WorldWideScience

Sample records for european union countries

  1. Tuberculosis treatment outcome monitoring in European Union countries: systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hest, Rob; Ködmön, Csaba; Verver, Suzanne; Erkens, Connie G. M.; Straetemans, Masja; Manissero, Davide; de Vries, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Treatment success measured by treatment outcome monitoring (TOM) is a key programmatic output of tuberculosis (TB) control programmes. We performed a systematic literature review on national-level TOM in the 30 European Union (EU)/European Economic Areas (EEA) countries to summarise methods used to

  2. Tax competitiveness of the European Union member countries

    OpenAIRE

    Konderlová, Beata

    2011-01-01

    This thesis deals with the tax systems and tax competitiveness of the European Union countries. Aim is to analyze the influence of competitiveness on the growth of tax revenues for selected taxes. The analysis is applied to a personal income tax, corporate income tax and value added tax. The method of constant tax shares divides the total tax revenues growth in the monitored period between two effects -- the influence of competitiveness and the influence of growth in total tax revenues. The t...

  3. Analysis of Lithuanian Direct Investment into European Union Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelina Zigmantavičiūtė

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the valuation of macroeconomic factors influencing the Lithuanian direct investment into European Union was conducted. The problem of this paper is the different chosen macroeconomic factors influencing foreign direct investment. The object of this paper is Lithuanian direct investment. The methods of this paper include: comparative literature analysis, correlation regression analysis, paired regression analysis. After conducting a research of dependency of Lithuanian direct investment to EU countries from price changes, government sector income, gross domestic product, inflation, jobless rate results, it is found that gross domestic product and government sector income have the most influence on the changes of Lithuanian direct investment.

  4. Tuberculosis treatment outcome monitoring in European Union countries: systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hest, Rob; Ködmön, Csaba; Verver, Suzanne; Erkens, Connie G.M.; Straetemans, Masja; Manissero, Davide; de Vries, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Treatment success measured by treatment outcome monitoring (TOM) is a key programmatic output of tuberculosis (TB) control programmes. We performed a systematic literature review on national-level TOM in the 30 European Union (EU)/European Economic Areas (EEA) countries to summarise methods used to collect and report data on TOM. Online reference bibliographic databases PubMed/MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched to identify relevant indexed and non-indexed literature published between January 2000 and August 2010. The search strategy resulted in 615 potentially relevant indexed citations, of which 27 full-text national studies (79 data sets) were included for final analysis. The selected studies were performed in 10 EU/EEA countries and gave a fragmented impression of TOM in the EU/EEA. Publication year, study period, sample size, databases, definitions, variables, patient and outcome categories, and population subgroups varied widely, portraying a very heterogeneous picture. This review confirmed previous reports of considerable heterogeneity in publications of TOM results across EU/EEA countries. PubMed/MEDLINE and EMBASE indexed studies are not a suitable instrument to measure representative TOM results for the 30 EU/EEA countries. Uniform and complete reporting to the centralised European Surveillance System will produce the most timely and reliable results of TB treatment outcomes in the EU/EEA. PMID:22790913

  5. Energy Policies of IEA Countries: European Union 2008 Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    For the first time, the IEA has reviewed the energy policies of the European Union which shape the energy use of almost 500 million citizens in 27 EU member countries. A unique entity governed under complex and almost constantly evolving structures, the EU constitutes a challenge for energy policy makers. Its energy policy has a global impact, not only because of its 16% share of world energy demand, but also because of the EU leadership in addressing climate change. Strong policy drives are underway in the EU to achieve the completion of the internal energy market, increase renewable energy supply, reduce CO2 emissions and make the EU more energy-efficient. Concerns about security of supply have also led to a greater focus on improved energy relations with supplier countries, and new institutional structures are being put in place. How much progress has been made in the field of security, internal market and external energy policies? And in which of these areas has the EU already implemented a fully integrated policy? IEA Energy Policies Review: The European Union - 2008 addresses these questions and also analyses the impact of the most recent major EU policy measures, in particular the Energy & Climate Package of January 2008 and the 3rd Liberalisation Package of September 2007. This book finds that both of these proposals are highly ambitious. But implementing them and reviewing both volume and allocation of energy R&D will be necessary to achieve a sustainable energy future in a fully competitive integrated EU energy market.

  6. Relatedness and diversification in the European Union (EU-27) and European Neighbourhood Policy countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschma, Ron; Capone, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the process of industrial diversification in the countries that were part of the European Union (EU-27) and those that were the target of the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) in the period 1995–2010 by means of world trade data derived from the BACI database (elaborated UN

  7. Campylobacter seroconversion rates in selected countries in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teunis, P F M; Falkenhorst, G; Ang, C W; Strid, M A; De Valk, H; Sadkowska-Todys, M; Zota, L; Kuusi, M; Rota, M C; Simonsen, J B; Mølbak, K; Van Duynhoven, Y T H P; Van Pelt, W

    2013-10-01

    As a major foodborne pathogen, Campylobacter is frequently isolated from food sources of animal origin. In contrast, human Campylobacter illness is relatively rare, but has a considerable health burden due to acute enteric illness as well as severe sequelae. To study silent transmission, serum antibodies can be used as biomarkers to estimate seroconversion rates, as a proxy for infection pressure. This novel approach to serology shows that infections are much more common than disease, possibly because most infections remain asymptomatic. This study used antibody titres measured in serum samples collected from healthy subjects selected randomly in the general population from several countries in the European Union (EU). Estimates of seroconversion rates to Campylobacter were calculated for seven countries: Romania, Poland, Italy, France, Finland, Denmark and The Netherlands. Results indicate high infection pressures in all these countries, slightly increasing in Eastern EU countries. Of these countries, the differences in rates of notified illnesses are much greater, with low numbers in France and Poland, possibly indicating lower probability of detection due to differences in the notification systems, but in the latter case it cannot be excluded that more frequent exposure confers better protection due to acquired immunity.

  8. REASONS AND EFFECTS OF THE ROMANIAN LABOUR FORCE MIGRATION IN EUROPEAN UNION COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Ramona Frunză; Liviu George Maha; Claudiu Gabriel Mursa

    2009-01-01

    In the European Union countries and neighboring regions, the expansion will produce a redistribution of the labour force between industries and countries. After the Romania’s adhesion to theEuropean Union, the need for an increased productivity, the lack of capital, the competition on the EU market and the low wages have concurred to the intensification of the migration process of the labour force, especially to the West European countries. As example, from over two millions of Romanians work...

  9. Internet Purchases in European Union Countries: Multiple Linear Regression Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ksenija Dumičić; Anita Čeh Časni; Irena Palić

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines economic and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) development influence on recently increasing Internet purchases by individuals for European Union member states. After a growing trend for Internet purchases in EU27 was noticed, all possible regression analysis was applied using nine independent variables in 2011. Finally, two linear regression models were studied in detail. Conducted simple linear regression analysis confirmed the research hypothesis that the In...

  10. CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES IN EUROPEAN UNION IMPACT OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS

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    Carmen Apolzan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic integration refers to trade unification between different states , and one of its most important aspects is liberalisation of capital movement. In this paper is presented a brief evolution of economic integration cases focusing on one of the most integrated economies European Union. We concentrate on the participation of foreign investors in different economies and their impact, taking the example of Central and Eastern European Countries and their markets. Also , the level of influence that direct investments in capital markets entails on the Stock Exchange evolution is presented for the case of Romania .

  11. Estimation and Comparison of Underground Economy in Croatia and European Union Countries: Fuzzy Logic Approach

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    Kristina Marsic

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to address this issue in three ways. First, we review existing estimates of the size of the underground economy. Second, we apply a novel calculation method for estimation: fuzzy logic. Third, we calculated and compared underground economy index for 25 European Union countries and compared it, with special focus on Croatian underground economy index. Results indicated that Croatia has the thirteenth largest underground economy among measured members of the European Union. This study is the first of its kind with recent data to measure the size of underground economy in European Union countries by employing fuzzy logic approach.

  12. Meat export competitiveness of European Union countries on global markets

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    Štefan Bojnec

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to provide insight into the export competitiveness of meat products of the European Union (EU-27 member states on global markets. The revealed comparative advantage index is used to analyze the levels, compositions, and evolutions in patterns of development in the export competitiveness of meat products and their levels of stability at the product level. Except for some niche meat products, a larger number of the EU-27 member states have experienced comparative disadvantages on global markets over the analysed years of 2000 to 2011. The revealed comparative advantages on the global markets are the most robust for Ireland, Spain, the Netherlands, France, Belgium, Denmark, Poland, Cyprus and Hungary. The revealed comparative advantage indices and their survival rates differ across the meat product groups. The heterogeneity in export competitiveness of the EU-27 member states suggests the importance of the differentiation of meat products in competitive export specialization on global markets.

  13. PRODUCTION POTENTIAL AND AGRICULTURAL EFFECTIVENESS IN EUROPEAN UNION COUNTRIES

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    Agnieszka Baer-Nawrocka

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to assess the relation between agricultural production factors and effectiveness in European Union’s agriculture. For each country two synthetic coefficients were calculated using TOPSIS method. The first one characterises production factors relations, the latter one displays effectiveness of production factors. The objective of the research was to verify the correlation between these indices. The analysis proved that in many analysed countries the agricultural potential is correlated positively with the agricultural effectiveness. 

  14. THE INFLUENCE OF EUROPEAN FINANCIAL STABILITY FACILITY ON SYSTEM OF GOVERNANCE IN EUROPEAN UNION COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    ELENA CLAUDIA ªERBAN; GABRIELA ÞUÞUEANU

    2012-01-01

    The European Financial Stability Facility (EFSF), as a company which was agreed by the countries that share the euro on May 9th 2010 and incorporated in Luxembourg under Luxembourgish law on June 7th 2010, have to preserve financial stability of Europe’s monetary union by providing temporary financial assistance to euro area Member States if needed. This article examines in witch way EFSF can influence the system of governance in an emerging economy. We argue that “good governance practices” ...

  15. Epidemiology of tuberculosis in big cities of the European Union and European Economic Area countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, G; Aldridge, R W; Cayla, J A; Haas, W H; Sandgren, A; van Hest, N A; Abubakar, I

    2014-03-06

    This cross-sectional survey aimed to examine the epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) in European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA) cities with populations greater than 500,000. National TB programme managers were asked to provide data on big city population size, total number of notified TB cases in big cities and national notification rate for 2009. A rate ratio was calculated using the big city TB notification rate as a numerator and country TB notification rate, excluding big city TB cases and population, as a denominator. Twenty of the 30 EU/EEA countries had at least one big city. Pooled rate ratios were 2.5, 1.0, and 0.7 in low-, intermediate- and high-incidence countries respectively. In 15 big cities, all in low-incidence countries, rate ratios were twice the national notification rate. These data illustrate the TB epidemiology transition, a situation whereby TB disease concentrates in big cities as national incidence falls, most likely as a result of the higher concentration of risk groups found there. This situation requires targeted interventions and we recommend that big city TB data, including information about patients' risk factors, are collected and analysed systematically, and that successful interventions are shared.

  16. Finance of the Municipal Sector in Comparison with Public Finance of the European Union Countries

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    Agnieszka Alińska

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The general financial situation of municipal government in the European Union countries seems to be very good. The dynamics of tax income value growth achieved by local and regional authorities considerably exceed the figures characterizing the all public sector. Moreover, municipal authorities at the local and regional level are a leading public investor in many EU countries, they finance 69,3% of all public investments in average in all EU. Besides the value of their budget deficits, at the level of 0,2% GDP, and also their share in values of the national debt at the level of 5,8% GDP the European Union can be qualified as safe having no negative impact on getting positive economic effects in many countries of the European Union.

  17. Mortality trends for tuberculosis in European Union countries, 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rahamneh, Moad J; Al-Rahamneh, Anas; Guillén-Grima, Francisco; Arnedo-Pena, Alberto; Aguinaga-Ontoso, Inés

    2017-07-18

    The objective of this study was to update and analyze tuberculosis (TB) mortality data in the European Union between 2000 and 2010 separately for men and women and try to detect if there have been any changes in trends in each country and the association with the economic situation and inequalities. Data were extracted for tuberculosis deaths in 2000-2010 for 29 European Union countries and for Switzerland, via the World Health Organization (WHO) European detailed mortality database (DMDB), using the Mortality tabulation list 1 (MTL1) codes for men and women separately for one age group (20-85+). We estimated age-standardised mortality rates, and analyzed data using the Joinpoint Regression Program for men and women separately in the European Union overall and by individual country for each year. Between 2000 and 2010, there were 68,771 recorded tuberculosis deaths in the European Union and the mortality rates were higher for men than women in the entire study zone. Overall, TB mortality rates declined linearly for both genders, but more in women than in men (from 5.43/100,000 in 2000 to 2.59/100,000 in 2010 in men and from 1.37/100,000 in 2000 to 0.51/100,000 in 2010 in women). There was decline in both genders for the entire study period, with a significant Estimated Annual Percentage Change (EAPC) of -8.1 for women and -7 for men when alphaEuropean Union decreased overall in 2000-2010 for both genders. Men have higher TB mortality rates than women in all countries. Our findings were consistent with the downward TB mortality trend in many other countries worldwide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  18. Regional diversification of household indebtedness level in the European Union countries

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    Paulina Anioła

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the diversification of households indebtedness level in the European Union countries. The outstanding credit to household disposable income ratio and the relation between a level of indebtedness and the problem of arrears in payment were analysed. The cluster analysis and correlation analysis methods were applied.

  19. Gender Discrimination and Institutional Frameworks: Evidence from Four European Union Countries

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    Sarah Drakopoulou Dodd

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews important aspects of gender labour market inequalities in four European Union countries. It shows that individual countries differ in many aspects of gender discrimination. It seems that contributing factors to these differences are the national social and economic structures, the level of economic development, the legislative framework and the effectiveness of anti-discriminatory policies. It also shows that there are notable improvements in many gender gap indicators during the recent years and, at least part of the improvement should be attributed to the European commission’s legislative and policy initiatives.

  20. Friend or Foe? Attitudes Towards Immigration from Other European Union Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Salamońska

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the decades Europe has become a destination for different groups of migrants, including mobile citizens from the European Union Member States. At the same time European citizens have become more mobile with a growing number of cross-border practices connecting them to places and people abroad through migration, travel, social networks or consumption practices. The main contribution of this study is in analysing to what extent processes of Europeanization, at an individual and country level, matter for sentiments towards immigration. Data suggest that social globalization processes may produce a sense of threat, but individual transnationalism seems to provide a remedy against prejudice.

  1. Road Safety Conditions in Poland Against a Background of Selected European Union Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidlewska, Grazyna; Gidlewski, Mirosław; Jemioł, Leszek

    2012-02-01

    Road safety conditions in Poland and five European Union countries bigger than Poland were described with the use of evaluation indexes usually applied in such studies. Values of these indexes were calculated for the period of 2002-2008, i.e. for a seven-year period. Thanks to this, they show quite stable direction of changes. Thus, they may be used to make predictions and to indicate actions aimed to improve road safety in next years.

  2. Macroeconomic effects of fiscal policy in the European Union, with particular reference to transition countries

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    Rilind Kabashi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study empirically investigates the short- to medium-term effects of fiscal policy on output and other macroeconomic variables in European Union countries between 1995 and 2012, with particular reference to transition countries. It applies Panel Vector Auto Regression with recursive identification of government spending shocks as the most appropriate method for the aim of the study and the sample used. The main results indicate that expansionary spending shocks have a positive, but a relatively low effect on output, with the fiscal multiplier around one in the year of the shock and the following year, and lower thereinafter. There are indications that this result is driven by the recent crisis, as multipliers are considerably lower in the pre-crisis period. Effects of fiscal policy are strongly dependent on country structural characteristics. Fiscal multipliers are higher in new European Union member states, in countries with low public debt and low trade openness. Further, spending shocks are followed by rising debt levels in old member states, which could be related well to the recent European debt crisis. Finally, the analysis of the transmission mechanism of fiscal policy yields results that are consistent with both extended Real Business Cycle models and extended New Keynesian models.

  3. The Human Immunodeficiency Virus Continuum of Care in European Union Countries in 2013: Data and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noori, Teymur; Pharris, Anastasia; Axelsson, Maria; Costagliola, Dominique; Cowan, Susan; Croxford, Sara; d’Arminio Monforte, Antonella; del Amo, Julia; Delpech, Valerie; Díaz, Asunción; Girardi, Enrico; Gunsenheimer-Bartmeyer, Barbara; Hernando, Victoria; Jose, Sophie; Leierer, Gisela; Nikolopoulos, Georgios; Obel, Niels; Op de Coul, Eline; Paraskeva, Dimitra; Reiss, Peter; Sabin, Caroline; Sasse, André; Schmid, Daniela; Sonnerborg, Anders; Spina, Alexander; Suligoi, Barbara; Supervie, Virginie; Touloumi, Giota; Van Beckhoven, Dominique; van Sighem, Ard; Vourli, Georgia; Zangerle, Robert; Porter, Kholoud

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background. The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) has set a “90-90-90” target to curb the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic by 2020, but methods used to assess whether countries have reached this target are not standardized, hindering comparisons. Methods. Through a collaboration formed by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) with European HIV cohorts and surveillance agencies, we constructed a standardized, 4-stage continuum of HIV care for 11 European Union countries for 2013. Stages were defined as (1) number of people living with HIV in the country by end of 2013; (2) proportion of stage 1 ever diagnosed; (3) proportion of stage 2 that ever initiated ART; and (4) proportion of stage 3 who became virally suppressed (≤200 copies/mL). Case surveillance data were used primarily to derive stages 1 (using back-calculation models) and 2, and cohort data for stages 3 and 4. Results. In 2013, 674500 people in the 11 countries were estimated to be living with HIV, ranging from 5500 to 153400 in each country. Overall HIV prevalence was 0.22% (range, 0.09%–0.36%). Overall proportions of each previous stage were 84% diagnosed, 84% on ART, and 85% virally suppressed (60% of people living with HIV). Two countries achieved ≥90% for all stages, and more than half had reached ≥90% for at least 1 stage. Conclusions. European Union countries are nearing the 90-90-90 target. Reducing the proportion undiagnosed remains the greatest barrier to achieving this target, suggesting that further efforts are needed to improve HIV testing rates. Standardizing methods to derive comparable continuums of care remains a challenge. PMID:28369283

  4. The Human Immunodeficiency Virus Continuum of Care in European Union Countries in 2013: Data and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourlay, Annabelle; Noori, Teymur; Pharris, Anastasia; Axelsson, Maria; Costagliola, Dominique; Cowan, Susan; Croxford, Sara; d'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Del Amo, Julia; Delpech, Valerie; Díaz, Asunción; Girardi, Enrico; Gunsenheimer-Bartmeyer, Barbara; Hernando, Victoria; Jose, Sophie; Leierer, Gisela; Nikolopoulos, Georgios; Obel, Niels; Op de Coul, Eline; Paraskeva, Dimitra; Reiss, Peter; Sabin, Caroline; Sasse, André; Schmid, Daniela; Sonnerborg, Anders; Spina, Alexander; Suligoi, Barbara; Supervie, Virginie; Touloumi, Giota; Van Beckhoven, Dominique; van Sighem, Ard; Vourli, Georgia; Zangerle, Robert; Porter, Kholoud

    2017-06-15

    The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) has set a "90-90-90" target to curb the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic by 2020, but methods used to assess whether countries have reached this target are not standardized, hindering comparisons. Through a collaboration formed by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) with European HIV cohorts and surveillance agencies, we constructed a standardized, 4-stage continuum of HIV care for 11 European Union countries for 2013. Stages were defined as (1) number of people living with HIV in the country by end of 2013; (2) proportion of stage 1 ever diagnosed; (3) proportion of stage 2 that ever initiated ART; and (4) proportion of stage 3 who became virally suppressed (≤200 copies/mL). Case surveillance data were used primarily to derive stages 1 (using back-calculation models) and 2, and cohort data for stages 3 and 4. In 2013, 674500 people in the 11 countries were estimated to be living with HIV, ranging from 5500 to 153400 in each country. Overall HIV prevalence was 0.22% (range, 0.09%-0.36%). Overall proportions of each previous stage were 84% diagnosed, 84% on ART, and 85% virally suppressed (60% of people living with HIV). Two countries achieved ≥90% for all stages, and more than half had reached ≥90% for at least 1 stage. European Union countries are nearing the 90-90-90 target. Reducing the proportion undiagnosed remains the greatest barrier to achieving this target, suggesting that further efforts are needed to improve HIV testing rates. Standardizing methods to derive comparable continuums of care remains a challenge.

  5. FOOD SELF-SUFFICIENCY OF THE EUROPEAN UNION COUNTRIES – ENERGETIC APPROACH

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    Arkadiusz Sadowski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper covers the issues of a basic social need, namely alimentation. The aim of the research is to evaluate the energetic food self-sufficiency and its changes in the European Union countries. The research has been conducted using the author’s methodology basing on the amount of energy produced and consumed in 1990-2009. The analyses proved that within the considered period, the European Union became an importer of net energy comprised in agricultural products. The excess in produced energy was mainly observed by the countries of European lowland. Moreover in most of the countries, a decrease in the analyzed factor was observed when compared with the 1990-1999 period. On the other hand, in relation to the new member states the increase in food energetic self-sufficiency was observed. The conclusion has been drawn that, while the general food self-sufficiency is mainly determined by environmental factors, its dynamics is primarily influenced by the factors connected with agricultural policy.

  6. Men’s Fertility in Second Unions in Three European Countries: The Effect of Parenthood Status

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    Murinkó, Lívia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we investigate how fatherhood influences childbirth in the second union of men in three European countries. We use data from the first wave of the Generations and Gender Survey for France (2005, Norway (2007/8 and Hungary (2004/5 and we apply piecewise exponential event history models. The analysis complements earlier literature by focusing on men, taking a comparative perspective, looking at change over time, considering both cohabiting and marital unions, and also differentiating between the effects of non-residential and (part- or full-time residential fatherhood. Findings show that the probability of childbearing in the second union is the lowest if both partners already have child(ren and highest if neither of them are parents. However we found different results if only one of the partners has pre-union children in the three countries. Findings are discussed in view of demographic trends, family and gender role attitudes, and relevant family policies.

  7. Direct payments and costs of agricultural production in the European Union countries

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    Aleksandra Chlebicka

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Distribution of direct payments within the first pillar of Common Agricultural Policy is unequal in the European Union and depends on historical criteria which have no economic justification. Apart from slight modifications suggested by the European Commission, the mechanism of distribution of direct payments among EU countries is going to be maintained in the coming financial perspective for 2014-2020. The aim of the article was to discuss relations between the level of direct payments and the costs of agricultural production. There is a positive correlation between these two variables (in euro per ha. However, the level of variation of relation payments vs costs (different categories is high. It proves that, first of all, the level of payments received by farmers does not reflect costs. Secondly, the existing differences in payments per ha in different countries can not be explained by different cost levels.

  8. [Occupational dysphonia management in different countries of the European Union and throughout the world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebudek-Bogusz, Ewa

    2009-01-01

    Teachers are significantly more likely to develop multiple voice problems than non-teachers. The article presents methods for the diagnoses and treatment of occupational dysphonia in different countries of the European Union and throughout the world. Conclusions comprise the implications concerning the model of dysphonic teachers management in Poland, putting strong emphasis on the necessity for multidimensional therapy in collaboration with otolaryngologist/phoniatrician, logopedist/speech therapist and also psychologist/physiotherapist. The importance of training professional voice users in vocal hygiene and healthy voice habits has also been emphasized.

  9. Accidents in Building Engineering in the European Union Countries in the Years 2008 - 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harasymiuk, Jolanta; Tadeusz Barski, Janusz

    2017-10-01

    According to the ESAW1, an accident at work is an event that results in physical or mental harm to the person doing the work. As a result of this incident, fatal accidents may occur (which in the course of one year lead to death of the victim) or non-fatal accidents (that imply at least four full calendar days of absence from work). In the paper the authors present the number and the analysis of the causes of accidents at work in the construction industry in years 2008 - 2014 in 28 countries of the European Union. The descriptive statistics method was used to achieve the intended goal. The accident rate indicator for individual European Union countries has been shown in the analyzed period. The structure and trends of accidents during the period under investigation, divided into two groups: fatal accidents and non-fatal accidents, were presented. Both groups were analyzed for what caused them and what factors affected the quantity (Age of the victim, work experience, month of occurrence). On the basis of the analyzed causes and factors causing accidents in the construction industry in years 2008 - 2014, the classification of EU countries has been shown in terms of accidents. The paper was concluded with a summary.

  10. Macro-environmental factors and physical activity in 28 European Union countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverty, Anthony A; Thompson, Hayley; Cetateanu, Andreea; Filippidis, Filippos T

    2018-02-09

    Data from the representative 2013 Eurobarometer survey were combined with macro-environmental data to assess relationships with different domains of physical activity (PA) in 28 European Union countries. Higher mean annual temperatures were the only macro-environmental factor found to be associated with levels of physical activity; an increase in the mean annual temperature by 1°C was associated with-0.94 fewer minutes of vigorous-intensity activity per week (95% CI: -1.66 to -0.23). This highlights the importance of modifiable influences (e.g. opportunities for active travel) on PA and underscores the potential of public health interventions to raise levels of physical activity. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  11. The phenomenon of social exclusion in European Union Countries in relation to Europe 2020 Strategy

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    Katarzyna Warzecha

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available „Europe 2020- A strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth” is a long term programme of socio- economic development of European Union for 2010 – 2020. The present study is to examine the process of implementation of Europe 2020 Strategy indicators as regards social exclusion and poverty combating in Poland and other EU countries, as well as setting trends in this area and forecasting the objectives implementation period for the EU as a whole and for Poland individually. Another objective of the research is categorizing the EU countries as regards the similar level of measures describing the social exclusion phenomenon by means of TOPSIS and Ward’s methods. The research period is 2005-2015.

  12. Development of Exports and Imports of Kosova with European Union Countries

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    Ph. D. Myrvete Badivuku-Pantina

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Kosova, within the nine years period, has moved from a post conflict country to a country considered to be in transition. Kosova has passed from its determination for reconstruction of the country to the orientation towards economic development and integration to European structures. But economic development is not yet sufficient in order to address challenges that Kosova is facing, such as high percentage of unemployment and high deficit of trade exchange. The unemployment rate in Kosova is the most concerning economic issue. Unemployment norms move from about 30 % (IMF to 40% (SOK, 2006. High deficit of recurrent accounts also present a great concern for Kosova economy, which has been evaluated to be 17.3% of gross domestic production (GDP following receipt of assistance from abroad, and decrease of trade deficit remains one of economic priorities in Kosova. Current ways of cooperation between countries are based on ignoring existing borders and mutual cooperation among people of the world, based on freedom and equality among entities of market economy. Kosova supports open economic policies and it achieved to sign some of Free Trade Agreements (FTA with regional countries of western Balkans. It is expected that Kosova will endorse other FTA also with other countries in the region and wider since these actions are to be taken in order to support economic development of Kosova. In the post war period, the main trade partner of Kosova has been European Union (Germany, Greece, Slovenia, Italy, and Austria, whose participation in general import of Kosova for 2004 was 26.7%, while this integration in general export of Kosova in 2004 was 28.7%. The purpose of this study is that I wanted to present importance of trade cooperation of Kosova with UE countries and offer information of the course of imports and exports of Kosova with EU countries, as well as to analyze possibilities and advantages that this cooperation offers for economic development of

  13. Health system factors influencing management of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in four European Union countries - learning from country experiences

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    Gerard de Vries

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the European Union and European Economic Area only 38% of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients notified in 2011 completed treatment successfully at 24 months’ evaluation. Socio-economic factors and patient factors such as demographic characteristics, behaviour and attitudes are associated with treatment outcomes. Characteristics of healthcare systems also affect health outcomes. This study was conducted to identify and better understand the contribution of health system components to successful treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Methods We selected four European Union countries to provide for a broad range of geographical locations and levels of treatment success rates of the multidrug-resistant tuberculosis cohort in 2009. We conducted semi-structured interviews following a conceptual framework with representatives from policy and planning authorities, healthcare providers and civil society organisations. Responses were organised according to the six building blocks of the World Health Organization health systems framework. Results In the four included countries, Austria, Bulgaria, Spain, and the United Kingdom, the following healthcare system factors were perceived as key to achieving good treatment results for patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: timely diagnosis of drug-resistant tuberculosis; financial systems that ensure access to a full course of treatment and support for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients; patient-centred approaches with strong intersectoral collaboration that address patients’ emotional and social needs; motivated and dedicated healthcare workers with sufficient mandate and means to support patients; and cross-border management of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis to secure continuum of care between countries. Conclusion We suggest that the following actions may improve the success of treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients: deployment of

  14. Health system factors influencing management of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in four European Union countries - learning from country experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Gerard; Tsolova, Svetla; Anderson, Laura F; Gebhard, Agnes C; Heldal, Einar; Hollo, Vahur; Cejudo, Laura Sánchez-Cambronero; Schmid, Daniela; Schreuder, Bert; Varleva, Tonka; van der Werf, Marieke J

    2017-04-19

    In the European Union and European Economic Area only 38% of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients notified in 2011 completed treatment successfully at 24 months' evaluation. Socio-economic factors and patient factors such as demographic characteristics, behaviour and attitudes are associated with treatment outcomes. Characteristics of healthcare systems also affect health outcomes. This study was conducted to identify and better understand the contribution of health system components to successful treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. We selected four European Union countries to provide for a broad range of geographical locations and levels of treatment success rates of the multidrug-resistant tuberculosis cohort in 2009. We conducted semi-structured interviews following a conceptual framework with representatives from policy and planning authorities, healthcare providers and civil society organisations. Responses were organised according to the six building blocks of the World Health Organization health systems framework. In the four included countries, Austria, Bulgaria, Spain, and the United Kingdom, the following healthcare system factors were perceived as key to achieving good treatment results for patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: timely diagnosis of drug-resistant tuberculosis; financial systems that ensure access to a full course of treatment and support for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients; patient-centred approaches with strong intersectoral collaboration that address patients' emotional and social needs; motivated and dedicated healthcare workers with sufficient mandate and means to support patients; and cross-border management of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis to secure continuum of care between countries. We suggest that the following actions may improve the success of treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients: deployment of rapid molecular diagnostic tests; development of context-specific treatment

  15. A bibliometric evaluation of publications in urological journals among European Union countries between 2000-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelrich, Beibei; Peters, Robert; Jung, Klaus

    2007-10-01

    To perform a bibliometric evaluation of publications from European Union (EU) countries in the international urological journals between 2000-2005 according to their national origin and in relation to international context. Articles except reviews, editorials, letters, and reports published during 2000-2005 in 19 international urological journals were screened using Web of Science database. The total number of publications and the cumulative impact factor were determined for the first 15 EU member states (EU15), the USA, and the world. These data were related for every country to the population size and the socio-economic indicators gross domestic product, gross domestic expenditure on research and experimental development, and expenditure on health care. A total of 19.709 articles were published of which 6.878 (34.9%) came from the EU15 countries and 7.927 (40.2%) from the USA. About 15% of all papers from the EU15 countries were in collaboration with USA researchers. In the EU, the number of publications and the cumulative impact factor were dominated by United Kingdom, Germany, and Italy with about 52% of all papers and 50% of the cumulative impact factor. If adjusted for demographic and socio-economic factors the smaller countries Austria, Denmark, Finland, the Netherlands, and Sweden (alphabetical order) revealed a distinctly higher publication rate. This study based on bibliometric analyses in urological journals demonstrated a feasible solution to validate and compare the contribution of the various EU countries towards the urological research.

  16. GOOD PRACTICE IN CROATIAN SOCIAL POLICY – RECCOMENDATIONS FOR THE COUNTRIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

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    Ida Mahmutefendić

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Social policy has the ideal of cohesion and inclusiveness of all citizens, but it has to “play” an active role in creating opportunities for them. It encopmasses in itself primarily a balance between economic efficiency and social solidarity distribution, and strives towards a consensual social model in which the government and the opposition generally agree on the fundamental priorities of society. Starting from July 1st, 2013, Croatia has been a member of the European Union. What experiences can that country bring to European Union? In spite of the differences between the European countries becoming more and more expressed and bigger, there is a common element: a conscience that social justice and social reconciliation could contribute to an economical development and that are not just an expense; but the opposite: an economical development that must contribute to social reconciliation. In the process of the preparation for this work and during the process of its realization, I used the methods of reading a lot of literature, including professional books, professional journals and legislation literature. Social policy has been for years one of my major fields of interest, so some facts I knew already. My research goal is to examine the development so far of the social policy in Croatia, to detect the most important conditions which are necessary to develop high-quality social policies, to discover which are strong sides, and which are weak sides of the Croatian social policy, and therefore what is important to strongly develop, and what is redundant and/or old-fashioned, to throw away or neglect.

  17. Association of Cigarette Price Differentials With Infant Mortality in 23 European Union Countries.

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    Filippidis, Filippos T; Laverty, Anthony A; Hone, Thomas; Been, Jasper V; Millett, Christopher

    2017-11-01

    Raising the price of cigarettes by increasing taxation has been associated with improved perinatal and child health outcomes. Transnational tobacco companies have sought to undermine tobacco tax policy by adopting pricing strategies that maintain the availability of budget cigarettes. To assess associations between median cigarette prices, cigarette price differentials, and infant mortality across the European Union. A longitudinal, ecological study was conducted from January 1, 2004, to December 31, 2014, of infant populations in 23 countries (comprising 276 subnational regions) within the European Union. Median cigarette prices and the differential between these and minimum cigarette prices were obtained from Euromonitor International. Pricing differentials were calculated as the proportions (%) obtained by dividing the difference between median and minimum cigarette price by median price. Prices were adjusted for inflation. Annual infant mortality rates. Associations were assessed using linear fixed-effect panel regression models adjusted for smoke-free policies, gross domestic product, unemployment rate, education, maternal age, and underlining temporal trends. Among the 53 704 641 live births during the study period, an increase of €1 (US $1.18) per pack in the median cigarette price was associated with a decline of 0.23 deaths per 1000 live births in the same year (95% CI, -0.37 to -0.09) and a decline of 0.16 deaths per 1000 live births the following year (95% CI, -0.30 to -0.03). An increase of 10% in the price differential between median-priced and minimum-priced cigarettes was associated with an increase of 0.07 deaths per 1000 live births (95% CI, 0.01-0.13) the following year. Cigarette price increases across 23 European countries between 2004 and 2014 were associated with 9208 (95% CI, 8601-9814) fewer infant deaths; 3195 (95% CI, 3017-3372) infant deaths could have been avoided had there been no cost differential between the median-priced and

  18. International migration and unemployment in established member countries of the European Union

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    Milan Palát

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to evaluate relationships of the rate of migration and the unemployment rate in established member countries of the European Union covering also the period of the last financial and economic crisis and using statistical methods. To determine parameters of a regression function were used methods of regression and correlation analysis including testing the statistical significance. Nearly all countries (except Luxemburg and Austria show a negative linear relationship between tested indicators however not always statistically significant. Based on these results, the existence of correlation is evident between the crude rate of net migration and the unemployment rate in more than a half of the monitored countries. Calculated correlation indices show highly statistically significant results for typically immigrant’s destination countries, e.g. Germany, United Kingdom, Luxembourg, and Belgium but we can find statistically significant results also in countries which are facing enormous economic problems during the last financial and economic crisis, esp. in Ireland, Spain and Italy. With an exemption of Belgium, the selected type of regression function doesn’t play a role as it regards the statistical significance of correlation indices and the use of polynomials of higher degrees doesn’t improve those results significantly. The analysis of the crude rate of net migration and the unemployment rate presented in this paper can be further used and developed when other variables would be added to the model.

  19. Factors associated with teenage pregnancy in the European Union countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Mari; Tucker, Janet; Hannaford, Phil; da Silva, Miguel Oliveira; Astin, Margaret; Wyness, Laura; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W M; Jahn, Albrecht; Karro, Helle; Olsen, Jørn; Temmerman, Marleen

    2007-12-01

    As part of the REPROSTAT2 project, this systematic review aimed to identify factors associated with teenage pregnancy in 25 European Union countries. The search strategy included electronic bibliographic databases (1995 to May 2005), bibliographies of selected articles and requests to all country representatives of the research team for relevant reports and publications. Primary outcome measure was conception. Inclusion criteria were quantitative studies of individual-level factors associated with teenage (13-19 years) pregnancy in EU countries. Of 4444 studies identified and screened, 20 met the inclusion criteria. Most of the included studies took place in UK and Nordic countries. The well-recognized factors of socioeconomic disadvantage, disrupted family structure and low educational level and aspiration appear consistently associated with teenage pregnancy. However, evidence that access to services in itself is a protective factor remains inconsistent. Although further associations with diverse risk-taking behaviours and lifestyle, sexual health knowledge, attitudes and behaviour are reported, the independent effects of these factors too remain unclear. Included studies varied widely in terms of methods and definitions used. This heterogeneity within the studies leaves two outstanding issues. First, we cannot synthesize or generalize key findings as to how all these factors interact with one another and which factors are the most significant. Second, it is not possible to examine potential variation between countries. Future research ensuring comparability and generalizability of results related to teenage sexual health outcomes will help gain insight into the international variation in observed pregnancy rates and better inform interventions.

  20. Export competitiveness of dairy products on global markets: the case of the European Union countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojnec, Š; Fertő, I

    2014-10-01

    This paper analyzed the export competitiveness of dairy products of the European Union (EU) countries (EU-27) on intra-EU, extra-EU, and global markets, using the revealed comparative advantage index over the 2000-2011 period. The results indicated that about half of the EU-27 countries have had competitive exports in a certain segment of dairy products. The results differed by level of milk processing and for intra-EU and extra-EU markets, and did so over the analyzed years. Belgium, Denmark, France, Ireland, and the Netherlands are old EU-15 countries with competitive dairy exports (from the lowest to the highest according to the level of milk processing). The majority of the new EU-12 countries have faced difficulties in maintaining their level of export competitiveness, at least for some dairy products and market segments. The more competitive EU-12 countries in dairy exports were the Baltic States (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania) and Poland. The duration of export competitiveness differed across the dairy groups of products according to the level of milk processing, indicating the importance of dairy chain product differentiation for export competitiveness and specialization. The export competitiveness of the higher level of processed milk products for final consumption can be significant for export dairy chain competitiveness on global markets. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Market Attractiveness Classification of European Union Countries for Establishing Logistics Centres

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    Schüller David

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available At present, enterprises are forced to serve their customers as quickly as possible if they want to succeed on turbulent global markets. Enterprises are looking for regions with high-quality infrastructure where they can establish new logistics centres that enable enterprises to serve their customers quickly. This paper focuses on the segmentation of the European Union market for enterprises that are willing to set up logistics centres in order to be able to distribute products fluently and more quickly to their customers in Europe. An agglomerative hierarchical clustering algorithm was used and Ward’s criterion applied for the purposes of market segmentation. A Logistic Performance Index and the indicator Dealing with Construction Permits were used as two relevant dimensions reflecting the market attractiveness of identified clusters. Based on the given statistical output, fundamental marketing concepts were formulated for each cluster composed of EU countries with similar characteristics.

  2. Setting Up a Limited Liability Company with Sole Shareholder in the European Union Countries

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    Simona Petrina GAVRILA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Given the importance of legal rules as closely as possible to the legal systems of the European Union Member States in respect of the companies, several directives have been adopted, of which twelve present the essence of the operational mechanisms harmonization . The consecration of single-member company in positive law is determined by multiple motivations, and the relevance of its objectives is complex, for the reason of the diverse role it plays in the economic and social life, from which the existence of different single-member business derives:limited liability company, joint stock company, simplified joint stock company, dedicated assets, subjected to a personal legal system, difficult to compare, each of them to be therefore studied in the legal, economic, social and tax context of each country.

  3. The Impact of Social Factors on Economic Growth: Empirical Evidence for Romania and European Union Countries

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    Ana-Maria Popa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the relationship between the social factors and the economic growth. A summary of social and economic environment is presented for Romania. As such, the paper analyzes the global evolution of social and economic environment over time and establishes a direct correlation between human development and economic welfare. An econometric model and a clustering model are tested for European Union countries. The results of the paper reveal the social factors that are positively correlated with the economic growth (i.e. the expected years of schooling and the life expectancy and, respectively, the factors that are negatively correlated with the economic growth (i.e. the population at risk of poverty and the unemployment rate.

  4. [Noise-induced risks at workstations in Poland and other European Union countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustyńska, Danuta; Pleban, Dariusz; Radosz, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Noise is one of the most common physical risks in the workplace. Long term exposure to its high levels (above 80-85 dB) can pose a significant threat to health of workers, including hearing loss. Noise can also be a burdensome factor hampering work, causing stress and various health problems. In the European Union about 80 million workers (1/3 of total working population) complain about noise. In Poland, there are about 200 thousand workers exposed to noise in excess of MAI values. For years noise-induced hearing loss has been at the top of the list of occupational diseases. This paper presents a review of the data on noise hazards in the EU countries based on the reports of the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions and publications of the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work. The statistical data on working conditions in Poland (including noise-induced risks) obtained from the Central Statistical Office and statistical data on occupational diseases (including hearing loss) elaborated by the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine in Łódź were the subject of analysis. The article also presents the results of noise measurements and surveys carried out in selected national companies. The obtained results indicate the necessity for both objective and subjective assessments of noise hazards in the workplace.

  5. Inconsistencies among European Union pharmaceutical regulator safety communications: a cross-country comparison.

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    Jean-David Zeitoun

    Full Text Available The European Medicines Agency (EMA and national regulators share the responsibility to communicate to healthcare providers postmarketing safety events but little is known about the consistency of this process. We aimed to compare public availability of safety-related communications and drug withdrawals from the EMA and European Union member countries for novel medicines.We performed a cross-sectional analysis using public Dear Healthcare Professional Communications (DHPCs for all novel medicines authorized between 2001 and 2010 by the EMA and available for use in France, Netherlands, Spain, and the United Kingdom. Between 2001 and 2010, the EMA approved 185 novel medicines. DHPCs could not be ascertained for the EMA. Among the 4 national regulators, as of April 30, 2013, at least one safety DHPC or withdrawal occurred for 53 (28.6% medicines, totaling 90 DHPCs and 5 withdrawals. Among these 53 medicines, all 4 national agencies issued at least one communication for 17 (32.1%, three of the four for 25 (47.2%, two of the four for 6 (11.3%, and one of the four for 5 (9.4%. Five drugs were reported to be withdrawn, three by all four countries, one by three and one by two. Among the 95 DHPCs and withdrawals, 20 (21.1% were issued by all 4 national regulators, 37 (38.9% by 3 of the 4, 22 (23.2% by 2 of the 4, and 16 (16.8% by one. Consistency of making publicly available all identified safety DHPC or withdrawal across regulator pairs varied from 33% to 73% agreement.Safety communications were not made publicly available by the EMA. Among the 4 European member countries with national regulators that make DHPCs publicly available since at least 2001, there were substantial inconsistencies in safety communications for novel medicines. The impact of those inconsistencies in terms of public health remains to be determined.

  6. Methodological Bases for Ranking the European Union Countries in Terms of Macroeconomic Security

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    Tymoshenko Olena V.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental contradictions of existing methodical approaches to assessing the level of the state economic security have been substantiated and proposals on the introduction of a unified methodology for its assessment, which would be acceptable for use at the international level or for a specific cluster of countries, have been developed. Based on the conducted researches it has been found that the there are no unified signs for such classification of countries. To determine the most significant coefficients and critical values of the indicators of economic security, it is appropriate that the countries should be grouped in terms of the level of the economic development proposed by the UN Commission and the IMF. Analysis of the economic security level has been conducted for the countries-members of the European Union as a separate cluster of countries on the example of macroeconomic security indicators. Based on the evaluation it has been found that the proposed list of indicators and their critical values is economically sound and built on the principle of adequacy, representativeness and comprehensiveness. In 2004 the most secure countries of the EU corresponding to the macroeconomic security standards were Austria, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, and as in 2014 the percentage of absolutely secure countries decreased from 14.3 to 7.1%, only Denmark and Sweden remained in the ranking. During the analyzed period Bulgaria and Croatia got into the risk zone, Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia, Romania were in a danger zone. In 2014 Ukraine in terms of its macroeconomic security was in a critical state, which testified about serious structural and system imbalances in its development.

  7. The Diet of Preschool Children in the Mediterranean Countries of the European Union: A Systematic Review

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    Luís Pereira-da-Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This systematic review discusses data on the dietary intake of preschool children living in the Mediterranean countries of the European Union, including the comparison with a Mediterranean-like diet and the association with nutritional status. Specifically, data from the multinational European Identification and Prevention on Dietary and life style induced health effects in children and infants (IDEFICS study and national studies, such as the Estudo do Padrão Alimentar e de Crescimento Infantil (EPACI study and Geração XXI cohort in Portugal, ALimentando la SAlud del MAñana (ALSALMA study in Spain, Étude des Déterminants pré-et postnatals précoces du développement et de la santé de l’ENfant (EDEN cohort in France, Nutrintake 636 study in Italy, and Growth, Exercise and Nutrition Epidemiological Study in preSchoolers (GENESIS cohort in Greece, were analyzed. In the majority of countries, young children consumed fruit and vegetables quite frequently, but also consumed sugared beverages and snacks. High energy and high protein intakes mainly from dairy products were found in the majority of countries. The majority of children also consumed excessive sodium intake. Early high prevalence of overweight and obesity was found, and both early consumption of energy-dense foods and overweight seemed to track across toddler and preschool ages. Most children living in the analyzed countries showed low adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet, which in turn was associated with being overweight/obese. Unhealthier diets were associated with lower maternal educational level and parental unemployment. Programs promoting adherence of young children to the traditional Mediterranean diet should be part of a multi-intervention strategy for the prevention and treatment of pediatric overweight and obesity.

  8. The Diet of Preschool Children in the Mediterranean Countries of the European Union: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-da-Silva, Luís; Rêgo, Carla; Pietrobelli, Angelo

    2016-06-08

    This systematic review discusses data on the dietary intake of preschool children living in the Mediterranean countries of the European Union, including the comparison with a Mediterranean-like diet and the association with nutritional status. Specifically, data from the multinational European Identification and Prevention on Dietary and life style induced health effects in children and infants (IDEFICS) study and national studies, such as the Estudo do Padrão Alimentar e de Crescimento Infantil (EPACI) study and Geração XXI cohort in Portugal, ALimentando la SAlud del MAñana (ALSALMA) study in Spain, Étude des Déterminants pré-et postnatals précoces du développement et de la santé de l'ENfant (EDEN) cohort in France, Nutrintake 636 study in Italy, and Growth, Exercise and Nutrition Epidemiological Study in preSchoolers (GENESIS) cohort in Greece, were analyzed. In the majority of countries, young children consumed fruit and vegetables quite frequently, but also consumed sugared beverages and snacks. High energy and high protein intakes mainly from dairy products were found in the majority of countries. The majority of children also consumed excessive sodium intake. Early high prevalence of overweight and obesity was found, and both early consumption of energy-dense foods and overweight seemed to track across toddler and preschool ages. Most children living in the analyzed countries showed low adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet, which in turn was associated with being overweight/obese. Unhealthier diets were associated with lower maternal educational level and parental unemployment. Programs promoting adherence of young children to the traditional Mediterranean diet should be part of a multi-intervention strategy for the prevention and treatment of pediatric overweight and obesity.

  9. Software tool for a comparative analysis of Romanian fiscality with other country in European Union

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    Logica BANICA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The corporation activity represents a factor of major interest for the economies of all the States due to the economic and social effects that it generates. The conditions of tax nature have an influence on corporations’ investment localization decisions and capital flows so that the policy of each sate in the field of corporative income tax payment must constitute the object of a very careful analysis. Thus, the companies choose to carry out their activity in the countries where they can obtain the biggest net profit after carrying out their specific operations. Reducing taxation rates of the corporate incomes in various member states of the European Union, as an effect of the tax competition, represents the compliance with an international trend, being only to a small extent the result of the government will. In the European Union, Romania has one of the lowest income tax rates as compared to other member states. Starting with 2005, the income tax rate that applies to the taxable profit is of 16%. Analysis of economic and financial performances of subsidiaries of transnational companies active in Romania, considered as representative for their fields of activity, allowed us to formulate judgments about the prospects of investment in the Romanian economy produced by firms with trans-borders business.An information system can have a major impact on corporate strategy and organizational success. The involvement of managers and decision makers in all aspects of information systems is a major factor for organizational success, including higher profits and lower costs. Some of the benefits business organizations seek to achieve through information systems include: better safety, competitive advantage, fewer errors, greater accuracy, higher quality products, improved communications, increased efficiency and productivity, more efficient administration, superior financial and managerial decision making.

  10. Doctrine Of Good Administration: Elements And Their Contents On The Example Of The European Union Countries

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    Ivan V. Shmelev

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available anagement of the society – one of the most important problems of the state, thus the state represented by bodies and officials for the achievement of this task has to work effectively. For this purpose it is necessary to define not only concept of effective management and cornerstone criteria, but also concept and requirements to the management subject – administration which has to cope with this task. Article represents the legislative bases review of the doctrine of good administration in the EU countries, and also opinions of scientists on disputable aspects of this doctrine. In particular, in the article parallels between earlier assumed purposes of the doctrine and established by law. It appears that the new purposes of the doctrine are established only in public interests and for preservation of the European Union integrity. In article concepts of effective management and good administration, as subject of the specified activity are compared. In the article some elements of the doctrine of good administration are considered. Their legal sense is investigated and author's understanding of their value is given. It is noted that principles as elements of the doctrine form the corresponding rights and duties which explains how the concrete principle can be applied to the subject (activity of administrative legal relations. Within the studied doctrine standards of appropriate behavior of the public employee in the EU countries and similar rules for public servants in the Russian Federation were studied. In the conclusion author concludes that it is impossible to apply the unified European standards in Russian Federation, which is due to the developed organization of the public service in Russian Federation. In the article it is noted positive influence of the doctrine of good administration on the EU in general, despite various interpretations of the doctrine elements in the legislation of member countries.

  11. Socio-economic factors and suicide rates in European Union countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, Fabio; Coluccia, Anna

    2009-04-01

    Are socio-economic factors valid determinants of suicide? The modern sociological theory of suicide is based on Durkheim's studies. In addition to these fundamental social determinants, modern theorists have put more attention on economic factors. The purpose of the research is to determine the relationship between suicide rates and socio-economic factors, such as demography, economic development, education, healthcare systems, living conditions and labour market. All data were collected from a Eurostat publication and they concern 25 European Union countries. In order to test this relationship, a discriminant analysis was performed using an ordinal dependent variable and a set of independent variables concerning socio-economic factors. A dataset of 37 independent variables was used. We estimated a model with five variables: annual growth rates for industry, people working in S&T (% of total employment), at-risk-of-poverty rate, all accidents (standardized rates), and healthcare expenditures (% of GDP). Highly significant values of Wilk's Lambda assess a good discriminating power of the model. The accuracy too is very high: all cases are correctly classified by the model. Countries with high suicide rate levels are marked by high levels of at-risk-of-poverty rates, high annual growth rates for industry and low healthcare expenditures.

  12. COPD care delivery pathways in five European Union countries: mapping and health care professionals’ perceptions

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    Kayyali R

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Reem Kayyali,1 Bassel Odeh,1 Inéz Frerichs,2 Nikki Davies,3 Eleni Perantoni,4 Shona D’arcy,5 Anouk W Vaes,6 John Chang,3 Martijn A Spruit,6 Brenda Deering,7 Nada Philip,1 Roshan Siva,3 Evangelos Kaimakamis,8 Ioanna Chouvarda,8 Barbara Pierscionek,1 Norbert Weiler,2 Emiel FM Wouters,6 Andreas Raptopoulos,9 Shereen Nabhani-Gebara1 1Faculty of Science, Engineering and Computing, Kingston University, Kingston-Upon-Thames, UK; 2Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University Medical Centre Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, Germany; 3Chest Clinic and Research and Development, Croydon University Hospital, Croydon, UK; 4Pulmonary Clinic, AHEPA University Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece; 5Department of Medicine, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin, Ireland; 6Research and Education, CIRO – Centre of Expertise for Chronic Organ Failure, Horn, the Netherlands; 7COPD Outreach, Beaumont Hospital, Dublin, Ireland; 8Medical School, Aristotle University, Thessaloniki, 9Research and Development, Exodus Information Technology SA, Athens, Greece Background: COPD is among the leading causes of chronic morbidity and mortality in the European Union with an estimated annual economic burden of €25.1 billion. Various care pathways for COPD exist across Europe leading to different responses to similar problems. Determining these differences and the similarities may improve health and the functioning of health services.Objective: The aim of this study was to compare COPD patients’ care pathway in five European Union countries including England, Ireland, the Netherlands, Greece, and Germany and to explore health care professionals’ (HCPs perceptions about the current pathways.Methods: HCPs were interviewed in two stages using a qualitative, semistructured email interview and a face-to-face semistructured interview.Results: Lack of communication among different health care providers managing COPD and comorbidities was a common feature of the

  13. [Protection against electromagnetic fields emitted by mobile phone facilities in Poland and the European Union countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dackiewicz, Aleksander; Krawczyk, Andrzej

    2003-01-01

    In personal communication, the mobile phone systems have developed most rapidly. To enlarge the area of mobile phone availability one needs to fine a base antenna network. This means that the base antennas are closer and closer to people. Each antenna is the source of electromagnetic fields, and thus it has to be designed carefully with respect to public health. The standards are different for the general public and for occupational groups. In Polish standards, the limits for the frequency range of 0.3-300 GHz are expressed in power density with value of 0.1 W/m2. The EU standards are more sophisticated as they relate limit values to frequencies. This paper presents these values and other limits binding in the EU countries. Other limits are laid down for the population of workers. In this respect, there is a considerable discrepancy between the Polish and EU standards. The approach to standard setting is quite different. The Polish standards are exactly determined and very restrictive. They require from operators to take great care in establishing new base stations. The question whether the Polish standards should be compatible with the European Union standards remains still open. The EU regulations do not require any change in the standardization of member states if their standards prove to be more restrictive. From 1998, a tendency towards more restrictive limits, especially in respect to the general population, has been observed.

  14. HIV Strategic Information in Non-European Union Countries in the World Health Organization European Region: Capacity Development Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Background Capacity building of the national HIV strategic information system is a core component of the response to the HIV epidemic as it enables understanding of the evolving nature of the epidemic, which is critical for program planning and identification of the gaps and deficiencies in HIV programs. Objective The study aims to describe the results of the assessment of the needs for further development of capacities in HIV strategic information systems in the non-European Union (EU) countries in the World Health Organization European Region (EUR). Methods Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to national AIDS programs. The first questionnaire was sent to all countries (N=18) to find out, among other issues, the priority level for strengthening a range of HIV surveillance areas and their key gaps and weaknesses. The second questionnaire was sent to 15 countries to more specifically determine capacities for the analysis of the HIV care cascade. Results Responses to the first questionnaire were received from 10 countries, whereas 13 countries responded to the second questionnaire. Areas that were most frequently marked as being of high to moderate priority for strengthening were national electronic patient monitoring systems, evaluation of HIV interventions and impact analysis, implementation science, and data analysis. Key weaknesseses were lack of electronic reporting of HIV cases, problems with timeliness and completeness of reporting in HIV cases, under-estimates of the reported number of HIV-related deaths, and limited CD4 count testing at the time of HIV diagnosis. Migrant populations, internally displaced persons, and refugees were most commonly mentioned as groups not covered by surveillance, followed by clients of sex workers and men who have sex with men. The majority of countries reported that they were able to provide the number of people diagnosed with HIV who know their HIV status, which is important for the analysis of cross

  15. Attributing foodborne salmonellosis in humans to animal reservoirs in the European Union using a multi-country stochastic model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Knegt, Leonardo; Pires, Sara Monteiro; Hald, Tine

    2015-01-01

    A Bayesian modelling approach comparing the occurrence of Salmonella serovars in animals and humans was used to attribute salmonellosis cases to broilers, turkeys, pigs, laying hens, travel and outbreaks in 24 European Union countries. Salmonella data for animals and humans, covering the period...... from 2007 to 2009, were mainly obtained from studies and reports published by the European Food Safety Authority. Availability of food sources for consumption was derived from trade and production data from the European Statistical Office. Results showed layers as the most important reservoir of human...

  16. Market Attractiveness Classification of European Union Countries for Establishing Logistics Centres

    OpenAIRE

    Schüller David; Pekárek Jan

    2016-01-01

    At present, enterprises are forced to serve their customers as quickly as possible if they want to succeed on turbulent global markets. Enterprises are looking for regions with high-quality infrastructure where they can establish new logistics centres that enable enterprises to serve their customers quickly. This paper focuses on the segmentation of the European Union market for enterprises that are willing to set up logistics centres in order to be able to distribute products fluently ...

  17. Market status of organic products in the countries of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tananeva Zhivka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic production of foods is strictly regulated industry, which is different from the private market-gardening. The organic foods make up 1-2% of global food selling. The European Union and Bulgarian government nowadays encourage the transition to the organic farming and they grant resources to the farmers and food producers, which turn to it. Presently, 90 % of the organic food produced in Bulgaria is exported to richer European states. Bulgarian organic food is basically fruits: nuts, herbs and spices, as organic plant oils, tobacco, vegetables. There is lamb and veal on the market, as organic jam and honey. .

  18. Polish credit institutions within the European Union: a cross-country survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Dybał

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of the Polish financial system, with regard to both the number of financial institutions and their assets over the last two decades. Data on the structure of household assets are also presented. According to the study, banks are the most important institutions in the Polish financial system. Analyzed in order to compare Polish credit institutions with all other members of the European Union were total assets of credit institutions, assets of the 25 largest banks in the European Union, as well as in Central and East Europe, share of the five largest credit institutions in total assets (CR5, asset share of credit institutions with majority foreign equity ownership, number of credit institutions, number of local units (branches, number of residents per credit institution local unit, number of employees of credit institutions, assets of credit institutions per employee and GDP per capita in PPS. The data demonstrate that over the past decade Polish credit institutions have largely strengthened their position within the European Union.

  19. Assessment of the Impact of the Economic Partnership Agreement between the COMESA countries and the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Karingi, Stephen; Perez, Romain; Oulmane, Nassim; Lang, Rémi; Sadni Jallab, Mustapha

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study, is to evaluate possible economic repercussions of the trade facet, in Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs), currently being negotiated between countries of the Common Market in Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) and Member-States of European Union (EU). In so-doing, we have used two complementary models, the first one, based-on a general equilibrium approach, and the second, a partial equilibrium method. Indeed, multilateral trade agreements, will have implicati...

  20. The European Union's Eastward Enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanns-D. Jacobsen

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available In July 1997 the Commission of the European Union presented its Agenda 2000. This document not only suggested to start accession talks with some East and Central European countries (CEEC in early 1998 but it also provided proposals for a restructuring of EU expenditures. On this background this contribution discusses the state of readiness of the Central and East European countries to become EU members over the next few years and the Union's capacity to absorb up to ten CEEC over the next decade or so. This study concludes that the European Union has become an anchor of stability to the CEEC that guarantees both democracy and economic security--much more than could be expected only a couple of years ago. The Union's readiness to accept the membership of CEEC has, in a decisive way, contributed to their societal, political and economic stabilization. There is almost a contest among the CEEC on which one is going to meet the accession criteria first and best. The enlargement process, however, is connected to problems the resolution of which realistically postpone its successful conclusion at least into the year 2005. The main reasons are (1 the welfare gap between the EU area and the CEEC, (2 the need for more institutional and economic changes in the CEEC to make them ready for acces-sion, and, most importantly, (3 the necessity for the European Union to prepare herself for accession by a comprehensive financial reform and fundamental institutional changes.

  1. Attributing foodborne salmonellosis in humans to animal reservoirs in the European Union using a multi-country stochastic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE Knegt, L V; Pires, S M; Hald, T

    2015-04-01

    A Bayesian modelling approach comparing the occurrence of Salmonella serovars in animals and humans was used to attribute salmonellosis cases to broilers, turkeys, pigs, laying hens, travel and outbreaks in 24 European Union countries. Salmonella data for animals and humans, covering the period from 2007 to 2009, were mainly obtained from studies and reports published by the European Food Safety Authority. Availability of food sources for consumption was derived from trade and production data from the European Statistical Office. Results showed layers as the most important reservoir of human salmonellosis in Europe, with 42·4% (7 903 000 cases, 95% credibility interval 4 181 000-14 510 000) of cases, 95·9% of which was caused by S. Enteritidis. In Finland and Sweden, most cases were travel-related, while in most other countries the main sources were related to the laying hen or pig reservoir, highlighting differences in the epidemiology of Salmonella, surveillance focus and eating habits across the European Union.

  2. EUROPEAN UNION STRATEGIC NARRATIVE TOWARDS THE EASTERN PARTNERSHIP COUNTRIES AND THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION’S ESCALATION: STOP, SLOW OR GO?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita LOBANOV

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The narrative dimension of the EaP programme was considered by the European policy makers of secondary relevance as it was focused on the bureaucratic aspects of the economic and judicial convergence of the target countries with the European Union through “regulation setting”. The importance of these aspects has clearly increased after the Russian Federation used hybrid war tactics in Ukraine since 2013 based on a fabricated Strategic Narrative that relied on the “Reflexive Control” and “Informational Warfare” principles to a great effect. The growingly opposing information spheres, the Russian and the European, have an enormous importance for the political discourse in the Eastern Partnership (EaP countries. By drawing on a closer examination of a number of primary and secondary sources – including important events, official texts, and excerpts from interviews – this paper aims at comprehending the formation, projection and reception in the EaP states of the Strategic Narratives of the Russian Federation and the European Union since 2013.

  3. Upadlosc konsumencka w wybranych krajach Unii Europejskiej a kryzys gospodarczy. (Consumer bankruptcy in selected European Union Member Countries in relation to the economic crisis.)

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Szymanska

    2013-01-01

    The article is aimed at the examination of the relation between the economic crisis and the number of consumer bankruptcies declared in the selected European Union member countries, including Poland. It describes the institution of consumer bankruptcy and presents the most essential differences between the bankruptcy solutions applied in particular legal systems. The economic indicators of the selected European Union member countries are confronted with the number of declared bankruptcies. Th...

  4. Vaccine adverse event monitoring systems across the European Union countries: time for unifying efforts.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Zanoni, Giovanna

    2009-05-26

    A survey conducted among 26 European Countries within the Vaccine European New Integrated Collaboration Effort (VENICE) project assessed the status of organization in prevention and management of adverse events following immunization (AEFI) and level of interconnection, with the aim at individuating points of strength and weakness. The emerging picture is for a strong political commitment to control AEFIs in Member States (MS), but with consistent heterogeneity in procedures, regulations and capacity of systems to collect, analyze and use data, although with great potentialities. Suggestions are posed by authors to promote actions for unifying strategies and policies among MS.

  5. The share of renewable energy in the EU. Country Profiles. Overview of Renewable Energy Sources in the Enlarged European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The promotion of renewable energy has an important role to play in addressing the growing dependence on energy imports in Europe and in tackling climate change. Since 1997, the Union has been working towards the ambitious target of a 12% share of renewable energy in gross inland consumption by 2010. In 1997, the share of renewable energy was 5.4%; by 2001 it had reached 6%. This Staff Working Document gives an overview of the different situations of renewable energy sources in the European Union. It includes part of the formal report that the Commission is required to make under Article 3 of Directive 2001/77/EC on electricity from renewable energy sources, and it completes the overall picture with information at a country level on the heat produced from renewable energies and biofuels in the transport sector. This Staff Working Document complements the Communication on 'The share of Renewable Energy sources in the EU'. Data is based on different sources. Firstly, on the reports from Member States on national progress in achieving the targets on electricity from renewable energy sources. Secondly, on a study launched by the Commission on the evolution of renewable energy sources. And thirdly, on a variety of sources like the European Barometer of renewable energies, data from the industry, etc. With the enlargement of the European Union, the new Member States are required to adopt the RES-E Directive (renewable energy sources for electricity) by 1 May 2004. In the accession treaty, national indicative targets are set and the overall renewable electricity target for the enlarged Union will therefore be 21% of gross electricity consumption by 2010. The Commission has the legal obligation to report on the degree of achievement of new Member States' targets by 2006. Although it is too early to assess RES-policy in the new Member States due to very recently adopted regulations, this document also includes national information on the States now joining the

  6. Trade Union Channels for Influencing European Union Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengt Larsson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes what channels trade unions in Europe use when trying to influence European Union (EU policies. It compares and contrasts trade unions in different industrial relations regimes with regard to the degree to which they cooperate with different actors to influence EU policies, while also touching on the importance of sector differences and organizational resources. The study is based on survey data collected in 2010–2011 from unions affiliated with the European Trade Union Confederation and from below peak unions in 14 European countries. Results of the survey show that the ‘national route’ is generally the most important for trade unions in influencing EU policies in the sense that this channel is, on average, used to the highest degree. In addition, the survey delineates some important differences between trade unions in different industrial relations regimes with regard to the balance between the national route and different access points in the ‘Brussels route’.

  7. Cluster analysis in primary roundwood production of 25 countries of European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis P. Koulelis

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Main objective of this research is the effects of the political and economic enlargement of Europe in the market of wood products, especially for primary production of conifers and broadleaves round timber. The research consists in the application of the hierarchical cluster analysis to classify the 25 member countries, based on the roundwood coniferous and non-coniferous production during the period1992-2002. Valuable conclusions came out regarding the market changes due to the participation of the new member states in E.U., which finally strengthen the wood and wood products European trade. Many of these new member states are covered by extended forested areas and they contribute significantly to both coniferous and non coniferous round wood European production. The entrance of the new ten memberstates, combined with the sustainable management of the forest resources, contributes to strengthen the EU timber production, exploiting internal productions but also to promote sustainable forest management and conservation for every country.

  8. The European Union and the Caribbean Region: Situating the Caribbean Overseas Countries and Territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Sutton

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:This paper examines one important dimension of the European Union's (EU 'regional' engagement with the Caribbean: its relations with the Overseas Countries and Territories (OCT, with a particular focus on the possibility of furthering the policy goals of greater regional integration and cooperation. It does so in three parts. The first sets out the basis for current EU policy to the OCT which has been under discussion between the EU, the OCT and the four EU member states most involved (Denmark, France, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom since 2008. It reports EU proposals for change and the responses to them by the Caribbean OCTs. The second part examines EU policy toward promoting greater regional cooperation among the Caribbean OCTs and between them and some of the other Caribbean regional organizations. Three distinct frameworks for cooperation and integration are discussed: with independent states as established in the Caribbean Community, the Caribbean Forum and the Economic Partnership Agreement; with the French departments and collectivities; and with the Caribbean OCT. In each the position of the Caribbean OCT is situated. The final part briefly discusses the creation of a 'new' framework for regional cooperation specific for the Caribbean OCT which will most closely match their interests in the Caribbean.Resumen: La Unión Europea y la Región del Caribe: Situando a los Países y Territorios de Ultramar del CaribeEste ensayo analiza una dimensión importante de la Unión Europea (UE 'regional' y su compromiso con el Caribe: de igual manera sus relaciones con los Países y Territorios de Ultramar (PTU, con un enfoque particular sobre la posibilidad de promover los objetivos de la política con una mayor integración regional y cooperación. Este proceso se desglosa en tres partes. La primera establece la base para la actual política de la UE hacia los PTU, ya que esta ha sido objeto de debate entre los mismos y los cuatro

  9. A Co-integration Analysis Approach to European Union Integration: The Case of Acceding and Candidate Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceylan Onay

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the long-term financial integration of second-round acceding and candidate countries’ with the European Union and the US stock markets during the Accession Process. The lowpair wise correlations between these markets imply portfolio diversification opportunities, yet correlation is a short-term measure. The long-term stock market interdependence is analyzed with Johansen (1991 cointegration approach, which indicates no long-term relationship between the second-round countries and the EU and US stock markets. Yet Engle-Granger (1987 causality test presents evidence of a casual flow from European and US equity markets to Croatian stock market and from Turkish Stock market to Bulgarian stock market suggesting a short-term lead-lag relationship amongst. The results indicate that the completion of accession negotiations with Bulgaria and Romania and ongoing negotiations with Croatia and Turkey have not yet resulted in the complete financial integration of these markets with the European Union. They still offer significant long-term diversification opportunities for the European as well as the US investors.

  10. European Banking Union

    OpenAIRE

    Breuss, Fritz

    2013-01-01

    The ongoing Euro crisis and the worse economic development in Europe than in the USA are grounded, not the least in the delayed implementation of reforms of the banking sector. Whereas the leaks in economic governance of EMU have been fixed the banking sector is still not stabilised, even five years after Lehman Brothers. From the grand solution of a "European Banking Union" (EBU) only the first pillar, the European Bank Supervision with the single supervisory mechanism (SSM) will come into e...

  11. The current mexican outlook of scientific cooperation with selected countries inside APEC: China, South Korea, Latin America and European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Haberleithner

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In Mexico the Law on International Cooperation for Development came into force in 2011. The main objective of this instrument was to create a legal framework for all the cooperation activities in Mexico, such as International Scientific Cooperation. In order to understand this emerging process, it is necessary to analyze the current status of Scientific Cooperation between Mexico and other countries and regions in the world. Mexico has cooperation agreements and contracts at bilateral, trilateral and multilateral levels, which also include the subject Research & Development (R & D –a key indicator of the economic competitiveness of a country–. The analysis includes relevant countries for Mexico, such as China, South Korea and other countries within Apec, Latin America and the European Union. We therefore try to give an overview of the current situation and of potential medium- term prospects.

  12. European Union a New Babylon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesch, F.

    2010-07-01

    The growing European Union faces growing problems in personal communication. These problems cannot be overcome only by more language courses in school. As important is a better mutual knowledge of the culture of other countries, a knowledge that can be gained only by a personal, professional stay in foreign countries. On university level, such stays are best organized by networks connecting European universities. In the broad field of measurement, this IMEKO symposium might offer a unique forum to thoroughly discuss structure and realization of such a network with all interested colleagues.

  13. The Impact of the 2008 Economic Crisis on Substance Use Patterns in the Countries of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geert Dom

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: From 2008 on, a severe economic crisis (EC has characterized the European Union (E.U.. However, changes in substance use behavioral patterns as a result of the economic crisis in Europe, have been poorly reflected upon, and underlying mechanisms remain to be identified; Methods: In this review we explore and systematize the available data on the effect of the 2008 economic crisis on patterns of substance use and related disorders, within the E.U. countries; Results: The results show that effects of the recession need to be differentiated. A number of studies point to reductions in population’s overall substance use. In contrast, an increase in harmful use and negative effects is found within specific subgroups within the society. Risk factors include job-loss and long-term unemployment, and pre-existing vulnerabilities. Finally, our findings point to differences between types of substances in their response on economic crisis periods; Conclusions: the effects of the 2008 economic crisis on substance use patterns within countries of the European Union are two-sided. Next to a reduction in a population’s overall substance use, a number of vulnerable subgroups experience serious negative effects. These groups are in need of specific attention and support, given that there is a real risk that they will continue to suffer negative health effects long after the economic downfall has formally been ended.

  14. The Impact of the 2008 Economic Crisis on Substance Use Patterns in the Countries of the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dom, Geert; Samochowiec, Jerzy; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Wahlbeck, Kristian; Van Hal, Guido; McDaid, David

    2016-01-13

    From 2008 on, a severe economic crisis (EC) has characterized the European Union (E.U.). However, changes in substance use behavioral patterns as a result of the economic crisis in Europe, have been poorly reflected upon, and underlying mechanisms remain to be identified; In this review we explore and systematize the available data on the effect of the 2008 economic crisis on patterns of substance use and related disorders, within the E.U. countries; The results show that effects of the recession need to be differentiated. A number of studies point to reductions in population's overall substance use. In contrast, an increase in harmful use and negative effects is found within specific subgroups within the society. Risk factors include job-loss and long-term unemployment, and pre-existing vulnerabilities. Finally, our findings point to differences between types of substances in their response on economic crisis periods; the effects of the 2008 economic crisis on substance use patterns within countries of the European Union are two-sided. Next to a reduction in a population's overall substance use, a number of vulnerable subgroups experience serious negative effects. These groups are in need of specific attention and support, given that there is a real risk that they will continue to suffer negative health effects long after the economic downfall has formally been ended.

  15. ABOUT THE FINANCIAL REPORTING ON THE CAPITAL MARKETS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION: REQUIREMENTS OF USING THE IFRS AND THE EQUIVALENCE OF THIRD COUNTRY ACCOUNTING STANDARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristita Rotila

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The need to build a single European market and to ensure the competitiveness of the community capital markets led to the involvement of European Union in the convergence process taking place on a global level in the realm of financial reporting. This paper is a study on financial reporting for the capital markets in the European Union by analyzing the accounting standards that need to be applied. Specifically, this paper highlights a number of issues concerning: the adoption of IAS / IFRS in the European Union and their compulsory aspect in preparing the consolidated financial statements for the companies listed on a regulated market; the requirement’s extension of using the IFRSs adopted in the European Union to the issuers of certain third countries involving a public offer of securities in European Union or performing transactions with securities on a community regulated market; the establish of a mechanism for the determination of equivalence of certain third country accounting standards with IFRSs in force at European level and, consequently, the possibility of using by some third country issuers, in preparing the consolidated financial statements submitted to the European markets, recognized national standards as equivalent to adopted IFRS.

  16. The Analysis and Evaluation of Trends in the Socio-Economic Development of European Union Countries and their Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaroshenko Igor V.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The modern development of Ukraine and its regions on the background of the ongoing European integration process requires a detailed study of the experience of forming the European regional policy, positive examples and trends that have contributed to economic growth of the territories and improvement of population welfare of EU countries with a view to their use in forming the own national policy in the country. The EU regional policy, which is called the “unification” policy, as part of the European structural policy is aimed at solving development problems of the territories, primarily, depressive, old industrial, underdeveloped ones reducing the existing imbalances in social and economic development of the regions and preventing the emergence of inter-regional imbalances in the European Union. Studies of the uneven development of a country’s territories are an important part of its government policy. Identification of the main features of the asymmetry makes it possible not only to reveal the current situation with imbalances in the regional potential for sustainable development but also to assess the government’s actions aimed at their elimination. For Ukraine, which sets a goal to integrate into the European community, a detailed study of the experience and analysis of the priority principles of EU countries’ regional policy are very feasible in the formation and implementation of its own regional policy with regard to the best European principles of organization of managing the regional and local development and local government reform. Using the best practices of the regional policy of EU countries in Central and Eastern Europe, which show stable positive change in the socio-economic development, can appear to be of a special value

  17. Cluster analysis in primary roundwood production of 25 countries of European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis P. Koulelis

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Main objective of this research is the effects of the political and economic enlargement of Europe in the market of wood products, especially for primary production of conifers and broadleaves round timber. The research consists in the application of the hierarchical cluster analysis to classify the 25 member countries, based on the roundwood coniferous and non-coniferous production during the period 1992-2002. Valuable conclusions came out regarding the market changes due to the participation of the new member states in E.U., which finally strengthen the wood and wood products European trade. Many of these new member states are covered by extended forested areas and they contribute significantly to both coniferous and non coniferous round wood European production. The entrance of the new ten member states, combined with the sustainable management of the forest resources, contributes to strengthen the EU timber production, exploiting internal productions but also to promote sustainable forest management and conservation for every country.

  18. Vocational Training in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet BALCI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available European Union requires some standards in all areas. Today, the importance of training qualified individuals which holds an important place in the development of countries increases and certain standards are adopted creating common European Union tools in the field of vocational and technical education. In this study, vocational education and training policies system and the standards adopted by the European Union are discussed. Furthermore, this study was accepted as a European Union project in 2010 and the results obtained from the Leonardo Da Vinci Life Learning European Union project called “Web Based Basic Vocational Training” between the years 2010-2012 were presented. Since the partners of these projects are Turkey, Spain and Germany, the structure of vocational education, institutions of public and private vocational education and the diplomas and certificates entitled after these educations are included. As Turkey is on its way to become a European Union member, a number of advices are presented for Turkey to reach its destination about vocational education standards that European Union has aimed. The purpose of the study is not only to be a guide for the young who want to get professional training in the countries that are European Union members or candidates about how and where to have education opportunities but also to give a chance for trainers and training managers, participating in vocational training, so as to glimpse different practices from different countries and compare these practices between the countries of European Union and their countries. The study is also very important as it has the opportunities for training managers to see if their countries' vocational education is close enough to vocational education in European Union.

  19. Osteoporosis in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svedbom, A; Hernlund, E; Ivergård, M

    2013-01-01

    UNLABELLED: This report describes epidemiology, burden, and treatment of osteoporosis in each of the 27 countries of the European Union (EU27). INTRODUCTION: In 2010, 22 million women and 5.5 million men were estimated to have osteoporosis in the EU; and 3.5 million new fragility fractures were...... years lost during 2010. The costs are expected to increase by 25 % in 2025. The majority of individuals who have sustained an osteoporosis-related fracture or who are at high risk of fracture are untreated and the number of patients on treatment is declining. The aim of this report was to characterize...... the burden of osteoporosis in each of the EU27 countries in 2010 and beyond. METHODS: The data on fracture incidence and costs of fractures in the EU27 were taken from a concurrent publication in this journal (Osteoporosis in the European Union: Medical Management, Epidemiology and Economic Burden...

  20. Assessing the short term health impact of the Great Recession in the European Union: a cross-country panel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toffolutti, Veronica; Suhrcke, Marc

    2014-07-01

    There are great concerns and some initial country-specific, descriptive evidence about potential adverse health consequences of the recent Great Recession. Using data for 23 European Union countries we examine the short-term impact of macroeconomic decline during the Great Recession on a range of health and health behaviour indicators. We also examine whether the effect differed between countries according to the level of social protection provided. Overall, during the recent recession, an increase of one percentage point in the standardised unemployment rate has been associated with a statistically significant decrease in the following mortality rates: all-cause-mortality (3.4%), cardiovascular diseases (3.7%), cirrhosis- and chronic liver disease-related mortality (9.2%), motor vehicle accident-related mortality (11.5%), parasitic infection-related mortality (4.1%), but an increase in the suicide rate (34.1%). In general, the effects were more marked in countries with lower levels of social protection, compared to those with higher levels. An increase in the unemployment rate during the Great Recession has had a beneficial health effect on average across EU countries, except for suicide mortality. Social protection expenditures appear to help countries "smooth" the health response to a recession, limiting health damage but also forgoing potential health gains that could otherwise result. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Lessons learnt to keep Europe polio-free: a review of outbreaks in the European Union, European Economic Area, and candidate countries, 1973 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrough, Tarik; Salekeen, Alexandra

    2016-04-21

    Between 1973 and 2013, 12 outbreaks of paralytic poliomyelitis with a cumulative total of 660 cases were reported in the European Union, European Economic Area and candidate countries. Outbreaks lasted seven to 90 weeks (median: 24 weeks) and were identified through the diagnosis of cases of acute flaccid paralysis, for which infection with wild poliovirus was subsequently identified. In two countries, environmental surveillance was in place before the outbreaks, but did not detect any wild strain before the occurrence of clinical cases. This surveillance nonetheless provided useful information to monitor the outbreaks and their geographical spread. Outbreaks were predominantly caused by poliovirus type 1 and typically involved unvaccinated or inadequately vaccinated groups within highly immunised communities. Oral polio vaccine was primarily used to respond to the outbreaks with catch-up campaigns implemented either nationwide or in restricted geographical areas or age groups. The introduction of supplementary immunisation contained the outbreaks. In 2002, the European region of the World Health Organization was declared polio-free and it has maintained this status since. However, as long as there are non-vaccinated or under-vaccinated groups in European countries and poliomyelitis is not eradicated, countries remain continuously at risk of reintroduction and establishment of the virus. Continued efforts to reach these groups are needed in order to ensure a uniform and high vaccination coverage.

  2. Economic Growth and Environmental Quality in the European Union Countries – Is there Evidence for the Environmental Kuznets Curve?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazur Anna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This research empirically explores the relation between carbon dioxide emission and economic growth during the period 1992-2010, using panel data on the European Union countries. Both fixed and random effect models are employed to test the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC relationship between CO2 emissions and GDP per capita. While no U-shaped EKC was confirmed empirically for all 28 current EU member states, the graphical analysis demonstrates a justified turning point for CO2 emissions as GDP per capita reaches the level of 23,000 USD. Furthermore, there is a firm empirical ground for the EKC hypothesis based on data from 16 older, relatively high-income EU states. Thus, though not empirically confirmed, there is ample data verifying the existence of the EKC in EU economies.

  3. Employment in the research and development sector in selected countries of the European Union and the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Turczak

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to determine how particular factors affect the diversity of countries in terms of the number of employees in the research and development (R&D sector compared with the number of their overall populations. Two factors are analysed in the study: the proportion of employment in the R&D sector to the total number of people employed (i.e. the factor showing the importance given to R&D in the country concerned and the proportion of the total number of people employed to the number of inhabitants aged 15 and more (i.e. the employment rate. The logarithmic method has been used to assess the impact of deviations of these factors on the deviation of employment in the R&D sector in relation to the number of inhabitants. The causal analysis has allowed for answering the question of how each factor affects the variable in the selected twenty-six countries of the European Union and the world, i.e. what are the direction and strength of the influence. The results obtained for Poland are compared with those received for other countries covered by the analysis and the final conclusions are drawn on this basis.

  4. Worker health is good for the economy: union density and psychosocial safety climate as determinants of country differences in worker health and productivity in 31 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollard, Maureen F; Neser, Daniel Y

    2013-09-01

    Work stress is recognized globally as a social determinant of worker health. Therefore we explored whether work stress related factors explained national differences in health and productivity (gross domestic product (GDP)). We proposed a national worker health productivity model whereby macro market power factors (i.e. union density), influence national worker health and GDP via work psychosocial factors and income inequality. We combined five different data sets canvasing 31 wealthy European countries. Aggregated worker self-reported health accounted for 13 per cent of the variance in national life expectancy and in national gross domestic product (GDP). The most important factors explaining worker self-reported health and GDP between nations were two levels of labor protection, macro-level (union density), and organizational-level (psychosocial safety climate, PSC, i.e. the extent of management concern for worker psychological health). The majority of countries with the highest levels of union density and PSC (i.e., workplace protections) were Social Democratic in nature (i.e., Sweden, Finland, Denmark, Norway). Results support a type of society explanation that social and economic factors (e.g., welfare regimes, work related policies) in concert with political power agents at a national level explain in part national differences in workplace protection (PSC) that are important for worker health and productivity. Attention should be given across all countries, to national policies to improve worker health, by bolstering national and local democratic processes and representation to address and implement policies for psychosocial risk factors for work stress, bullying and violence. Results suggest worker health is good for the economy, and should be considered in national health and productivity accounting. Eroding unionism may not be good for worker health or the economy either. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Electronic cigarette use in the European Union: analysis of a representative sample of 27 460 Europeans from 28 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsalinos, Konstantinos E; Poulas, Konstantinos; Voudris, Vassilis; Le Houezec, Jacques

    2016-11-01

    To assess prevalence of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use, reported changes in smoking status due to e-cigarette use and correlates of e-cigarette use in the European Union (EU) member states in 2014. Cross-sectional survey of EU citizens representative of the population (Special Eurobarometer 429). All 28 Member States of the EU. A total of 27 460 EU citizens aged ≥ 15 years (after excluding those who responded 'Do not know' to the questions about smoking status and e-cigarette use). Descriptive analysis [%, 95% confidence interval (CI)] of e-cigarette use prevalence (current use, past use and past experimentation) according to smoking status, self-reported changes in smoking status according to patterns of e-cigarette use and logistic regression analysis to examine correlates of e-cigarette use, especially socio-demographic factors and smoking status. Ever e-cigarette use was reported by 31.1% (95% CI = 30.0-32.2%) of current smokers, 10.8% (95% CI = 10.0-11.7%) of former smokers and 2.3% (95% CI = 2.1-2.6%) of never smokers. Past experimentation [7.2% (95% CI = 6.9-7.5%)] was more common than current [1.8% (95% CI = 1.6-1.9%)] and past use [2.6% (95% CI = 2.4-2.8%)]. Extrapolated to the whole population, approximately 48.5 million EU citizens were ever e-cigarette users, with 76.8% using nicotine-containing e-cigarettes. An estimated 6.1 and 9.2 million EU citizens had quit and reduced smoking with the help of e-cigarettes, respectively. Initiation with e-cigarettes was reported by 0.8% (95% CI = 0.6-0.9%) of participants who reported ever use of any tobacco-related product. Only 1.3% (95% CI = 1.1-1.5%) of never smokers used nicotine-containing e-cigarettes, with 0.09% (95% CI = 0.04-0.14%) reporting daily nicotine use. Smoking cessation with the help of e-cigarettes was reported by 35.1% (95% CI = 30.7-39.5%) of current e-cigarette users, while a further 32.2% (95% CI = 29.9-36.5%) reported smoking reduction. Being current

  6. European Union Budget Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele

    2015-01-01

    The marginal involvement of the European Union (EU) in redistributive policies and its limited fiscal resources have led to a notable lack of attention by EU scholars towards the EU budget and its dynamics. Yet the nature of the budgetary data and their high usability for statistical analysis make...... them an excellent tool for studying and measuring policy change in the EU. In this article, I analyse an original dataset containing yearly data for the main categories of expenditure and how they have changed over the last three decades (1979–2013). Using time-series analysis, I find that the ability...

  7. [Subjective health of adolescents aged 11-15 years in Poland and other countries of the European Union].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woynarowska, Barbara; Małkowska-Szkutnik, Agnieszka; Mazur, Joanna

    2008-01-01

    to present results of the study concerning subjective health of adolescents aged 11, 13 and 15 years in 26 countries members of the European Union (EU) in 2005/06 and changes in perception of health among Polish adolescents between 2002 and 2006. data from the 2005/06 HBSC survey (Health Behaviour in School-aged Children: A WHO Collaborative Cross-national Study), carried out in 26 EU countries among 11-, 13- and 15-year-olds (N = 140,339) were analysed. For Polish adolescents results of two surveys from 2002 and 2006 were compared. The international standard questionnaire was used. Three subjective indicators of health were used: self-rated health, life satisfaction (using 0-10 points Cantril scale) and 8 subjective health complaints (headache, stomach-ache, back-ache, feeling low, irritability or bad temper, feeling nervous, difficulties in getting to sleep, feeling dizzy). subjective indicators of health markedly differ between adolescents in different EU countries. In all countries adolescents report recurrent (every day or more then once a week) somatic and psychological complaints. Multiple complaints (3 or more) experienced 8% of boys and 38% of girls. There are strong gender differences in subjective health. In all countries girls perceived their health worse than boys. In Polish adolescents some tendency of improvement of subjective health indicators was observed between 2002-2006. Existing differences in adolescents' subjective health in EU countries and gender differences are probably determined by many cultural, social and economical factors. These differences create health inequalities and probably will be maintained for a long time.

  8. Livestock-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among human MRSA isolates, European Union/European Economic Area countries, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinross, Pete; Petersen, Andreas; Skov, Robert; Van Hauwermeiren, Evelyn; Pantosti, Annalisa; Laurent, Frédéric; Voss, Andreas; Kluytmans, Jan; Struelens, Marc J; Heuer, Ole; Monnet, Dominique L

    2017-11-01

    Currently, surveillance of livestock-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) in humans in Europe is not systematic but mainly event-based. In September 2014, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) initiated a questionnaire to collect data on the number of LA-MRSA from human samples (one isolate per patient) from national/regional reference laboratories in European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) countries in 2013. Identification of LA-MRSA as clonal complex (CC) 398 by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was preferred, although surrogate methods such as spa-typing were also accepted. The questionnaire was returned by 28 laboratories in 27 EU/EEA countries. Overall, LA-MRSA represented 3.9% of 13,756 typed MRSA human isolates, but it represented ≥ 10% in five countries (Belgium, Denmark, Spain, the Netherlands and Slovenia). Seven of the reference laboratories did not type MRSA isolates in 2013. To monitor the dispersion of LA-MRSA and facilitate targeted control measures, we advocate periodic systematic surveys or integrated multi-sectorial surveillance.

  9. Livestock-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among human MRSA isolates, European Union/European Economic Area countries, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinross, Pete; Petersen, Andreas; Skov, Robert; Van Hauwermeiren, Evelyn; Pantosti, Annalisa; Laurent, Frédéric; Voss, Andreas; Kluytmans, Jan; Struelens, Marc J; Heuer, Ole; Monnet, Dominique L

    2017-01-01

    Currently, surveillance of livestock-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) in humans in Europe is not systematic but mainly event-based. In September 2014, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) initiated a questionnaire to collect data on the number of LA-MRSA from human samples (one isolate per patient) from national/regional reference laboratories in European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) countries in 2013. Identification of LA-MRSA as clonal complex (CC) 398 by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was preferred, although surrogate methods such as spa-typing were also accepted. The questionnaire was returned by 28 laboratories in 27 EU/EEA countries. Overall, LA-MRSA represented 3.9% of 13,756 typed MRSA human isolates, but it represented ≥ 10% in five countries (Belgium, Denmark, Spain, the Netherlands and Slovenia). Seven of the reference laboratories did not type MRSA isolates in 2013. To monitor the dispersion of LA-MRSA and facilitate targeted control measures, we advocate periodic systematic surveys or integrated multi-sectorial surveillance. PMID:29113628

  10. Statistics on the traffic of radioactive material, and the resulting radiation exposures, in the European Union and applicant countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, J.S. [NRPB, Didcot, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Lizot, M.T. [IRSN, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Trivelloni, S. [APAT, Rome (Italy); Schwarz, G. [GRS, Cologne (Germany); Hienen, J.F.A. van [NRG, Petten (Netherlands)

    2004-07-01

    Radioactive materials of natural or artificial origin are of widespread use across the world and are transported within and between countries. A wide range of materials are transported, from small quantities of radiopharmaceuticals for medical use to highly radioactive spent nuclear fuel and vitrified wastes arising from the nuclear fuel cycle. The handling and transport of these radioactive materials can give rise to radiation exposure of workers, and of members of the public. Statistical information on the transport of radioactive material and the radiation doses arising from these operations are important to: demonstrate the efficacy of the IAEA Transport Regulations, provide support for the continuous review and revision process of the IAEA Transport Regulations, provide guidance and support to national, regional and international transport regulatory activities, support and guide compliance assurance, provide data for assessing and evaluating the doses and risks to workers and to members of the public, identify needs and trends in national and international transport activities, and provide factual information to assist in addressing public concern on these issues. A study has been carried out on behalf of the European Commission in 2001/ 2002 by expert organisations in five EU Member States with two main objectives: To collect and compile information on the type, volume and radiological characteristic of, and the doses from radioactive material shipments in the European Union (EU) and in the countries applying for accession to the EU, and To perform statistical analyses on the traffic of radioactive material shipments in EU Member States and in the applicant countries, where possible, by: type of package, type of transport, radiation exposures of workers and members of the public, and, use of radioactive material. This paper summarises the methods and principal findings of that study.

  11. EURO-MED-STAT: monitoring expenditure and utilization of medicinal products in the European Union countries: a public health approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-01

    There is uncertainty about the level of utilization and expenditure for medicines in the European Union (EU), making assessment of their impact on public health difficult. Our aim is to develop indicators to monitor price, expenditure and utilization of medicinal products in the EU, so as to facilitate comparisons. There are four major tasks. Task 1: To catalogue data sources and available data in each EU Member State. Task 2: To assess the reliability and comparability of data among the EU Member States by ATC/DDD on country coverage, reimbursement, prescriptions, price category (e.g. wholesale, hospital, retail) and private versus public spending. Task 3: To develop Standard Operating Procedures for data management and to define clearly the proposed indicators in terms of objective, definition, description, rationale, and data collection. Task 4: To pool, compare and report the validated data according to the established indicators, using cardiovascular medicines as an example. Preliminary results from Tasks 1 and 2 are available and demonstrate the methodological difficulties in comparing data from different countries. Multiple data sources must be used. These cover different populations, and refer to different prices or costs. Nevertheless, useful data can be derived, illustrated by the example of lipid lowering medicines. The data shows that only five products are commonly available in all countries. Even when a medicine is available in all countries, there may be substantial differences in packages, which can hinder comparison. Data on utilization of statins shows high usage in Scandinavian countries and least in Italy. The preliminary results of EURO-MED-STAT show wide differences in availability, and use of medicines across Europe that may have substantial implications for public health.

  12. [Hygienic and epidemiological aspects of Escherichia coli infections in light of recent epidemic in European Union countries 2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szot, Wojciech; Potocki, Artur; Kolarzyk, Emilia

    2011-01-01

    The events of the spring 2011 linked to the outbreak of a new strain of Eschericha coli bacteria reflected worldwide in the media. Just like two years earlier in the case of pandemic influenza A-H1N1, also this time there was panic in media, flood of news, often contradictory and mutually exclusive information and attempts to make reliable evaluations of what exactly been happening. Known for decades Eschericha coli bacterium, probably as a result of human activity (excessive use of antibiotics) appeared in the form of new, dangerous strain. What's worse, it was also shown that both European Commission and WHO agencies are having serious problems while dealing with similar, outbreak-like situations. The problem is not with dealing with epidemic itself, but rather with population hysteria, public opinion and media in general. In this article an attempt has been made to characterize the bacteria Escherichia coli, the most common form of infection and health threats, as well as a brief description of the epidemic in 2011 and actions taken by European Union and governments of countries where disease appeared.

  13. How many hours do you usually work? An analysis of the working hours questions in 26 large-scale surveys in 6 countries and the European Union.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dragstra, A.; Tijdens, K.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews how working hours are asked in 26 large-scale surveys in 6 countries plus the European Union. Four dimensions of working time were investigated, notably number of working hours, timing of work, predictability and control over hours, and commuting time. Although almost all

  14. How many hours do you usually work? An analysis of the working hours questions in 26 large-scale surveys in six countries and the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijdens, K.; Dragstra, A.

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews how working hours are asked for in 26 large-scale surveys in six countries plus the European Union. Four dimensions of working time were investigated, notably number of working hours, timing of work, predictability and control over hours, and commuting time. Although almost all

  15. Changes in union status during the transition to parenthood in eleven European countries, 1970s to early 2000s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelli-Harris, Brienna; Kreyenfeld, Michaela; Sigle-Rushton, Wendy; Keizer, Renske; Lappegård, Trude; Jasilioniene, Aiva; Berghammer, Caroline; Di Giulio, Paola

    2012-07-01

    Couples who have children are increasingly likely to have lived together without being married at some point in their relationship. Some couples begin their unions with cohabitation and marry before first conception, some marry during pregnancy or directly after the first birth, while others remain unmarried 3 years after the first birth. Using union and fertility histories since the 1970s for eleven countries, we examine whether women who have children in unions marry, and if so, at what stage in family formation. We also examine whether women who conceive when cohabiting are more likely to marry or separate. We find that patterns of union formation and childbearing develop along different trajectories across countries. In all countries, however, less than 40 per cent of women remained in cohabitation up to 3 years after the first birth, suggesting that marriage remains the predominant institution for raising children.

  16. Chinese Ph.D. Students on Exchange in European Union Countries: Experiences and Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wen-Qin; Liu, Dong; Chen, Hongjie

    2017-01-01

    In the past decade, thousands of Chinese doctoral students received funding from the China Scholarship Council (CSC) to start a 1--2-year exchange study in European universities. Do these Chinese doctoral students significantly improve their academic skills and publications through such an overseas experience? What are the influencing factors for…

  17. Cultural Diplomacy of Slavic European Union Member States: A Cross-country Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udovič Boštjan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the role of cultural diplomacy in Slavic EU Member States. Its basic idea is to present the main characteristics of cultural diplomacy as a field of possible cooperation between the Slavic EU member countries. The conclusions of the research are three: firstly, the cultural diplomacy of the Slavic EU Member States is fragmented and diversified. Secondly, each country promotes its own cultural diplomacy and there is almost no cooperation between countries in the cultural field. Finally, cultural diplomacy is still an omitted instrument of Slavic EU Member States and a fertile ground for future collaboration within the EU and in the region of Central Europe.

  18. GOVERNING EUROPEAN UNION TO FINANCIAL STABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Ion-Lucian CATRINA

    2012-01-01

    In the last four years, a significant part of the European Union members has recorded a real decline in the sustainability of their public debt. The failure of Greece, Italy, Belgium or Spain to easily find funding at previous interest rates has induced the fear that the European Monetary Union would disintegrate. Such as scenario is not realistic because does not take into account the economic interdependencies that have been created between the countries participating at the monetary zone. ...

  19. Building a Global Climate Change Alliance between the European Union and poor developing countries most vulnerable to climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-09-15

    Scientific data analysed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change provide the international community with three alarming conclusions: firstly, climate change is happening; secondly, the recent acceleration in climate change is the result of human activity leading to the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) into the atmosphere; and thirdly, most regions in the world, and especially those in the developing world, will be increasingly affected by climate change. The European Union (EU) has taken a leadership role in promoting international action to tackle climate change. In March 2007 EU Heads of State and Government put forward proposals for a global and comprehensive post-2012 climate change agreement to limit global warming to 2C above pre-industrial levels, and committing to significant cuts in the EU's GHG emissions, even in the absence of an international agreement. The EU, as the largest provider of Official Development Assistance (ODA), has also taken a lead role in international development efforts, as reflected in the 'European Consensus', in ambitious ODA commitments and in the promotion of aid effectiveness and coherence. Although the EU already highlighted the strong links between climate change and poverty in 2003 the urgency and magnitude of the challenge calls for a more collective initiative to match Europe's responsibility and commitment in the fight against poverty. Projections of the effects of climate change show that the Least Developed Countries (LDCs) and Small Island Developing States (SIDS) will be hit earliest and hardest. Moreover, these countries have the fewest resources to prepare for these alterations, and to adapt their way of life. Climate change is therefore likely to further delay the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in many of these countries. This Communication proposes to establish a Global Climate Change Alliance (GCCA) between the EU and poor developing countries most vulnerable

  20. THE EUROPEAN UNION AND PARTNERSHIPS WITH DEVELOPING COUNTRIES – THE CASE OF ACP REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viera Dobošová

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The EU has developed a wide cooperation network with developing countries based on trade, cooperation, aid and other aspects. These bilateral and regional agreements serve various and specific interests of the EU and the concerned countries and cover not only trade, but also other broad issues. However, above those remain the main goals of the EU in the area of the common commercial policy, development policy and external relations policy. The trend of regional integration and regional trade agreements proliferation has influenced these relations as well. The article will examine this trend in the network of EU trade agreements with developing countries, specifically with the African, Caribbean and Pacific region. Some critical issues of the EU – ACP cooperation will be identified.

  1. A comparison of national economic diplomacy systems of the leading European Union countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman O. Raynkhardt

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The article provides a comparative analysis of the leading EU-countries’ (Germany, France, Great Britain and Italy national economic diplomacy systems in line with the following criteria: role and functions of key economic diplomacy agents; competences of subnational regions as independent foreign economic actors; practice and mechanisms of ‘inward’ and ‘outward’ economic diplomacy (attraction of foreign investments and export promotion respectively; HR-policy as well as the role of country leaders in economic diplomacy measures. The author outlines the country-specifi c features of the aforementioned systems alongside treats common to all of them.

  2. Factors associated with teenage pregnancy in the European Union countries: a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imamura, Mari; Tucker, Janet; Hannaford, Phil

    2007-01-01

    and requests to all country representatives of the research team for relevant reports and publications. Primary outcome measure was conception. Inclusion criteria were quantitative studies of individual-level factors associated with teenage (13-19 years) pregnancy in EU countries. RESULTS: Of 4444 studies....... CONCLUSIONS: Included studies varied widely in terms of methods and definitions used. This heterogeneity within the studies leaves two outstanding issues. First, we cannot synthesize or generalize key findings as to how all these factors interact with one another and which factors are the most significant...

  3. The Human Immunodeficiency Virus Continuum of Care in European Union Countries in 2013: Data and Challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gourlay, Annabelle; Noori, Teymur; Pharris, Anastasia; Axelsson, Maria; Costagliola, Dominique; Cowan, Susan; Croxford, Sara; D'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; del Amo, Julia; Delpech, Valerie; Díaz, Asunción; Girardi, Enrico; Gunsenheimer-Bartmeyer, Barbara; Hernando, Victoria; Jose, Sophie; Leierer, Gisela; Nikolopoulos, Georgios; Obel, Niels; Op de Coul, Eline; Paraskeva, Dimitra; Reiss, Peter; Sabin, Caroline; Sasse, André; Schmid, Daniela; Sonnerborg, Anders; Spina, Alexander; Suligoi, Barbara; Supervie, Virginie; Touloumi, Giota; van Beckhoven, Dominique; van Sighem, Ard; Vourli, Georgia; Zangerle, Robert; Porter, Kholoud

    2017-01-01

    Background. The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) has set a "90-90-90" target to curb the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic by 2020, but methods used to assess whether countries have reached this target are not standardized, hindering comparisons. Methods. Through a

  4. The Human Immunodeficiency Virus Continuum of Care in European Union Countries in 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gourlay, Annabelle; Noori, Teymur; Pharris, Anastasia

    2017-01-01

    Background.: The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) has set a "90-90-90" target to curb the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic by 2020, but methods used to assess whether countries have reached this target are not standardized, hindering comparisons. Methods.: Through...

  5. Cluster analysis in primary roundwood production of 25 countries of European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Panagiotis P. Koulelis

    2009-01-01

    Main objective of this research is the effects of the political and economic enlargement of Europe in the market of wood products, especially for primary production of conifers and broadleaves round timber. The research consists in the application of the hierarchical cluster analysis to classify the 25 member countries, based on the roundwood coniferous and non-coniferous production during the period 1992-2002. Valuable conclusions came out regarding the market changes due to the participatio...

  6. Spatial Quantile Regression In Analysis Of Healthy Life Years In The European Union Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trzpiot Grażyna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the impact of the selected factors on the healthy life years of men and women in the EU countries. The multiple quantile spatial autoregression models are used in order to account for substantial differences in the healthy life years and life quality across the EU members. Quantile regression allows studying dependencies between variables in different quantiles of the response distribution. Moreover, this statistical tool is robust against violations of the classical regression assumption about the distribution of the error term. Parameters of the models were estimated using instrumental variable method (Kim, Muller 2004, whereas the confidence intervals and p-values were bootstrapped.

  7. The Effects of Real Exchange Rates and Income on International Tourism Demand for the USA from Some European Union Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Ongan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effects of real exchange rates and income on inbound tourism demand (tourist arrivals from Germany, France, the UK, the Netherlands, Italy, Spain, and Sweden to the USA over the period 1996Q3–2015Q1. To achieve this aim, the Harmonized Index of Consumer Prices (HICP for Restaurants and Hotels was used for the first time—instead of using the general Consumer Price Index (CPI—to transform the nominal exchange rate into the real exchange rate as an independent variable in tourism demand analysis models. Panel co-integration analysis under the cross-sectional dependence (CD test and common correlated effects (CCE approach was applied. Empirical results show that tourists visiting the USA are more sensitive to changes in the real exchange rate than changes in GDP. While French tourists respond highly to the GDP, British tourists respond highly to the real exchange rate. It should also be noted that the UK, having the highest responsiveness to the real exchange rate, is a country outside the Eurozone and also intends to leave the European Union.

  8. Standard Of Living In The European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Wawrzyniak Dorota

    2016-01-01

    The European Union countries are diversified in terms of the standard of living of the population. The reduction of disparities in the standard of living, along with the elimination of the negative phenomena related to social exclusion form an EU policy priority. In this context, the aim of this article is to compare the standard of living in the various European Union countries and to determine Poland’s position in the ranking. In the study, countries with a similar standard of living of the...

  9. Modernization of employment structures enhancing socioeconomic cohesion in the European Union countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Cyrek

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the relative efficiency of the 28 EU countries when transforming employment in four different sectors into socioeconomic cohesion. It evaluates the cohesive effects from modernization processes into a service and knowledge-based economy basing on the most recent data (generally describing the 2015 year. Results for the economies are derived from the usage of DEA method assuming non-radial transformations in an input-oriented model (CCR-NR. Socioeconomic cohesion is researched in its two dimensions: wealth distribution and social networks. Thus, a classical area of research on efficiency with productive results is browsed into a social field. It is of special importance in the post-crisis period when economic divergence, growing social tensions as well as strong diversification in public social support within the EU countries is observed. The main findings support the view that modern changes in employment structures are favourable for socioeconomic cohesion, as the highest efficiency is typical for knowledge-intensive services and consecutively for less knowledge-intensive services. The poorest results are gained in low and medium-low technology manufacturing and just a little better – in high and medium-high technology manufacturing. The study provides some arguments into the discussion about de- and reindustrialization. We have found that the EU policy enhancing cohesiveness should mainly support the processes of KIS development as well as human capital creation and its economic engagement.

  10. Classification of European Union countries according to a household debt level and structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Gołaś

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article were shown the results of cross-sectional and dynamic analysis of diversification of the level and structure of household debt and the problems with its repayment in the EU countries over the period 2005-2009. In the article the multidimen-sional methods of data analysis (cluster analysis – k-means method which enabled to classify the households in the EU according to the characteristics that were used describe its debt. Moreover, in order to determine the quantitative relationships between the level of household debt, and between the frequency of occurring the problem with debt repayment, the tools of correlation and regression analysis were used. In the article were shown the results of cross-sectional and dynamic analysis of diversification of the level and structure of household debt and the problems with its repayment in the EU countries over the period 2005-2009. In the article the multidimen-sional methods of data analysis (cluster analysis – k-means method which enabled to classify the households in the EU according to the characteristics that were used describe its debt. Moreover, in order to determine the quantitative relationships between the level of household debt, and between the frequency of occurring the problem with debt repayment, the tools of correlation and regression analysis were used.

  11. Trade and foreign direct investment: Evidence from South East European countries and new European Union member states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bardhyl Dauti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research is to provide an empirical assessment of the complementarity or substituting relationship between Trade and FDI in a link to country characteristics, using bilateral level data between FDI and trade for the period 1994 – 2010. In the research, an augmented gravity model has been used to test the relationship between Trade (both export and import, FDI stock and country characteristics between OECD-20 countries and SEE-5 and EU-NMS-10 countries. The empirical model considers how the relationship between FDI and Trade determine whether type of FDI into SEE-5 and EU-NMS-10 from core OECD-20 countries, is vertical or horizontal. With regard to the relationship between exports and FDI, the findings of the research showed mixed evidence, thus supporting vertical FDI for EU-NMS-10 countries, and horizontal FDI for SEE-5 countries. On the other hand, based on the relationship between imports and FDI, the results of the research supported vertical FDI for both EU-NMS-10 and SEE-5 group of countries. The basic conclusion is that the research provides an empirical evidence on the mixed nature of FDI into the host SEE-5 and EU-NMS-10 countries, supporting both complementary and substituting relationship between trade and FDI in the host countries.

  12. Modeling Human Mortality from All Diseases in the Five Most Populated Countries of the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolejs, Josef

    2017-11-01

    Age affects mortality from diseases differently than it affects mortality from external causes, such as accidents. Exclusion of the latter leads to the "all-diseases" category. The age trajectories of mortality from all diseases are studied in the five most populated countries of the EU, and the shape of these 156 age trajectories is investigated in detail. The arithmetic mean of ages where mortality reaches a minimal value is 8.47 years with a 95% confidence interval of [8.08, 8.85] years. Two simple deterministic models fit the age trajectories on the two sides of the mortality minimum. The inverse relationship is valid in all cases prior to this mortality minimum and death rates exactly decreased to three thousandths of its original size during the first 3000 days. After the mortality minimum, the standard Gompertz model fits the data in 63 cases, and the Gompertz model extended by a small quadratic element fits the remaining 93 cases. This analysis indicates that the exponential increase begins before the age of 15 years and that it is overshadowed by non-biological causes. Therefore, the existence of a mechanism switching that would explain the exponential increase in mortality after the age of 35 years is unlikely.

  13. A Federal Constitution for the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sweeney, Richard J.

    2003-01-01

    that the federal government loses legitimacy. It appears vital tohave trade policy at the European Union level; for euro countries, monetary policy is alreadyfederalized. It is not clear that common foreign and defense policies are needed; insisting oncommon foreign and defense policies may lead to conflicts...... that helps drain the reservoir of goodwill that the European Union will need fordealing with other conflicts amongst member states....... within and across member statesthat severely weaken the Union, conceivably contributing to eventual collapse. Insisting onharmonization of commercial codes does not have the destructive potential of attemptingcompletely to harmonize defense and foreign policies; it may, however, lead to needlessconflict...

  14. The European Union approach to flood risk management and improving societal resilience: lessons from the implementation of the Floods Directive in six European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally J. Priest

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Diversity in flood risk management approaches is often considered to be a strength. However, in some national settings, and especially for transboundary rivers, variability and incompatibility of approaches can reduce the effectiveness of flood risk management. Placed in the context of increasing flood risks, as well as the potential for flooding to undermine the European Union's sustainable development goals, a desire to increase societal resilience to flooding has prompted the introduction of a common European Framework. We provide a legal and policy analysis of the implementation of the Floods Directive (2007/60/EC in six countries: Belgium (Flemish region, England, France, the Netherlands, Poland, and Sweden. Evaluation criteria from existing legal and policy literature frame the study of the Directive and its effect on enhancing or constraining societal resilience by using an adaptive governance approach. These criteria are initially used to analyze the key components of the EU approach, before providing insight of the implementation of the Directive at a national level. Similarities and differences in the legal translation of European goals into existing flood risk management are analyzed alongside their relative influence on policy and practice. The research highlights that the effect of the Floods Directive on increasing societal resilience has been nationally variable, in part because of its focus on procedural obligations, rather than on more substantive requirements. Analysis shows that despite a focus on transboundary river basin management, existing traditions of flood risk management have overridden objectives to harmonize flood risk management in some cases. The Directive could be strengthened by requiring more stringent cooperation and providing the competent authorities in international river basin districts with more power. Despite some shortcomings in directly affecting flood risk outcomes, the Directive has positively

  15. Gonorrhoea and gonococcal antimicrobial resistance surveillance networks in the WHO European Region, including the independent countries of the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unemo, Magnus; Ison, Catherine A; Cole, Michelle; Spiteri, Gianfranco; van de Laar, Marita; Khotenashvili, Lali

    2013-12-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae has emerged for essentially all antimicrobials following their introduction into clinical practice. During the latest decade, susceptibility to the last remaining options for antimicrobial monotherapy, the extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC), has markedly decreased internationally and treatment failures with these ESCs have been verified. In response to this developing situation, WHO and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) have published global and region-specific response plans, respectively. One main component of these action/response plans is to enhance the surveillance of AMR and treatment failures. This paper describes the perspectives from the diverse WHO European Region (53 countries), including the independent countries of the former Soviet Union, regarding gonococcal AMR surveillance networks. The WHO European Region has a high prevalence of resistance to all previously recommended antimicrobials, and most of the first strictly verified treatment failures with cefixime and ceftriaxone were also reported from Europe. In the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA), the European gonococcal antimicrobial surveillance programme (Euro-GASP) funded by the ECDC is running. In 2011, the Euro-GASP included 21/31 (68%) EU/EEA countries, and the programme is further strengthened annually. However, in the non-EU/EEA countries, internationally reported and quality assured gonococcal AMR data are lacking in 87% of the countries and, worryingly, appropriate support for establishment of a GASP is still lacking. Accordingly, national and international support, including political and financial commitment, for gonococcal AMR surveillance in the non-EU/EEA countries of the WHO European Region is essential.

  16. Transfer Pricing in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe MATEI

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The transfer pricing mechanism is a tool commonly used to transfer the tax base from countries with high taxation in countries with low taxation. In the European Union, this financial operations generate significant tax revenue losses. In an attempt to limit the handling of corporate tax systems, many public authorities have introduced regulations on transfer pricing, but the effectiveness of these rules has proved limited, and they contributed to the increasing complexity of tax laws and to the appearance of additional costs for companies. A solution to the solving of the transfer pricing problem in the European Union is represented by the introduction of the common consolidated corporate tax base.

  17. Climate policy in other countries of the European Union. An outline; Klimaatbeleid in andere EU-landen. Een verkenning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroon, P. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2005-08-01

    Within the framework of the second evaluation memorandum on climate policy in the Netherlands an overview is given of the climate policy in 15 other countries of the European Union. The overview is mainly based on progress reports on greenhouse gases emission, issued by the European Environment Agency (EEA) and a database of policy and measures in the field of climatic change, maintained by the International Energy Agency (IEA). Next to EU Directives as an important base for policy in the 15 countries, the the covenant on CO2 emission for new cars between ACEA (European Automobile Manufacturers Association) and the European Commission is considered to be an important agreement for climate policy in the EU counties. [Dutch] In het kader van de tweede evaluatienota klimaatbeleid is een inventarisatie gemaakt van het klimaatbeleid in de andere EU-15-landen. Hierbij is vooral gebruik gemaakt van de voortgangsrapportage over de Europese broeikasgassenemissie van het Europese Milieuagentschap en van de database met beleid en maatregelen op het gebied van klimaatverandering van het Internationale Energie Agentschap. De EU-richtlijnen vormen een belangrijke bouwsteen van het beleid in alle onderzochte landen. Daarnaast wordt het ACEA convenant vaak als belangrijke bouwsteen genoemd. Wat opvalt is dat het EU-klimaatbeleid vrijwel geheel na 1997, het jaar van de Kyoto afspraken, tot stand is gekomen. Ook het beleid van de EU-landen laat ditzelfde beeld zien: een groot pakket aan maatregelen die recent, minder dan vijf jaar geleden, zijn ingevoerd of aangescherpt. Bij alle landen komen de EU-richtlijnen terug in de belangrijkste bouwstenen van het beleid. Het is niet zo dat landen pas beginnen als er een richtlijn is. Veel landen voeren al beleid op het betreffende terrein, maar moeten hun beleid na het van kracht worden meestal wel aanpassen om ook aan de richtlijn te voldoen. De enige uitzondering hierop vormt de richtlijn voor de handel in broeikasgasemissierechten. Voor

  18. European Union Energy Saving Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Y. Kaveshnikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses methods of energy efficiency stimulation in the European Union. The author investigates basic areas of the EU activity; in particular, the author estimates results of implementation of the Energy Star program, new provisions of labeling of energy-using products, measures to increase energy efficiency in buildings. The paper also analyzes the provisions of the Directive 2012/27 that is the first EU document, providing for a comprehensive approach to energy saving at all stages: production, transformation and consumption. Today EU policy includes: 7 a general political and regulatory framework laid down by the European action plan on energy efficiency and Directive 2012/27; 2 national action plans on energy efficiency, which should be in line with indicative targets set at the EU level; 3 special EU documents in key areas of energy efficiency (buildings, energy-consuming equipment etc.; 4 accompanying instruments, such as target funding, information dissemination, support of specialized networks. The paper gives a comprehensive analysis of the key methods of implementation of EU policy in the area of energy saving. The author concludes that EU operates within the framework of the open method of coordination. The system of mandatory/voluntary technical standards has allowed to achieve significant success, but indicative planning and monitoring of national actions are not completely effective. In the long term EU policy in the area of energy efficiency is restrained by member states unwillingness to delegate to the European Union a more detailed powers in this field and to give the EU bodies facilities to execute more strict control. In the short term - in conditions of economic crisis, the EU countries are not ready to invest significant budget funds in projects with long payback period.

  19. Update on the Risk of Introduction of African Swine Fever by Wild Boar into Disease-Free European Union Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, J; Rodríguez, A; Iglesias, I; Muñoz, M J; Jurado, C; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M; de la Torre, A

    2017-10-01

    Despite efforts to prevent the appearance and spread of African swine fever (ASF) in the European Union, several Member States are now affected (Lithuania, Poland, Latvia and Estonia). Disease appearance in 2014 was associated with multiple entrances linked to wild boar movement from endemic areas (EFSA Journal, 8, 2015, 1556), but the risk of new introductions remains high (Gallardo et al., Porcine Health Management, 1, and 21) as ASF continues to be active in endemic countries (Russian Federation, Belarus and Ukraine). Since 2014, the number of ASF notifications has increased substantially, particularly in wild boar (WB), in parallel with slow but constant geographical advance of the disease. This situation suggests a real risk of further disease spread into other Member States, posing a great threat to pig production in the EU. Following the principles of the risk-based veterinary surveillance, this article applies a methodology developed by De la Torre et al. (Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, 62, and 272) to assess the relative risk of new introductions of ASF by natural movements of WB according to the current epidemiological situation. This update incorporates the most recent available data and an improved version of the most important risk estimator: an optimized cartographic tool of WB distribution to analyse wild boar suitable habitat. The highest relative risk values were estimated for Slovakia (5) and Romania (5), followed by Finland (4), Czech Republic (3) and Germany (3). Relative risk for Romania and Finland is associated mainly with disease entrance from endemic areas such as the Russian Federation and Ukraine, where the disease is currently spreading; relative risk for Germany and Czech Republic is associated mainly with the potential progress of the disease through the EU, and relative risk for Slovakia is associated with both pathways. WB habitat is the most important risk estimator, whereas WB density is the least significant, suggesting

  20. European Commission (Hg.: Flexible working time arrangements and gender equality. A comparative review of 30 European countries. Luxemburg: Publications Office of the European Union 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Muschiol

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Die Flexibilisierung der Arbeitszeitgestaltung und die Gleichstellung der Geschlechter sind zentrale Bestandteile europäischer Direktive. Der Expertenbericht der Europäischen Kommission bietet nun eine Zusammenfassung über die gegenwärtigen Praktiken flexibler Arbeitszeitmodelle in den 27 EU-Ländern und drei EWR-EFTA-Staaten und stellt deren Auswirkungen auf die Gleichberechtigung der Geschlechter dar. Besonderes Augenmerk liegt hierbei auf der internen Flexibilität, was einesteils die flexible Gestaltung der Arbeitsdauer beinhaltet und anderenteils die flexible Organisation der Arbeitszeit. Die Ergebnisse lassen darauf schließen, dass beide Größen wichtige Voraussetzungen für den wirtschaftlichen Aufschwung darstellen. Es zeigt sich allerdings auch, dass eine zunehmende Flexibilisierung der Arbeitszeitgestaltung den Frauen auch zum Nachteil gereichen kann.Flexibilizing the organization of working hours and treating all genders as equals are central constituents of the European directives. The European Commission’s expert report does now offer a summary of the current practices of flexible work time in the 27 EU countries and three EEA-EFTA countries and portrays their effects on equal opportunities for all genders. Special attention is paid to internal flexibility, both with regard to the flexible realization of the work duration and the flexible organization of working hours. The results imply that both components are important prerequisites for economic advancement. However, it can also be seen that an increased flexibilization of the organization of working hours can lead to disadvantages for women.

  1. European Union security policy through strategic culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beriša Hatidža

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we shall pay attention to the security policy of the European Union, through the strategic culture, starting from the existing various options for cooperation in the field of security and defense. Our goal is to look at the implementation of the Strategic Culture of the European Union (EU SK, research ways to improve the international position of the Union and its impact on policy cooperation and trust with other collectives. Analysis of flexible cooperation between the European Union, as well as access to special procedures in the field of security and defense policy, we will follow the ambition and capacity in implementing the same. Paper aims to introduce the idea of the European Union, which allows its members to rationally consider and check the box of options available to decision makers. In this regard, the EU seeks to build its own armed forces to protect the association of interests-investment terms. Reviewing and understanding the strategic culture of the EU by countries that are not its members can be seen as reasons for strengthening the capacity of the Union for the realization of the impact of the global security as well as predicting its future steps.

  2. Nuclear safety in countries that are candidate for entry to the European Union; La surete nucleaire dans les pays candidats a l'entree dans l'Union Europeenne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    In this report, experts from countries members of the European Union have wished to give their collective opinion about nuclear safety in countries that are standing for integrating the E.U.. The investigated countries are Bulgaria, Hungary, Lithuania, Slovakia, Rumania, Slovenia and Czech Republic. This report is based on information given in international cooperation programmes such as Phare programmes as well as in bilateral contacts. 2 aspects are considered: regulatory authorities and the level of safety in operating nuclear power plants. This report does not deal with radioactive waste management nor with radiation protection. (A.C.)

  3. The European Union's Normative Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2011-01-01

    this period it became increasingly clear that the study of the EU in world politics needed to engage with both critical social theory and normative international theory. This chapter represents a return to critical social theory - a holistic research programme that works within a cosmopolitical understanding......What is the international identity of the European Union? The end of the cold war, the Treaty on European Union, and wars in Kuwait and the former Yugoslavia all raised methodological, theoretical and empirical questions over the study of the European Union's (EU) ‘international identity'. During...... of normative theory; that seeks to work ‘within categories of existing thought' regarding EU external actions, radicalise them and show ‘in varying degrees both their problems and their unrecognised possibilities' (Calhoun 1995: 23)....

  4. Public funding for research on antibacterial resistance in the JPIAMR countries, the European Commission, and related European Union agencies: a systematic observational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Ruth; Zoubiane, Ghada; Walsh, Desmond; Ward, Rebecca; Goossens, Herman

    2016-04-01

    Antibacterial resistant infections are rising continuously, resulting in increased morbidity and mortality worldwide. With no new antibiotic classes entering the market and the possibility of returning to the pre-antibiotic era, the Joint Programming Initiative on Antimicrobial Resistance (JPIAMR) was established to address this problem. We aimed to quantify the scale and scope of publicly funded antibacterial resistance research across JPIAMR countries and at the European Union (EU) level to identify gaps and future opportunities. We did a systematic observational analysis examining antibacterial resistance research funding. Databases of funding organisations across 19 countries and at EU level were systematically searched for publicly funded antibacterial resistance research from Jan 1, 2007, to Dec 31, 2013. We categorised studies on the basis of the JPIAMR strategic research agenda's six priority topics (therapeutics, diagnostics, surveillance, transmission, environment, and interventions) and did an observational analysis. Only research funded by public funding bodies was collected and no private organisations were contacted for their investments. Projects in basic, applied, and clinical research, including epidemiological, public health, and veterinary research and trials were identified using keyword searches by organisations, and inclusion criteria were based on the JPIAMR strategic research agenda's six priority topics, using project titles and abstracts as filters. We identified 1243 antibacterial resistance research projects, with a total public investment of €1·3 billion across 19 countries and at EU level, including public investment in the Innovative Medicines Initiative. Of the total amount invested in antibacterial resistance research across the time period, €646·6 million (49·5%) was invested at the national level and €659·2 million (50·5%) at the EU level. When projects were classified under the six priority topics we found that 763 (63

  5. An examination of the special education teacher training programs in Turkey and European Union member countries in terms of language development and communication education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelin Piştav Akmeşe,

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available he academic terms and the periods of the courses related to the language development and communication differs considerably in the programs of the countries which train teachers for the special education department. The aim of this study is to examine the contents and credits of the communication and the language development courses in Teacher Education Programs for hearing-impaired, intellectual disability, gifted and talented multiple disabilities, visual impairment education at the special education department. In this study in which the descriptive research method is used, the data have been collected from the sources of Turkey and European Union member countries, called Agencies of the European Union, Eurydice-Network on Education Systems and Policies in Europe. The courses in Special Education Teacher Training undergraduate programs of higher education institutions of each country stated in the reports of National Education System Descriptions have been examined to reach these data. While there are undergraduate programs for four years of study related to each disability type in Turkey, it has been seen that the department of hearing impaired education teacher training is the department which mainly includes the language development and communication skills courses among mentioned programs. The countries such as Luxemburg, Sweden, Greece, Belgium, Ireland, Finland Ireland and Lithuania give common ground courses of special education department to the preservice teachers in 6 to 7 academic terms.

  6. FACTORING PERSPECTIVE: CROATIA VS EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Ivanovic

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper points out the problems of liquidity, disposal and obtaining funds, inability to collect receivables, delayed payments in times of economic and financial instability and dynamic business upheavals and uncertainty. As a contribution to resolve these issues new alternative methods of financing for business are imposing, one of them is factoring. Although most countries don’t have adequate legal framework, factoring has emerged as the dominant form of financing, whose current status and development points to the prospects of development in the future. In terms of measures and actions which are taken to combat these issues, as well as legislation, many efforts are made at international level in European Union and in Croatia. Overview and description of the factoring development, and indications for further development are presented in relation to the world, the European Union and the Republic of Croatia. This paper also describes factoring comparison among European countries.

  7. Emission of Sulphur Oxides, Nitrogen Oxides and Carbon Monoxide in the Selected European Union Countries in the Years 1995-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAN WÓJCIK

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the diversity and changes in the emission of typical pollutant gases: CO, SOx and NOx in the selected European Union countries in the years 1995-2010. This process was determined to be diverse both in time and space. There was an evident decrease in the total emission of the above-mentioned pollutants also in some countries with a dynamics higher in the years 1995-2000 than in the first decade of the 21st century. The highest actual emission of the analyzed pollutants took place in Poland, Bulgaria and Romania, with the lowest values in Slovenia, Estonia, Lithuania and Latvia. In the years 1995-2010, the disproportions between the countries in the spatial diversification of air pollution emission considerably diminished. One of the consequences of the decline in the air pollution emission is an improvement of air quality in numerous urbanized and industrialized areas in the research countries.

  8. The European Union's Africa Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Gorm Rye

    2013-01-01

    For a number of years, there has been an international debate on whether and to what extent small member states can influence the common external policies of the European Union. Recent research on the role of small EU states concludes that these states are neither per se political dwarfs nor powe...... place. Rather, it appears adequate to talk about convergence of policies between the Nordics and the EU and therefore, the Africa policies of both actors are basically the result of Europeanization....

  9. AND THE EUROPEAN UNION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Regulations governing the production and use of genetically modified organisms have been developed in the United Kingdom since 1976. Regulations covering the release of transgenic organisms into the environment were initially voluntary. Since 1990, the European Economic Commission (EEC) Directive. 90/219 and ...

  10. Political Budget Cycles in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Gregor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides research on the theme of the political budget cycles. The goal is to find out whether or not the government tries to manipulate the state budget and its components for the purpose of re-election across the countries of the European Union. In order to verify this theory a dynamic panel data model was used. The results were significant, but only if predetermined elections were not counted into the estimations. In that case, the theory of the political budget cycles could be accepted as valid for the EU countries. The main driving force of the political budget cycles across the countries of the European Union is fluctuation of the government expenditures. During the election year, the government expenditures are higher, and a year after the election, government expenditures are lower. This is reflected into the state budget balance.

  11. Saved by the Union: Romanians’ Attitudes toward the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Chiciudean

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we show that, in the aftermath of the economic crisis, Romanians remain among the most enthusiastic citizens of the European Union, in what concerns trust in the European institutions, projections for the future, the image of the EU and general attitudes toward the union. Relying on data provided by eurobarometers since the Romanian integration, we argue that the reasons for this peculiar position of Romanians within the EU is largely due to how people evaluate the economic and political performance of their own country: from evaluations of the economy to trust in national institutions, Romanians are very pessimistic about how their country handles the present situation and about perspectives for the future. In this context, they turn to the European Union as to a Savior, who represents their hope and promise for a better future, for economic prosperity and security. This is the reason why, more than five years after the beginning of the financial crisis, Romanians are still among the most optimistic citizens of Europe.

  12. European Union of Memories?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæhrens, Anne

    After a very brief introduction to history and memory in Europe after 1989, as seen by Aleida Assmann, I will give a short introduction to the EP and to their adoption of resolutions and declarations. Then I will define some concepts central to my study before I proceed to the analysis. Finally I...... these changes have come about. Moreover, I show that there seems to be a political memory split between Left and Right and I suggest that the time might not be ripe for a shared European memory....

  13. Prediction of prevalence of chronic kidney disease in diabetic patients in countries of the European Union up to 2025.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kainz, Alexander; Hronsky, Milan; Stel, Vianda S; Jager, Kitty J; Geroldinger, Angelika; Dunkler, Daniela; Heinze, Georg; Tripepi, Giovanni; Oberbauer, Rainer

    2015-08-01

    Diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are a growing burden for health-care systems. The prevalence of diabetes has increased constantly during the last decade, although a slight flattening of end-stage renal disease as a result of diabetes has been observed recently in some European countries. In this study, we project the prevalence of CKD in patients with diabetes in European countries up to the year 2025. We analysed the population with diabetes and development of nephropathy in 12 European countries, which we computed from models published previously and on data from the annual reports of the European Renal Association (1998-2011). The prevalence of CKD stage 5 in patients with diabetes up to the year 2025 was projected by the Lee-Carter algorithm. Those for stage 3 and 4 were then estimated by applying the same ratios of CKD prevalences as estimated in the Austrian population with diabetic nephropathy. The estimated prevalence of CKD in patients with diabetes is expected to increase in all 12 countries up to the year 2025. For CKD stage 3, we estimate for Austria in 2025 a prevalence of 215 000 per million diabetic population (p.m.p.) (95% confidence interval 169 000, 275 000), for CKD4 18 600 p.m.p. (14 500, 23 700) and for CKD5 6900 p.m.p. (5400, 8900). The median prevalence in the considered countries is 132 900 p.m.p. (IQR: 118 500, 195 800), 11 500 (10 200, 16 900) and 4300 (3800, 6300) for CKD stages 3, 4 and 5, respectively. Altogether, these data predict in the years 2012-25 an annual increase of 3.2% in the prevalence of diabetic CKD stage 5. Due to the increase in prevalence of diabetes and CKD5, the costs of renal therapy are expected to rise. We believe that these data may help health-care policy makers to make informed decisions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  14. Job insecurity, union support and the intention to resign membership. A psychological contract perspective tested among union members in four European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Witte, Hans; Sverke, Magnus; Van Ruysseveldt, Joris; Goslinga, Sjoerd; Chirumbolo, Antonio; Hellgren, Johnny; Näswall, Katharina

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the consequences of job insecurity among union members. Starting from the dominance of the instrumental motive for union membership, and using psychological contract theory, we hypothesize that the perception of job insecurity will correlate with a lower level of perceived union

  15. Denmark and the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Over the past two decades Morten Kelstrup’s work has been at the centre of three important intellectual innovations in political science – the study of the EU as a regional political system; European security studies; and small states in European integration. Kelstrup’s best known books (Buzan, K...... of this book, two of Kelstrup’s most important intellectual contributions come from his work on Denmark’s relations with the European Union, and his use of systems theory to understand the EU.......Over the past two decades Morten Kelstrup’s work has been at the centre of three important intellectual innovations in political science – the study of the EU as a regional political system; European security studies; and small states in European integration. Kelstrup’s best known books (Buzan...

  16. Impact of Poland accession to the euro zone on the trade policy with the European Union countries and with third country

    OpenAIRE

    Miroslawa Laszuk

    2013-01-01

    The accession of Poland to the Euro Zone is a crucial condition for the country’s functioning in the European Union. Poland has not stated the date of the accession to the Euro Zone yet. The feasible date of the acceptance of the Euro by Poland is the end of the present decade. The accession of Poland to the Euro Zone should contribute to the significant increase of Polish trade and, in consequence, in accordance with the conventional trade theory – increase the level of specialization, produ...

  17. European Union Climate Change Objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewiner, C.

    2007-08-15

    In March 2007, the European Union Ministers asked Member States to commit to energy consumption and Greenhouse Gases (GHG), mainly CO2 emissions, reductions of 20%, as well as a portion of 20% of renewable energies in their energy production. The horizon of this 'three times 20% objective' is 2020. The underlying assumption is of course an improved security of energy (and electricity) supplies as well as a growing European economy with sustained tertiary and industrial employment. These objectives were articulated to respond to the present Climate Change issues by avoiding an increase of our Planet's temperature beyond 2 to 3 degrees. In the US, the current government has recognized that CO2 is an issue and has begun to take action, issuing a number of executive orders to reduce emissions. This follows a ruling by the US Supreme Court on CO2. It may be that what is happening in Europe will be a model that the US will follow. These different objectives are interlinked and each European country is in a different situation. Moreover, 2020 is a relatively short time horizon compared to the lead time for construction of large plants such as nuclear plants. It is also a short time frame for the industrialization, at reasonable costs, of carbon sequestration equipment, for the renovation of a significant portion of the existing buildings and houses, and for the switch of the present car fleet to electrical cars. More than 20% of the cars bought in 2007 will still be on the road in 2020. More than 80% of the refrigerators bought in 2007 will still be in operation in 2020, and less than 1/3 of the industrial and utility infrastructures in place today will be renewed by 2020. It is even shorter at the Research and Development time scale to find and industrialize new energy savings devices or low energy consumption and low carbon emitting equipment. One important question is also the net cost linked to these objectives that has not been evaluated today. The

  18. Assessment of the waste electrical and electronic equipment management systems profile and sustainability in developed and developing European Union countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibanescu, Dumitrita; Cailean Gavrilescu, Daniela; Teodosiu, Carmen; Fiore, Silvia

    2018-03-01

    The assessment of waste management systems for electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) from developed economies (Germany, Sweden and Italy) and developing countries (Romania and Bulgaria), is discussed covering the period 2007-2014. The WEEE management systems profiles are depicted by indicators correlated to WEEE life cycle stages: collection, transportation and treatment. The sustainability of national WEEE management systems in terms of greenhouse gas emissions is presented, together with the greenhouse gas efficiency indicator that underlines the efficiency of WEEE treatment options. In the countries comparisons, the key elements are: robust versus fragile economies, the overall waste management performance and the existence/development of suitable management practices on WEEE. Over the life cycle perspective, developed economies (Germany, Sweden and Italy) manage one order of magnitude higher quantities of WEEE compared to developing countries (Romania and Bulgaria). Although prevention and reduction measures are encouraged, all WEEE quantities were larger in 2013, than in 2007. In 2007-2014, developed economies exceed the annual European collection target of 4 kg WEEE/capita, while collection is still difficult in developing countries. If collection rates are estimated in relationship with products placed on market, than similar values are registered in Sweden and Bulgaria, followed by Germany and Italy and lastly Romania. WEEE transportation shows different patterns among countries, with Italy as the greatest exporter (in 2014), while Sweden treats the WEEE nationally. WEEE reuse is a common practice in Germany, Sweden (from 2009) and Bulgaria (from 2011). By 2014, recycling was the most preferred WEEE treatment option, with the same kind of rates performance, over 80%, irrespective of the country, with efforts in each of the countries in developing special collection points, recycling facilities and support instruments. The national total and the

  19. POSSIBLE TRADE EFFECTS OF THE NEXT EUROPEAN UNION ENLARGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedelescu-Ionescu Daniela

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The European Union next enlargement will constitute a significant qualitative change in the structure of the current Union, as the accession of the Western Balkan countries and of Turkey in particular will bring a brand new set of economic problems. It is expected that this enlargement to have a considerable effect for the new entrants, as well as for the European Union as a whole.\\r\

  20. GOVERNING EUROPEAN UNION TO FINANCIAL STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion-Lucian CATRINA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the last four years, a significant part of the European Union members has recorded a real decline in the sustainability of their public debt. The failure of Greece, Italy, Belgium or Spain to easily find funding at previous interest rates has induced the fear that the European Monetary Union would disintegrate. Such as scenario is not realistic because does not take into account the economic interdependencies that have been created between the countries participating at the monetary zone. Nevertheless, we can say that the Stability and Growth Pact which aimed towards the coordination of national fiscal policies for ensuring the stability and prudence of the budgetary climate, has failed. This failure was primarily due to the lack of specific sanctions for those members that have not fought against the fiscal imbalances and secondly to the stopping the steps forward towards a common fiscal policy. Thus, we can say that the European Monetary Union is driven now by the wrong rule of “no taxation with representation”. For these reasons, this paper aims at showing that the European fiscal federalism is still far away from becoming reality and that the new instruments chosen for the new stability of the European Monetary Union will be the task of the Member States themselves. This paper will also review the main rules that are projected to be the source for the future European financial stability and growth: the balanced budgets and the deficits built only on the “Golden Rule” premises, for which other amendments on European Treaties are expected.

  1. Pharmacology and Therapeutics Education in the European Union Needs Harmonization and Modernization: A Cross‐sectional Survey Among 185 Medical Schools in 27 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichelaar, J; Okorie, M; Bissell, L; Christiaens, T; Likic, R; Mačìulaitis, R; Costa, J; Sanz, EJ; Tamba, BI; Maxwell, SR; Richir, MC; van Agtmael, MA

    2017-01-01

    Effective teaching in pharmacology and clinical pharmacology and therapeutics (CPT) is necessary to make medical students competent prescribers. However, the current structure, delivery, and assessment of CPT education in the European Union (EU) is unknown. We sent an online questionnaire to teachers with overall responsibility for CPT education in EU medical schools. Questions focused on undergraduate teaching and assessment of CPT, and students' preparedness for prescribing. In all, 185 medical schools (64%) from 27 EU countries responded. Traditional learning methods were mainly used. The majority of respondents did not provide students with the opportunity to practice real‐life prescribing and believed that their students were not well prepared for prescribing. There is a marked difference in the quality and quantity of CPT education within and between EU countries, suggesting that there is considerable scope for improvement. A collaborative approach should be adopted to harmonize and modernize the undergraduate CPT education across the EU. PMID:28295236

  2. Estimating prevalence of problem drug use at national level in countries of the European Union and Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Ludwig; Augustin, Rita; Frischer, Martin; Kümmler, Petra; Uhl, Alfred; Wiessing, Lucas

    2003-04-01

    This paper will present the most recent estimates for problematic drug use in European Member States and explore the problems of comparability. Estimates of problematic drug use, derived according to agreed guidelines, were collected from all EU countries and Norway. Methods included multipliers based on treatment, police, mortality or AIDS/HIV data, the capture-recapture method and the multivariate indicator method. Prevalence estimates were transformed into rates per 1000 population aged 15-64 years. Target populations varied according to data selection. Estimates for six partially overlapping types of drug use could be identified: 'problem opiate use', 'problem opiate or cocaine use', 'problem amphetamine or opiate use', 'problem drug use', '(current) injecting' and 'life-time injecting'. Rates of injectors ranged from 2.6 in Germany to 4.8 in Luxembourg; rates in Austria, Denmark, Finland, Portugal and the United Kingdom fell within this range. For problem opiate use, a group of high prevalence countries were found with average rates exceeding six cases (Italy, Luxembourg, Spain and the United Kingdom) and a group with lower prevalence with average rates close to three cases (Austria, Germany, Ireland, the Netherlands). Rates obtained for France (problem opiate or cocaine use), Finland and Sweden (problem amphetamine or opiate use) are not directly comparable and fall between these rates. Cross-national comparisons should be made with care and estimated target populations may vary greatly between countries. For estimating various forms of problem drug use at national level, a multi-method approach is recommended.

  3. Environment in the European Union 1995

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The update to the 1992 report on the state of the environment in the European Union requested by the European Commission......The update to the 1992 report on the state of the environment in the European Union requested by the European Commission...

  4. What are European Union Public Attitudes towards Robots? (Invited Paper)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Donald Loffredo; Alireza Tavakkoli

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a very brief overview of public attitudes towards robots from different geographical regions of the world but focuses on one such study in one particular geographic area, the European Union (EU) of 27 countries...

  5. The Effects of Great Britain's Exit from the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarița Adrian

    2017-01-01

    The withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union directly influences the economicdevelopment of Romania, which will force our country to take all the necessary measures in thecurrent economic conjuncture in order to anchor in the international trade relations.

  6. Clinical education and training of student nurses in four moderately new European Union countries: Assessment of students' satisfaction with the learning environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antohe, Ileana; Riklikiene, Olga; Tichelaar, Erna; Saarikoski, Mikko

    2016-03-01

    Nurses underwent different models of education during various historical periods. The recent decade in Europe has been marked with educational transitions for the nursing profession related to Bologna Declaration and enlargement of the European Union. This paper aims to explore the situation of clinical placements for student nurses and assess students' satisfaction with the learning environment in four relatively new member states of European Union: the Czech Republic, Hungary, Lithuania and Romania. The data for cross-sectional quantitative study were collected during the exploratory phase of EmpNURS Project via a web based questionnaire which utilized a part of Clinical Learning Environment scale (CLES + T). The students evaluated their clinical learning environment mainly positively. The students' utter satisfaction with their clinical placements reached a high level and strongly correlated with the supervisory model. Although the commonest model for supervision was traditional group supervision, the most satisfied students had the experience of individualised supervision. The study gives a picture of the satisfaction of students with the learning environment and, moreover, with clinical placement education of student nurses in four EU countries. The results highlight the individualized supervision model as a crucial factor of students' total satisfaction during their clinical training periods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. European Association for Palliative Care: Forging a Vision of Excellence in Palliative Care in Central and Eastern European and Former Soviet Union Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radbruch, Lukas; Ling, Julie; Hegedus, Katalin; Larkin, Philip

    2018-02-01

    The European Association for Palliative Care (EAPC) represents many thousands of health care workers and volunteers working in or with an interest in palliative care. In 2016, the EAPC has individual members from 48 nations across the world, and collective members from 57 national palliative care associations in 32 European countries. Throughout its history, the EAPC has produced guidance on a range of palliative care issues. The biennial congresses and research congresses and the comprehensive Web site (www.eapcnet.eu) are renowned and well utilized platforms for dissemination and exchange of palliative care information. The EAPC has also published a newsletter specifically for Eastern European and Central Asian countries that has been available in both English and Russian from 2005 to 2012. In addition, for a period of time, a Russian Web site (www.eapcspeaksrussian.eu) was also available. A survey of palliative care in Central and Eastern European nations sponsored by Open Society Foundation's International Palliative Care Initiative found that in most countries, the national language is preferred rather than using English or Russian for the provision of information. Accordingly, the EAPC Web site provides translations of white papers, position papers, and blog posts in a number of languages. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The European Union and Russian energy politics. External energy relations and interdependency between the European Union and Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akca Prill, Melek

    2012-07-01

    The European Union and Russia Energy Politics aims to analyse the energy relationships, energy foreign policy and energy dialogue between the European Union Member States and the Russian Federation. To understand the recent developments in Russian - European Union energy relations better, the study aims to assert the disciplines and approaches of international relations in the example of Russia and the European Union systems of government. The important question here, whether diversification of energy supplier or energy supply routes is possible. If there is a possibility to diversify the supplier, is this then too costly to build, operate and rely on new pipeline routes? More crucial issue is, whether Russia is a reliable energy supplier in terms of European Energy Security approach. Throughout these assumptions, the role and vision of European Union Member States, the possible energy exporter countries, their policies and contributions are going to be discussed.

  9. COMPARISON OF TOURISM PERFORMANCE IN CHOSEN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES WITH THE ACCENT TO SLOVAK REPUBLIC IN THE PERIOD BEFORE AND AFTER ACCESSION TO EUROPEAN UNION MEMBERSHIP AT THE BEGINNING OF 21ST CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina ŠAMBRONSKÁ

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Article reviews the development of tourism in the three selected countries of the European Union in the early 21st century. It focuses to the period before and after accession of the Slovak Republic to the European Union. The study points to the area that is dedicated to tourism within the European community. The findings present the evaluation of selected indicators: number/development of accommodation facilities of transitional housing of the national tourism in the stated period on the example of the Slovak Republic, the Czech Republic and Germany. To evaluate the development of tourism sphere on chosen indicators there were used and presented mathematical - statistical methods as: the arithmetic average, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, median, average growth rate, the average rate of increase, the geometric average, and correlation and regression analysis. Since the compared countries have significantly different population rate, infrastructure and tourism operators’ coverage, comparison of absolute indicators of these countries in the field of tourism was limited to basic findings of the results of elementary statistical characteristics - capacity of collective tourist accommodation establishments and their growth rate. The survey results pointed to significant differences in performance in tourism of chosen countries.

  10. WAYS OF COMBAT TAX EVASION IN ROMANIA AND EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Mihaela Corîci

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tax evasion is a complex phenomenon faced by all member economies, regardless of geographic position. Economic transparency of each of the Member States of the European Union helps to have a compact European economic market. This can take place inter alia through exchange of information between tax authorities and a common database for European countries

  11. Intersectionality in European Union policymaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lombardo, Emanuela; Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    2016-01-01

    is particularly apt to deal with equality and diversity in policymaking. By analysing a selection of European Union policy documents on gender-based violence in the period 2000–2014, we attend to the question of what intersectionality can bring to policymaking in terms of strengthening inclusiveness and address......Inclusiveness of different social groups and responsiveness to the needs of increasingly diverse societies are key criteria for policy analysts to assess the quality of public policies. We argue that an intersectional approach attentive to the interaction of gender with other inequalities...

  12. [Health status of mothers and children in Poland compared to other European Union countries on the basis of EURO-PERISTAT indicators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szamotulska, Katarzyna

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is an evaluation of perinatal health and data sources in Poland compared to other European Union countries on the basis of the results of the EURO-PERISTATproject for 2004. The results obtained during the second phase of the EURO-PERISTAT project were used. Core and recommended indicators for Poland in 2004 were compared to the respective indicators for EU member countries before 2004 and Norway, and to the respective indicators for the EU members since 2004, separately. Poland has all the data for 10 core indicators and data for 5 of the 11 recommended indicators. Most of their values are within the range of other EU countries except total neonatal and infant mortality, which are higher in Poland than in the most developed EU countries. Higher total neonatal and infant mortality in Poland results from higher neonatal and infant mortality of prematurely born babies. Gestational age--specific neonatal mortality in Poland was 456.8 deaths per 1000 live births delivered between 24-27 weeks gestational age (against 107.3 -324.6 in the EU members before 2004), 124,7 deaths per 1000 live births delivered between 28-31 weeks (against 17,6 - 84,9 in the EU members before 2004) and 16,2 deaths per 1000 live births delivered between 32-36 weeks (against 2,5 - 10,0 in the EU members before 2004). Neonatal mortality of babies born at term, was within the range observed in EU members before 2004. Poland has incomplete data sources for perinatal health indicators, especially in respect to evaluation of the quality of health care. Data sources should be expanded. However, existing information indicate that neonatal and infant mortality among babies born (extremely, very and moderately) prematurely is higher in Poland than in the most developed European countries. To change the situation, a multidisciplinary evidence-based national intervention programme should be implemented.

  13. Theory and reform in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Chryssochoou, Dimitris N.; Tsinisizelis, Michael J.; Stavridis, Stelios; Ifantis, Kostas

    2003-01-01

    This substantially updated and revised edition offers a comprehensive overview of the challenges confronting the political system as well as the international politics of the European Union. It draws from a rich spectrum of regional integration theories to determine what the Union actually is and how it is developing. The book examines constitutional politics of the European Union, from the Single European Act to the Treaty of Nice and beyond. The ongoing debate on the future of Europe links ...

  14. Fiscal Convergence in an Enlarged European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta VINTILĂ

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Taxation convergence in the European Union has always been a heatedly debated issue, and it has constantly resurfaced to the limelight as more and more fiscal directive proposals are being discussed. The current study is an analysis of the evolution of taxation convergence tendencies within the European Union in recent years, using sigma-convergence and cluster analysis. Our goal is to analyze the fiscal convergence trends in the context of European Union enlargement over the last two decades.

  15. Welfare reform in European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Immervoll, Herwig; Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen; Kreiner, Claus Thustrup

    2007-01-01

    microsimulation model to estimate current marginal and participation tax rates. We quantify the equity-efficiency trade-off for a range of elasticity parameters. In most countries, because of large existing welfare programmes with high phase-out rates, increasing traditional welfare is undesirable unless......This article compares the effects of increasing traditional welfare to introducing in-work benefits in the 15 (pre-enlargement) countries of the European Union. We use a labour supply model encompassing responses to taxes and transfers along both the intensive and extensive margins, and the EUROMOD...

  16. FOREIGN POLICY OF EUROPEAN UNION: EURASIAN AGENDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksiy KANDYUK

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available EU’s influence at so-called post-Soviet space gradually increases and becomes a significant factor of regional policy. Today we can already speak of the European Union as a full participant in the political processes occurring in the post-Soviet and broader – Eurasian area. Foreign policy of EU is evolving under impact of reasons stemming from both structural and political context and from external geopolitical trends. At the same time, challenges in the geopolitical environment in Europe today require the EU to develop new conceptual approaches helping to deal with the problems of relations with its eastern neighbours and the Russian impact. Only the development of a new Eurasian agenda could help to improve European eastern policy, consolidate the position of EU as a geopolitical actor in this region and foster Europeanization and integration of neighbour countries.

  17. Attitudes toward Regulations of Reproductive Care in the European Union: A Comparison between Travellers for Cross-Border Reproductive Care and Citizens of the Local Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, R; Nelson, M K; Suñol, J

    2016-09-01

    This paper compares two populations with respect to attitudes toward the regulation of reproductive care by the European Union. The two populations are 252 individuals who crossed a national border to receive treatment at an independent clinic in Spain and 45 Spanish citizens who received treatment in their home country. Online surveys were sent to former patients (from many different countries) of a private Spanish clinic. By comparing those who engaged in cross-border reproductive care (CBRC) with those who did not, we examined attitudes toward whether or not the EU should extend to all clients in all countries the type of services the clinic provided. These services included access to anonymous donors and conception via egg or embryo donation. We found that those who travelled abroad were less in favor of EU expanding regulation for the type of services they received than were those in Spain. This study is unusual in focusing on political attitudes rather than the nature of the experience and consequences of cross-border reproductive care. We suggest that individuals who engage in CBRC might be reluctant to see the EU extend reproductive care broadly because debates within both the EU and their home countries could result in the elimination of options that are now available through travel. We suggest that individuals from countries that are popular destinations for CBRC like Spain might want to extend EU reproductive care more broadly so as to reduce the pressure on the medical services in their own country. We suggest directions for further research.

  18. Emerging Administrations under European Union Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Berceanu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The idea of emergence is generally used to indicate the appearance of patterns, structures, orproperties that cannot be adequately explained by referring only to the system’s pre-existing componentsand their interactions. The term “emergence” has an interdisciplinary approach specific to administrativesciences, too. In this article, the concept of “emergence” signifies lato sensu a kind of change and it will beused to refer to countries that have a high volatility and that are in transition and to define the changes thatsuffer the public administrations of the countries which are part of the European construction. EuropeanUnion through its policies and legislation has a great impact on economic and social conditions in MemberStates. The aim of the paper is to present a theoretical approach on the dimension of emergingadministrations understood as changes and reforms that suffer the institutions from the EU member statesunder the pressure of the European Union rules. The study is using the concept of emergence to researchand to analyze the nature of the changes in the public administration starting from the approach of thesystems theory.

  19. Prioritization strategies for pandemic influenza vaccine in 27 countries of the European Union and the Global Health Security Action Group: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haas Walter

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although there is rapid progress in vaccine research regarding influenza pandemic vaccines it is expected that pandemic influenza vaccine production can only start once the pandemic virus has been recognized. Therefore, pandemic vaccine capacity will be limited at least during the first phase of an influenza pandemic, requiring vaccine prioritization strategies. WHO recommends developing preliminary priorities for pandemic vaccine use. The goal of this review is to provide a thorough overview of pandemic vaccine prioritization concepts in the 27 European Union (EU member states and the four non-EU countries of the Global Health Security Action Group. Methods Between September and December 2006 data was collected for each country through two data sources: (i the national influenza pandemic plan; (ii contacting key persons involved in pandemic planning by email and/or phone and/or fax Results Twenty-six (84% countries had established at least one vaccine priority group. Most common reported vaccine priority groups were health care workers (HCW (100%, essential service providers (ESP (92% and high risk individuals (HRI (92%. Ranking of at least one vaccine priority group was done by 17 (65% of 26 countries. Fifteen (88% of these 17 countries including a ranking strategy, decided that HCW with close contact to influenza patients should be vaccinated first; in most countries followed and/or ranked equally by ESP and subsequently HRI. Rationales for prioritization were provided by 22 (85% of 26 countries that established vaccine priority groups. There was large variation in the phrasing and level of detailed specification of rationales. Seven (32% of 22 countries providing rationales clearly associated each vaccine priority group with the specific rationale. Ten (32% of the 31 countries studied countries have consulted and involved ethical experts to guide decisions related to vaccine prioritization. Conclusion In the majority of

  20. A Sustainable European Union Own Resources System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cieslukowski Maciej

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available From 1992, after the UN “Earth Summit” in Rio de Janeiro, sustainable development has become a priority of many countries and international organizations, including the European Union. After the crisis of 2008+ and the strong criticism of traditional economics, it also became a fundamental element of economic development in the XXI century. This new model is based on a solid and integrated economic, socio-cultural and ecological order. Such a development should be supported by suitable budgetary systems at each level of public government. The paper presents a conception of the sustainable EU own resources system and proposes the methodology of its evaluation.

  1. INNOVATION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLADIMIR-CODRIN IONESCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary knowledge-based society, innovation, as a vector used for the application and promotion of inventions and innovations, is one of the main sources used for obtaining a sustainable competitive advantage. The present paper points out the main directions which the European Commission aims to develop in the sphere of innovation, within the context of the Initiative: “A Union of Innovation”, which is part of the Europe 2020 Strategy. The paper analyses the performances accomplished by the EU states in the area of innovation while developing an international perspective that may represent the starting point in identifying solutions whereby the EU could reduce the gaps that exist in relation to the main international competitors, i.e. South Korea, USA and Japan.

  2. Pharmacology and Therapeutics Education in the European Union Needs Harmonization and Modernization: A Cross-sectional Survey Among 185 Medical Schools in 27 Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, D J; Tichelaar, J; Okorie, M; Bissell, L; Christiaens, T; Likic, R; Mačìulaitis, R; Costa, J; Sanz, E J; Tamba, B I; Maxwell, S R; Richir, M C; van Agtmael, M A

    2017-11-01

    Effective teaching in pharmacology and clinical pharmacology and therapeutics (CPT) is necessary to make medical students competent prescribers. However, the current structure, delivery, and assessment of CPT education in the European Union (EU) is unknown. We sent an online questionnaire to teachers with overall responsibility for CPT education in EU medical schools. Questions focused on undergraduate teaching and assessment of CPT, and students' preparedness for prescribing. In all, 185 medical schools (64%) from 27 EU countries responded. Traditional learning methods were mainly used. The majority of respondents did not provide students with the opportunity to practice real-life prescribing and believed that their students were not well prepared for prescribing. There is a marked difference in the quality and quantity of CPT education within and between EU countries, suggesting that there is considerable scope for improvement. A collaborative approach should be adopted to harmonize and modernize the undergraduate CPT education across the EU. © 2017 The Authors Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  3. THE COMPETITION POLICY IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitriţa Florea (Ionescu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The idea of European unity dates back to antiquity, the time when the Roman Empire alsopursued such a goal. Attempts to unify European countries have appeared constantly in history, but theirsuccessful culmination crystallized only after the Second World War.Basically, the two wars have led to the downfall of Europe and the loss of its centenary political andmilitary position. The experience of these wars has led the states to initiate a defense mechanism of peace,security and international cooperation - resulted in creating an organization of universal jurisdiction -TheLeague of Nations. However, the successor of this organization, The United Nations - was one thatmanaged thorough its collective security system represented by the Security Council, to ensure andmaintain universal / global peace until now (Stelian Scăunaş, 2005.The creation of the European Union is based on four founding treaties: The Treaty establishingThe European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC - adopted in Paris on April 18, 1951, entered into forcein 1952 - treaty concluded for a period of 50 years and that has terminated in 2002, The Treatyestablishing the European Economic Community (EEC, The Treaty establishing the European AtomicEnergy Community (EAEC or EURATOM, both signed in Rome on March 25, 1947 and entered into forcein 1958 as the Treaties of Rome, and The Treaty on the European Union, which was adopted at Maastrichton 7th of February 1992 and entered into force in 1993. To these institution treaties we can add themodifying treaties of the founding treaties, including: The Merger Treaty - adopted in Brussels on 8 April1965, entered into force in 1967; The Single European Act - signed in Luxembourg and Hague in 1986,entered into force in 1987; The Amsterdam Treaty - signed on October 2, 1997, entered into force in 1999,The Treaty of Nice - signed on February 26, 2001, entered into force in 2003, The Lisbon Treaty signed in2007 and entered into force on December 1st

  4. Challenges in diagnosing extrapulmonary tuberculosis in the European Union, 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Solovic, I.; Jonsson, J.; Korzeniewska-Kosela, M.; Chiotan, D. I.; Pace-Asciak, A.; Slump, E.; Rumetshofer, R; Abubakar, I; Kos, S.; Svetina-Sorli, P.; Haas, Walter; Bauer, T.; Sandgren, A; Werf, Marieke

    2013-01-01

    In the European Union (EU) 72,334 tuberculosis (TB) cases were notified in 2011, of which 16,116 (22%) had extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB). The percentage of TB cases with EPTB ranged from 4% to 48% in the reporting countries. This difference might be explained by differences in risk factors for EPTB or challenges in diagnosis. To assess the practices in diagnosis of EPTB we asked European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) countries to participate in a report describing the diagnostic ...

  5. WOMEN’S EMPOYMENT ON THE BACKGROUND OF THEIR EDU-CATION AND FERTILITY RATES IN POLAND AND IN SELECTED COUNTRIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION IN YEARS 2001-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Martens

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This publication considers effects of education and fertility on women’s employment in Poland and in selected countries of the European Union. Econometric models of trend and autoregression are built. It is shown that in Poland - higher education and fertility rates have little effect on the presence of women on the labor market. In the European Union both education and fertility have a significant impact on increasing job opportuni-ties. In Germany an important determinant is education and in France - fertility.

  6. The european union as subjects of law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fila R.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available At the international level it is recognized that development and progress of the new and unique international organization – European Union – is one of the appropriate form of the international organization’s integration. Although European Union was establish as international economic organization, it has gradually integrated the various “best practices” ideas from different governmental systems. Encouragement and motives for cooperation of Member states indicate that member states give more competences of government to the international organization’s institutes. Wherewith, it is observed that the economic and political internationalization has led to disappearance of integrity of territory of member states. The above mentioned opinion is not based on research of the European Union as international organization from standpoint of international law, but from standpoint of theory law – could give juridical estimate regarding executive power in European Union and who could define particular source and entity of administrative law of European Union.

  7. CFC legislation in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvjetković Cvjetana M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author considers CFC legislation in the Member States of the European Union, and points to the official attitude of the institutions of the European Union toward CFC legislation. Special attention in this paper is focused on Judgment of the Court of Justice of the European Union in the case Cadbury Schweppes. The aim of the paper is to analyze CFC legislation in the Member States in order to determine its basic characteristics, as well as to determine its compatibility with freedoms guaranteed by the primary law of the European Union, i.e. with Judgment of the Court of Justice of the European Union in the Cadbury Schweppes case.

  8. Europeanness: A Path To Unity Within The European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piasecki Ryszard

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The postwar experience has shown that the implanting of European consciousness, or Europeanness, calls for coordinated efforts among the European institutions, national states, and NGOs. Such consciousness, a key pillar of the European integration, is necessary for the EU to effectively function and motivate member states’ − also the EU’s − citizens. And yet European institutions and EU governments show little interest in promoting the formation of this European consciousness. Pro-European social movements are weak, while anti- European ones gain strength. This désintéressement of the EU countries probably results from the conviction that the goal has been reached and that there is no more need for a widespread pro-European education of their societies. However analysis of the problem, and in particular of the interaction between European and national identities, shows that this is not the case. We fear that this lack of proactive measures mobilizing EU citizens to keep on struggling for a common Europe will lead to the erosion of existing achievements of integration within the EU, and undermine European values. It may threaten the future of the EU, which is not an ordinary integration grouping but a great peaceful, civilizational, social and economic project. Our hypothesis − positively verified in this article − is that the promotion of Europeanness in the EU societies is urgently needed to maintain the unity (and even membership of the Union, and to avert trends unfavorable for all of Europe and therefore for the West as a whole.

  9. Laboratory medicine in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterhuis, Wytze P; Zerah, Simone

    2015-01-01

    The profession of laboratory medicine differs between countries within the European Union (EU) in many respects. The objective of professional organizations of the promotion of mutual recognition of specialists within the EU is closely related to the free movement of people. This policy translates to equivalence of standards and harmonization of the training curriculum. The aim of the present study is the description of the organization and practice of laboratory medicine within the countries that constitute the EU. A questionnaire covering many aspects of the profession was sent to delegates of the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM) and Union Européenne de Médecins Spécialistes (UEMS) of the 28 EU countries. Results were sent to the delegates for confirmation. Many differences between countries were identified: predominantly medical or scientific professionals; a broad or limited professional field of interest; inclusion of patient treatment; formal or absent recognition; a regulated or absent formal training program; general or minor application of a quality system based on ISO Norms. The harmonization of the postgraduate training of both clinical chemists and of laboratory physicians has been a goal for many years. Differences in the organization of the laboratory professions still exist in the respective countries which all have a long historical development with their own rationality. It is an important challenge to harmonize our profession, and difficult choices will need to be made. Recent developments with respect to the directive on Recognition of Professional Qualifications call for new initiatives to harmonize laboratory medicine both across national borders, and across the borders of scientific and medical professions.

  10. Is European Union at the Heart of Citizens' Identity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela CĂRĂUŞAN

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The departure point of many discussions on European identity is the idea that a political community needs a common set of values and references to ensure its coherence, to guide his actions and to endow these with legitimacy and meaning. The motto “unity in diversity” is generally seen as best describing the aims of the European Union; opinions differ widely as to ho understood. That is why we will try to identify those values which brought the European countries together almost 60 years ago. And we will continue to see, based on the Eurobarometers results, which are the European citizens’ values and what European Union represents for them, in terms of values. For that we will put together the items obtained in the last five years and we will see in the end to which value European Union should pay more attention in the future. Even the surveys show that European Union citizens continue to identify first of all with their own countries and we consider it important to find an answer to the following question: Is European Union a community of shared values?

  11. THE EVOLUTION OF THE MARKETING RESEARCH MARKET ON THE LEVEL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION COUNTRIES, AFTER 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Catalina Timiras

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to identify how the marketing research market evolved after 2000 as a whole and by categories of the EU countries (the old and the new states respectively as well as the impact of the general economic development on this evolution of the market. Since 2000 the marketing research market registered a spectacular evolution in the new EU members, which certifies that it is in the growth stage. In the old member states the marketing research market reached maturity, the dynamics being slyghtly positive or even stationary. Regardless of the marketing research market trends registered in the old or in the new EU members, the development levels attained in the two categories of states are different. Thus, approximately 90% of the marketing research market of the EU belongs to the old states and only about 10% to the new members. Similarly to the markets of other products, the market studied here was also affected by the economic crisis, so all the EU countries registered involutions (followed by recoveries along with the onset of recession. In the countries analyzed, the relationship between the size of the marketing research market and the general economic development expressed by the GDP was a strong and direct one (both in the EU as a whole and by categories of EU countries, higher values of GDP being associated with larger (in terms of value marketing research markets.

  12. The Integration Exception: A New Limit to Social Rights of Third-Country Nationals in European Union Law?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, K.M.; Thym, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Recent case-law of the EU Court of Justice (ECJ) on the rights of third-country nationals (TCNs) reveals the introduction of an 'integration exception': guarantees of equal treatment of TCNs are not applicable if the measures causing uneqaul treatment aim to promote the TCNs' integration in the host

  13. The European Fiscal Union creation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Sharov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents evolution of the European Union fiscal system creation process as well as outlines problems in functioning thereof that have arisen during recent years and the main reforming (modification trends. The analysis is primarily focused on creation of the fiscal union within the EU. In this regard, the idea of two different groups of countries moving to the common goal at different paces is becoming ever increasingly much-talked-about in the EU. The first group comprises donor countries that adhere to all treaties and fiscal discipline, while demonstrating respective positive macroeconomic indicators. The second group implies countries of Euro-periphery, where the above processes take place along with significant complications or do not occur at all. In these countries Eurosceptic positions are also quite strong, which often leads to taking measures contrary to the jointly adopted decisions. Currently, there is no clear understanding within the EU as to which way out of the crisis should be taken. However, profound understanding of the crisis causes and active work on preparation and implementation of measures to overcome the negative effects of this crisis suggest availability of sufficiently favorable prospects for further development of the EU fiscal system (including formal creation of the Fiscal Union. Based on the conducted analysis conclusions have been made as to potential vectors of action aimed at improving EU fiscal system, while specific recommendations on actions to be taken by Ukraine have been developed (particularly, as regards budget forecasting and planning with the purpose of harmonizing Ukrainian financial institutions and mechanisms with the EU fiscal system.

  14. European Union supports project to strengthen fisheries and biodiversity management in African, Caribbean, and Pacific (ACP) countries

    OpenAIRE

    Vakily, J.M.; Froese, R.; Palomares, M.L.D.; Pauly, D

    1997-01-01

    Proper resource management implies a better understanding of ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. Scientists from developing countries often have limited information on their aquatic resources because of many difficulties in accessing and exchanging information on a national and international level. The project described not only aims to strengthen the scientific capacity of fisheries scientists in ACP institutions but it is also expected to create an awareness among fisheries res...

  15. The detection and settlement of VAT fraud in four countries : Addendum to the report value-added tax fraud in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aronowitz, A.A.; Laagland, D.C.G.; Paulides, G.

    1996-01-01

    This addendum to the report 'Value-added tax fraud in the European Union' gives additional information on the detection and settlement of VAT fraud in Belgium, Germany, the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. See link to the report at: More information.

  16. Towards a standardised surveillance for Trichinella in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alban, L.; Pozio, E.; Boes, J.

    2011-01-01

    Each year, more than 167 million pigs in the European Union (EU) are tested for Trichinella spp. under the current meat hygiene regulations. This imposes large economic costs on countries, yet the vast majority of these pigs test negative and the public health risk in many countries is therefore ...

  17. Assessment of the impact of the Economic Partnership Agreement between the ECOWAS countries and the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Karingi, Stephen; Oulmane, Nassim; Lang, Rémi; Sadni Jallab, Mustapha; Perez, Romain

    2005-01-01

    The present study consists of eight sections. After the introduction, we present in the first section, the profile of the ACP-EU cooperation agreements from Lomé to Cotonou. We also show how a certain “grey areas” in the WTO rules on regional agreements can enable African countries to benefit more from the EPAs by taking advantage of greater flexibility. The next section presents some graphical data on Africa’s trade flows in general and on trade flows of ECOWAS in particular. The...

  18. The relation between indicators of low employment quality and attendance behavior in countries of the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Heidi; Braeckman, Lutgart; De Clercq, Bart; De Bacquer, Dirk; Clays, Els

    2017-12-01

    Previous research demonstrated an association between low employment quality and lower sickness absence, which may be explained by presenteeism. Therefore, this study aimed exploring the relation between three indicators of employment quality (long working hours, precarious employment, job insecurity) and attendance behavior. The association between employment quality and attendance behavior was investigated in 28.999 workers (mean age: 40.0 years, 53% males) of the fifth wave of the European Working Conditions Survey, using multilevel multinomial logistic regression analysis. Attendance behavior was operationalized as different combinations of sickness absence and presenteeism. Those working >48 h/week, had a higher risk to report presenteeism (with or without sickness absence). They had a lower risk to report sickness absence without presenteeism. Workers with a precarious contract had a lower risk to report absenteeism without presenteeism and the combination of both presenteeism and absenteeism. Finally, for workers perceiving job insecurity, the risk for presenteeism without sickness absence was significantly higher. Several indicators of low employment quality were associated with attendance behavior, suggesting a complex behavioral mechanism in workers facing low job quality employment. Therefore, policy makers are recommended to re-establish the indefinite contractual employment as the standard, avoiding long working hours.

  19. CFC legislation in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Cvjetković Cvjetana M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the author considers CFC legislation in the Member States of the European Union, and points to the official attitude of the institutions of the European Union toward CFC legislation. Special attention in this paper is focused on Judgment of the Court of Justice of the European Union in the case Cadbury Schweppes. The aim of the paper is to analyze CFC legislation in the Member States in order to determine its basic characteristics, as well as to determine its compatibility with ...

  20. IMPORTANCE OF THE EUROPEAN BANKING UNION NEW DIRECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEDAR LUCIAN-ION

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available European Banking Union has set new rules on monetary market especially for credit institutions and for financial banking groups in general. Economic and monetary union requires accomplishment of political and monetary union and democratic control of the European institutions on a single financial market. In this respect through its management organisms, EU has designed a series of unique mechanisms of financial union and called for a fiscal union. Union of European financial market is possible through a new regulation of the markets. In this project, monetary union of the EU member countries is possible by implementing single mechanism of supervision (Single Supervisory Mechanism and single mechanism of resolution (Single Resolution Mechanism. European Banking Union may be made by monitoring of a single banking supervisor based on a common system for managing and resolving banking crises and a uniform system of protecting people's savings. Romania opted for these unique mechanisms of macro-prudential supervision of the financial system. And by performing the real convergence criteria of integration, Romania will have all conditions of integration in the ,,euro area,,.

  1. European Union Financial Crisis: A Marxist Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrus Kanisius Farneubun, P.

    European financial crisis poses a serious challenge to the fundamental structure of the European Union, political and financial institutions, as well as the values that bind European together. Different factors have been suggested as the causes of the crisis notably the failure of national

  2. Towards elimination of hepatitis B and C in European Union and European Economic Area countries: monitoring the World Health Organization's global health sector strategy core indicators and scaling up key interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffell, Erika F; Hedrich, Dagmar; Mardh, Otilia; Mozalevskis, Antons

    2017-03-02

    The World Health Organization 'Global Health Sector Strategy on Viral Hepatitis 2016-2021' aimed at the elimination of viral hepatitis as a public health threat provides a significant opportunity to increase efforts for tackling the epidemics of hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus infections across Europe. To support the implementation and monitoring of this strategy, core epidemiological and programmatic indicators have been proposed necessitating specific surveys, the systematic collection of programmatic data and the establishment of monitoring across the care pathway. European Union and European Economic Area countries already made progress in recent years implementing primary and secondary prevention measures. Indeed, harm reduction measures among people who inject drugs reach many of those who need them and most countries have a universal hepatitis B vaccination programme with high coverage above 95%. However, while a further scaling up of prevention interventions will impact on incidence of new infections, treating those already infected is necessary to achieve reductions in mortality. The epidemiological, demographic and socio-political situation in Europe is complex, and considerable diversity in the programmatic responses to the hepatitis epidemic exists. Comprehension of such issues alongside collaboration between key organisations and countries will underpin any chance of successfully eliminating hepatitis. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  3. FDOPA-(18F: a PET radiopharmaceutical recently registered for diagnostic use in countries of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanna-Marina Chevalme

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Positron emission tomography (PET and its recent update PET/CT are very effective diagnostic tools for non-invasive imaging of metabolic or functional disorders in target tissues. The clinical usefulness of fluorodeoxyglucose-(18F (FDG has been now widely accepted. Recently, the clinical usefulness of fluoroDOPA-(18F or FDOPA, an aminoacid labelled with the same positron emitter fluorine-18, has been evaluated and recognised in France and subsequently in several EU countries. FDOPA is diagnostic PET agent, which has been used for decades in imaging the loss of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease, and more recently to detect, stage and restage neuroendocrine tumours and to search for recurrence of viable glioma tissue. The present article summarises the body of evidence that led the French Medicines Agency (AFSSAPS to grant a marketing authorisation to IASOdopa, a commercial preparation of FDOPA. Brief case reports and figures illustrate the diagnostic performance of FDOPA PET or PET/CT in the different settings that are currently approved in oncology.Tomografia por emissão de positrons (PET e sua recente atualização PET/CT são ferramentas de diagnóstico muito eficientes para imagens não invasivas de desordens metabólicas ou funcionais em tecido alvo. A utilidade clínica da fluordesoxiglicose-(18F(FDG tem sido agora largamente aceita. Recentemente, a utilidade clinica de fluoroDOPA-(18F ou FDOPA, um aminoácido marcado com o mesmo emissor de pósitron, flúor-18, tem sido avaliado e reconhecido na França e subsequentemente em alguns países da União Européia. FDOPA é o radiofármaco para diagnóstico em PET, o qual tem sido usado por décadas para obtenção de imagens da perda de neurônios dopaminérgicos na doença de Parkinson e, mais recentemente, para identificar inicialmente o estágio e a reavaliação de tumores neuroendócrinos e para a pesquisa da recorrência de glioma viável. O presente artigo resume o conjunto

  4. European Union: Gender and politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žunić Natalija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Political representation is the central issue in contemporary debates on the level of democracy in political institutions and processes in the European Union. Underrepresentation of particular groups in political institutions, decision-making and policy-making processes is perceived as the problem of justice, legitimacy and effectiveness in democratic societies. In this paper, the author analyzes the gender aspects of democratic decision-making processes and political representation of women in the EU member states. The social, historical and political dimension of women's efforts to obtain and promote their civil status and political rights have been the framework for developing the principle of gender equality as one of the founding EU principles. In the past hundred years, one of the most significant trends in politics has been the expansion of formal political representation of women. Yet, even though it has been more than a hundered years since women won their political rights in the 19th and the 20th century (the right to vote and the right to be voted, gender differences in political rights are still a substantial part of debate. Today, women's political representation is still inadequate and their political capacity and power have not been exercised to a sufficient extent (or proportionally through their actual representation in parliament. In March 2012, the European Commisision published a report on gender equality in different areas of social life; the Eurobarometer survey shows that women are generally underrepresented in politics. In national parliaments, only one out of four MPs is a woman. In the European Parliament, three out of ten parliamentarians are women. The statistics shows a huge discrepancy among the EU Member States in terms of women's representation in parliament (44.7% in Sweden as contrasted to 13.3% in Romania. The prevailing view in many studies is that post-industrial democracies are deficient as they have failed

  5. THE EXTERNAL MIGRATION WITH ROMANIA AS COUNTRY OF ORIGIN AND DESTINATION COUNTRIES IN THE EUROPEAN UNION – BRIEF ANALYSIS FOR 1998-2009 PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei CIOCĂNESCU

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The external migration is a phenomenon that is present on the Romanian territory especially from the perspective that we are still a country of origin rather than a destination country. This article aims at sizing, based on Eurostat records, the scale of the phenomenon, as well as various characteristics related to the countries of destination. The time horizon considered is 1998-2009.

  6. Political attitude and trade union membership in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Carsten Strøby

    2017-01-01

    Do political attitudes influence the likelihood of employees being members of a trade union, and to what extent is this the case in the Nordic countries with their high aggregate levels of membership? In this article, I address these questions using European Social Survey data from 2012...

  7. Assessment of African Swine Fever Diagnostic Techniques as a Response to the Epidemic Outbreaks in Eastern European Union Countries: How To Improve Surveillance and Control Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, R.; Soler, A.; Pelayo, V.; Fernández-Pinero, J.; Markowska-Daniel, I.; Pridotkas, G.; Nurmoja, I.; Granta, R.; Simón, A.; Pérez, C.; Martín, E.; Fernández-Pacheco, P.; Arias, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study represents a complete comparative analysis of the most widely used African swine fever (ASF) diagnostic techniques in the European Union (EU) using field and experimental samples from animals infected with genotype II ASF virus (ASFV) isolates circulating in Europe. To detect ASFV, three different PCRs were evaluated in parallel using 785 field and experimental samples. The results showed almost perfect agreement between the Universal ProbeLibrary (UPL-PCR) and the real-time (κ = 0.94 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.91 to 0.97]) and conventional (κ = 0.88 [95% CI, 0.83 to 0.92]) World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)-prescribed PCRs. The UPL-PCR had greater diagnostic sensitivity for detecting survivors and allows earlier detection of the disease. Compared to the commercial antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), good-to-moderate agreement (κ = 0.67 [95% CI, 0.58 to 0.76]) was obtained, with a sensitivity of 77.2% in the commercial test. For ASF antibody detection, five serological methods were tested, including three commercial ELISAs, the OIE-ELISA, and the confirmatory immunoperoxidase test (IPT). Greater sensitivity was obtained with the IPT than with the ELISAs, since the IPT was able to detect ASF antibodies at an earlier point in the serological response, when few antibodies are present. The analysis of the exudate tissues from dead wild boars showed that IPT might be a useful serological tool for determining whether or not animals had been exposed to virus infection, regardless of whether antibodies were present. In conclusion, the UPL-PCR in combination with the IPT was the most trustworthy method for detecting ASF during the epidemic outbreaks affecting EU countries in 2014. The use of the most appropriate diagnostic tools is critical when implementing effective control programs. PMID:26041901

  8. Determinants and prevalence of e-cigarette use throughout the European Union: a secondary analysis of 26 566 youth and adults from 27 Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardavas, Constantine I; Filippidis, Filippos T; Agaku, Israel T

    2015-09-01

    This study assessed the prevalence and determinants of e-cigarette use among persons aged ≥15 years in 27 European Union (EU) member countries during 2012. The 2012 Eurobarometer 385 (77.1) survey was analysed for n=26 566 respondents. Knowledge, perception of harm, and determinants of e-cigarettes use were assessed, while separate regression analyses among current (n=7352) and former cigarette smokers (n=5782) were performed. National estimates of the number of e-cigarette users were also extrapolated. 20.3% of current smokers, 4.7% of ex-smokers, and 1.2% of never cigarette smokers in the EU reported having ever used an e-cigarette (overall approximately 29.3 million adults). Among smokers, ever e-cigarette use was more likely among 15-24-year-olds (aOR 3.13, 95% CI 2.22 to 4.54) and 25-39-year-olds (aOR 2.00, 95% CI 1.47 to 2.78) in comparison to older smokers, and among those who smoked 6-10 cigarettes/day (aOR 1.53, 95% CI 1.10 to 2.13) or 11-20 cigarettes/day (aOR 2.07, 95% CI 1.52 to 2.81) in comparison to very light smokers (≤5 cigarettes/day). Moreover, e-cigarette use was more likely among smokers who had made a past year quit attempt (aOR 2.08, 95% CI 1.67 to 2.58). E-cigarette use among ex-smokers was associated only with the respondents' age, with younger ex-smokers being more likely to have ever used an e-cigarette. A substantial number of EU adults have ever used e-cigarettes. Ever users were more likely to be younger, current smokers, or past-year quit attempters. These findings underscore the need to evaluate the potential long term impact of e-cigarette use on consumer health, cessation and nicotine addiction and formulate a European framework for e-cigarette regulation within the revised EU Tobacco Product Directive. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Sustainability Begets Unsustainability?: The European Union's Drive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mandatory target for the European Union (EU) for the use of renewable energy in transport by the year 2020 has created a situation where the African continent has witnessed a number of European agricultural firms gaining access to large tracts of land in order to grow crops for the production of agrofuels. This article ...

  10. A comparative approach to European Union citizenship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.A.N.J. Goudappel (Flora)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractAfter a short description of the theoretical and philosophical background of the notions of citizenship and nationality, the contents of European Union citizenship will be described. This notion of European Citizenship will then be compared to the notions of citizenship and nationality

  11. Economic Burden of Bladder Cancer Across the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leal, J.; Luengo-Fernandez, R.; Sullivan, R.; Witjes, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: More than 120000 people are diagnosed annually with bladder cancer in the 28 countries of the European Union (EU). With >40000 people dying of it each year, it is the sixth leading cause of cancer. However, to date, no systematic cost-of-illness study has assessed the economic impact

  12. The geographical distribution and prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis in animals in the European Union and adjacent countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksanen, Antti; Siles-Lucas, Mar; Karamon, Jacek; Possenti, Alessia; Conraths, Franz J; Romig, Thomas; Wysocki, Patrick; Mannocci, Alice; Mipatrini, Daniele; La Torre, Giuseppe; Boufana, Belgees; Casulli, Adriano

    2016-09-28

    This study aimed to provide a systematic review on the geographical distribution of Echinococcus multilocularis in definitive and intermediate hosts in the European Union (EU) and adjacent countries (AC). The relative importance of the different host species in the life-cycle of this parasite was highlighted and gaps in our knowledge regarding these hosts were identified. Six databases were searched for primary research studies published from 1900 to 2015. From a total of 2,805 identified scientific papers, 244 publications were used for meta-analyses. Studies in 21 countries reported the presence of E. multilocularis in red foxes, with the following pooled prevalence (PP): low (≤ 1 %; Denmark, Slovenia and Sweden); medium (> 1 % to  10 %; Czech Republic, Estonia, France, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia, Liechtenstein and Switzerland). Studies from Finland, Ireland, the United Kingdom and Norway reported the absence of E. multilocularis in red foxes. However, E. multilocularis was detected in Arctic foxes from the Arctic Archipelago of Svalbard in Norway. Raccoon dogs (PP 2.2 %), golden jackals (PP 4.7 %) and wolves (PP 1.4 %) showed a higher E. multilocularis PP than dogs (PP 0.3 %) and cats (PP 0.5 %). High E. multilocularis PP in raccoon dogs and golden jackals correlated with high PP in foxes. For intermediate hosts (IHs), muskrats (PP 4.2 %) and arvicolids (PP 6.0 %) showed similar E. multilocularis PP as sylvatic definitive hosts (DHs), excluding foxes. Nutrias (PP 1.0 %) and murids (PP 1.1 %) could play a role in the life-cycle of E. multilocularis in areas with medium to high PP in red foxes. In areas with low PP in foxes, no other DH was found infected with E. multilocularis. When fox E. multilocularis PP was >3 %, raccoon dogs and golden jackals could play a similar role as foxes. In areas with high E. multilocularis fox PP, the wolf emerged as a potentially important DH. Dogs and cats could be irrelevant in the life

  13. European Union Financial Crisis: a Marxist Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Farneubun, Petrus K.

    2016-01-01

    European financial crisis poses a serious challenge to the fundamental structure of the European Union, political and financial institutions, as well as the values that bind European together. Different factors have been suggested as the causes of the crisis notably the failure of national government and economic policies. Responding to the crisis, numerous attemps have been proposed to accelerate the recovery, but the crisis still hit Eurozone and brought serious consequences politically and...

  14. Economic Cooperation Between The European Union And Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drzymała Agnieszka

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to show the history of economic relations between the European Union and Japan. This economy is very important to the EU and the countries of the EU are interested in further deepening areas of cooperation. Therefore it seems important to indicate the political will to continue mutual economic relations through the signing of contracts and bilateral agreements, as well as meetings at various levels, including SPA and EPA negotiations and summits. The course of the current economic cooperation will be shown through trade volume and foreign direct investment outflows from the European Union to Japan.

  15. The new architecture of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radivojević Zoran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Lisbon Treaty has brought significant changes into the architecture of the European Union. The most important novelty, however, is the establishment of a full unity of the Union structure achieved by creating new and strengthening the existing elements. The new elements of this unity are the disappearance of the European Community, the 'independence' of the European Atomic Energy Community, constituting the European Union as a single entity and the introduction of EU values. At the same time, the Lisbon Treaty has strengthened the existing elements of the common institutional mechanisms, rules on amending the founding treaties and EU membership. However, constituting the Union as a single entity which has replaced and succeeded the European Communities has not abolished the EU elements of diversity. In the areas that differed, even before the adoption of the Lisbon Treaty, from the community pillar, there remain significant differences in the nature and the scope of competences of the Union institutions. This mainly regards the common foreign and security policy, which now includes the defense policy, where the existing model of inter-state cooperation has been only slightly interfered with. In contrast, in the field of police and judicial cooperation in criminal matters, which has become part of a larger Area of Freedom, Security and Justice, the inter-state model of cooperation has been abandoned in some of its most important elements. However, the implementation of some of the important elements of the supranational model has been postponed.

  16. Age Discrimination Against Older Workers in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Drury

    1994-01-01

    This paper aims to define the concept of age discrimination, to illustrate examples of age discriminatory practices across the European Union, and to describe some positive public policy measures to combat age discrimination.It draws on the results of the first European-wide study of age discrimination against older workers.1 National experts from 11 Member States of the EU examined various forms of age discrimination in their own country. More detailed information is needed, particularly on ...

  17. ANALYSIS OF LABOUR MARKET IN ROMANIA AND THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanase Diana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at analysing the labour market, one of the most complex forms of market in economy. The present work forwards a comparative survey regarding the labour market in Romania and in the other European Union member states. The paper starts by highlighting general aspects related to labour market and continues by the presentation of the European Union countries’ ranking according to the labour market efficiency, top elaborated on the basis of the World Economic Forum data. Furthermore, the paper analyses labour productiveness, employment rate and unemployment rate both in Romania and in the other countries of the European Union. In the end the authors forward conclusions regarding the possibilities of increasing competitiveness on Romania’s labour market.

  18. EUROPEAN UNION POLICIES FOR CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Canter

    2017-01-01

    Climate change is one of the most important challenges that humanity faces in the 21st century, and for the European Union, combating this phenomenon represents an important element, which is reflected both in the actions carried out in recent years, domestically and internationally, as well as in the EU policy on climate change. Within the EU, regulations were adopted, that demonstrate the importance that the Union confers to the limitation of this phenomenon, stressing at the same time the ...

  19. IEA energy policies review: the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-09-04

    For the first time, the IEA has reviewed the energy policies of the European Union which shape the energy use of almost 500 million citizens in 27 EU member countries. A unique entity governed under complex and almost constantly evolving structures, the EU constitutes a challenge for energy policy makers. Its energy policy has a global impact, not only because of its 16% share of world energy demand, but also because of the EU leadership in addressing climate change. Strong policy drives are underway in the EU to achieve the completion of the internal energy market, increase renewable energy supply, reduce CO2 emissions and make the EU more energy-efficient. Concerns about security of supply have also led to a greater focus on improved energy relations with supplier countries, and new institutional structures are being put in place. How much progress has been made in the field of security, internal market and external energy policies? And in which of these areas has the EU already implemented a fully integrated policy? This publication addresses these questions and also analyses the impact of the most recent major EU policy measures, in particular the Energy and Climate Package of January 2008 and the 3rd Liberalisation Package of September 2007. This book finds that both of these proposals are highly ambitious. But implementing them and reviewing both volume and allocation of energy R and D will be necessary to achieve a sustainable energy future in a fully competitive integrated EU energy market.

  20. Teenage fertility in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenet, L

    1996-05-01

    A large proportion of pregnancies which occur among women during their teenage years are unwanted. As such, the abortion rate is high among teenage pregnant women. Teenage women who choose to carry their fetuses to term run an excess risk of delivering premature and low birthweight babies. Teenage mothers often have not finished their studies and will find it difficult to remain in the educational system. There is a high rate of school dropout among teenage mothers. Moreover, they have limited job opportunities, especially in countries like the UK where child care facilities are scarce. Teenage fertility varies widely among the countries of the European Union (EU). In the UK, there are 32 live births per 1000 women aged 15-19, the highest rate in the EU. In the Netherlands, the rate of teenage fertility is only 4 live births per 1000 women aged 15-19 years. In the context of general delayed childbearing throughout the EU, the rate of teenage fertility in the UK has increased in recent years. A more holistic approach to family planning services, improved communication with teenagers, and more appropriate sex education programs are needed if the British government is to succeed in reducing by 50% the conception rate among women younger than age 16 years by the year 2000. An active policy to fight socioeconomic deprivation at the local level should also positively affect teenage fertility.

  1. The role of alcohol in the management of hypertension in patients in European primary health care practices - a survey in the largest European Union countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Jürgen; Prieto, Jose Angel Arbesu; Beier, Markus; Duhot, Didier; Rossi, Alessandro; Schulte, Bernd; Zarco, José; Aubin, Henri-Jean; Bachmann, Michael; Grimm, Carsten; Kraus, Ludwig; Manthey, Jakob; Scafato, Emanuele; Gual, Antoni

    2016-09-08

    Even though addressing lifestyle problems is a major recommendation in most guidelines for the treatment of hypertension (HTN), alcohol problems are not routinely addressed in the management of hypertension in primary health care. Internet based survey of 3081 primary care physicians, recruited via the mailing lists of associations for general practitioners (GPs) in France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the UK. Clinical practice, attitudes, knowledge, education and training were assessed. Logistic regression to predict screening, brief intervention and treatment for alcohol dependence in the management of hypertension were assessed. Overall, about one third of the interviewed GPs reported sufficient screening in cases with HTN (34.0 %, 95 % confidence interval (CI):32.1-35.8 %). One out of five GPs screened and delivered brief interventions in HTN patients with hazardous consumption (22.2 %, 95 % CI: 20.6-23.8 %) and about one in 13 GPs provided treatment for HTN patients with alcohol dependence other than advice or brief intervention (7.8 %, 95 % CI: 6.8-8.9 %). Post-graduate training and belief in their effectiveness predicted interventions. There were marked differences between countries. While current interventions were overall low, marked differences between countries indicate that current practices could be improved. Education and post-graduate training seems to be key in improving clinical practice of including interventions for problematic alcohol consumption and alcohol dependence in primary health care.

  2. Innovation Policy in European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta-Christina Suciu

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The innovation policies aim to analyze priority factors shaping innovative performance and to reflect the increasing appreciation of the economic and social importance of innovation. This paper is commissioned to examine topics of current interest or concern to innovation policy-makers in Europe. Based on literature and the framework of the European Action Plan for Innovation, this paper investigates different levels and fields of European innovational systems and practices.

  3. Federal and European Union Policy Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dosenrode, Søren

    By using the policy cycle approach, this paper compares the policy-process in a number of Anglo-Saxon type federations with the policy-process in continental-European style federations from within the European Union (EU) area.  The comparison would reveal: a) distinct different styles of policy...... making in European style federations in relation with the Anglo-Saxon ones. b) that the policy-process in the EU resembles that of the European style federations, and c) the Constitutional Treaty (CT) or a possible CT-light would strengthen the federal policy-making characteristics already present...

  4. The European Union: Stability Despite Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolle Michael

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The European Union has remained stable despite all its past and current challenges. This essay explores the reasons for that. We argue that the secret behind its stability lies in its system of negotiation. Against this backdrop, we analyse two recent challenges of the European Union. First, we show how domestically bound European governments were able to bring about a stable internationally negotiated solution for what became known as euro crisis. By means of game theory we boil down why the European Union remained stable even after havoc struck. Second, we analyze the dynamics behind the failed negotiations with Ukraine that have led to the current conflict. Thereby, the role of vested interest in negotiations for stability is emphasized. We prognosticate that due to the very same vested interests that led to the failure of the negotiations, Ukraine will remain united and return to stability in the mid-term. Finally, we conclude that, despite challenges like these, the European Union never experienced a crisis in terms of system theory since it never fell short to fulfil its purpose which is to allow for peaceful cooperative solutions.

  5. Is Bologna Working? Employer and Graduate Reflections of the Quality, Value and Relevance of Business and Management Education in Four European Union Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Jane; Higson, Helen

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the relevance of undergraduate business and management higher education from the perspectives of recent graduates and graduate employers in four European countries. Drawing upon the findings of an empirical qualitative study in which data was collated and analysed using grounded theory research techniques, the paper draws…

  6. Humanities in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Lasse Gøhler; Vikman, Jutta Maria; Liljenstrøm, Andreas Jan

    2017-01-01

    In the present paper, we analyze the publication strategies of researchers in the humanities, including their choices of language, publication type and co-authorship. Based on data from Denmark, we compare the publication profile of the humanities with the other major fields of science in 2012 an...... conjuncture of the European Union’s internationalization policies in the 1990s and 2000s and a change in the international scientific hierarchy during the 20th century has contributed to the universalization of English in the Danish (and European) scientific field....

  7. EUROPEAN UNION POLICIES FOR CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Canter

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is one of the most important challenges that humanity faces in the 21st century, and for the European Union, combating this phenomenon represents an important element, which is reflected both in the actions carried out in recent years, domestically and internationally, as well as in the EU policy on climate change. Within the EU, regulations were adopted, that demonstrate the importance that the Union confers to the limitation of this phenomenon, stressing at the same time the need for an integrated policy framework to ensure the security for potential investors and a coordinated approach between Member States. This paper will present recent developments for the most important policies to combat and mitigate climate change in the European Union, starting with "20-20-20" objectives, which are to be met through the package "Energy-Climate Change", continuing with 2030 and 2050 timeframes, and finally presenting the main lines of action to combat climate change.

  8. Consumer Sales guarantees in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiewiorowska, A.D.

    2011-01-01

    The thesis pursues three main aims. The first aim is to present the current legislative situation in the European Union and the process that led to accepting the assumptions concerning guarantees that laid foundations for the rules on the guarantee contained in the Consumer Sales Directive. The

  9. Framing Gender Intersections in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lombardo, Emanuela; Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the extent to which the emergence of an antidiscrimination policy in the European Union (EU) implies a shift in EU gender equality policies towards an intersectional approach. The frame analysis of EU gender equality policy documents shows that intersectional dimensions...

  10. The European Union: a strategic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieve Fransen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Union has developed policies and instruments that address – both directly and indirectly – sexual violence in conflict and beyond. Policy areas that are important in this respect include human rights, gender equality, development cooperation, humanitarian aid and conflict prevention.

  11. Regulatory pathways in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Manuela

    2011-01-01

    In principle, there are three defined procedures to obtain approval for a medicinal product in the European Union. As discussed in this overview of the procedures, the decision on which regulatory pathway to use will depend on the nature of the active substance, the target indication(s), the history of product and/or the marketing strategy.

  12. ANALYSIS OF EUROPEAN UNION LEGISLATION ON TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GRIBINCEA Lilia;

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available On June 27, 2014 there was signed an Association Agreement between the Republic of Moldova, on one hand and the European Union and the European Atomic Energy Community and its Member States, on the other hand (hereinafter - the Association Agreement. The Association Agreement entered into force on 1 July 2016. The signing of the Association Agreement was as a result of the close ties between the parties established by the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement between the European Communities and their Member States, on the one hand, and the Republic of Moldova on the other hand, which develops within the European Neighborhood policy and the Eastern Partnership, as well as recognition of the shared desire of the parties to further develop, strengthen and expand their relationships. The Association Agreement contributes to the development of trade and economic relations between the parties. The Republic of Moldova is obliged to take necessary measures to ensure compliance with the objectives of Union's regulations and to follow the principles and practices set out in the relevant acquis of the Union. The Republic of Moldova will also gradually include relevant acquis of the Union in its legislation, in accordance with the provisions of the Association Agreement. The legislative background regulatory EU trade is subject studies only a small circle of researchers, approaches and sequential episodic in character, without being integrated into a systemic study, complex, integrated. The objectives of the research are to analyze the most important EU regulations on trade.

  13. THE IMPACTOF THEMAFIAINITALIANECONOMYIN CRISISOF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Mancini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the extent of the financial activity of the Italian Mafia in the economy following the 2008 financial crisis. And pointed out as very relevant in support of the financial flows of the country and its trade relations with Europe.The expansion of financial activity mafia accompanies the integration of markets, with the possibilities of creating companies in sectors with high profitability enough to justify moving the capital. The paper presents empirical evidence of the impact of the mafia in economic variables. The results will be compared and in dialogue with the literature on organized crime and its economic effects. In the European Union, Member States are faced with the additional challenge of analyzing the issue from the perspective of which core values are being put at risk by crime, and if these values are the sum of the values of the members, or the EU represents a set unique values. Themes, from which are questioned failures of public institutions that contribute to the support and expansion of organized crime.

  14. LABOUR TAXATION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabau-Popa Liviu Mihai

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes an analysis, which we consider extremely useful in the current economic context, of the evolution of labour income fiscality, more precisely, the effect of the public debt growth on the tax wedge for the labour income. The share of fiscal revenues from direct taxes, indirect taxes and social contributions is relatively close in the old member states of the European Union in comparison with the new member states, which register a lower level of income from direct taxes. The low level of income from direct taxes is compensated by more significant shares of the social contributions or indirect taxes. The main motivations of cross-border migration are: a successful career in a multinational corporation, high variations of the tax rate, of the salary income between states and, last but not least, the level of the net salary. To this day, there are no plans to harmonize across the European Union the legislation regarding the taxes wages and the social security contributions. Still, the European Union had in view the coordination of the national tax systems to make sure that the employees and the employers do not pay several times the social contributions in their movement across the community space. Despite the fact that some states tax the labour income at a low level, the labour fiscality remains high in the European Union in comparison with other industrialized economies, probably also due to the fact that the majority of the member states have social market economies. The increase of the fiscality level for the labour income determines the decrease of the employment rate and the raise of the unemployement rate. The solution to guarantee a higher employment rate, which is a target of the European Union Strategy Europe 2020 could be the relaxation of the labour income fiscality by transferring the tax wedge on the labour income towards property or energy taxation.

  15. RENEWABLE ENERGY STRATEGIES: WHERE EUROPEAN UNION HEADED?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADULESCU IRINA GABRIELA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The states from European Union must take advantage from renewable energy sources in order to revive the economy. Climate change creates new jobs and could reduce energy imports which would stimulate the economy of those states. The European Union should support research in the field, apply more efficient policies in energy, and create economies of scale to get an integrated European energy market in which the main actors can reduce the cost of production of renewable energy. In addition, it is possible to use the comparative advantages of the Member States and not only, like Greece, through solar energy, Southern Mediterranean, through distribution networks interconnections with EU, Russia and Ukraine, through biomass and the North Sea, through wind energy. This paper refers to the evolution and trends of the renewable energy sources and presents some scenarios of it.

  16. Fiscal policy surveillance in the enlarged European Union: Procedural checks or simple arithmetic?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendijk, Nico; Batten, Jonathan A.; Kearney, Colm

    2006-01-01

    In its recommendation on the 2004 update of the Broad Economic Policy Guidelines (BEPGs), the European Commission (2004) issued country-specific recommendations for fiscal policy in the Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries that have recently joined the European Union (EU) (henceforth the

  17. DEVELOPMENT STAGE OF RETAIL TRADE IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catana Adina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available According to Karel De Gucht, Trade Commissioner from the European Commission, trade is working for Europe's economic recovery by ensuring growth and jobs. The European renewed trade strategy will open markets and connect Europe to the main sources and regis of global growth. The aim is to ensure that European business gets a fair deal and that countries’ rights are respected so that all can enjoy the benefits of trade. Thanks to the ease of modern transport and communications, it is now easier to produce, buy and sell goods around the world which gives European companies of every size the potential to trade outside Europe. This paper’s objective is to analyse the development stage of the European Union’s retail, and its member countries. The study is based on the research taken in the project of PhD research with the theme: The impacts of Economic Integration on Romanian Retail. For my research I used data from Eurostat, National Statistical Institute, European Union official website In the past 10 years, the volume of retail trade in EU member states has increased, but the extent of the changes varies substantially from one country to another.

  18. Is Bologna working? Employer and graduate reflections of the quality, value and relevance of business and management education in four European Union countries

    OpenAIRE

    Andrews, Jane; Higson, Helen

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the relevance of undergraduate business and management higher education from the perspectives of recent graduates and graduate employers in four European countries. Drawing upon the findings of an empirical qualitative study in which data was collated and analysed using grounded theory research techniques, the paper draws attention to graduates' and employers' perceptions of the value of higher education in equipping students with discipline-specific skills and knowled...

  19. Costs of Real-Life Endovascular Treatment of Critical Limb Ischemia: Report from Poland-A European Union Country with a Low-Budget Health Care System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzanowski, Marek; Drelicharz, Lukasz; Belowski, Andrzej; Partyka, Lukasz; Sumek-Brandys, Barbara; Ramakrishnan, Piravin Kumar; Nizankowski, Rafal

    2016-02-01

    To analyze the costs of inhospital, percutaneous treatment of patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI) carried out in Poland, a European Union country with a low-budget national health system. A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data on all patients admitted to a tertiary care hospital for endovascular treatment of CLI over 1 year. A single, large volume, tertiary angiology center located in Southern Poland. CLI patients due to aortoiliac, femoropopliteal, or infrapopliteal arterial stenoses or occlusions with indications for first-line endovascular therapy or similar patients who refused open surgical procedure despite having primary indications for vascular surgery. Direct stenting using bare-metal stents was the primary mode of treatment for lesions located within the aortoiliac and femoropopliteal arterial segments. Plain old balloon angioplasty (POBA) was the second most commonly used technique. For below-the-knee arteries, POBA was the mainstay of treatment, which was occasionally supported by drug-eluting stent angioplasty. Directional atherectomy, scoring balloon angioplasty, or local fibrinolysis was used infrequently. Drug-eluting balloon percutaneous transluminal angioplasty was not used. The main outcome measures were the mean reimbursement of costs provided by the Polish National Health Fund (NHF) for inhospital treatment of patients for whom endovascular procedures were performed as initial treatment for CLI and the inhospital costs of endovascular treatment calculated by the caregiver in the 2 years since the first procedure. The average total number of days spent in hospital, amputation-free survival (AFS), overall survival (OS), and limb salvage rate (LSR) according to a life-table method were also calculated for the 2 years. In the first year, there were 496 endovascular and 15 surgical hospitalizations for revascularization procedures to treat 340 limbs in 327 patients, with a further 53 revascularization procedures in the

  20. European Union: US Hegemonic Competitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-12-01

    announced by Descartes degenerates to the pseudo-materialistic consumo ergo sum.”98 One major point in this development is that both on the national...initial 41 measures, 16 have now been finalized. 318 NAFTA includes Canada, the United States, and Mexico . 319 Krueger, Anne O. NAFTA’s Effects: A...cost production in the partner country. 87 NAFTA was controversial in both Mexico and the United States from the moment it became a strong political

  1. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE COMMITTEES IN EUROPEAN UNION EMERGING ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Dumitrascu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to analyze the support committees of European Union emerging economies. The importance of good corporate governance is vital for an organization, especially in the emerging markets, fact that leads to a several perceived improvements of the entity, while being more trustable, open and transparent in relationship with all its stakeholders. In our demarche we started by choosing the emerging economies from European Union, which lead us to a sample consisting of the companies listed on Bucharest Stock Exchange, Sofia Stock Exchange, Warsaw Stock Exchange, Prague Stock Exchange, Budapest Stock Exchange, without taking into consideration a specific tier. In order to have a heterogeneous sample, we did eliminate the financial institutions from our research. This study is developed at European Union level and takes into consideration the following indices: BET® BUCHAREST EXCHANGE TRADING (Romania, SOFIX (Bulgaria, WIG 20 (Poland, PX (Czech Republic, BUX The Share Index of the Budapest Stock Exchange Co. Ltd. (Hungary. The data are extracted from the Annual Reports, Corporate Governance Codes, Comply or Explain Statement or the websites of the listed companies, from period 2007 - 2011. We choose this period, because we wanted to see the evolution of the corporate governance committees’ implementation from the period when the last countries from our sample joined the European Union since nowadays. Our conclusion is that we can not discuss about good corporate governance practices. Even so, we can observe from our investigation that the trend in this regard is encouraging. Like future research, we thought at developing our study by comparing the emerging economies from European Union with those outside this area. It is an interesting field of investigation, as every country has different regulations.

  2. Reindustrialization Process in European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre Prisecaru

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to support the economic growth and empolyment in EU European institutions have launches ambitious initiatives for a reindustrialization process based on new technologies and green energies. The aim is to increase the share of processing industry in GDP from 15.1% in 2013 to 20% in 2020 according to the objectives of Europe 2020 Strategy and also with those of other EU strategies and common policies. The focus will be laid on innovation and research activites, on supporting/financing SMEs and their internationalization, on the integration of EU firms into global value chains, on developing green energies, bio and key enabling technologies, on smart networks and on free trade and sustainable development.

  3. BANKING SUPERVISION IN EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Mihaela GUȚU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The need for prudential supervision imposed to banks by law arises from the action that banking market’s basic factors have. Therefore, it is about banks’ role in economy. The normal functioning of banks in all their important duties maintains the stability of banking system. Further, the stability of the entire economy depends on the stability of the banking system. Under conditions of imbalance regarding treasury or liquidity, banks are faced with unmanageable crisis and the consequences can be fatal. To ensure long-term stability of the banking system, supervisory regulations were constituted in order to prevent banks focusing on achieving rapidly high profits and protect the interests of depositors. Starting from this point, this paper will carry out a study on existing models of supervision in the European Union’s Member States. A comparison between them will support identifying the advantages and disadvantages of each of them.

  4. Fiscal policies in the European Union during the crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreiro Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the fiscal policies implemented in the European Union countries since the beginning of the current crisis. With this aim in mind we have analyzed separately the expansionary fiscal policies implemented at the first stage of the crisis and the fiscal consolidation policies that became widespread at the beginning of the current decade. Studying the content of the national fiscal policies (discretionary measures versus built-in stabilizers, revenue-based versus expenditure-based fiscal policies, the relationship existing between the size of the fiscal impulses-adjustments and the composition of these measures shows the significant differences between the fiscal policies implemented in the European Union countries.

  5. MEASURING THE STRUCTURAL BUDGET DEFICIT IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARJOCU ANA-MARIA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Changes to the institutional framework of the Treaty on Stability, Coordination and Governance put great emphasis on fiscal discipline in the European Union, especially for countries belonging to the Eurozone, but also for the accession countries. Surveillance of budgetary policies and the excessive deficit procedure are directions, which have to be followed, to meet debt limit and public deficit of gross domestic product, so as to fulfil fiscal and financial stability and economic integration. The objectives of this paper are to analyze, using the method of estimating the structural budget deficit, the EU Member State’s ability to fulfill the requirements of fiscal and financial stability. The findings of the scientific research and the methodology used shows the potential of the 28 member states of the European Union to fulfil the requirements for fiscal and financial stability

  6. Immigrant Entrepreneurship in Post-Socialist Countries of the European Union: Motives and Patterns of Entrepreneurship of Post-Soviet Immigrants in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Tepavcevic

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the relationship between migration, entrepreneurship, and foreign direct investments by focusing on entrepreneurial activities of post-Soviet (immigrants in Hungary in periods between 1991 and 2016. Post-Soviet migrants are in focus because between 1956 and 1989 the Soviet Union coercively kept Hungary in the Socialist bloc. Based on surveys and in-depth interviews, this paper reveals that there are considerable differences in patterns of entrepreneurship among post-Soviet immigrant entrepreneurs depending mostly on time of their arrival to Hungary. Similarly, motives for entrepreneurship among the first-wave migrants combine negative factors in the former Soviet Union with positive factors encountered in Hungary, while factors in Hungary recognized as positive by most post-Soviets prevail in motives for later waves of post-Soviet migration and entrepreneurship in Hungary. The paper also demonstrates that many relatively small investments have been conducted since 2000 by citizens of post-Soviet countries to Hungary. Some of them are transforming into an entrepreneurial activity, serving also as a basis for immigration to Hungary.

  7. Social and Cultural Effects of Romanian Migration in European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Raluca CRISTIAN; PÃDURE³U Elena; SORLESCU Mariana

    2010-01-01

    Migration is a complex process and phenomenon with a multi-dimensional and multi-motivational feature, which generated and continues to generate a series of challenges, costs and social benefits that need to be managed by each country facing this issue, according to the national and local social scale in the current context of globalization. European Union had been focusing mainly on a philosophy of no visas for work and travel for citizens thus dealing with different specific situations abou...

  8. Nuclear Energy and European Union; Energia nuclear y la Union Europea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picamal, B.

    2010-07-01

    The interest shown by the European Institutions in the energy debates, in which the nuclear energy is included as a key component within the energy mix, is obvious. Climate change and energy supply have pushed some countries to publicly express their interest for developing the nuclear energy. These positions are however in contradiction with some others within the European Union which are a lot more critical towards this type of energy and where face-out policies still prevail. Despite the fact that the use of the nuclear energy will remain within the competence of each Member State, the European Union will continue to play a prominent role in the development of an energy strategy based on a low carbon economy. (Author)

  9. Turkish Students’ Metaphors about the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gürbüz Ocak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this qualitative study was to examine and compare the metaphors of Primary School Secondary Level Students related to the European Union. A total of 399 Primary School Secondary Level students were involved in this study. In the form given to students for data collection, the students were asked to express their opinions about European Union. According to the data gathered, the metaphors of the participants were categorized into 8 groups. According to the analysis and the results of the study, the students tried to explain the EU with positive concepts such as development of future, democracy, freedom, success. However, they also produced negative metaphors like dead end, abyss, colonist, difficulty, utilitarian, blankness. This study used a phenomenological design. The data was collected through a semi-structured Interview Form. The data were analysed with content analysis.

  10. Policy-making in the European Union

    CERN Document Server

    Pollack, Mark A; Young, Alasadair R

    2015-01-01

    Constantly evolving, and with far-reaching implications, European Union policy-making is of central importance to the politics of the European Union. From defining the processes, institutions and modes through which policy-making operates, the text moves on to situate individual policies within these modes, detail their content, and analyse how they are implemented, navigating policy in all its complexities. The first part of the text examines processes, institutions, and the theoretical and analytical underpinnings of policy-making, while the second part considers a wide range of policy areas, from economics to the environment, and security to the single market. Throughout the text, theoretical approaches sit side by side with the reality of key events in the EU, including enlargement, the ratification of the Lisbon Treaty, and the financial crisis and resulting euro area crisis, exploring what determines how policies are made and implemented. In the final part, the editors consider trends in EU policy-makin...

  11. [European Union funds and clinical toxicology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiszniewiecka, Monika; Cejrowski, Daniel; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Since 2014 we are heading the third programming period of help from European Union (EU). The new budget will run until 2020. From common resources of EU, 106 billion euro will reach Poland, of which about 82.3 billion to cohesion policy, levelling differences of regional development. Clinical toxicology centres will be able to apply for funding under the allocation for the health service. Polish health service very actively benefited from EU funds in previous programming periods, between 2004-2006, and 2007-2013. Thanks to grants from the EU, a large number of health centres were built or renovated. Unfortunately the needs of hospitals, which were underinvested for many years, exceeded available funds according to UE programmes. Except investment projects, also projects training of health professionals were executed. In the current programming period European Union will still support projects aimed at health service. Clinical toxicology centres should have a try of using this period to fulfil their plans.

  12. Climate change in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Anda Veronica Dan

    2007-01-01

    It is now universally accepted that climate change is happening and that is caused by man’s behaviour. Global warming is accelerating and the average temperature is likely to rise up to 4 degrees by the end of this century if nothing is done. The European Union has risen the occasion by putting in place the world’s most famous ambitions global strategy for combating climate change.

  13. Internal Border Controls in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Carsten Willemoes; Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2012-01-01

    Recent events, involving inter alia France and Denmark, have stimulated renewed interest in the introduction of different forms of border controls at the internal borders within the European Union. These border control measures are aimed at checking either persons or goods or both. Against...... the background of these events, this article analyses the existing rules regulating controls of persons and goods, and explores how these rules may or may not stand in the way of introducing border controls at the European Union’s internal borders. These events have resulted in a call for reforms of the current...

  14. Protecting animals and enabling research in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I. Anna S.; Pinto da Silva, Sandra; Townend, David

    2016-01-01

    In 1986, European Directive 86/609/EEC, regulating the use of animals in research, was one of the first examples of common legislation to set standards for animal protection across the Member States of the former European Economic Community, now the European Union, with the aim of securing a level...... European playing field. Starting in 2002, a process of revising European animal experimentation legislation was undertaken, with one of its key aims being to ensure high standards of welfare for laboratory animals across Europe. This resulted in Directive 2010/63/EU, which has regulated this activity...... objectives of the directive, particularly with a focus on securing the same high standards of animal protection across member countries. The analysis focuses on three separate issues: (1) minimum standards for laboratory animal housing and care, (2) restrictions on the use of certain animal species, and (3...

  15. The Role of European Union Funds in Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian PĂUN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The European Union project initially started as a peaceful solution for war reconstruction in Europe. European countries decided to cooperate rather than compete in an aggressive way. At the beginning, this project supposed (involved market liberalization, trade barriers removals, market access improvement (initially for coal, steel, energy and, later, for all goods, services, workforce and capital. Unfortunately, in the last decades, all these Single Market facilities have been backed by redistributive schemes, protectionist mechanisms, social engineering, subsidies and facilities packed in so-called ”EU policies”. New ”European” institutions have been created, more and more funds have been involved to financially support this very complex redistributive intervention. The political dimension of the European Union project enhanced the economic dimension and constantly suffocated private markets and the economy. The “incomes” of the European Union that fuel its financial support are coming from taxes and/or inflation (better administered after the introduction of a Single Currency – the Euro. This paper will discuss the relevance of European Funds for economic development, especially for new members in this project.

  16. Has the European union achieved a single pharmaceutical market?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timur, Aysegul; Picone, Gabriel; DeSimone, Jeffrey

    2011-12-01

    This paper explores price differences in the European Union (EU) pharmaceutical market, the EU's fifth largest industry. With the aim of enhancing quality of life along with industry competitiveness and R&D capability, many EU directives have been adopted to achieve a single EU-wide pharmaceutical market. Using annual 1994-2003 data on prices of molecules that treat cardiovascular disease, we examine whether drug price dispersion has indeed decreased across five EU countries. Hedonic regressions show that over time, cross-country price differences between Germany and three of the four other EU sample countries, France, Italy and Spain, have declined, with relative prices in all three as well as the fourth country, UK, rising during the period. We interpret this as evidence that the EU has come closer to achieving a single pharmaceutical market in response to increasing European Commission coordination efforts.

  17. INDUSTRIAL POLICY IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petronela Nica

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The differences registered in the early 90s between the economy of the European Union as compared to the economies of the United States and Japan, in regards of growth rates, investment rates, R&D and innovation, international trade, etc., as well as the fast changes of the world economy determined the European Commission to issue the white paper on “Growth, Competitiveness and Employment”, underlining the meaning of the European economy’s competitiveness in the new conditions, and the legal frame for EU’s industrial policy was settled through the Treaty of Maastricht. The document was setting theobjectives, priorities and the six basic principles of the European industrial policy, in a unitary concept. In the spring of 2000, the European Council from Lisbon sets the objective of transforming the European Union in the most dynamic and competitive economy of the world, and, therefore, foresees a working agenda with specific actions going until the horizon of 2009. In December 2002, after EUs enlargement, the Commission forwards to the Council the document titled “Industrial Policy in an Enlarged Europe”, in which theindustrial development at the moment of new member states integration is analyzed, as well as the effects of EU’s enlargement over the industry, and it suggests actions for the future development of the sector. The industrial policy of the EU must offer solutions for industrial development, by answering the challenges concerning globalization, the technological and organizational changes, the increasing role of innovation and entrepreneurship, and the sustainable development taking into consideration the new socialrequirements. The development objectives set at European level cannot be reached without a tight interconnection of the industrial policy measures with those of some complementary policies, such as thecommercial policy, the single market policy, transport and energy policies, research and development policies

  18. The Relations Between Romania and European Union (1993-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian IVAN

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available With the collapse of the communism regimes in central and eastern Europe, the states from this area, among which Romania, expressed their aspiration to integrate in the big European family represented by the European Union. In this respect the European Union proposed “association agreements” to these countries, agreements to which Romania adhered in February 1993 (in 1995 Romania presented its request for admission in the EU. Further on, in 1997 Romania launched “The national program for the adoption of the acquis comunautaire”. An important moment for Romania has arrived at Helsinki during the meeting of the European Council (10-11 December 1999, which decided to organize bilateral intergovernmental conferences for all the 13 candidate states in order to begin the accession negotiations, which were opened by Romania on the 16th of February 2000. The Helsinki decision regarding the beginning of the admission negotiations with Romania was a political one; Romania having acute economical, juridical and administrative problems. In the European Commission 2003 country report regarding Romania, there are positive appreciations with regard to the fulfillment of the political criteria and for the progress made in the adoption of the acquis comunautaire as well as for the economical progress but Romania still did not receive the statute of functional market economy. On the other hand the malfunctions still persist in the domains of public administration, agriculture, justice and the fight against corruption.

  19. The Rise of a European Healthcare Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollaard, Hans; Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg

    2017-01-01

    Healthcare has only slowly appeared on the European Union’s (EU) policy agenda. EU involvement in policies concerning the organization, financing and the provision of diagnosis, care and cures to ill people developed along three fragmented tracks: (a) EU public health policies concerning the well......-being of all people; (b) the application of the free movement principle to national healthcare systems in particular by the EU’s Court of Justice (CJEU); and (c) the austerity packages and the stricter EU surveillance of national budgets since the debt crises. The key questions of this special issue...... are whether this fragmented EU involvement has now developed into a distinct European healthcare union, and if so what its driving forces have been. Thus, it explores how European integration in healthcare has moved forward despite widespread reluctance. It also examines the underexplored political dynamics...

  20. Fiscal policy in the European Union – present and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Ramona Mara

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the main trends of fiscal policy in the European Union, following the economic crisis impact and fiscal policy measures that were applied in this economic context. The study is focused in a few key areas: the evolution of fiscal policy captured by indicators measuring tax burden, public sector size analysis by quantifying public expenditure share in GDP and the evolution of budget deficits. Finally, the study watched correlations between fiscal policy and macroeconomic developments, identifying trends and anticipating possible solutions of fiscal policy to achieve the required coordinates of fiscal governance in the European Union. For realizing this study we use annual data from Eurostat Database for 2000-2010 for EU countries. The major findings of the study are the negative impact of the size of public sector on economic growth for EU and also for Romania and the increase of the tax revenue if the economic growth rates increase.

  1. The making of a European healthcare union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollaard, Hans; van de Bovenkamp, Hester M.; Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg

    2016-01-01

    that federalism offers the most fruitful way to do so because of its sensitivity to the EU’s institutional settings and to the territorial dimension of politics. The division of competences and national diversity of healthcare systems have been major obstacles for the formation of a healthcare union. However......, the EU obtained a role in healthcare through the impact of non-healthcare legislation, voluntary co-operation, court rulings, governments’ joint-decision traps, and fiscal stress of member states. The emerging European healthcare union is a system of cooperative federalism without much cost......-sharing. The healthcare union’s robustness is limited, also because it does not generate much loyalty towards the EU....

  2. Inmigrants from a country of the european union: Romanian inmigrants´social network, irregular inmigration and access to the labour market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Pajares

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Romanian immigration to Spain has been high in number and has taken place in a relatively short period of time, during which it has become the third most important immigrant group in statistical terms. The reasons behind this phenomenon stem from the living conditions in Romania as well as the particular characteristics of the Spanish labor market in recent years. It should be noted,however, that a side from these factors, it is the strong social network that has truly made possible such an intense migration dynamic.The social network constructed by the Romanians has some unique characteristics: there are few inner relationships, limited primarily to close family and friends, and it is weak in some aspects(except in the case of those belonging to religious minorities and the Roma people. Nonetheless, it is a useful network for labor insertion.Access to the labor market is produced via the «network»to the extent to which Romanians bring others into businesses or make initial contacts for them. In case studies, it has been observed that those Romanians arriving without a social network have a hard time finding work. The primary reason for this is that Romanian immigration has been channeled primarily through illegal means, thus initially entering the labour market in the submerged economy.Since January 1, 2007, the date marking the entry of Romaniain to the European Union, the Romanian community is the contingency with one of the highest rates of irregular immigration. Upon gaining recognition as EU community members, those immigrants who had previously found themselves in an irregular legal situation have been experiencing a change contradictory to their true legal status.

  3. THE LEGISLATIVE CONDITIONS IN EUROPEAN UNION IMPORT FOR SEAFOOD AND OTHER FISHERY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. STANCIU

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The European Union is by far the world’s biggest importer of fish, seafood andaquaculture products. Import rules for these products are harmonized, meaning thatthe same rules apply in all EU countries. For non-EU countries the EuropeanCommission is the negotiating partner that defines import conditions andcertification requirements. Also, for most countries with existing trade, the EuropeanCommission negotiates on behalf of the 27 Member States.

  4. Past and Current Paths to European Union Accession: Romania and Turkey a Comparative Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana-Camelia Dogaru

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Several decades ago, leaders of six European countries with an inclusive vision of Europe and strong courage started a construction without precedent, the European Union. The remarkable construction evolved not only concerning the number of the Member States, but also in terms of institutional and functional development. Nowadays, the European Union is one of the most important changing factor concerning the governance and the policy-making process at European level and not only, and there is no doubt that the EU will continue to grow as an increasing number of countries express interest in membership. This paper reveals in a comparative perspective the path to European Union Accession, and is based on documentary analysis, using strategy-level documents of the countries and the Progress Reports the European Commission provided during the past enlargement.

  5. Energy Cultures in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Rosicki, Remigiusz

    2016-01-01

    The main object of the analysis presented in the text was to point to and confirm the existence of special “energy cultures” in the European Union. In order to achieve this aim the use was made of research present in the literature, inter alia, in the publications containing statistical analyses by: (1) A. Pach-Gurgul, (2) P. Tapio and his research team – Banister, J. Luukkanen, J. Vehma i R. Willamo, also in a review, (3) Z. Łucki and W. Misiak. Compared with the invoked research, the timefr...

  6. A Monetary Union in Asia? Some European Lessons

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    Wyplosz Charles

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Monetary Union in Europe has been the natural response to the combined desire of stabilizing intra-European exchange rates and of lifting permanently all capital controls. The commitment to stable exchange rate has long been rooted in policymakers’ conviction that trade integration requires precise rules which eliminate the risk of misalignments, whether imposed by the markets or arranged by the authorities. The success in maintaining fixed-but-adjustable exchange rates within the EMS and next in adopting a single currency is largely due to the patient and progressive building institutions that became the uneasy repository of those parts of national sovereignty that have been abandoned. This experience suggests three lessons for current discussions about a monetary union in Asia. First, multilateral regional exchange rate arrangements are more conducive to an effective defense than indirect approaches like basket pegs. They probably require some limits to capital mobility. Second, adopting a single currency necessitates elaborate preparations that can only be underpinned by the gradual build up of collective institutions. Third, a monetary union requires some reasonable degree of real convergence. This implies starting with a core of sufficiently homogeneous countries. At this stage, starting with a monetary union in Asia would imply reversing the European sequencing, which started with a common market, moved on to the EMS, and liberalization of capital movements.

  7. Politics and Policies of Promoting Multilingualism in the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaine, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the politics of policies promoting multilingualism in the European Union (EU), specifically in light of the recently released European Union Civil Society Platform on Multilingualism. As the most far-reaching and ambitious policy document issued by the European Commission, the Platform warrants close scrutiny at a significant…

  8. Unsustainable Public Debt in a European Fiscal Union?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Kutasi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Some EU members faced years of crisis in the first half of the 2010s with an excessive initial public debt, but several others had broad room for fiscal timulus. However, the prolonged duration of the European economic depression expended public budgets, while exhausting stimulus policies and sovereign solvency. Meanwhile, one of the ways out of depression is a proposed centralization of the EU through fiscal union. Are the eurozone countries readyto participate in a risk pool in public finances? The study seeks to answer this question. The article presents the hypothesis that the sustainability of public finances deteriorated during the global and euro crisis in the majority of the eurozone member countries and in the EU, and this phenomenon is discouragingthe core countries from seeking the fiscal union. The analysis uses the Blanchard indicators of fiscal sustainability and the sovereign risk rating of the EURO-18 and EU-28 countries. The analysis presents as results a theoretical summary of fiscal sustainability, the development of fiscal sustainability in the EU member states, indicators of convergence or divergence of fiscal sustainability in the Community, and conclusions based on the indicators of the likelihood of a fiscal union.

  9. Closing the gender leadership gap: a multi-centre cross-country comparison of women in management and leadership in academic health centres in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, Ellen; Ovseiko, Pavel V; Kurmeyer, Christine; Gutiérrez-Lobos, Karin; Steinböck, Sandra; von Knorring, Mia; Buchan, Alastair M; Brommels, Mats

    2017-01-06

    Women's participation in medicine and the need for gender equality in healthcare are increasingly recognised, yet little attention is paid to leadership and management positions in large publicly funded academic health centres. This study illustrates such a need, taking the case of four large European centres: Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin (Germany), Karolinska Institutet (Sweden), Medizinische Universität Wien (Austria), and Oxford Academic Health Science Centre (United Kingdom). The percentage of female medical students and doctors in all four countries is now well within the 40-60% gender balance zone. Women are less well represented among specialists and remain significantly under-represented among senior doctors and full professors. All four centres have made progress in closing the gender leadership gap on boards and other top-level decision-making bodies, but a gender leadership gap remains relevant. The level of achieved gender balance varies significantly between the centres and largely mirrors country-specific welfare state models, with more equal gender relations in Sweden than in the other countries. Notably, there are also similar trends across countries and centres: gender inequality is stronger within academic enterprises than within hospital enterprises and stronger in middle management than at the top level. These novel findings reveal fissures in the 'glass ceiling' effects at top-level management, while the barriers for women shift to middle-level management and remain strong in academic positions. The uneven shifts in the leadership gap are highly relevant and have policy implications. Setting gender balance objectives exclusively for top-level decision-making bodies may not effectively promote a wider goal of gender equality. Academic health centres should pay greater attention to gender equality as an issue of organisational performance and good leadership at all levels of management, with particular attention to academic enterprises

  10. Pattern Persistence in European Trade Union Density: A longitudinal analysis 1950-97

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Checchi, D.; Visser, J.

    2001-01-01

    Using annual data on aggregate union membership and density in fourteen European countries, the authors examine the short-term and long-term determinants of the post-war pattern of union growth and decline in Western Europe since 1950. In an attempt to explain the observed convergence in trends and

  11. Corporate Negative Equity: The Evidence from the European Union

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    Natalia Mokhova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available After the Global Financial Crisis the frequency of reported losses of companies has increased significantly in countries of the European Union. Moreover, the financial leverage of companies have increased and even exceeded 100% in several countries. The reason of this development is negative equity that companies find themselves to report. At first sight negative equities are caused by accumulated losses from prior periods. However, there are some other reasons that can result in increasing negative equities in companies. They remain adequate as long as a company is able to pay its bills. Nevertheless, a company with negative equity is exposed to risks. This paper investigates whether the corporate negative equity is a sign of the future failure of a company. We examine non-financial manufactured companies from selected countries of the European Union within the period 2005–2012 from database Amadeus (Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Poland and Germany. By the means of comparison between negative and positive equities we applied descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation analysis. We find that in all surveyed countries the size positively influences the equity of companies. Other factors as profitability and growth opportunities do not influence the corporate equity. In addition the binary logistic regression analysis has been conducted based on the evidence from Czech companies. Our results indicate that negative equities are not a sign of bankruptcy or insolvency of a company. But the low profitability or low business activities (that are predictors of bankruptcy might lead to negative equities in the balance sheet.

  12. Possible Outcomes of Brexit for European Union Development

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    Nikolay Y. Kaveshnikov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses some implications of the Brexit referendum for institutional and political development of the European Union and for relations between the EU and the UK. The most obvious consequence of the referendum is the collapse of ideology of continuous and progressing development of integration. Instead of endless, irreversible, a priori beneficial for everyone integration process, the European Union has become an organization that does not have a Messianic goal and obliged to prove its usefulness in everyday life. EU systemic crisis will inevitably lead to a profound transformation of its institutional and political structure. After the British referendum, only two options are possible. First of all, partial deconstruction of the European Union. The idea that European integration has gone too far lies in the basis of this strategy. According to this logic, the single market is the main EU achievement. Return to the basics - this is a pragmatic approach to integration, which should replace attempts to fix rotten projects (like Euro or to achieve the unattainable (political Union. This option is hardly probable. Second option is transformation of the EU into the "core and periphery" system having the basis flexible integration. Over the past 20 years, flexibility transformed from temporary phenomenon into a permanent and formalized mechanism; its elements exist in many EU politics. Brexit would be able to accelerate significantly the formation of a cohesive core within the Eu. The core will not be homogeneous; it will include as governing structures: the German-French axis and a group of EU founding countries.

  13. The European Union Clearinghouse on Operating Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escrig, D.

    2015-07-01

    In the European Union, a regional network has been established to enhance nuclear safety through improvement of the use of lessons learned from Operating Experience. This network’s hub is located at the European Commission Joint Research Centre (JRC) in Petten, the Netherlands. This organisation is known as the European Clearinghouse on Operating Experience Feedback for Nuclear Power Plants. The ‘Clearinghouse’ is comprised of dedicated staff from JRC and member states that have joined the organisation. Membership is mainly composed of nuclear safety regulatory authorities and their Technical Support Organizations within the EU region. Its Centralised Office gathers nuclear safety experts performing the following technical tasks in support to the EU Member States: “Topical Studies” providing in-depth assessment of either articularly significant events or either families of events. Trend analysis of events in order to identify priority areas.Improvement of the quality of event reports submitted by the EU Member States to the International Reporting System jointly operated by the OECD-NEA and the IAEA.Reporting every three months the main events having occurred in NPPs. Database: a European central OE repository being developed in order to ensure long term storage of OE and to facilitate information retrieval. (Author.

  14. Making public offers in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Florentina Vasile (Epure

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available If a couple of decades ago, the external capital of the European corporations was obtained almost entirely by bank loans, in the present, the situation changed and the finance obtained by issuance of securities is more important. The most significant increase took place on the stock exchange where, in the last few years, the average annual increase of the volume of transactions was major. In these conditions, the problem of creating a standard framework and, consequently, more efficient at the level of the European Union became more stringent because it facilitates for the European corporations the access to the capital with lower costs. The European Commission regulated through some Directives the access to the capital markets and through the MiFiD Directive, major changes were brought with regards to the whole image of the financial markets. It is difficult to estimate accurately the impact that it will be brought by these changes. Maybe the "Bing Bang" notion, used already by part of the analysts, it is not the most suited, but surely the MiFiD Directive will form the catalytic agent of the significant changes of the markets.

  15. Impact of laws restricting the sale of tobacco to minors on adolescent smoking and perceived obtainability of cigarettes: an intervention-control pre-post study of 19 European Union countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, Mirte A G; Brandhof, Stephanie D; Monshouwer, Karin; Stronks, Karien; Kunst, Anton E

    2017-02-01

    To estimate the impact of introducing sales restriction laws in Europe by measuring changes in adolescent smoking prevalence and perceived obtainability of cigarettes over time in countries that have recently introduced sales restriction laws (intervention countries). These countries were compared with countries where such laws were already in force (control countries). The secondary aim was to test whether these trends differed between adolescents of higher and lower socio-economic position (SEP). Repeated cross-sectional data were used in a quasi-experimental pre-post design. Intervention countries raised tobacco sales restrictions to 18 years in 2007, 2008 or 2009. Control countries have had sales restrictions of 18 years since at least 2004. Nineteen European Union (EU) countries in 2007 and 2011. Data of 97 245 15- and 16-year-old adolescents from the 2007 and 2011 European Survey Project on Alcohol and other Drugs (ESPAD) surveys. Dependent variables were smoking status (weekly smoking versus non-smoking or less than weekly smoking) and perceived obtainability of tobacco (easy versus difficult). Key independent variables were time (2007 or 2011), intervention exposure (intervention or control country) and their interaction (time × intervention). Covariates included sex, SEP, the tobacco control scale (TCS), gross domestic product (GDP) and adult smoking prevalence. We did not find a difference in the change in smoking prevalence between intervention and control countries [odds ratio (OR) = 1.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.93-1.07]. However, sales restrictions were associated with a significantly greater decrease in perceived ease of cigarette obtainability in intervention countries (OR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.70-0.80). No significant differential effects between high and low SEP adolescents were found (OR = 1.01, 95% CI = 0.81-1.25). Laws prohibiting the sales of tobacco to minors in Europe do not appear to be associated with a reduction

  16. Education in European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petcu, N.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Education, vocational training and lifelong learning play a vital role in both an economic and social context. The paper herein aims to identify Romania’s place within the UE-countries, considering a series of general indices: total public expenditure on education as a percentage of GDP, private expenditure on education as % of GDP, annual expenditure on public and private educational institutions per pupil/student - by level of education, school expectancy, pupils and students, students - tertiary education, mobility of students in Europe, science and technology graduates, doctorate students in science and technology fields. Analysis methods: main components analysis, cluster analysis.

  17. Health law and policy in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Scott L; Hervey, Tamara K; Mackenbach, Johan P; McKee, Martin

    2013-03-30

    From its origins as six western European countries coming together to reduce trade barriers, the European Union (EU) has expanded, both geographically and in the scope of its actions, to become an important supranational body whose policies affect almost all aspects of the lives of its citizens. This influence extends to health and health services. The EU's formal responsibilities in health and health services are limited in scope, but, it has substantial indirect influence on them. In this paper, we describe the institutions of the EU, its legislative process, and the nature of European law as it affects free movement of the goods, people, and services that affect health or are necessary to deliver health care. We show how the influence of the EU goes far beyond the activities that are most visible to health professionals, such as research funding and public health programmes, and involves an extensive body of legislation that affects almost every aspect of health and health care.

  18. Democracy and Governance in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Jachtenfuchs

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available It is generally believed that internationalization undermines governance and democracy. This phenomenon has two dimensions. On the one hand, it is a real process which has to be understood. On the other hand, it constitutes a challenge for a number of concepts and theories in the social sciences as well as in law. These concepts and theories are often implicitly based on the idea of a sovereign nation-state. In consequence, it is difficult to conceptualize even the possibility of the transformation of the state as a result of internationalization. This general problematique is most strongly visible in the European Union which over time has developed into a political system of a new type. This system has enormous consequences on democracy and governance in its member states. The first part of the paper presents a view on the EU's political system which does not preclude the possibility of a fundamental transformation of governance and democracy in the EU by the choice of its basic concepts. The second part presents those features of the EU's political system which are most important for the future of democracy and governance. They are uneven Europeanization, permanent institutional change and new patterns of legitimation. The third part discusses two models of the European Union which might be the result of these processes. They represent two different mixtures of the institutionalization of governance and democracy. Both seem to be at least potentially stable forms of political organization but none of them can be reduced to the traditional forms of'state' and 'international organization'. The final part contains an assessment of the prospective development of the EU in the light of the central features of the EU and the system models discussed in the two previous section.

  19. PROBLEMS AND COSTS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION EXPANSION WITH OVER 27 STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Zaharioaie

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Once on his way to enlargement, the European Union has taken a road of no return. History has shown that all candidate countries have become a point of EU Member States. The question thus is not where you go to the European Union enlargement, but how it will look after the enlargement of the Union politically, economically and socially. The objective of this paper is to analyze potential problems and costs of enlargement beyond the 27 states. Thus, we performed an analysis on the implications of enlargement to the Balkans to Asia Minor and even to the former Soviet bloc countries.

  20. Management of migration flows in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Larisa Drugă

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available International migration can contribute to the economic growth of the European Union (EU as a whole, as well as provide resources for migrants and their home countries, and thus contribute to their development. It can be an opportunity, because it is a factor of human and economic exchange and enables people to achieve what they aspire to. However, there is a need to manage migration in a manner that takes account of Europe's reception capacity in terms of its labour market, housing and health, education and social services, while protecting migrants against possible exploitation by criminal networks.

  1. Challenges in diagnosing extrapulmonary tuberculosis in the European Union, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovic, I; Jonsson, J; Korzeniewska-Koseła, M; Chiotan, D I; Pace-Asciak, A; Slump, E; Rumetshofer, R; Abubakar, I; Kos, S; Svetina-Sorli, P; Haas, W; Bauer, T; Sandgren, A; van der Werf, M J

    2013-03-21

    In the European Union (EU) 72,334 tuberculosis (TB) cases were notified in 2011, of which 16,116 (22%) had extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB). The percentage of TB cases with EPTB ranged from 4% to 48% in the reporting countries. This difference might be explained by differences in risk factors for EPTB or challenges in diagnosis. To assess the practices in diagnosis of EPTB we asked European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) countries to participate in a report describing the diagnostic procedures and challenges in diagnosing EPTB. Eleven EU Member States participated and reports showed that in the majority EPTB is diagnosed by a pulmonologist, sometimes in collaboration with the doctor who is specialised in the organ where the symptoms presented. In most countries a medical history and examination is followed by invasive procedures, puncture or biopsy, to collect material for confirmation of the disease (by culture/histology/cytology). Some countries also use the tuberculin skin test or an interferon-gamma-release-assay. A wide variety of radiological tests may be used. Countries that reported challenges in the diagnosis of EPTB reported that EPTB is often not considered because it is a rare disease and most medical professionals will not have experience in diagnosing EPTB. The fact that EPTB can present with a variety of symptoms that may mimic symptoms of other pathologies does pose a further challenge in diagnosis. In addition, obtaining an appropriate sample for confirmation of EPTB was frequently mentioned as a challenge. In summary, diagnosis of EPTB poses challenges due to the diversity of symptoms with which EPTB may present, the low level of suspicion of clinicians, and due to the difficulty in obtaining an adequate sample for confirmation.

  2. Analysis of the Organ Offers Received From European Union Countries Before and After the Introduction of a Dedicated Information Technology Portal: The COORENOR/FOEDUS Portal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peritore, D; Rizzato, L; Di Ciaccio, P; Trapani, S; Carella, C; Oliveti, A; Rizzo, A; Nanni Costa, A

    2017-05-01

    To optimize the use of nontransplantable organs in their own territory, the European Commission, as part of a project led by Italy, has promoted the use of an information technology (IT) portal, the COORENOR portal, developed by the Czech Republic in 2012, which evolved to become FOEDUS in 2015. To evaluate the impact of the portal on our reality, we analyzed the number and type of offers received and organs imported in the previous 48 months (period A) as well as the 48 months after the introduction of the portal (period B). We also examined the origin and the offer mode. The offers received were 404 and 753, respectively, in the two periods, with 315 (41.8%) organs received through the portal. The organs transplanted were 53 and 64, respectively, in the two periods; 20 (31.2%) were sent through the portal. The most commonly offered organs are lungs (36.7% and 29.3% of offers in periods A and B, respectively). The most transplanted organ is the liver (59.4% and 45% of transplants in periods A and B, respectively). The use of the portal has gradually increased, growing from 16.4% of the offer mode in 2012 to 84.7% in 2016. The increase of offers related to the increase of donations and the attitude to the sharing of resources has determined an increase of 19.2% of total transplants, especially for certain types such as pediatric transplants. The portal, ensuring speed and simultaneity of offer, real time sharing of information and transparency of allocation, is also used for trade in the International Partnership Agreements. Therefore, transplants have been conditioned by the existing agreements with Greece, Malta, and the countries of the South Transplant Alliance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Patentability of genes: a European Union perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Paul

    2014-10-16

    Unlike the position in the United States following the recent Supreme Court decision in Myriad, in the European Union naturally occurring genetic sequences, whether of human or other origin, remain patent-eligible. Here the basis for such eligibility in legislation and in case law is explained. The utility of a sequence must be disclosed as a condition of eligibility, and requirements outlined in European Patent Office (EPO) and U.K. case law are discussed. A claimed sequence must also satisfy requirements of novelty and inventive step, the latter being considered primarily using the tests of "obvious to try" and reasonable expectation of success. From both positive and negative examples the significance of an identifiable difficulty supported by documentary and/or experimental evidence is apparent. Issues of priority and subject matter added by amendment during prosecution of an application can create unexpected problems given the narrow interpretation within the EPO of the identity of a disclosed sequence, and these problems are explored using as an example an opposition to a European patent covering BRCA1 gene sequences. Practical steps for the drafting of patent specifications to be filed in Europe are outlined. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  4. Winston Churchill And The European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troitiño David Ramiro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Given Winston Churchill’s influence and achievement as a writer, historian, adventurer, soldier, artist, and politician, his participation in the European integration process is crucial to understanding the entire scope of the project in its origins. Churchill was a fundamental voice promoting the Franco-British Union, a promoter of the European Communities, and an active participant of the Congress of Europe, embryo of the Council of Europe. This article analyzes Churchill’s view of European integration through his political speeches, in particular those delivered in Zurich and in The Hague, his ideas about the League of Nations and the United Nations, his understanding of the British Empire, and the special relations between the UK and the USA. His participation in the process of uniting Europe in its early stages provides us with essential information about the original plans for the creation of a united Europe and understanding the traditional British approach to the EU, including the current position of the conservative government led by Cameron.

  5. THE INTERFERENCE OF EUROPEAN UNION LAW WITH PUBLIC INTERNATIONAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROXANA-MARIANA POPESCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The European Union Law is an unique legal phenomenon developed in the process of European integration within the framework of the European Communities and the European Union; a result of the implementation of the supranational authority of the European institutions. The European Union law is a specific legal system having independent sources and principles that developed at the border-line of international law and domestic law of the EU’s Member States. The authonomy of the European Union law is affirmed by a case-law of the Court of Justice of the European Union.The European Union has its own legal order which is separate from international law and forms an integral part of the legal systems of the Member States. The legal order of the Union is founded on various different sources of law. The different nature of these sources has imposed a hierarchy among them. At the pinnacle of this hierarchy we find primary law, represented by the Treaties and general legal principles, followed by international treaties concluded by the Union and secondary law founded on the Treaties.

  6. Education in surveying branch under new conditions of European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Sedlák

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The state, development and especially the labour market data of surveying branch profession in a continue moving conditions of the European Union (EU and all the world are presented in the paper. According to the rule of CLGE (Comité de Liaison des Géomètres Européens – The Council of European Geodetic Surveyors and FIG (Fédération Internationale des Géomètres – International Federation of Surveyors, which present the highest European and world-surveying forum, the professions mainly in a field of surveying (land surveying, mine surveying, cartography, geographical information systems and real estate register are included into the surveying (geodetic branch. The labour market statistical data of the surveying branch profession and the education and other economic activities of the surveying sector in the particular membership countries of EU and the countries connected to EU since 1972 until 2000 are listed in the paper. Almost 25 million Euros were invested into the project of EU under the name: Gross National (European Product (GNP for a purpose to support and to make effective of the surveying sector in EU. This surveying sector has a downward trend in some economically most powerful countries of EU in last years.

  7. Un-National Normative Justification for European Union Foreign Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2011-01-01

    The European Union's foreign policy has traditionally been described in terms of national, supranational or transnational interests rather than being justified in terms of normative political theory. As European Commissioner Bonino declared over a decade ago, such differentiation between descript......The European Union's foreign policy has traditionally been described in terms of national, supranational or transnational interests rather than being justified in terms of normative political theory. As European Commissioner Bonino declared over a decade ago, such differentiation between...

  8. Political public relations in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the state of political public relations in the European Union by specifically focusing on reputation management and relationship management. Its arguments are based on a theoretical review of the literature of political public relations, reputation and relationship management......, and EU communication. The article suggests an in-depth examination of the nature of some of the EU’s major problems in political public relations, and contributes to a more nuanced understanding of the possibilities and limitations of applying reputation and relationship management constructs...... to a political context. The nature of the analysis is exploratory rather than definitive, and specific investigations are needed to thoroughly explore and better theorize political reputation and relationship management in various political contexts....

  9. DEBATE ON ROMANIA INTEGRATION IN EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana M. SÎRBU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the current state of Romanian integration into the European Union through the analysis of statistical data related to the absorption way of structural and cohesion funds available in 2007-2013 (absorption indicators and economic competitiveness indicators: Gross Domestic Product, employment rate, unemployment, population. In addition there are analyzed the structural and cohesion funds available for Romania in 2014-2020, for each category of available operational program and also the measures that must be implemented for Romania to adapt in a performance way to Europe 2020. The analysis results are considered as prerequisites for the development of an underlying model of investment decisions in the integrated sustainable development of Romania.

  10. PAPER AND PAPERBOARD INDUSTRY IN EUROPEAN UNION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadri Cemil Akyüz

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Turkey should benefit from its own resources by realizing their value in the period that it turned its face to Europe. Therefore, the economical potential of the country should be analyzed thoroughly. Knowing its own strength and taking the necessary steps to this effect in order to take the fullest advantage of the strength are of vital importance for the countries in attaining the development level. Within the existing potential, the necessary importance and support should be given to small and medium enterprises that are forming the most effective part of the economic life and to the forest products industry which has a significant position among these enterprises. In this study, certain product groups belonging to paper and paperboard industry situated in forest products industry were discussed what situation they are in Turkey and European Union countries and competition position. In this context, hierarchical cluster analysis and discriminant analysis being of multidimensional statistical methods were used.

  11. AN OVERVIEW OF FISCAL CONSOLIDATION PROCESS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

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    Iulia Andreea Bucur

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to explore, based on theoretical and empirical research in the field and on data available on Eurostat and European Commission, in the context of financial significant imbalances and thus of the financial stress in the EU countries and especially in the Euro area, the main developments in the fiscal consolidation process given the fiscal effort of each country towards fiscal union. Since the financial crisis started in 2008, many EU Member States demonstrates an obvious macroeconomic imbalance which requires increased responsibility regarding fiscal developments. The impact of the crisis and the causes of sovereign debt high levels trends varied between EU countries as well as the budget deficit levels. Thus, the main priority for EU members must be the continuation of differentiated fiscal consolidation, given the specificities of each economy, favoring growth. The medium-term fiscal policy needs to focus on consolidating public finances along with restoring long-term sustainability.

  12. The European Union – Caribbean Relation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Morten

    2016-01-01

    EU diplomats consider the Caribbean countries to be allies and therefore expect these countries to support the EU in international affairs – but they find that this support has been waning in recent years. Caribbean diplomats and politicians do not share the European viewpoint. Rather, they take ...... the view that the EU has forgotten its Caribbean allies and instead channels its attention and funding towards Sub-Saharan Africa. This article examines to what extent this asserted ‘rift’ really signals a profound change in the EU-Caribbean relations....

  13. NEW OFFSHORE LOCATIONS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADULESCU IRINA GABRIELA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The offshore activity provides benefits for the host market and has positive effects on services, and on producers that use intermediate services. FDI in services has an important impact on the offshore activity, especially through transfer of technology. Many transnational companies have recognized the advantages of offshoring and the fact that it becomes a key globalization force. Recently, the Central European countries have become popular destinations among offshoring

  14. The European Union Response to Regional Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    into force of the Lisbon Treaty. (Cuadernos de Estrategia , 145-B. Spanish Institute for Strategic Studies, 2010), 18. 4 Felix Arteaga, The European...Security and Defense Policy after the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty. (Cuadernos de Estrategia , 145-B. Spanish Institute for Strategic...Lisbon Treaty. (Cuadernos de Estrategia , 145-B. Spanish Institute for Strategic Studies. 2010), 37. 15 ENP regulates the EU’s relations with countries

  15. The costs of the Kyoto Protocol in the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viguier, L.L. [MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, Cambridge, MA (United States); University of Geneva (Switzerland). Logilab-HEC; Babiker, M.H.; Reilly, J.M. [MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2003-04-01

    We estimate reference CO{sub 2} emission projections in the European Union, and quantify the economic impacts of the Kyoto commitment on Member States. We consider the case where each EU member individually meets a CO{sub 2} emissions target, applying a country-wide cap and trade system to meet the target but without trade among countries. We use a version of the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, here disaggregated to separately include nine European Community countries and commercial and household transportation sectors. We compare our results with that of four energy-economic models that have provided detailed analyses of European climate change policy. In the absence of specific additional climate policy measures, the EPPA reference projections of carbon emissions increase by 14% from 1990 levels. The EU-wide target under the Kyoto Protocol to the Framework Convention on Climate Change is a reduction in emissions to 8% below 1990 levels. EPPA emissions projections are similar to other recent modeling results, but there are underlying differences in energy and carbon intensifies among the projections. If EU countries were to individually meet the EU allocation of the Community-wide carbon cap specified in the Kyoto Protocol, we find using EPPA that carbon prices vary from 91 US dollars in the United Kingdom to 385 US dollars in Denmark; welfare costs range from 0.6% to 5%. (author)

  16. Regulatory Regionalism and Education: The European Union in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the purchase which Jayasuriya's regulatory regionalism approach offers for an analysis of the European Union's engagement in Central Asia. The European Union has a clearly articulated strategy through which to pursue what it sees as its interests in Central Asia and the development of a range of EU-Central Asia education…

  17. Geriatric medicine in the European union : Unification of diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hastie, IR; Duursma, SA

    The numbers of older people in the European Union are increasing and, with their associated healthy needs, there is a requirement for the speciality of Geriatric Medicine to be available throughout Europe. At present, specialists in Geriatric Medicine are not recognised in some of the European Union

  18. the effect of the european union (mpp6) infrastructural development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. The study examined the effect of the European Union infrastructural development on the productivity of food crop farmers and ... Key words: rural infrastructure, agricultural productivity, infrastructural index, European Union Micro Project Program .... state is characterized by tropical climate with high humidity and ...

  19. Ecological taxes in some European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Sanja

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Production and consumption of fossil fuels is one of the major causes of the green house effect, which is in economics known as a form of ecological externality. Fiscal solution, as one way of internalization of externalities, is based on polluters-pay principle and the imposition of tax on emission. Although the implementation of ecological tax was intensified during the previous decade, fiscal revenues are modest and account for only 5% of the total fiscal revenues of the European Union. Taxes on energetic products, accounting for 76%, are dominant among ecological taxes. Since the EU Directive 82/92 imposes minimum excise rates on oil products, during the last decade Central Eastern European countries have increased excise rates on fossil fuels and fully engaged in the field of ecological policy.

  20. COMPARATIVE REVIEW OF TAXES IN THE EUROPEAN UNION DURING THE PERIOD 1995-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen UNGUREANU

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The tax burden has constantly increased in the countries of the European Union at the end of the 90’s, largely reflecting an expansion of the public sector. During that period, many EU countries adopted measures to lower taxes, but the tax system level is still high compared with other countries. The mix of tax policies is very different from country to country.

  1. The European Union and its Neighbours:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Chilosi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the status of the European Neighbourhood Policy in the light of the new Financial Perspective 2007-2013 and of the present internal state of the European Union. Even if in theory the ENP could have been a valid substitute for enlargement, it does not seem to have reached its aim of providing an adequate surrogate for full membership. Considering the figures of the new Financial Perspective 2007-2013, the issue of market access, and the internal power dynamics of the EU, we see that it is hardly conceivable that the ENP could ever give to its neighbours the same economic advantages that membership gives to the poorer members of the EU. Another controversial aspect is the clear asymmetric nature of the ENP, whereby the payoff for neighbours is conditioned on their “good behaviour”, thus amounting to a form of soft imperialism. While ENP tries to establish a comprehensive and coherent framework of the EU’s relations with its neighbourhood, the actual behaviour of EU towards its neighbours is shown to present some inconsistences due to political expedience and pragmatic concerns. The consideration of some related basic issues of EU institutional reform, such as the weakening of the powers of the member states, or the introduction of some intermediate forms of partial membership, concludes the paper.

  2. STUDY REGARDING THE LEGISLATIVE CONDITIONS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION IMPORT FOR FRESH MEAT AND MEAT PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    Stanciu, S

    2013-01-01

    The European Union is by far the biggest importer of food worldwide. Import rulesfor meat and meat products are fully harmonized and the European Commissionacts as the competent authority on behalf of the 25 Member States. The EUCommission is the sole negotiating partner for all non-EU countries in questionsrelated to import conditions for meat and meat products.

  3. Turkey’s Road to European Union Membership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Mărgărit

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of Turkey to become member of the European Union has raised numerousdebates and concerns. Even the founding principle of unity in diversity seems to be challenged by thepossibility of Turkish accession as this country possesses several features that are different from therest of EU member states. Opinions related to Turkey EU membership are often divergent, each siderelying on their own arguments. Proponents argue that Turkey is a regional power with a largeeconomy and a strong military force that will enhance EU's position as a global geostrategic player.On the other hand, opponents emphasize the demographic projections which indicate that, in aroundten years, Turkey will become EU’s most populous state. They also draw attention upon Turkey’sdifferent cultural and religious background. Objectives: This paper is focused on revealing keyaspectsof EU-Turkey relations in the context of accession negotiations. Furthermore, the paperpresents the image of Turkey as a candidate country, emphasizing the opinion of officials but also theview of citizens, both from the European Union and Turkey. Approach: The paper is based onreviewing and analysis of existing research on the topic, including web-based documentation,statistics, press reports, EU reports.

  4. An alternative energy scenario for the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, M. [Sustainable Environment Consultants Ltd. (SENCO), Colchester (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    The proposed National Emissions Ceiling directive to control acidification and ozone will mean EU emissions of carbon dioxide will rise by 9%, contradictory to Kyoto commitments. Alternative energy strategies including demand management, energy efficiency and low carbon fuels are explored in this report. In addition to abating greenhouse gas emissions, these strategies can facilitate cheaper and greater abatement of other atmospheric pollutants as compared to 'official' scenarios. The given objective was to produce scenarios in which the total emission of carbon dioxide from the fifteen countries of the European Union is reduced by 15% over the period 1990 to 2010. To this end scenarios, called Carbon 15, have been produced for each of the fifteen EU countries taking into account recent historical data and assumed economic and population growth. It is concluded that the Carbon 15 scenarios are technically feasible. The level of demand management is such that, even though natural gas increases its market share, the total European Union consumption of natural gas does not increase very much. It is argued that the Carbon 15 scenarios are economically feasible in that the end use measures are cost effective as against conventional energy supply, and there is no requirement for a large expansion of the supply of any conventional primary fuel. 20 refs., 22 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Aspects concerning counterfeiting and piracy in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabor, S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The global problem of counterfeiting and piracy has increased in European Union though there are special laws defending Intellectual Properties Rights. The aim of this paper is to point out the aspects on the topic of counterfeiting and piracy inside the European Union Single Market. Analysing the information gathered, we can conclude that there are evident facts of growing and increasingly dangerous phenomena in the European Union, with significant impact on the economic and social sectors. European Commission is the one that identifies strategies and effective practices to help rightful owners protect their Intellectual Property Rights.

  6. The Rise of Right-Wing Extremism in European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevkovski Ljupcho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is a fact that in the European Union there is a strengthening of right-wing extremism, radical right movement, populism and nationalism. The consequences of the economic crisis, such as a decline in living standards, losing of jobs, rising unemployment especially among young people, undoubtedly goes in favor of strengthening the right-wing extremism. In the research, forms of manifestation will be covered of this dangerous phenomenon and response of the institutions. Western Balkan countries, as a result of right-wing extremism, are especially sensitive region on possible consequences that might occur, since there are several unresolved political problems, which can very easily turn into a new cycle of conflicts, if European integration processes get delayed indefinitely.

  7. The Governance System of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin M. Ionescu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The European governance is an institutional arrangement enabling the cooperation and the competition among the states, the individuals and the pressure groups looking to maximize their welfare. The European governance system is a multi-level non-hierarchical structure, and authority is shared among the supranational bodies, as well as among the latter and the Member States. The structure of the European governance system is influenced by the need to achieve a political balance among the stakeholders, in the environment of a permanent conflict among the public interest regulations and the “captive” regulations (George J. Stigler1 , the latter being determined by the rent extraction rent seeking. In this short analysis I describe the European governance, taking into account the policy-making framework under, “Two-pack”, “Sixpack”, and the Treaty on Stability, Coordination and Governance in the Economic and Monetary Union (TSCG that increases the power of the supranational bodies2 . For this purpose I embarked on two different approaches: the economic theory of regulation (G. Stigler, G. Tullock, S. Peltzman, R.Posner and the normative theories on power distribution. For the time being there is no bridge between these two theories. However, in the specialised literature, the approach to European governance system is mainly based on the normative theories on power distribution (the integration theories. The economic theory of regulation expresses the economic rationale of the decisions made by the EU supranational bodies and by the Member States at national level. This theory also helps the understanding of the behaviour at the supranational level of certain states whenever they negotiate economic policies with regard to currency, energy, tax coordination. For this reason, the economic theory of regulation is the framework for adjust the inefficient institutions3 whereas identifies solutions for public policies. The normative theories on

  8. Promotion of Renewable Energy Sources in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Menges

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the important goals of European energy policy is to increase the share of renewable energy resources in the energy supply. The instruments used in the member states are not fully compatible with the rules of the European internal market. In a theoretical section, this paper analyses possible different instruments for promoting renewable energy. Some countries use feed in tariffs - using fixed prices to increase incentives for producers to invest into renewable energy, other countries use quantity-based systems like quotas that lead to a premium above the market price. In an institutional analysis we show that on the basis of effectiveness and efficiency considerations for the European Union, in the long-term quantity oriented systems of promotion are preferable if combined with elements of a capacity market. The main reason for this conclusion is that price-based systems cannot give enough incentives for backup capacities necessary to cope with intermittent production of renewable sources. In addition price-based systems violate the basic rules of the open internal European market because feed in tariffs are a considerable barrier for trade of renewable energy products.

  9. Identification of policing opportunities and threats in the European Union, and the role of external parties (Second Cross-country Comparison WP 1.2.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. van den Born; A. Witteloostuijn, van (Arjen)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis deliverable describes: * Opportunities and threats of 19 police forces in 10 EU countries * External parties of 19 police forces in 10 EU countries. The report is the final report which was preceded by an interim report on June 30th, 2011. This final report includes in the

  10. CONSIDERATIONS ON ROMANIA’S AGRO-FOOD EXPORT AND IMPORT BY EUROPEAN UNION COUNTRY GROUP AND AGRO-FOOD PRODUCT GROUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha POPESCU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the paper was the analysis of Romania’s the agro-food export, import and trade balance by the EU country group and agro-food product group based on the statistical data in the year 2010 in order to identify the commercial relationships with a positive and respectively a negative impact of the trade balance. The EU trade partners were divided into 4 groups: Central Eastern (CE, Western (W, Northern (N and Southern (S EU countries and the agro-food product groups were: Live animals and preparations of animal origin, Vegetal products, Fats and oils of vegetal and animal origin, Food, beverages and tobacco. The data were processed using the share and comparison methods. In 2010, Romania registered a negative agro-food trade balance with a deficit of Euro thousand 903,148.This was due to the unefficient commerce with the CE and W EU countries, which together recorded Euro Thousand 1,400,298 deficit. The balance was positively influenced by the Southern EU trade partners whose contribution accounted for Euro thousand 513,953. Therefore, the agro-food trade has to be intensified with the Southern EU countries and to become more relaxed with the CE and W EU countries, especially regarding imports. Live animals are mainly required in the CE and W EU countries, vegetal products in the W and S EU countries, fats and oils in the CE and S EU countries, and finally, food, beverages and tobacco in the S and the CE EU countries. Agro-food imports have to be substantially diminished as long as Romania’ s agriculture is able to produce for the internal market and export has to be intensified especially with the countries with a positive impact on the trade balance.

  11. Romania's accession process into the European Union: discourses at policy-, program-, and project-levels in the justice sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Rem (Dana); D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractSpecial arrangements were made by the European Union for decision-making on the possible accession of Romania and Bulgaria. A regime of extra procedures was added to the arrangements used for the Eastern European countries which joined the Union in 2004. This paper examines how the

  12. The beef market in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Asger; Jeppesen, Lisbeth Fruensgaard

    of total meat consumption 3. As a consequence of the consumers' demand for convenient shopping, butcher's share of total beef sales is rapidly decreasing in Europe. 4. Changes in meat consumption have traditionally been explained by relative price and per capita income, but these economic demand analyses...... can explain a rapidly decreasing share of the variation in beef consumption. 5. Studies show that beef consumption tends to increase with age; the heavy users are found among middle-aged men. Beef consumption also increases with income and social class. 6. The most important user-oriented quality...... characteristics determining the consumers' value perception of a piece of meat appear to be fat, tenderness, taste and freshness. 7. The primary production of beef is fragmented in most European countries and the average number of cattle at a European cattle farm is only slowly rising. Two thirds of the cows...

  13. The beef market in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Asger

    's share of total meat consumption 3. As a consequence of the consumers' demand for convenient shopping, butcher's share of total beef sales is rapidly decreasing in Europe. 4. Changes in meat consumption have traditionally been explained by relative price and per capita income, but these economic demand...... analyses can explain a rapidly decreasing share of the variation in beef consumption. 5. Studies show that beef consumption tends to increase with age; the heavy users are found among middle-aged men. Beef consumption also increases with income and social class. 6. The most important user-oriented quality...... characteristics determining the consumers' value perception of a piece of meat appear to be fat, tenderness, taste and freshness. 7. The primary production of beef is fragmented in most European countries and the average number of cattle at a European cattle farm is only slowly rising. Two thirds of the cows...

  14. French perspectives in the emerging European Union energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meritet, Sophie [CGEMP, Paris Dauphine University (France)

    2007-10-15

    The debate over a common European energy policy, its necessity and its establishment has been going on for a number of decades. The discussions have been recently brought back into the spotlight by the evolution of energy market fundamentals and the taking into account of environmental protection. In spite of the energy diversity of the European Union (EU), a common vision has always been shared by all over energy development for the future. The achievements of the internal market, the fight against climate change and supply security are the common energy battles that call for a solution in common. This policy remains the responsibility of the States, but decisions vary from one country to the next. To move from a shared vision to a European energy policy, large steps are necessary. The European construction is making evolve the 'typically French vision' of energy policy. France was often characterized as the 'black sheep' in the EU. In the political context of president elections, the energy debate in French is of a high interest. This paper discusses the main issues with the French energy policy in the emerging European energy policy. (author)

  15. VISIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION DIRECTIVE ON DEPOSIT GUARANTEE SCHEMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae TAU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to illustrate the role of directives of the European Union in organizing the activity of banking deposit guarantee. Given the fact that, at present, financial crises are becoming more frequent, and the consequences affect the confidence of depositors in the banking system, it is necessary to undertake measures for the creation and improvement of institutions for guaranteeing bank deposits. At the European level, are drawn up directives relating to the imposition of banking deposit guarantee schemes and the member countries, during a given period of time, shall be obliged to transpose the requirements of this directive in the national law. The goal of research is to identify elements of deposit-guarantee schemes recommended by European directives, appreciation of amendments made to Directive 2014/49/EU. The methodology of research. The article was elaborated în base of European directives given in bibliographic references. In order to obtain research results the author was use the analytical method and comparison method, the last having a higher share. The research results. The study allowed the appreciation of the importance of European directives in elaborating the deposit guarantee schemes.

  16. Food and Health Inequalities in European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robertson, Aileen

    , leading to inequalities being transferred from generation to generation. Therefore “we can’t just tax “junk” food, high in fats, sugars and salt. Taxes alone just make products more expensive, whereas taxation in combination with removal of VAT e.g. on vegetables, fruits and fish will support healthier...... to reduce the amount of cheap energy from sugars and saturated fats available in the European diet. Also, Europe-wide legislation is needed both to restrict the marketing of unhealthy foods to children and to label the “country of origin” of sustainable products....

  17. Turkey’s multi-polar diplomacy on its way to the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lika Mkrtchyan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Turkey conducts a multi-polar foreign diplomacy in order to strengthen its positions in the region, to gain control over the neighboring countries; as well as to make its way towards the European Union. Being on the EU’s waiting list, Turkey strives to get advantages of its prolonged status as a candidate country

  18. Analysis of European Union Economy in Terms of GDP Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona VINEREAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the crises on national economies represented a subject of analysis and interest for a wide variety of research studies. Thus, starting from the GDP composition, the present research exhibits an analysis of the impact of European economies, at an EU level, of the events that followed the crisis of 2007 – 2008. Firstly, the research highlighted the existence of two groups of countries in 2012 in European Union, namely segments that were compiled in relation to the structure of the GDP’s components. In the second stage of the research, a factor analysis was performed on the resulted segments, that showed that the economies of cluster A are based more on personal consumption compared to the economies of cluster B, and in terms of government consumption, the situation is reversed. Thus, between the two groups of countries, a different approach regarding the role of fiscal policy in the economy can be noted, with a greater emphasis on savings in cluster B. Moreover, besides the two groups of countries resulted, Ireland and Luxembourg stood out because these two countries did not fit in either of the resulted segments and their economies are based, to a large extent, on the positive balance of the external balance.

  19. EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS AND TRAINING OBJECTIVES IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminiţa Claudia CORBU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In a modern society, education plays an important role, it became increasingly a major source of competitiveness in the markets. Qualifications that educational institutions provide them directly and essentially depends on the value of their products, which will result in future generations of specialists that will benefit society. Worldwide currently exist prerequisite that education systems must begin, continue and support transformations and social progress, providing quality education, preparing the individual for the future and at the same time developing its capabilities to adapt to change technical and scientific and to create the new. Ultimately, educational institutions not only transmit knowledge but also often produce or apply new technologies. Today, when knowledge is the most important commodity, and the school is an institution of knowledge implication is obvious. Strengthening and supporting a union of Member States, the objective necessity to dynamism and competitiveness of the United States, but also the participation of Asian countries in the gaming arena of economic, forced the governments of the member countries of the European Union to build political and social systems beneficial for education the latter being considered an important pillar in the economic development of a country in the long term. This was established from the following perspectives: the first focused on integration and identification of models able to be compatible with European systems of education and training, and, second, on individuality and ensuring that all geographic region or country to adapt general principles to specific needs, depending on the ideological factors and social, economic and technological development differences and particularities of human capital.

  20. Farm land rent in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Střeleček

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Great share of rented land in total utilised area as well as a significant variability of land rent and market prices of land causes a need of research activity that would assess which factors influence the land rent as well as the price of land and how significant such factor are in each state. An average land rent is significantly lower in new member states compared to EU 15 members. There is a strong dependence of land rent on the intensity of production. The influence of subsidies to land rent reports moderate to medium dependence. The same relation occurs in case of the relation of the farm income and land rent. Positive increase of production intensity was connected to lower production use of land rent i.e. a decrease of its cost/revenue ratio. This is reflected in a relative saving of land rent. States with greater land rent per ha of agricultural area usually reports greater saving. An increase of land rent in new member states of the European Union is presumed so that it will be necessary to increase the intensity of production in the corresponding way.

  1. Transitional Democracy, Legitimacy and the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Kaplánová

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the ongoing global crisis has triggered an issue how to set up a theoretical framework of global governance. The integration to a supranational level of governance has been a contemporary process of democratization in recent decades. To analyze the institutionalization of global governance means to recognize a normative idea of democracy. The theory of international relations demonstrates that there are four normative models of democracy at the supranational level of governance. In my opinion, a crucial difference of the institutionalization is a concept of legitimacy of global democratic regime. Because of a divided understanding of legitimacy at the transnational level of governance is difficult to find a consensus in which way should be a transnational democracy framed. A dual legitimacy in a supranational organization like the European Union also triggers a specific democratic deficit. My point of view corresponds with the division of transnational orders in normative way and its correspondence to legitimacy. Cla rifying the duality of legitimacy can help us not only to solve all globalizing problems but of course to decide in which way we want to make the supranational organizations work.

  2. THE FREE TRADE AGREEMENTS BETWEEN THE EUROPEAN UNION AND LATIN AMERICA. THE PERUVIAN AND MEXICAN CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Manrique de LUNA BARRIOS

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The European Union has signed a number of free trade agreements with different countries in Latin America because it is aware of the great importance that this region has gained as a destination for its exports and investments. Furthermore, the European Union wishes to reaffirm its ties with countries in the region because it hopes to consolidate its political and economic position as an international player with its presence in those markets. In this paper we will discuss the free trade agreements that the EU has signed with Mexico and later with Peru, because they are two examples where Latin American countries have achieved significant economic growth and where the trade has generated significant benefits. Additionally they are two major trading partners of the European Union and they have allowed the EU to continue to expand its zone of influence in Latin America.

  3. An Examination of the Special Education Teacher Training Programs in Turkey and European Union Member Countries in Terms of Language Development and Communication Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akmese, Pelin Pistav; Kayhan, Nilay

    2016-01-01

    The academic terms and the periods of the courses related to the language development and communication differs considerably in the programs of the countries which train teachers for the special education department. The aim of this study is to examine the contents and credits of the communication and the language development courses in Teacher…

  4. Who Is Anti-American in the European Union?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin W. Lawson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The term anti-Americanism has become common in public and academic debate in the last decade. Yet we have only limited knowledge of those who hold such views. From 2003, 2005, and 2006 Eurobarometer data, almost 20% of European Union (EU respondents disapproved of U.S. policy in all five dimensions the surveys examined. Following the literature, this consistent opposition is defined as anti-American. Anti-Americans exhibit systematic differences in age, education, geographical location, policy preferences, and nationality. In addition, although anti-Americanism is associated with a preference for greater European independence, perhaps surprisingly, it is also linked to a desire for a less federal and hence less powerful Europe. In both sets of attitudes, to the United States and to the EU, there are substantial variations within countries between different types of locality, which reinforces the view that it is too simplistic to describe a country as being anti-American or being pro-European integration.

  5. The epidemiology of HIV and AIDS reports in migrants in the 27 European Union countries, Norway and Iceland: 1999-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Amo, Julia; Likatavičius, Giedrius; Pérez-Cachafeiro, Santiago; Hernando, Victoria; González, Cristina; Jarrín, Inma; Noori, Teymur; Hamers, Françoise F; Bolúmar, Francisco

    2011-10-01

    To describe the epidemiology of HIV and AIDS by geographical origin in the EU, 1999-2006. AIDS and HIV cases from the EU 27, Norway and Iceland reported to European Centre for Epidemiological Monitoring of AIDS were analysed. Of 75,021 AIDS reports over 1999-2006, 35% were migrants. Of 2988 heterosexual AIDS reports in 2006, 50% were migrants, largely from Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), 20% of 1404 AIDS cases in men who have sex with men (MSM) were migrants from Latin-America and Western Europe. Of 57 mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) AIDS cases, 23% were from SSA. AIDS cases decreased from 1999 to 2006 in natives (42%), Western Europeans (40%) and North Africa and Middle East (34%), but increased in people from SSA (by 89%), Eastern Europe (by 200%) and Latin-America (50%). Of 17,646 HIV infections in men and 9066 in females in 2006, 49 and 76% were migrants, largely from SSA. Of 169 MTCT infections, 41% were from SSA. Migrants, largely from SSA, represent a considerable proportion of AIDS and HIV reports in EU, especially among heterosexual and MTCT infections. Their contribution is higher among female reports. A substantial percentage of diagnoses in MSM are migrants, largely from Western Europe and Latin-America.

  6. Zoonoses in the European Union: origin, distribution and dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahuerta, A.; Westrell, T.; Takkinen, J.

    2011-01-01

    We present a summary of the main findings of the latest report of the European Food Safety Authority and European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control on zoonoses, zoonotic agents and food-borne outbreaks in the European Union (EU), based on data from 2009. Zoonoses are prevalent and widely...

  7. A decade of African Union and European Union trans-national ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The first decade of the new millennium saw the European Union deploy nine security missions to the African continent, quoting the European Security and. Defence Policy. Unlike the numerous United Nations security missions that. European states had previously contributed to, these were part of a grand strategy designed ...

  8. Tre proposte per rivitalizzare l’Unione Europea (Three proposals for revitalising the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Tonveronachi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the EU, the perception that the convergence on the current set of rules is not capable of producing convergence on results, or generally better results, has increased socio-political fragmentation. The result has been an increasing demand for re-nationalisation of sovereign powers. Focusing on the euro area, the paper proposes to revise the monetary operations of the European Central Bank, current fiscal rules and the financial regulatory approach in order to tackle some of the main inconsistencies, rigidities and fragilities in the current design. The new design is thought out to require no changes in the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, but at least a minimum political convergence. If successfully implemented, it would contribute to give a viable perspective to the design of the Economic and Monetary Union, capable of attracting those EU non-euro area countries that consider the mismanagement of the recent crisis and of its after-effects reason enough for resisting further losses of sovereignty.JEL codes: E52, E62, F33, F36, F45, G28

  9. The accession of the European Union to the European Convention on Human Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Callewaert, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Provided for under the Treaty of Lisbon, the accession of the European Union to the European Convention on Human Rights is destined to be a landmark in European legal history because it will finally make it possible for individuals and undertakings to apply to the European Court of Human Rights for review of the acts of European Union institutions, which unquestionably play an increasingly important role in our daily lives. After nearly three years of negotiations, a draft agreement on Europe...

  10. ANALYTICAL AND COMPARATIVE STUDY ON EDUCATIONAL POLICIES IN HEALTH EDUCATION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Monsalve; Jose Gallego; Jose Manuel Aguilar

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with a comparative study of material Educational Policies in Health Education in the countries of the European Union for the purpose of seeing take shape in Spain. The EU legislation states that if you want to advance as a knowledge society and compete effectively in a global economy, Europe is vital to have an education and training of high quality. In the European Union, education policy is the responsibility of each country, but among all set common goals and share best pr...

  11. The Policies of the Tourısm in European Union and Cultural Tourism in Turkiye

    OpenAIRE

    EMEKLİ, Gözde

    2015-01-01

    The countries of the European Union have the feautures which play a powerful role in the historical development of world tourism and which lead the world tourism. In the adaptation process from the European Economic Community to the European Union, it is thought that tourism has a role which provides and accelarates the social cultural unity. Especially by forming a united tourism policy, getting inter-culturally closer and a multi-cultural social gathering by means of tourism is aimed.In thi...

  12. A comparative review of fisheries management experiences in the European Union and in other countries worldwide: Iceland, Australia, and New Zealand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchal, Paul; Andersen, Jesper Levring; Aranda, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This study compares the details and performance of fisheries management between the EU and a selection of other countries worldwide: Iceland, New Zealand, and Australia, which are considered in many respects to be among the most advanced in the world in fisheries management. Fisheries management...... in the EU, Iceland, Australia, and New Zealand has developed following different paths, despite being based on similar instruments and principles. Iceland, Australia, and New Zealand have been at the forefront of developing management practices such as stakeholder involvement, legally binding management...... targets (Australia, New Zealand), individual transferable quotas, and discard bans (Iceland, New Zealand). The EU has since the beginning of the 21st century taken significant steps to better involve stakeholders and establish quantitative targets through management plans, and a landing obligation...

  13. Reporting about disability evaluation in European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anner, Jessica; Kunz, Regina; Boer, Wout de

    2014-01-01

    To compare the official requirements of the content of disability evaluation for social insurance across Europe and to explore how the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health is currently applied, using the rights and obligations of people with disabilities towards society as frame of reference. Survey. We used a semi-structured questionnaire to interview members of the European Union of Medicine in Assurance and Social Security (EUMASS), who are central medical advisors in social insurance systems in their country. We performed two email follow-up rounds to complete and verify responses. Fifteen respondents from 15 countries participated. In all countries, medical examiners are required to report about a claimant's working capacity and prognosis. In 14 countries, medical reports ought to contain information about socio-medical history and feasible interventions to improve the claimant's health status. The format of medical reporting on working capacity varies widely (free text, semi- and fully structured reports). One country makes a reference to the ICF in their reports on working capacity, others consider doing so. Official requirements on medical reporting about disability in social insurance across Europe follow the frame of four features: work capacity, socio-medical history, feasibility of intervention and prognosis of disability. There is an increasing trend to make formal or informal reference to the ICF in the reports about working capacity. The four features and the ICF may provide common references across countries to describe disability evaluation, facilitating national and international research. Implications for Rehabilitation Reporting about disability in social insurance in different countries is about work capacity, social medical history, feasibility of intervention and prognosis of disability. Formats of reporting on work capacity vary among countries, from free text to semi-structured report forms to fully structured

  14. ANALYSIS OF LABOUR MARKET IN ROMANIA AND THE EUROPEAN UNION

    OpenAIRE

    Tanase Diana; Frant Florin,; Manciu Venera; Tanase Adrian

    2013-01-01

    The paper aims at analysing the labour market, one of the most complex forms of market in economy. The present work forwards a comparative survey regarding the labour market in Romania and in the other European Union member states. The paper starts by highlighting general aspects related to labour market and continues by the presentation of the European Union countries’ ranking according to the labour market efficiency, top elaborated on the basis of the World Economic Forum data. Furthermore...

  15. Endogeneity and Specialization in the European Monetary Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bąk Henryk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been a broad discussion about the viability of the European Monetary Union (EMU in its present and prospective confines. Generally, the EMU, consisting of 19 countries, is not considered an optimal currency area due to low labor market flexibility, autonomous fiscal policies, and structural differences among its members. Considerations about the endogeneity effect of currency unions lead to the question whether the EMU will become more viable over time. According to the endogenity hypothesis formulated by Frankel and Rose [1996, 2000], a common currency area may gradually become an optimal currency area at some future point (ex post unification, despite not having been an optimal currency area (OCA prior to (ex ante currency unification. Currency unification should bring about increased intra-industry trade and greater business cycle synchronization among member states. The most recent literature and analyses presented in this paper suggest that the endogenity effect in the EMU has been frail since its onset. While real convergence between EMU member states has not advanced, divergence in i.a. economic structures, national income and productivity levels is observed. The most important economic mechanisms reinforcing convergence and divergence among monetary union members are presented in this paper. Using recent data and related research results, we show a significant divergence in economic structures, business cycle synchronization and productivity levels among Eurozone members in the last decade. The Krugman sectorial dissimilarity index is applied to measure changes in industrial similarity among member countries and the Hodrick-Prescott filter to estimate business cycle synchronization in the EMU. These divergence tendencies have been strengthened by the global financial crisis of 2008 and persist, calling for reforms and new policies within the EMU.

  16. An Empirical Assessment of Economic and Political Challenges of European Union Accession

    OpenAIRE

    Melikyan, Davit N.; Tamazian, Artur

    2010-01-01

    The collapse of the Soviet Union was an exceptional experiment in the economic history of the world, which made the post-socialist countries the subject of various economic studies. Different researchers and organizations tend to monitor the progress of economic and institutional reforms through inventing different indexes (indicators), apparently trying to understand how to detect the end of the transition process. The European Union, opening its door to accession candidates and starting neg...

  17. The Briand Plan of European Union Commented by the Interwar Romanian Press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanel Teodorascu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available With each passing day, the construction called the European Union presents increasingly clear signs of disease. Something is not working and it is likely not to work anymore. For this reason, more and more resounding voices announce the decline of Europe. The Greek crisis, the Ukrainian crisis, the refugee crisis are just some of the issues that shows that countries that make up the European family (28 countries find it difficult to act as a whole. After the completion of the Second World War, Romania did not matter in any way in achieving the European family plans, entering in the sphere of influence of the Soviet Union. Things were not always this way. The plans for a federal state comprising the European countries have existed before the interwar period, as we shall see below. The years between the two world wars were marked by political debates on this theme, which have not been seen before.

  18. Central and Eastern European Social Policy and European Union Accession: Time for Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemi Lendvai

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available European Union enlargement and accession are reflexive of both EU and post-communist social policies. There is a unique “dialogue“ going on, indicative of fundamental aspects of post-communist, post-transitional social policy. It is also a 'mirror' that reflects shortcomings of governance, and often presents a neglected institutional landscape. Therefore, the Europeanisation of social policy is an essential transformation process for post-communist countries whereby a new language and new concepts are introduced, the outlines of new social-policy governance emerge and enter the space in which social policy is formulated and considered.

  19. Double Taxation Conventions in Central and Eastern European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumiter Florin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we provide a qualitative overview regarding the panacea of double taxation conventions in Central and Eastern European Countries. Double taxation paradigm highlights some serious problems arising from multiple taxation of the same income or capital. In the European Union these problems suggest that there is a strong need of a “best practice” construction of an optimal fiscal space in order to eliminate or reduce this problem. Central and Eastern European Countries have some special features: on one hand these countries have been influenced by the communist and postcommunism era, and on the other hand there are specific particularities for each country which must be economically and judicially understood and explained. This article highlights the structure, construction and appliance of the double taxation conventions in the Central and Eastern European Countries. The conclusions of this article enact the solutions of the potential problems of double taxation, especially in these former communist countries, with respect to the strengthening of the new fiscal space in the European Union.

  20. A Study of Milk Support Policies in the European Union and in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Toplu YILMAZ

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an analysis of milk support policy in the European Union and in Turkey. Turkey’s adaptation of its milk policy to the Common Agricultural Policy of European Union is on the agenda since Turkey has been a candidate country in 1999. Regarding that the Common Agricultural Policy has been reformed many times, Turkey has to adapt its milk sector to a changing policy. Turkey, on the other hand, pursues different support policy in the milk sector. The producers, who are registered in the Farming Registration System, receive milk incentive premiums. There are no similarities between Turkish milk support policy and European Union’s milk support policy. According to the last progress reports, Turkey has to improve Farming Registration System. Turkey has to adjust milk production process to the European Union standards. Furthermore, in the accession process, Turkey plans to increase consumption and also needs to promote milk and milk products producers’ organizations.

  1. New trajectories of unionization in the Nordic Ghent countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgedahl, Laust Kristian; Kongshøj, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    Unemployment insurance funds (the ‘Ghent system’), subsidized by the state and controlled by the labour movement, have contributed to high trade union densities in the Nordic countries. However, dependence on these funds as a recruiting mechanism makes trade union membership sensitive...... to institutional changes to unemployment insurance benefits and the institutional setup surrounding and regulating them. In this article, we investigate recent institutional changes in the three Nordic countries following the Ghent model, Finland, Sweden and Denmark, and analyse the consequences for union and fund...... membership. These countries have witnessed different combinations of two types of reform, less attractive unemployment benefits plus new institutional alternatives to the traditional union-run funds, and this has led to different outcomes in each country. Benefit retrenchment and increased contributions led...

  2. Union banking a step towards achieving fiscal Union in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionuţ Marius Croitoru

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Union policy needs in addition to the official language of four major components: a monetary union, a fiscal union, a union diplomatic and military union A stage in the Union is the Union banking tax. Materials and Methods: Union Bank has three pillars: a single banking supervisor (single supervisory mechanism, the only mechanism of bank resolution and a single scheme of bank guarantees. Results and conclusions: Union Bank, strengthen supervision is an inevitable process, and Romania will have to enroll in it. Option Romania is to be part of Romania deaorece bank Union can not remain outside the structures of decision as long as banks operating in Romania are predominantly Eurozone.

  3. Oral surgery in the European Union: challenges of diversity in training and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasseripour, M N; Hervé, C; Meningaud, J-P

    2017-02-01

    At the crossroads of medicine and dentistry, oral surgery with orthodontics are the only recognised dental specialties by the European Union. The goal of our study is to evaluate the current state of oral surgery in Europe from its teaching to its practice, the hypothesis being that a notable diversity persists despite European Union harmonisation process. To understand the impact of this diversity applied to European Union freedom of movement and its ethical implications for the practice of oral surgery, English and French questionnaires were sent by email to universities and organisations delivering authorisation to practise in France, Germany, Spain, Sweden and United Kingdom chosen based upon inclusion and exclusion criteria. An analysis of documents on these organisations' official websites was also conducted. Demographic information was obtained from the aforementioned organisations. The profile of practising oral surgeons is different dependent on the country. The university and hospital trainings conform to European recommendations and span 3-4 years. European Board certification is not required. Continuing education is mandatory only in France, Germany and United Kingdom. As for curricula and scope of practice, no consensus can be derived. There is potential conflict of interest between European Union principles of freedom of movement and protection of all citizens, as member countries do not uniformly apply Directives and recommendations. A new survey of all European Union oral surgery programmes as well as organisations delivering authorisation to practise is necessary to implement across the board harmonisation of training and practice to insure patient safety in light of the migration of European Union practitioners. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Alcolocks : factors influencing implementation, participation and compliance : literature review contributed to the EU project Alcolock Implementation in the European Union.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathijssen, M.P.M.

    2007-01-01

    In 2004-2005, a series of alcolock field trials were conducted in four European countries, in the framework of the EU research project Alcolock Implementation in the European Union. This project was granted by the European Commission, Directorate-General for Energy and Transport (DG-TREN). As part

  5. Designing fiscal and monetary institutions for a European Monetary Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.M.W.J.; Bovenberg, A.L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper explores under what conditions a European Monetary Union (EMU) is an optimum currency area. The scope for an EMU increases with convergence of structural and fiscal policies, small money holdings, a conservative European Central Bank, and dependent national central banks. How national

  6. Controlling delegated powers in the post-Lisbon European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandsma, Gijs Jan; Blom-Hansen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Most European Union rules are made by the Commission, not the Council of Ministers or the European Parliament. But although the Commission is an important rule-maker, it is not autonomous. The member states have always taken care to install committees to control the Commission (comitology). However,

  7. A European Social Union: unduly idealistic or inevitable?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenbroucke, F.

    2015-01-01

    This article summarises a lecture delivered at the EIB on 5 March 2015, on the idea of a European Social Union. The main argument is that a basic consensus on the European social model has become an existential necessity for the EU. A consensus must be reached on the respective roles of EU

  8. Recent Migrants and Education in the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osadan, Robert; Reid, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    European schools should improve their methods for teaching migrant students. The European Union has been making efforts to meet the needs of migrant students for some time. From the 2009 Eurydice report "Integrating Immigrant Children into Schools in Europe," which suggests measures to foster inclusion in the larger community and…

  9. Vocation or Vocational? Reviewing European Union Education and Mobility Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadfield, Amelia; Summerby-Murray, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the role that education plays in European Union (EU) integration. We ask whether efforts which historically have been designed to endow European students with a "knowledge of Europe" in terms of an understanding of culture, politics and sensibility have been circumscribed by, or augmented, by the recently…

  10. Regulation of Genetically Modified Organisms in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grossman, M.R.; Bryan Endres, A.

    2000-01-01

    To be successful, laws that regulate genetically modified organisms (GMOs) must help society decide rationally when to pause and when to proceed in adopting new biotechnological developments. In the context of European Union (EU) institutions and lawmaking procedures, this article examines European

  11. Myths and Realities of European Union Language Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillipson, Robert

    2017-01-01

    The article focuses on the need for calibration in the language rights and language use in law and in practice related to the European Union language policy. It mentions the impact of Brexit on linguistic imperialism and European Commission language policies and mentions use of English in higher...

  12. Timescapes: An artistic challenge to the European Union paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstraete, G.E.E.

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on the development of trans-European corridors of mobility to the east of Europe. It argues that the European Union's infrastructures are intent upon erasing the past and integrating the new places with as little tension as possible, for economic purposes only. Running counter

  13. The European Union's role in the G20

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Amtenbrink (Fabian); K. Heine (Klaus); S. Van Den Bogaert (Stefaan); J. Kantorowicz (Jarosław); R. Repasi (René); N. Blokker (Niel); A. Cuyvers (Armin); C. Hillion (Christophe); H. Lenk (Hannes)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThis study on the role of the EU in G20 has been conducted for the European Parliament (Directorate General for Internal Policies, Policy Department A: Economic and Scientific Policy). This study forms part of a series of nine studies on the role of the European Union in international

  14. The Harmonization of Public Sector Accounting in European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam; Alijarde, Isabel Brusca; Chow, Danny

    The European Commission is working on several fronts to achieve the implementation of uniform and comparable accruals-based accounting practices for the European Union Member States and for all the sectors of General Government, that is, Central Government, State Government, Local Government...

  15. Dividends and share repurchases in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Eije, Henk; Megginson, William L.

    We examine cash dividends and share repurchases from 1989 to 2005 in the 15 nations that were members of the European Union before May 2004. As ill the United States, the fraction of European firms paying dividends declines, while total real dividends paid increase and share repurchases surge. We

  16. Economic Burden of Bladder Cancer Across the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Jose; Luengo-Fernandez, Ramon; Sullivan, Richard; Witjes, J Alfred

    2016-03-01

    More than 120,000 people are diagnosed annually with bladder cancer in the 28 countries of the European Union (EU). With >40,000 people dying of it each year, it is the sixth leading cause of cancer. However, to date, no systematic cost-of-illness study has assessed the economic impact of bladder cancer in the EU. To estimate the annual economic costs of bladder cancer in the EU for 2012. Country-specific cancer cost data were estimated using aggregate data on morbidity, mortality, and health care resource use, obtained from numerous international and national sources. Health care costs were estimated from expenditures on primary, outpatient, emergency, and inpatient care, as well as medications. Costs of unpaid care and lost earnings due to morbidity and early death were estimated. Bladder cancer cost the EU €4.9 billion in 2012, with health care accounting for €2.9 billion (59%) and representing 5% of total health care cancer costs. Bladder cancer accounted for 3% of all cancer costs in the EU (€143 billion) in 2012 and represented an annual health care cost of €57 per 10 EU citizens, with costs varying >10 times between the country with the lowest cost, Bulgaria (€8 for every 10 citizens), and highest cost, Luxembourg (€93). Productivity losses and informal care represented 23% and 18% of bladder cancer costs, respectively. The quality and availability of comparable cancer-related data across the EU need further improvement. Our results add to essential public health and policy intelligence for delivering affordable bladder cancer care systems and prioritising the allocation of public research funds. We looked at the economic costs of bladder cancer across the European Union (EU). We found bladder cancer to cost €4.9 billion in 2012, with health care accounting for €2.9 billion. Our study provides data that can be used to inform affordable cancer care in the EU. Copyright © 2015 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All

  17. The Citizen, the Culture and European Union

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marine Imberechts

    2009-01-01

    From the beginning of its work (1988), the European Centre of Culture tried to attract theattention of the European institutions on the urgent need to bring in the greatest number of citizens asense of belonging to a new space...

  18. BUILDING A BANKING UNION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION – A SOLUTION TO THE FINANCIAL CRISIS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica (ŞAGUNA FIGHIROAE

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The financial crisis of 2008 highlighted the need for a deeper integration of the banking system, as a warranty to support long-term financial stability. It was argued that the grounds of the crisis lie also in an uncoordinated national response to the failure of banks, in a fragmentation of the Single Market in lending and funding and, therefore, a better regulation and supervision of the financial sector can ensure financial stability and growth in the European Union. In order to restore the proper functioning of the internal market and to avoid future crisis, the European Commission launched a set of initiatives, in order to assure a safer and sounder financial sector for the single market; are included here: stronger prudential requirements for banks, improved depositor protection and rules for managing failing banks and a single rulebook for all the 28 Member States of the European Union. The single rule book is the step towards the Banking Union sits. The banking union consists of three pillars: a Single Supervisory Mechanism, a Single Resolution Mechanism and a joint deposit-insurance scheme. As on 4 November 2014 the European Central Bank assumed responsibility for euro area banking supervision, the Banking Union is still under construction. In this framework, the purpose of my paper is to analyse the process of building a Banking Union in Europe. Therefore, the objectives of my paper are to explore the steps to fulfilling a real integration of the European banking system, as a solution to the financial crisis.

  19. LANDMARKS ON THE EVOLUTION OF E-COMMERCE IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Catalina Timiras

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper are presented and analyzed a number of statistical indicators to highlight the size and the trends in the European e-commerce market in recent years, namely - the turnover of e-commerce, the share of turnover from e-commerce in total turnover of the organizations, the share of enterprises conducting online sales in total enterprises, the population share which shop online in total population. Information is presented both aggregated and individualized, allowing highlighting disparities between European states. The paper also captures a number of correlations between the orientation to online purchasing and level of development of European countries, on the one hand and access to technology on the other. The survey is based on official statistics provided by Eurostat (data from European Union countries and information provided by EMOTA - European Multi-channel and Online Trade Association - (data pooled across all European countries.

  20. Survey of surveillance systems and select prevention activities for hepatitis B and C, European Union/European Economic Area, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffell, E F; van de Laar, M J

    2015-04-02

    Hepatitis B and C viral infections are leading causes of hepatic cirrhosis and cancer. The incidence and prevalence of both hepatitis B and C varies across European countries. European wide surveillance data help to understand the dynamic epidemiology of hepatitis B and C, which is important for the implementation and effectiveness of prevention and control activities.Comparison of surveillance data between countries in Europe is hampered by the differences in national healthcare and reporting systems. This report presents the results of a survey in 2009 which was undertaken to collect baseline information on surveillance systems and core prevention programmes for hepatitis B and C in individual European Union/ European Economic Area countries. The results provide key information to aid the interpretation of surveillance data, and while indicating heterogeneity in national surveillance systems and programmes, they highlight the potential of these systems. This resource has supported the implementation of a standardised European enhanced surveillance programme.

  1. ROMANIA – RIGHTS AND OBLIGATIONS AFTER 10 YEARS FROM JOINING THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra STĂNCIULESCU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available On the 1st of January 2017, Romania celebrated 10 years of being a member of the European Union. The European Union is both, a major and important subject of international law and an international organization, which created a legal system that regulates economic, political and social issues, binding 28 members. The main purposes of becoming a part of the European family include a significant growth of living standards, a strong accent on the respect of fundamental rights and equity between the citizens of the European Union, of social politics, environment protection and nevertheless support in developing a countryâ s economy. After the fall of communism, Romania saw the opportunity of becoming a member of the European Union and started the long process of joining this organization. After 10 years from the completion of the accession process, the results can be interesting. So, the purpose of the following paper is to highlight the advantages and disadvantages of being a member of the European Union and the objectives are to determine which were the conditions that Romania had to fulfill in order to become a EU member, how this membership changed our legal system, which are our rights and obligations as a EU member today and which are the effects from 2007 and now.

  2. PPPs IN THE EUROPEAN UNION. GUIDELINES FOR ROMANIA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian GORIŢĂ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Several starting points could be used in an analysis on the possible routes for developing Public-Private Partnership1 (henceforth PPP projects in Romania, regarded as an alternative financing mechanism for public infrastructure. This paper follows a “classical” approach, with a focus on the pros and cons of the Public-Private Partnership concept, legal forms met in the European acquis, the Eurostat view on such projects in terms of the statistical classification of assets, financing and policy directions in the European Union and lessons learnt for practitioners in Romania, while taking into account the recent developments of the PPP market in the European Union

  3. Flexibilization of labour in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holman, O.; van der Pijl, K.

    2015-01-01

    Labour market flexibilization has been at the heart of the ‘extended relaunch’ of European integration (the completion of the Single Market and the introduction of the euro in 2002) from the start in the 1980s. Yet the parallel Europeanization of labour market policies, via the European Employment

  4. The Virtual Enterprise – Citizen of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Davidescu (Vasile

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Virtual Enterprise is a rather young and unclear concept in the business world. A virtual enterprise is a temporary network of companies that share their different resources in order to reach a given goal (the creation of a new product, or the entry on a new market and is a powerful tool in the hands of the business community. The question this article raises is whether European Union's businesses are able to take advantage of this opportunity within the European Union. We discuss several obstacles towards the creation of virtual enterprises: regulatory uncertainties, operational management that dismisses the advantage of an excellent infrastructure, the orientation of innovation creators towards theoretical research and the European business culture. The article also looks at research on the virtual enterprise in the European Union, the legal framework and technologies for virtualization.

  5. The determinants of capital structure: the evidence from the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Mokhova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to indicate the influence of several internal determinants on capital structure in different European countries and retrace its tendency taking into consideration the membership of the European Union. Nowadays there are a lot of debates according the future of the European Union. The recent global financial crisis and the following European debt crisis show the significance of the country financial stability and its impact on the private sector. The paper investigates 32 countries of European Union dividing them into three groups as (1 old EU members (15 countries, (2 new EU members (12 countries and (3 EU candidates (4 candidate countries and 1 acceding country.The managers make their financial decisions according to the source of financing and capital structure based on the macroeconomic conditions and country specifics and obviously on company’s advantages and disadvantages, i.e. its internal characteristics. Based on the analysis of previous studies we have chosen several significant internal determinants of capital structure as profitability, tangibility, growth opportunities, non-debt tax shields and firm’s size.The findings show that the country’s specifics, EU membership and corporate debt structure influence the relation between capital structure and its internal characteristics. The capital structure in all countries has tendency to increase, furthermore the old members rely more on debt then candidates or new members.There is no doubt that the majority of countries support Pecking Order Theory then Trade off Theory regarding investigated relations. In most countries the profitability and size have negative and significant influence on corporate capital structure. At the same time tangibility, growth opportunities and non-debt tax shields split up: selected countries experience positive impact, another part negative, supporting different theories.

  6. Tax Competition Within the European Union – Is the CCCTB Directive a Solution?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F. de Wilde (Maarten)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The author addresses the phenomenon of taxable profit-shifting operations undertaken by multinationals in response to countries competing for corporate tax bases within the European Union. The central question is whether this might be a relic of the past when the

  7. Tax Competition within the European Union - Is the CCCTB-Directive a Solution?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F. de Wilde (Maarten)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The author addresses the phenomenon of taxable profit shifting operations undertaken by multinationals in response to countries competing for corporate tax bases within the European Union. The central question is whether this might be a relic of the past when the

  8. The standard of living of the population and its diversity in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kozera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the comparison standard of living for Poland and other European Union countries (based on specific diagnostic features that describe different groups of the population's needs. In the study of the spatial diversity of life taxonomic methods were used – classical TOPSIS method.

  9. Cultivating nature-based solutions: The governance of communal urban gardens in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Jagt, Alexander P.N.; Szaraz, Luca R.; Delshammar, Tim; Cvejić, Rozalija; Santos, Artur; Goodness, Julie; Buijs, Arjen

    2017-01-01

    In many countries in the European Union (EU), the popularity of communal urban gardening (CUG) on allotments and community gardens is on the rise. Given the role of this practice in increasing urban resilience, most notably social resilience, municipalities in the Global North are promoting CUG as a

  10. Supporting the Transition of Visually Impaired Adults to Employment: European Union Innovations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Archie W. N.; Storrow, Kate; Spinks, Robin

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses ways in which programs have facilitated better understanding among European Union (EU) countries and specialist organizations that work with people with visual impairments. It then describes several EU projects that are designed to support adults with visual impairments to obtain employment and social integration. (Contains…

  11. Successes and Shortfalls of European Union Common Security and Defence Policy Missions in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højstrup Christensen, Gitte; Kammel, Arnold; Nervanto, Elisa

    This brief synthesises the IECEU project’s most essential findings on the effectiveness of European Union (EU) missions in four Africa countries: Libya, South Sudan, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and the Central African Republic (CAR). It describes the main elements and impact...

  12. THE PECULIARITIES OF THE INCIDENCE OF NON-REFUNDABLE FUNDS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION AND ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina Moisescu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary period is cardinal, especially for the European citizens, potential and active economic agents, to be aware of the opportunities offered by the unique partnership called European Union. The allocation of funding to European Union member states and their absorption capacity is a current topic of great significance in the context of globalization, so that European cohesion implies the existence of grants and the appearance of inherent controversies. In this way, we considered opportune a comparative study between Romania and the other representative countries. So far, Romania has absorbed only 10% of the total funds provided by the European Union for the financial year 2007-2013. Given the gap with the developed countries of the Community, this percentage is not justified, drawing attention in a negative way towards Romanian state. Thus, this facet of Romania enables us to analyze the issue of low absorption rate of European Union funds. As the next trance of EU funds is coming, scheduled during the years 2014-2020, we intend to illustrate viable, propitious solutions to eradicate vicissitudes for the purpose of building a transparent and competitive environment for accessing grants.

  13. Art of disaster preparedness in European union: a survey on the health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djalali, Ahmadreza; Della Corte, Francesco; Foletti, Marco; Ragazzoni, Luca; Ripoll Gallardo, Alba; Lupescu, Olivera; Arculeo, Chris; von Arnim, Götz; Friedl, Tom; Ashkenazi, Michael; Fischer, Philipp; Hreckovski, Boris; Khorram-Manesh, Amir; Komadina, Radko; Lechner, Konstanze; Patru, Cristina; Burkle, Frederick M; Ingrassia, Pier Luigi

    2014-12-17

    Naturally occurring and man-made disasters have been increasing in the world, including Europe, over the past several decades. Health systems are a key part of any community disaster management system. The success of preparedness and prevention depends on the success of activities such as disaster planning, organization and training. The aim of this study is to evaluate health system preparedness for disasters in the 27 European Union member countries. A cross-sectional analysis study was completed between June-September 2012. The checklist used for this survey was a modified from the World Health Organization toolkit for assessing health-system capacity for crisis management. Three specialists from each of the 27 European Union countries were included in the survey. Responses to each survey question were scored and the range of preparedness level was defined as 0-100%, categorized in three levels as follows: Acceptable; Transitional; or Insufficient. Response rate was 79.1%. The average level of disaster management preparedness in the health systems of 27 European Union member states was 68% (Acceptable). The highest level of preparedness was seen in the United Kingdom, Luxemburg, and Lithuania. Considering the elements of disaster management system, the highest level of preparedness score was at health information elements (86%), and the lowest level was for hospitals, and educational elements (54%). This survey study suggests that preparedness level of European Union countries in 2012 is at an acceptable level but could be improved. Elements such as hospitals and education and training suffer from insufficient levels of preparedness. The European Union health systems need a collective strategic plan, as well as enough resources, to establish a comprehensive and standardized disaster management strategy plan. A competency based training curriculum for managers and first responders is basic to accomplishing this goal. Disaster medicine; Disaster preparedness

  14. CSR and Social Entrepreneurship: The Role of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano AMELIO

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to analyze the status of non-financial information disclosure in the European Union in order to evaluate the level of acceptance of social responsibility practices. The research is divided into two sections and the approach used is mainly theoretical and qualitative. In the first part the UE financial and non-financial information regulations are analyzed; the European Union launched a process of harmonization then subsequently it moved to the standardization process: the Regulation (EC No. 1606/2002 is part of the standardization process (It must be applied in its entirety across the EU while the Directive 2014/95/EU is part of the harmonization process (it sets out a goal that all EU countries must achieve. The Directive 2014/95/EU states that “large undertakings […] shall include in the management report a non-financial statement […]” thus making mandatory the preparation of non-financial statements. In the second part of the research, not considering the firm only as a system for the production of financial/economic value but also as an economic social actor which operates in a social environment to which it belongs and with which it interacts, the concept of social entrepreneurship is explained. Social entrepreneurship belongs to the entrepreneurs who draw up the social balance, required or permitted by the UE legislation. For this reason, the introduction of obligations in disclosing non-financial information could lead to the increase of entrepreneurship, with positive consequences in the creation of tangible benefits to both the business community and the global community.

  15. First union formation in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania: patterns across countries and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luule Sakkeus

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the transformation of first union formation in the Baltic countries between the late 1960s and early 1990s, in the context of societal and family-level gender relations. The analyses employ microdata from the European Family and Fertility Surveys program. Our results on the trends indicate that in Estonia and Latvia the shift from direct marriage to cohabitation started well before the fall of socialist regime. Event-history models provide support for a hypothesised association between union formation and gender system, with Lithuania showing more traditional features in both respect, plausibly embedded in long-standing cultural differences between the countries.

  16. A Constructivist Discourse Analysis of the German Debate over the Eastern Enlargement of the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Ecker-Ehrhardt, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    With a view to the Eastern enlargement of the European Union (EU), political debate in Germany took a remarkable turn. After the 1990s little has remained of the earlier euphoria over German unification and the establishment of friendly relations with the country's Eastern European neighbors. In its stead there have been vehement demands for stricter accession criteria, greater reform of the EU, and the institution of transition periods for member candidates prior to full accession. This stud...

  17. Homogeneity of the European Union from the Point of View of Labour Market

    OpenAIRE

    Marianna Siničáková

    2011-01-01

    The paper deals with the idea of the European Union labour market homogeneity from the perspective of employment, unemployment, earnings and gender pay gap. Due to integration procedures within Europe, important mutual trade, capital and labour force mobility; it can be expected that labour market phenomena are gradually transmitted from western European countries to new member states. The paper proves a certain rate of labour market mimicking within Europe. Tendencies in unemployment, employ...

  18. Review of existing electricity quality label systems in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    White, Sara; Vrolijk, Christiaan

    2003-01-01

    Green electricity quality labels have been utilised in the European Union since 1990. Of the seventeen European countries analysed here1, at the time of writing nine had no countryspecific quality label, although all electricity tariffs within Europe were able to apply for accreditation under the EUGENE labelling scheme. Germany had several quality labels, each with slightly different criteria. All of the eighteen labels identified in the report applied to electricity from renewable sources. ...

  19. Aspects of youth competencies in the 21st century in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pribac Loredana

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present the youth unemployment problem that the European Union countries are facing nowadays. To this end, we investigate the competencies and skills considered necessary in the 21 Century. We do this by presenting the competencies considered important by European employers versus Romanian employers. Not least, we reveal future directions in terms of skills required by employers.

  20. ENERGY POLICY IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    OpenAIRE

    Pazderníková, Kamila

    2006-01-01

    This work focuses on the reasons and beginnings of creation of European energy policy, the role of environment in this policy and different kinds of energy sources with special focus on the renewable ones. The hot topic of liberalization of European energy policy is also discussed. Powered by TCPDF (www.tcpdf.org)

  1. Poland in the European Union.Ten Years of Membership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Kolodziejczyk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Twelve years have passed since the Polish entry into the European Union. For Poland the date of 1 May 2004 is the culmination of a transformation process launched at the end of the Cold War in 1989. One of the priorities of Polish foreign policy, the expansion of the political, economic and cultural relations with Western Europe and the United States has been met. This approach has been described as ‘the return to Europe’. Membership in the European Union changed the Polish economy and the new politics opened up new opportunities for businesses and citizens. The aim of the article is to analyze the balance of the Polish membership in the European Union in the economic, financial, political and social dimensions.

  2. IDENTIFYING KEY TRENDS OF DIRECT SALES IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MĂDĂLINA BRUTU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Selling is the most representative marketing action; without customers there is no organization, and without sales there is no customer. Selling does not mean only to conclude a business (giving an economical good and receiving an amount of money, but also to obtain satisfied, loyal customers. An alternative to the traditional sale is the direct sale. The main objective of this paper is to present briefly the opinions of some renowned researchers regarding selling in general, and direct selling in particular; the righteous dimensioning of direct selling within the European Union and Romania, detecting Romania’s deviations towards the European Union in relation with the characteristics of direct selling, achieving researches, through the SPSS program, which can detect the main trends of direct selling within the European Union.

  3. Western Balkan States and the European Union Enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelina Maliqi (Ramolli

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available For half a century, European Union-(EU has pursued ever-deeper integration while taking in new members. It’s marked as an important step in relationship deepening between EU and Western Balkans-(WBs where Albania is part of. In 2003, EU declared that the future of WBs is within EU. Initially it adopted a generous strategy that linked the timetable for accession to the pace of reform in WBs. The declaration contained a conditional promise; EU would consider WBs for membership only if they reached EU standards. The EU was motivated by usual economic considerations connected to enlargement and a desire to increase regional stability. The enlargement process regarding Albania will bring several reforms on different fields. Our country will benefit from a share of multibeneficiary funds for competitiveness, SMEs, energy efficiency and banking sector regulation. This presentation handles out these main issues: EU policy and the enlargement process regarding Albania inspecting the way and progress done up to now by our country, the main features of our national EUcoordination system, concluding in a SWOT Analysis of EU-coordination system in Albania. Eventually, I believe that Albania being part of WBs is at one time an opportunity and a challenge for the future of EU.

  4. Western Balkan States and the European Union Enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelina Maliqi (Ramolli,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available For half a century, European Union-(EU has pursued ever-deeper integration while takingin new members. It’s marked as an important step in relationship deepening between EU and WesternBalkans-(WBs where Albania is part of. In 2003, EU declared that the future of WBs is within EU.Initially it adopted a generous strategy that linked the timetable for accession to the pace of reform inWBs. The declaration contained a conditional promise; EU would consider WBs for membership onlyif they reached EU standards. The EU was motivated by usual economic considerations connected toenlargement and a desire to increase regional stability. The enlargement process regarding Albaniawill bring several reforms on different fields. Our country will benefit from a share of multibeneficiaryfunds for competitiveness, SMEs, energy efficiency and banking sector regulation. Thispresentation handles out these main issues: EU policy and the enlargement process regarding Albaniainspecting the way and progress done up to now by our country, the main features of our national EU coordinationsystem, concluding in a SWOT Analysis of EU-coordination system in Albania.Eventually, I believe that Albania being part of WBs is at one time an opportunity and a challenge forthe future of EU.

  5. THE TOURIST PERCEPTION OF THE HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY: ROMANIA VERSUS EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pârjol Florentina

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Automatically when we talk about tourism, tourism industry and hospitality industry we refer to the term also increasingly mentioned. Through this work we describe the hotel, restaurant business and other travel related activity services, which since 2008 have been continuously developed and represent a source of benefit to the economy of any country. The paper aims to assess the perception of tourists based on a questionnaire about the quality of hospitality services in Romania compared to European Union countries.

  6. SOME ASPECTS CONCERNING THE DYNAMIC OF HOUSEHOLD WEALTH AND DEBT IN EUROPEAN UNION AND ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolae Petria

    2008-01-01

    The paper discusses the global trends in the dynamic of household wealth and debt concentrate on the main developed countries, namely the US, Canada, Western Europe, Japan and Australia plus the CEE countries, which, overall, represent 88 % of global household wealth. There are also presents on overview of the composition of wealth by region of the household financial wealth in European Union, Western Europe & CEE 2006 and of the household portfolio structure. We looking on the structural ind...

  7. Poland in the European Union.Ten Years of Membership

    OpenAIRE

    Katarzyna Kolodziejczyk

    2016-01-01

    Twelve years have passed since the Polish entry into the European Union. For Poland the date of 1 May 2004 is the culmination of a transformation process launched at the end of the Cold War in 1989. One of the priorities of Polish foreign policy, the expansion of the political, economic and cultural relations with Western Europe and the United States has been met. This approach has been described as ‘the return to Europe’. Membership in the European Union changed the Polish economy and the ne...

  8. Unity in Diversity. The Language Policy of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the connections between the law and language in the European Union. The paper concerns the language policy of the European Union (EU and English language priority. The EU faces challenges of finding a common ground for respecting the diversity of its members. So many different states are gathered in one organisation which establishes the law for diversified legal orders. The research question is - which language(s is or should be used in the EU? Does English become lingua franca of the EU?

  9. TOWARDS THE EUROPEAN BANKING UNION-Literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragos G. TURLIUC

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The financial crisis has made the need for a more integrated regulatory and supervisory framework for the financial services sector evident. An important step towards this aim is the establishment of the Single Supervisory Mechanism. European leaders have committed to moving toward a banking union, in which bank regulation and supervision, deposit guarantees, and the handling of troubled banks will be integrated across at least the euro area and possibly across the wider European Union. This paper provides an overview of research on this topic. We also identify important future research questions that emerge from both the literature and the current debate.

  10. The European Union's Normative Power in a more Global Era

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2013-01-01

    The globalising, multilateralising and multipolarising era requires a reconsideration of the nature of European Union (EU) power and actorness in a more global era. The article does this by first looking at the study of the EU in a more global era. Second, the normative power approach will be exa......The globalising, multilateralising and multipolarising era requires a reconsideration of the nature of European Union (EU) power and actorness in a more global era. The article does this by first looking at the study of the EU in a more global era. Second, the normative power approach...

  11. ROMANIA’S ECONOMY AFTER THE EUROPEAN UNION ACCESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VADASAN Ioana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available If, during the communism, Romania had an unusual position at the European level, after 1989 it had a different path, in comparison with other former communist states: the country had the harshest difficulties finding its European path, then it had the most important economic growth rate; in the same time, it has been the candidate state facing many economic and social issues, which have worsened during the crisis. In this paper, the authors present the evolution of the Romanian economy, by analyzing representative economic indicators, the dynamics of the national economy, after its accession to the European Union (EU. It is obvious that the country’s evolution has been influenced by the decisions taken and implemented during the pre-accession period. At first sight, it is very difficult to economically separate the two periods of time. However, one can notice that, after the beginning of negotiations (February 2000, Romania’s economic policies have been implemented in a more sustained rhythm, due to the surveillance coming from the European authorities. After seven years of economic growth, which contributed to a partial catching-up with the European average, Romania became member of the EU, having a precarious economic and social situation. Under those circumstances, it would have been normal to continue to implement economic reform policies. Unfortunately, the determination of national authorities has sharply diminished after 2007. The first years of Romania’s membership have been characterized by important rates of economic growth, due, among other factors, to favourable international circumstances. This contributed to an increased trust on the part of Romania’s population and government in the national economy (even too optimistic. This, together with the fact that Romania had an unhealthy economic growth, contributed, after the outbreak of the crisis, to some powerful shocks for the population and for the economy as a whole (a

  12. Research projects in family medicine funded by the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavličević, Ivančica; Barać, Lana

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at synthesizing funding opportunities in the field of family medicine by determining the number of family medicine projects, as well as number of project leaderships and/ or participations by each country. This was done in order to encourage inclusion of physicians in countries with underdeveloped research networks in successful research networks or to encourage them to form new ones. We searched the Community Research and Development Information Service project database in February 2013. Study covered the period from years 1992 - 2012, selecting the projects within the field of general/family medicine. The search was conducted in February 2013. First search conducted in the CORDIS database came up with a total of 466 projects. After excluding 241 projects with insufficient data, we analysed 225 remaining projects; out of those, 22 (9.8%) were in the field of family medicine and 203 (90.2%) were from other fields of medicine. Sorted by the number of projects per country, Dutch institutions had the highest involvement in family medicine projects and were partners or coordinators in 18 out of 22 selected projects (81.8%), followed by British institutions with 15 (68.8%), and Spanish with 10 projects (45.5%). Croatia was a partner in a single FP7 Health project. Research projects in family medicine funded by the European Union show significant differences between countries. Constant and high-quality international cooperation in family medicine is the prerequisite for improvement and development of scientific research and the profession. Copyright © 2014 by Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  13. Research projects in family medicine funded by the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivančica Pavličević

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study aimed at synthesizing funding opportunities in the field of family medicine by determining the number of family medicine projects, as well as number of project leaderships and/ or participations by each country. This was done in order to encourage inclusion of physicians in countries with underdeveloped research networks in successful research networks or to encourage them to form new ones. Methods. We searched the Community Research and Development Information Service project database in February 2013. Study covered the period from years 1992 – 2012, selecting the projects within the field of general/family medicine. The search was conducted in February 2013. Results. First search conducted in the CORDIS database came up with a total of 466 projects. After excluding 241 projects with insufficient data, we analysed 225 remaining projects; out of those, 22 (9.8% were in the field of family medicine and 203 (90.2% were from other fields of medicine. Sorted by the number of projects per country, Dutch institutions had the highest involvement in family medicine projects and were partners or coordinators in 18 out of 22 selected projects (81.8%, followed by British institutions with 15 (68.8%, and Spanish with 10 projects (45.5%. Croatia was a partner in a single FP7 Health project. Conclusion. Research projects in family medicine funded by the European Union show significant differences between countries. Constant and high-quality international cooperation in family medicine is the prerequisite for improvement and development of scientific research and the profession.

  14. Pharmaceutical Pricing and Reimbursement Information (PPRI: a European Union project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Arts

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: In the European Member States, the systems for pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement differ significantly. Amongst the administration and policy-makers at both national and European levels there is a lot of interest in the different pharmaceutical systems of the Member States as a means of learning from their experiences in pricing and reimbursement.

    Objectives: The general objective of the PPRI–Project – started in April 2005 - is to develop a network of authorities and institutions in order to improve information and knowledge on the pharmaceutical systems in the enlarged European Union. This network should facilitate a regular exchange of information and allow a process of learning from each other.

    Project description: The PPRI project team consists of the main partner (ÖBIG, an associated partner (WHOEURO and a network of partners and observers which represent national stakeholders from almost all EU Member States and a number of international stakeholders. The information on pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement will be collected and summarised in country reports (“Pharma Profiles” which follow a homogenous structure. The individual country’s information will be analysed and compared on the basis of a set of indicators (benchmarks.

    Deliverables:The main deliverables of the project are:

     • Pharma Profiles, • a benchmarking report, in which pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement in the Member States is compared,

    • a website containing information on the project and on pricing and reimbursement in the Member States, and

     • a conference at the end of the project during which the study results will be disseminated.

  15. SCENARIOS REGARDING THE FUTURE OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAUL-IULIAN NEDELCU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This work has as purpose to argumentatively identify the future evolution of the European construction, identifying a potential scenario which would settle the current contradiction within the European Union, namely the existence of a true “economic federation” and of only a “political quasi-confederation” , being notorious the fact that in Europe, federalism is mainly known as a specific solution of power assignment between the institutions of a central power and those of the member states (for federal states or as a potential model of transnational integration (for the European Union and even for regionalism within certain states (Spain, Italy, France. It shall be tried the decryption of the philosophical and legal base of federalism as a doctrine able to provide a solution of state’s organisation in the conditions of the European integration.

  16. From Representation to Participation: A More Democratic European Union?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Monica Stoica

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper analyzes the evolution and characteristics of the democratic process in theEuropean Union from the perspective of political science using the recent theories in this field. Following theentry into force, the Treaty of Lisbon establishes the principle of participatory democracy that puts the focusof the European citizen, a citizen who is actively involved in European Union life, strengthening EU - citizenrelationship. The essence of participatory democracy is the destruction of political apathy and the maximizingof active participation of citizens in the democratic tasks. So, the basic principle of the participatorydemocracy is solidarity. The results of this analysis show that although participatory democracy is establishedin the European law, citizens are less involved in the decision-making in EU and are more and moreindividual, contradicting thus the very foundations of this type of democracy.

  17. A Structural Analysis of European Union Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana DUGULEANĂ

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on the input-output analysis, the paper characterizes the structure of European economy in 2010 and 2011, on six main economic sectors. The sectoral structures of backward and forward linkages, and their absolute effects starting from the final demand, were compared with the real structures of sectors output, sectoral imports, sectoral value added, in 2011 face to 2010. The changes in final demand and in sectoral output can be analyzed in the propagation processes of the inter-sectoral economic flows, and allow us to know the behavior at macroeconomic level of European economy. The common economic policies at European level can be undertaken to keep the equilibrium between different sectors, to stimulate the sectors with high levels of productivity, to ensure the efficiency of using the resources, and the sustainability of economic development, which are the purposes of a smart development.

  18. Short-termism in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Therese

    2016-01-01

    an influential source of inspiration for politicians and lawmakers in foreign jurisdictions. The European Commission currently proposes to amend the Shareholder Rights Directive (2007/36/EC) to counterbalance the financial sector’s alleged triumph over industry. The initiative is motivated primarily...... that the short-termism concept, despite its contemporary authority in the post-financial crisis era on both sides of the Atlantic, is misguided, and even more so in the European context. The Article concludes that the proposed amendments should not be expected to solve short-termism problems or alter...

  19. European Union – China Partnership and its Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Onișoru

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Our paper aims at analyzing the prospects of relations between the European Union and China in 2020 horizon. From this perspective we considered useful a travel insight into history of four decades of Sino-European bilateral relations. In 2015 it was marked four decades after the establishment of the first EU-China relations. During this time relations between the two sides marked important progress in all areas and today China is considered a strategic partner of Brussels.

  20. Jürgen Habermas, The crisis of the European Union: a response,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian-Dumitru DÎRDALĂ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During a lecture delivered in April 2013 at the University of Leuven, Jürgen Habermas deplored the fact that “[w]hat unite the European citizens today are the Eurosceptical mindsets that have become more pronounced in all of the member countries during the crisis” (Habermas, 2013. This is not the kind of unity that would satisfy a philosopher whose contributions to political theory have greatly contributed to the understanding of post-war European integration. As a social scientist and an influential public intellectual, Habermas felt it was his duty to respond to the current plight of the European Union. He has done it repeatedly, since the beginning of the financial crisis, and the most substantive effort was a book first published in his native Germany, and translated in English under the title The Crisis of the European Union. A Response.

  1. Legal Leadership in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bell, J.H.J.

    2008-01-01

    Leadership does not always come from leaders. Laws provide for its exercise or constraint and the European Court of Justice (ECJ) gives legal but not political leadership. The 2005 constitutional treaty did not create a favourable climate of opinion for the proposed changed EU leadership through a

  2. Why we need a European Social Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenbroucke, F.I.G.

    2013-01-01

    Arguments on "social Europe" need to give an unequivocal answer to questions of why, what, and how. With regard to the question of why, I argue that, whereas ten years ago the quest for an operational description of the European social model might have been dismissed as interesting but not strictly

  3. Opting Out of the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    European integration continues to deepen despite major crises and attempts to take back sovereignty. A growing number of member states are reacting to a more constraining EU by negotiating opt-outs. This book provides the first in-depth account of how opt-outs work in practice. It examines the mo...

  4. Spatial planning in the European Union and the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skatershchikov S. V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the principles of spatial planning, which form the basis for this type of urban development in the countries of the European Union (EU and in the Russian Federation. The following principles are considered and compared for both territories: 1 promotion of territorial cohesion through a more balanced social and economic development of regions and improved competitiveness; 2 encouragement of development generated by urban functions and improvement of the relationship between the town and countryside; 3 promotion of more balanced accessibility; 4 development of access to information and knowledge; 5 reduction of environmental damage; 6 enhancement and protection of natural resources and natural heritage; 7 enhancement of cultural heritage as a factor for development; 8 developing energy resources while maintaining safety; 9 encouragement of highquality, sustainable tourism. An efficiency analysis of these principles showed that the level of their application for ensuring sustainable development differs. It is a result of the significant differences in natural and socio-economic conditions of sustainable development in these countries, as well as different experiences and traditions in the space-time dimension. In most EU countries, ministries of spatial planning were established as early as the 1960s; in the Russian Federation, such authority still does not exist. The coordination of spatial development by the Russian Ministry of Regional Development is of fragmentary nature; therefore, at the moment, the efficiency of spatial planning is rather low. The authors find it necessary to adopt EU practices of urban planning in view of the Russian spatial potential.

  5. The diffusion of mobile telecommunication services in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruber, H.; Verboven, F.L.

    2001-01-01

    We study the technological and regulatory determinants of the diffusion of mobile telecommunications services in the European Union, using a logistic model of diffusion. We find that the transition from the analogue to the digital technology during the early 1990s, and the corresponding increase in

  6. Legal analysis of the European Union sustainability criteria for biofuels

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper provides a legal analysis and review of the European Union (EU) sustainability criteria for biofuels, presented in Directive 2009/28/EC. The paper discusses the EU sustainability criteria as a tool that could be efficiently utilized to operationalize and implement the concepts of sustainable development and ...

  7. The effect of the European union (MPP6) infrastructural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the effect of the European Union infrastructural development on the productivity of food crop farmers and development of rural areas in Imo State. The specific objectives were to describe the socioeconomic characteristics of respondents, determine the extent of infrastructural development in the area ...

  8. legal analysis of the european union sustainability criteria for biofuels

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper provides a legal analysis and review of the European Union (EU) sustainability criteria for biofuels, presented in Directive 2009/28/EC. The paper discusses the EU sustainability criteria as a tool that could be effi- ciently utilized to operationalize and implement the concepts of sustainable development and ...

  9. International Environmental Problems, Issue Linkage and the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroeze-Gil, J.

    2003-01-01

    This thesis explores the circumstances under which issue linkage can be applied to achieve cooperation on international environmental problems in general and on environmental problems in the European Union in particular. A major topic in this thesis is the development and analysis of cooperative and

  10. Improving Aftermath Crisis Management in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollmer, M.; Hamrin, M.; Pastuszka, H.M.; Missoweit, M.; Stolk, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale incidents (man-made or natural) inside and outside the European Union (EU) require a coordinated response from crisis managers and first responders across Europe and with resources from all levels of government. Currently, crisis management (CM) in the EU can be regarded as a highly

  11. Financial integration in the European Union. Measurement and determination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmen, J.J.G.

    1996-01-01

    The first part of this study addresses the measurement of financial integration in the European Union (EU). First, we present empirical evidence on the degree of financial integration as measured with interest parity conditions. Second, the study applies an error-correction model of

  12. Systems of innovation theory and the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borras, Susana

    2004-01-01

    This article asks whether it is possible to conceptualise the European Union (EU) as a system of innovation in accordance with the rich literature of institutional economics on these matters. By developing four further theoretical nodal points of the system of innovation concept, an analytical fr...

  13. Parametrization of the Richardson weather generator within the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voet, van der P.; Kramer, K.; Diepen, van C.A.

    1996-01-01

    The Richardson model for mathematically generating daily weather data was parametrized. Thirty years' time-series of the 355 main meteorological stations in the European Union formed the database. Model parameters were derived from both observed weather station data and interpolated weather data on

  14. Personality and European Union attitudes: Relationships across EU attitude dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, B.N.; de Vreese, C.H.

    2016-01-01

    We still do not fully understand why attitudes towards the European Union (EU) differ among citizens. In this study, we turn to the Big Five personality traits Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism as antecedents of EU attitudes. In a national survey, we focus on

  15. Underlying Paradox in the European Union's Multilingualism Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Fern L.

    2013-01-01

    The European Union (EU) has developed comprehensive policies in recent years to promote multilingualism. In this article, major EU policy statements on multilingualism are analyzed to demonstrate how their underlying language ideology produces paradox by both encouraging multilingualism and regulating its definition within the EU. The first…

  16. The European Union, Education Governance and International Education Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volante, Louis; Ritzen, Jo

    2016-01-01

    The European Union--comprising 28 member states with individual sovereignty in the formation and implementation of education policy--has developed research and communication strategies to facilitate the exchange of best practices, gathering and dissemination of education statistics and, perhaps most importantly, advice and support for national…

  17. Tough love : the European Union's relations with the Western Balkans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blockmans, Steven

    2007-01-01

    As part of the international presence in the Western Balkans, the European Union has adopted sanctions, brokered political agreements, launched its first-ever police and military missions and directed economic, legal and administrative reforms to eradicate the root causes of instability. Yet,

  18. The European Union and Turkey: Who Defines Environmental Progress?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Adaman (Fikret); M. Arsel (Murat)

    2008-01-01

    textabstract[European Union] EU environment policy aims to promote sustainable development and to protect the environment for present and future generations. It is based on preventive action, the polluter pays principle, fighting environmental damage at source, shared responsibility and the

  19. The Second Look in European Union Competition Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jakob B; Torp, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    Under European Union (EU) law, arbitrators and national courts are obligated to apply, ex officio, EU competition law. Also according to EU law, any failure by an arbitral tribunal to apply such rules, or any erroneous interpretation or application hereof, constitute grounds for setting aside the...

  20. Organization and financing of home nursing in the European Union.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkstra, A.; Hutten, J.B.F.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the organization and financing of home nursing in the 15 member states in the European Union. Home nursing was defined as the nursing care provided at the patients' home by professional home nursing organizations. Data were gathered by means of

  1. Characterizing the European Union's Strategic Culture : An Analytical Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biava, Alessia; Drent, Margriet; Herd, Graeme P.

    2011-01-01

    This article does not question whether the EU has a strategic culture, but rather asks how one can investigate its nature. It creates and utilizes an analytical framework to demonstrate that the European Union's strategic culture is based on an extended concept of security and on a comprehensive,

  2. Economic freedoms and labour standards in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, J.

    2016-01-01

    The European Union internal market seeks to ensure the free movement of goods, services, capital and citizens. The primacy given to these economic freedoms has culminated in a socio-economic reasoning dominated by competition, bringing about side effects that may pose a threat to working conditions

  3. The analysis of food products retailing in European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapaić Stevan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Author is analyzing a share of food products in the structural profile of retail trade in European Union by presenting areas of retailing in which food, beverages, and tobacco products are predominant. The main task of retailing is to overcome gaps in time and space between production and consumption, in order to meet the needs of consumers. This main task of retailing becomes more difficult considering the fact that the European Union consists of demanding consumers that expect all products, especially food, to be served to them at the most accessible places, in most suitable time, and with prices that coincide with the worth of products. In the structure of retail trade of the European Union, food products can be found in sector of non-specialised in-store retailing (hypermarkets, supermarkets, Cash&Carry stores as well as in sector of specialised in-store food retailing (butcher shops, bakeries, fish markets, etc.. Restructure of retailing, internationalization, and concentration of total retail trade network are only some of the basic trends in contemporary retail sale of food products in the European Union, that are being explored in this text.

  4. The fundamental determinants of financial integration in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmen, J.J.G.; Eijffinger, S.C.W.

    1995-01-01

    This paper focuses on the fundamental determinants of the degree of financial integration in the European Union over the period 1973-1993. Using closed interest differentials to measure the intensity of capital controls and applying a panel data approach, we find realized inflation rates, government

  5. The European Union and future climate policy: is mainstreaming adaptation a distraction or part of the solution?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamin, F.

    2005-07-01

    This article reviews the European Union's stance and policies on climate change adaptation and argues that developing a coherent long-term European strategy on climate change post-2012 will require the European Union to focus more strongly on adaptation issues than has hitherto been the case. It suggests that the EU should examine the dissonance between its prescriptions for integrating adaptation within the EU with its prescriptions to developing countries to mainstream adaptation. The EU should avoid a carrot-and-stick approach to adaptation funding and should focus on identifying common institutional and learning challenges with developing countries. (author)

  6. Delegation and accountability in European integration the Nordic parliamentary democracies and the European Union

    CERN Document Server

    Bergman, Torbjorn

    2013-01-01

    Analyzing the effects of the European Union on national decision-making and the chain of delegation and accountability, the authors look at Denmark, Finland, Sweden, Iceland and Norway. The analyses are based on principal-agent perspective.

  7. The EIROforum Collaboration Agreement with the European Union

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    Collaboration between CERN and the European Union has extended over many years, and the European Commission were granted Observer Status in the CERN Council in 1985 already. In 1994, an Administrative Arrangement was signed between CERN's Director-General, Professor C.H. Llewellyn Smith, and the Commissioner of the European Communities, Professor Antonio Ruberti, "to promote co-operation between the Commission of the European Communities and CERN in research and technological development". (See Annex I). In 2000, the EIROforum was set up composed of the Directors-General of the seven organisations - CERN, EFDA, EMBL, ESA, ESO, ESRF and ILL - whom now meet regularly twice per year. More information is available at the Web site www.eiroforum.org. On 27 October 2003, the EIROforum members signed a joint "Statement of Intent" with the European Commission, represented by Commissioner Philippe Busquin, confirming their common commitment to developing the European Research Area. The goal is to work together to estab...

  8. Failures in clinical trials in the European Union: lessons from the Polish experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waligora, Marcin

    2013-09-01

    When discussing the safety of research subjects, including their exploitation and vulnerability as well as failures in clinical research, recent commentators have focused mostly on countries with low or middle-income economies. High-income countries are seen as relatively safe and well-regulated. This article presents irregularities in clinical trials in an EU member state, Poland, which were revealed by the Supreme Audit Office of Poland (the NIK). Despite adopting many European Union regulations, including European Commission directives concerning Good Clinical Practice, these irregularities occurred. Causes as well as potential solutions to make clinical trials more ethical and safer are discussed.

  9. [Regulation of food supplements in the European Union and its member states. Part I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrenko, A S; Ponomareva, M N; Sukhanov, B P

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses aspects of the regional (the European Union) and national (European countries) regulation of food supplements. The definition of the supplement category is given. The contemporary issues of nutrition in developed countries are discussed, and the essential role of food supplements in the diet is emphasized. In particular, the use of vitamins, minerals, botanicals and their chemical constituents in food supplements as well as the issue of setting maximum daily limits are discussed. The positive lists of vitamins, minerals and their chemical modifications are presented. The paper also outlines aspects of supplement safety, requirements for their labelling and pre-market notification procedure.

  10. Economic integration in North America: Learning from the experience of the European Union for the NAFTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón de Jesús Ramírez Acosta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this document we analyze, based on previous work from various authors, the degree of economic synchronization between Central and Eastern European countries and the European Union prior to the 2004 adhesion treaties. Then, we formally determine the degree of economic synchronization in North America for the nafta transitional period. In particular, we perform cointegration and common features tests for the gdps of Canada, Mexico and the US. We find that the economies of the region are highly integrated. Based on these results, and the facts identified for the European case, we discuss some possibilities for the evolution of nafta into a deeper form of economic integration.

  11. EUROPEAN DEVELOPMENT OF ECO‐MANAGEMENT AND AUDIT SCHEME (EMAS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna SŁONIMIEC

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the implementation of the Environmental Management and Audit Scheme System (EMAS in Poland and the European Union. It analyzes the existing rules on the implementation and the process of its implementation. It also defines the benefits and costs arising from the registration of organizations in the system. The paper presents the current status of implementation of EMAS in the European Union.

  12. Meeting and mating across borders: union formation in the European union single market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Valk, H.A.G.; Díez Medrano, J.

    2014-01-01

    This editorial introduces a special issue and its different contributions. We provide an overarching background for the special issue by situating it in the context of the European Union integration process and through a general discussion of the role of intermarriage in establishing links across

  13. Implications and Measurement of Energy Poverty across the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Maxim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy poverty, or the inability of households to afford adequate access to energy services, is an issue that can have a significant effect on the quality of life and even the state of health of individuals and even the overall development of a nation. Since it was first brought into focus more than two decades ago in the UK, this topic has gradually gained the attention of academics and policy makers all across the EU and beyond. The current paper addresses the topic by providing not only a renewed discussion, but also an improved energy poverty indicator (with clear and relevant results at the EU level: the Compound Energy Poverty Indicator (CEPI. Moreover, knowing that the risk of poverty and social exclusion, efficiency of heating systems, total consumption of energy per household and rising energy prices tend to increase the severity of this problem in some countries, CEPI is then included into an econometric model so as to determine some possible factors that tend to put pressure on an already existing issue of energy poverty. The results of this research are expected to be relevant not only for academics (as it offers insights into the structure and severity of this topic within the European Union, but also for national and EU policymakers who are confronted in the field with the problem of sustainable development.

  14. What are European Union Public Attitudes towards Robots? (Invited Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Loffredo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a very brief overview of public attitudes towards robots from different geographical regions of the world but focuses on one such study in one particular geographic area, the European Union (EU of 27 countries. By far, the Eurobarameter Survey on Public Attitudes towards Robots, released online in 2012, is the largest study of public attitudes towards robots. It focused exclusively on descriptive statistics which are mathematical procedures used to organize, summarize and simplify data. The statistical procedures used in this paper to perform a secondary data analysis of the data from the Eurobarameter Survey on Attitudes towards robots focused on inferential statistics which focus on inference and statistical comparisons. Secondary data analyses are often used when large data sets are posted online for public, professional, and educational use. A one-way repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA, and separate two-way independent-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA were used to analyze participant responses on relevant survey questions. The results supported our hypotheses that there are significant differences in EU public attitudes by gender and age group.

  15. Differentiated integration and disintegration in the European Union: State-of-the-art and ways for future research

    OpenAIRE

    Trondal, Jarle; Gänzle, Stefan; Leruth, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Following the United Kingdom (UK)’s vote to leave the European Union (EU) on 23 June 2016, the process of European integration is now at a critical juncture. Leaving aside Greenland’s departure from the European Community in 1983 – because of its political union with Denmark, Greenland has been recognized as one of the Overseas Countries and Territories of the EU –, the United Kingdom is the first member state in the history of European integration to engage in a process of disintegration whi...

  16. European Union diabetes indicators: fact or fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beaufort, C E; Reunanen, A; Raleigh, V; Storms, F; Kleinebreil, L; Gallego, R; Giorda, C; Midthjell, K; Jecht, M; de Leeuw, I; Schober, E; Boran, G; Tolis, G

    2003-09-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in EU/EFTA countries. Monitoring risk factors for diabetes and its complications will offer the possibility to evaluate the development in time as well as the influence of possible interventions. In this investigation a list with core and secondary indicators is proposed. Availability of these indicators and their data sources is discussed. An important variability of data sources is used in EU/EFTA countries, interfering with the comparability of the outcome. Further harmonisation as well as continuous evaluation of data sources will be necessary to provide reliable tools to monitor diabetes mellitus and its outcome on a routine basis.

  17. Regionalization strategies of European Union electric utilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.; Lindeque, J.; van den Buuse, D.

    2014-01-01

    As part of the debate about globalization and regionalization, this paper adds a perspective that has so far remained underexposed, that of (formerly state-owned) firms in (previously) regulated industries, in order to better understand the (changing) role of the home country/region in

  18. Quality assessments for cancer centers in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind, Anke; Rajan, Abinaya; van Harten, Wim H

    2016-09-07

    Cancer centers are pressured to deliver high-quality services that can be measured and improved, which has led to an increase of assessments in many countries. A critical area of quality improvement is to improve patient outcome. An overview of existing assessments can help stakeholders (e.g., healthcare professionals, managers and policy makers) improve the quality of cancer research and care and lead to patient benefits. This paper presents key aspects of assessments undertaken by European cancer centers, such as: are assessments mandatory or voluntary? Do they focus on evaluating research, care or both? And are they international or national? A survey was sent to 33 cancer centers in 28 European Union member states. Participants were asked to score the specifics for each assessment that they listed. Based on the responses from 19 cancer centers from 18 member states, we found 109 assessments. The numbers have steadily increased from 1990's till 2015. Although, a majority of assessments are on patient-care aspects (n = 45), it is unclear how many of those include assessing patient benefits. Only few assessments cover basic research. There is an increasing trend towards mixed assessments (i.e., combining research and patient-care aspects) The need for assessments in cancer centers is increasing. To improve efforts in the quality of research and patient care and to prevent new assessments that "reinvent the wheel", it is advised to start comparative research into the assessments that are likely to bring patient benefits and improve patient outcome. Do assessments provide consistent and reliable information that create added value for all key stakeholders?

  19. International Workshops for Teachers at the European Geosciences Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laj, C.

    2005-12-01

    The 2005 edition of the EGU Geophysical Information for Teachers (GIFT) workshoptook place in April 2005 during the General Assembly of the European Gesciences Union. It reunited 70 teachers from 16 European Countries and 3 teachers from the USA. The general theme of this 2-days workshop was 'The history of the Earth' and it focussed on important, but somewhat ill-known aspects of the evolution of our planet. GIFT-2005 was preceeded by a one-day workshop on Natural Risk Assessment (NaRAs) which included aspects of seismology in the schools and two talks on the 2004 Sumatra tsunami. Both were organized by the Committee on Education of EGU. Both workshops comprised seminal talks by leading scientists in the field, but also presentations by science educators and presentations by the teachers themselved of some off-track activities in their schools. This combitation stimulated discussions between the teachers, scientists and science educators and among the teachers where the different languages did not appear to create major difficulties (the official language of the workshops was English). Some of the contacts between teachers are already evolving in long term collaborations between them and their respective schools. It clearly appears that reuniting teachers formed and teaching within different educational systems, leads to stimulating creative discussions and collaborations, each teacher benefitting from the different background of his/her colleagues. The great output of this kind of international workshop is to show that while there is no educational system 'better than all others', the interactions between teachers, scientists and sciences educators during a major scientific conference, create new stimulus and enthousiasm among the teachers and this will invariably lead to up-to-date and alive teaching of geo-sciences (and scicnes in general) in primary and secondary schools, i.e. where future geoscientist are formed.

  20. The European Union Training Mission in Mali: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dicke Rachel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available For several years, the European Union (EU has been increasing its international presence and moving into the role of a global security actor. To support the goal of greater crisis management capabilities, European security integration (ESI has been deepening. This article therefore examines an Ell operation - the European Union Training Mission in Mali (EUTM Mali - with the aim of gauging the success of the EU's efforts at ESI. To determine the success of EUTM Mali and thus of ESI, three propositions are examined: if EUTM Mali is a security operation showing successful security integration, there will be evidence of (i broad participation, (ii financial burden-sharing and (iii the successful incorporation of troops and equipment. The first and third propositions are supported whereas the second does not receive as much support. Overall, EUTM Mali shows considerable success and bodes well for further ESI.

  1. European Union rules in the matter of dismissal of employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia-Monica MATIAȘ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available So far, the European Union adopted a Directive on firing any individual content to regulate only matters of collective redundancies due to the social implications that occur usually in case of collective dismissals and, simultaneously, their potential conflicts. Directive no. 98/95/EC of 20 July 1998 on the approximation of the laws of Member States relating to collective redundancies was adopted by the Council of the European Union since it was necessary to grant greater protection to workers in the event of collective redundancies. The provisions of Directive no. 98/59/EC of 20 July 1998 on the approximation of the laws of Member States relating to collective redundancies have been transposed into national law by the Romanian Government Emergency Ordinance no. 55/2006 amending and supplementing the Labour Code so that in this case no question of direct application of Community rules, but can not disregard its interpretation by the European Court of Justice.

  2. The economic and monetary union countries vs. the global crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Kowalski, Tadeusz

    2012-01-01

    The global financial and economic crisis revealed institutional weaknesses and structural problems of particular Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) countries. The crisis and slowdown that followed had an impact on their relative competitiveness. Financial and economic turbulences of recent years shed new light on the scale and scope of interdependences in the world economy. They uncovered economic and institutional flaws of the very EMU itself. The paper focuses on EMU countries real sector re...

  3. Revenue Forecast Errors in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Afonso, António; Carvalho, Rui

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we assess the determinants of revenue forecast errors for the EU-15 between 1999 and 2012, based on the forecasts published bi-annually by the European Commission. Our results show that personal income rate changes increase the revenue forecast errors: for forecasts made in t for t, increases in the corporate tax rate implies a decrease in the revenue forecast errors, in t+1 and t+2. Moreover, an increase in GDP forecast errors decreases revenue errors, whereas an increase in th...

  4. The European Union and Military Conflict Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen

    This book provides the first comprehensive review of the European Union’s role in military conflict management beyond its borders and makes an important contribution to debates on the EU’s role in global security governance. The EU has launched five military operations within the framework of its...... Common Security and Defence Policy with the explicit purpose to help manage violent conflicts beyond its borders. This book develops a definition and a set of criteria for success in military conflict management and applies this new analytical framework in a comparative case study of the five EU military...

  5. Trade integration and trade imbalances in the European Union: a network perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautier M Krings

    Full Text Available We study the ever more integrated and ever more unbalanced trade relationships between European countries. To better capture the complexity of economic networks, we propose two global measures that assess the trade integration and the trade imbalances of the European countries. These measures are the network (or indirect counterparts to traditional (or direct measures such as the trade-to-GDP (Gross Domestic Product and trade deficit-to-GDP ratios. Our indirect tools account for the European inter-country trade structure and follow (i a decomposition of the global trade flow into elementary flows that highlight the long-range dependencies between exporting and importing economies and (ii the commute-time distance for trade integration, which measures the impact of a perturbation in the economy of a country on another country, possibly through intermediate partners by domino effect. Our application addresses the impact of the launch of the Euro. We find that the indirect imbalance measures better identify the countries ultimately bearing deficits and surpluses, by neutralizing the impact of trade transit countries, such as the Netherlands. Among others, we find that ultimate surpluses of Germany are quite concentrated in only three partners. We also show that for some countries, the direct and indirect measures of trade integration diverge, thereby revealing that these countries (e.g. Greece and Portugal trade to a smaller extent with countries considered as central in the European Union network.

  6. Trade Integration and Trade Imbalances in the European Union: A Network Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krings, Gautier M.; Carpantier, Jean-François; Delvenne, Jean-Charles

    2014-01-01

    We study the ever more integrated and ever more unbalanced trade relationships between European countries. To better capture the complexity of economic networks, we propose two global measures that assess the trade integration and the trade imbalances of the European countries. These measures are the network (or indirect) counterparts to traditional (or direct) measures such as the trade-to-GDP (Gross Domestic Product) and trade deficit-to-GDP ratios. Our indirect tools account for the European inter-country trade structure and follow (i) a decomposition of the global trade flow into elementary flows that highlight the long-range dependencies between exporting and importing economies and (ii) the commute-time distance for trade integration, which measures the impact of a perturbation in the economy of a country on another country, possibly through intermediate partners by domino effect. Our application addresses the impact of the launch of the Euro. We find that the indirect imbalance measures better identify the countries ultimately bearing deficits and surpluses, by neutralizing the impact of trade transit countries, such as the Netherlands. Among others, we find that ultimate surpluses of Germany are quite concentrated in only three partners. We also show that for some countries, the direct and indirect measures of trade integration diverge, thereby revealing that these countries (e.g. Greece and Portugal) trade to a smaller extent with countries considered as central in the European Union network. PMID:24465381

  7. MACROECONOMIC STABILITY OF CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold WEISZENBACHER

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the recent financial crisis, the macroeconomic stability of most countries has been cast to shadow. The damage to the economy caused by high inflation, volatile exchange rates, increasing amount of debts and the unstable financial markets has heavily left its toll on the global market and has led to massive unemployment and increasing poverty. This paper aims to follow the eight new Central and Eastern European countries that joined the European Union in 2004, as well as Romania and Bulgaria, who followed suit in 2007, in what concerns their economical performance, following adhesion to the EU while also comparing the periods before and after the economical crisis. They were chosen as a topic of research for the severity with which the crisis affected them and the high degree of reform implementation in the aftermath. It also plans to highlight the effect of the new reforms and the growth potential when compared to the rest of the European Union. The price inflation, real GDP growth, the levels of (unemployment, fiscal policy and stability of exchange rates will provide a clear image of how this cluster of developing countries fare nowadays against the rest of the EU countries.

  8. The European Union action in the field of rare diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Montserrat Moliner

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Rare diseases, including those of genetic origin, are defined by the European Union as lifethreatening or chronically debilitating diseases which are of such low prevalence (less than 5 per 10 000. The specificities of rare diseases - limited number of patients and scarcity of relevant knowledge and expertise - single them out as a unique domain of very high European added-value.

    Methods: The legal instruments at the disposal of the European Union, in terms of the Article 152 of the Treaties, are very limited. However a combination of instruments using the research and the pharmaceutical legal basis and an intensive and creative use of funding from the Second Health Programme has permitted to create a solid basis that Member States have considered enough to put rare diseases in a privileged position in the health agenda.

    Results: The adoption of the Commission Communication, in November 2008, and of the Council Recommendation, in June 2009, and the future adoption of the Directive on Cross-border healthcare, end 2009 or mid 2010, have created an operational framework to act in the field of rare disease with European coordination in several areas (classification and codification, European Reference Networks, orphan drugs, European Committee of Experts, etc..

    Conclusions: Rare diseases is an area with enormous and practical potentialities for European cooperation.

  9. Tolerance towards homosexuality in Europe: Population composition, economic affluence, religiosity, same-sex union legislation and HIV rates as explanations for country differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slenders, S.; Sieben, I.J.P.; Verbakel, C.M.C.

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to explain variation in the level of tolerance towards homosexuality between European countries. Results of multi-level regression analyses on 40 countries from the 2008 wave of the European Values Study show that countries' economic affluence and laws on same-sex unions are

  10. THE ROLE OF ECONOMIC POLICIES FOR EXTERNAL CROSSBORDER AREAS IN SHAPING THE NEW EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Șlusarciuc

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available As history proves, any enlargement of an overstate structure produces disarticulation and an increase of pressure on the borders of it. On the other side the economy produces integrative effects along the border despite of the original significance of separation that a border has. The crossborder policies of the European Union as regional player are meant to contribute to the economic structure building and enhance the stability inside and outside the Union area. Setting up the normative framework for crossborder relations is a very present-day field, being subject of study and research in all Union bodies, in the Member States governments, candidate countries or beneficiaries of the relations with the Union as well. This normative framework is meant to propel the economic increase and the raise of the daily life conditions in the neighbor countries. Alongside the border there are happening complex phenomena, some of them easy to be quantified, such as economic ones, some of them more difficult that cannot be controlled but only sociologically researched, such as cultural-identity-emotional ones. The paper aims to draw the guiding marks of the European Union external crossborder areas and the crossborder cooperation frame for Romania, to identify already visible and potential effects of the enlargement on the external borders and to make an inventory of policies that should integrate the crossborder economy.

  11. Liability of the European Union for acts of its Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaescu, Bucura Catalina

    2011-01-01

    The following article will assess the real extent of the potential liability of the European Union. It will fi rstly focus on the recognition and the development by the EU Courts of the conditions which must be fulfi lled in order for the EU to incur liability for the acts of its institutions. It will be emphasised in this regard that, as the EU Courts’ case-law currently stand, the criteria for Union liability can differ, depending on a number of variables including whether the c...

  12. The European Union and Military Conflict Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen

    Common Security and Defence Policy with the explicit purpose to help manage violent conflicts beyond its borders. This book develops a definition and a set of criteria for success in military conflict management and applies this new analytical framework in a comparative case study of the five EU military......This book provides the first comprehensive review of the European Union’s role in military conflict management beyond its borders and makes an important contribution to debates on the EU’s role in global security governance. The EU has launched five military operations within the framework of its...... operations undertaken in Macedonia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Chad and the Central African Republic. Having evaluated their success the book goes on to explore the conditions under which military conflict management operations conducted by international organizations...

  13. The European Union and Military Conflict Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen

    This book provides the first comprehensive review of the European Union’s role in military conflict management beyond its borders and makes an important contribution to debates on the EU’s role in global security governance. The EU has launched five military operations within the framework of its...... are successful and explores the implications of its findings for the future theory and practice of military conflict management....... Common Security and Defence Policy with the explicit purpose to help manage violent conflicts beyond its borders. This book develops a definition and a set of criteria for success in military conflict management and applies this new analytical framework in a comparative case study of the five EU military...

  14. The European Union and Military Conflict Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen

    This book provides the first comprehensive review of the European Union’s role in military conflict management beyond its borders and makes an important contribution to debates on the EU’s role in global security governance. The EU has launched five military operations within the framework of its...... Common Security and Defence Policy with the explicit purpose to help manage violent conflicts beyond its borders. This book develops a definition and a set of criteria for success in military conflict management and applies this new analytical framework in a comparative case study of the five EU military...... operations undertaken in Macedonia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Chad and the Central African Republic. Having evaluated their success the book goes on to explore the conditions under which military conflict management operations conducted by international organizations...

  15. Linking Public Administration and Law Studies within European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela V. Cărăuşan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The year 1987 represented for us, scholars, the turning point for the Europeanization of highdegree studies. The European Region Action Scheme for the Mobility of University Students (ERASMUS isa European Union student exchange program which has proved its utility in the last two decade. The publicadministration and law studies are two of the fields of studies which have benefited from the ERASMUSProgramme. In this respect we will try to learn the lesson of internationalization from the European contactthrough ERASMUS programme. The ‘win win’ for students is not just in the increase of knowledge in thearea of administrative sciences and law, but also in the share of cultures. The ERASMUS gives students abetter sense of what it means to be a European citizen. In addition, many employers highly value such aperiod abroad, which increases the students’ employability and job prospects.

  16. European and Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership (EDCTP): the path towards a true partnership

    OpenAIRE

    Ofori-Adjei David; Zijenah Lynn; Ndounga Mathieu; Ambene Herman PA; Kitua Andrew Y; Jaoko Walter G; Corrah Tumani; Ndumbe Peter M; Manyando Christine; Matee Mecky I; Agwale Simon; Shongwe Steven; Nyirenda Thomas; Makanga Michael

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background European and Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership (EDCTP) was founded in 2003 by the European Parliament and Council. It is a partnership of 14 European Union (EU) member states, Norway, Switzerland, and Developing Countries, formed to fund acceleration of new clinical trial interventions to fight the human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), malaria and tuberculosis (TB) in the sub-Saharan African region. EDCTP seeks to b...

  17. The effect of migration within the European Union/European Economic Area on the distribution of tuberculosis, 2007 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollo, Vahur; Kotila, Saara Magdalena; Ködmön, Csaba; Zucs, Phillip; van der Werf, Marieke Johanna

    2016-01-01

    Immigration from tuberculosis (TB) high-incidence countries is known to contribute notably to the TB burden in low-incidence countries. However, the effect of migration enabled by the free movement of persons within the European Union (EU)/European Economic Area (EEA) on TB notification has not been analysed. We analysed TB surveillance data from 29 EU/EEA countries submitted for the years 2007-2013 to The European Surveillance System. We used place of birth and nationality as proxy indicators for native, other EU/EEA and non-EU/EEA origin of the TB cases and analysed the characteristics of the subgroups by origin. From 2007-2013, a total of 527,467 TB cases were reported, of which 129,781 (24.6%) were of foreign origin including 12,566 (2.4%) originating from EU/EEA countries other than the reporting country. The countries reporting most TB cases originating from other EU/EEA countries were Germany and Italy, and the largest proportion of TB cases in individuals came from Poland (n=1,562) and Romania (n=6,285). At EU/EEA level only a small proportion of foreign TB cases originated from other EU/EEA countries, however, the uneven distribution of this presumed importation may pose a challenge to TB programmes in some countries.

  18. Medical interpreting and the law in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Mary

    2012-09-01

    In 2011, the Danish government announced that from June that year it would no longer cover the costs of medical interpreters for patients who had been living in Denmark for more than seven years. The Dutch Ministry of Health followed with an even more draconian approach; from 1 January 2012, the cost of translation and interpreting would no longer be covered by the state. These two announcements led to widespread concern about whether or not there is a legal foundation for interpreter provision in healthcare. This article considers United Nations treaties, conventions from the Council of Europe and European Union law. European Union member states have been slow to sign up to international agreements to protect the rights of migrant workers. The European Union itself has only recently moved into the area of discrimination and it is unclear if the Race Directive covers language. As a result, access to interpreters in healthcare, where it exists, is dependent on national anti-discrimination legislation or on positive action taken at national or local level rather than on European or international law.

  19. THE EMPLOYMENT LEVELS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION AND IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alic BIRCA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the issue of employment. Employment policy was and still is a rather important issue that has always drawn economists’ attention and has always been on the business agenda of central public bodies. The global economic crisis in 2008 influenced the employment rate of the workforce in most countries, including the EU Member States. Employment has been a problem for the Republic of Moldova since its independence. In order to increase the employment levels of the workforce, many countries have undertaken a series of active measures that have brought good results. The European Union itself, in the 2020 strategy aims at increasing the level of employment of the workforce up to 75% for people 20-64 years of age. This article describes the employment situation in the European Union and in the Republic of Moldova by highlighting the current disparities.

  20. REASSESSING EUROPEAN UNION LIMITS: WHAT ROLE FOR THE NEW REGIONAL PARTNERSHIPS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Berbec

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available As every enlargement brings new neighbours to the European Union, the European Neighbourhood Policy is facing new challenges regarding its policy towards the countries in its proximity. Although the ENP does not offer perspectives for accession, nor does it preclude it, new forms of cooperation between the EU and its neighbours are taken into consideration as an alternative to full membership. This essay will analyze how the latest enlargements have brought new opportunities and challenges to the EU in relation to its new neighbours, the role of the "Eastern Partnership" and the "Union for Mediterranean" initiatives in fostering cooperation with the contiguous countries and whether these community projects, together with the ENP, can have a contribution to the understanding of what the EU limits are.

  1. Transformation of Polish Energy Policy in the Context of Changes in European Union Member States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosław Szczerbowski

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of the Polish energy system in the context of the changes taking place in the energy systems of other European Union Member States. Power system development plans in selected European countries were analysed, as well as their impact on the development of the national energy system. To be effective, an energy policy must affect the investment decisions of business entities. Poland is at the time when it should create the optimal energy mix concept and consistently strive for its implementation. This paper aims to show the real direction of growth in the electricity generation assets in Poland, as well as to indicate the possible impact of trends in the policies of European Union Member States on the electricity market in Poland.

  2. European Union News Themes in Romanian Radio Stations. Case Study: Europa FM and Radio Romania Actualitati

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia-Ioana Matei

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available With Romania’s integration in the European Union, the media content related to the member states has acquired growing importance. The themes of journalism were enriched with new approaches towards national image in the European context and vice versa. At a first level, the study aims to conduct a quantitative analysis on the news topics broadcasted by Radio Romania Actualitati and Europa FM, for the duration of 32 days. The qualitative component focuses on the topics addressed in radio news in order to see what is the media content which reflects the image of the European Union. The findings show, beyond the numbers, that the editorial policy of the Romanian media is not concerned with the interests of the citizens - from the perspective of common themes - but rather with how can the EU, as a unified body, help member countries solve their problems.

  3. U.S. subprime financial crisis contagion on BRIC and European Union stock markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Reed Bergmann

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Copula Theory was used to analyze contagion among the BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India and China and European Union stock markets with the U.S. Equity Market. The market indexes used for the period between January 01, 2005 and February 27, 2010 are: MXBRIC (BRIC, MXEU (European Union and MXUS (United States. This article evaluated the adequacy of the main copulas found in the financial literature using log-likelihood, Akaike information and Bayesian information criteria. This article provides a groundbreaking study in the area of contagion due to the use of conditional copulas, allowing to calculate the correlation increase between indexes with non-parametric approach. The conditional Symmetrized Joe-Clayton copula was the one that fitted better to the considered pairs of returns. Results indicate evidence of contagion effect in both markets, European Union and BRIC members, with a 5% significance level. Furthermore, there is also evidence that the contagion of U.S. financial crisis was more pronounced in the European Union than in the BRIC markets, with a 5% significance level. Therefore, stock portfolios formed by equities from the BRIC countries were able to offer greater protection during the subprime crisis. The results are aligned with recent papers that present an increase in correlation between stock markets, especially in bear markets.

  4. The European Union Policy in the Field of Rare Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moliner, Antoni Montserrat; Waligora, Jaroslaw

    2017-01-01

    Rare diseases, are defined by the European Union as life-threatening or chronically debilitating diseases with low prevalence (less than 5 per 10,000). The specificities of rare diseases - limited number of patients and scarcity of relevant knowledge and expertise - single them out as a unique domain of very high European added-value.The legal instruments at the disposal of the European Union, in terms of the Article 168 of the Treaties, are very limited. However a combination of instruments using the research and the pharmaceutical legal basis and an intensive and creative use of funding from the Health Programmes has permitted to create a solid basis that Member States have considered enough to put rare diseases in a privileged position in the health agenda.The adoption of the Commission Communication, in November 2008, and of the Council Recommendation, in June 2009, and in 2011 the adoption of the Directive on Cross-border healthcare., have created an operational framework to act in the field of rare disease with European coordination in several areas (classification and codification, European Reference Networks, orphan medicinal products, the Commission expert group on rare diseases, etc.).Rare diseases is an area with high and practical potential for the European cooperation.

  5. (REBUILDING THE EUROPEAN UNION`S INTERNATIONAL ROLE THROUGH HUMAN SECURITY STRATEGY IN THE AFTREMATHS OF THE EUROPEAN CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea IANCU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In a globalized world, characterized by profound shifts in the dynamics of global power and by diverse threats to peace and security, the European Union should be an active and peace-promoter actor, according to its founding principles. Thus, the European crisis left hard to heal scars within the European Union internal coherence and for its international role and image. The European crisis determined a cleavage in foreign and defence policy between the EU`s member states, creating dissonances in its internal processes. Therefore, this incongruence determined flawed reactions to international events. In order to determine the impact of the European crisis on the EU`s international role, it is briefly analysed the EU`s and its member states reactions to the conflicts from Libya and Syria. The main hypothesis of this article is that in order to overcome the effects of the economic crisis and to rebuild its international trust, the EU should reaffirm its core principles through a coherent external policy, which should be embedded in a bottom-up legitimized paradigm. This analysis demonstrates that human security strategy and the responsibility to protect principle can become the new European meta-narrative, the fact that they have the potential to overcome the current gap between rhetoric and practice in foreign and defence European policies. Therefore, this article advocates that the human security strategy and the responsibility to protect principle represent an impetus to transform the EU in an important global actor.

  6. Tuberculosis among migrant populations in the European Union and the European Economic Area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odone, A.; Tillmann, T.; Sandgren, A.; Williams, G.; Rechel, B.; Ingleby, D.; Noori, T.; Mladovsky, P.; McKee, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although tuberculosis (TB) incidence has been decreasing in the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) in the last decades, specific subgroups of the population, such as migrants, remain at high risk of TB. This study is based on the report ‘Key Infectious Diseases in Migrant

  7. NEW PROPOSAL FOR EUROPEAN UNION REGULATIONS ON MEDICAL DEVICES AND IN VITRO DIAGNOSTIC MEDICAL DEVICES

    OpenAIRE

    Mariela Yaneva-Deliverska

    2012-01-01

    Appropriate legislation is fundamental to ensuring the highest level of health protection and effective innovation. Until the 1990s, each European Union country had its own approach to device evaluation but governments needed to put in place policies that will address all elements related to medical devices, ranging from access to high quality, affordable products, through to their safe and appropriate use and disposal. In order to ensure that patients, consumers and healthcare professionals ...

  8. The macroeconomic effects of migration from the new European Union member states to the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Iakova, Dora

    2015-01-01

    The United Kingdom allowed workers from the ten new European Union member countries immediate access to its labor market after the accession in 2004. This paper uses a general equilibrium framework to explore the dynamic adjustment of the UK economy to the postaccession surge in immigration. Simulations show that immigration is likely to have positive effects on economic growth, capital accumulation, consumption, and the public finances.

  9. ENTREPRENEURSHIP, A SOLUTION TO IMPROVE YOUTH EMPLOYMENT IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana-Cristina, GANESCU

    2014-01-01

    The high level of unemployment among young people in EU countries reflects the difficulties young people face in finding a job. On the premise that entrepreneurship is a solution to youth unemployment in the European Union, the present study uses the entrepreneurial ecosystem assessment methodology proposed by the Global Entrepreneurship and Development Institute. Panel data analysis reveals a negative correlation between the level of development of the entrepreneurial ecosystem and the level...

  10. The Ideas of the Students of Education Faculty about the European Union Education and Youth Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergün, Muammer; Kamer, S. Tunay

    2009-01-01

    The most important issue that Turkey has been dealing with since the beginning of 2000s is the entrance to the European Union and the preparatory activities for this period. No what how it is evaluated, as an opportunity or a threat to which will break us off our cultural values, EU is a reality that our country faces. The programs such as FORCE,…

  11. Socioeconomic related inequalities in students' mathematics achievement in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Lurdes Martins; Paula Veiga

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the degree of socioeconomic related inequalities in mathematics achievement for students from the European Union and presents some possible sources for the exhibited differences between countries. We applied a methodology which has been used in health economics literature namely by Wagstaff et al. (1991) and Kakwani et al. (1997). We selected parental highest level of education as a proxy for students’ socioeconomic background. Results confirm a significant inequality in a...

  12. European Union energy handbook; Petit memento energetique de l'Union Europeenne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    While providing graphs and data tables, this document presents and comments key figures about energy in the European Union. The first part gives an overview of the general energy accounting, outlines its traps, gives the main demographic and economic indicators for each of the 27 members, defines and describes the energy production and consumption indicators, and gives an energy appraisal for the European Union. Then, it more specifically deals with final energy consumption in the European Union (per energy source, per sector), with primary energy production and consumption per source (oil products, natural gas, coal, biomass, uranium), with electricity production and consumption, with heat production and consumption. After this overview on energy production and consumption, a set of sheets deals with greenhouse gases and nuclear wastes (climate change and greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide emissions, methane emissions, nitrogen oxide emissions, industrial gas emissions, nuclear wastes). The last part deals with the European policies in terms of energy and climate, of energy efficiency, of renewable energies, and of reduction of greenhouse gas emissions

  13. INTEGRATION AND INEQUALITIES IN THE EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOGDAN COPCEA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Within the European Union, regional economic performance and economic development respect the principles of the core-periphery model, with core-countries in Northern and Western Europe and periphery-countries as the Southern and Eastern European states. Thus, although treaties and cohesion policies promote balanced development throughout the European Union, it continues to be a divided entity. Despite the efforts of both public institutions at both the national and EU level, and the private sector, inequality still persists and in some cases is increasing. In analyzing the causes of these perpetuating disparities and especially in shaping solutions to ensure balanced development throughout Europe, one should take into account that when joining the European Union, its Member States should be treated as regions of a supranational organization. Hence, it follows that development and growth programs, as well as the allocation of cohesion funds must consider the dissimilar socio-economic and cultural backgrounds encountered in the Member States, the ‘one size fits all’ approach threatening to intensify Europe’s North-South division. Using panel data, this paper provides an empirical study of the inequality determinants, aiming to identify convergence or divergence trends across countries and regions of Eastern Europe. Our findings partially confirm the theory, indicating that, in the long run, the new EU Member States recorded a process of convergence, reducing the gap between rich and poor regions, even if in the short-term, and especially in times of economic crisis, the economic disparities may widen. M

  14. European social model and the harmonization of Macedonian labour legislation with the European Union community labour law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalamatiev Todor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The European integration process accompanied by the harmonization of the EU member states' legislation will inevitably lead to the establishment of a European social model which has a 'sui generis' legal nature. European social model forms a part of the common legal heritage of the European countries and it can be defined as a system of values that include democracy and individual rights, free collective bargaining, market economy, equal opportunities for all, and social protection and solidarity. Subject of analysis in this paper are both, the essential components of the European social model such as: the social 'acquis communautaire' and the European industrial relations. The social 'acquis communautaire' is an integral part of the general 'acquis communautaire' and it encompasses the regulations arising from the primary and secondary labour law legislation of the EU, decisions of the European Court of Justice and other legal measures of the European Union with a binding or non-binding legal nature. European industrial relations encompass the key features of the European trade union models as well as the types of social dialogue in different EU member states. This paper pays attention to a profound elaboration of the harmonization of two EU labour law directives with the Macedonian employment legislation. The first Directive (Directive 91/533/EEC of 14 October 1991 on an employers' obligation to inform employees of the conditions applicable to the contract or employment relationship may be classified in the field of individual employment relations, while the second one (Directive 2002/14/EC of 11 March 2002 establishing a general framework for informing and consulting employees in the European Community can be subsumed within the field of collective employment relations. Finally, the authors illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of the Macedonian labour legislation in the process of harmonization with the relevant EU directives

  15. THE EUROPEAN UNION A CRITICAL REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria NEGROPONTI-DELIVANIS

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In its first part, this study deals with some issues that have amassed within EU, practically in all fields of activity, especially after the last wave of enlargement, thus the fears of deepened distance between EU and its population being brought up to light. EU undergoes an identity crisis with multiple facets: geographical, socio-economic, moral, ideologic, and strategic ones, etc. The main goal of EU for the last three decades is no longer population welfare, but ôcompetitivenessö , and the chief means of increasing it is production costsÆ diminution that occurs by massive layoffs and wage decreases. EU enlargement and in-depth processes have created new issues such as enterprises relocalisation, immigration, social protection system, and foregoing the chance to dominate the world. The second part analyses the consequences related to the turmoil within EU: co-existence of welfare and poverty (increased unemployment, growth of discrepancies between countries; massive absence at the latest polls; lack of confidence in political personalities; risks of enlargement without previous operated in-depth changes, etc. Despite its flagrant shortcommings it is less probable that the EU would dissolve. It amassed a lot of red-tape (bureaucracy and embodied so many interests, so that the most likely development seems to be an even greater enlargement, until it will become completely ineffective. The single means of improving EU is that populations become aware of the other side of the medal.

  16. INTEGRATED APPROACH TO DEVELOPMENT IN THE EUROPEAN UNION VISION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrodita BORMA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the new conceptual framework of the Cohesion Policy for 2014-2020. Thus, the paper presents a change of perspective in the Cohesion Policy regarding territorial development and a new vision on integrated development. This new vision presents explanations about the new family of concepts (Structural and Investment Funds, Europe 2020 Strategy, Common Strategic Framework, Partnership Agreement, etc. used in 2014-2020. The changes made by the European Commission at Cohesion Policy level for 2014-2020 programming period, open new opportunities for the development of integrated operations leading to strengthening economic, social and territorial cohesion of the entire union. The herein used research method consists in bibliographic research performed based on information found in the literature and on the official websites of the European Union.

  17. Regulatory Issues Associated with Preharvest Food Safety: European Union Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alban, Lis

    2016-10-01

    Free movement of safe and wholesome food is an essential aspect of any society. This article contains an updated description of the regulatory issues associated with preharvest food safety within the European Union. Salmonella, Campylobacter, Trichinella, antimicrobial resistance, and bovine spongiform encephalopathy are dealt with in detail. Moreover, Cysticercus bovis/Taenia saginata, Toxoplasma, Yersinia, verotoxigenic/shigatoxigenic Escherichia coli, Listeria, and foodborne viruses are briefly covered. The article describes how the focus in the European Union is changing to involve a supply chain view with a focus on cost-effectiveness. The precautionary principle-as well as the use of private standards as an instrument to ensure compliance-is dealt with. In addition, actions in the pipeline are presented and discussed.

  18. Dangerous Goods Transport Problems in the European Union and Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Nowacki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper refers to threat assessment of dangerous goods (DG in transportation of the European Union and the Republic of Poland. Dangerous goods in the European Union are carried by inland waterways, rail and road. In Poland 87.5% of DG have been carried by road and 12.5% by rail in 2014. DG can cause an accident and lead to fires, explosions and chemical poisoning or burning with considerable harm to people and the environment. There is not monitoring system in Poland to control in real time road transportation of dangerous goods. Proposition of National System of Monitoring Dangerous Goods in Poland was presented. Realization of mentioned kind of system may significantly contribute to improving safety of people and environment.

  19. The Clash of Discourses Regarding Relations with Russia: New Fault Lines in the European Union?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Naumescu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Following the annexation of Crimea and the secession war in Eastern Ukraine, the topic of European security has returned as a major benchmark for a number of EU and non-EU countries. For a couple of years, in 2014-2015, the discourse of condemnation and international sanctions against the Russian regime dominated the agenda of the European-Russian relations. Nevertheless, the economic considerations and the ascension of right-wing or left-wing populism(s in the European Union acted as a drag on European unity and solidarity. Thereby a series of political leaders in the EU and its Eastern Neighbourhood began to ask for economic rapprochement with Russia, while others remained very cautious. Based on a comparative qualitative method, this paper explores the clashing discourses about relations with Russia, in light of the discourse theory. The dynamics of divergent positioning regarding Russia after 2016 led to the question of possible new fault lines in the European Union. Inconsistencies on this topic can be seen between West and East, between post-communist countries on the Eastern Flank with Poland, Romania and the Baltic States, on one side, and Hungary, Bulgaria, Slovakia and the Czech Republic on the other side, and between Western chancelleries with rather different views such as Berlin, London or Rome. The aim of this article is to explore the increasing differences and clarify whether conflicting approaches regarding relations with Russia could create real cleavages between EU Member States and threaten European unity.

  20. Poland, variable geometry and the enlarged European Union.

    OpenAIRE

    Schweiger, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the role of Poland in the European Union, where the traditional Franco-German leadership axis has been replaced by a new ‘variable geometry’ of leadership constellations across a variety of policy areas. In this setting Poland has the potential to move from maintaining an initially passive role as a policy-taker towards becoming an agenda-setter alongside other larger and more traditionally dominant member states, especially Germany. However, Poland's success in this mat...

  1. Economic case for gender equality in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Elomäki, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Scholarship on gender and the European Union (EU) has consistently pointed out that EU gender equality policies have always been embedded in the logic of the market and that the economic framing has had negative impacts on the content and concepts of these policies. This article provides novel insights into this discussion by combining a discursive approach focused on framings with insights of feminist economists and examining how the relationship between gender equality and the economy has b...

  2. The Political Economy of Online Gambling in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Myllymaa, Antti

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the tripartite question concerning the relationship between a globalizing capitalist market economy, a territorial states system and a supranational European Union. Specifically, this study explains how different societal actors approach the question of the vertical division of competences between the supranational EU institutions and the Member States while juxtaposing this in the pursuit of desired models of socio-economic regulation. Whereas previous studies hav...

  3. European Union Financing of the Climate Change Mitigation Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Calanter

    2014-01-01

    The following paper aims at analyzing the financing by the European Union of the climate change limitation and mitigation activities. The general objectives of the activities directed towards reducing and combating climate change, analyzed on the two directions of action, namely the mitigation of the phenomenon, and the adaptation to climate change, are exposed. The financing action by the EU in order to combat climate change at the international level, both the fast start financing, and medi...

  4. Nuclear power. A key contributor to a decarbonised European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-12-15

    The European energy sector is currently facing a new set of challenges in the light of the COP21 Paris agreement, the Energy Union initiative and new market design projections. Nuclear energy sector understands the post COP21 constellation as a unique opportunity for all low carbon technologies which will be basic for transition towards COP21 commitments. A new policy outlook for Europe is needed in order to provide low carbon capacity, lead to the modernisation of technical processes and contribute to the prosperity of Europeans. The benefits of nuclear are highlighted for a low carbon future and for the security of supply and recommend actions for supporting new investments.

  5. Trailing the unpredictable pathways of European Union lifelong learning policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cort, Pia

    2014-01-01

    Since 2000 the concept of Europeanization has gained importance as a way of conceptualizing the changes in education and training policy in the European Union. Not least the introduction of the Open Method of Coordination in education and training has launched important policy processes through...... actors from different sites to make a ‘European Area of Lifelong Learning a Reality’ (EU Commission, 2001). The changes challenge policy research and its traditional analytical units of the nation-state and the EU as a supranational organization. As stated in the introduction of the book, decision...... actors within the new structures of a European education space. The aim of this chapter is to offer a tentative proposal on how to study the unpredictable pathways of EU LLL policy. The methodology of policy trailing and the use of the mixed methods of discourse analysis and narrative inquiry...

  6. European Union regional policy in Asia-Europe’s meeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel de Jesús Rocha Pino

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available During 1996 the Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM was created with the purpose of constituting a mechanism of nonexistent interregional dialogue until that moment and that united the both extremes of the eurasian territorial mass: East Asia (represented by group ANSEA 3 and Europe (represented by the European Union. The expectations erected at the moment of ASEM's creation were many, but with the years it has demonstrated a set of limits that has diminished its effectiveness, at least in the area of the political dialogue. In this paper is described the particular experience of the diplomacy of the European Union in the mechanism of the ASEM, the kind of interregional policy that this one has implemented and the contradictions that it has had to tolerate with respect to his own legal and institutional exigencies. In the paper it is argued that, despite its limits, the ASEM can be a referential case on the reaction of the European Union forehead to the transformation that in historical terms means the political and economic emergency of Asia in the international system.

  7. The European Union's Mediterranean Policy in the Context of the "Arab Spring"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria A. Latkina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the policy of the European Union aimed at the export of its democratic values, acquis communautaire and governance models to the neighbour countries in the Southern Mediterranean. The process of Europeanization reflects a particular case of global megatrend -democratization which in its turn positioned as democracy promotion through soft power instruments. From the EU point of view the goal of the Barcelona process launched in 1995 was to construct Euro-Mediterranean Partnership and common identity in order to promote democratic transitions in Southern Mediterranean. While the EU Foreign Policy in the Mediterranean region was historically conditioned by the security interests of the European Union, it suffered from securitization/democratization dilemma. The article analyses the process of external Europeanization in the Southern Mediterranean as a regional dimension of global democratization process in the context of Union for the Mediterranean development before and after the Arab Spring and new approach in the framework of the ENP Partnership for Democracy and Shared Prosperity with the Southern Mediterranean. The article proposes that the lack of political strategic vision in the EU toward the Arab democratic transition during 2011-2013 narrows its role as a transformative democratic power, hinders Europeanization/ democratization process in the macro-region of North Africa and Middle East and presents the EU with a new dilemma - to continue its traditional democratization policy or to shift towards a more pragmatic approach to cooperating with new Arab regimes.

  8. THE IRONY OF SAMENESS EUROPEAN UNION AND INDIA’S COLD RELATIONSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAELA PĂDUREANU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Trying to establish themselves as global actors, both European Union and India pursue their interest through multiliteralism. Although both of them developed intense relationships with the United States, Russian Federation, China and other regional actors, EU and India do not find profoundly attracted to one another. While EU steers Central Asia or China, India in its part sees the European framework as the sum of its parts at best and prefers bilateral proximity with individual nations once at the time: UK, France Italy, Germany or Poland. The irony of this state of affairs is that both EU and India have similar traits if judged by their effort to bridge ethnic, religious and economic diversity into a single body. Apart from that both EU and Indian economies struggle to shape a compromise between social protection and the neoliberal agenda. In this paper we analyze the relationship between European Union and India by focusing on their foreign policies. Our main hypothesis is that EU and India should cooperate due to their attraction to the same values and norms. As future unfolds along with common challenges such as regulating financial flows or tackling terrorism and environmental issues, European Union and India should try to reach a common language. This relation can also be a test for EU’s aim to become a global actor because an established cooperation with an Asian country would provide the necessary framework to work outside the European space and to demonstrated its commitment to become an important player in IR.

  9. Volume and diagnosis: an approach to cross-border care in eight European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vallejo, P.; Suñol, R.; van Beek, B.; Lombarts, M. J. M. H.; Bruneau, C.; Vlcek, F.

    2009-01-01

    Mobility of patients is a pertinent issue on the European Union's agenda. This study aimed to estimate the volume and main diagnoses of cross-border care in eight European countries, in order to provide policy makers with background information about the nature of patient mobility in Europe. This

  10. Volume and diagnosis: an approach to cross-border care in eight European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vallejo, P.; Sunol, R.; van Beek, B.; Lombarts, M.J.M.H.; Bruneau, C.; Vicek, F.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Mobility of patients is a pertinent issue on the European Union's agenda. This study aimed to estimate the volume and main diagnoses of cross-border care in eight European countries, in order to provide policy makers with background information about the nature of patient mobility in

  11. Book Review: The Crisis of the European Union. A Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Bârgăoanu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In his book, Jurgen Habermas explored the options available for the European Union in dealing with the global crisis. The author structured his approach on two essays. The first one, entitled “The Crisis of the European Union in Light of a Constitutionalization of International Law - An Essay on the Constitution for Europe”, emphasizes the fact that while the European decision-makers have focused on solving the currency, banking and debt crises, they omitted the political dimension of the crisis. Moreover, the author considers that in the light of a constitutional treaty for Europe, the transnationalization of the European democracy will be possible if both the public opinion and the politicians can overcome three categories of preconceptions: the dependence of the popular sovereignty to the state sovereignty, the mutually exclusive status of the European citizenship and of the national one, the indivisible nature of the sovereignty. The second essay, entitled “The Concept of Human Dignity and the Realistic Utopia of Human Rights” underlines the imperative nature of the human rights and human dignity interconnected concepts. He states that two conditions must be met in order for the concepts to be valid. Habermas considers that there must be a political community that enacts them and that the two concepts are universally accepted. The Appendix includes three recent political interventions through which Habermas reiterates the uncomfortable and controversial topic of European unification. He concludes that the European Project cannot be allowed to fail because of the raise of German nationalism and the lack of visionary European leadership.

  12. Some questions regarding the financing of health care in member states of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Totić Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Before you deal with the primary aim to show that regulated health care systems have contributed and still contribute to the health of citizens of member states of the European Union significantly improved. That is why the older member states of the European Union (Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Netherlands, prepared to spend most of their gross domestic product (GDP on health care for its citizens. At the other member countries on the periphery of the European Union (Portugal, Italy, Ireland, Greece and Spain, better known as a group (PIIGS-svinje, due to falling into a debt crisis is not ready for such a step because of which their citizens are faced with big problems when using health care. The paper deals with problems of unequal access to health services and lack of health coverage that exist among individuals as well as in some social groups in many member countries of the European Union. Analysis of unequal access to health services was carried out based on the estimated level depending on its socio-economic status of user-nonusers of health care, are not bypassed with the right of the insured and their acquisition. The rights of the insured whose roots are in agidumu Hippocratic Oath: 'primum non nocere' - 'first do no harm to' vary from very narrow to very broad and diverse framework. The paper konstatovano to the conduct of public finances in the Member States of the European Union is not without problems, especially where contributions for health insurance funding mechanisms dominate. Health care financing in member countries of the European Union, more important than other functions affecting the quality of health of citizens, the mood to invest in access to health services and universal health insurance coverage. Financing of health care policy is not the only link of many of them in a long chain of global politics. However, it is indispensable to measure the effects of decisions made, the application of specific measures aimed

  13. The European Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme (Euro-GASP)--a sentinel approach in the European Union (EU)/European Economic Area (EEA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiteri, Gianfranco; Cole, Michelle; Unemo, Magnus; Hoffmann, Steen; Ison, Catherine; van de Laar, Marita

    2013-12-01

    Antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is monitored in the European Union/European Economic Area through the European Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme (Euro-GASP) coordinated by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Euro-GASP includes a sentinel surveillance programme which aims to detect in a timely manner changes in resistance patterns and inform treatment guidelines. The programme aims to test a representative number of isolates from each European Union/European Economic Area member state per year for a range of therapeutically relevant antimicrobials through a biannual hybrid centralised/decentralised system. Testing is supported by an External Quality Assurance programme and a laboratory training programme. Participation in the programme has increased to 21 countries in 2012. Euro-GASP has been able to detect the rapid spread of isolates with decreased susceptibility to cefixime across Europe in 2010 and 2011. Results from the programme have informed changes in European treatment guidelines for gonorrhoea and led to the development of the 'Response plan to control and manage the threat of multidrug resistant gonorrhoea in Europe'. Future challenges for Euro-GASP include supporting countries to participate in Euro-GASP through decentralised testing, improving timeliness and epidemiological data quality, and increasing participation from Eastern Europe.

  14. Exploring Integration of Care for Children Living with Complex Care Needs across the European Union and European Economic Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Maria; O'Shea, Miriam; J Larkin, Philip; Kamionka, Stine Lundstroem; Berry, Jay; Hiscock, Harriet; Rigby, Michael; Blair, Mitch

    2017-04-24

    The aim of this paper is to report on the development of surveys to explore integration of care for children living with complex care needs across the European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA). Each survey consists of a vignette and questions adapted from the Standards for Systems of Care for Children and Youth with Special Health Care Needs and the Eurobarometer Survey . A Country Agent in each country, a local expert in child health services, will obtain data from indigenous sources. We identified 'in-principle' complex problems and adapted surveys to capture care integration. We expect to get rich data to understand perceptions and to inform actions for a number of complex health issues. The study has the potential to make a wide contribution to individual countries of the EU/EEA to understand their own integration of services mapped against responses from other member states. Early results are expected in Spring 2017.

  15. Inspection of home education in European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, H.; Karsten, S.

    2011-01-01

    In many European countries and in North America, home education is a viable alternative for education at school. Parents who want to home school their child are legally allowed to do so, although some countries impose rather strict conditions. This article concentrates on the way authorities

  16. Inspection of Home Education in European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blok, Henk; Karsten, Sjoerd

    2011-01-01

    In many European countries and in North America, home education is a viable alternative for education at school. Parents who want to home school their child are legally allowed to do so, although some countries impose rather strict conditions. This article concentrates on the way authorities supervise or inspect the quality of home education. A…

  17. Surveillance perspective on Lyme borreliosis across the European Union and European Economic Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Wijngaard, Cees C; Hofhuis, Agnetha; Simões, Mariana; Rood, Ente; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Zeller, Herve; Van Bortel, Wim

    2017-07-06

    Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most prevalent tick-borne disease in Europe. Erythema migrans (EM), an early, localised skin rash, is its most common presentation. Dissemination of the bacteria can lead to more severe manifestations including skin, neurological, cardiac, musculoskeletal and ocular manifestations. Comparison of LB incidence rates in the European Union (EU)/European Economic Area (EEA) and Balkan countries are difficult in the absence of standardised surveillance and reporting procedures. We explored six surveillance scenarios for LB surveillance in the EU/EEA, based on the following key indicators: (i) erythema migrans, (ii) neuroborreliosis, (iii) all human LB manifestations, (iv) seroprevalence, (v) tick bites, and (vi) infected ticks and reservoir hosts. In our opinion, neuroborreliosis seems most feasible and useful as the standard key indicator, being one of the most frequent severe LB manifestations, with the possibility of a specific case definition. Additional surveillance with erythema migrans as key indicator would add value to the surveillance of neuroborreliosis and lead to a more complete picture of LB epidemiology in the EU/EEA. The other scenarios have less value as a basis for EU-level surveillance, but can be considered periodically and locally, as they could supply complementary insights. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  18. Surveillance perspective on Lyme borreliosis across the European Union and European Economic Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Wijngaard, Cees C; Hofhuis, Agnetha; Simões, Mariana; Rood, Ente; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Zeller, Herve; Van Bortel, Wim

    2017-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most prevalent tick-borne disease in Europe. Erythema migrans (EM), an early, localised skin rash, is its most common presentation. Dissemination of the bacteria can lead to more severe manifestations including skin, neurological, cardiac, musculoskeletal and ocular manifestations. Comparison of LB incidence rates in the European Union (EU)/European Economic Area (EEA) and Balkan countries are difficult in the absence of standardised surveillance and reporting procedures. We explored six surveillance scenarios for LB surveillance in the EU/EEA, based on the following key indicators: (i) erythema migrans, (ii) neuroborreliosis, (iii) all human LB manifestations, (iv) seroprevalence, (v) tick bites, and (vi) infected ticks and reservoir hosts. In our opinion, neuroborreliosis seems most feasible and useful as the standard key indicator, being one of the most frequent severe LB manifestations, with the possibility of a specific case definition. Additional surveillance with erythema migrans as key indicator would add value to the surveillance of neuroborreliosis and lead to a more complete picture of LB epidemiology in the EU/EEA. The other scenarios have less value as a basis for EU-level surveillance, but can be considered periodically and locally, as they could supply complementary insights. PMID:28703098

  19. ORIGIN, DEVELOPMENT AND PERSPECTIVES FOR THE HUMAN SECURITY CONCEPT IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Paulina Marczuk

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The wide economic support and an attempt to guarantee safety, which the European governments are trying to provide for their citizens, are reasons why the European Union explores new directions of conducting common policies for which the most important is the human being and his needs. The European security policy – and the new concept of human security – could be one example of the EU`s new behavior. Taking into consideration the previous attempts at developing security theories in Europe and other countries, it is possible to state that the modern human security doctrine in the EU could be followed by creating a special kind of European corps which would be a new tool for ensuring security where it would be necessary to provide it – European Gendarmerie Forces (known as EGF or EUROGENDFOR. The aim of this article is to show the impact of the evolution of the modern security theories for creating a human security doctrine in the framework of the European Union. Moreover, genesis and activity of the EGF are presented and the author is trying to answer the question: could the EGF be a tool of human security in the EU?. Finally, a couple of proposals for the future development of the European security policy are mentioned.

  20. AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN ASSOCIATION AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE EUROPEAN UNION AND THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simion CERTAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available After the approval of the Declaration of Independence (August 27, 1991, Moldova lives hoping to strengthen itsplace among the democratic nations of the world and to build a new socio-economic system which among otherthings passes through a difficult phase in the conjugation of its own efforts with the international community. Ourcountry has an identical history and shares common values with the European Union Member States, a thing thatinspired the initialing of the Association Agreement between the EU and the Republic of Moldova. The articlereflects on Moldova's European choice and impacts on agriculture and rural development in the country.

  1. [Regulation of food supplements in the European Union and its member states. Part 2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrenko, A S; Ponomareva, M N; Sukhanov, B P

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses various aspects of the regional (the European Union) and national (European countries) regulation related to food supplements. The use of botanicals and minor bioactive substances in food supplements, and their labelling are studied. The EU principle of mutual recognition is described in the context of current challenges that exist in the regulatory harmonisation between the EU member states. The concept of novel foods and novel ingredients is also presented, and the procedure of their pre-market approval is described in detail. Basic principles of using claims for food supplements are also outlined.

  2. Comparing variation across European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lau C; Baixauli-Pérez, Cristobal; Librero-López, Julián

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In geographical studies, population distribution is a key issue. An unequal distribution across units of analysis might entail extra-variation and produce misleading conclusions on healthcare performance variations. This article aims at assessing the impact of building more homogeneous...... units of analysis in the estimation of systematic variation in three countries. METHODS: Hospital discharges for six conditions (congestive heart failure, short-term complications of diabetes, hip fracture, knee replacement, prostatectomy in prostate cancer and percutaneous coronary intervention...... inhabitants vs. 7% in Denmark and 5% in England. Point estimates for Extremal Quotient and Interquartile Interval Ratio were lower in the three countries, particularly in less prevalent conditions. In turn, the Systematic Component of Variation and Empirical Bayes statistic were slightly lower in more...

  3. EUREP-GAP in the European Union : quality management and food safety in apple and onion chains in Hungary, Poland, Slovakia and The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voort, van der M.P.J.; Baricicova, V.; Dandar, M.; Grzegorzewska, M.; Schoorlemmer, H.B.; Szabo, C.; Zmarlicki, K.

    2007-01-01

    This project is financed by the Dutch Ministry of Agriculture, nature and Food Quality and is part of the research programme 'Sustainable and competetive agriculture supply chains in pre- and post-European Union accession countries (EU access)'

  4. The Border-making Policy of the European Union: Eastern Enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lika Mkrtchyan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Having no internal borders, what is a border for the European Union (EU? Which criteria does this powerful organization pursue in its decision-making on further expansion: geographical, political, cultural, economic or all of these? What is the profi t of the Union in advancing its external borders to the east? And why to the east and not the south or west across the Atlantic? Does it still mean that there is the reason for enlarging eastward based on the geographical belonging to Europe? This paper discusses the expansion of the European Union to the east with the main focus on its political and economic aspects of integration. The fi rst part includes introduction to the concept of Europe, historic background about the formation of the united Europe in terms of geography, culture, politics and economy, juxtaposing opinions and viewpoints of different experts and political scientists on “what is Europe?” and what are the core issues of its enlargement. The second and third parts are dedicated to the advantages and disadvantages of European Integration for both parties concerned – the EU and the candidate/member state, in the case of the former having its own “demarcation policy” towards certain regions of the continent when it comes to unifi cation. And the fourth part is about the communication and miscommunication of the informative bodies of the European Union that are responsible for public awareness on any process that goes on within the European family. The lack of information results in the ignorance of citizens of European and partner countries, which, of course, refl ects on the further processes of expansion on the political level and cultural perception and mentality on the social level. The conclusion sums up the research, and the bibliography lists the books, articles, monographs and Internet sources used in the course of the study.

  5. SPECIFIC ASPECTS OF THE PROCESS OF BANKING CONCENTRATION AND CONSOLIDATION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COPIL CRINA ANGELA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I proposed to anaylze the main aspect that characterized the process of bank concentration and consolidation in the European union, knowing their evolutions and particularities on the European and world bank sector and the effects that they have on the banks and the economy altogether. I presented the evolution of the number of banks, evolution that reflects the degree of consolidation of the bank system. Based on the financial crisis begun in 2008 the number of credit institutions decreased continuously as a consequence of the processes of bank mergers and acquisitions generated by the uncertainties of the economic perspectives. Also I analyzed the evolution of the degree of bank concentration in the European countries, process that underlines the degree of domination of the banking market accomplished by some great banks. We consider essential the knowing of this process because the increase of the bank concentration leads to the creating of some bank entities with very large dimensions, that in the periods of crisis can generate macro economic imbalances by involving the state in their subventioning. The research is based mainly on compiled statistic data offered by the European Central Bank (BCE, data that are published annualy and that were processed to be able to offer an overview on the most important modifications that took place in the European union and in its representative countries.

  6. APPEARANCE ON EUROPEAN UNION POLICY ON FUNDING SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHIRCULESCU MARIA FELICIA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last years of the current European Union will be involved less in funding developing countries and geographic areas outside it, because we need to focus on eliminating disparities and balancing standards of living in member countries, how much more there is still big differences in this regard between Member States of the European Union. The objectives of economic growth, social to, throughout the European Union can only be achieved through the permanent coordination of macroeconomic and sectoral policies implemented in each Member State and at Community level. Track the means, firstly, the completion and operation of administrative structures, particularly in the public sector appropriate to the requirements of democratization, of establishing a fair competition between participants in economic and social life etc. The sums of EU funds to improve the construction and operation of government, most of the public sector, shows increasing levels from the previous financial programs, levels that diminiează making room for other community priorities.

  7. Supranational Governance in Changing Societies of European Union in the Last Decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulus Warsito

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available As a supranational organization The European Union (EU seems to compete the UN’s reputations. UNO has more members since its scope is worldly, but UN does not issue its own currency while EU has Euro. The Euro is the second largest reserve currency as well as the second most traded currency in the world after the United States dollar. The currency is also used in a further many European countries and consequently used daily by some 332 million Europeans. Additionally, over 175 million people worldwide - including 150 million people in Africa - use currencies which are pegged to the Euro. No other transnational organization has such a specific currency. Although not as a unified military conventional power, EU has such a “Battlegroups” initiative, each of which is planned to be able to deploy quickly about 1500 personnel. EU forces have been deployed on peacekeeping missions from Africa to the former Yugoslavia and the Middle East. EU military operations are supported by a number of bodies, including the European Defense Agency, European Union Satellite Centre and the European Union Military Staff. In an EU consisting of 27 members, substantial security and defense cooperation is increasingly relying on great power cooperation.Despite those organizational strengths, only 27 of 57 European states are members of EU. And only 17 of 27 EU state members are using Euro is their official currency. One prominent EU member like British stay tough with their own Pound-sterling.This paper is set to learn more about: why as a Europe continent based organization, EU state members are still less than half of European states? And why only 17 EU state members are using Euro as their official currency?

  8. THE EUROPEAN BANKING UNION AND ROMANIA. THE IMPACT OF THE NEW EUROPEANLEGAL FRAME ON THE ROMANIAN FINANCIAL AND BANKING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan-Adrian Cărămidariu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies from a legal and economical perspective the European Banking Union, the latest set of measures adopted by the European Union in order to assure the stability of Europe’s financial and banking system and to prevent future crises. At the same time, the paper analyzes the influence this new institutional and legal mechanism could have on the Romanian financial and banking system, if our country is to take part in the European Banking Union. The paper will discuss the four European legal texts, namely the EU Regulation No 575/2013 and the three directives concerning the capital requirements for the banking system, the recovery and resolution of credit institutions and the deposit guarantee schemes, which, together, set up the European Banking Union’s legal frame. Further, the paper will study the implementation and the transposition of these European provisions into national law. The study’s conclusions will take into consideration the advantages and disadvantages connected to Romania’s participation to the European Banking Union, by showing that, in the context of the introduction of the single currency, the participation to the Banking Union is a necessary exercise.

  9. Towards a standardised surveillance for Trichinella in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alban, L; Pozio, E; Boes, J; Boireau, P; Boué, F; Claes, M; Cook, A J C; Dorny, P; Enemark, H L; van der Giessen, J; Hunt, K R; Howell, M; Kirjusina, M; Nöckler, K; Rossi, P; Smith, G C; Snow, L; Taylor, M A; Theodoropoulos, G; Vallée, I; Viera-Pinto, M M; Zimmer, I A

    2011-05-01

    Each year, more than 167 million pigs in the European Union (EU) are tested for Trichinella spp. under the current meat hygiene regulations. This imposes large economic costs on countries, yet the vast majority of these pigs test negative and the public health risk in many countries is therefore considered very low. This work reviewed the current Trichinella status across the EU as well as the national level of monitoring and reporting. It also reviewed which animal species were affected by Trichinella and in which species it should be surveyed. This information was used to design a cost-effective surveillance programme that enables a standardised monitoring approach within the EU. The proposed surveillance programme relies on identifying sub-populations of animals with a distinct risk. Low-risk pigs are finisher pigs that originate from so-called controlled housing. All other pigs are considered high-risk pigs. Controlled housing is identified by the application of a specific list of management and husbandry practices. We suggest that member states (MS) be categorised into three classes based on the confidence that Trichinella can be considered absent, in the specified sub-population of pigs above a specified design prevalence which we set to 1 per million pigs. A simple and transparent method is proposed to estimate this confidence, based on the sensitivity of the surveillance system, taking into account the sensitivity of testing and the design prevalence. The probability of detecting a positive case, if present, must be high (>95 or >99%) to ensure that there is a low or negligible risk of transmission to humans through the food chain. In MS where the probability of a positive pig is demonstrated to be negligible, testing of fattening pigs from a sub-population consisting of pigs from controlled housing can be considered unnecessary. Furthermore, reduced testing of finishers from the sub-population consisting of pigs from non-controlled housing might even be

  10. Low Emission Energy Scenarios for the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, Mark (Complex Environment Systems Group, Bartlett School of Graduate Studies, Univ. College London (GB))

    2007-12-15

    Energy consumption is a major cause of carbon dioxide emission, and also largely determines the uncontrolled emissions of many other pollutants. In consequence, energy scenarios are key inputs to the projection of pollution emission, and the formulation of strategies to reduce pollution and achieve environmental objectives. Alternative energy strategies including behavioral change, demand management, energy efficiency, and low carbon fuels are explored in this report. In addition to abating greenhouse gas emissions, these strategies can facilitate cheaper and greater abatement of other atmospheric pollutants as compared to higher carbon scenarios. In general, achieving a given air pollution emission target costs less in a low carbon scenario than in a high carbon scenario. This work is aimed at producing policies that exploit the positive synergy between strategies to limit global warming, and strategies for reaching other environmental objectives such as reduced acidification and improved air quality. Low carbon energy scenarios can improve energy security by reducing the consumption if finite fuels and reducing import requirements. The given objective was to produce scenarios in which the total emission of carbon dioxide from the twenty-five countries of the European Union is reduced by at least 30% over the period 1990 to 2020. To this end scenarios have been produced for each of the twenty-five EU countries taking into account recent historical data and assumed economic and population growths taken from other studies, and selections of policies measures. The scenarios show that, as compared to 1990, CO{sub 2} reductions of more than 30% are feasible by 2020, and that larger reductions are possible, especially in the longer term as technologies with long lifetimes such as power stations, are replaced. Data from the energy scenarios were input to the GAINS (Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies) model of IIASA (International Institute for

  11. THE FOREIGN AND SECURITY POLICIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Menon

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available In only a decade the European Union has moved from being a new kid on the block in terms of foreign and security policies to being a high profile and surprisingly effective international actor. Certainly, it has failed to match the ambitions of some of its most enthusiastic proponents. Certainly, too, European publics know next to nothing about what the Union does in the international realm. It is because of this that, despite their potential and their effectiveness to date, EU policies in this sphere were widely derided as failures following the moment when the attacks of 11 September 2001 shook the western world to its core. The Convention on the Future of Europe and subsequent intergovernmental conference look set to make significant institutional changes to the Union’s foreign and security policy systems. In undertaking these reforms, Convention members, and national governments are doubtless motivated by the laudable objective of enabling the Union to do more on the international stage. One can only hope that these motives notwithstanding, they do not simply propose reforms for their own sake and, in the process, undermine a system that, to the surprise of many, has continued to function respectably in an ever more complex and ever more dangerous world.

  12. Trends of mortality from Alzheimer's disease in the European Union, 1994-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, H; Alvarez-Alvarez, I; Guillen-Grima, F; Al-Rahamneh, M J; Aguinaga-Ontoso, I

    2017-06-01

    In many countries, Alzheimer's disease (AD) has gradually become a common disease in elderly populations. The aim of this study was to analyse trends of mortality caused by AD in the 28 member countries in the European Union (EU) over the last two decades. We extracted data for AD deaths for the period 1994-2013 in the EU from the Eurostat and World Health Organization database. Age-standardized mortality rates per 100 000 were computed. Joinpoint regression was used to analyse the trends and compute the annual percent change in the EU as a whole and by country. Analyses by gender and by European regions were conducted. Mortality from AD has risen in the EU throughout the study period. Most of the countries showed upward trends, with the sharpest increases in Slovakia, Lithuania and Romania. We recorded statistically significant increases of 4.7% and 6.0% in mortality rates in men and women, respectively, in the whole EU. Several countries showed changing trends during the study period. According to the regional analysis, northern and eastern countries showed the steepest increases, whereas in the latter years mortality has declined in western countries. Our findings provide evidence that AD mortality has increased in the EU, especially in eastern and northern European countries and in the female population. Our results could be a reference for the development of primary prevention policies. © 2017 EAN.

  13. Is tuberculosis crossing borders at the Eastern boundary of the European Union?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Werf, Marieke J.; Hollo, Vahur; Noori, Teymur

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Eastern border of the European Union (EU) consists of 10 countries after the expansion of the EU in 2004 and 2007. These 10 countries border to the East to countries with high tuberculosis (TB) notification rates. We analyzed the notification data of Europe to quantify the impact of cross-border TB at the Eastern border of the EU. Methods: We used TB surveillance data of 2010 submitted by 53 European Region countries to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control and the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe. Notified TB cases were stratified by origin of the case (national/foreign). We calculated the contribution of foreign to overall TB notification. Results: In the 10 EU countries located at the EU Eastern border, 618 notified TB cases (1.7% of all notified TB cases) were of foreign origin. Of those 618 TB cases, 173 (28.0%) were from countries bordering the EU to the East. More specifically, 90 (52.0%) were from Russia, 33 (19.1%) from Belarus, 33 (19.1%) from Ukraine, 13 (7.5%) from Moldova and 4 (2.3%) from Turkey. Conclusions: Currently, migrants contribute little to TB notifications in the 10 EU countries at the Eastern border of the EU, but changes in migration patterns may result in an increasing contribution. Therefore, EU countries at the Eastern border of the EU should strive to provide prompt diagnostic services and adequate treatment of migrants. PMID:23813718

  14. Considerations regarding the expenses in the research and development sector of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecaterina Stănculescu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the situation of the expenses (material resources in the research - development and innovation (RDI sector in the European Union, over the period 2000-2014. It examines their evolution in the considered period, as measured by expenditure intensity in the field, being revealed the gap between the EU and other states competing on the international market, i.e. the US, Japan and South Korea, showing that EU lags behind these countries. Outlook for material resources of the EU are determined by trends of new scientific and technical revolution and the transformations that the new technologies (mainly digital will produce in the human society as a whole. Article reveals the conclusions that can be drawn from the undertaken analysis, mainly that the European Union RDI sector requires an increased allocation of funds in the next period to achieve social objectives assumed by policy makers at EU and national level.

  15. [Medical certification for diabetic drivers in the selected European Union member states].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinkiewicz, Andrzej; Szosland, Dorota

    2007-01-01

    There is in Poland an urgent need to set criteria and recommendations for medical certification of individuals working or taking up the job involving public safety, in which diabetes could have a particularly important and dangerous impact. In Europe, many countries have restrictions for diabetic drivers. Diabetes is identified as one of the medical conditions that may impair driving ability and thus drivers with diabetes must meet certain medical standards. The European Union legislation states that diabetic patients taking insulin are excluded from driving trucks, heavy goods vehicles, and buses, except for small trucks in "very exceptional cases". This directive is interpreted differently throughout the European Union. Several aspects should be taken into account when evaluating the current status of the medical certification: e.g., duration of diabetes, type of diabetes treatment, diabetes stability, hypoglycemias in the past, and diabetes complications.

  16. The European Union balancing between CO{sub 2} reduction commitments and growth policies: decomposition analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaivo-oja, Jari; Luukkanen, Jyrki E-mail: jyrki.luukkanen@tukkk.fi

    2004-09-01

    This article is an empirical study of the whole energy system development in the European Union. The analysis covers the years 1960-1998. The decomposition analysis of energy and CO{sub 2} intensities of the different EU countries and Norway reveal large differences between the individual countries. The reasons for the differences in energy intensity changes are explained by the structural changes of the economies. The changes in CO{sub 2} intensities are explained by the energy intensity changes and by the changes is fuel switching. The study verifies the conclusion that there are still big challenges in the harmonisation of energy and climate policy in the EU.

  17. The Future of the European Union: A Critical Trade Union View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Medhurst

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a radical critique of the current framework of economic policy within the European Union and its negative effect on social cohesion. It defends the aspirations of the “Social Europe” model but suggests this model is now withering on the vine, not least because employers and governments no longer support it and have withdrawn from genuine social partnership. The paper asserts that the undemocratic nature of European policy making institutions is a fundamental bloc to progressive reform of the EU, and criticises the economic philosophy inherent in the Lisbon Agenda and recent controversial European Court of Justice decisions that have expanded that agenda. Lastly, it sketches some alternatives to this direction of travel, drawn from successful models within and outside Europe.

  18. The advantages and impediments in fostering Republic of Moldova- the European Union economic cooperation

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    Rodica CRUDU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite considerable efforts and funding, the reform implementation process in the Republic of Moldova meets important difficulties especially in the areas of strategic significance including the fields of public administration, justice and banking sectors. The initiatives implemented in these sectors by the Moldovan authorities under European supervision proved to be inefficient as they did not reach the expected results. This situation leads to dragging down the pace of European integration of the country, as the trust of the population and of foreign partners regarding European future of Moldova was negatively affected. Thus, this research intends to identify the most important impediments of bi-lateral cooperation between the Republic of Moldova and the European Union. Also, some recommendations are provided to increase the actual status-quo and are specified main Moldovan economic advantages which have been registered since the acceleration of cooperation with the EU.

  19. Risk-based decision making and risk management of European Union regional programs

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    Michalopoulos Evangelos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a generalized method for management decision making incorporating risk assessment techniques. The risk based decision making methodology is applied to European Union expenditure programs used to implement its regional policy, such as the community support framework, community initiatives, special initiatives and other European policies. An example is presented for the development of an audit (inspection program in the region of West Macedonia, Greece, during the implementation of the 3rd Community Structural Support Framework Operational Program. The generic nature of the method permits its use in the management of similar European regional programs in Greece and other European countries. It is also applicable to many other industries interested in applying risk-based management decisions to physical or process based systems. .

  20. Peculiarities of foreign policy of Ukraine: European Integration or Accession with Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia

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    Bostan Sergii Ivanovich

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Geopolitical location of Ukraine on the map of Europe gave the country a number of benefits, as well as serious problems with which it is trying to understand and use as their advantage. The country, its government has a hard choice: to define their own place in Europe and the world. In general, European integration or accession to the Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia, choice of Eurasian movement or the Western European traditions. The way out of the difficult domestic political situation in the country, raise of economy depend on the foreign policy of the country and the choice of integration model for its further development.