview of the effects of EU membership on what was traditionally known as “foreign policy”.

  19. Central and Eastern European Social Policy and European Union Accession: Time for Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemi Lendvai

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available European Union enlargement and accession are reflexive of both EU and post-communist social policies. There is a unique “dialogue“ going on, indicative of fundamental aspects of post-communist, post-transitional social policy. It is also a 'mirror' that reflects shortcomings of governance, and often presents a neglected institutional landscape. Therefore, the Europeanisation of social policy is an essential transformation process for post-communist countries whereby a new language and new concepts are introduced, the outlines of new social-policy governance emerge and enter the space in which social policy is formulated and considered.

  20. Environmental policy in the European Union. Fostering the development of pollution havens?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cave, Lisa A.; Blomquist, Glenn C.

    2008-01-01

    A pollution haven occurs when dirty industries from developed nations relocate to developing nations in order to avoid strict environmental standards or developed nations imports of dirty industries expand replacing domestic production. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the European Union (EU) has increased its imports of 'dirty' goods from poorer, less democratic countries during a period of more stringent environmental standards. Previous empirical studies find evidence that United States imports are responsive to changes in environmental stringency, but the effects of EU policy have not been examined as thoroughly. Our study follows Kahn [Kahn, M.E., 2003. The Geography of USA Pollution Intensive Trade: Evidence from 1958 to 1994. Regional Science and Urban Economics., 33: 383-400.] and examines the impact of industry energy intensity and toxicity, measured by an energy index and a Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) index, on imports into the EU, at the 2-digit industry level from 1970 to 1999. We use the signing of the Maastricht Treaty to signify a period of more uniform and stringent community wide environmental standards (1993-1999), and identify the level of per capita GDP within an EU trading partner. We find an increased amount of EU energy intensive trade with poorer countries during the period with more stringent EU environmental standards. This result is not robust, however, when poorer countries are defined by OECD membership and geographic region. We do not find an increased amount of EU toxic intensive trade with poorer countries although there is some evidence of increased EU imports of toxic goods from poorer OECD and non-EU European countries. For our full sample of trading partners in all regions, the evidence supports the PHH for EU energy intensive trade, but not for toxic intensive trade. Results for regional trade analysis are less clear. (author)

  1. European Union energy policy integration: A case of European Commission policy entrepreneurship and increasing supranationalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maltby, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    Focusing on gas, this article explores the role of the European Commission in the process of European Union energy security policy development, and the extent to which the policy area is becoming increasingly supranational. Situating the article within the literature on agenda-setting and framing, it is argued that a policy window was opened as a result of: enlargement to include more energy import dependent states, a trend of increasing energy imports and prices, and gas supply disruptions. From the mid-2000s, the Commission contributed to a shift in political norms, successfully framing import dependency as a problem requiring an EU-level solution, based on the institution’s pre-existing preferences for a diversified energy supply and internal energy market. Whilst Member States retain significant sovereignty, the Commission has achieved since 2006 creeping competencies in the internal, and to a lesser extent external, dimensions of EU energy policy. - Highlights: ► We examine the development of EU energy security policy, focusing on gas. ► We examine changes in European Commission competence in energy policy. ► The European Commission has gained increased competence in the internal market. ► In the external dimension of EU energy policy Member States retain competence. ► The European Commission has had qualified success as a policy entrepreneur

  2. The Sources of Administrative Law and their Role in Consecrating the Administrative Space of European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Livioara Goga

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available At the level of the European Union, we cannot find a proper law in the sector of publicadministration , there are no precise regulations of administrative law within the legislation of the EuropeanUnion therefore we cannot talk about a system of administrative law characterized by written laws. Theexperience of half a century in European integration has proved, given the diversity of the systems ofEuropean law that the most important activity of the European judge was to create the law, to cover somegaps, to define or redefine the principles of administrative law. Since the jurisprudence of the Court of Justiceof the European Union has known a more and more development and recognition in the past decades andespecially at the level of the member states, the European administrative law has been identified with theseprinciples that seem to be defining it in the future in the lack of a general codification of what we call anEuropean administrative space. The purpose of this research is to understand the sources of the Europeanadministrative law analyzing at the same time the legislation of the European Union as well as thejurisprudence of the Court of justice and the other instances of the European Union.

  3. the right to GOOD ADMINISTRATION IN THE Court of Justice of the EUROPEAN Union CASE LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeta SLABU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The provisions of the Lisbon Treaty highlight that, at present, the Union has as objectives, not only an unitary economic development, but also strengthening the observance of peoples' fundamental rights, hence, implicitly, the right to good administration. The Court of Justice of the European Union has analyzed over time, in its decisions, the emergence and development of the good administration principle, its fundamental elements, and impossibility of framing it clearly in a definition, and, not least, turning the principle of good administration into a fundamental right through the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union. At European level, citizens of the EU member states, but also those from third countries thus benefit from a right to good administration in the relations with European Union institutions and bodies, according to Article 41 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union. The same should be the proceeding at internal level. Each Member State of the European Union should concern itself about identifying and promoting the most adequate measures for ensuring good governance and good administration. By identifying and applying at national level the principles governing the public administration activity at European level can be created the requisites for a national public administration that is transparent and efficient, close to the needs and interests of its citizens and that could be considered an integral part of the European public administration.

  4. Directives and regulations of the European Union on the protection of the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Jožef

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The author of this paper analyzes the directives and regulations of the European Union pertaining to the protection of environment (water, air and soil. Since emissions frequently exceed local communities and regions, thus gain cross border, and sometimes even global effects, the directives and regulations of the European Union aim to provide bases for the harmonization of national laws in the European Union, as far as the registry of holders of dangerous things or providers of dangerous services, and the measures necessary to settle the consequences of pollution and means of preventing larger-scale environmental damages are concerned.

  5. SPECTS REGARDING PUBLIC DEBT SHARE IN GDP AT THE LEVEL OF EUROPEAN UNION COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA-PETRINA PĂUN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The way in which the state manages the public debt has always represented and it will continue to represent a subject of real importance, and the discussions regarding the level of budget deficit, the dregree of indebtedness and its implications on the social wellness are very present at national level as also at the European Union level. In this paper it is presented the share of public debt in the Gross Domestic Product in the member countries of European Union, and, respectively, the degree of indeptedness of each member country of the European Union, at the level year of 2013.

  6. Estimation and Comparison of Underground Economy in Croatia and European Union Countries: Fuzzy Logic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Marsic

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to address this issue in three ways. First, we review existing estimates of the size of the underground economy. Second, we apply a novel calculation method for estimation: fuzzy logic. Third, we calculated and compared underground economy index for 25 European Union countries and compared it, with special focus on Croatian underground economy index. Results indicated that Croatia has the thirteenth largest underground economy among measured members of the European Union. This study is the first of its kind with recent data to measure the size of underground economy in European Union countries by employing fuzzy logic approach.

  7. A New Perspective of Investment Modelling at the European Union Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alin OPREANA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study that represents the subject of this paper follows the analysis of the investment function and the influencing factors at the European Union level. The research has, as a starting point, the hypothesis that there is a negative relationship between the European Union investments and tax rates. For verifying this hypothesis, the structural equation modeling is used (SEM, and the same technique is applied in the second part of the research, which will track the development of the investments’ model at the European Union level. The results will highlight the relationships that are established between specific variables that characterize the volume of investments.

  8. The Human Immunodeficiency Virus Continuum of Care in European Union Countries in 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gourlay, Annabelle; Noori, Teymur; Pharris, Anastasia

    2017-01-01

    a collaboration formed by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) with European HIV cohorts and surveillance agencies, we constructed a standardized, 4-stage continuum of HIV care for 11 European Union countries for 2013. Stages were defined as (1) number of people living with HIV...

  9. The Politics of the Economics of Education in the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This article critically examines the work of the European Commission-sponsored network, the European Expert Network on Economics of Education (EENEE). The aim is to develop understanding of the context and significance of the mobilization of the economics of education research and policy paradigm within the European Union's Education and Training…

  10. Social Justice and Capacity for Self-Development in Educational Systems in European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bo-Ruey

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores social justice and equity in educational policies and systems in the European Union, and analyzes the significance within. Equity indicators of the European educational systems, "Equity of the European Educational Systems: A set of indicators" declared in 2006, introduces the debates on educational justice issues on…

  11. European Union energy policy integration: A case of European Commission policy entrepreneurship and increasing supranationalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltby, Tomas

    2013-04-01

    Focusing on gas, this article explores the role of the European Commission in the process of European Union energy security policy development, and the extent to which the policy area is becoming increasingly supranational. Situating the article within the literature on agenda-setting and framing, it is argued that a policy window was opened as a result of: enlargement to include more energy import dependent states, a trend of increasing energy imports and prices, and gas supply disruptions. From the mid-2000s, the Commission contributed to a shift in political norms, successfully framing import dependency as a problem requiring an EU-level solution, based on the institution's pre-existing preferences for a diversified energy supply and internal energy market. Whilst Member States retain significant sovereignty, the Commission has achieved since 2006 creeping competencies in the internal, and to a lesser extent external, dimensions of EU energy policy.

  12. Draft European resolution on energy transition within the European Union. Nr 597

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michels, Thierry

    2018-01-01

    After references to European and international directives or agreements, this document aims at drawing up new flexible rules to promote energy transition within the EU. It therefore states the French National Assembly opinion on issues related to the reduction of European greenhouse emissions, the revision of the Carbon Emissions Trading Scheme, rules concerning the sharing of the burden to reduce these emissions in sectors not covered by the ETS, the revision of rules concerning energy efficiency and the energy performance of buildings, the revision of rules concerning renewable energies, the revision of rules in the electric power sector, the governance of the Union of energy, the revision of rules concerning the Agency of the Cooperation of Energy Regulators, the consideration of social impacts of energy transition, the Brexit, and the Paris agreement

  13. Evaluating expansion strategies for startup European Union dairy farm businesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, R; Shalloo, L; Pierce, K M; Horan, B

    2013-06-01

    A stochastic whole-farm simulation model was used to examine alternative strategies for new entrant dairy farmers to grow and develop dairy farm businesses in the context of European Union (EU) milk quota abolition in 2015. Six alternative strategies were compared: remain static, natural growth expansion, waiting until after EU milk quota abolition to expand, a full-scale expansion strategy without milk quotas and not incurring super levy penalties, a full-scale expansion strategy with milk quotas and incurring super levy penalties, and once-a-day milking until EU milk quota abolition, followed by full-scale expansion. Each discrete whole farm investment strategy was evaluated over a 15-yr period (2013-2027) using multiple financial stability and risk indicators, including overall discounted farm business profitability, net worth change, return on investment, and financial risk. The results of this study indicate that, although associated with increased risk, dairy farm expansion will ensure the future profitability of the farm business. Within the context of EU milk quotas until 2015, the most attractive expansion strategy is to increase cow numbers while avoiding super levy fines using once-a-day milking techniques, increasing to the full capacity of the dairy farm once milk quotas are removed. In contrast, the results also indicate that dairy farms that remain static will experience a significant reduction in farm profitability in the coming year due to production cost inflation. Cash flow deficits were observed during the initial year of expansion and, therefore, rapidly expanding dairy farm businesses require a significant cash reserve to alleviate business risk during the initial year of expansion. The results of this analysis also indicate that dairy farm businesses that expand using lower cost capital investments and avoid milk quota super levy fines significantly reduce the financial risks associated with expansion. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science

  14. International Political Actorness of the European Union: Evaluation Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GNATYUK N.N.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The European Union is a completely new international entity which is hard to evaluate using traditional criteria of political actorness. Its active international presence stimulates the modeling of international actor features beyond the scope of “state-international organization” scheme. The concept of international actorness serves as a starting point for the development of appropriate analytical model. Unlike the traditional state-centered approaches which define an international actor through its affiliation witch the international system, this concept operates at the internal level of international entity and at the international structure level. Furthermore, both of these levels are treated as ontologically neutral and mutually constitutive. This basic theoretical scheme is used for elaboration of evaluation criteria of political actorness. The proposed system of criteria is based on drawing, synthesizing and developing the main writings on “new international actors” since the times of classic work by Carol A. Cosgrove and Kenneth J. Twitchett. The key elements of actorness assessed in this article include defining of capacity to act on the global scene as well as the acceptance by other actors and by international system as a whole. At the internal level, the EU’s actor capacity is measured by assessing its core elements ranging from core aspects, such as autonomy, authority, actor capability, coherence and cohesion to identity aspects. On the external level, the decisive criteria are recognition and acceptance by others which reflect expectations and perceptions of the EU. The proposed approach of evaluating the international actorness enables us to consider the political activity of the EU on the basis of coordinated system of interaction between the variables of international and domestic levels of the analysis. Furthermore, this contributes to the development of cumulative, coherent, and comprehensive theory of international

  15. Conflicts of Criminal Jurisdiction in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Zimmermann

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Conflicts of criminal jurisdiction between the Member States belong to the most difficult challenges that the European Union has to face in order to establish a true “area of freedom, security and justice”. This article starts with an analysis of the interests that are affected by such conflicts: on the one hand, they are most problematic for the individual because they can lead to repeated or simultaneous proceedings in different Member States and forum shopping by prosecution authorities. What is more, they can even make it impossible to foresee whether and how severely an act will be punished. Thus, essential criminal law and procedure guarantees like ne bis in idem, the principle of legality, the right to a court established by law as well as the right to an effective defence are jeopardised. On the other, the Member States involved often have a legitimate interest in prosecution—or non-prosecution—and risk to spend their financial and personnel resources for ineffective parallel proceedings. In order to avoid conflicts of criminal jurisdiction, various models are conceivable. However, the most convincing one—according to the author’s opinion—builds upon a combination of different elements: a hierarchy of jurisdictional links should form the basis, but it would have to be complemented with provisions allowing for more flexibility in precisely defined circumstances. With this in mind, this article calls for the adoption of an EU regulation in order to solve the most urgent problems arising from conflicts of criminal jurisdiction and makes concrete suggestions as to its drafting.

  16. Research projects in family medicine funded by the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavličević, Ivančica; Barać, Lana

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at synthesizing funding opportunities in the field of family medicine by determining the number of family medicine projects, as well as number of project leaderships and/ or participations by each country. This was done in order to encourage inclusion of physicians in countries with underdeveloped research networks in successful research networks or to encourage them to form new ones. We searched the Community Research and Development Information Service project database in February 2013. Study covered the period from years 1992 - 2012, selecting the projects within the field of general/family medicine. The search was conducted in February 2013. First search conducted in the CORDIS database came up with a total of 466 projects. After excluding 241 projects with insufficient data, we analysed 225 remaining projects; out of those, 22 (9.8%) were in the field of family medicine and 203 (90.2%) were from other fields of medicine. Sorted by the number of projects per country, Dutch institutions had the highest involvement in family medicine projects and were partners or coordinators in 18 out of 22 selected projects (81.8%), followed by British institutions with 15 (68.8%), and Spanish with 10 projects (45.5%). Croatia was a partner in a single FP7 Health project. Research projects in family medicine funded by the European Union show significant differences between countries. Constant and high-quality international cooperation in family medicine is the prerequisite for improvement and development of scientific research and the profession. Copyright © 2014 by Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  17. Immigration in the European Union: problems or solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru GRIBINCEA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The number of asylum seekers is rising sharply across the European Union. Given the EU’s ageing population, is a return to selective immigration inevitable. Europe’s history has been shaped by migration. For centuries, merchants, craftsmen and intellectuals crossed the continent to practice their trades or start new lives. Millions emigrated from Europe, first to the colonies and later to the Americas and the Antipodes. Europe also has a long history of forced migration: from the expulsion of the Jews from Spain to the population shifts in southeast Europe caused by the many wars between the Russian, Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman empires. Large-scale immigration into western Europe is more recent. From 1960 to 1973, the number of foreign workers in western Europe doubled from 3 to 6% of the workforce. It was highest in places like the UK and France, with relatively open access for citizens of their former colonies; in Germany, too, the number of foreigners (nearly half Turks rose 4m in the 25 years after 1960, although they seldom became citizens. But primary immigration into Europe – driven by labour needs – all but ended with the oil crisis of 1973. The foreign-born population has continued to grow, not least because most countries still issue tens of thousands of residence permits each year for the purposes of family reunification (nearly 80% of the 58,700 people accepted for permanent settlement in the UK in 1997 were wives and children. EU countries also issue thousands of work permits each year. In Britain in 1997, nearly half of the 54,000 permits went to Americans and Japanese mainly in highly skilled jobs; elsewhere in Europe the permits often go to seasonal farm workers. But the proportion of foreign-born residents in the EU remains low, ranging from 9% in Austria, Belgium and Germany, to under 2% in Spain.

  18. INNOVATIVE FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS IN THE EXECUTION OF EUROPEAN UNION BUDGET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLOREA IANC MARIA MIRABELA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the main reasons invoked to support the use of public funds through financial instruments is that these funds can be used several times: they are therefore "renewable". For example, if a loan granted through such an instrument was repaid after three years, the repaid money could be used later to provide a new loan. Was examined therefore examined whether this renewal effect really materialized. The extent to which funds are renewed in practice depends on the type of financial support but also on the investment period of the instrument concerned. The objective of this article is to highlight that financial instruments have been and are always a way of supporting the attraction and bringing of specific advantages compared to other forms of financing from the European Union The imbalance between the development environment of Central and Eastern Europe countries, candidate countries and EU member states, is quite large and the regions it is even more pronounced. These differences represent serious obstacles in the smooth functioning of the entire Community. The existence of the word "poverty" in some areas of the EU border disrupts the harmony and balance within the community and prevents the creation of an area of equilibrium across the European continent. Essentially, to reduce these imbalances, EU financial support to candidate countries through pre-accession structural instruments, which have a particularly important role in this process. I believe that the Financial Instruments are an effective way of mobilizing cohesion policy resources to achieve the objectives of the Europe 2020 strategy. Targeting projects with potential economic viability, financial instruments provide support for investment through loans, guarantees, capital investment and other bearing mechanisms of risk, which may be combined with technical assistance, interest rate subsidies or contributions to the guarantee fees in the same operation. In addition to the

  19. Start of the SAPIERR project of regional final storage of radioactive waste in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietze, W.

    2004-01-01

    The first working meeting of the SAPIERR project about regional final storage of radioactive waste in the European Union was held in Piestany, Slovak Republic, on February 19 and 20, 2004. SAPIERR stands for Support Action: Pilot Initiative for European Regional Repositories. This is an independent study supported financially by the European Union within the 6th Research Framework Program. The background to the project is the debate about the feasibility of regional repositories for radioactive waste in the European Union, which has come up again especially with a view to the new accession countries and the draft of a waste management directive within the framework of the Nuclear Package. The results of the SAPIERR Project will be presented in Brussels at a concluding international seminar, most probably in October 2005. The seminar will be open not only to the participating countries but also to other interested European and non-European states. (orig.) [de

  20. Tuberculosis among migrant populations in the European Union and the European Economic Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odone, Anna; Tillmann, Taavi; Sandgren, Andreas; Williams, Gemma; Rechel, Bernd; Ingleby, David; Noori, Teymur; Mladovsky, Philipa; McKee, Martin

    2015-06-01

    Although tuberculosis (TB) incidence has been decreasing in the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) in the last decades, specific subgroups of the population, such as migrants, remain at high risk of TB. This study is based on the report 'Key Infectious Diseases in Migrant Populations in the EU/EEA' commissioned by The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. We collected, critically appraised and summarized the available evidence on the TB burden in migrants in the EU/EEA. Data were collected through: (i) a comprehensive literature review; (ii) analysis of data from The European Surveillance System (TESSy) and (iii) evidence provided by TB experts during an infectious disease workshop in 2012. In 2010, of the 73,996 TB cases notified in the EU/EEA, 25% were of foreign origin. The overall decrease of TB cases observed in recent years has not been reflected in migrant populations. Foreign-born people with TB exhibit different socioeconomic and clinical characteristics than native sufferers. This is one of the first studies to use multiple data sources, including the largest available European database on infectious disease notifications, to assess the burden and provide a comprehensive description and analysis of specific TB features in migrants in the EU/EEA. Strengthened information about health determinants and factors for migrants' vulnerability is needed to plan, implement and evaluate targeted TB care and control interventions for migrants in the EU/EEA. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  1. Trade With the European Union: Recent Trends and Electronic Commerce Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    .... trade with the European Union (EU). As major trading partners, the United States and the EU are currently addressing several trade-related issues, including their approach to electronic commerce, or e-commerce...

  2. Do European Union Defense Initiatives Threaten NATO? Strategic Forum. Number 184, August 2001

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schake, Kori

    2001-01-01

    ...) Although transatlantic policies will be colored by issues such as the Kyoto treaty, missile defenses, and relations with Russia, ESDP is likely to dominate defense debates as the European Union (EU...

  3. Russia and the European Union: The Sources and Limits of "Special Relationships"

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roberts, Cynthia A

    2007-01-01

    More than 15 years after the collapse of the Soviet Union and two decades after the last Soviet President, Mikhail Gorbachev, raised hopes that Russia would liberalize and join a common European home...

  4. Book Review: A Liberal Actor in a Realist World the European Union ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Book Title: A Liberal Actor in a Realist World the European Union Regulatory State and the Global Political Economy of Energy. Book Author: Andreas Goldthau & Nick Sitter. Oxford University Press Oxford 2015. ISBN 9780198719595 ...

  5. European Union's Arms Control Regime and Arms Exports to China: Background and Legal Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grimmett, Richard F; Papademetriou, Theresa

    2005-01-01

    In recent months, discussions have been held within the European Union (EU) on the question of lifting the embargo on arms exports to the People's Republic of China that was imposed on China on June 27, 1989...

  6. Does the European Union Ensure Global and Regional Security by Military or Civilian Power?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E V Lyzhina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on analyses of the peacekeeping activities of the European Union in order to ensure global and regional security from the point of interests of the EU member states.

  7. The European Union CREATE project: a model for international standardization of allergy diagnostics and vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapman, Martin D.; Ferreira, Fatima; Villalba, Mayte; Cromwell, Oliver; Bryan, Donna; Becker, Wolf-Meinhard; Fernández-Rivas, Montserrat; Durham, Stephen; Vieths, Stefan; van Ree, Ronald; Aalbers, M.; Notten, S.; Ooievaar-de Heer, P.; Ferreira, F.; Gademaier, G.; Wallner, M.; Villalba, M.; Rodriguez, R.; Becker, W.-M.; Eberhardt, F.; Lepp, U.; Raulf-Heimsoth, M.; Valenta, R.; Focke, M.; Bryan, D.; Dolman, C.; Das, R. G.; Vieths, S.; Fötisch, K.; Di Felice, G.; Pini, C.; Cromwell, O.; Fiebig, H.; Weber, B.; van Schijndel, H.; Dorpema, J. W.; Marco, F. M.; Monsalve, R.; Barber, D.; Caldas, E. Fernandez; Moingeon, P.; Didierlaurent, A.; André, C.; Kroon, A.; Neubauer, A.; Chapman, M.; Vailes, L.; Tsay, A.; Durham, S.; Custovic, A.; Simpson, B.; Knulst, A.; Rivas, M. Fernández; Mancebo, E. Gonzalez; Bahima, A. Cistero; Moncin, M. M. San Miguel; Mari, A.; Kinaciyan, T.; Quiralte, J.; Pauli, G.; de Blay, F.; Purohit, A.; Rak, S.

    2008-01-01

    Allergen measurements are used extensively in the formulation of allergy diagnostics and vaccines, yet no purified international allergen standards are available for calibration purposes. The aims of the European Union CREATE project were to develop international standards with verifiable allergen

  8. The Effect of Union Type on Work-Life Conflict in Five European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasearu, Kairi

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the strategies for reconciling family and work in different union types. The focus here is on investigating how cohabiting and married individuals perceive the work-life conflict in different European countries. To test the union type impact on work-life balance in the context of different societal conditions, this paper draws…

  9. Growing Together, Growing Apart: Turkey and the European Union Today

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freyberg-Inan, A.; Bardakçi, M.; Leiße, O.

    2016-01-01

    This volume provides an up-to-date overview of relations between the EU and Turkey. Is Turkish EU membership still a realistic option today? How has this relationship evolved so far, and with what benefits for both sides? What are currently the main challenges to closer relations and cooperation? In

  10. Bildung in der Europaischen Union: Daten und Kennzahlen = Education across the European Union: Statistics and Indicators = Education dans L'Union Europeennee Statistiques et Indicateurs, 1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    EURYDICE European Unit, Brussels (Belgium).

    This publication provides comparable statistics and indicators on education across the 15 member states of the European Union. The main source of data is the joint UOE (UNESCO, Organisation for Economic Development, Eurostat) revised questionnaire on education statistics introduced in 1995. Educational attainment information draws on data from the…

  11. Rough Waters, Dark Shadows and Cross-Cutting Winds:the impact of European Union enlargement on Turkey’s EU accession negotiations

    OpenAIRE

    Icener, Erhan; Phinnemore, David

    2014-01-01

    For a multiplicity of socio-economic, geo-political, strategic and identity-based reasons, Turkey’s progress towards EU membership is often treated as a sui generis case. Yet although Turkey’s accession negotiations with the European Union (EU) are essentially a bilateral – and often stormy – affair, they take place within a wider and dynamic process of enlargement in which not only can the gloomy – sometimes dark – shadows of past and prospective enlargements be clearly detected, but so too ...

  12. The legacy of uranium mining in Central and Eastern Europe - a view from the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, S.; Vrijen, J.

    2002-01-01

    Throughout the countries of Central and Eastern Europe there was widespread mining and processing of uranium which has left a huge environmental and public health problem requiring urgent remedial action. The present paper outlines the situation from the perspective of the European Union by presenting a description of the assistance provided through Community funding and a summary of relevant European Union legislation in this field. (author)

  13. The common energy market of the European Union – utopia or reality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şanta Ana-Maria Iulia

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The European Commission has the initiative to foster the sector of renewable energy and to build an Energy Union, with a common energy market at the level of the European Union, but is this only an utopic vision or is this possible to achieve? The topic of clean energy is very new and of great interest for the European Union, which is shown by the fact that the European Commission recently adopted on the 30th November 2016 the package “Clean Energy for All Europeans”, which contains proposals for the modernization of the energy market at the level of the European Union. But which are the challenges such a project is confronted with? According to the literature, such challenges are related to the process of liberalization of electricity markets. Conflicts between national interest and international actors of the energy market might occur. Due to the oligopolistic structure of the energy market, there are several barriers to the market entry. In order to answer to the research questions, case studies regarding the liberalization of the energy market will be analyzed in a comparative manner, offering an international overview. Furthermore, the legal provisions on which the common energy policy of the European Union relies, will be analyzed, as well as their economic and social impact. The package “Clean Energy for All Europeans” comprises a proposal of the revised Renewable energy Directive, energy efficiency measures and issues related to the Energy Union Governance. It contains as well proposals for the electricity market design, which will be analyzed and the present paper outlines the contribution of this proposal in building a common energy market of the European Union. What role does competition play in implementing the common energy market of the European Union? Which role do competition authorities have in this context? These are interesting aspects to be analyzed in the present paper.

  14. YOUNGSTERS INSERTION ON THE LABOUR MARKET. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS ROMANIA - EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobre Mihaela Hrisanta

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The insertion of young people into the labor market represents an important issue amongst all the countries within the European Union and this process is studied differently from one country to another. At present the European Union counts about 75 million young people with the age between 15 and 24 years old. This article main objective is to study insertion rate of young people the labour market as well as it deals with their problems.

  15. Pragmatism of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization’s and European Union’s Strategic Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-13

    functionalism,” In European Union Politics, 4th ed., ed. Michelle Cini and Nieves Perez- Solorzano (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013), 62. 3...Michelle Cini, “Intergovernmentalism,” in European Union Politics, 4th ed., ed. Michelle Cini and Nieves Perez- Solorzano (Oxford: Oxford University Press...4th ed., ed. Michelle Cini and Nieves Prez- Solorzano Borragan (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013), 243. 13 “Treaty of Brussels,” March 17, 1948

  16. ROMANIA’S ASSENT TO THE EUROPEAN UNION – NATIONAL STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan HURJUI

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The historic context in which Romania’s steps regarding the assent into the communitarian structures are joined, can be placed under the sign of profound changes who interfered in the Romanian society after 1989 such as: the building of a democratic society and the instauration of a market economy, and also under the sign of a contradictory defiance among the European Union. Romania is the first central and eastern European country who established official relationships with the European Community. Romania addend to the European Union on the 1-st of january, 2007.

  17. Research policy in European Union; La politica di ricerca dell'Unione Europea. Elementi di riferimento sulla partecipazione italiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The research and technological development policy of european union aim to have more competition of enterprises an socio-economic growth of member countries in the respect of quality of life. [Italian] La politica di ricerca e di sviluppo tecnologico (RST) dell' Unione Europea si pone l'obiettivo di fondo di rafforzare le basi scientifiche e tecnologiche dell'Europa e dunque di contribuire allo sviluppo della competitivita' delle imprese e del tessuto scientifico europeo promuovendo, in un'ottica complessiva, la crescita socio economica e la qualita' della vita dei cittadini d'Europa.

  18. Mitterrand and the Great European Design—From the Cold War to the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troitiño David Ramiro

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available François Mitterrand had a leading role in directing the course for the European integration process. While he orchestrated the economic integration of Europe, he remained deeply opposed to further political integration within the Communities. This article researches Mitterrand’s rationale for his clear focus on economic affairs and develops his vision for the institutional setting of the European Union (EU. The focus of the article is allocated to four different perspectives that reflect the four pillars of Mitterrand’s European policy: the common currency, the establishment of a closely integrated and small Western European based EU, the development of the Social Europe and of a free trade area between Europe and Africa. It is argued that although EU institutions have been established based on Mitterrand’s design, today’s reality deviates from the conditions on which his plan was based. For Mitterrand, the ideal EU involved a deep-rooted Western Europe with France at its core and a loose association with Central and Eastern Europe. His perception resembles the current discussions of multi-speed Europe and the determination of France and Germany to proceed to the next stage of the integration process. Importantly, Mitterrand’s print can still be recognised in the EU’s social policy included in the treaties, yet still far from being implemented. Notably, like all of the French Presidents, Mitterrand developed a design for Africa in which an extensive free trade area between Europe and former French colonies were to be established. In this proposal, Germany was to be assigned the part of the economic engine behind the actualisation of the proposal, while France was to carry out the role of a required middle man of the transactions. To further assure France’s political predominance over the Communities, Mitterrand designed a common currency for a small number of homogenous Western-European states.

  19. [European public health professionals express ten priorities for the European Union...to be followed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlé, D; Weil, O; McKee, M; Brodin, M

    1999-12-01

    Even if the European Union acquired explicit competencies in public health with the Maastricht and Amsterdam Treaties (articles 129 and 152), public health professionals still have not had their word in the definition of public health priorities. Yet it is they, whatever their mission, who must take into consideration the new constraints imposed by Community directives. The French Society for Public Health (FSPH) took the initiative of running a project, financed by the European Commission, aiming to shed light on some of the public health problems considered priority in the 15 member states, and to provide suggestions for facing them. The FSPH adopted a resolutely participative and pragmatic process. At each step (definition of priorities and compiling arguments), the intention of the SFPH was more to allow different, even diverging, points of view to be expressed, than to aim for a hypothetical representativeness. The undertaken themes are the social gradients in health, alcohol, illicit drugs, tobacco, surveillance of health issues, quality of care, older persons, mental health, the environment, nutrition and food security. This work marks the wish of the FSPH for international openness toward Europe. The FSPH hopes that this work becomes a platform for the development of a reinforced dialogue between public health professionals and European decision makers.

  20. PROBLEMS AND COSTS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION EXPANSION WITH OVER 27 STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Zaharioaie

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Once on his way to enlargement, the European Union has taken a road of no return. History has shown that all candidate countries have become a point of EU Member States. The question thus is not where you go to the European Union enlargement, but how it will look after the enlargement of the Union politically, economically and socially. The objective of this paper is to analyze potential problems and costs of enlargement beyond the 27 states. Thus, we performed an analysis on the implications of enlargement to the Balkans to Asia Minor and even to the former Soviet bloc countries.

  1. Bill authorizing the ratification of the protocol amending the Protocol on transitional provisions annexed to the Treaty on European Union, to the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union and to the Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    After an indication of the European Parliament composition, this text describes the transitional provisions adopted as the Lisbon Treaty did not come into effect before the European elections held in June 2009. The document also provides the protocol text signed by the Members States and which amended the protocol on transitional provisions annexed to the Treaty on the European Union, to the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union and to the Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community. The last part of the document discusses the administrative and legal consequences of this protocol. It also recalls the history of the negotiations and indicates the present status of signatures and ratifications

  2. Increasing the effectiveness and efficiency of renewable energy support policies in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klessmann, C.B.

    2012-01-01

    The thesis discusses the effective and cost-efficient design of renewable energy sources (RES) support policies in the European Union along some major discussion lines of the European RES policy debate: the effectiveness of the different national support policies in the member states the cost

  3. Social and Cultural Integration in Germany: The European Union, the Euro, Immigration, and the School System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidheiser, James; Wolf, Gregory H.

    2003-01-01

    This article, based on the experiences of the authors at the 2002 AATG Summer seminar in Dusseldorf, explores the topic of integration in Germany on multiple levels: politically, financially, socially, and educationally. First, the authors discuss how the European Union and the Euro attempt to integrate Europe and Europeans, and how Germans have…

  4. To know it is to Love it? Satisfaction with Democracy in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karp, J.A.; Banducci, S.A.; Bowler, Shaun

    2003-01-01

    Recent reforms have been designed to enhance the power of the European Parliament to counter criticisms of a "democratic deficit" in the European Union (EU). We examine how citizens now view these institutions and whether such evaluations influence their satisfaction with the way democracy works in

  5. Plastic surgery in the European Union: A study of development, training, manpowerplanning and migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.H. Tan (King Hoen)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this study is to clarify the role of plastic surgery in the European Union (the former European Connnnnity). The idea is that this will lead to a better understanding of the specialty among laymen., colleagnes and healthcare officials. To this end, the historical development

  6. The issue of energy security in relations between the European Union and Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O V Shabelnikova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on cooperation between the European Union and the Republic of Azerbaijan on energy issues. The author analyzes the EU initiatives and projects for the Black Sea and Caspian Sea region as well as the questions of delivery diversification of the Azerbaijani gas to the European markets.

  7. Distribution of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in Agricultural topsoils of the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felix Da Graca Silva, V.A.; Montanarella, L.; Jones, Arwyn; Fernandez-Ugalde, Oihane; Mol, J.G.J.; Ritsema, C.J.; Geissen, V.

    2018-01-01

    Approval for glyphosate-based herbicides in the European Union (EU) is under intense debate due to concern about their effects on the environment and human health. The occurrence of glyphosate residues in European water bodies is rather well documented whereas only few, fragmented and outdated

  8. Economic separatism in the European Union member states as a factor of regional security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A A Shakhina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the examination of the economic separatism problem in the European Union member states. It considers specific of the regional separatist movements as exemplified by the conflicts in Scotland, Catalonia, Bavaria, Flanders. Various points of view on the relevance of the budgetary separatism for the European integration process are given in the article.

  9. Some Fiscal Issues of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelmann, E.

    2015-01-01

    The principles embodied in the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union also affect daily fiscal life. Their significance increases as the European Court of Justice (ECJ) applies them in judgments on tax matters, including related penalties. The author reacts to some fiscally relevant

  10. Russia's and the European union's gas interdependence. What balance between the market and geopolitics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, D.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the interdependence relation-ship between Russia and the European Union in the area of gas, by distinguishing the Russian seller's power risk from the issue of short term security, which are often mistaken one for the other The goal is to measure the economic risk associated with the seller's dominant position in the European market to appreciate the relevance of responses that can be made by European countries or the European Union. Firstly, the basically different nature of Russia and of the European Union is described, as well as the role played by its energy resources in the assertion of Russia's political power Secondly there is an analysis of the Russian seller's elements of dependence on the European market, before reviewing, thirdly, the risk of exercising Gazprom's market power in Europe. In closing is a review of the relevance of possible actions by the European Union and member countries to reduce that risk by facilitating the densification of the Pan-european Network, the establishment of entry points and market integration. (author)

  11. The regional and urban policy of the European Union : Cohesion, results-orientation and smart specialisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCann, Philip

    2015-01-01

    The regional and urban development policy of the European Union, or more precisely, EU Cohesion Policy, is undergoing change. This development is driven by the enormous transformations in European regions and by shifts in thinking and analysis. The issues raised by the changes to regional and urban

  12. European Union and Reforms and Transformations of the Social – Welfare State

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blahož, Josef

    -, č. 1 (2014), s. 111-118. ISBN 978-80-7478-659-4. ISSN 1805-8809 Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : social state * welfare state * European Union and Social (Welfare) state Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences http://caes.upol.cz/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/European_studies_Volume-1_2015__eBook_12_4_2016.pdf

  13. Exploring the emotional appeal of green and social Europe myths among pan-European Union organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Kennet

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to advance European integration research by exploring the emotional appeal of political myths in day-to-day EU politics with a special focus on the reception and reproduction of myths among pan-European Union non-governmental organisations. I investigate myths associated with ‘EUR...... policy positions and continually mobilise desires around utopian ideals to secure organisational survival....

  14. Institutional pioneers in world politics: Regional institution building and the influence of the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Tobias; Burilkov, Alexandr

    2017-09-01

    What drives processes of institution building within regional international organizations? We challenge those established theories of regionalism, and of institutionalized cooperation more broadly, that treat different organizations as independent phenomena whose evolution is conditioned primarily by internal causal factors. Developing the basic premise of 'diffusion theory' - meaning that decision-making is interdependent across organizations - we argue that institutional pioneers, and specifically the European Union, shape regional institution-building processes in a number of discernible ways. We then hypothesize two pathways - active and passive - of European Union influence, and stipulate an endogenous capacity for institutional change as a key scope condition for their operation. Drawing on a new and original data set on the institutional design of 34 regional international organizations in the period from 1950 to 2010, the article finds that: (1) both the intensity of a regional international organization's structured interaction with the European Union (active influence) and the European Union's own level of delegation (passive influence) are associated with higher levels of delegation within other regional international organizations; (2) passive European Union influence exerts a larger overall substantive effect than active European Union influence does; and (3) these effects are strongest among those regional international organizations that are based on founding contracts containing open-ended commitments. These findings indicate that the creation and subsequent institutional evolution of the European Union has made a difference to the evolution of institutions in regional international organizations elsewhere, thereby suggesting that existing theories of regionalism are insufficiently able to account for processes of institution building in such contexts.

  15. Relations between the European Union and Eastern Europe. Energy, security, stability; Die Beziehungen der Europaeischen Union mit Osteuropa. Energie - Sicherheit - Stabilitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leisse, Olaf (ed.)

    2010-07-01

    The book shows that twenty years after the collapse of the Soviet Union, the transformation process of Eastern Europe is still not completed. Since several years ago, the European Union has been attempting to establish positive relations with the Eastern European states and to support their transformation process, employing various instruments for this purpose. The contributions in this book provide information on the transformation process of the Eastern European states and investigate the influence of the European Union on regional actors, decision processes, and policies. The focus is on the controversies over ensured and reliable power supply.

  16. Children in internet space – the European Union policies on children’s safety online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojniak Justyna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays more and more attention is paid to increasing activity of the young people, including children, in the Internet space. Making children aware of the dangers on the network and ways to protect them becomes crucial. This process involves not only parents and teachers. Issues related to security in the network are the focus of attention of the European Commission, as an executive body of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation and implementing decisions. The paper presents key assumptions of the European Union policy and initiatives aimed at protecting the youth against the consequences of irresponsible use of information and communication technology.

  17. Comparison of industrial tariffs for natural gas and electricity within the European Union; EU-Industriestrom- und Erdgaspreisvergleich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1995-12-31

    This article presents the most important data of the latest eurostat (Statistical Office of the European Union) price survey. (UA) [Deutsch] Es werden die wesentlichen Daten des juengsten Preisvergleichs von eurostat (Statistisches Amt der Europaeischen Union) wiedergegeben. (UA)

  18. A Study of Milk Support Policies in the European Union and in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Toplu YILMAZ

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an analysis of milk support policy in the European Union and in Turkey. Turkey’s adaptation of its milk policy to the Common Agricultural Policy of European Union is on the agenda since Turkey has been a candidate country in 1999. Regarding that the Common Agricultural Policy has been reformed many times, Turkey has to adapt its milk sector to a changing policy. Turkey, on the other hand, pursues different support policy in the milk sector. The producers, who are registered in the Farming Registration System, receive milk incentive premiums. There are no similarities between Turkish milk support policy and European Union’s milk support policy. According to the last progress reports, Turkey has to improve Farming Registration System. Turkey has to adjust milk production process to the European Union standards. Furthermore, in the accession process, Turkey plans to increase consumption and also needs to promote milk and milk products producers’ organizations.

  19. The Reform of the Copyright System of the European Union. Status quaestionis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelio López-Tarruella Martínez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to explain the process to amend the copyright system that has been initiated by the European Union with the purpose of creating a Digital Single Market. The mechanisms that the European Commission proposes to achieve this objective are exclusive of an economic integration organization such as the European Union. They include the binomial country of origin-mutual recognition principles, the mechanisms to fight against the fragmentation of the Internal Market and the proposal to increase the harmonization in the Member States copyright legislations. Through the text, a review of the recent case law of the Court of Justice of European Union is also provided.

  20. Dominance of English in the European Union and in European Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Křepelka Filip

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available English has become the first global language of international com- munication during the last decades. It is dominant in many fields as science, technology, transportation, business and tourism and diplomacy. The European Union with law applicable directly on individuals is officially multilingual. English is, however, preferred in internal communication and in communication with national experts. National laws are closely related with particular states. Related discourse is therefore realized mostly in national language. Legal education and research are thus less anglicized than other university education and research. Nevertheless, increasing importance of international and supranational rules for harmonization and coordination, growing demand for comparison, pres- sure to publish in internationally recognized journals, Europe-wide research projects and rising numbers of exchange of students cause widespread resort to English also at schools of law. Unfortunately, English is language of countries with Anglo-American law (common law which differs significantly from continental law (civil law existing in most European and other countries. Therefore, it is difficult to find adequate English words for phenomena of civil law and to stabilize their use in international discourse.

  1. Surveillance perspective on Lyme borreliosis across the European Union and European Economic Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Wijngaard, Cees C; Hofhuis, Agnetha; Simões, Mariana; Rood, Ente; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Zeller, Herve; Van Bortel, Wim

    2017-07-06

    Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most prevalent tick-borne disease in Europe. Erythema migrans (EM), an early, localised skin rash, is its most common presentation. Dissemination of the bacteria can lead to more severe manifestations including skin, neurological, cardiac, musculoskeletal and ocular manifestations. Comparison of LB incidence rates in the European Union (EU)/European Economic Area (EEA) and Balkan countries are difficult in the absence of standardised surveillance and reporting procedures. We explored six surveillance scenarios for LB surveillance in the EU/EEA, based on the following key indicators: (i) erythema migrans, (ii) neuroborreliosis, (iii) all human LB manifestations, (iv) seroprevalence, (v) tick bites, and (vi) infected ticks and reservoir hosts. In our opinion, neuroborreliosis seems most feasible and useful as the standard key indicator, being one of the most frequent severe LB manifestations, with the possibility of a specific case definition. Additional surveillance with erythema migrans as key indicator would add value to the surveillance of neuroborreliosis and lead to a more complete picture of LB epidemiology in the EU/EEA. The other scenarios have less value as a basis for EU-level surveillance, but can be considered periodically and locally, as they could supply complementary insights. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  2. Tuberculosis and HIV co-infection in European Union and European Economic Area countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimpin, L; Drumright, L N; Kruijshaar, M E; Abubakar, I; Rice, B; Delpech, V; Hollo, V; Amato-Gauci, A; Manissero, D; Ködmön, C

    2011-12-01

    In order to ensure the availability of resources for tuberculosis (TB) and HIV management and control, it is imperative that countries monitor and plan for co-infection in order to identify, treat and prevent TB-HIV co-infection, thereby reducing TB burden and increasing the years of healthy life of people living with HIV. A systematic review was undertaken to determine the burden of TB-HIV infection in the European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA). Data on the burden of HIV infection in TB patients and risk factors for TB-HIV co-infection in the EU/EEA were extracted from studies that collected information in 1996 and later, regardless of the year of initiation of data collection, and a narrative synthesis presented. The proportion of HIV-co-infected TB patients varied from 0 to 15%. Western and eastern countries had higher levels and increasing trends of infection over time compared with central EU/EEA countries. Groups at higher risk of TB-HIV co-infection were males, young adults, foreign-born persons, the homeless, injecting drug users and prisoners. Further research is needed into the burden and associated risk factors of co-infection in Europe, to help plan effective control measures. Increased HIV testing of TB patients and targeted and informed strategies for control and prevention could help curb the co-infection epidemic.

  3. Agriculture of central and eastern European countries in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redžepagić Srđan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture posed considerable tensions for the processes of enlargement of the European Union, because of its continuing importance both in the economies of the applicant countries of Central and Eastern European countries which have joined EU on the 1st may 2004., and in the EU budget and acquits communautaire. The preparation of agriculture in the candidate countries to join the EU was rendered more complex by the fact that the Community's Common Agricultural Policy was a moving target. The aim of this paper is to show the bases elements of the Common Agricultural Policy, but also to provide a survey of recent developments relating to agriculture in the EU and new member states of the EU before their accession to EU and their preparation to access on the enlarged market, in order to indicate the main challenges and difficulties posed by enlargement. It seems likely that agricultural policy in the enlarged EU will attach increased priority to objectives such as rural development and the environment. However, these new priorities may be expensive to realize, and may impose a growing burden on the national budgets of EU member states.

  4. Migrant crisis and strengthening of the right wing in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratković Milijana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Migrant crisis, slow economic growth and growing disillusionment with the European Union led to strengthening of far-right parties that have achieved electoral success in a number of European countries. The collapse of the national economy has created a huge number of unemployed. New problems such as migrant crisis foster instability in the EU particularly due to the terrorist acts (Paris, Brussels and other forms of violence (Cologne, Vienna that involved migrants from the Middle East. What could represent the biggest problem is the ability of the European radical right parties to constitute it on the joint basis regardless different political backgrounds. The Alliance of European National Movements was formed in Budapest in 2009. Migrant crisis underlined divisions within the European Union, which led to the radicalization of European political scene.

  5. Towards an Administrative Procedure of the European Union: Issues and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela V. Cărăuşan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at identifying European administrative law principles by mapping the proposal of the European Parliament and assessing the existing principles in the European Union’s rules and jurisprudence. The first section analyses the difficulties to pass from the well-known sectoral procedures to a common procedural framework. It shows, on the one hand, how fragmented is the administrative EU law, and on the other hand, that European Commission tends to support it by derailing the Parliament’s proposal. The second section, is mapping the administrative law principles through an inventory of the Treaties, the Charter, the soft law and the jurisprudence. The last section proposes an assessment of the draft Regulation on the administrative procedure of European Union. The main outcome is that, without the Commission’s involvement the process of making a common administrative procedure for European Union cannot take place.

  6. Twenty-First Century Europe: Emergence of Baltic States into European Alliances

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brasier, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    ...), the European Union (EU) and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), upon completing their membership obligations will enhance stability and security within the European continent. The U.S...

  7. THE LEGISLATIVE CONDITIONS IN EUROPEAN UNION IMPORT FOR SEAFOOD AND OTHER FISHERY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. STANCIU

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The European Union is by far the world’s biggest importer of fish, seafood andaquaculture products. Import rules for these products are harmonized, meaning thatthe same rules apply in all EU countries. For non-EU countries the EuropeanCommission is the negotiating partner that defines import conditions andcertification requirements. Also, for most countries with existing trade, the EuropeanCommission negotiates on behalf of the 27 Member States.

  8. Plastic surgery in the European Union: A study of development, training, manpowerplanning and migration

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, King Hoen

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this study is to clarify the role of plastic surgery in the European Union (the former European Connnnnity). The idea is that this will lead to a better understanding of the specialty among laymen., colleagnes and healthcare officials. To this end, the historical development of the specialty and its present day problems, including the European Unification and border zone activities by other specialties, will be discussed. Whenever possible, links and counections with th...

  9. Distribution of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in agricultural topsoils of the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    SILVA VERA; MONTANARELLA LUCA; JONES ARWYN; FERNANDEZ UGALDE OIHANE; MOL HANS; RITSEMA COEN J.; GEISSEN VIOLETTE

    2017-01-01

    Approval for glyphosate-based herbicides in the European Union (EU) is under intense debate due to concern about their effects on the environment and human health. The occurrence of glyphosate residues in European water bodies is rather well documented whereas only few, fragmented and outdated information is available for European soils. We provide the first large-scale assessment of distribution (occurrence and concentrations) of glyphosate and its main metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid ...

  10. Political Strategies and Language Policies: The European Union Lisbon Strategy and Its Implications for the EU's Language and Multilingualism Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyzanowski, Michal; Wodak, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the interplay between the politics and policies of multilingualism by looking at the role of political macro-strategies in shaping language and multilingualism policies within the European Union. The paper focuses on the relationship between the European Union's 2000-2010 Lisbon Strategy on the European Knowledge-Based Economy…

  11. EUROPEAN INTEGRATION FROM POLAND’S VIEWPOINT. SELECTED ISSUES

    OpenAIRE

    Iwona M. Pawlas

    2014-01-01

    It has been ten years since Poland joined the European Union in May 2004. Integration with the EU structures resulted in considerable economic, social and political advantages. On the other hand membership in the EU created new challenges for Poland, the Polish companies and the Polish citizens. The paper reviews selected issues of Poland’s integration with the European Union with special focus on net financial effect of membership, competitiveness of Polish goods on single European market, p...

  12. A Market for Company Incorporations in the European Union?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkmose, Hanne Søndergaard

    2005-01-01

    The article discuss the European market for company incorporation in light of the recent decisions of the European Court of Justice; Centros (1999 E.C.R. at I-1487), Überseering (2002 E.C.R. at I-9919) and Inspire Art (2003 E.C.R. at I-10155)......The article discuss the European market for company incorporation in light of the recent decisions of the European Court of Justice; Centros (1999 E.C.R. at I-1487), Überseering (2002 E.C.R. at I-9919) and Inspire Art (2003 E.C.R. at I-10155)...

  13. MEASURES AND INSTRUMENTS USED AS A RESPONSE TO CRISES IN EUROPEAN UNION - AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FIRTESCU BOGDAN

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available During latest times, financial crises have been a common occurrence in emerging market (and transition countries with negative influence for the economies. Financial crises have had negative effects on real output, work force, poverty and political instability. Latest crises (2008 that struck US become international, its consequence being received in European countries too. This paper wants to discuss some intervention measures taken in the European Union Area and some importants funds used as tools for crises fighting. The European Economic Recovery Plan and EU funding mechanisms (The European Social Fund (ESF and The European Globalization Adjustment Fund (EGF are taken into discussion.

  14. THE TAX POLICY WITHIN THE EUROPEAN UNION: CONCEPTS, INSTITUTIONS, TRENDS AND CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINA COJOCARU (BOROVINA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available At the basis of conceiving the tax policy of an European Union member state, one must consider, on the one hand, fulfilling the government's own requirements, and on the other hand, achieving the objectives set by the EC Treaty. At present, the European Union has a quite harmonized and coordinated tax policy in the indirect taxes field, and partially in the direct taxes field, based on the free movement principle of goods, services, capital and labour; thus, although the member states have the freedom to set operation rules of their own national tax systems, this freedom is conditioned by the compliance with the priority objectives of the founding treaties of the European Union. The member states should avoid adopting discriminating tax measures (which could lead to a disadvantageous treatment for the persons, goods and services or capitals coming from other member states. Sometimes, the restrictions regarding free movement on the internal market are generated by the differences between the national tax systems, so that a certain degree of tax harmonization at the European Union level is necessary. The tax harmonization can be achieved either spontaneously (by means of the forces of the market, by means of active actions at the level of the European Union (the implementation of common policies, the coordination of the policies, the harmonization of the legislation, etc. or by means of the passive actions of the European Court of Justice (the interdiction of certain types of conduct of the member states that do not comply with the norms of the European Union. In the absence of the tax harmonization, negative effects can occur, such as: the erosion of the national tax bases, provision of public services and goods at a sub-optimal level, unwanted changes in the structure of the taxes which are levied in the member states, and distortions in assigning resources at the level of the single market.

  15. Turkey's cultural integration with the European Union (Religion as a factor)

    OpenAIRE

    Gürçel, Tuğba

    2007-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of International Relations, The Institute of Economics and Social Sciences of Bilkent University, 2007. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2007. Includes bibliographical references leaves 92-100. Turkey’s integration with the European Union has been investigated through different lenses. When Turkey gained candidacy status in 1999 Helsinki Summit, the discussion about Turkey’s cultural/religious dissimilarity with the Union became more noticeabl...

  16. The role of union support in coping with job insecurity: A study among union members from three European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjoerd Goslinga

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines the potential moderating role of union support in the relationship between job insecurity and work-related attitudes and well-being of unionised employees. Survey data collected among union members from three European countries (The Netherlands, Italy and Sweden indicate that job insecurity is associated with reduced levels of job satisfaction, well-being and organisational commitment. Contrary to expectations, union support moderated neither the effect of job insecurity on job satisfaction nor its effect on wellbeing. However, in two countries a moderating effect of union support on relation between the job insecurity and organisational commitment was found. Opsomming Die huidige studie ondersoek die potensiële modererende rol van vakbond ondersteuning in die verhouding tussen werksonsekerheid en werksverwante houdings en welstand van werknemers wat aan ’n, vakbond behoort. Opname data wat ingesamel is tussen vakbond lede van drie Europese lande (Nederland, Italië en Swede toon dat werksonsekerheid geassosieer word met verlaagde vlakke van werkstevredenheid, welstand en organisasieverbondenheid. Teen verwagting, het vakbond ondersteuning nie die effek van werksonsekerheid op wekstevredenheid of welstand gemodereer nie. Daar is egter in twee lande ’n, moderende effek van vakbond ondersteuning op die verwantskap tussen werksonsekerheid en organisasie gebondenheid gevind.

  17. Food and feed chemical contaminants in the European Union: Regulatory, scientific, and technical issues concerning chemical contaminants occurrence, risk assessment, and risk management in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silano, Marco; Silano, Vittorio

    2017-07-03

    A priority of the European Union is the control of risks possibly associated with chemical contaminants in food and undesirable substances in feed. Following an initial chapter describing the main contaminants detected in food and undesirable substances in feed in the EU, their main sources and the factors which affect their occurrence, the present review focuses on the "continous call for data" procedure that is a very effective system in place at EFSA to make possible the exposure assessment of specific contaminants and undesirable substances. Risk assessment of contaminants in food atances in feed is carried currently in the European Union by the CONTAM Panel of EFSA according to well defined methodologies and in collaboration with competent international organizations and with Member States.

  18. ROMANIA'S ANSWER TO THE NEW DIRECTIONS OF THE REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT POLICY OF EUROPEAN UNION

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    Chirila Lavinia Florentina

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The regional development policy of European Union deals with spatial localisation of production and affects the daily life of more than half of the 500 million persons living in the European Union. Conceived at European level as a solidarity policy, it bases especially on financial solidarity through the distribution of a part of the European budget obtained through the contribution of Member States to the less prosper social categories and regions. Regional development policy of European Union for the programming period 2007- 2013 is based on the diversity, opportunities and challenges offered by the regions in Europe. It puts into practice the solidarity between European nations and focuses on a fundamental objective: strengthening the economic, social and territorial cohesion through diminishing the development discrepancies between its regions. The present paper identifies the new directions of the European regional development policy and aims to highlight the importance of this policy for the economic growth and development of Romania. In this difficult period, when Romania felt the effects of the crisis at high level and met a severe economic congestion, the European sources of financing through the regional development policy must not be neglected. We also formulate recommendations in order to increase Romania's structural funds absorption rate.

  19. Econometric Assessment of the Degree of Economic Convergence between Member States of the European Union

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    Elena Mădălina OPRIȚESCU

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the important objectives of the European Union is to support economic growth based on economic, social and territorial cohesion between Member States. Due to the accession of relatively poor countries to the European Union, maintaining cohesion is and will remain a major challenge, with cohesion policy having to support the reduction of imbalances between the old Member States and also support the development of less developed regions. One of the main measures adopted by the European authorities emphasizes the importance of increasing the degree of economic convergence between Member States by promoting a common market along with an economic and monetary union. In addition, increasing productivity and convergence within the EU are the foundations of the Lisbon Strategy and remain an important pillar of the Europe 2020 Growth Strategy.

  20. A new context for cooperation between Russia an the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyi, A.V.

    2003-01-01

    The energy issue is assuming a strategic importance in relations between Russia and the European Union. Among other things, this is characterised by the debates concerning the energy Charter Treaty, by negotiations concerning Russia's application to join the WTO as well as by establishment of a dialogue between Europe and Russia concerning energy. This article analyses the new factors of this energy partnership which explain the potential for cooperation and at the same time its limits. These factors are: (1) the peripherization of Russia in the international labour market, (2) the enlargement of the European Union to take in countries dependent on Russia for imports of gas and oil, (3) the liberalization of the gas and electricity markets within the European Union which constitutes a challenge for short and long-term energy security and (4) the inclusion of sustainable development within the definition of energy security. (authors)

  1. Nuclear weapons and European interests : Discussions in the Assembly of the Western European Union, 1955–1975

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Megens, C.M

    2011-01-01

    In the 1950s and 1960s the Defence Committee of the Western European Union (WEU) Assembly submitted a series of conspicuous reports on nuclear control issues, culminating in a plea for an Atlantic nuclear force. The article analyses the reports and discussions in the Assembly in the field of defence

  2. Towards the review of the European Union Water Framework management of chemical contamination in European surface water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water is a vital resource for natural ecosystems and human life, and assuring a high quality of water and protectingit from chemical contamination is a major societal goal in the European Union. The Water Framework Directive(WFD) and its daughter directives are the major body of ...

  3. European Sitting Championship: Prevalence and Correlates of Self-Reported Sitting Time in the 28 European Union Member States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loyen, A; van der Ploeg, H.P.; Bauman, A.; Brug, J.; Lakerveld, J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Sedentary behaviour is increasingly recognized as an important health risk, but comparable data across Europe are scarce. The objective of this study was to explore the prevalence and correlates of self-reported sitting time in adults across and within the 28 European Union Member States.

  4. Towards the review of the European Union Water Framework management of chemical contamination in European surface water resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brack, Werner; Dulio, Valeria; Ågerstrand, Marlene; Allan, Ian; Altenburger, Rolf; Brinkmann, Markus; Bunke, Dirk; Burgess, Robert M.; Cousins, Ian; Escher, Beate I.; Hernández, Félix J.; Hewitt, L.M.; Hilscherová, Klára; Hollender, Juliane; Hollert, Henner; Kase, Robert; Klauer, Bernd; Lindim, Claudia; Herráez, David López; Miège, Cécil; Munthe, John; O'Toole, Simon; Posthuma, Leo; Rüdel, Heinz; Schäfer, Ralf B.; Sengl, Manfred; Smedes, Foppe; Meent, van de Dik; Brink, van den Paul J.; Gils, van Jos; Wezel, van Annemarie P.; Vethaak, A.D.; Vermeirssen, Etienne; Ohe, von der Peter C.; Vrana, Branislav

    2017-01-01

    Water is a vital resource for natural ecosystems and human life, and assuring a high quality of water and protecting it from chemical contamination is a major societal goal in the European Union. The Water Framework Directive (WFD) and its daughter directives are the major body of legislation for

  5. A European Law of International Responsibility? The Articles on the Responsibility of International Organizations and the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    d' Aspremont, J.

    2013-01-01

    The first section of this paper will briefly describe the plea made by the European Union for recognition of special rules of responsibility for regional economic integration organizations, with an emphasis on rules on attribution (Part 1). The paper will then critically evaluate this claim and the

  6. EUROPEAN UNION ENLARGEMENT AS A CULTURAL SHOCK. THE ROLE OF INTERCULTURAL TEAMS’ MANAGEMENT IN INCREASING EUROPEAN COHESION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibu Nicolae

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The European Union is challenged nowadays by a dramatic multilevel process of integration. The Europe 2020 strategy promoting smart, sustainable and inclusive growth is defined by a set of ambitious objectives to be reached by 2020. On the other hand, the turbulent times of the economic crisis put even more pressure on the integration process. The success of this complex endeavor is heavily depending on the dimension of the cohesion specific to each of levels of the process. The cohesion of the European Union (EU is stronger at macro (societal level with regard to institutional, political, and economical dimensions. The cohesion of the European Union is less strong at micro level, the level of people, of the common individual, of the citizen. In other words, EU system has less cohesion at the level of individual and social fabric. An interesting hypothesis about EU enlargement is that every new “wave” of countries is a collective cultural shock for the European citizens. In conclusion, considering the history of the European Union, their citizens were subject to a constant flow of “cultural shocks”, following each new EU enlargement though admission of new member states: the big lot of 10 new countries in 2004, Romania and Bulgaria in 2007. In this respect, immigrations waves from new member countries have preceded their country accession, and to various extents, have made a first impact on the host countries culture. This paper is discussing the issue of increasing European cohesion based on a management approach. It describes the positioning of Romania on the European map of cultures, in order to identify the convergence and divergence of its societal culture with various European cultural clusters. We are arguing that: a European organizations have a major role to play in the process of increasing cohesion within the European Union (EU; b Organizational Management and leadership are paramount to their success and to society welfare; c

  7. Fiscal Rules in the European Monetary Union: A No-Entry Clause

    OpenAIRE

    Giovannini, Alberto; Spaventa, Luigi

    1991-01-01

    The paper examines the possible motivations behind the plea for fiscal rules in the Delors Report. We argue that coordination problems arising from aggregate demand spillovers cannot be solved by means of budget rules and that in any case they are not important in Europe. We then discuss the notion of structural fiscal imbalances and show that potential solvency is a problem for some European countries, probably made more severe by EMU. Membership of countries with unsustainable positions may...

  8. Legal aspects of the association of overseas countries and territories with the European Union

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    Hruškovic Ivan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is concerned with an issue in European law that is historically derived from the Treaty establishing the European Economic Community. The aim is to illuminate the functions and objectives of the European Union that correspond to the provisions of Part Four of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union - Association of the Overseas Countries and Territories. The basic provisions are laid down in the primary law of the European Union but there are also other documents and legislative acts that lay down more detailed provisions on the given issue and reveal a more complex perspective. The article focuses on the existing legislation regulating the association of overseas countries and territories with the Union. The author first draws attention to the key provisions of the Treaty establishing the EEC that define the purpose, objectives and fundamental principles applied between the Union and the overseas countries and territories. The main purpose of the article, however, is to analyse the current legal basis of association and to highlight the need for a new legislative framework of cooperation. New legislation should take into account not only the interests of the Union, but also the desire of the overseas countries and territories for a new quality of mutual cooperation. The author argues that the best way to improve the association mechanism based on the Lisbon Treaty is to modernise the Union’s existing secondary legislation in this area. In this regard the author analyses issues related to Council decision 2001/822/EC on the association of the overseas countries and territories with the European Community and the proposal for a Council decision (COM/2012/362 of 16 July, 2012.

  9. THE "E TRIANGLE": EMPLOYMENT, EMPLOYEE AND EMPLOYER IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviana Andreea Niminet

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the biggest forces of the European Union is its people, people living and working within this Union. This stands not only for the European Union but for every state, as it is well known that people are the ones that can make a state great or poor. For this reason, the matters regarding labor are a continuous concern both for European Union common institutions as well as for every individual state of the European Union. The main interest, on both sides, is to ensure the best for every part involved in labor process because this means, in the end, added value for everyone. The article focuses on the realities as well as on the expectations regarding the labor field highlighting the most preeminent aspects of the so called "E triangle": employment, employee and employer starting with the most needed definition for each and every one of the above going towards even to proposing remedies for the "spots" needing improvement.

  10. The Russian-European Union Competition in Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    sectors, as well as its vulnerability to Russia’s military power and strategy of ethnic politics, fit well within this framework. D. HYPOTHESIS...Russian government experiences such a massive sense of vulnerability that it considers its sovereignty itself at risk.153 In other words, the “loss” of...and another pro-European party, the nationalist Self Reliance party, was third.278 The landslide victory for pro-European forces was undoubtedly

  11. Post-crisis Economy of the European Union in the Global Context

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    Cristian IONESCU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The recently economic crisis represents a new global economic turn. The question is whether, besides the necessary tools and actions to get out of the crisis, additional policies are needed on medium and long term to prevent a future crisis. In this essay I try to give some answers, integrating into the analysis both global and European levels, highlighting the necessary policies and their features in the Economic and Monetary Union and in the ex-socialist Central and Eastern countries, members of the European Union.

  12. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE LEVEL OF TAXATION IN ROMANIA AND EUROPEAN UNION

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    MARIA ZENOVIA GRIGORE

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains a statistical and economic analysis of the tax system of Romania in the last decade, as well as comparisons with the other states of the European Union. The overall tax ratio of Romania, i.e. the sum of taxes and social security contributions in the Gross Domestic Product (GDP, is the lowest in the European Union. Considering the fact that the GDP value, that constitutes the denominator of the overall tax ratio, includes estimates of production by the informal sector (the “grey” and “black” economy, this reduction can be explained not only by tax reductions, but also by the high tax evasion.

  13. The European Union's Role in the Development of Global Environmental Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, Ellen Margrethe

    2017-01-01

    This article is focused on the role that the European Union (EU) is playing as a global actor when it is using its 'internal' regulatory power as well as its parallel market power 'externally' to strengthen and to fill out gaps in the global environmental law.......This article is focused on the role that the European Union (EU) is playing as a global actor when it is using its 'internal' regulatory power as well as its parallel market power 'externally' to strengthen and to fill out gaps in the global environmental law....

  14. Obesity in Europe: The Strategy of the European Union from a Public Health Law Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faeh, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    of the Union and from a public health law perspective, in order to scrutinise the effectiveness of the measures and to identify shortcomings in the White Paper. One focus of this article will be European food legislation, as food is one of the leading causes of people being overweight or obese.......In 2007 the European Commission published a White Paper on a “Strategy on nutrition, overweight and obesity”, proposing measures to impede the current trend towards a steady gain in weight by Union citizens. In this article, these ideas are discussed critically in the light of the competences...

  15. STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIP BETWEEN THE EUROPEAN UNION AND UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLETA GEORGETA PANAIT

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available European Union is one of the largest markets in the world for the import of goods and services, especially those with high added value, is the area with the biggest investment of foreign companies and one of area with the largest number of foreign investments abroad. The European Union is still a market with a huge attractiveness for investors. EU and US seek to strengthen mutually beneficial economic partnership and have the ability to consolidate the two economies. Through strategic partnerships, EU seeks to create alliances to achieve its foreign policy objectives globally.

  16. Corridor Vc as a factor of integration of Bosnia and Herzegovina into the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Đuro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Corridor Vc enables inclusion of Bosnia and Herzegovina into transportation system of South-Eastern Europe and Eurocorridor system, and development of cross-border cooperation and establishment of Euro-region, which is one of the important segments on its approaching to the European Union. Integration processes and positive impacts on stabilization of development effects cannot be realized without clearly defined strategic aims of transport system development. Transport development policy in Bosnia and Herzegovina has two directions - on one hand, it refers to strengthening of internal territorial cohesion, and on the other, it refers to establishment of efficient connections and relations with the European Union.

  17. ANTI-CORRUPTION AND ANTI-MONEY LAUNDERING MECHANISMS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey A. Puzyrev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article based on an integrated approach to developed within the European Union mechanisms of preventing crimes, which affect the financial interests of the EU. In terms of specific examples the legal basis of anti-corruption interaction, especially the structural building of the basic institutions of the European Union, are analyzed. The article discusses the information potential to facilitate the implementation of effective cooperation among the competent authorities in the sphere of combating corruption, fraud, money laundering and other economic crimes.

  18. Trust in the institutions of the European Union: A cross-country examination

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    Eliyahu V. Sapir and Galina Zapryanova Christine Arnold

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Trust in political institutions is one of the key elements which make representative democracies work. Trust creates a connection between citizens and representative political institutions. Democratic governments which enjoy a large degree of trust also tend to have higher degrees of legitimacy and policy efficacy. In Europe’s multi-level governance structure, it is imperative to understand the determinants of trust in the institutions of the European Union. With the increasing salience of the European Union, are domestic proxies still a key determinant of evaluating its institutions? Are there differences across the institutions and across the member states? We demonstrate that country-level corruption levels are what drives the relationship between domestic and European institutional trust. The majority of the variation in trust in the institutions of the European Union is, however, driven by individual-level predictors. We also find that individuals across Europe evaluate the institutions of the European Union through a single attitude dimension of political trust rather than through separate evaluations.

  19. MIGRATION INTEGRATION AS A FACTOR OF ECONOMIC AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

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    Petronela Daniela FERARU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available International migration, together with economic and financial crisis or the different socio-economic development of Member States, is a serious threat to security in Europe. Population migration as a threatening factor, places the European Union in the face of a decision to establish clear policies for the establishment of a climate of external security, both for the migrant population and for the rest of the population. All in all, this study will centre on the following hypothesis: the better we know the challenges of international migration in the European Union and its Member States the more the European policies to mitigate negative effects of the world will be diminished. The aim is to highlight aspects pertaining to migration integration as a factor of economic, social and regional development in the European Union, and less as a factor of destabilization and insecurity. In other words, a good knowledge of the phenomenon leads to drawing up effective policies to reduce hazards, risks, threats and negative effects that happen today due to the increasing number of immigrants. Finally, the study will present a series of conclusions, including on the work hypothesis verification and some proposals related to migration integration efficiency as a factor of regional and economic development in the European Union.

  20. Rethinking the European Union: From Unity in Diversity to Diversity in Unity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Bonciu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Placing the current European Union crises (among them being the Euro crisis, the Greek crisis and the economic crisis into a long term perspective and taking into account the characteristics and consequences of the globalisation process, the author presents arguments to support the idea of a new approach regarding the very essence of the European integration model. This new approach is based on an evolutionary perspective of the European Union in which all that has already been achieved is used while the philosophy of the institutions and of the legal framework is reinterpreted by changing the accent of the European Union motto from “Unity in Diversity” to “Diversity in Unity”. The conclusion of the paper is that European Union needs to reconnect to its own realities and that, by accepting diversity in its existing unity rather than enforcing unity upon diversity, it can alleviate existing tensions, reconnect to citizens, restart innovation and creativity and find a better place in the global context.